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Sample records for wheat pasta enriched

  1. Drying of Durum Wheat Pasta and Enriched Pasta: A Review of Modeling Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Samuel; Mondor, Martin; Moresoli, Christine; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Marcos, Bernard

    2016-05-18

    Models on drying of durum wheat pasta and enriched pasta were reviewed to identify avenues for improvement according to consumer needs, product formulation and processing conditions. This review first summarized the fundamental phenomena of pasta drying, mass transfer, heat transfer, momentum, chemical changes, shrinkage and crack formation. The basic equations of the current models were then presented, along with methods for the estimation of pasta transport and thermodynamic properties. The experimental validation of these models was also presented and highlighted the need for further model validation for drying at high temperatures (>-100°C) and for more accurate estimation of the pasta diffusion and mass transfer coefficients. This review indicates the need for the development of mechanistic models to improve our understanding of the mass and heat transfer mechanisms involved in pasta drying, and to consider the local changes in pasta transport properties and relaxation time for more accurate description of the moisture transport near glass transition conditions. The ability of current models to describe dried pasta quality according to the consumers expectations or to predict the impact of incorporating ingredients high in nutritional value on the drying of these enriched pasta was also discussed.

  2. Quality and nutritional properties of pasta products enriched with immature wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Erba, Daniela; Marti, Alessandra; Cecchini, Cristina; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, nutritional and sensory properties of pasta enriched with 30% immature wheat grain (IWG), a natural source of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), are evaluated. Colour and cooking quality, nutritional value and glycaemic index (GI) of pasta were assessed in comparison with commercially enriched inulin and 100% wholewheat pastas. IWG integration induced deep changes in colour, without negatively affecting the cooking quality of pasta, and promoted nutritional quality by increasing the fibre content; IWG pasta presented a remarkable leaching of FOS in cooking water, thus providing only 1 g of FOS per serving. IWG pastas showed a GI of 67 (dried) and 79 (fresh), not significantly different from commercial pasta products. IWG can be considered an interesting ingredient to obtain functional products 'naturally enriched' in FOS and fibre. Results about FOS leaching suggest that, in dealing with functional effects, the actual prebiotic content should be carefully considered on food 'as eaten'.

  3. Rheological properties and mineral content of buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour (LBF was used to substitute 20% of whole wheat flour (WWF in the formulation of wholegrain wheat pasta. Wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP and buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta (BWWP were produced on an industrial scale. Substitution level of buckwheat flour (20% was based on previously conducted rheological tests on LBF/WWF blends which were performed using 10, 20 and 30% of LBF. The obtained Mixolab profiles have indicated that wheat blend containing 20% LBF expressed the most similar rheological parameters to WWF. Proximate composition, cooking quality and mineral content of BWWP were analyzed and compared with those of WWP. The substitution of WWF with LBF in the pasta formulation resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 contents of P, Mg, K and Zn compared to WWP in dry pasta. The reduction in mineral content of BWWP during cooking was significantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to WWP. The content of P, Mg and K were at same level in both type of pasta after cooking. The obtained results suggest that enrichment of WWP with LBF at the level of 20% did not improve the mineral content of cooked pasta, although increase in minerals was observed in dry pasta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  4. Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) enrichment on antioxidant and sensorial properties of wheat flour pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, R; Peinado, I; Pittia, P; Scampicchio, M; Heredia, A; Andres, A

    2018-07-15

    Saffron, used in cookery as a flavouring and colouring agent, is well-known for its antioxidant and beneficial health properties. In the present work, the effect of saffron addition (0-control, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%, w/w) in the formulation of fresh pasta was evaluated on textural, physical-chemical, and sensory properties of the cooked product. Content and retention of the bioactive molecules of saffron (crocins) were evaluated by HPLC along with the corresponding antioxidant activity of enriched pasta. The presence of saffron significantly influenced textural and physical-chemical properties of pasta. Higher saffron concentrations enhanced the antioxidant activity of pasta with the higher values of crocins in samples enriched with 0.4% saffron extract even after 3 min of cooking (4.23-5.06 mg/g db). Sensory analysis showed an increased acceptability of the saffron enriched pasta for all descriptors selected (visual aspect, colour, aroma, taste, chewiness, hardness, gumminess and overall acceptability). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  6. Protein enriched pasta: structure and digestibility of its protein network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleg, Karima; Barron, Cécile; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walrand, Stéphane; Micard, Valérie

    2016-02-01

    Wheat (W) pasta was enriched in 6% gluten (G), 35% faba (F) or 5% egg (E) to increase its protein content (13% to 17%). The impact of the enrichment on the multiscale structure of the pasta and on in vitro protein digestibility was studied. Increasing the protein content (W- vs. G-pasta) strengthened pasta structure at molecular and macroscopic scales but reduced its protein digestibility by 3% by forming a higher covalently linked protein network. Greater changes in the macroscopic and molecular structure of the pasta were obtained by varying the nature of protein used for enrichment. Proteins in G- and E-pasta were highly covalently linked (28-32%) resulting in a strong pasta structure. Conversely, F-protein (98% SDS-soluble) altered the pasta structure by diluting gluten and formed a weak protein network (18% covalent link). As a result, protein digestibility in F-pasta was significantly higher (46%) than in E- (44%) and G-pasta (39%). The effect of low (55 °C, LT) vs. very high temperature (90 °C, VHT) drying on the protein network structure and digestibility was shown to cause greater molecular changes than pasta formulation. Whatever the pasta, a general strengthening of its structure, a 33% to 47% increase in covalently linked proteins and a higher β-sheet structure were observed. However, these structural differences were evened out after the pasta was cooked, resulting in identical protein digestibility in LT and VHT pasta. Even after VHT drying, F-pasta had the best amino acid profile with the highest protein digestibility, proof of its nutritional interest.

  7. Enrichment of pasta with different plant proteins.

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    Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Ranote, P S

    2013-10-01

    Effects of supplementation of plant proteins from mushroom powder, Bengal gram flour and defatted soy flour at different levels were assessed on the nutritional quality of pasta. Supplementation of wheat semolina was done with mushroom powder (0-12%), Bengal gram flour (0-20%) and defatted soy flour (0-15%). Mushroom powder and defatted soy flour increased the cooking time of pasta whereas non significant variation was observed in cooking time of Bengal gram supplemented pasta. Significant correlation (r = 0.97, p ≤ 0.05) was observed between water absorption and volume expansion of pasta. Instantization of pasta by steaming improved the cooking quality. Steamed pasta absorbed less water and leached fewer solids during cooking. On the basis of cooking and sensory quality, pasta in combination with 8% mushroom powder, 15% Bengal gram flour and 9% defatted soy flour resulted in a better quality and nutritious pasta.

  8. Effect of Fortification with Fish (Pseudophycis bachus) Powder on Nutritional Quality of Durum Wheat Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ajay S; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S

    2018-04-17

    This paper investigates the nutraceutical (phenolic content and antioxidant activity) and nutritional potential (protein and starch digestibility) of supplementation of durum wheat semolina with 5–20% fish powder ( Pseudophycis bachus ). In general, all enriched pasta with fish powder showed a significant decrease ( p pasta. The potentially bioaccessible fraction of pasta enriched with 20% fish powder (FP) was characterized as having a 177–191% increase in phenolic content and a 145–556% higher antiradical activity. Elevation of these parameters in fortified pasta was accompanied by interaction of wheat starch, protein, and fish powder protein. Supplementation of fish powder also influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 84.60% for control pasta to 80.80% for pasta with 20% fish powder). Fortification improved the nutraceutical and nutritional potential of the studied pasta with the effects depending on factors including protein-starch-phenolic interactions.

  9. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

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    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  10. Micronised bran-enriched fresh egg tagliatelle: Significance of gums addition on pasta technological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Esparza, M E; Raga, A; González-Martínez, C; Albors, A

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the work was to produce fibre-enriched fresh pasta based on micronised wheat bran and durum wheat semolina with appropriate techno-functional properties. Wheat semolina was replaced with fine particle size (50% below 75 µm) wheat bran - up to 11.54% (w/w). A Box-Behnken design with randomised response surface methodology was used to determine a suitable combination of carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum and locust bean gum to improve pasta attributes: minimum cooking loss, maximum values for water gain and swelling index, as well as better colour and texture characteristics before and after cooking. The proximate chemical composition of wheat semolina and bran was determined and the microstructure of uncooked pasta was observed as well. From the response surface methodology analysis, it is recommended to use: (i) xanthan gum over 0.6% w/w as it led to bran-enriched pasta with a better developed structure and superior cooking behaviour, (ii) a combination of xanthan gum (0.8% w/w) and carboxymethylcellulose (over 0.6% w/w) to enhance uncooked pasta yellowness.

  11. Amino acid composition of protein-enriched dried pasta

    OpenAIRE

    Vidrih, Rajko; Filip, Sebastjan

    2016-01-01

    Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77 % carbo...

  12. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

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    Imma Turco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two fold higher compared to that of DWS pasta. A higher total flavonoid content, higher antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was also observed in VF pasta. The comparison of post-prandial increase of glucose after VF intake or DWS demonstrated significant differences and VF pasta exhibited a lower glycemic index value, a lower glycemic load and higher glycemic profile compared with DWS pasta. Conclusion: The results suggest that enrichment with 35% Vicia faba bean has potential health benefits and that VF flour can be used as an ingredient to prepare added-value products.

  13. Fresh pasta quality as affected by enrichment of nonstarch polysaccharides.

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    Brennan, C S; Tudorica, C M

    2007-11-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs), both soluble and insoluble, were added to pasta doughs at levels of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels. The cooking and textural characteristics of the pastas were evaluated using a range of analytical techniques. Generally, NSP addition was found to increase the cooking losses, and reduce the protein and starch contents of the pasta. This effect was dependent on the level of NSP added and also the type (soluble or insoluble). Pasta firmness was generally reduced in relation to the level of NSP addition, although some gel-forming NSPs resulted in higher firmness values. Pasta stickiness, adhesiveness, and elasticity were also affected. The results indicate that careful selection of NSP addition is needed to ensure optimum textural and cooking characteristics in NSP enriched pasta products.

  14. Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment.

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    Padalino, Lucia; D'Antuono, Isabella; Durante, Miriana; Conte, Amalia; Cardinali, Angela; Linsalata, Vito; Mita, Giovanni; Logrieco, Antonio F; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2018-04-16

    During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% ( w / w ). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products.

  15. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

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    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal.

  16. Effect of Pleurotus eryngii Mushroom β-Glucan on Quality Characteristics of Common Wheat Pasta.

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    Kim, SunHee; Lee, Jo-Won; Heo, Yena; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-glucan-rich fractions (BGRFs) from Pleurotus eryngii mushroom powder on the quality, textural properties, and sensory evaluation of common wheat pasta. Pasta was prepared from semolina flour and common wheat flour by replacing common wheat flour at 2%, 4%, and 6% with BGRFs. Semolina flour showed significantly higher viscosities than common wheat flour samples. However, all viscosities, except the breakdown viscosity, were reduced with increasing percentages of BGRFs. Replacement of the common wheat flour with BGRFs resulted in a reddish brown colored pasta with a lower L* value and a higher a* value. The common wheat pastas containing up to 4% BGRFs were not significantly different from semolina pasta with regard to cooking loss. Addition of up to 2% BGRFs had no significant impact on swelling index and water absorption. The addition of BGRFs in common wheat flour had a positive effect on the quality of common wheat pasta and resulted in hardness values similar to those of semolina pasta. In a sensory evaluation, cooked pasta with 2% BGRFs had the highest overall acceptability score. In summary, the results showed that common wheat flour containing 4% BGRFs could be used to produce pasta with an improved quality and texture properties similar to semolina pasta. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Stable isotopes. Enriched wheat: a new chance for nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagvardieff, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Plant Eco-physiology (DEV) from the CEA/Life Sciences Department of Cadarache (France) has artificially produced two kg of carbon 13 labelled wheat for nutrition research. It is the first successful stable isotope labelling of complex nutriments with a 10% enrichment in carbon 13. This wheat has been used for the manufacturing of pastas to follow the assimilation of nutrients by the organism. This short paper gives some details about the experimental procedure of labelled wheat cultivation. (J.S.)

  18. Digestibility of pasta made with three wheat types: a preliminary study.

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    Simonato, Barbara; Curioni, Andrea; Pasini, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the digestibility of the protein and starch in pasta made with different cereals, i.e. Triticum durum, Triticum polonicum and Triticum dicoccum, and to measure the glycemic index (GI) of the different types of pasta. The digestibility of the starch in T.polonicum pasta differed significantly from the others. It seemed to be less digested than dicoccum and durum wheat pasta. T.polonicum pasta also had a lower glycemic index, while there were no significant differences in the protein digestibility of the three types of pasta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study the effect of non-traditional type of flour on the quality of pasta products made of soft wheat

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    T. N. Malyutina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasta products are very popular among different population groups. Therefore they are promising objects for their enrichment with functional ingredients. As the enriching raw materials for the manufacture of pasta products spelt wheat flour was used. Spelt is characterized by a high content complete protein, which is composed of essential amino acids. Spelt flour exceeds the wheat one greatly in the content of unsaturated fatty acids, fiber, iron, B vitamins. The effect of different doses of spelt flour on the properties of pasta dough, semifinished and finished products was studied. Short-cut macaroni products such as vermicelli were produced on a laboratory pasta press of the type AML-2. Soft type of dough, in which the mass fraction of moisture of all samples was 32.5%, was adopted in the work due to the design of the laboratory pasta press. An increasing number of wet gluten, washed from pasta dough samples with the addition of flour from spelt due to further introduced protein was defined. The quality of all of the gluten samples was characterized as good and elastic. Increased hydration of gluten ability and reducing of the critical moisture values upon drying at introduction of 20% spelt flour was found. The low temperature mode for convective drying of pasta semi-finished products with the proposed flour additive was recommended because of its high content of active enzymes that may cause browning of products during drying. Finished products had solid flat color with a touch of milk, without dark inclusions and traces of underkneading. Boiling properties of the samples of flour from spelt were characterized as good, all the samples retained their form at 100%, the rate of dry matter loss during cooking was maintained within the regulatory documentation requirements. The studies proved the feasibility of grain spelt flour application in manufacturing of pasta products.

  20. Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties.

  1. New Approach to Enrich Pasta with Polyphenols from Grape Marc

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    V. Marinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry produces significant amount of waste that represents a problem for the sector. However, by-products are also promising sources of compounds which may be reused for their nutritional properties. The aim of this work is to exploit wine-making by-products, obtaining an extract by ultrasound-assisted extraction only using water as solvent. The characteristics of spaghetti enriched with grape marc were assessed and compared to control samples. In particular, total phenolic and flavonoids contents, the antioxidant activity, the cooking quality, and the sensory acceptability were evaluated at various steps of pasta production. The enriched spaghetti showed higher total phenolic and flavonoids contents and higher antioxidant activity than the control pasta. In addition, low cooking losses were found. In terms of sensory properties fortified pasta is acceptable as the traditional product, thus demonstrating that it is possible to exploit food waste to better satisfy consumer demand for healthy food products in a more sustainable perspective.

  2. Effects of incorporating nonmodified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour on wheat pasta functional characteristics.

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    Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat

    2017-12-28

    The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p pasta water uptake and solid leaching out and freeze-thaw stability of produced pasta. For instance, treatment containing 40% of nonblanched sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

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    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  4. Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

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    Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Miglietta, Franco; Cattivelli, Luigi; Menga, Valeria; Nigro, Franca; Pecchioni, Nicola; Fares, Clara

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO 2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO 2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO 2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, -28.3%; Fe, -26.7%; Zn, -21.9%; Mg, -22.7%; Mo, -40.4%; K, -22.4%; and Ca, -19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the technological and sensory properties of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with different dietary fibres.

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    Rakhesh, Nisha; Fellows, Christopher M; Sissons, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of fibres, whether insoluble or soluble, in durum wheat pasta negatively impacts desirable end-use properties, especially if incorporated in significant amounts. Fibres can disrupt the starch-protein matrix of the dough during pasta preparation and can also often swell more readily with water than starch, competing with the starch for water during dough development. Similar degrees of substitution with different fibres gave markedly different impacts on firmness, stickiness, cooking loss and sensory attributes, suggesting that results obtained for one fibre cannot readily be generalized to other fibres. The in vitro starch digestibility of the pastas was significantly reduced when resistant starch, β-glucan-enriched flour, carboxymethyl cellulose or guar gum was incorporated but increased when pollard or inulin was added. In many instances, different sources of the same fibre gave dramatically different impacts on the properties of cooked durum wheat pasta. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.

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    Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2013-01-15

    Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeted introgression of stem rust Ug99 resistance from wheatgrasses into pasta and bread wheat

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    In the past 50 years, a number of stem rust resistance (Sr) genes have been transferred from several wheat-related grasses into durum (i.e. pasta) and bread wheat through chromosome translocations and additions. To utilize these genes for controlling the Ug99 races of the stem rust pathogen, we ini...

  8. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  9. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  10. Commercially available gluten-free pastas elevate postprandial glycemia in comparison to conventional wheat pasta in healthy adults: a double-blind randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C S; Snyder, D; Smith, C

    2017-09-20

    Given the popularity of gluten-free diets, research regarding the health implications of gluten-free (GF) products is necessary. This study compared the postprandial glycemic responses to three GF pastas commonly available in the U.S. market to that of wheat pasta in healthy adults. Thirteen healthy non-smoking men and women from a university campus population were enrolled in this randomized 4 × 4 block crossover study and completed all four treatments. Participants followed a standardized diet and activity protocol the day prior to testing, and one week separated testing periods. The test meal (a macaroni and cheese dish prepared with conventional wheat pasta or with GF pasta composed of either brown rice, rice and corn, or corn and quinoa flours) was consumed under observation, and blood was sampled in the fasted state and at one-half hour intervals for the first 2 hours following meal ingestion. A significant pasta × time interaction was observed for the incremental postprandial glycemia curves (p = 0.036, repeated measures ANOVA; effect size [partial eta squared], 0.943). Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference for the 30-minute postprandial blood glucose concentrations: the plasma glucose concentration was 57% higher for the GF rice and corn pasta compared to traditional wheat pasta (p = 0.011). Since postprandial glycemia was higher for GF pasta composed of rice and corn flours compared to wheat pasta, more research is needed to understand how the substitute ingredients for GF pastas impact health parameters and disease risk.

  11. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Jensen, M.G.; Riboldi, G.

    2010-01-01

    based oil wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP......) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and El measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly...

  12. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Novel Soy Germ Pasta Enriched in Isoflavones Ameliorates Gastroparesis in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Nardi, Elisabetta; Battezzati, Pier-Maria; Asciutti, Stefania; Castellani, Danilo; Perriello, Gabriele; Clerici, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of soy germ pasta enriched in biologically active isoflavone aglycons on gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients with gastroparesis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared soy germ pasta with conventional pasta for effects on gastric emptying. Patients (n = 10) with delayed gastric emptying consumed one serving per day of each pasta for 8 weeks, with a 4-week washout. Gastric emptying time (t1/2) was measured using the [13C]octanoic acid breath test at baseline and after each period, and blood glucose and insulin concentrations were determined after oral glucose load. RESULTS Soy germ pasta significantly accelerated the t1/2 in these patients (161.2 ± 17.5 min at baseline vs. 112.6 ± 11.2 min after treatment, P = 0.009). Such change differed significantly (P = 0.009) from that for conventional pasta (153.6 ± 24.2 vs. 156.2 ± 27.4 min), without affecting glucose or insulin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that soy germ pasta may offer a simple dietary approach to managing diabetic gastropathy. PMID:23835688

  14. Novel soy germ pasta enriched in isoflavones ameliorates gastroparesis in type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Kenneth D R; Nardi, Elisabetta; Battezzati, Pier-Maria; Asciutti, Stefania; Castellani, Danilo; Perriello, Gabriele; Clerici, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of soy germ pasta enriched in biologically active isoflavone aglycons on gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients with gastroparesis. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared soy germ pasta with conventional pasta for effects on gastric emptying. Patients (n = 10) with delayed gastric emptying consumed one serving per day of each pasta for 8 weeks, with a 4-week washout. Gastric emptying time (t1/2) was measured using the [(13)C]octanoic acid breath test at baseline and after each period, and blood glucose and insulin concentrations were determined after oral glucose load. Soy germ pasta significantly accelerated the t1/2 in these patients (161.2 ± 17.5 min at baseline vs. 112.6 ± 11.2 min after treatment, P = 0.009). Such change differed significantly (P = 0.009) from that for conventional pasta (153.6 ± 24.2 vs. 156.2 ± 27.4 min), without affecting glucose or insulin concentrations. These findings suggest that soy germ pasta may offer a simple dietary approach to managing diabetic gastropathy.

  15. Evaluation of production and gamma radiation effects in pasta enriched with brown flaxseed bagasse (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcia Lage de; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio; Polesi, Luiz Fernando; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida Santos; Jesus, Jose Paulo de

    2013-01-01

    Flat pasta was produced using eggs, wheat flour added with brown flaxseed bagasse in 0,20% and 40% proportions. The pasta obtained in 20% and 40% proportions were irradiated with 20kGy and submitted to evaluation through determinations of moisture, acidity, ph., chemical composition and baking test. Utilizing the same proportions it was also produced pasta with the flaxseed bagasse flour irradiated with 10kGy and submitted to the same evaluations. Found values for different kinds of pasta, for moisture, acidity and ph. can be considered normal within the range of acceptation. (author)

  16. Evaluation of production and gamma radiation effects in pasta enriched with brown flaxseed bagasse (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia Lage de; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Ana Claudia Sampaio, E-mail: mlageoli@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Polesi, Luiz Fernando; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida Santos [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Jose Paulo de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Oliveira, Andrea Lage de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Araras, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Flat pasta was produced using eggs, wheat flour added with brown flaxseed bagasse in 0,20% and 40% proportions. The pasta obtained in 20% and 40% proportions were irradiated with 20kGy and submitted to evaluation through determinations of moisture, acidity, ph., chemical composition and baking test. Utilizing the same proportions it was also produced pasta with the flaxseed bagasse flour irradiated with 10kGy and submitted to the same evaluations. Found values for different kinds of pasta, for moisture, acidity and ph. can be considered normal within the range of acceptation. (author)

  17. Effect of fortification with parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill.) leaves on the nutraceutical and nutritional quality of wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Luty, Marcin; Czyż, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the nutraceutical (phenolics content, antioxidant activity, biological activity) and nutritional potential (starch and protein digestibility) of wheat pasta supplemented with 1-4% of powdered parsley leaves. Compared to the control, the potentially bioaccessible fraction of pasta fortified with 4% parsley leaves was characterized by 67% increased phenolics content, a 146% higher antiradical ability and 220% additional reducing power. Elevation of these parameters in fortified pasta was accompanied by an augmentation of its antiproliferative effect on carcinoma cells, which confirms their biological relevance. Supplementation of pasta had no significant effect on starch digestibility, while negatively affecting protein digestibility (a reduction by about 20% for pasta with a 4% supplement). Electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses indicated the presence of phenolic interactions with proteins and/or digestive enzymes. Fortification improved the nutraceutical and nutritional potential of the studied pasta; however, the final effect is made by many factors, including phenolics-food matrix interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta: Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Vidrih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77 % carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10 % protein. It is therefore oft en excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40 % dry matter without (plain high-protein pasta or with 3 % dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40 % of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets.

  19. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta:
Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Sebastjan; Vidrih, Rajko

    2015-09-01

    Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77% carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10% protein. It is therefore often excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40% dry matter) without (plain high-protein pasta) or with 3% dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta) to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40% of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets.

  20. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina. Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU. Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45% when compared with control (44.9% as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N when compared with control (2.304 N, and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta.

  1. Pasta made from durum wheat semolina fermented with selected lactobacilli as a tool for a potential decrease of the gluten intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Raffaella; de Angelis, Maria; Alfonsi, Giuditta; de Vincenzi, Massimo; Silano, Marco; Vincentini, Olimpia; Gobbetti, Marco

    2005-06-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used to ferment durum wheat semolina under liquid conditions. After fermentation, the dough was freeze-dried, mixed with buckwheat flour at a ratio of 3:7, and used to produce the "fusilli" type Italian pasta. Pasta without prefermentation was used as the control. Ingredients and pastas were characterized for compositional analysis. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 92 of the 130 durum wheat gliadin spots were hydrolyzed almost totally during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the hydrolysis of gliadins. As shown by immunological analysis by R5-Western blot, the concentration of gluten decreased from 6280 ppm in the control pasta to 1045 ppm in the pasta fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Gliadins were extracted from fermented and nonfermented durum wheat dough semolina and used to produce a peptic-tryptic (PT) digest for in vitro agglutination tests on cells of human origin. The whole PT digests did not cause agglutination. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose-6-B mannan column separated the PT digests in three fractions. Fraction C showed agglutination activity. The minimal agglutinating activity of fraction C from the PT digest of fermented durum wheat semolina was ca. 80 times higher than that of durum wheat semolina. Pasta was subjected to sensory analysis: The scores for stickiness and firmness were slightly lower than those found for the pasta control. Odor and flavor did not differ between the two types of pasta. These results showed that a pasta biotechnology that uses a prefermentation of durum wheat semolina by selected lactic acid bacteria and tolerated buckwheat flour could be considered as a novel tool to potentially decrease gluten intolerance and the risk of gluten contamination in gluten-free products.

  2. Addition of mushroom powder to pasta enhances the antioxidant content and modulates the predictive glycaemic response of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xikun; Brennan, Margaret A; Serventi, Luca; Liu, Jianfu; Guan, Wenqiang; Brennan, Charles S

    2018-10-30

    This study reports the effects of addition of mushroom powder on the nutritional properties, predictive in vitro glycaemic response and antioxidant potential of durum wheat pasta. Addition of the mushroom powder enriched the pasta as a source of protein, and soluble and insoluble dietary fibre compared with durum wheat semolina. Incorporation of mushroom powder significantly decreased the extent of starch degradation and the area under the curve (AUC) of reducing sugars released during digestion, while the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of samples increased. A mutual inhibition system between the degree of starch gelatinisation and antioxidant capacity of the pasta samples was observed. These results suggest that mushroom powder could be incorporated into fresh semolina pasta, conferring healthier characteristics, namely lowering the potential glycaemic response and improving antioxidant capacity of the pasta. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Buckwheat-enriched wheat bread: National market placement possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters and the possibility of successful placement of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread on the national market are presented in this paper. Analysis of the market position of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread includes demands, offer and competition. Elements that affect the overall retail price of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread are given in details, along with SWOT analysis and marketing plan including target market, market supply and product marketing mix. According to all performed analyses it could be concluded that this product should be positioned on the national market, especially for people with special needs and requirements.

  4. ELABORACIÓN DE PASTAS ALIMENTICIAS ENRIQUECIDAS A PARTIR DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild. Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota ELABORACAO DE PASTA ALIMENTICIA ENRIQUECIDA A PARTIR DE FARINHA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild. E CENOURA (Daucus carota PRODUCTION OF FOOD PASTAS ENRICHED FROM QUINUA's (Chenopodium quinoa wild. FLOUR AND CARROT (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M ASTAÍZA

    2010-06-01

    a cenoura. Este estudo se desenvolve em duas fases; na fase I elaboraram-se e analisaram-se pastas enriquecidas com farinha de quinua, com níveis de substituição do 30%, 40% e 50% na fase sólida da formulação; e urna fase II, na qual se substituiu com cenoura um 15% da fase líquida da formulação que na fase um apresentou melhor qualidade culinaria e sensorial. Avaliou-se a qualidade culinaria e as características químicas das pastas assim como a aceitabilidade e qualidade sensorial com consumidores de cinco bairros da cidade de Popayán. A complementaridade com farinha de quinua e cenoura, gerou incremento significativo no tempo de cocção e diminuição do incremento em peso e da porcentagem da agua absorvida com relação às pastas controle; as perdas de sólidos por cocção foram menores do que ñas pastas substituidas com relação ás pastas controle. No âmbito do consumidoras pastas substituidas com farinha de quinua e com cenoura tiveram excelente aceitação. A porcentagem de proteína e fibra quantificadas ñas pastas enriquecidas foi significativamente superior ao controle. No computo químico indicou melhor qualidade da proteína ñas pastas enriquecidas. Por tanto se concluí que é a tecnológica, nutricional e socialmente factível a complementação da sêmola de trigo com quina e cenoura na elaboração de pastas. Este estudo mereceu o apoio financeiro do fundo empreendedor para seu escalamento ao nivel semi-industrialThe pasta ofsemolina is a food ofmassive consumption, but the biológical value ofits protein is low, the deficiency is given by the lysine in the protein of the wheat. To complemented the Semolina with quinua and carrot flour, the quality of the protein is improved because the quinua is high in lysine and there is increased the content of soluble fiber and A vitamin bythe addition of carrot. This study is developed in two stages; in the First Stage it was elaborated and was analyzed the pastas enriched with quinua flour

  5. Quality of spelt pasta enriched with eggs and identification of eggs using 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of spelt pasta enriched with eggs. Eggs were added to spelt farina in the quantity of 0, 124 or 248 g/kg (equivalent to 0, 3 or 6 eggs, respectively. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Relatively low coefficients of variation have been obtained for each applied assay (1.25-12.42%, which confirmed the high accuracy measurements and statistically significant results. Standard score analysis is applied for accessing the contribution of eggs content to spelt pasta quality. Maximum scores regarding quality (0.89 and chemical characteristics (0.70, have been obtained for 6 eggs spelt pasta formulation. It is also shown that the presence of eggs in pasta can be clearly confirmed by 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. Simultaneous increase in area of peak positioned at 29.5 and 176 ppm is directly associated with the increase in the content of added eggs in the corresponding samples. Pertinent data point at positive contribution of eggs to the spelt pasta and also that NMR spectrum can be used in the egg quantity control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31029

  6. Inulin-enriched pasta improves intestinal permeability and modifies the circulating levels of zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 in healthy young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Clemente, Caterina; Chiloiro, Marisa; Orlando, Antonella; Marconi, Emanuele; Chimienti, Guglielmina; Riezzo, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Apart from the intestinal environment, inulin induces physiological effects, which includes a reduction in glucose and lipid concentrations and modulation of gastrointestinal motility through the release of different peptides. We hypothesized that inulin-enriched pasta may also improve small intestine permeability in relation to zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) levels in healthy young subjects. Twenty healthy, young male volunteers completed a randomized, double-blind crossover study consisting of a 2-week run-in period and two 5-week study periods (11% inulin-enriched or control pasta), with an 8-week washout period in between. The intestinal barrier function was assessed by lactulose-mannitol excretion in urine. Zonulin values and GLP-2 release were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the inulin group, the urinary lactulose recovery was significantly lower than the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in urinary mannitol levels between groups. Accordingly, the lactulose-mannitol excretion ratio was significantly decreased in the inulin-enriched pasta group compared with the other 2 groups. The inulin-enriched pasta group had significantly lower zonulin serum values and significantly higher GLP-2 basal values when compared with the baseline and control pasta groups. The dietary use of inulin-enriched pasta preserves intestinal mucosal barrier functioning and modulates circulating levels of zonulin and GLP-2, suggesting that prebiotics could be used in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, Andre J; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J; Stroeve, Johanna H; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower glucose clearance rate quantified with a dual-isotope technique, which was in accordance with a lower insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response. To gain more insight into the acute metabolic consequences of the consumption of products resulting in differential glucose kinetics, postprandial metabolic profiles were determined. In a crossover study, 9 healthy men [mean ± SEM age: 21 ± 0.5 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m 2 ): 22 ± 0.5] consumed wheat bread (132 g) and fresh pasta (119 g uncooked) enriched with wheat bran (10%) meals. A total of 134 different metabolites in postprandial plasma samples (at -5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min) were quantified by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach (secondary outcomes). Two-factor ANOVA and advanced multivariate statistical analysis (partial least squares) were applied to detect differences between both food products. Forty-two different postprandial metabolite profiles were identified, primarily representing pathways related to protein and energy metabolism, which were on average 8% and 7% lower after the men consumed pasta rather than bread, whereas concentrations of arabinose and xylose were 58% and 53% higher, respectively. Arabinose and xylose are derived from arabinoxylans, which are important components of wheat bran. The higher bioavailability of arabinose and xylose after pasta intake coincided with a lower rate of appearance of glucose and amino acids. We speculate that this higher bioavailability is due to higher degradation of arabinoxylans by small intestinal microbiota, facilitated by the higher viscosity of arabinoxylans after pasta intake than after bread

  8. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw...

  10. LC-HRMS for Characterizing Durum Wheat Pasta Production Variability and Consumer Overall Liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Francesca; Cavanna, Daniele; Catellani, Dante; Vigni, Mario Li; Durante, Caterina; D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Suman, Michele

    2018-03-01

    Semolina pasta represents one of the most important dishes in Italian cuisine worldwide. Italy is the leader in its production and, recently, the worldwide diffusion of its production has begun to grow tremendously. The perceived quality of a food product, such as pasta, is a key feature that allows a company to increase and maintain the competitive advantage of a specific brand. The overall flavor perception of the consumer, therefore, has become as important as other key quality factors such as texture and color; thus, the food industry needs to meet consumer expectations and needs the tools to objectively "measure" the quality of food products. Untargeted fingerprinting by means of coupling LC with high-resolution MS (HRMS) has been well received within the analytical community, and different studies exploiting this approach for the characterization of high-value food products have recently been reported in the literature. In the present work, a tentative application of the sensomics approach to cluster analysis of semolina pasta obtained using different production conditions was developed to objectively define target molecules that correlate with consumer overall liking of an industrial standard product. Principal component analysis of chemical and physical testing, GC-MS, LC-HRMS, and sensory data were performed with the aim of identifying the main parameters to discern similarities and differences among samples and clustering them according to these features. The correlation between analytical data and compounds related to sensory data was further investigated, and lastly, a partial least-squares regression model for the prediction of consumer overall liking was reported.

  11. Nutritive value of selected variety breads and pastas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhotra, G S; Gelroth, J A; Novak, F A; Bock, M A; Winterringer, G L; Matthews, R H

    1984-03-01

    Nine types of commercially produced variety breads, plain bagels, corn tortillas, and three types of pasta products were obtained from each of four cities, New York, San Francisco, Atlanta, and Kansas City. Proximate components and 12 minerals and vitamins were determined in these and in cooked pasta products. Available carbohydrate and energy values were calculated. On the average, French, Italian, and pita breads were lower in moisture than other breads. Protein in bread products averaged between 7.6% and 10.4% and in cooked pastas and tortillas between 4.4% and 5.3%. Bagels averaged 10.2% protein. Insoluble dietary fiber in whole wheat bread averaged 5.6%; for most products, dietary fiber values were five- to eightfold higher than crude fiber values. Pasta products and tortillas were virtually free of sodium. Sodium in bread products averaged between 379 and 689 mg/100 gm. Although all pasta products and most bread products were enriched, calcium was often not included. Iron averaged from 2.16 to 3.29 mg/100 gm in bread products and 3.10 to 4.24 mg/100 gm in dry pasta products. Products made with unrefined or less-refined flours and/or containing germ and bran tended to be high in phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and manganese, and, to a lesser extent, in copper. A good portion of potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin in pasta products was lost during cooking.

  12. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of wholemeal wheat bread enriched with green coffee beans

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    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies have revealed that bioactive components of coffee play a preventive role against various degenerative diseases. Green coffee, in particular, is characterized by its unique composition and properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of green coffee (Coffea arabica beans (GCB addition on the quality and antioxidant properties (AA of the wholemeal bread. For bread preparation, flour form GCB, and wholemeal wheat flour, type 2000 were used. Wholemeal wheat flour was replaced with GCB flour at 1 to 5% levels. Loaf volume, texture, color and sensory properties of bread were determined. Furthermore, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results showed that bread supplementation with GCB had little influence on the bread volume. The highest volume of bread was obtained with 3 and 4% of GCB flour. The texture properties of bread crumb (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness were slightly changed as a result of the GCB addition. The lightness of bread crumb decreased with the GCB addition (average from 46.3 to 42.6. Besides, the addition of GCB significantly enriched wheat bread with hydrophilic phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Moreover, the GCB addition enhanced antiradical activity of bread.

  14. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Soares, Manoel S; Magalhães, Amanda O; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Alvares, Thiago S; Conte, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p pasta with tilapia flour decreased (p pasta containing 12%, 17%, and 23% of tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p pasta with 6% of tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.

  15. Pasta Primavera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/pastaprimavera.html Pasta Primavera To use the sharing features on this ... Total time: 25 minutes Number of Servings: 4 Pasta, vegetables, and a sprinkle of cheese make this ...

  16. Different effectiveness of two pastas supplemented with either lipophilic or hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants in affecting serum as evaluated by the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pasqualone, Antonella; Lenucci, Marcello S; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Pastore, Donato

    2017-04-15

    Effectiveness in improving serum antioxidant status of two functional pastas was evaluated by the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance (AOB) parameter, calculated as Antioxidant Capacity (AC)/Peroxide Level ratio, assessed here for the first time. In particular, Bran Oleoresin (BO) and Bran Water (BW) pastas, enriched respectively with either lipophilic (tocochromanols, carotenoids) or hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants extracted from durum wheat bran, were studied. Notably, BO pasta was able to improve significantly (+65%) serum AOB during four hours after intake similarly to Lisosan G, a wheat antioxidant-rich dietary supplement. Contrarily, BW pasta had oxidative effect on serum so as conventional pasta and glucose, thus suggesting greater effectiveness of lipophilic than hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants under our experimental conditions. Interestingly, no clear differences between the two pastas were observed, when AC measurements of either serum after pasta intake or pasta extracts by in vitro assays were considered, thus strengthening effectiveness and reliability of AOB approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Propriedades químicas e de pasta dos amidos de trigo e milho fosforilados Chemical and past properties of wheat and maize starches phosphorilads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Pereira Batista

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os amidos de trigo e milho foram fosforilados com tripolifosfato de sódio (TPS em 4 diferentes níveis de adição. As viscosidades máximas da pasta de trigo aumentaram e as temperaturas de pasta diminuíram à medida que cresceram os graus de substituição de grupos fosfato, enquanto que, para o amido de milho, as viscosidades máximas aumentaram e as temperaturas de pasta mantiveram-se constantes. Os amidos fosforilados (amido/água 1:10 foram submetidos à cocção (100,0 ºC/1,0 minuto, secagem (40,0 ºC/~4,0% de umidade e moagem (diâmetro de partícula, Φ = 0,149 mm para determinar o teor de amido resistente (AR. Para o menor grau de substituição de grupos fosfato no amido de trigo (0,0029, foi encontrado um teor de amido resistente de 30,46% e no amido de milho de 24,36%. Para o maior grau de substituição no amido de trigo (0,0127, foi encontrado um teor de AR de 46,69%, enquanto para o amido de milho, 28,40%. O aumento do grau de substituição, em ambos os casos, parece induzir um aumento no teor de amido resistente, e a fosforilação com TPS mostrou ser um excelente método para produzir quantidades significativas de amido resistente tanto no amido de trigo como no amido de milho.Wheat and maize starches were phosphorylated with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPS at 4 different levels of addition. The maximum viscosities of the wheat doughs formed were increased and the dough temperatures decreased as the degrees of substitution of phosphate groups were increased; while for the maize starch the viscosities were increased and the dough temperatures remained constant. The phosphorylated starches (starch/water, 1:10 were subjected to cooking (100 ºC/1 minute, followed by drying (40 ºC/~ 4.0 per cent moisture and milling (particle diameter, Φ = 0.149 mm to determine the resistant starch (RS content. For the lowest degree of substitution of phosphate groups in wheat starch (0.0029, resistant starch content of 30.46 per cent was found

  18. Pasta production: complexity in defining processing conditions for reference trials and quality assessment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta is a simple food made from water and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) semolina. As pasta increases in popularity, studies have endeavored to analyze the attributes that contribute to high quality pasta. Despite being a simple food, the laboratory scale analysis of pasta quality is ...

  19. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY PASTA INCORPORATED WITH MICRONIZED CORN PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO RENATO DE JESUS JUNQUEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastas are generally accepted all over the world, mainly because they are versatile, cheap and easy - to - prepare. They are not nutritionally balanced, since they provide mainly carbohydrates. As a result of this, it is important to use ingredients which could improve the nutritional deficiencies, without affecting the technological and sensorial characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of using wheat semolina and micronized corn pericarp (MCP, on the proximate composition, cooking quality and color of spaghetti type pasta. Spaghetti pasta was produced using wheat semolina with the incorporation of micronized corn pericarp, at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the formulated samples with regards to the contents of moisture and lipid, cooking time, weight gain and volume increase. As observed, supplementation with micronized corn pericarp presented significant difference on the contents of proteins, minerals, dietary fiber and solid soluble loss of the spaghetti pasta (p < 0.05. With increase in micronized corn pericarp concentration, the color difference became accentuated. The use of MCP appears to be viable, providing a nutritionally enriched product without further impairment on pasta quality.

  20. Changes of antioxidant potential of pasta fortified with parsley (Petroselinum Crispum mill.) leaves in the light of protein-phenolics interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Pasta is considered as an effective carrier of prohealth ingredients in food fortification. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of antioxidant potential of wheat pasta affected by fortification with powdered parsley leaves. A special attention was paid to effectiveness of fortification in the light of proteinphenolic interactions. To improve antioxidant activity of pasta, part of wheat flour was replaced with powdered parsley leaves from 1% to 4% (w/w). The total phenolics content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using in vitro assays - abilities to scavenge free radicals (ABTS) and to reduce iron (III) (FRAP). Predicted phenolic contents and antioxidant activity were calculated. To determine the protein-phenolics interactions SE-HPLC and SDS-PAGE techniques were used. Fortification of pasta had a positive effect on its phenolic contents and antioxidant properties. The highest phenolics level and antioxidant activity of pasta were obtained by supplementation with 4% of parsley leaves. However, in most cases experimental values were significantly lower than those predicted. The protein profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE differed significantly among control and enriched pasta. Furthermore, the addition of parsley leaves to pasta resulted in increase of peaks areas obtained by SE-HPLC. Results indicate the occurrence of the protein-phenolics interactions in fortified pasta. Overall, the effectiveness of fortification and consequently biological effect is limited by many factors including interactions between phenolics and pasta proteins. In the light of this results the study of potential interaction of bioactive supplements with food matrix should be taken into account during designing new functional food products.

  1. Qualidade tecnológica de massas alimentícias frescas elaboradas de semolina de trigo durum (T. durum L. e farinha de trigo (T. aestivum L. Quality of fresh pastas obtained from blends of durum wheat semolina (T. durum L. and wheat flour (T. aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kil Chang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram elaboradas massas alimentícias frescas utilizando as seguintes proporções de semolina de trigo durum e farinha de trigo comum: 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60; 20:80 e 0:100, respectivamente. As massas foram embaladas em sacos plásticos com propriedades de impermeabilidade a água, e armazenadas a 4ºC. No dia da preparação (dia 0 e nos dias 1, 2 e 3, foram avaliados o tempo de cozimento, aumento de volume, ganho de peso, perda de sólidos solúveis e textura (firmeza das massas. As massas preparadas com porcentagens acima de 60% de semolina de trigo durum apresentaram melhores características no tempo de cozimento, firmeza e intensidade da cor amarela. Os 3 dias de armazenamento não influenciaram de forma significativa (p Fresh pastas using the following proportions of durum wheat semolina and wheat flour: 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60; 20:80 and 0:100, respectively, were prepared. The pastas were stored at 4ºC in plastic bags with barrier properties to water steam. In the days 0 (preparation day, 1, 2 and 3, the cooking-time, volume increase, weight gain, cooking solids loss, and texture (firmness of fresh pastas were evaluated. The fresh pastas elaborated with at least 60% of durum wheat semolina, showed the best characteristics for cooking-time, firmness and intensity of yellow color. The three days of storage did not affect (p < 0.05 the quality characteristics of pastas.

  2. [Quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Rebolledo, M A

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using rice bran as an ingredient in pastas spaghetti type. Two of the pastas were made with semolina from durum as raw material, supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. The other two were made with granular flour and the same percentage of rice bran. Proximate composition of raw material was analyzed. Pastas were elaborated in a local industry. Composition, proximal, color, texture, and sensorial quality of pastas were determined. Protein content (13.9-15.0%), ash (1.47-3.09%) and dietary fiber (6.71-8.45%) of pastas increased according to the percentage of rice bran added. The hardest pastas were those elaborated with semolina from durum wheat and with a 10% of substitution. Also, they were the most yellow. The sensory panel found differences in quality among the pastas evaluated. Pastas with 10% rice bran had the best quality. The results demonstrated that is possible to elaborate pastas with 20% as maximum of rice bran resulting products with high protein, ash and dietetic fiber content, but some undesirable characteristics were given by the rice bran as white spots, wrinkles and color changes.

  3. Functional, textural and sensory properties of dry pasta supplemented with lyophilized tomato matrix or with durum wheat bran extracts produced by supercritical carbon dioxide or ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Flagella, Zina; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla; De Bellis, Luigi; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-12-15

    A study was carried out to produce functional pasta by adding bran aqueous extract (BW) and bran oleoresin (BO) obtained using ultrasound and supercritical CO2, respectively, or a powdery lyophilized tomato matrix (LT). The bioactive compounds, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (HAA and LAA) in vitro, were evaluated. BW supplementation did not improve antioxidant activity, whilst LT pasta showed unconventional taste and odor. BO pasta had good levels of tocochromanols (2551μg/100g pasta f.w.) and carotenoids (40.2μg/100g pasta f.w.), and the highest HAA and LAA. The oleoresin altered starch swelling and gluten network, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, therefore BO pasta had structural characteristics poor compared with the control (4.8% vs. 3.2% cooking loss), although this difference did not affect significantly overall sensory judgment (74 vs. 79 for BO and control, respectively). BO supplementation was most effective for increasing antioxidant activity without jeopardizing pasta quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice and wheat straw catalytic combustion in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaosheng; Ma Xiaoqian; Liu Ao

    2009-01-01

    By thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study, the influences of different catalysts on the ignition and combustion of rice and wheat straw in air- and oxygen-enriched atmospheres have been investigated in this paper. Straw combustion is divided into two stages. One is the emission and combustion of volatiles and the second is the combustion of fixed carbon. The existence of catalysts in the first step enhances the emission of volatiles from the straw. The action of catalysts in the second step of straw combustion may be as a carrier of oxygen to the fixed carbon. Two parameters have been used to compare the characteristics of ignition and combustion of straw under different catalysts and in various oxygen concentrations. One is the temperature when the conversion degree combustible (CDC) of straw is 5%, the other is the CDC when the temperature is 900 deg. C. By comparing the different values of the two parameters, the different influences of the catalysts and oxygen concentration on the ignition and combustion of straw have been studied, the action of these catalysts for straw ignition and combustion in air and oxygen-enriched atmosphere is effective except the oxygen-enriched catalytic combustion of wheat straw fixed carbon

  5. Effect of bioaugmentation by cellulolytic bacteria enriched from sheep rumen on methane production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E Gozde; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry. The methane production in the bioaugmented reactors was higher than in the control reactors. After 30 days of batch incubation, the average methane yield was 154 mL N CH 4 g VS -1 in the control reactors. Addition of 2% enrichment culture did not enhance methane production, whereas in Set-2 the methane yield was increased by 27%. The bacterial communities were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of mcrA genes was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities. The results highlighted that relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased during the enrichment. However, Cloacamonaceae, which were abundant in the standard inoculum, dominated the bacterial communities of all batch reactors. T-RFLP profiles revealed that Methanobacteriales were predominant in the rumen fluid, whereas the enrichment culture was dominated by Methanosarcinales. In the batch rectors, the most abundant methanogens were affiliated to Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with sheep rumen enrichment cultures can enhance the performance of digesters treating lignocellulosic feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PASTA for Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kodi; Warnow, Tandy

    2018-06-19

    PASTA is a multiple sequence method that uses divide-and-conquer plus iteration to enable base alignment methods to scale with high accuracy to large sequence datasets. By default, PASTA included MAFFT L-INS-i; our new extension of PASTA enables the use of MAFFT G-INS-i, MAFFT Homologs, CONTRAlign, and ProbCons. We analyzed the performance of each base method and PASTA using these base methods on 224 datasets from BAliBASE 4 with at least 50 sequences. We show that PASTA enables the most accurate base methods to scale to larger datasets at reduced computational effort, and generally improves alignment and tree accuracy on the largest BAliBASE datasets. PASTA is available at https://github.com/kodicollins/pasta and has also been integrated into the original PASTA repository at https://github.com/smirarab/pasta. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate-producing bacteria that release ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Russell, Wendy R; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W; Flint, Harry J

    2016-07-01

    Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis that providing amylase-pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to Eubacterium xylanophilum and Butyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5-fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate-producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi-species pathway. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The rationale of moisture on wheat, enriched flour from oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, relevant is the production of food not only meets human needs but also has a certain nutritional value and mineral and vitamin composition, thereby providing a physiologically significant positive effect on the human body. Among bakery products, aimed at improvement of health, leads the bread produced with the goal of weight control, then it should be bread, stimulating the digestive functions of the body. The priority of increasing the nutritional value of bakery products is the inclusion in their formulation non-traditional types of flour from wholemeal grains of cereals and legumes seeds: wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, peas, chickpeas and others. Their use in the diet improves the balance of vitamins, amino acids, macro - and microelements, food fibers and has a positive effect on human health. The use of flour from oat bran in the production of bakery products will increase the content of protein, dietary fiber, minerals, will allow to produce a comprehensive enrichment product. The paper presents research on the influence of the moisture content of the dough of wheat flour of first grade flour from oat bran, obtained by disintegration-wave grinding on the organoleptic, physico-chemical characteristics properties of dough and finished bread. The results revealed rational moisture content of the dough of wheat bread – 46% at a dosage of fortifier – 7%, ensuring the best indicators of quality of semi-finished and products. The data obtained will contribute to the expansion of the range of breads of high nutritional value to give the product a functional orientation, to intensify the process of production.

  9. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on wheat root vesicles enriched in plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.A. Jr.; Murphy, T.M.; Travis, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The irradiation of plant cells with UV radiation (254 nm) causes various solutes to leak from the cells. Vesicles enriched in plasma membranes were prepared from wheat roots. These were used to determine whether UV radiation alters membrane function by direct action on the membranes and to distinguish between the chemical effects produced by high and low fluences of UV. The plasma membrane-associated K + -stimulated ATPase was very sensitive to UV radiation (100% inhibition with 2 ). ATPase activity measured in the absence of K + and K + -stimulated ATPase activity measured in the presence of diethylstilbestrol were much less sensitive. Lipid breakdown, as measured by malondialdehyde production, occurred only at UV fluences greater than 1.8 kJ/m 2 . (author)

  10. Optimization and functionality of millet supplemented pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Gull

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMillets are having superior nutritional qualities and health benefits; hence they can be used for supplementation of pasta. Pasta was prepared using composite flour (CF of durum wheat semolina (96% and carrot pomace (4% supplemented with finger millet flour (FMF, 0-20g, pearl millet flour (PMF, 0-30g and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC, 2-4g. Second order polynomial described the effect of FMF, PMF and CMC on lightness, firmness, gruel loss and overall acceptability of extruded pasta products. Results indicate that an increasing proportion of finger and pearl millet flour had signed (p≤0.05 negative effect on lightness, firmness, gruel loss and overall acceptability. However, CMC addition showed significant (p≤0. 05 positive effect on firmness, overall acceptability and negative effect on gruel loss of cooked pasta samples. Numeric optimization results showed that optimum values for extruded pasta were 20g FMF, 12g PMF and 4g CMC per 100g of CF and 34ml water with 0.981 desirability. The pasta developed is nutritionally rich as it contains protein (10.16g, fat (6g, dietary fiber (16.71g, calcium (4.23mg, iron (3.99mg and zinc (1.682mg per 100g.

  11. Enriching and understanding the wheat B genome by meiotic homoeologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, including common wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) and durum wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum, 2n=4x=28, AABB), contains three homoeologous subgenomes (A, B, and D) originated from three diploid ancestors. The wild einkorn wheat T. urartu (2n=2x=14, AA) contributed subgenome A and wild...

  12. Mutations in durum wheat SBEII genes conferring increased amylose and resistant starch affect grain yield components, semolina and pasta quality and fermentation responses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum spp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that provide human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of t...

  13. From seed to cooked pasta: influence of traditional and non-conventional transformation processes on total antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Daniela; Ciccoritti, Roberto; Nicoletti, Isabella; Nocente, Francesca; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Taddei, Federica

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the traditional with a non-conventional (i.e. kernel micronisation) durum wheat milling process by monitoring the content of bound, conjugated and free phenolic acids (PAs) and the level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) occurring in the durum wheat pasta production chain, from seed to cooked pasta. The traditional transformation processes negatively influenced TAC and PA content (40% and 89% decrease from seed to cooked pasta, respectively), mainly during the milling process (25% and 84% decrease of TAC and PA, respectively), which has been related to the removal of external layers of kernels. Conversely, the micronisation applied on durum wheat kernels allowed to obtain whole-wheat pasta that preserved the seed endowment of antioxidant compounds even in cooked pasta. These results indicate the micronisation as a valuable approach to produce pasta with improved nutritional value and potential health-promoting effects compared to the traditional pasta.

  14. Wheat bread enriched with green coffee - In vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara

    2017-04-15

    The potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics, caffeine and antioxidant activity of wheat bread enriched with green coffee were studied. Supplementation enhanced nutraceutical potential by improving phenolic content and lipid protecting capacity. The simulated-digestion-released phenolics (mainly caffeic acid, syringic acid and vanillic acid) from bread, also caused significant qualitative changes (chlorogenic acids were cleaved and significant amounts of caffeic acid and ferulic acid were determined). Compared to the control, for the bread with 1% and 5% of the functional component the contents of phenolics were 1.6 and 3.33 times higher. Also, an approximately 2.3-fold increase in antioxidant activity was found in bread containing 5% of the supplement. The compounds responsible for antioxidant potential have high bioaccessibility but poor bioavailability. The qualitative composition of the phenolic fraction has a key role in developing the antioxidant potential of bread; however, caffeine and synergism between antioxidants are also important considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory activity of phenolic-rich pistachio green hull extract-enriched pasta on key type 2 diabetes relevant enzymes and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalegani, Sajjad; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Amini Sarteshnizi, Roghayeh

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic compounds as agro-industrial by-products have been associated with health benefits since they exhibit high antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, polyphenol-rich extract from pistachio green hull (PGH) was evaluated for antioxidant activity and its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The effect of PGH extract powder on in vitro starch digestibility was also evaluated. The results showed that PGH had stronger antioxidant activity than Trolox. The inhibitory effect of PGH extract against α-amylase from porcine pancreas was dose dependent and the IC 50 value was ~174μgGAE/mL. The crude PGH extract was eight times more potent on baker yeast α-glucosidase activity (IC 50 ~6μgGAE/mL) when compared to acarbose, whereas the IC 50 value of PGH extract against rat intestinal maltase activity obtained ~2.6mgGAE/mL. The non-tannin fraction of PGH extract was more effective against α-glucosidase than tannin fraction whereas the α-amylase inhibitor was concentrated in the tannin fraction. In vitro starch digestibility and glycemic index (GI) of pasta sample supplemented with PGH extract powder (1.5%) was significantly lower than the control pasta. The IC 50 value of PGH extract obtained from cooked pasta against α-amylase and α-glucosidase was increased. These results have important implications for the processing of PGH for food industry application and therefore could comply with glucose control diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulating future wheat yield under climate change, carbon dioxide enrichment and technology improvement in Iran. Case study: Azarbaijan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, H.; Raei, Y.; Zaeim, A.N.

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and technology development can affect crop productivity in future conditions. Precise estimation of crops yield change as affected by climate and technology in the future is an effective approach for management strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the impacts of climate change, technology improvement, CO2 enrichment, and overall impacts on wheat yield under future conditions. Wheat yield was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) compared to baseline year (2011) under two scenarios of IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) including SRES-A2 as regional economic scenario and SRES-B1 as global environmental scenario in Azarbaijan region (NW of Iran). A linear regression model, describing the relationship between wheat yield and historical year, was developed to investigate technology development effect. The decision support system for agro-technology transfer (DSSAT4.5) was used to evaluate the influence of climate change on wheat yield. The most positive effects were found for wheat yield as affected by technology in all studied regions. Under future climate change, the SRES projected a decrease in yield, especially in West Azarbaijan region. When the effects of elevated CO2 were considered, all regions resulted to increase in wheat yield. Considering all components effect in comparison with baseline (2011), yield increase would range from 5% to 38% across all times, scenarios and regions. According to our findings, it seems that we may expect a higher yield of wheat in NW Iran in the future if technology development continues as well as past years. (Author)

  17. Relationship between the properties of raw and cooked spaghetti - new indices for pasta quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacka, Beata; Dziki, Dariusz; Różyło, Renata; Wójcik, Monika; Miś, Antoni; Romankiewicz, Daria; Krzysiak, Zbigniew

    2018-04-01

    The quality of pasta can be evaluated by measuring the characteristics which encompass the most important quality parameters, such as colour, cooking properties and texture. The aim of the study was to suggest new indices which can be used to evaluate the quality of pasta. For the tests, 15 samples of spaghetti (produced from either semolina or common wheat flour) were used. The bending test was performed for the determination of the strength properties of raw pasta, while the pasta colour parameters were evaluated via the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage system. The pasta cooking test included the evaluation of optimum cooking time, weight increase index and cooking loss. The samples of cooked spaghetti were cut, and the parameters describing pasta texture were determined. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations (α = 0.05) between colour parameters (lightness and redness) and pasta ash content (R = -0.90 and 0.84, respectively). The mechanical properties of raw pasta correlated positively with pasta density. The strongest correlation was found between pasta density and flexural strength. The destruction force for raw spaghetti during the bending test correlated significantly and positively with the cutting force of the cooked pasta. The obtained correlations can be helpful in pasta quality evaluation.

  18. Multi-isotopic signatures of organic and conventional Italian pasta along the production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bontempo, L.; Camin, F.; Paolini, M.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of stable isotope ratios (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N, δ18O and δ34S) along the production chain of pasta (durum wheat, flour and pasta) produced by using both conventional and organic farming systems in four Italian regions in 2 years was investigated. The aim was to evaluate if and how...... control procedures that can be used to check the geographical origin of Italian organic and conventional pasta and its raw materials....

  19. Effects of technological processes on enniatin levels in pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ana B; Font, Guillermina; Mañes, Jordi; Ferrer, Emilia

    2016-03-30

    Potential human health risks posed by enniatins (ENs) require their control primarily from cereal products, creating a demand for harvesting, food processing and storage techniques capable to prevent, reduce and/or eliminate the contamination. In this study, different methodologies to pasta processing simulating traditional and industrial processes were developed in order to know the fate of the mycotoxin ENs. The levels of ENs were studied at different steps of pasta processing. The effect of the temperature during processing was evaluated in two types of pasta (white and whole-grain pasta). Mycotoxin analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS. High reductions (up to 50% and 80%) were achieved during drying pasta at 45-55°C and 70-90°C, respectively. The treatments at low temperature (25°C) did not change EN levels. The effect of pasta composition did not cause a significant effect on the stability of ENs. The effect of the temperature allowed a marked mycotoxin reduction during pasta processing. Generally, ENA1 and ENB showed higher thermal stability than did ENA and ENB1 . The findings from the present study suggested that pasta processing at medium-high temperatures is a potential tool to remove an important fraction of ENs from the initial durum wheat semolina. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Structural, Culinary, Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Properties of High Protein, Gluten Free, 100% Legume Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleg, Karima; Cassan, Denis; Barron, Cécile; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Micard, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Wheat pasta has a compact structure built by a gluten network entrapping starch granules resulting in a low glycemic index, but is nevertheless unsuitable for gluten-intolerant people. High protein gluten-free legume flours, rich in fibers, resistant starch and minerals are thus a good alternative for gluten-free pasta production. In this study, gluten-free pasta was produced exclusively from faba, lentil or black-gram flours. The relationship between their structure, their cooking and Rheological properties and their in-vitro starch digestion was analyzed and compared to cereal gluten-free commercial pasta. Trypsin inhibitory activity, phytic acid and α-galactosides were determined in flours and in cooked pasta. All legume pasta were rich in protein, resistant starch and fibers. They had a thick but weak protein network, which is built during the pasta cooking step. This particular structure altered pasta springiness and increased cooking losses. Black-gram pasta, which is especially rich in soluble fibers, differed from faba and lentil pasta, with high springiness (0.85 vs. 0.75) and less loss during cooking. In comparison to a commercial cereal gluten-free pasta, all the legume pasta lost less material during cooking but was less cohesive and springy. Interestingly, due to their particular composition and structure, lentil and faba pasta released their starch more slowly than the commercial gluten-free pasta during the in-vitro digestion process. Anti-nutritional factors in legumes, such as trypsin inhibitory activity and α-galactosides were reduced by up to 82% and 73%, respectively, by pasta processing and cooking. However, these processing steps had a minor effect on phytic acid. This study demonstrates the advantages of using legumes for the production of gluten-free pasta with a low glycemic index and high nutritional quality.

  2. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas.

  3. Green Barley as an Ingredient in Pasta: Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Characteristics Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišová Eva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study was to determine antioxidant activity, sensory properties as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and chlorophyll content of raw and cooked pasta enriched by 1%, 3% and 5% addition of green barley powder. Results of antioxidant activity showed that increase of green barley addition increase antioxidant activity of pasta. The values in raw pasta obtained by DPPH ranged from 1.17 (control to 1.81 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM, after cooking values ranged from 0.82 (control to 1.59 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM. Similar tendency was signed by molybdenum reducing antioxidant power method. In enriched pasta was also found higher content of total polyphenol (0.19 in control raw sample and 1.81 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta ranged from 0.10 in control sample to 0.73 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition as well as total flavonoid content (results of raw pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.41 mg QE/g DM in pasta with 5% of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.29 mg QE/g DM in variant with 5% green barley. Green barley also enriched pasta for chlorophyll with the best results in 5% addition. From prepared variants of enriched pasta the best overall acceptability was sign in 3% of green barley addition. Pastas enriched with plant-derived bioactive compounds such as green barley may confer health benefits to consumers.

  4. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in

  5. Subjective satiety and plasma PYY concentration after wholemeal pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Giuseppina; Griffo, Ettore; Cipriano, Paola; Vetrani, Claudia; Vitale, Marilena; Mamone, Gianfranco; Rivellese, Angela A; Riccardi, Gabriele; Giacco, Rosalba

    2018-06-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30±2 yrs (mean±SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Participants consumed on two different days, at one week interval, 117g of wholemeal pasta or 100g of refined wheat pasta (control pasta), similar in energy and macronutrient composition except for fiber amount, which was higher in wholemeal pasta (11 vs 3 g). Appetite ratings, glucose/insulin/lipid and gastrointestinal hormone responses were measured at fasting and for 4-h after the ingestion of the pasta tests, after which self-reported energy intake for 8-h was evaluated. After the wholemeal pasta, the desire to eat and the sensation of hunger were lower (-16%, p=0.04 and -23%, p=0.004, respectively) and satiety was higher (+13%; p=0.08) compared with the control pasta; no effect on self-reported energy intake at subsequent meal was observed. After wholemeal pasta, glucose, triglyceride increased and GLP-1 responses were not different compared to control pasta but insulin response at 30 min (ppasta contributed to appetite control but did not seem to influence acute energy balance. Appetite ratings were associated with modifications in PYY hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  7. Studies on effect of additives on protein profile, microstructure and quality characteristics of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnima, C; Ramasarma, P R; Prabhasankar, P

    2012-02-01

    Wheat storage proteins play a vital role in pasta making quality. In the present study, SDS-PAGE, Gel filtration chromatography and Scanning electron microscopy techniques were employed to understand the changes in the wheat protein fractions and their interactions with additives namely Sodium Steroyl Lactate (SSL), Glycerol Monostearate (GMS) and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) during processing of pasta. SDS-PAGE studies indicated changes in High Molecular Weight Glutenin (HMW) fractions during drying stages of pasta preparation and in cooked pasta samples. In uncooked pasta, gel filtration patterns showed four peaks corresponding to different storage proteins whereas in the case of cooked pasta, these peaks were merged into three peaks. Pasta quality characteristics studies indicated that pasta with HPMC was found to have minimum percentage of cooking loss (5.6%), increased cooked weight (82 g), firmness (2.97 N) and high overall quality score (27) than GMS, SSL and control. Microstructure studies confirm the beneficial effect of HPMC. The present study indicated that HPMC is better additive for pasta manufacture followed by GMS. This could be due to interaction of HPMC with starch and protein matrix is different from that of GMS and SSL.

  8. DNA microsatellite region for a reliable quantification of soft wheat adulteration in durum wheat-based foodstuffs by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnante, Gabriella; Montemurro, Cinzia; Morgese, Anita; Sabetta, Wilma; Blanco, Antonio; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2009-11-11

    Italian industrial pasta and durum wheat typical breads must be prepared using exclusively durum wheat semolina. Previously, a microsatellite sequence specific of the wheat D-genome had been chosen for traceability of soft wheat in semolina and bread samples, using qualitative and quantitative Sybr green-based real-time experiments. In this work, we describe an improved method based on the same soft wheat genomic region by means of a quantitative real-time PCR using a dual-labeled probe. Standard curves based on dilutions of 100% soft wheat flour, pasta, or bread were constructed. Durum wheat semolina, pasta, and bread samples were prepared with increasing amounts of soft wheat to verify the accuracy of the method. Results show that reliable quantifications were obtained especially for the samples containing a lower amount of soft wheat DNA, fulfilling the need to verify labeling of pasta and typical durum wheat breads.

  9. Online shear viscosity measurement of starchy melts enriched in wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Frédéric; Bovet, Nicolas; Pineau, Nicolas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Palzer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Addition of wheat bran to flours modifies their expansion properties after cooking extrusion. This can be attributed to changes in the melt shear viscosity at the die. The effect of wheat bran concentration added to achieve 2 levels of dietary fibers of 12. 6% and 24.4%, and process conditions on the shear viscosity of wheat flour was therefore assessed using an online twin-slit rheometer. The shear viscosity measured at 30 s⁻¹ ranged from 9.5 × 10³ to 53.4 × 10³ Pa s. Regardless of the process conditions and bran concentration, the extruded melts showed a pseudoplastic behavior with a power law index n ranging from 0.05 to 0.27. Increasing the barrel temperature of the extruder from 120 to 180 °C, the water content from 18% to 22% or the screw speed from 400 to 800 rpm significantly decreased the melt shear viscosity at the extruder exit. The addition of bran significantly increased the melt shear viscosity only at the highest bran concentration. The effect was process condition dependant. Mathematical interpretations, based upon observations, of the experimental data were carried out. They can be used to predict the effect of the process conditions on the melt shear viscosity at the die of extruded wheat flour with increasing bran concentration. The viscosity data will be applied in future works to study the expansion properties of extruded wheat flour supplemented with bran. Incorporation of wheat bran, a readily available and low cost by-product, in extruded puffed foods is constrained due to its negative effect on the product texture. Understanding the effect of wheat bran on rheological properties of extruded melts, driving the final product properties, is essential to provide solutions to the food industry and enhance its use. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Sequence and properties of HMW subunit 1Bx20 from pasta wheat (Triticum durum) which is associated with poor end use properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, P R; Gilbert, S M; Savage, A W J; Tatham, A S; Wan, Y-F; Belton, P S; Wellner, N; D'Ovidio, R; Békés, F; Halford, N G

    2003-02-01

    The gene encoding high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunit 1Bx20 was isolated from durum wheat cv. Lira. It encodes a mature protein of 774 amino acid residues with an M(r) of 83,913. Comparison with the sequence of subunit 1Bx7 showed over 96% identity, the main difference being the substitution of two cysteine residues in the N-terminal domain of subunit 1Bx7 with tyrosine residues in 1Bx20. Comparison of the structures and stabilities of the two subunits purified from wheat using Fourier-transform infra-red and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed no significant differences. However, incorporation of subunit 1Bx7 into a base flour gave increased dough strength and stability measured by Mixograph analysis, while incorporation of subunit 1Bx20 resulted in small positive or negative effects on the parameters measured. It is concluded that the different effects of the two subunits could relate to the differences in their cysteine contents, thereby affecting the cross-linking and hence properties of the glutenin polymers.

  11. Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products. Part 1: Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradique, Mónica; Batista, Ana Paula; Nunes, M Cristiana; Gouveia, Luísa; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Raymundo, Anabela

    2010-08-15

    Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional foods and hence to positively affect human health, due to their original chemical composition. The aim of the present study was to prepare fresh spaghetti enriched with different amounts of microalgae biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima) and to compare the quality parameters (optimal cooking time, cooking losses, swelling index and water absorption), chemical composition, instrumental texture and colour of the raw and cooked pasta enriched with microalgae biomass with standard semolina spaghetti. The incorporation of microalgae results in an increase of quality parameters when compared to the control sample. The colour of microalgae pastas remained relatively stable after cooking. The addition of microalgae resulted in an increase in the raw pasta firmness when compared to the control sample. Of all the microalgae studied, an increase in the biomass concentration (0.5-2.0%) resulted in a general tendency of an increase in the pasta firmness. Sensory analysis revealed that microalgae pastas had higher acceptance scores by the panellists than the control pasta. Microalgae pastas presented very appellative colours, such as orange and green, similar to pastas produced with vegetables, with nutritional advantages, showing energetic values similar to commercial pastas. The use of microalgae biomass can enhance the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta, without affecting its cooking and textural properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Ling; Miao, Yingjie; Deng, Pengyi; Yuan, Cuihong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zang, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-06-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, a β-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Wheat bran with enriched gamma-aminobutyric acid attenuates glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenting; Si, Xu; Zhou, Zhongkai; Strappe, Padraig; Blanchard, Chris

    2018-05-23

    In this study, the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in wheat bran was increased to be six times higher through the action of endogenous glutamate decarboxylase compared with untreated bran. The process of GABA formation in wheat bran also led to an increased level of phenolic compounds with enhanced antioxidant capacity 2 times higher than the untreated status. The interventional effect of a diet containing GABA-enriched bran on hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) was investigated in a rat model. The results showed that, when compared with animals fed with HFD-containing untreated bran (NB group), the consumption of HFD-containing GABA-enriched bran (GB group) demonstrated a greater improvement of insulin resistance/sensitivity as revealed by the changes in the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The expression of hepatic genes, cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 (Cyp7a1) and ubiquitin C (Ubc), which are involved in the adipogenesis-associated PPAR signalling pathway, was found to be significantly down-regulated in the GB group compared with the HFD group (P = 0.0055). Meanwhile, changes in the expression of a number of genes associated with lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis were also noted in the GB group versus the HFD group, but not in the NB group, indicating different regulatory patterns between the two brans in a high-fat diet. More importantly, the analysis of key genes related to glucose metabolism further revealed that the expression of insulin-induced gene 1/2 (Insig-1/2) was increased following GB intervention with a corresponding reduction in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pepck) and glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic subunit (G6pc) expression, suggesting that glucose homeostasis is greatly improved through the intervention of GABA-enriched bran in the context of a high-fat diet.

  14. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  15. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting...

  16. Concentrations of radiocaesium in Italian durum wheat and its products after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, M.; Notaro, M.; Azimi-Garakani, D.; Tommasino, L.; Cubadda, R.; Santaroni, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    The radiocaesium concentrations of over 400 samples of durum wheat (triticum durum) collected throughout Italy after the Chernobyl accident have been measured to study the implications of contamination of this specific type of wheat used primarily in making alimentary pasta. The transfer of radiocaesium from the wheat sample of highest activity into the human food chain was studied systematically by measuring radiocaesium levels in the outer layers of the grain and in semolina, pasta and bread produced this wheat. The effect of cooking on the nuclide content of pasta was also studied, the results showing that most of the radiocaesium is removed into the water in which the pasta is boiled. (author)

  17. quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Ahlem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural parameters and microstructure were carried out to assess the impact of experimental factors. Results showed that hydrothermal treatment of corn flour affected in different extent on pasta properties, improving cooking and textural characteristics of pasta. The optimum formulation of corn-field bean contained 7.41 g of treated corn flour and 77.26 mL of water was selected on the base of desirability function approach with value of 0.825 which showed the best pasta properties. Obtained results showed also that addition of treated flour induced significant differences (p < 0.05 in all parameters in comparison with control pasta.

  18. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  19. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...

  20. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  1. Effect of the grain protein content locus Gpc-B1 on bread and pasta quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain protein concentration (GPC) affects wheat nutritional value and several critical parameters for bread and pasta quality. A gene designated Gpc-B1, which is not functional in common and durum wheat cultivars, was recently identified in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The functional allele o...

  2. Wet oxidation treatment of organic household waste enriched with wheat straw for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation into ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.

    2004-01-01

    Organic municipal solid waste enriched with wheat straw was subjected to wet-oxidation as a pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation into bio-ethanol. The effect of tempera (185-195degrees C), oxygen pressure (3-12) and sodium carbonate (0-2 g l(-1)) addition on enzymatic...... in the treated waste could be converted into respectively hexose and pentose sugars compared to 46% for cellulose and 36% for hemicellulose in the raw waste. For all wet oxidation conditions tested, total carbohydrate recoveries were high (> 89%) and 44-66% of the original lignin could be converted into non......-toxic carboxylic acids mainly (2.2-4.5 % on DS basis). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the treated waste at 10% DS by Saccharomyces cerevisae yielded average ethanol concentrations of 16.5 to 22 g l(-1) for enzyme loadings of 5 and 25 FPU g(-1) DS, respectively. The cellulose to ethanol...

  3. Effect of guar gum and fiber-enriched wheat bran on gastric emptying of a semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydning, A.; Berstad, A.; Berstad, T.; Hertzenberg, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of physiological doses of guar gum (Guarem), 5 g, and fiber-enriched wheat bran (Fiberform), 10.5 g, on gastric emptying was studied by two different methods in healthy subjects: by a simple isotope localization monitor placed over the upper part of the abdomen, and by gamma camera. The fiber preparations were added to a semisolid meal consisting of wheatmeal porridge and juice, using technetium-99 DTPA as a marker. The gamma camera showed no effect of fiber on gastric emptying. The isotope localization monitor, however, indicated that Fiberform prevented postprandial accumulation of the meal within the upper part of stomach. The simple isotope localization monitor cannot be recommended for measurements of gastric emptying.

  4. Semi-solid microbial fermentation of rice and wheat straw for protein enrichment and increased digestibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, R.H.; Bhatawdekar, S.P.

    1980-12-01

    Rice and wheat straws were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of sulfuric acid at different temperatures and different water: substrate ratios. The maximum amount of sugars of about 30-34% was released when heated at 121 degrees C with 0.5 N H2SO4 at a water: substrate ratio of 3:1. The pH of the hydrolyzed straws was raised to 5.0-5.5 with 5 N NH4OH. Such ammoniated straws were inoculated with the cultures of Penicillium funiculosum Thom. and Candida utilis (Henneb.) Lodder and Kreger-van Rij, and fermentation was carried out on semi-solid substrate for 5-7 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted in 37-180% increase in crude protein, 23-100% increase in crude fat and 20-30% increase in the digestibility. (Refs. 29).

  5. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  6. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  7. [Nebraska 4-H Wheat Science School Enrichment Project, Teacher/Leader Guides 213-222 and 227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Inst. of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    Through the 4-H Wheat Science project, students learn the importance of wheat from the complete process of growing wheat to the final product of bread. The curriculum is designed to include hands-on experiences in science, consumer education, nutrition, production economics, vocabulary, and applied mathematics. Teachers can select those units out…

  8. Effect of hydrothermal treated corn flour addition on the quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    OpenAIRE

    Dib Ahlem; Wójtowicz Agnieszka; Benatallah Leila; Bouasla Abdallah; Zidoune Mohammed Nasreddine

    2018-01-01

    Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w) were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural param...

  9. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J.; Stroeve, Johanna H.; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebes, Marion G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower

  10. Prospecting plant growth promoting bacteria and cyanobacteria as options for enrichment of macro- and micronutrients in grains in rice–wheat cropping sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB and cyanobacteria, alone and in combination, was investigated on micronutrient enrichment and yield in rice–wheat sequence, over a period of two years. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in both crops indicated significant differences in soil dehydrogenase activity and micronutrient enrichment in grains (Fe, Zn in rice, and Cu, Mn in wheat. The combined inoculation of Anabaena oscillarioides CR3, Brevundimonas diminuta PR7, and Ochrobactrum anthropi PR10 (T6 significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK content and improved rice yield by 21.2%, as compared to the application of recommended dose of NPK fertilizers (T2. The treatment T5 (Providencia sp. PR3 + B. diminuta PR7 + O. anthropi PR10 recorded an enhancement of 13–16% in Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations, respectively, in rice grains. In wheat, Providencia sp. PW5 (T6 recorded the highest yield (5.23 Mg ha−1 and significantly higher enrichment of Fe and Cu (44–45% in the grains. This study highlighted the promise of combinations of cyanobacteria/bacteria and their synergistic action in biofortification and providing savings of 40–60 kg N ha−1. Future focus needs to be towards integrating such promising environment-friendly and environmentally sustainable options in nutrient management strategies for this cropping sequence.

  11. Transport Properties in Nuclear Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Donald; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-09-01

    At the base of the inner crust of neutron stars, where matter is near the nuclear saturation density, nuclear matter arranges itself into exotic shapes such as cylinders and slabs, called `nuclear pasta.' Lepton scattering from these structures may govern the transport properties of the inner crust; electron scattering from protons in the pasta determines the thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as the shear viscosity of the inner crust. These properties may vary in pasta structures which form at various densities, temperatures, and proton fractions. In this talk, we report on our calculations of lepton transport in nuclear pasta and the implication for neutron star observables.

  12. Pemanfaatan Pasta Sukun (Artocarpus altilis pada Pembuatan Mi Kering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Safriani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best treatment combination between the ratio of wheat flour and breadfruit pasta, and the combination of the drying temperature and time to produce dried noodles with good quality and preferred by consumers. The effect of the ratio of wheat flour and breadfruit pasta (70:30%, 60:40%, and 50:50%, and the combination of the drying temperature and time (60°C, 70 minutes and 70°C, 60 minutes on the quality of the dried noodles were investigated. The results showed that the best quality of the dried noodles based on the organoleptic and cooking quality test obtained from the combination of the treatment of ratio of wheat flour and breadfruit pasta = 70:30% and the combination of drying temperature and time = 700C for 60 minutes with the following characteristics: water content of 8,78%, fat content of 13,67%, protein content of 11.90%, ash content of 1,35%, and carbohydrate content of 65,22%. The organoleptic value of the best dried noodles before rehydration: color of 2,75; flavor of 2,83; texture of 2,73; whereas after the rehydration, the best dried noodles has organoleptic values: color of 2,81; flavor of 2,92; and taste of 2,77.

  13. Expansion of the range of pasta products through the use of vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Iztaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value of food products is one of the most important factors that determine a health of the population. Based on the importance of the nation's health for the development and county’s security, the Concept of the State Policy on Healthy Nutrition of the Kazakhstan population is defined, providing for a set of activities aimed at creating conditions that meet the needs of various groups of the population in rational, healthy nutrition, taking into account their traditions, habits and economic situation. In the macaroni products market, the dietary and functional products, enriched pasta and high nutritional products occupy a small segment that does not exceed 1%. In connection with this fact, the development of a range of macaroni products of increased nutritional value, with a purposefully changed chemical composition remains topical. In the macaroni industry, the increase in the food and biological value of products is achieved through the introduction of non-traditional types of raw materials and special food additives into the formulation. The research objects are wheat flour of the highest grade, a polydisperse corn flour, chick-pea flour and amaranth flour and the influence of these polydisperse systems on the properties of gluten, the rheological properties of the dough and the quality of the finished products have been determined. Based on the experimental data obtained, it is established that for the production of pasta from bakery flour of high quality with good physical-chemical and organoleptic characteristics, no more than 10.0% of corn and chick-pea flour and not more than 7.5% of amaranth flour can be added to the recipe; further increasing the dosage of flour from cereals and legumes leads to a deterioration in the quality of finished products. The use of polydisperse flour from cereals and legumes is expedient for the enrichment of macaroni products with valuable food ingredients - proteins, essential amino acids

  14. Nuclear Pasta: Topology and Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Caplan, Matt; Briggs, Christian

    2015-04-01

    A layer of complex non-uniform phases of matter known as nuclear pasta is expected to exist at the base of the crust of neutron stars. Using large scale molecular dynamics we study the topology of some pasta shapes, the formation of defects and how these may affect properties of neutron star crusts.

  15. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Hongbing, C.; Lacaze, X.; Dusautoir, J.C.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, J.M.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a

  16. Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanth, D; Biswas, D R

    2008-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the efficient use of rice straw and indigenous source of phosphorus and potassium in crop production through composting technology. Various enriched composts were prepared using rice straw, rock phosphate (RP), waste mica and bioinoculant (Aspergillus awamori) and kinetics of release of phosphorus and potassium from enriched composts and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) were carried out. Results showed sharp increases in release in water-soluble P and K from all the composts at 8th to 12th day of leaching, thereafter, it decreased gradually. Maximum release of water-soluble P and K were obtained in ordinary compost than enriched composts during the initial stages of leaching, but their differences narrowed down at latter stages. Data in pot experiments revealed that enriched composts performed poorly than diammonium phosphate during initial stages of crop growth, but they out yielded at the latter stages, particularly at maturity stage, as evident from their higher yield, uptake, nutrient recoveries and fertility status of P and K in soils. Moreover, enriched composts prepared with RP and waste mica along with A. awamori resulted in significantly higher biomass yield, uptake and recoveries of P and K as well as available P and K in soils than composts prepared without inoculant. Results indicated that enriched compost could be an alternate technology for the efficient management of rice straw, low-grade RP and waste mica in crop production, which could help to reduce the reliance on costly chemical fertilizers.

  17. [Response of soil hydrolase and oxidoreductase activities to free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) under rice-wheat rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Lijun; Wu, Zhijie

    2004-06-01

    This paper studied the response of soil urease, phosphatase, arylsulphatase and dehydrogenase to 200 micromol x mol(-1) CO2 elevation under rice-wheat rotation. The results showed that under CO2 elevation, the urease activity in 0-10 cm soil layer was decreased at the early growth stages of wheat but increased at its booting stage; the activity increased at the early growth stages of rice but decreased at its ripening stage. Phosphatase activity was increased during the whole growth period of wheat; the activity increased at the tillering stage of rice but decreased at its later growth stages. Arylsulphatase activity was decreased at the over-wintering and booting stages of wheat but increased at its tillering and ripening stages. Dehydrogenase activity was decreased at the early growth stages of wheat and rice, but increased at their late growth stages.

  18. The use of green banana (Musa balbisiana pulp and peel flour as an ingredient for tagliatelle pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Naciuk Castelo-Branco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Green banana flour shows good potential as a functional ingredient for special-purpose foods, but there are no data in the literature concerning the use of a green banana pulp and peel flour for the development of products such as pasta. The aim of the present study was to develop tagliatelle pasta substituting the wheat flour with different concentrations of a green banana mixed pulp and peel flour. The pasta formulations were prepared replacing the wheat flour by the green banana mixed pulp and peel flour in two concentrations: 15% and 30%. A control formulation with wheat flour was also prepared. The green banana mixed pulp and peel flour presented higher ash, total fibre and total phenolic compound contents than traditional wheat flour. The pasta formulation with the addition of 15% green banana flour showed the highest ash content and the best sensory acceptability of all the formulations. It was concluded that it was possible to develop a tagliatelle pasta with satisfactory acceptance replacing the wheat flour by a green banana mixed pulp and peel flour.

  19. ¬¬OPTIMASI PENGGUNAAN HIDROKOLOID TERHADAP PASTA MAKARONI BERBASIS BERAS BERAMILOSA TINGGI [Hydrocolloid Optimization on Maccaroni Pasta from High Amylose Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hari Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasta is an extrusion product which is commonly produced from wheat flour. Gluten is key substance of wheat flour that affect quality of pasta, such as low cooking loss, low adhesiveness and firm pasta structure. However, gluten may cause health problem for consumers with celiac disease or gluten intolerance. Rice is safe for celiac disease sufferer, but it is technologically challenging to develop rice-based pasta. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different ratio between xanthan gum and guar gum (2% on the physical characteristics of macaroni pasta from rice flour. This research consisted of several steps which include flour milling and characterization, formulation, and final product analysis. The result showed that different ratio of xanthan gum and guar gum had significant effect to cooking loss, adhesiveness, springiness and hue parameters (P0.05. The optimum formula was noodle by hydrocolloid ratio 2% of xanthan gum and 0 % of guar gum which had desirability value of 0.798. The selected formula was organoleptically accepted by panelists and containing 9.84 % of water, 1.65% of ash, 12.05% of protein, 1.41% of fat, 75.05% of carbohydrate, 24.49% of amylose, also 33.49 "μm" of pore size.

  20. Optimization of food materials for development of nutritious pasta utilizing groundnut meal and beetroot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, D; Gupta, R K; Bhadwal, Sheetal; Khaira, Harjot; Tyagi, S K

    2016-04-01

    Present study was undertaken to optimize the level of food materials viz. groundnut meal, beetroot juice and refined wheat flour for development of nutritious pasta using response surface methodology. Box-benken design of experiments was used to design different experimental combinations considering 10 to 20 g groundnut meal, 6 to 18 mL beetroot juice and 80 to 90 g refined wheat flour. Quality attributes such as protein content, antioxidant activity, colour, cooking quality (solid loss, rehydration ratio and cooking time) and sensory acceptability of pasta samples were the dependent variables for the study. The results revealed that pasta samples with higher levels of groundnut meal and beetroot juice were high in antioxidant activity and overall sensory acceptability. The samples with higher content of groundnut meal indicated higher protein contents in them. On the other hand, the samples with higher beetroot juice content were high in rehydration ratio and lesser cooking time along with low solid loss in cooking water. The different level of studied food materials significantly affected the colour quality of pasta samples. Optimized combination for development of nutritious pasta consisted of 20 g groundnut meal, 18 mL beetroot juice and 83.49 g refined wheat flour with overall desirability as 0.905. This pasta sample required 5.5 min to cook and showed 1.37 % solid loss and rehydration ratio as 6.28. Pasta sample prepared following optimized formulation provided 19.56 % protein content, 23.95 % antioxidant activity and 125.89 mg/100 g total phenols with overall sensory acceptability scores 8.71.

  1. On the importance of processing conditions, product thickness and egg addition for the glycaemic and hormonal responses to pasta: a comparison with bread made from 'pasta ingredients'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfeldt, Y; Björck, I; Hagander, B

    1991-10-01

    The importance of processing conditions, product thickness and effect of egg addition for the glycaemic and hormonal responses to pasta was studied. Healthy subjects were given test meals with an equivalent amount of available carbohydrate from extruded high-temperature dried spaghetti and three varieties of fresh roll-sheeted linguine (thick, thin, thin with egg) made from the same ingredients (durum wheat, water and monoglycerides). As a reference bread was baked from the same ingredients as in the pasta products. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels were measured over a 3 h period. Glycaemic, insulin and C-peptide indexes (GI, II, CI) were calculated using 120 min areas under the curves. Glycaemic index was also calculated using the 90 min area. Also studied were the rates of in vitro starch digestion. The four pasta products produced significantly lower peak values (glucose, insulin, C-peptide) and lower GI (90 min), II (120 min) and CI (120 min) than the corresponding bread. The rate of in vitro starch digestion in pasta was also slower than in bread. In contrast to the pasta products, bread resulted in a prominent hypoglycaemia in the late phase, that is a drop below fasting blood glucose level. Minor differences in metabolic responses also appeared in the pasta products. In particular, the insulin and C-peptide response to the thin linguine was accentuated in the phase around 120 min.

  2. Influence of extrusion-cooking parameters on some quality aspects of precooked pasta-like products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, A; Mościcki, L

    2009-06-01

    The present article aims to evaluate some quality parameters and texture characteristics of precooked wheat pasta-like products. Using the methods for pasta and instant noodles the tested parameters were water absorption, starch gelatinization degree, cooking losses, and hardness. The texture profile was characterized using Zwick apparatus by cutting test with the head speed of 10 mm/min and expressed as hardness and firmness of hydrated products. SEM pictures were used to illustrate the internal structure of dry and cooked pasta-like products. Dough moisture content and process conditions influenced all tested quality parameters of the pasta-like products processed on a modified single screw extrusion-cooker TS-45 with L: D = 16: 1. Good organoleptical quality (notes higher than 4 in a 5-point scale) and firm texture were observed for common wheat flour pasta processed at 30% m.c. Hardness and firmness of hydrated products lowered with a longer hydration time in hot water. The firmest texture and low stickiness was observed for products with a highest starch gelatinization degree.

  3. Technological and nutritional assessment of dry pasta with oatmeal and the microalga Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Arnhold Pagnussatt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is the most important raw material in the production of pasta. The production process consists of mixing water and flour, kneading, extrusion and drying. Oats and the microalga Spirulina platensis play a physiological role in the growth, development and maintenance of the human organism due to their high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the technological and nutritional properties of dry pasta prepared with the addition of oatmeal and Spirulina platensis. The wheat flour was characterized and the effect of partial replacement by oatmeal and Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM. The mixtures were analysed for moisture, protein, ash, colour, particle size, falling number and alveography. The formulated pastas were dried and evaluated for moisture, colour, cooking test, acidity, proximate composition and amino acids. Generally, the addition of Spirulina platensis influenced the soluble solids content and colour of the pasta, while the oatmeal mainly affected the acid content. The oatmeal increased the values of crude protein and total dietary fibre (13.06% when compared with the commercial pasta (2.40% and may be considered as a source of fibre.

  4. The effect of quantity of added eggs on whole meal pasta quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the convenience of different chemical and rheological methods for determining the quality of two spelt cultivars for pasta making and the influence of egg quantity on whole meal pasta quality. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit has been calculated to show significant differences between different samples. Score analysis is being useful tool for accessing the effect of eggs to spelt pasta quality, and this analysis proved that though lower scores (0.270 for rheological characteristics experienced with cultivar Eco, the addition of eggs is positively contributing to the spelt pasta quality yielding the best score for pasta (0.75, contrary to the cultivar Austria attributed with superior rheology scores. Whole meal spelt is characterised by lower Ca, but higher Fe and Mn content in comparison to bread wheat. In comparison with common pasta, spelt is a suitable raw material for a new product with improved functional properties at the market.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31055

  5. Quantitative aspects of the metabolism of lignans in pigs fed fibre-enriched rye and wheat bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle N; Mortensen, Marianne A; Hedemann, Mette S

    2009-01-01

    A diet rich in lignans has been suggested to be protective against a range of chronic diseases. The distribution and metabolic fate of lignans is, however, very poorly understood. We fed high-fibre wheat breads low in lignans (n 8) or high-fibre rye breads (n 9) rich in plant lignans to pigs for ......, liver, breast and brain at a much higher level with rye than with wheat, but only in the form of enterolactone. The importance and implications of systemic exposure to plant lignans remain to be elucidated....

  6. Effect of Ingredients on the Quality of Gluten-Free Sorghum Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino, Pablo Martín; Bustos, Mariela Cecilia; Heinzmann Alabí, María Belén; Nicolazzi, Melani Solange; Penci, María Cecilia; Ribotta, Pablo Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Sorghum is an underutilized cereal in human food production, despite its flour being a potential gluten-free (GF) source in the development of several foods. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects and interactions of different ingredients on cooking quality and texture of GF pasta. Egg albumen (A), egg powder (E), xanthan gum (X), and pregelatinized corn starch (P) were used as ingredients, and Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the effects of these ingredients on pasta cooking behavior, color, and texture attributes. Responses were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, and multivariable optimization was performed using maximization of general desirability. Next, optimal formulations were validated, compared with two commercial gluten-free pastas by sensory evaluation, and finally, an industrial assay was carried out. Regression coefficients indicated that A and P improved cooking properties while A and E contributed the most to improving the pasta textural properties. As, X and P effects varied depending on the kind of sorghum flour used, the optimal formulations levels were different, but in both cases these models were satisfactory and capable of predicting responses. The industrial assay was carried out with white sorghum flour because it showed a higher acceptability in the sensory evaluation than brown sorghum flour pasta. This industrially made pasta resulted in slightly better cooking properties than the laboratory produced one, with the formulation adapting well to the conventional wheat pasta industrial process. Gluten-free sorghum pasta was produced, showing good cooking and textural properties and being a suitable option for gluten-sensitive individuals. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Effect of pumpkin powder incorporation on cooking and sensory parameters of pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Minarovičová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasta is commonly consumed and low glycaemic cereal-based food with long shelf life, which is suitable food matrix for substitution with functional ingredients. Pumpkin powder can be considered as suitable component in pasta making. The effect of addition of pumpkin powder at different levels (5, 7.5, and 10% on wheat dough rheology, cooking quality of pasta as well as on sensory properties was evaluated. Pumpkin powder included: 6.1% moisture, 8.2%, protein, 0.7% crude fat, 2.3% ash, 27.4% total dietary fiber which is included soluble (10.2% and insoluble (17.2% dietary fiber. Farinograph properties of pumpkin powder incorporated dough showed increase in water absorption and dough development time while dough stability and mixing tolerance indes were decreased. It was also observed that addition of pumpkin powder significantly altered cooking quality of pasta. Generally, pasta incorporated with pumpkin powder had shorter optimal cooking time. The shortest optimal time (5.9 min was after addition of 10% of pumpkin powder compared with control pasta (7.0 min. From the results also concluded that addition of pumpkin powder significantly increased cooking loss. The highest cooking loss (6.6% was after addition 10% pumpkin powder. Furthermore it could be stated that incorporation of pumpkin powder in pasta increased water absorption of pasta from 181.0% (control to 211.2% (10% of pumpkin powder. From sensory evaluation resulted that pumpkin powder incorporated pasta were characterized by lower colour, flavor and grain taste. On the other hand vegetable taste and granular structure of pasta increased with higher addition level of pumpkin powder. Moreover, it was concluded that pasta with addition level 10% were the most acceptable for accesors. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Redox agents and N-ethylmaleimide affect protein polymerization during laboratory scale dry pasta production and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, Charlotte; Buggenhout, Joke; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-04-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) semolina gluten proteins consist of monomeric gliadin and polymeric glutenin and determine the quality of pasta products made therefrom. During pasta drying, glutenin starts polymerizing already below 60 °C (65% relative humidity (RH)), whereas gliadin only is incorporated in the protein network at temperatures exceeding 68 °C (68% RH) through thiol (SH)/disulfide (SS) exchange reactions. Removal of free SH groups in glutenin by adding 2.3 μmol KBrO3 or KIO3 per g dry matter semolina protein (g protein) or 13.8 μmol N-ethylmaleimide/g protein reduces gliadin-glutenin cross-linking during pasta drying and/or cooking and yields cooked pasta of high quality. Introducing free SH groups by adding 13.8 μmol glutathione/g protein increases gliadin-glutenin cross-linking during pasta processing, resulting in cooked pasta of lower quality. We hypothesize that too much gliadin incorporation in the glutenin network during pasta processing tightens the protein network and results in lower cooking quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of guar gum and fiber-enriched wheat bran on gastric emptying of a semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydning, A.; Berstad, A.; Berstad, T.; Hertzenberg, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of physiological doses of guar gum (Guarem), 5 g, and fiber-enriched wheat bran (Fiberform), 10.5 g, on gastric emptying was studied by two different methods in healthy subjects: by a simple isotope localization monitor placed over the upper part of the abdomen, and by gamma camera. The fiber preparations were added to a semisolid meal consisting of wheatmeal porridge and juice, using technetium-99 DTPA as a marker. The gamma camera showed no effect of fiber on gastric emptying. The isotope localization monitor, however, indicated that Fiberform prevented postprandial accumulation of the meal within the upper part of stomach. The simple isotope localization monitor cannot be recommended for measurements of gastric emptying

  10. Design of New Nordic Pasta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mai; Fisker, Anna Marie

    The wave The Danish nature is characterized by the rough oceans that capture Denmark, which has been an inspiration for this pasta-design. The Wave is supposed to be the base of a new Nordic meal that creates experiences and surprises on the journey through the meal. The Boiled sweet The pasta...... captures the the experience of taste in each single piece of the boiled sweet, that associates to pearls in a row. It creates a meal that is divided sharply into pieces and creates a simplicity and pureness on the plate like the Nordic designers like it. The colors of the stuffing are struggling to get out...... through the holes in the pasta which makes the guests interested and curious in the meal. Dualism This pasta-design is based on the clash between the Italian and the Danish culture. The simplicity and sharpness of the Danish design meets the soft and curved Italian design with the sharp edge and the soft...

  11. Wheat genotypes differing in aluminum tolerance differ in their growth response to CO2 enrichment in acid soils

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Gao, Yan; Bai, Wenming; Ge, Feng; Ma, Yibing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major factor limiting plant growth in acid soils. Elevated atmospheric CO2 [CO2] enhances plant growth. However, there is no report on the effect of elevated [CO2] on growth of plant genotypes differing in Al tolerance grown in acid soils. We investigated the effect of short-term elevated [CO2] on growth of Al-tolerant (ET8) and Al-sensitive (ES8) wheat plants and malate exudation from root apices by growing them in acid soils under ambient [CO2] and elevated [CO2]...

  12. Obtaining a Functional Product Through the Exploitation of Mushroom Flour in Pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Carmen MURESAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the influence of adding mushroom powder on a certain assortment of pasta. The research comprises two major directions: the study of the raw materials used to produce pasta from a compositional point of view and the quantification of some biologically active compounds of interest; emphasizing the potential of using Boletus edulis mushroom powder in the composition of pasta and evaluating the quality of the product from a nutritional and sensorial point of view. For this purpose, two types of pasta have been created, with different percentages of mushroom, 10% and 20%, but also a blank sample obtained in the same conditions, but without mushroom powder. To achieve the goal the following analyzes were conducted: proteins, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, fat, humidity, ashes, acidity, increase in volume of the boiled pasta and customers’ preferences. By using sensory analysis has been established that the consumers preferred pasta enriched with 10% mushroom powder. In conclusion, the addition of mushrooms flour assures an enhancement of the nutritional value, as well as of the organoleptic characteristics of the final product.

  13. Effect of matrix and particle type on rheological, textural and structural properties of broccoli pasta and noodles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.; Scholten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat semolina (DWS) pasta and sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles were incorporated with dif ferent volume fractions and types of broccoli powder (up to 20% v/v). The incorporation of high volume fractions of broccoli powder produced in-house in SPS noodles increases the modulus of the dough

  14. Tracking the fate of pasta (T. Durum semolina) immunogenic proteins by in vitro simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mackie, Alan

    2015-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the celiacogenic/immunogenic proteins and peptides released during digestion of pasta (Triticum durum semolina). Cooked pasta was digested using a harmonized in vitro static model of oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. The course of pasta protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE, and gluten proteins were specifically analyzed by Western blot using sera of celiac patients. Among the allergens, nonspecific lipid-transfer protein was highly resistant to gastro-duodenal hydrolysis, while other digestion-stable allergens such as α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were not detected being totally released in the pasta cooking water. To simulate the final stage of intestinal degradation, the gastro-duodenal digesta were incubated with porcine jejunal brush-border membrane hydrolases. Sixty-one peptides surviving the brush-border membrane peptidases were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including several gluten-derived sequences encrypting different motifs responsible for the induction of celiac disease. These results provide new insights into the persistence of wheat-derived peptides during digestion of cooked pasta samples.

  15. Polyphenols in Raw and Cooked Cereals/Pseudocereals/Legume Pasta and Couscous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcea, Marina; Narducci, Valentina; Turfani, Valeria; Giannini, Vittoria

    2017-09-11

    Pasta and couscous are popular foods manufactured (in their traditional form) from durum wheat semolina. In recent years, the consumers' quest for novel, functional, gluten-free, wholegrain foods has prompted the industry to manufacture new pasta and couscous products in which durum wheat has been partially or totally replaced by other vegetable flours. Besides dietary fibre, these raw materials might be an interesting source of phytochemicals. In this work, 16 commercial samples of pasta and four samples of couscous representative of the new products and made of refined and wholegrain flours of different species of cereals, pseudocereals and legumes were analysed for free, hydrolysable bound and total polyphenol content by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Analyses were repeated on cooked samples to assess the quantity of polyphenols ingested by the consumers. The raw legume and pseudocereal products had a total polyphenol content higher than most cereal products (up to 1743.4 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) per 100 g dry weight). Wholegrain products had higher contents than refined products. The free fraction underwent up to 46% loss with cooking, probably because of solubility in water. The water absorption of pasta and couscous during cooking was in a ratio of 2:3, resulting in higher dilution of polyphenols in the cooked couscous.

  16. Glycopeptide Enrichment Using a Combination of ZIC-HILIC and Cotton Wool for Exploring the Glycoproteome of Wheat Flour Albumins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) is used extensively as a sample preparation step for glycopeptide enrichment in proteome research. Here, we have applied cotton wool and a zwitterionic HILIC (ZIC-HILIC) resin in solid-phase extraction microcolumns to provide a higher loading capacity...

  17. High amounts of broccoli in pasta-like products: nutritional evaluation and sensory acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Gerritsen, L.; Dekker, M.; Linden, van der E.; Scholten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pasta and noodles were enriched with concentrations of broccoli powder (BP) up to 30% (v/v). To ensure the benefits from the broccoli nutrients, their leakage during cooking should be prevented. Such leakage is determined by the microstructure. In a previous study we have shown that the

  18. Polyadenylation state microarray (PASTA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotic mRNAs terminate in a poly(A) tail that serves important roles in mRNA utilization. In the cytoplasm, the poly(A) tail promotes both mRNA stability and translation, and these functions are frequently regulated through changes in tail length. To identify the scope of poly(A) tail length control in a transcriptome, we developed the polyadenylation state microarray (PASTA) method. It involves the purification of mRNA based on poly(A) tail length using thermal elution from poly(U) sepharose, followed by microarray analysis of the resulting fractions. In this chapter we detail our PASTA approach and describe some methods for bulk and mRNA-specific poly(A) tail length measurements of use to monitor the procedure and independently verify the microarray data.

  19. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  20. Can protein-fortified pasta serve as a meat substitute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C J; Tsay, R; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L

    1982-01-01

    A seventeen-day metabolic balance study was conducted with 13 healthy adult subjects to test the protein utilization of a meat-based diet and a protein-fortified pasta diet in an isonitrogenous, isocaloric inpatient study (averaging 112 gm of protein, and 2,500 cal). Intakes of calories, protein, fat, and carbohydrates, as well as ratios of meat protein or protein-fortified pasta protein (PEP), were controlled throughout the diets. The study was comprised of three experimental periods: a seven-day meat-protein control period, representing the typical american diet (TAD), averaging 18% protein, 40% fat, and 42% carbohydrate, a seven-day protein-enriched pasta control period (PEP), averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates, and a three-day PEP period composed of varied recipes, averaging 18% protein, 29% fat, and 53% carbohydrates. The subjects who consumed both the TAD and PEP diets achieved nitrogen balance (2.5 gN +/- 0.7 on the TAD, 2 gN +/- 0 on PEP with the PEP diet resulting in a decrease in plasma cholesterol (32 mg/dl, P less than .005), and a decrease in systolic (5.25 mm/Hg P less than .025) and diastolic blood pressure (5 mm/Hg, P less than .05), which was associated with an increase in urinary sodium excretion (19 +/- 17 mEq/day, P less than .025). In this study, it was determined that protein-fortified pasta may serve as a meat alternative. The PEP diet, which includes a beneficial change in fat/carbohydrate ratio, can alter lipid profiles, blood pressure, and sodium excretion, thus leading to improved health status and a decrease in cardiac risk factors.

  1. Pasta quality as impacted by the type of flour and starch and the level of egg addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Al-Ismail, Khalid; Ajo, Radwan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of substituting wheat flour with fractions of different starch types and egg levels on pasta quality. First order mixture response surface model was used where the effects of various starch types and egg levels on pasta quality were evaluated. Coefficients of estimation were determined and fractional contribution of wheat, starch type and egg levels were evaluated. Egg levels negatively (p egg level from 33 to 0%. Flow behavior index of treatments solution with various fractions of starch types and egg level ranged from 0.34 to 1.42 and was significantly (p cooked pasta quality including firmness, stickiness, cooking loss, and water uptake, keeping with consumer acceptability through varying starch type and egg level. Results show that flour and starch type and egg level interaction play significant role in pasta blends formulation. Moreover, substitution of wheat flour with acorn, native or modified corn and potato starches fractions, as well as with lupine, rice, tapioca, and stabilized rice bran flours would have significant effects on the physical properties and acceptability of various cereal products. For instance, the use of rice bran in potentially developed products would enhance the consumption of whole grain foods, resulting in improved intake of fiber and other healthy components. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fortification of seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) flour on nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Yahya; Raditya Hardany Nugraha, Galih; Dwi Utari, Dyah

    2017-10-01

    Pasta is a nutritious and energy product which produced from the dough of wheat flour and water. It contains less of iodine and high of glycemic index. Euchema cottonii belongs of red seaweed is food substance that contains much of iodine and dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to know the fortification effect of E. cottonii flour on the nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta. E. cottonii was collected from the culture farm of E. cottonii on the Wongsorejo beach, District of Banyuwangi, East Java on April-June 2015. Wheat flour and pasta ingredients were obtained locally at shops of Pasar Besar, Malang. Pasta was produced by weighing of components, mixing, dough, milling, steaming and drying. E. cottonii flour was added on mixing process at 0; 7; 14 and 21 % of ingredients. The parameter of this study was the level of water, lipid, protein, ash, and carbohydrate (by difference), iodine, crude fiber, the total of dietary fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, and glycemic index, respectively. Data were analyzed by variance and the least square difference used to determine the difference between treatments. The highest concentration group showed more nutritious than other treatments. The characters of its product were water 6.70%, lipid 2.26%, protein 23.09%, ash 14.11%, carbohydrate 53.84%, iodine 3.71 ppm, crude fiber 8.02%, the total of dietary fiber 20.88%, soluble fiber 11.69%, insoluble fiber 9.19%, and glycemic index 44.45, respectively. In conclusion, the fortification of E. cottonii flour enhances the nutrition value, iodine content, and glycemic index of pasta.

  3. Exploring the Use of Whole Grain Pasta in School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Hauge, Denise A.; Arndt, Elizabeth A.; Veal, Mike; Marquart, Len

    2011-01-01

    Pasta is a popular grain food served as an entree or side dish in both home and away-from-home settings. In schools, pasta is served less frequently than other entrees. Pasta, especially whole-grain pasta, offers an opportunity to incorporate less expensive, nutritious, and versatile dishes into school meals. A need exists to develop whole-grain…

  4. Biotechnology and pasta-making: Lactic Acid Bacteria as a new driver of innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio eCapozzi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals-derived foods represent a key constituent in the diet of many populations. In particular, pasta is consumed in large quantities throughout the world in reason of its nutritive importance, containing significant amounts of complex carbohydrates, proteins, B-vitamins, and iron. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are a heterogeneous group of bacteria that play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages with high relevance for human and animal health. A wide literature testifies the multifaceted importance of LAB biotechnological applications in cereal-based products. Several studies focused on LAB isolation and characterization in durum wheat environment, in some cases with preliminary experimental applications of LAB in pasta-making. In this paper, using sourdough as a model, we focus on the relevant state-of-art to introduce a LAB-based biotechnological step in industrial pasta-making, a potential world driver of innovation that might represent a cutting-edge advancement in pasta production.

  5. In vitro dialyzability of essential minerals from white and whole grain pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignola, María Belén; Bustos, Mariela Cecilia; Pérez, Gabriela Teresa

    2018-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the in vitro mineral dialyzability of pasta made with white and whole-grain flours obtained from two genotypes (Klein Guerrero and Baguette Premium 11) with different mineral contents. Pasta samples were made from white flour (FP), and whole grain flour from cyclonic mill (WFAP) and blade mill (WFBP). Mineral content and in vitro digestion were determined on all samples to study starch variation and mineral dialyzability. Whole-grain pasta contained significantly higher amounts of minerals than FP, since bran and embryo are richer in minerals than endosperm. In addition to the low content of mineral composition observed in FP, the dialyzability of some minerals (Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn) was higher than whole-grain pasta even when the percentage of starch hydrolyzed after intestinal digestion was higher than FP. These results can also be useful for developing wheat-based products rich in the desired minerals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pasta structures in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Neha; Shabnam, I.S.; Arumugam, P.

    2011-01-01

    A neutron star (NS) is a stellar remnant, a super-compressed object left over when stars with a mass between 1.4 and about 3 times the mass of our Sun exhaust their nuclear fuel and collapse inwards. The result of such an implosion is a condensed sphere of matter about 10 km across. The outer layer of the of NS, with density less than the nuclear saturation density, represent different challenges and observational opportunities like thermal evolution, X-ray burst, glitches and the very important core-crust transition region. At this density, nucleons are correlated at short distances by attractive strong interactions, they are anti-correlated at large distances because of the Coulomb repulsion. Competition among short- and long-range interactions (i.e., frustration) leads to the development of complex and exotic nuclear shapes, such as sphere, bubbles, rods, slabs and tubes. The term 'pasta phases' has been coined to describe these complex structures. In this work the nuclear pasta phases using different mean-field models along with a droplet model has been studied

  7. Biotechnological Approach To Preserve Fresh Pasta Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2017-12-01

    Fresh pasta is highly susceptible to microbial contamination because of its high water activity and nutrient content. In this study, a new biopreservation system was examined that consists of an active sodium alginate solution containing Lactobacillus reuteri and glycerol, which was added during the production process of pasta. Our aim was to extend the fresh pasta shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin, thereby avoiding the use of thermal treatments that generally compromise food sensory characteristics. Two experimental studies were carried out with the product packaged under either ordinary or modified atmospheric conditions. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to determine the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. The use of the active solution with L. reuteri and glycerol during the production process of pasta improved both microbial and sensory quality, particularly when combined with modified atmosphere.

  8. Microbial Transglutaminase in Noodle and Pasta Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Yousefi, Shima; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    -formulations for noodles and pasta products based on microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) can guarantee the shelf life extension with minimum quality losses. The current review focuses on recent trends and future prospects of MTGase utilization in the structural matrix of noodles and pasta products and represents......Nowadays, there is an aggressive rate in consumption of noodles and pasta products throughout the world. Consumer acceptability and preference of these functional products can be promoted by the discovery of novel knowledge to improve their formulation and quality. The development of fortified...... from new microbial sources. The high potential of MTGase in developing commercial noodles and pasta products is successfully demonstrated. MTGase by modifying the crystallinity or molecular structure via covalent crosslinks between protein molecules strengthens the doughs stability and the textural...

  9. Gyroid Phase in Nuclear Pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear matter is considered to be inhomogeneous at subnuclear densities that are realized in supernova cores and neutron star crusts, and the structures of nuclear matter change from spheres to cylinders, slabs, cylindrical holes, and spherical holes as the density increases. In this Letter, we discuss other possible structures, that is, gyroid and double-diamond morphologies, which are periodic bicontinuous structures discovered in a block copolymer. Utilizing the compressible liquid drop model, we show that there is a chance of gyroid appearance near the transition point from a cylinder to a slab and the volume fraction at this point is also similar for nuclear and polymer systems. Although the five shapes listed initially have been long thought to be the only major constituents of so-called nuclear pasta at subnuclear densities, our findings imply that this belief needs to be reconsidered.

  10. Microbiological Quality of Raw Dried Pasta from the German Market, with Special Emphasis on Cronobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akineden, Ömer; Murata, Kristina Johanna; Gross, Madeleine; Usleber, Ewald

    2015-12-01

    The microbiological quality of 132 dried pasta products available on the German market, originating from 11 different countries, was studied. Sample materials included soft or durum wheat products, some of which produced with other ingredients such as eggs, spices, or vegetables. Parameters included hygiene indicators (aerobic plate count, mold count, the presence of Enterobacteriaceae) and pathogenic/toxinogenic bacterial species (Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Bacillus cereus, and Cronobacter spp.). The overall results of hygiene parameters indicated a satisfactory quality. Salmonella was not found in any sample. Three samples were positive for S. aureus (10(2) to 10(4) colony forming unit (CFU)/g). Presumptive B. cereus at levels of 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g were detected in 3 samples. Cronobacter spp. were isolated from 14 (10.6%) products. Of these, 9 isolates were identified as C. sakazakii, 2 each as C. turicensis and C. malonaticus, and 1 as C. muytjensii. The isolates were assigned to 9 multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence types and to 14 different PFGE profiles. Although pasta products are typically cooked before consumption, some consumers, and children in particular, may also eat raw pasta as nibbles. Raw pasta seems to be a relevant source of exposure to dietary Cronobacter spp., although health risks are probably restricted to vulnerable consumers. High numbers of presumptive B. cereus as found in some samples may be a risk after improper storage of cooked pasta products because toxinogenic strains are frequently found within this species. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  12. Metabolomics and food processing: From semolina to pasta

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beleggia, R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the metabolite variations during industrial pasta processing (from semolina to dried pasta) for five different commercial products. Up to 76 metabolites were detected. Significant differences were...

  13. Localization and distribution of Zn and Fe in grains of biofortified bread wheat lines through micro- and triaxial-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P.; Mateus, T. C.; Velu, G.; Singh, R. P.; Santos, J. P.; Carvalho, M. L.; Lourenço, V. M.; Lidon, F.; Reboredo, F.; Guerra, M.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has been performed in wheat grains from a field trial where some biofortified and non-biofortified wheat varieties were subjected to Zn biofortification through soil fertilizer application. A set of ten biofortified and non-biofortified wheat varieties developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, were used for this study. Two analytical methods were employed to investigate the contents and localization of the trace metals Zn and Fe within the grains, one with polarized monochromatic X-rays for lower limits of detection, and another featuring polycapillary lenses for micrometric beam size (μ-EDXRF). Elemental maps were obtained with μ-EDXRF allowing for the study of Zn and Fe localization in plants grown in normal and Zn-enriched soil. It is acknowledged that the biofortification procedures result in around 30% average increase in overall Zn concentration when compared to other high Zn genotypes grown in normal soil. A genotypic ranking was performed taking into account the influence of the measurement methods and field conditions and the obtained results show that two of the top three varieties regarding zinc contents also rank among the top three in terms of Fe concentration. Elemental mapping analysis seems to favor the use of integral flour for the manufacture of bread and pasta products, as the bran retains most of the minerals.

  14. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. EVALUATION OF GIN WASTE AS A GROWING SUBSTRATE, ENRICHED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME PERCENTAGE OF THE WHEAT BRAN FOR CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotusostreatus mushroom was cultivated on cotton gin waste amended with wheat bran in order to judge its growth potential. Two substrates (cotton gin waste and wheat bran were employed alone and with different combinations. Experiment consisted of four treatments T0 (100 % cotton gin waste, T1(97% cotton gin waste + 3% wheat bran, T2(94% cotton gin waste + 6% wheat bran and T3(91% cotton gin waste + 9% wheat bran. Data about time needed for commencement of spawn run, time needed for completion of mycelial growth, time needed for initiation of pinheads, time needed for harvesting of 1st, 2nd and 3rd flush, fresh weight of 1st, 2nd and 3rd flush harvested, total yield, pH of mushroom, total soluble solids of mushroom, acidity and ascorbic acid contents, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars of mushroom, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of mushroom was recorded. T0 (100 % cotton gin waste performed better as compared to other treatments.

  16. Mathematical modelling of pasta dough dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ionuţ SIMION

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the mathematical variation of three main thermodynamic properties (dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of pasta dough obtained by mixing wheat semolina and water with dough humidity and deformation speed (for dynamic viscosity, respectively with dough humidity and temperature (for thermal diffusivity and conductivity. The realized regression analysis of existing graphical data led to the development of mathematical models with a high degree of accuracy. The employed statistical tests (least squares, relative error and analysis of variance revealed that the obtained equations are able to describe and predict the tendency of the dough thermodynamic properties.

  17. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  18. Neutrino opacities and the pasta phase structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, D.P.; Alloy, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients that are related to the neutrino opacities are calculated in such a way that the formation of nuclear pasta and homogeneous matter at low densities are taken into account. Two methods are developed to build the pasta phase and their differences are outlined. One of them is chosen as part of a complete equation of state used in the calculation of the diffusion coefficients. Our results show that the mean free paths are significantly altered by the presence of nuclear pasta in stellar matter when compared with the results obtained with pure homogeneous matter. These differences in neutrino opacities will have consequences in the calculation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz phase of protoneutron stars. (author)

  19. Geometric approach to nuclear pasta phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Sebastian; Wójcik, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    By use of the variational methods and differential geometry in the framework of the liquid drop model we formulate appropriate equilibrium equations for pasta phases with imposed periodicity. The extension of the Young-Laplace equation in the case of charged fluid is obtained. The β equilibrium and virial theorem are also generalized. All equations are shown in gauge invariant form. For the first time, the pasta shape stability analysis is carried out. The proper stability condition in the form of the generalized Jacobi equation is derived. The presented formalism is tested on some particular cases.

  20. Nutritional, antioxidant, microstructural and pasting properties of functional pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Gull

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize millet-pomace based pasta on the basis of functional, morphological, pasting and nutritional properties with control pasta (100% durum semolina. Functional pasta was developed by using blend of 20% finger millet flour, 12% pearl millet flour, 4% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC and 64% composite flour containing durum semolina and carrot pomace. Nutritional analysis of developed pasta showed high content of minerals viz calcium, iron, zinc and dietary fiber compared to control pasta. The developed pasta showed better quality characteristics in terms of cooked weight, swelling index and water absorption. Color evaluation of developed pasta showed increase in L∗ and b∗ values. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of developed pasta was significantly higher with respect to control. Also significant (p < 0.05 variations were observed in pasting properties between pasta samples. Microstructure evaluation of cooked pasta showed better interaction between starch and protein matrix with addition of carboxy methyl cellulose gum. Keywords: Pasta, Phenolic content, Antioxidant activity, Nutritional properties, Microstructure

  1. Overview on the General Approaches to Improve Gluten-Free Pasta and Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The use of gluten-free products is increasing since a growing number of people are suffering from celiac disease and thereby need gluten-free diet. Gluten is responsible for the visco-elastic characteristics of wheat-based products; therefore, its lack makes the gluten-free products not similar to wheat-based product, with scarce textural properties. This reason constitutes the major industrial limitation. Thus, obtaining good-quality gluten-free products represents a technological challenge. This review reports the main strategies adopted to produce high quality gluten-free pasta and bread. They are mainly obtained by the utilization of specific ingredients (hydrocolloids, proteins or enzymes) to be incorporated into the standard formulation or the adoption of proper technological variables that can enhance above all the functional properties, the texture and the taste. PMID:28231182

  2. The PASTA Bridge: A Technique for the Arthroscopic Repair of PASTA Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, Alan M; Andersen, Wyatt J

    2017-10-01

    PASTA (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) lesions of greater than 50% thickness are usually repaired, whereas those of less than 50% thickness receive subacromial decompression and debridement. However, tears of greater than 25% thickness of the tendon result in increased strain of the adjacent, intact tendon fibers. Re-creating the tendon footprint at the greater tuberosity is the goal of a repair. Transtendon repairs have been considered the gold standard in repair but have shown varying outcomes and are technically difficult procedures. This report details the PASTA bridge-a technique for the arthroscopic, percutaneous repair of PASTA lesions. The PASTA bridge uses a spinal needle to ensure the repair includes the leading edge of the good tissue and is at the appropriate angle and area. Most procedures use a knife or trocar blindly to access the joint to place anchors, which has the potential to damage surrounding tissues and result in poor anchor and suture placement. The PASTA bridge is a safe, reliable procedure that is easily reproducible and appropriate for surgeons of all experience levels and should be strongly considered when repairing PASTA lesions.

  3. 75 FR 78223 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy... certain pasta from Italy. See Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances... Notice''). The Department confirmed that New World Pasta Company, Dakota Growers Pasta Company, and...

  4. Wheat germ oil enrichment in broiler feed with α-lipoic acid to enhance the antioxidant potential and lipid stability of meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipid peroxidation is the cause of declining the meat quality. Natural antioxidants plays a vital role in enhancing the stability and quality of meat. The supplementation of natural antioxidants in feed decreases lipid peroxidation and improves the stability of meat. Methods The present research was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidants, quality and lipid stability of broiler meat. One day old male broilers were fed with different feeds containing antioxidants i.e. natural (wheat germ oil) and synthetic α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid during the two experimental years. Results The feed treatments have significant variation on the body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) while having no influence on the feed intake. The broilers fed on wheat germ oil (natural α-tocopherol) gained maximum body weight (2451.97 g & 2466.07 g) in the experimental years 2010–11 & 2011–12, respectively. The higher total phenolic contents were found in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast (162.73±4.8 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 162.18±4.5 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and leg (149.67±3.3 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 146.07±3.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) meat during both experimental years. Similar trend was observed for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The production of malondialdehydes in the breast and leg meat increased with progressive increase in the time period. The deposition of α-tocopherol (AT) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) contents were found to be higher in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast and leg meat during the both experimental years. Conclusion In conclusion, the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid has more beneficial for stability and the quality of the broiler meat and more work should be needed in future for the bio

  5. Batter and method for preparing a pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    This invention describes a batter that is suitable for preparing a pasta. The batter comprises water, a starch and a protein, whereby the weight ratio between the protein and the total amount of starch in the batter is represented by the symbol y and whereby the weight percentage of the total amount

  6. The production of Pleurotus sajor-caju in peach palm leaves (Bactris gasipaes and evaluation of its use to enrich wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda Bomfim Oliveira Cogorni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate of Pleurotus sajor-caju production in peach palm leaves and the addition of different fractions of mushroom powder to wheat flour to increase its nutritional value without changing its characteristics. The best yield (48.4%, biologic efficiency (4.5%, and Pr (0.36 g/day values were obtained using 20% inoculum fraction and 10% rice bran fraction. The Pleurotus sajor-caju fruiting body cultivated under these conditions had the following composition in 100 g: 29.91 g (carbohydrates, 42.92 g (proteins, 1.24 g (lipids, 15.93 g (fibers, 7.42 g (ashes, 1.6 g (phosphorus, 2.7 g (potassium, 8.73 mg (iron, 23.75 mg (sodium, 0.34 mg (thiamine, and 0.57 mg (riboflavin. The wheat flour with mushroom powder had reduced sugar content, but it did not have increased fat content. The fiber, protein, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and riboflavin contents were increased mainly when 10% mushroom powder was added to the wheat flour. Furthermore, this flour does not undergo drastic alterations in its physicochemical characteristics such as in moisture, wet gluten, color, and falling number.

  7. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  8. 75 FR 81212 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Thirteenth Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Foods Company, Inc. and its affiliate Euro-American Foods Group Inc. (Fasolino/Euro-American Foods). See... canned pastas, as well as all forms of egg pasta, with the exception of non-egg dry pasta containing up...

  9. Utilización de pastas como alimentos funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Cristina S.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo general Evaluar la aptitud de las pastas para actuar como alimentos funcionales, estudiando el efecto del agregado de diferentes ingredientes sobre su calidad tecnológica y nutricional. Objetivos específicos Objetivo I: estudiar los parámetros que definen la calidad de las pastas. Objetivo II: evaluar el efecto del almidón, del gluten y del agua sobre la calidad de las pastas frescas elaboradas con harina de trigo pan. Objetivo III:...

  10. Recent progress on understanding 'pasta' phases in dense stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Sonoda, Hidetaka

    2005-01-01

    In cores of supernovae and crusts of neutron stars, nuclei can adopt interesting shapes, such as rods or slabs, etc., which are referred to as nuclear 'pasta'. Recently, we have been studying the pasta phases focusing on their dynamical aspects with quantum molecular dynamic (QMD) approach. We review our findings on the following topics: dynamical formation of the pasta phases by cooling down the hot uniform nuclear matter; a phase diagram on the density versus temperature plane; structural transitions between the pasta phases induced by compression and their mechanism. Properties of the nuclear interaction used in our works are also discussed

  11. Reología de las pastas crudas

    OpenAIRE

    Laffarga Osteret, José

    2016-01-01

    En las fábricas de cemento, por vía húmeda, ha sido y es una preocupación constante el porcentaje en agua de las pastas. Muchos estudios se han realizado para lograr pastas manejables con bajo contenido en agua. Constantemente se proponen materias fluidificantes que aumentan la manejabilidad de las pastas, disminuyendo el agua necesaria. La mayoría de estos estudios son de carácter experimental y, en muchas ocasiones, los fluidificantes que dan un resultado óptimo en unas pastas, en otras dan...

  12. Determining moisture content in pasta by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Kuzawińska, Ewelina; Sobota, Aldona; Szostak, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Pasta aside from bread is the most consumed cereal-based product in the world. Its taste and cooking ease makes it the basis of many cuisines. The pasta dough formed by mixing flour and water is extruded through an extrusion die to mould the appropriate pasta form and is dried to obtain a stable product. The concentration of moisture in the pasta dough is a one of key parameters determining the final quality of the product. Monitoring the moisture content of pasta after extrusion is also critically important. It enables a selection of suitable drying conditions that ensure the appropriate parameters of pasta, such as texture, color and taste, are met. A method for the quantitative determination of moisture content in pasta dough and in pasta based on the partial least squares treatment of infrared spectra registered using a single-reflection attenuated total reflectance diamond accessory is described. Results of a similar quality were found using models derived from near infrared spectra obtained in a diffuse reflectance mode and slightly worse based on Raman spectra. Relative standard errors of prediction calculated for moisture quantification by ATR/NIR/Raman techniques amounted to 2.54/3.16/5.56% and 2.15/3.32/5.67%, for calibration and validation sets, respectively. The proposed procedures can be used for fast and efficient pasta moisture quantification and may replace the current, more laborious methods used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Colloquium: Astromaterial science and nuclear pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2017-10-01

    "Astromaterial science" is defined as the study of materials in astronomical objects that are qualitatively denser than materials on Earth. Astromaterials can have unique properties related to their large density, although they may be organized in ways similar to more conventional materials. By analogy to terrestrial materials, this study of astromaterials is divided into hard and soft and one example of each is discussed. The hard astromaterial discussed here is a crystalline lattice, such as the Coulomb crystals in the interior of cold white dwarfs and in the crust of neutron stars, while the soft astromaterial is nuclear pasta found in the inner crusts of neutron stars. In particular, how molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate the properties of astromaterials to interpret observations of white dwarfs and neutron stars is discussed. Coulomb crystals are studied to understand how compact stars freeze. Their incredible strength may make crust "mountains" on rotating neutron stars a source for gravitational waves that the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) may detect. Nuclear pasta is expected near the base of the neutron star crust at densities of 1014 g /cm3 . Competition between nuclear attraction and Coulomb repulsion rearranges neutrons and protons into complex nonspherical shapes such as sheets (lasagna) or tubes (spaghetti). Semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta have been used to study these phases and calculate their transport properties such as neutrino opacity, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. Observations of neutron stars may be sensitive to these properties and can be used to interpret observations of supernova neutrinos, magnetic field decay, and crust cooling of accreting neutron stars. This Colloquium concludes by comparing nuclear pasta shapes with some similar shapes seen in biological systems.

  14. PERBEDAAN PH SALIVA ANTARA PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG BAKING SODA DAN PENGGUNA PASTA GIGI YANG MENGANDUNG FLUOR

    OpenAIRE

    LINARDI, ALICIA NADIA

    2014-01-01

    2014 Latar belakang : Baking soda dan fluor merupakan bahan yang biasa ditambahkan dalam pasta gigi. Baking soda dan fluor mempunyai kemampuan untuk meningkatkan sekresi saliva dan pH saliva. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan pH saliva antara pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandung baking soda dan pengguna pasta gigi yang mengandun fluor. Bahan dan metode : Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desai...

  15. A new method to study simple shear processing of wheat gluten-starch mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peighambardoust, S.H.; Goot, A.J. van der; Hamer, R.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new method that uses a shearing device to study the effect of simple shear on the overall properties of pasta-like products made from commercial wheat gluten-starch (GS) blends. The shear-processed GS samples had a lower cooking loss (CL) and a higher swelling index (SI)

  16. Influence of instrument rigidity and specimen geometry on calculations of compressive strength properties of wheat endosperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endosperm texture is one of the most important quality features in wheat that defines milling energy requirements and the suitability of flour or semolina for the various food products such as pan breads, crackers, cakes, and pastas. Rooted in low molecular weight proteins known as puroindolines a a...

  17. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify wheat on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  18. Response of wheat growth, grain yield and water use to elevated CO2 under a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment and modelling in a semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Garry J; Christy, Brendan; Nuttall, James; Huth, Neil; Cammarano, Davide; Stöckle, Claudio; Basso, Bruno; Shcherbak, Iurii; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Luo, Qunying; Farre-Codina, Immaculada; Palta, Jairo; Asseng, Senthold

    2014-12-05

    The response of wheat crops to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) was measured and modelled with the Australian Grains Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment experiment, located at Horsham, Australia. Treatments included CO 2 by water, N and temperature. The location represents a semi-arid environment with a seasonal VPD of around 0.5 kPa. Over 3 years, the observed mean biomass at anthesis and grain yield ranged from 4200 to 10 200 kg ha -1 and 1600 to 3900 kg ha -1 , respectively, over various sowing times and irrigation regimes. The mean observed response to daytime eCO 2 (from 365 to 550 μmol mol -1 CO 2 ) was relatively consistent for biomass at stem elongation and at anthesis and LAI at anthesis and grain yield with 21%, 23%, 21% and 26%, respectively. Seasonal water use was decreased from 320 to 301 mm (P = 0.10) by eCO 2 , increasing water use efficiency for biomass and yield, 36% and 31%, respectively. The performance of six models (APSIM-Wheat, APSIM-Nwheat, CAT-Wheat, CROPSYST, OLEARY-CONNOR and SALUS) in simulating crop responses to eCO 2 was similar and within or close to the experimental error for accumulated biomass, yield and water use response, despite some variations in early growth and LAI. The primary mechanism of biomass accumulation via radiation use efficiency (RUE) or transpiration efficiency (TE) was not critical to define the overall response to eCO 2 . However, under irrigation, the effect of late sowing on response to eCO 2 to biomass accumulation at DC65 was substantial in the observed data (~40%), but the simulated response was smaller, ranging from 17% to 28%. Simulated response from all six models under no water or nitrogen stress showed similar response to eCO 2 under irrigation, but the differences compared to the dryland treatment were small. Further experimental work on the interactive effects of eCO 2 , water and temperature is required to resolve these model discrepancies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of noodles produced with partial replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Samir Vedia-Quispe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pasta is a worldwide high consumption and acceptability food due to its low cost, easy preparation and storage. Pasta is usually made of edible wheat semolina and water. The replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour stimulates the development of new products and improves nutritional profile of pasta. The aim of this study was to assess physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of noodles made with partially replaced wheat semolina by whole grain and raw amaranth flours. Material and Methods: We evaluated the effect of the partial substitution (20% and 30% of wheat semolina using raw amaranth and whole grain amaranth flours in physicochemical, microbiological, quality characteristics and sensory analysis of acceptance. Results: The best treatment was the combination of 70% wheat semolina and 30% raw amaranth, where flavor was the factor in the overall acceptance, and some quality parameters correlated with the sensory responses. All pastas show sanitary quality and food safety. Conclusions: The partial substitution of amaranth flour, either raw or whole grain, improved significantly physicochemical characteristics of fiber with an increase of 60% and 140% in minerals (calcium and iron in the noodles.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  1. Whole grain gluten-free pastas and flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grain gluten-free products were formulated and evaluated for acceptance by volunteer tasters. The tastes judged acceptance of whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pastas for corn 83%, sorghum 79%, brown rice 77% and millet 50%. The acceptance for similar high protein pasta was corn-garbanzo 70...

  2. Physicochemical changes in nontraditional pasta during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in biochemical components of non-traditional spaghetti during cooking were reflected in the quality of the cooked product. Spaghetti samples were made from traditional and non-traditional formulations including semolina 100%, whole wheat flour 100%, semolina-whole wheat flour (49:51), semol...

  3. 78 FR 48146 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... certain pasta (pasta) from Italy,\\1\\ covering the period July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. The review... e Pastificio and its affiliates Rummo S.p.A., Lenta Lavorazione, and Pasta Castiglioni (collectively...

  4. 77 FR 47816 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta from Italy... certain pasta from Italy (``pasta'') with respect to Delverde Industire Alimentari S.p.A. (``Delverde... Federal Register the antidumping duty order on pasta from Italy.\\1\\ On remand, Del Verde S.p.A. was found...

  5. 76 FR 48130 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the 14th (2009) Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy...'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy..., 1996, the Department published a countervailing duty order on certain pasta (``pasta'' or ``subject...

  6. 76 FR 23974 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey... duty order on certain pasta (pasta) from Turkey. The period of review (POR) is July 1, 2009, through.... A.S. (Birlik), had knowledge that the pasta it produced and sold to Marsan was destined for the...

  7. 77 FR 64313 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey...'') is rescinding its administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta (``pasta... request an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on pasta from Turkey for the period of...

  8. 77 FR 45582 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the 15th (2010) Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy... order on certain pasta from Italy for the period January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010. We... duty order on certain pasta (``pasta'' or ``subject merchandise'') from Italy. See Notice of...

  9. 75 FR 49907 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... antidumping duty order on certain pasta (``pasta'') from Italy for the period of review (``POR'') July 1, 2008... Attilio Mastromauro--Pasta Granoro S.r.L. (``Granoro'') and Pastaficio Lucio Garofalo S.p.A. (``Garofalo...

  10. 75 FR 18806 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the 13th (2008) Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy...'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy..., 1996, the Department published a countervailing duty order on certain pasta (``pasta'' or ``subject...

  11. 75 FR 56992 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review and Consideration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy..., in part, the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy with respect to gluten-free pasta... published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on pasta from Italy. See Notice of...

  12. 77 FR 46377 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... certain pasta (``pasta'') from Italy for the period of review (``POR'') July 1, 2010, through June 30... antidumping duty order on pasta from Italy.\\1\\ On July 1, 2011, the Department published a notice of...

  13. 77 FR 46386 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey...'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta (``pasta... order on pasta from Turkey.\\1\\ On July 29, 2011, we received a letter from Marsan Gida Sanayi ve Ticaret...

  14. Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Wheat-Purple Rice Biscuits Enriched with Green-Lipped Mussel Powder (Perna canaliculus and Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warinporn Klunklin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biscuits are one of the most consumed bakery products eaten by everyone. Purple rice contains much higher levels of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals such as iron and zinc compared to wheat. The aim of this work was to produce a protein-rich biscuit made from purple rice flour and defatted green-lipped mussel powder (Perna canaliculus (0–20% blended with ginger and galangal spices at 4% for each spice. The objective was to produce an inexpensive, balanced, healthy snack product containing increased levels of protein and antioxidants from the mussel powder and to investigate the consumer preferences of these biscuits using the four different ethnic groups (Thai, Chinese, Caucasian, and Pacific Islanders living in New Zealand. The addition of the mussel powder increased the crude protein content by 43% and the protein digestibility by 21% at the highest level of inclusion. The addition of mussel powder significantly (p<0.05 increased the hardness of biscuits while making small increases in the browning index of the cooked biscuit. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS were significantly (p<0.05 increased as additional amounts of mussel powder were incorporated into the biscuit mix, resulting in a reduction in the total starch contents. The addition of 10% mussel powder to the control biscuit mix was accepted by all the ethnic groups. Overall, the Pacific Islanders showed a higher appreciation for all the attributes tested.

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  16. Topological analysis of nuclear pasta phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kycia, Radosław A.; Kubis, Sebastian; Wójcik, Włodzimierz

    2017-08-01

    In this article the analysis of the result of numerical simulations of pasta phases using algebraic topology methods is presented. These considerations suggest that some phases can be further split into subphases and therefore should be more refined in numerical simulations. The results presented in this article can also be used to relate the Euler characteristic from numerical simulations to the geometry of the phases. The Betti numbers are used as they provide finer characterization of the phases. It is also shown that different boundary conditions give different outcomes.

  17. Hyperons in the nuclear pasta phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Débora P.; Providência, Constança

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated under which conditions hyperons (particularly Λ s and Σ-s ) can be found in the nuclear pasta phase. As the density and temperature are larger and the electron fraction is smaller, the probability is greater that these particles appear, but always in very small amounts. Λ hyperons only occur in gas and in smaller amounts than would occur if matter were homogeneous, never with abundancies above 10-5. The amount of Σ- in the gas is at least two orders of magnitude smaller and can be disregarded in practical calculations.

  18. Legumes as Functional Ingredients in Gluten-Free Bakery and Pasta Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschia, Martina; Horstmann, Stefan W; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2017-02-28

    The increasing demand for gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing. Their nutritional profile may also counteract the lack of nutrients commonly highlighted in commercial gluten-free bakery and pasta products, providing valuable sources of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates, which in turn have a positive impact on human health. This review reports the main chemical and functional characteristics of legumes and their functional application in gluten-free products.

  19. 76 FR 10879 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of Fourteenth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy, covering the period July 1, 2009... consist of New World Pasta Company, Dakota Growers Pasta Company, and American Italian Pasta Company. This...

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 5-15 kGy on the quality properties of durum wheat semolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Semolina purified from four durum wheat varieties were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy, i.e., dose levels expected to improve the colour of pasta products, suitable for reduction of microbial contamination, and high doses required for insect disinfestation. The irradiation resulted in significant losses in carotenoid content and oxidative enzyme activities. Gamma irradiation slightly affected the mixing properties, greatly reduced the gluten strength and adversely affected firmness of cooked pasta. Consequently, preservative gamma irradiation of durum wheat semolina should be limited to a maximum dose of 5 kGy. (author) 39 refs.; 3 tabs

  1. Pasta phases in core-collapse supernova matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, Helena; Chiacchiera, Silvia; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    The pasta phase in core-collapse supernova matter (finite temperatures and fixed proton fractions) is studied within relativistic mean field models. Three different calculations are used for comparison, the Thomas-Fermi (TF), the Coexisting Phases (CP) and the Compressible Liquid Drop (CLD) approximations. The effects of including light clusters in nuclear matter and the densities at which the transitions between pasta configurations and to uniform matter occur are also investigated. The free energy and pressure, in the space of particle number densities and temperatures expected to cover the pasta region, are calculated. Finally, a comparison with a finite temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculation is drawn. (paper)

  2. Structural and molecular basis of starch viscosity in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, J-P; Cavanagh, C R; Larroque, O; Regina, A; Morell, M K

    2008-06-11

    Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties.

  3. Quality of shear fractionated wheat gluten – comparison to commercial vital wheat gluten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The functional properties of gluten obtained with a shear-induced separation process, recently proposed by Peighambardoust et al. (2008), are compared with a commercially available vital wheat gluten. Two tests were performed. First, a relatively strong wheat flour, Soissons, was enriched with

  4. Effects of relaxation of gluten network on rehydration kinetics of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takenobu; Hasegawa, Ayako; Adachi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the relaxation of the gluten network on pasta rehydration kinetics. The moisture content of pasta, under conditions where the effects of the diffusion of water on the moisture content were negligible, was estimated by extrapolating the average moisture content of pasta of various diameters to 0 mm. The moisture content of imaginary, infinitely thin pasta did not reach equilibrium even after 1 h of rehydration. The rehydration of pasta made of only gluten was also measured. The rate constants estimated by the Long and Richman equation for both the pasta indicated that the rehydration kinetics of infinitely thin pasta were similar to those of gluten pasta. These results suggest that the swelling of starch by fast gelatinization was restricted by the honeycomb structural network of gluten and the relaxation of the gluten network controlled pasta rehydration kinetics.

  5. Continuum approximation of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martina, L.

    1979-01-01

    A continuum approximation method is applied in order to discuss the connection between some properties of the infinite Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice and the ones displayed by the Korteweg-de Vries equation

  6. Warm and cold pasta phase in relativistic mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, S. S.; Menezes, D. P.; Alloy, M. D.; Marinelli, J. R.; Moraes, M. M. W.; Providencia, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present article we investigate the onset of the pasta phase with different parametrizations of the nonlinear Walecka model. At zero temperature two different methods are used, one based on coexistent phases and the other on the Thomas-Fermi approximation. At finite temperature only the coexistence phases method is used. matter with fixed proton fractions and in β equilibrium is studied. The pasta phase decreases with the increase of temperature. The internal pasta structure and the beginning of the homogeneous phase vary depending on the proton fraction (or the imposition of β equilibrium), on the method used, and on the chosen parametrization. It is shown that a good parametrization of the surface tension with dependence on the temperature, proton fraction, and geometry is essential to describe correctly large isospin asymmetries and the transition from pasta to homogeneous matter

  7. Warm and cold pasta phase in relativistic mean field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancini, S. S.; Menezes, D. P.; Alloy, M. D.; Marinelli, J. R.; Moraes, M. M. W.; Providência, C.

    2008-07-01

    In the present article we investigate the onset of the pasta phase with different parametrizations of the nonlinear Walecka model. At zero temperature two different methods are used, one based on coexistent phases and the other on the Thomas-Fermi approximation. At finite temperature only the coexistence phases method is used. npe matter with fixed proton fractions and in β equilibrium is studied. The pasta phase decreases with the increase of temperature. The internal pasta structure and the beginning of the homogeneous phase vary depending on the proton fraction (or the imposition of β equilibrium), on the method used, and on the chosen parametrization. It is shown that a good parametrization of the surface tension with dependence on the temperature, proton fraction, and geometry is essential to describe correctly large isospin asymmetries and the transition from pasta to homogeneous matter.

  8. Study on Chemical Contamination Problem in Macaroni and Pasta Production Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shermin Divanian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to determine the concentration of heavy metals including Lead (Pb and Cadmium (Cd and nutrients element Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn in a simple and whole wheat Macaroni in the valid different supermarkets in Tehran. 254 samples from seven Iranian simple Macaroni, four foreign simple Macaroni, and two Iranian whole wheat macaroni were purchased consecutively in 3 seasons of 2015. Results were determined as mean ± SD of dry weight from three replicates in each test. The samples were analyzed by wet digestion method and standardized international protocols were followed for the preparation of material and analysis of mineral and heavy metals contents and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean concentration in milligrams per kilogram of dry matter for Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc were determined. According to the results, the mean contents of Lead in the simple Iranian, imported and Iranian whole wheat Macaroni were 2.897, 3.070 and 0.636, amount of Cadmium were 0.469, 0.620 and 0.920, Copper mean contents were 1.563, 11.866 and 7.085 and finally mean level of Zinc were 16.296, 28.425 and 36.318 mg/kg respectively. The mean concentration of Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc between in whole wheat and simple macaroni samples has a significant difference (P<0/05. The results revealed that the Lead and Cadmium contents in all studied analyzed pasta samples exceeded limits set for them according to the national standard Iran, International Codex and World Health Organization, while Zinc content was lower and Copper content in imported studied brands was slightly higher.

  9. 76 FR 53116 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey... the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Turkey (pasta) for the period July [[Page 53117

  10. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  11. Prebiotics: application in bakery and pasta products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma Ishwarya, S; Prabhasankar, P

    2014-01-01

    The concept of functional foods has markedly moved toward gastrointestinal health. The prebiotic approach aims at achieving favorable milieu in the human gut by stimulating beneficial bacteria. Several food products act as substrates for the application of prebiotic substances and bakery products are one such category. The trend of increasing consumption of bakery products justifies the choice of using them as vehicles for delivering the prebiotic compounds. Apart from the health benefits, the prebiotic compounds also have nutritional and technological effects in the food matrix. In addition to increasing the fiber content, the candidate prebiotics also affect the rheology and final quality of bakery products. The prebiotic compounds are selected accordingly to confer desirable properties in the final product. The health advantages of prebiotics being well established, the technological advantages in bakery products such as bread and biscuits and extruded product such as pasta are discussed elaborately.

  12. Nuclear 'pasta phase' and its consequences on neutrino opacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy, M. D.; Menezes, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the diffusion coefficients that are related to the neutrino opacities considering the formation of nuclear pasta and homogeneous matter at low densities. Our results show that the mean-free paths are significantly altered by the presence of nuclear pasta in stellar matter when compared with the results obtained with homogeneous matter. These differences in neutrino opacities certainly influence the Kelvin-Helmholtz phase of protoneutron stars and consequently the results of supernova explosion simulations.

  13. Understanding nuclear 'pasta': current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro

    2007-01-01

    In cores of supernovae and crusts of neutron stars, nuclei can adopt interesting shapes, such as rods or slabs, etc., which are referred to as nuclear 'pasta'. In recent years, we have studied the pasta phases focusing on their dynamical aspects with a quantum molecular dynamic (QMD) approach. In this article, we review these works. We also focus on the treatment of the Coulomb interaction

  14. Functional Foods Enriched with Marine Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata as a Source of ω-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Babuskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for functional food incorporated with ω-3 fatty acids is increasing over the years due to their added health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, ocular diseases, arthritis, etc. This study mainly aims to develop functional cookies and pasta enriched with ω-3 fatty acids. Nannochloropsis oculata was used because of its relatively high growth rate, high lipid content, resistance to mixing and contamination together with high nutritional values. The effect of the incorporation of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass on colour, firmness, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of cookies and pasta were evaluated. The colour values were found to be stable for two months of storage and the firmness increased with the addition of microalgal biomass. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids of 98 mg per 100 g and 63 mg per 100 g were observed in cookies and pasta, respectively, enriched with 1 % of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of up to 2 and 3 % of microalgal biomass was positively evaluated and accepted for cookies and pasta, respectively. This study confirms that the cookies and pasta enriched with Nannochloropsis oculata biomass might be used as a potential source of ω-3 fatty acids.

  15. Effects of housing system and age of laying hens on egg performance in fresh pasta production: pasta cooking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Rossi, Margherita

    2011-03-30

    Very few studies concern the effects of layer housing systems and age on egg technological properties. Thus the aim of this work was to study the influence of these two factors on egg performance in fresh pasta production, focusing on pasta cooking behaviour. Samples of pasta subjected to analysis were prepared with eggs laid by Hy-Line Brown hens (from 27 to 68 weeks old) housed in cage, barn and organic systems. Higher average values of weight increase and matter loss during pasta cooking were observed for samples prepared with eggs laid by older hens. Such cooking behaviour indicated the development of a weaker pasta protein network, resulting from a decrease in the quantity of albumen protein and an increase in fat content, which is due to the reduction in albumen/yolk ratio during hen aging. The housing system had a significant effect only on matter loss in cooking water, but differences between samples were so small as to be unlikely perceived by consumers. Both hen age and housing system significantly affected pasta cooking behaviour, but the greatest effect was exerted by the hen age. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Rheological and sensory behaviors of parboiled pasta cooked using a microwave pasteurization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Helen S; Jones, Kari E; Rasco, Barbara A

    2017-10-01

    Pasta hydration and cooking requirements make in-package microwave pasteurization of pasta a processing challenge. The objective of this study was to assess instrumental and sensory attributes of microwave-treated pasta in comparison to conventionally cooked pasta. Fettuccine pasta was parboiled for 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 min, pasteurized by microwaves at 915 MHz, then stored under refrigeration for 1 week. Pastas were evaluated by a trained sensory panel and with rheometry. Total pasta heat treatment affected both rheological and sensory behaviors; these differences were attributed to ultrastructure differences. Significant nonlinear behavior and dominant fluid-like behavior was observed in all pastas at strains >1%. Sensory results suggested microwave pasteurization may intensify the attributes associated with the aging of pasta such as retrogradation. A clear trend between magnitude of heat treatment and attribute intensity was not observed for all sensory attributes tested. The microwave pasta with the longest parboil time showed rheological behavior most similar to conventionally cooked pasta. Principal component analysis revealed that no microwave-treated pasta was similar to the control pasta. However, pasta parboiled for 9 min before microwave treatment had the greatest number of similar sensory attributes, followed by pasta parboiled for 6 or 12 min. Further study is needed to determine overall consumer acceptance of microwave-treated pasta and whether the differences in sensory and rheological behavior would impact consumer liking. The results of this study may be applied to optimize microwave pasteurization processes for cooked pasta and similar products, such as rice. The measurement and analysis procedures can be used to evaluate processing effects on a variety of different foods to determine overall palatability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High Protein Pasta is Not More Satiating than High Fiber Pasta at a Lunch Meal, Nor Does it Decrease Mid-Afternoon Snacking in Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Renee; Timm, Derek; Ahnen, Rylee; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas. Secondary outcomes were calories consumed at an ad libitum snack at 3:00 pm, calories from food intake, gastrointestinal tolerance, and palatability. No differences were found among the pasta treatments for satiety, snacking, or gastrointestinal tolerance. Men ate significantly more calories for the rest of the (P = 0.007) after the high protein pasta versus the high fiber pasta (1701 ± 154 compared with 1083 ± 154) with control pasta being intermediate to the other treatments. No significant differences were found for gastrointestinal tolerance, but the palatability ratings showed the high protein pasta was less tasty (P = 0.03) and less pleasant (P = 0.01) than the other 2 pastas. Satisfaction was positively associated with pleasantness and negatively associated with aftertaste. Our results do not support the idea that high protein or high fiber pasta produces a greater satiety response compared to pasta with lower amounts of either nutrient. It is likely that since pasta is already a very satiating food, the subjects were unable to differentiate between the 3 conditions. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. TEXTURE OF COOKED SPELT WHEAT NOODLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N (AACC 66-50. The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N and extensibility (mm. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

  19. Uranium enrichment. Enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Quaegebeur, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the remarkable progresses made in the diversity and the efficiency of the different uranium enrichment processes, only two industrial processes remain today which satisfy all of enriched uranium needs: the gaseous diffusion and the centrifugation. This article describes both processes and some others still at the demonstration or at the laboratory stage of development: 1 - general considerations; 2 - gaseous diffusion: physical principles, implementation, utilisation in the world; 3 - centrifugation: principles, elementary separation factor, flows inside a centrifuge, modeling of separation efficiencies, mechanical design, types of industrial centrifuges, realisation of cascades, main characteristics of the centrifugation process; 4 - aerodynamic processes: vortex process, nozzle process; 5 - chemical exchange separation processes: Japanese ASAHI process, French CHEMEX process; 6 - laser-based processes: SILVA process, SILMO process; 7 - electromagnetic and ionic processes: mass spectrometer and calutron, ion cyclotron resonance, rotating plasmas; 8 - thermal diffusion; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  20. Quality and Safety Aspects of Cereals (Wheat) and Their Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzakas, Theo

    2016-11-17

    Cereals and, most specifically, wheat are described in this chapter highlighting on their safety and quality aspects. Moreover, wheat quality aspects are adequately addressed since they are used to characterize dough properties and baking quality. Determination of dough properties is also mentioned and pasta quality is also described in this chapter. Chemometrics-multivariate analysis is one of the analyses carried out. Regarding production weighing/mixing of flours, kneading, extruded wheat flours, and sodium chloride are important processing steps/raw materials used in the manufacturing of pastry products. Staling of cereal-based products is also taken into account. Finally, safety aspects of cereal-based products are well documented with special emphasis on mycotoxins, acrylamide, and near infrared methodology.

  1. Soil Carbon Storage and N(sub 2)O Emissions from Wheat Agroecosystems as Affected by Free-Air CO(sub 2) Enrichment (FACE) and Nitrogen Treatments. Annual Progress Report - Year 1: August 1, 1996 to July 31, 1997[Final Report]; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Matthias, A.; Thompson, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO(sub 2) concentrations have prompted concern about response of plants and crops to future elevated CO(sub 2) levels, and particularly the extent to which ecosystems will sequester carbon and thus impact the rate of rise of CO(sub 2) concentrations. Free-air CO(sub 2) enrichment (FACE) experimentation was used with wheat agroecosystems for two growing seasons to assess effects of CO(sub 2) and soil nitrogen. Over 20 researchers on this experiment variously examined plant production and grow yield, phenology, length of growing season, water-use efficiency, ecosystem productivity, below ground processes (root and microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen cycling), etc

  2. Soil Carbon Storage and N{sub 2}O Emissions from Wheat Agroecosystems as Affected by Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) and Nitrogen Treatments. Annual Progress Report - Year 1: August 1, 1996 to July 31, 1997 [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Matthias, A.; Thompson, T.L.

    1999-02-17

    Rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have prompted concern about response of plants and crops to future elevated CO{sub 2} levels, and particularly the extent to which ecosystems will sequester carbon and thus impact the rate of rise of CO{sub 2} concentrations. Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) experimentation was used with wheat agroecosystems for two growing seasons to assess effects of CO{sub 2} and soil nitrogen. Over 20 researchers on this experiment variously examined plant production and grow yield, phenology, length of growing season, water-use efficiency, ecosystem productivity, below ground processes (root and microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen cycling), etc.

  3. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  4. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  5. 76 FR 77204 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... pasta from Italy.\\1\\ Pursuant to requests from interested parties, the Department published in the.... & C. (``P.A.P.''), Premiato Pastificio Afeltra S.r.L. (``Afeltra''), Pasta Lensi S.r.l. (``Lensi...

  6. 77 FR 69793 - Certain Pasta From Italy; Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy... review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy for the period January 1, 2010... August 1, 2012. See Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the 15th (2010) Countervailing Duty...

  7. 77 FR 69792 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey... review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey for the period January 1, 2010... subject merchandise during the period of review. See Certain Pasta From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

  8. 76 FR 76937 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Fourteenth Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... review for the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy.\\1\\ The review covers two manufacturers... (``POR'') is July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. \\1\\ See Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Preliminary...

  9. 77 FR 7129 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of the 2009 Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy... review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy for the period January 1, 2009... preliminary results of this review. See Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the 14th (2009...

  10. 78 FR 20091 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy.\\1\\ Pursuant to....A. (Delverde), Industria Alimentare Colavita, S.p.A. (Indalco), Pasta Lensi S.r.L. (Lensi...

  11. 76 FR 71311 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy.\\1\\ Pursuant to requests from interested... antidumping duty administrative review with respect to Pastificio Attilio Mastromauro-Pasta Granoro S.r.L...

  12. 78 FR 49256 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy...'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy... The scope of the order consists of certain pasta from Italy. The merchandise subject to the order is...

  13. 76 FR 27634 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy... and intent to revoke, in part, the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on certain pasta from Italy.\\1\\ We are now revoking this order, in part, with regard to gluten-free pasta, as described in the...

  14. 75 FR 6352 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Twelfth Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta from Italy... antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy. The review covers ten manufacturers/exporters: Domenico...), Pasta Lensi (Lensi), Pastificio Fratelli Pagani S.p.A. (Pagani), Pastificio Labor S.r.L. (Labor...

  15. 75 FR 10464 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta from Italy... pasta from Italy. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation....A. (``Garofalo''), Pastaficio Attilio Mastromauro Pasta Granoro S.r.L. (``Granoro''), Industria...

  16. 76 FR 64897 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy.\\1....P.''), Premiato Pastificio Afeltra S.r.L. (``Afeltra''), Pasta Lensi S.r.l. (``Lensi''), Pastaficio...

  17. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ...-806] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders... antidumping duty (AD) orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping, that revocation of the countervailing duty (CVD) orders on certain pasta from Italy...

  18. α particles and the ''pasta'' phase in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, S. S.; Barros, C. C. Jr.; Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the α particles in nuclear matter at low densities are investigated within three different parametrizations of relativistic models at finite temperature. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous matter (pasta phase) are described for neutral nuclear matter with fixed proton fractions and stellar matter subject to β equilibrium and trapped neutrinos. In homogeneous matter, α particles are present only at densities below 0.02 fm -3 and their presence decreases with increase of the temperature and, for a fixed temperature, the α particle fraction decreases for smaller proton fractions. A repulsive interaction is important to mimic the dissolution of the clusters in homogeneous matter. The effect of the α particles on the pasta structure is very small except close to the critical temperatures and/or proton fractions, when it may still predict a pasta phase while no pasta phase would occur in the absence of light clusters. It is shown that for densities above 0.01 fm 3 the α-particle fraction in the pasta phase is much larger than that in homogeneous matter.

  19. Dynamical response of the nuclear 'pasta' in neutron star crusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Perez-Garcia, M.A.; Berry, D.K.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear pasta - a novel state of matter having nucleons arranged in a variety of complex shapes - is expected to be found in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae at subnuclear densities of about 10 14 g/cm 3 . Owing to frustration, a phenomenon that emerges from the competition between short-range nuclear attraction and long-range Coulomb repulsion, the nuclear pasta displays a preponderance of unique low-energy excitations. These excitations could have a strong impact on many transport properties, such as neutrino propagation through stellar environments. The excitation spectrum of the nuclear pasta is computed via a molecular-dynamics simulation involving up to 100,000 nucleons. The dynamic response of the pasta displays a classical plasma oscillation in the 1- to 2-MeV region. In addition, substantial strength is found at low energies. Yet this low-energy strength is missing from a simple ion model containing a single-representative heavy nucleus. The low-energy strength observed in the dynamic response of the pasta is likely to be a density wave involving the internal degrees of freedom of the clusters

  20. Might gluten traces in wheat substitutes pose a risk in patients with celiac disease? A population-based probabilistic approach to risk estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibert, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Neuhold, S.; Houben, G.F.; Canela, M.A.; Fasano, A.; Catassi, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with treated celiac disease (CD), the ingestion of gluten traces contained in gluten-free (GF) wheat substitutes (eg, GF bread, flour, and pasta) could cause persisting intestinal mucosal damage. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the proportion of CD patients at risk

  1. Aditivos para hormigones, morteros y pastas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Tebar, Demetrio

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available This article comments on the increasing importance of the use of admixtures for concrete, mortars and grouts as well as the specific effects they produce, thus requiring a suitable Spanish Normative, whose performance was taken in charge by a Working Group of the Technical Commission n.° 83 from the IRANOR, created for this purpose. This article is first of a series which intends to give an account of the works, on the Normative of those additives, the Working Group is carrying out.

    En el presente artículo se comenta la importancia que ha adquirido el empleo de los aditivos para hormigones, morteros y pastas, así como las modificaciones y efectos específicos que producen, lo que ha motivado la necesidad de contar con una normativa española apropiada, cuya realización se encomendó a un Grupo de Trabajo, creado al efecto, de la Comisión Técnica n.º 83 del IRANOR. Este artículo es el primero de una serie en la que se pretende dar cuenta de los trabajos que sobre normativa de los mencionados aditivos se viene realizando por dicho Grupo de Trabajo.

  2. [Cooking quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Cafiero, J; Mosqueda, M

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality during and after cooking of four pastas spaghetti type. Rice bran was used as ingredient in order to increase protein and dietetic fiber content. In two of the four formulation, semolina durum was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. In the other two formulation granular flour was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. Time cooking, water absorbtion, solid loss, color and hardness, (instrumental and sensory), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Digestibility in vivo were determined. Acceptability was evaluated by a 35-member consumer panel. Rice bran improved solid loss during cooking and increased cooking time, PERs were not affected significantly but Apparent Digestibility decreased when rice bran was increased. Sensory quality was affected because rice bran made pastas hard and dark but they were comparable to high fiber pasta existing in market.

  3. Consumer Perception and Buying Decisions(The Pasta Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Syeda Quratulain

    2012-11-01

    The project ìconsumer perception and buying behavior (the pasta studyî) is basically measures the development of perception through different variables and identify those factors which stimulate buying decision of consumer. Among various variables which effect consumer buying pattern I choose AWARENESS and AVAILABILITY of the product as two main variables which have strong effect on popularity and sale of pasta product. As my research is totally based on qualitative method thatís why I choose quota sampling technique and collect data by interviewing house wives resides in different areas of Karachi. The reason of choosing only house wives as respondent is that house wives can give true insight factors which hinder the popularity of pasta products in Pakistan. Focus group discussions have been conducted to extract findings. 30 house wives have been interviewed and their responses have been analyzed.

  4. 78 FR 9672 - Certain Pasta From Turkey; 2010-2011; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey...) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta (pasta) from...-preliminary decision memorandum. \\1\\ See Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of the 2010...

  5. 76 FR 68399 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Final Results of the 14th Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey... antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Turkey (pasta).\\1\\ The review covers one exporter: Marsan Gida...\\ See Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

  6. 78 FR 692 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey... Sunset Review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey. The Department finds that... pasta from Turkey was published on July 24, 1996. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Certain Pasta...

  7. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Coherent scattering of neutrinos by 'nuclear pasta' in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidetaka

    2007-01-01

    We examine coherent scattering cross section of neutrino and nucleon systems via weak-neutral current at subnuclear densities, which will be important in supernova cores. Below melting density and temparature of nuclei, nuclear shape becomes rodlike and slablike; this is called nuclear 'pasta'. Transition of structure will greatly influence coherent effects which can not easily be predicted. We calculate static structure factor of nuclear matter using data of several nuclear models, and discuss the effects of existence of nuclear pasta on neutrino opacity in hot dense matter

  9. Warm ''pasta'' phase in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, Sidney S.; Menezes, Debora P.; Chiacchiera, Silvia; Providencia, Constanca

    2010-01-01

    In the present article, the 'pasta' phase is studied at finite temperatures within a Thomas-Fermi (TF) approach. Relativistic mean-field models, both with constant and density-dependent couplings, are used to describe this frustrated system. We compare the present results with previous ones obtained within a phase-coexistence description and conclude that the TF approximation gives rise to a richer inner ''pasta'' phase structure and the homogeneous matter appears at higher densities. Finally, the transition density calculated within TF is compared with the results for this quantity obtained with other methods.

  10. An Integrable Approximation for the Fermi Pasta Ulam Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Bob

    This contribution presents a review of results obtained from computations of approximate equations of motion for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice. These approximate equations are obtained as a finite-dimensional Birkhoff normal form. It turns out that in many cases, the Birkhoff normal form is suitable for application of the KAM theorem. In particular, this proves Nishida's 1971 conjecture stating that almost all low-energetic motions of the anharmonic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice with fixed endpoints are quasi-periodic. The proof is based on the formal Birkhoff normal form computations of Nishida, the KAM theorem and discrete symmetry considerations.

  11. Traditional Malian Solid Foods Made from Sorghum and Millet Have Markedly Slower Gastric Emptying than Rice, Potato, or Pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimata Cisse

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta. A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 (13C-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta (p < 0.0001. There were only minor changes due to the 13C correction. Pre-test assessment of millet couscous and rice ranked them as more filling and aligned well with postprandial hunger rankings, suggesting that a preconceived idea of rice being highly satiating may have influenced subjective satiety scoring. Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers.

  12. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  13. Composite wheat-plantain starch salted noodles: Preparation, proximal composition and in vitro starch digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Tovar, Juscelino; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    Salted noodles were prepared with different contents of wheat grits and plantain starch (PS). The blends were hydrated with 2% NaCl (w/v), homogenized, and the resulting doughs were sheeted through a pasta machine, cut into strips ~30cm in length, cooked, and their composition and in vitro starch digestibility was assessed. Moisture (6.43-7.60%) and ash contents (2.08-3.12%) increased by the addition of PS. Fat level decreased from 0.41 to 0.31% as the substitution of wheat grits increased. R...

  14. Cold pasta phase in the extended Thomas–Fermi approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, S.S.; Bertolino, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to obtain more accurate values for the transition density to the homogenous phase in the nuclear pasta that occurs in the inner crust of neutron stars. To that end, we use the nonlinear Walecka model at zero temperature and an approach based on the extended Thomas–Fermi (ETF) approximation. (author)

  15. Stochasticity thresholds in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callegari, B.; Galgani, L.; Milan Univ.

    1979-01-01

    The authors consider the celebrated model of Fermi, Pasta and Ulam and give a numerical estimate for its thresholds of stochasticity, thus determining a critical energy as a function of the frequency of the corresponding oscillators. The results turn out to be qualitatively similar to those already obtained for a chain of particles with nearest-neighbour Lennard-Jones interaction potential. (author)

  16. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de Monique; Top, van den Hester; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on

  17. Stochasticity thresholds in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callegari, B [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica; Carotta, M C; Ferrario, C [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Lo Vecchio, G [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia, Ferrara (Italy)); Galgani, L [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica)

    1979-12-11

    The authors consider the celebrated model of Fermi, Pasta and Ulam and give a numerical estimate for its thresholds of stochasticity, thus determining a critical energy as a function of the frequency of the corresponding oscillators. The results turn out to be qualitatively similar to those already obtained for a chain of particles with nearest-neighbour Lennard-Jones interaction potential.

  18. Cold pasta phase in the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancini, S. S.; Bertolino, B. P.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we aim to obtain more accurate values for the transition density to the homogenous phase in the nuclear pasta that occurs in the inner crust of neutron stars. To that end, we use the nonlinear Walecka model at zero temperature and an approach based on the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation.

  19. Sensorial and physicochemical qualities of pasta prepared with amaranth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lopes dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current assay analyzed the sensorial acceptability of pasta when amaranth flour (AF is added at different percentages. The physical and chemical composition and the acceptance similarities of standard formulation and formulation with a greater level of AF addition were assessed. Five formulations of pasta were used: F1 standard (0% AF; F2 (20% AF; F3 (25% AF; F4 (30% AF; F5 (35% AF. Fifty-six untrained tasters, from both genders and aged between 17 and 27 years, participated in the sensorial analysis. The physicochemical analyses determined moisture content, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, crude fiber, and calories. F4 with the highest AF content obtained acceptance similar to the standard formulation in all attributes. In addition, F4 provided higher levels of dietary fiber, proteins, ash, calories and lipids than standard formulation. Only carbohydrates levels in F4 were lower. Current study demonstrated that pasta with the addition of up to 30% of AF was the most sensory-accepted among the AF-added pastas. Since it provided sensory acceptance similar to the standard product, good marketing expectations are given.

  20. Distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    PASTA domains (penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains) have been identified in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They are believed to bind β-lactam antibiotics, and be involved in peptidoglycan metabolism, although their biological function is not definitively clarified. Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are distinct in that they undergo complex cellular differentiation and produce various antibiotics including β-lactams. This review focuses on the distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases in Actinobacteria. In Actinobacteria, PASTA domains are detectable exclusively in class A but not in class B penicillin-binding proteins, in sharp contrast to the cases in other bacteria. In penicillin-binding proteins, PASTA domains distribute independently from taxonomy with some distribution bias. Particularly interesting thing is that no Streptomyces species have penicillin-binding protein with PASTA domains. Protein kinases in Actinobacteria possess 0 to 5 PASTA domains in their molecules. Protein kinases in Streptomyces can be classified into three groups: no PASTA domain, 1 PASTA domain and 4 PASTA domain-containing groups. The 4 PASTA domain-containing groups can be further divided into two subgroups. The serine/threonine kinases in different groups may perform different functions. The pocket region in one of these subgroup is more dense and extended, thus it may be involved in binding of ligands like β-lactams more efficiently.

  1. Salt-soluble proteins from wheat-derived foodstuffs show lower allergenic potency than those from raw flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Marta; Armentia, Alicia; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Palacín, Arantxa; Dueñas-Laita, Antonio; Martín, Blanca; Salcedo, Gabriel; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa

    2009-04-22

    Salt-soluble proteins from wheat flour have been described as main allergens associated with both baker's asthma and food allergy. However, most studies have used raw flour as starting material, thus not considering potential changes in allergenic properties induced by the heat treatment and other industrial processing to produce wheat-derived foodstuffs. Salt extracts from different commercial wheat-derived products were obtained and their allergenic properties investigated by IgE-immunodetection, ELISA assays, and skin prick test. The IgE-binding capacity of salt-soluble proteins from commercial breads and cooked pastas was reduced around 50% compared with that of raw flour, the reduction being less dramatic in noncooked pastas and biscuits. Several wheat-derived foodstuffs showed major IgE-binding components of 20 and 35 kDa, identified as avenin-like and globulin proteins, respectively. These proteins, as well as most flour and bread salt-soluble proteins, were hydrolyzed when subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. However, the digested products still exhibited a residual IgE-binding capacity. Therefore, processing of wheat flour to obtain derived foodstuffs decreases the IgE binding-capacity of the major salt-soluble wheat proteins. Moreover, simulated gastric fluid digestion further inactivates some heat-resistant IgE-binding proteins.

  2. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  3. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report looks at the following issues: How much Soviet uranium ore and enriched uranium are imported into the United States and what is the extent to which utilities flag swap to disguise these purchases? What are the U.S.S.R.'s enriched uranium trading practices? To what extent are utilities required to return used fuel to the Soviet Union as part of the enriched uranium sales agreement? Why have U.S. utilities ended their contracts to buy enrichment services from DOE?

  4. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different...... isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants...... glucose (p = 0.001) was lower for RG+T, and triacylglycerols (p = 0.02) increased for LRG+T; however, insulin, C-peptide, and ghrelin were comparable in all other meals. In conclusion, our study indicates that acute consumption of whole-grain pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering...

  5. Fate of SDS-insoluble glutenin polymers from semolina to dry pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marianne; Lullien-Pellerin, Valérie; Morel, Marie-Hélène

    2018-02-01

    Pasta cooking quality is well known to be related to semolina protein content and composition, however impact of the unextractable polymeric protein content (%UPP) remains disputed. In this work different semolina samples, of variable protein contents (10.5-14.2%) and %UPP (20.2-46.3%) are studied. The changes in %UPP induced by the successive pasta processing steps (mixing, extrusion, drying) but also those occurring during resting periods at 35°C, applied in-between them, were investigated. Effect of a resting period was moderate after mixing, but pronounced after extrusion. Resting of extruded pasta at 35°C significantly increased %UPP, which can even grow beyond that of the semolina. No relationship was found between pasta viscoelastic index (VI) and semolina %UPP or protein content. However, cooked pasta VI was found related to the calculated %UPP of rested fresh pasta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  7. Growth- and Stress-Induced PASTA Kinase Phosphorylation in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Benjamin D; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes Such PASTA kinases regulate critical processes, including antibiotic resistance, cell division, toxin production, and virulence, and are essential for viability in certain organisms. Based on in vitro studies with purified extracellular and intracellular fragments of PASTA kinases, a model for signaling has been proposed, in which the extracellular PASTA domains bind currently undefined ligands (typically thought to be peptidoglycan, or fragments thereof) to drive kinase dimerization, which leads to enhanced kinase autophosphorylation and enhanced phosphorylation of substrates. However, this model has not been rigorously tested in vivo Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive intestinal commensal and major antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogen. In E. faecalis , the PASTA kinase IreK drives intrinsic resistance to cell wall-active antimicrobials, suggesting that such antimicrobials may trigger IreK signaling. Here we show that IreK responds to cell wall stress in vivo by enhancing its phosphorylation and that of a downstream substrate. This response requires both the extracellular PASTA domains and specific phosphorylatable residues in the kinase domain. Thus, our results provide in vivo evidence, with an intact full-length PASTA kinase in its native physiological environment, that supports the prevailing model of PASTA kinase signaling. In addition, we show that IreK responds to a signal associated with growth and/or cell division, in the absence of cell wall-active antimicrobials. Surprisingly, the ability of IreK to respond to growth and/or division does not require the extracellular PASTA domains, suggesting that IreK monitors multiple parameters for sensory input in vivo IMPORTANCE Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and regulate critical processes. The

  8. Combined techniques for characterising pasta structure reveals how the gluten network slows enzymic digestion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Sissons, Mike; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G; Warren, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterise the influence of gluten structure on the kinetics of starch hydrolysis in pasta. Spaghetti and powdered pasta were prepared from three different cultivars of durum semolina, and starch was also purified from each cultivar. Digestion kinetic parameters were obtained through logarithm-of-slope analysis, allowing identification of sequential digestion steps. Purified starch and semolina were digested following a single first-order rate constant, while pasta and powdered pasta followed two sequential first-order rate constants. Rate coefficients were altered by pepsin hydrolysis. Confocal microscopy revealed that, following cooking, starch granules were completely swollen for starch, semolina and pasta powder samples. In pasta, they were completely swollen in the external regions, partially swollen in the intermediate region and almost intact in the pasta strand centre. Gluten entrapment accounts for sequential kinetic steps in starch digestion of pasta; the compact microstructure of pasta also reduces digestion rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Green banana pasta: an alternative for gluten-free diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonadi, Renata Puppin; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Gandolfi, Lenora; Ginani, Janini Selva; Montenegro, Flávio Martins; Pratesi, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and analyze a gluten-free pasta made with green banana flour. The study was divided into five steps: preparation/selection, chemical, sensory, technological, and statistical analysis. The modified sample presented greater acceptance (84.5% for celiac individuals and 61.2% for nonceliac) than standard samples (53.6% for nonceliac individuals). There was no significant difference between the modified and the standard samples in terms of appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall quality. The modified pastas presented approximately 98% less lipids. Green bananas are considered a subproduct of low commercial value with little industrial use. The possibility of developing gluten-free products with green banana flour can expand the product supply for people with celiac disease and contribute to a more diverse diet. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  11. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of uranium isotopes in order to enrich the fuel for light water reactors with the light isotope U-235 is an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle. After the basic principals of isotope separation the gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process are explained. Both these techniques are employed on an industrial scale. In addition a short review is given on other enrichment techniques which have been demonstrated at least on a laboratory scale. After some remarks on the present situation on the enrichment market the progress in the development and the industrial exploitation of the gas centrifuge process by the trinational Urenco-Centec organisation is presented. (orig.)

  12. Improved wheat for baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  13. A systematic review on the relations between pasta consumption and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Li, J; Ha, M-A; Riccardi, G; Liu, S

    2017-11-01

    The traditional Italian dish pasta is a major food source of starch with low glycemic index (GI) and an important low-GI component of the Mediterranean diet. This systematic review aimed at assessing comprehensively and in-depth the potential benefit of pasta on cardio-metabolic disease risk factors. Following a standard protocol, we conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled dietary intervention trials that examined pasta and pasta-related fiber and grain intake in relation to cardio-metabolic risk factors of interest. Studies comparing postprandial glucose response to pasta with that to bread or potato were quantitatively summarized using meta-analysis of standardized mean difference. Evidence from studies with pasta as part of low-GI dietary intervention and studies investigating different types of pasta were qualitatively summarized. Pasta meals have significantly lower postprandial glucose response than bread or potato meals, but evidence was lacking in terms of how the intake of pasta can influence cardio-metabolic disease risk. More long-term randomized controlled trials are needed where investigators directly contrast the cardio-metabolic effects of pasta and bread or potato. Long-term prospective cohort studies with required data available should also be analyzed regarding the effect of pasta intake on disease endpoints. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of bioprocessing and fractionation on the structural, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free faba bean pasta

    OpenAIRE

    Heiniö, Raija-Liisa; Cassan, Denis; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Micard, Valerie; Lantto, Raija; Sozer, Nesli

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the effects of processing faba bean flour on textural, structural and sensory properties of gluten-free pasta. Pasta was prepared using faba bean flour, starch-rich fraction of faba bean flour or faba bean flour fermented with lactic acid bacteria. The impact of cross-linking enzyme transglutaminase (TG) on the quality of faba pasta was also studied. The structure, cooking quality, starch digestibility, textural and sensory characteristics of faba pasta samples were evalua...

  15. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf. Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B, was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  17. Nutritional and technological quality of the durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Flagella

    Full Text Available Durum wheat quality is a complex system that combines yield characteristics, cultivation conditions and certification requirements. In this review, the technological and nutritional aspects of grain quality were evaluated in relation to the influence of climate and agronomic practices. In particular, the technological quality was investigated with regard to the kind of processed product (pasta, bread, couscous, burghul. The influence of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition, temperature, water regime and organic farming on grain quality was evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional characteristics of durum wheat related to starch, proteins, lipids, vitamins, fibres and mineral ions content were examined. Special focus was on the antioxidant activity capable of preventing chronic and degenerative diseases thanks to the high content in bioactive compounds, as phenols, tocols, carotenoids and fibres in whole grain. In the light of the new direction of the Community agricultural policy and of the growing interest in human nutrition, two prospects for development of the durum wheat sector were delineated: i developing certified products (PGI, PDO and organic; ii promoting production and processing technologies aimed at increasing the level of bioactive compounds in durum wheat grain and its by-products.

  18. 77 FR 53909 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Institution of Five-year Reviews Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Institution of Five-year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing and Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey AGENCY: United States International Trade... revocation of the countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be...

  19. 75 FR 11116 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Amended Final Results of the Twelfth Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta from Italy... certain pasta from Italy for the period of review (POR) of July 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008. See Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Twelfth Administrative Review, 75 FR 6352...

  20. 76 FR 20312 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey..., the Department published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from... Value: Certain Pasta From Turkey, 61 FR 38545 (July 24, 1996). On July 1, 2010, we published in the...

  1. 78 FR 693 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy... Sunset Review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy. The Department finds that... pasta from Italy was published on July 24, 1996. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order and Amended...

  2. 78 FR 2368 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Reviews of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818; A-489-805] Certain Pasta... Department'') initiated five-year (``sunset'') reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain pasta (``pasta'') from Italy and Turkey. As a result of these reviews, the Department finds that revocation of...

  3. 75 FR 37386 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Final Results of the 13th (2008) Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta from Italy... pasta from Italy for the period January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008. On April 13, 2010, we published the Preliminary Results of this review. See Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the...

  4. 76 FR 6601 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Amended Final Results of the Thirteenth Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy for the period of review (POR) of July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009. See Certain Pasta from Italy: Notice of Final Results of the Thirteenth...

  5. 78 FR 9364 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Final Results of 15th Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy. The period of review (POR) is... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy.\\2\\ On October 26, 2012, Rummo...

  6. 77 FR 48964 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... pasta from Italy with respect to the margin assigned to Atar S.r.L. (Atar) covering the period of review... Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Pasta from Italy, 72 FR 7011 (February 14, 2007) (Final...

  7. 77 FR 46694 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Notice of Preliminary Results of the 2010-2011 Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey... (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta (pasta) from Turkey for the period of review (POR) July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. The Department...

  8. 78 FR 959 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year Reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... reviews of the countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on imports of certain pasta from...

  9. 78 FR 9937 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing and Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and...

  10. 76 FR 65179 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of the Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy, covering the period January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009. See Certain Pasta from Italy: Preliminary Results of the 14th (2009...

  11. 76 FR 48122 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy... antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Italy covering the period of review (``POR'') of July 1, 2005... Department published its final results of the administrative review for pasta from Italy for the period from...

  12. Use of itaconic acid-based polymers for solid-phase extraction of deoxynivalenol and application to pasta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Michelangelo; De Girolamo, Annalisa; Visconti, Angelo; Magan, Naresh; Chianella, Iva; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2008-02-25

    Molecular modelling and computational design were used to identify itaconic acid (IA) as a functional monomer with high affinity towards deoxynivalenol (DON), a Fusarium-toxin frequently occurring in cereals. IA-based polymers were photochemically synthesised in dimethyl formamide (porogen) using ethylenglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker and 1,1'-azo-bis(cyclohexane carbonitrile) as initiator, and the relevant binding interactions with DON in solvents with different polarity were investigated. The performances of the non-imprinted IA-based polymer (blank polymer, BP) and the corresponding molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) were compared using DON as a template. Both BP and MIP were able to bind about 90% DON either in toluene, water or water containing 5% polyethylene glycol. Non-imprinted polymers with different molar ratios of IA to cross-linker were evaluated as adsorbents for solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and pre-concentration of DON from wheat and pasta samples prior to HPLC analysis. Samples were extracted with PBS/0.1M EDTA solution and cleaned up through a cartridge containing blank IA-based polymer. The column was washed with PBS (pH 9.2) and the toxin was eluted with methanol and quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detector (lambda=220nm), using methanol:water:acetic acid (15:85:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Effective removal of matrix interferences was observed only for pasta with DON recoveries higher than 70% (RSD<7%, n=3) at levels close to or higher than EU regulatory limit.

  13. Giuseppe Pasta (1742-1823): protophysician and pioneer of psychological studies in the medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Veneroni, Laura; Poli, Marco

    2009-11-01

    Giuseppe Pasta was a pioneer of psychological support in physical disease. Born in Bergamo, Italy, he was a cousin of the physician Andrea Pasta who was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Morgagni. Giuseppe's cultural and clinical resources were the teachings of Francesco Redi's medical school in Tuscany. This paper discusses the courage and philosophical tolerance of disease and the etiquette of the physician.

  14. 78 FR 15046 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-365-366 and 731-TA-734-735 (Third Review)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY: United States... pasta from Italy and Turkey (78 FR 9937, February 12, 2013). The Commission is revising its schedule as...

  15. Effects on satiation, satiety and food intake of wholegrain and refined grain pasta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Ibrügger, Sabine; Bache, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    studied. The objective was to investigate the effect of WG pasta (WGP) compared to refined grain pasta (RGP), on ad libitum energy intake (EI) within and at the subsequent meal as well as appetite. Two different ad libitum lunch meals (study A) and two different iso-caloric lunch meals (study B) were...

  16. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  17. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  18. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea; Iacone, Roberto; Labruna, Giuseppe; Marra, Maurizio; Contaldo, Franco; Kristensen, Mette; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), postprandial fullness (p = 0.001) increased and hunger (p = 0.038) decreased. WG+T had a lower EE than did both LGR+T (p = 0.02) and RG+L (p pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile.

  19. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  20. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  1. Effect of pregelatination on rheology, cooking and antioxidant activity of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Aasima; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit

    2018-05-01

    The present study explores the possibility of using twin screw extruder for preparation of pregelatinized pasta. The effects of extrusion parameters feed moisture (28 and 32%), barrel temperature (60-105 °C) and screw speed (100-200 rpm) on pregelatinized pasta were investigated. Prepared pasta was analysed for quality characteristics in terms of cooking quality, degree of gelatinization, color, texture, pasting properties, bioactive composition. Results indicated that higher screw speed improved the cooking quality of pasta and decreased gruel solid loss. Degree of gelatinization revealed positive relation with temperature and feed moisture. Extrusion conditions, altered the color of pasta, a decrease in L*, increase in a* and b* values was observed. Higher peak viscosity was observed at lower barrel temperature and feed moisture. A significant retention in total phenolic content and flavonoid content was observed with higher feed moisture. Extrusion leads to increase in antioxidant activity and firmness upon increasing screw speed and feed moisture.

  2. Pasta highly enriched with vegetables: from microstructure to sensory and nutritional aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente Da Silva, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    A lifestyle that combines poor food choices with very low or no physical activity can result in the development of diseases such as obesity, and this is affecting a growing number of children. One of the most effective strategies to fight obesity combines physical activity and the consumption of

  3. Propriedades nanomecânicas de pastas de cimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pelisser

    Full Text Available O entendimento da influência de cada fase do concreto, dentre as quais merece destaque a pasta de cimento, é importante para o desenvolvimento de um concreto mais eficiente, com maior velocidade de hidratação e resistência à propagação de fissuras. O módulo de elasticidade do concreto é um dos principais parâmetros de projeto de estruturas e têm grande influência na velocidade do processo de construção e na durabilidade das estruturas. A capacidade de deformação do concreto depende das características intrínsecas dos produtos de hidratação do cimento, agregados, zona de transição e poros, além de variáveis inerentes ao processo, como velocidade de hidratação e condições climáticas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades mecânicas de módulo de elasticidade e resistência superficial (dureza para uma pasta de cimento, através da técnica da nanoindentação instrumentada e, complementarmente, comparar este valor do módulo de elasticidade, utilizando o método normatizado para concreto. Os resultados obtidos pela nanoindentação foram de 17,2 GPa para o módulo de elasticidade e de 0,90 GPa para a dureza. A determinação do módulo de elasticidade tangente inicial calculado pela NBR 6118 1 foi de 9,6 GPa. A nanoindentação mostrou-se uma ferramenta válida para avaliar modificações nanoestruturais de pastas de cimento.

  4. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols and tocopherols. Buckwheat polyphenols are represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids, mainly rutin, a proven potent antioxidant. The content of polyphenols and tocopherols in buckwheat grain primarily depends on the buckwheat species, growing area, climate and growing conditions. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench, which is often used for the production of light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, contains less polyphenols than tartary buckwheat. The content of polyphenols in common buckwheat grain varies depending on the grain part. As their largest amount is contained in the hull and the outer layers of the grain, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is superior in polyphenols than the light buckwheat flour. Therefore, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is characterized by a higher antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols in buckwheat flour exist in free and bound forms, where the contribution of free polyphenols ranges between 48-64%. Due to a relatively high content of antioxidants in light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, they are used for substitution of wheat or other cereal flours in bakery, pasta and confectionary formulations in order to create either added value or gluten-free products. The aim of a long-term consumption of buckwheat flours is to achieve health benefits and protect from many chronic diseases. Technological procedures and some treatments used during the food preparation influence polyphenol composition and content and consequently the functionality of food. Therefore, in order to minimize polyphenol losses and preserve the antioxidant capacity of the final products it is necessary to understand the thermal treatments and their mechanisms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  5. Shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of nuclear 'pasta'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity η and thermal conductivity κ of a nuclear pasta phase in neutron star crusts. This involves complex nonspherical shapes. We use semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations involving 40, 000 to 100, 000 nucleons. The viscosity η can be simply expressed in terms of the height Z* and width Δq of the peak in the static structure factor S p (q). We find that η increases somewhat, compared to a lower density phase involving spherical nuclei, because Z* decreases from form factor and ion screening effects. However, we do not find a dramatic increase in η from nonspherical shapes, as may occur in conventional complex fluids

  6. Modulational instability and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.A.E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The long-time behavior of the modulational instability of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is investigated. Linear stability analysis shows that a finite amplitude uniform wave train is unstable to infinitesimal modulational perturbations with sufficiently long wavelengths while it is stable for perturbations with short wavelengths. Near the threshold for instability, the long-time behavior of the unstable modulation is obtained by means of the multiple time scale technique. As a result, the Fermi--Pasta--Ulam recurrence is rediscovered, in agreement with recent experiments and with a numerical solution of the problem at hand

  7. Microscopic study of nuclear 'pasta' by quantum molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    2002-01-01

    Structure of cold dense matter at subnuclear densities is investigated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. We succeeded in showing that the phases with slab-like and rod-like nuclei etc. and be formed dynamically from hot uniform nuclear matter without any assumptions on nuclear shape. We also observe intermediate phases, which has complicated nuclear shapes. Geometrical structures of matter are analyzed with Minkowski functionals, and it is found out that intermediate phases can be characterized as ones with negative Euler characteristic. Our result suggests the existence of these kinds of phases in addition to the simple 'pasta' phases in neutron star crusts. (author)

  8. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq (31% per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  9. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Antonia; Wolf, Patricia; Schlüter, Oliver; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein–based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta. PMID:28231112

  10. A Comparison of Carbon Footprint and Production Cost of Different Pasta Products Based on Whole Egg and Pea Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Antonia; Wolf, Patricia; Schlüter, Oliver; Meyer-Aurich, Andreas

    2016-03-04

    Feed and food production are inter alia reasons for high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by the replacement of animal components with plant components in processed food products, such as pasta. The main components currently used for pasta are semolina, and water, as well as additional egg. The hypothesis of this paper is that the substitution of whole egg with plant-based ingredients, for example from peas, in such a product might lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and thus a reduced carbon footprint at economically reasonable costs. The costs and carbon footprints of two pasta types, produced with egg or pea protein, are calculated. Plant protein-based pasta products proved to cause 0.57 kg CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) (31%) per kg pasta less greenhouse gas emissions than animal-based pasta, while the cost of production increases by 10% to 3.00 €/kg pasta.

  11. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  12. Effect of adding unconventional raw materials on the technological properties of rice fresh pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg da Silva Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop fettuccini type rice fresh pasta by cold extrusion. To produce the pasta, a 2² Central Composite Rotational Design was used, in which the effects of the addition of pre-gelatinized rice flour - PGRF (0-60% and modified egg albumin - MEA (0-10% were studied. The dependent variables were the results of the cooking test and of the instrumental texture. The optimum cooking time for all of the formulations of rice fresh pasta was 3 minutes. MEA had a greater effect on increasing the weight of the pasta when compared to that of PGRF. It was found that with the addition of PGRF increase in loss of solids in cooking water, whereas MEA exerted the opposite effect on this parameter. Moreover, the maximum value of MEA (10% had an optimum effect on pasta firmness, while PGRF had a negative effect on this parameter. The maximum values of PGRF and MEA reduced the stickiness of the pasta. Based on these results and on the parameters considered as most important, the rice pasta with the best technological characteristics was that with the maximum levels of MEA (10% and no addition of PGRF (0%. This product was submitted to sensory and microbiological analyses, with good results.

  13. Recurrence phase shift in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, N., E-mail: nnd124@rsphysse.anu.edu.au [Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Ankiewicz, A. [Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Genty, G. [Tampere University of Technology, Optics Laboratory, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Dudley, J.M. [Institut FEMTO-ST UMR 6174 CNRS/Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (France); Akhmediev, N. [Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-11-07

    We show that the dynamics of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence is associated with a nonlinear phase shift between initial and final states that are otherwise identical, after a full growth-return cycle. The properties of this phase shift are studied for the particular case of the self-focussing nonlinear Schroedinger equation, and we describe the magnitude of the phase shift in terms of the system parameters. This phase shift, accumulated during the nonlinear recurrence cycle, is a previously-unremarked feature of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem, and we anticipate its wide significance as an essential feature of related dynamics in other systems. -- Highlights: → The dynamics of FPU recurrence is associated with a phase shift between initial and final states. → The properties of this phase shift are studied for the self-focussing NLS equation. → This phase shift is a previously-unremarked feature of the FPU growth-return cycle. → We anticipate its wide significance as an essential feature of related dynamics in other systems.

  14. Recurrence phase shift in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, N.; Ankiewicz, A.; Genty, G.; Dudley, J.M.; Akhmediev, N.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the dynamics of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence is associated with a nonlinear phase shift between initial and final states that are otherwise identical, after a full growth-return cycle. The properties of this phase shift are studied for the particular case of the self-focussing nonlinear Schroedinger equation, and we describe the magnitude of the phase shift in terms of the system parameters. This phase shift, accumulated during the nonlinear recurrence cycle, is a previously-unremarked feature of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem, and we anticipate its wide significance as an essential feature of related dynamics in other systems. -- Highlights: → The dynamics of FPU recurrence is associated with a phase shift between initial and final states. → The properties of this phase shift are studied for the self-focussing NLS equation. → This phase shift is a previously-unremarked feature of the FPU growth-return cycle. → We anticipate its wide significance as an essential feature of related dynamics in other systems.

  15. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  16. Characterization of Whole Grain Pasta: Integrating Physical, Chemical, Molecular, and Instrumental Sensory Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefano; Benedetti, Simona; Buratti, Susanna; Abbasi Parizad, Parisa; Masotti, Fabio; Iametti, Stefania; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina

    2017-11-01

    The consumption of whole-grain food-including pasta-has been increasing steadily. In the case of whole-grain pasta, given the many different producers, it seems important to have some objective parameters to define its overall quality. In this study, commercial whole-grain pasta samples representative of the Italian market have been characterized from both molecular and electronic-senses (electronic nose and electronic tongue) standpoint in order to provide a survey of the properties of different commercial samples. Only 1 pasta product showed very low levels of heat damage markers (furosine and pyrraline), suggesting that this sample underwent to low temperature dry treatment. In all samples, the furosine content was directly correlated to protein structural indices, since protein structure compactness increased with increasing levels of heat damage markers. Electronic senses were able to discriminate among pasta samples according to the intensity of heat treatment during the drying step. Pasta sample with low furosine content was discriminated by umami taste and by sensors responding to aliphatic and inorganic compounds. Data obtained with this multidisciplinary approach are meant to provide hints for identifying useful indices for pasta quality. As observed for semolina pasta, objective parameters based on heat-damage were best suited to define the overall quality of wholegrain pasta, almost independently of compositional differences among commercial samples. Drying treatments of different intensity also had an impact on instrumental sensory traits that may provide a reliable alternative to analytical determination of chemical markers of heat damage in all cases where there is a need for avoiding time-consuming procedures. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Desarrollo de pasta untable de aceituna variedad Sevillana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callejas, Julio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a spreadable olive paste was carried out. Sevillian or Gordal green olive varieties were used in the paste. Pastes were prepared by crushing olives after pit removal and adding preservatives (potassium solvate and sodium benzoate, and antioxidants (T. B. H. Q. to crushed olives. These were characterized by recording microbial, physical, chemical and sensory measurements and shelf life was evaluated over three months of storage at room temperature (18 °C and under refrigeration (4 °C. The final microbial count of the paste was less than 100 ufc/ml. Sensory testing demonstrated that it was acceptable and storage conditions did not significantly affect the product.The pH of the paste decreased with time (4.3 to 4.17, resulting in increased acidity which was affected by storage temperature. The peroxide index, increased with time, (from 5 to 27 meq peroxide/kg oil. However, the pastes were not perceived to be rancid after sensory testing. Regarding the color, the main change observed was a darkening of the paste, as determined using the parameter L*. The shelf life of the olive paste was 90 days either under refrigeration or at room temperature.Este estudio consistió en desarrollar una pasta untable de aceituna, variedad verde Sevillana o Gordal. La elaboración de la pasta consistió en deshuesar las aceitunas, triturarlas y adicionarles conservantes (sorbato de potasio y benzoato de sodio y antioxidante (T. B. H. Q., finalmente se envasaron. Ésta fue caracterizada microbiológica, físico-química y sensorialmente, y se evaluó su comportamiento durante 3 meses de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente (18 °C y en refrigeración (4 °C. El recuento microbiano de la pasta es menor a 100 ufc/ml. Sensorialmente el producto fue aceptado y esta condición no varió durante el almacenamiento, al igual que el contenido de aceite (70% y aw (0,90. El pH diminuye con el tiempo, por lo tanto, la acidez aumenta; viéndose afectado por

  18. Impact of nuclear 'pasta' on neutrino transport in collapsing stellar cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear 'pasta', nonspherical nuclei in dense matter, is predicted to occur in collapsing supernova cores. We show how pasta phases affect the neutrino transport cross section via weak neutral current using several nuclear models. This is the first calculation of the neutrino opacity of the phases with rod-like and slab-like nuclei taking account of finite temperature effects, which are well described by the quantum molecular dynamics. We also show that pasta phases can occupy 10-20% of the mass of supernova cores in the later stage of the collapse

  19. Disordered nuclear pasta, magnetic field decay, and crust cooling in neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Cumming, A.; Schneider, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear pasta, with non-spherical shapes, is expected near the base of the crust in neutron stars. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of pasta show long lived topological defects that could increase electron scattering and reduce both the thermal and electrical conductivities. We model a possible low conductivity pasta layer by increasing an impurity parameter Q_{imp}. Predictions of light curves for the low mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29, assuming a large Q_{imp}, find continued late ...

  20. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Juan D; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Lee, HueyTyng; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Visendi, Paul; Lai, Kaitao; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2017-06-01

    There is an increasing understanding that variation in gene presence-absence plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits; however, there have been relatively few studies on variation in gene presence-absence in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars. In this study we build an improved reference for Chinese Spring and explore gene diversity across 18 wheat cultivars. We predict a pangenome size of 140 500 ± 102 genes, a core genome of 81 070 ± 1631 genes and an average of 128 656 genes in each cultivar. Functional annotation of the variable gene set suggests that it is enriched for genes that may be associated with important agronomic traits. In addition to variation in gene presence, more than 36 million intervarietal single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified across the pangenome. This study of the wheat pangenome provides insight into genome diversity in elite wheat as a basis for genomics-based improvement of this important crop. A wheat pangenome, GBrowse, is available at http://appliedbioinformatics.com.au/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/WheatPan/, and data are available to download from http://wheatgenome.info/wheat_genome_databases.php. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biochemical and functional properties of wheat gliadins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak; Khatkar, B S

    2015-01-01

    Gliadins account for 40-50% of the total storage proteins of wheat and are classified into four subcategories, α-, β-, γ-, and ω-gliadins. They have also been classified as ω5-, ω1, 2-, α/β-, and γ-gliadins on the basis of their primary structure and molecular weight. Cysteine residues of gliadins mainly form intramolecular disulfide bonds, although α-gliadins with odd numbers of cysteine residues have also been reported. Gliadins are generally regarded to possess globular protein structure, though recent studies report that the α/β-gliadins have compact globular structures and γ- and ω-gliadins have extended rod-like structures. Newer techniques such as Mass Spectrometry with the development of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) have been employed to determine the molecular weight of purified ω- gliadins and to carry out the direct analysis of bread and durum wheat gliadins. Few gliadin alleles and components, such as Gli-B1b, Gli-B2c and Gli-A2b in bread wheat cultivars, γ-45 in pasta, γ-gliadins in cookies, lower gliadin content for chapatti and alteration in Gli 2 loci in tortillas have been reported to improve the product quality, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the precise role of gliadin subgroups in dough strength and product quality.

  2. Occurrence and risk assessment of population exposed to deoxynivalenol in foods derived from wheat flour in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Milena Veronezi; Pante, Giseli Cristina; Romoli, Jéssica Cristina Zoratto; de Souza, Alexandra Perdigão Maia; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira da; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Feijó, Adriane Lettnin Roll; Moscardi, Salesia Maria Prodócimo; de Paula, Karina Ruaro; Bando, Erika; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Machinski, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important of the trichothecenes in terms of amounts and occurrence in wheat. This compound was shown to be associated with a glomerulonephropathy involving an increase of immunoglobulin A in humans. This study assessed the occurrence of DON in wheat flour and the exposure of Brazilian teenagers, adults and elderly to this mycotoxin due to intake of wheat flour-based products. DON extraction in wheat flour was carried out by solid phase extraction and the quantification was performed by ultra-high proficiency liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. A total of 77.9% of all samples were positive for DON, with concentrations ranging from 73.50 to 2794.63 µg kg -1 . The intake was calculated for the average and 90th percentile of the contamination levels of DON in foods based-wheat for teenagers, adults and elderly in Brazil, and compared with the provisional maximum tolerable daily intakes (PMTDI). Females of all age groups were exposed to DON at higher levels when compared to males in regard of consumption of breads and pastas. Teenagers were the main consumers of foods derived from wheat flour, with maximum probable daily intakes of 1.28 and 1.20 µg kg -1 b.w. day -1 for females and males, respectively. This population is at an increased risk of exposure to DON due to consumption of wheat flour-based foods in Brazil.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  4. Effects of meat addition on pasta structure, nutrition and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Hamid, Nazimah; Kantono, Kevin; Pereira, Loveena; Farouk, Mustafa M; Knowles, Scott O

    2016-12-15

    In our study, semolina flour was substituted with beef emulsion (EM) at three different levels of 15, 30 and 45% (w/w) to develop a pasta with enhanced nutritional profile. The protein, fat, and water content significantly increased with addition of meat. The addition of meat enhanced the pasta gluten network. The redness and yellowness of cooked pasta increased with meat addition. Tensile strength increased from 0.018N/mm(2) in the control sample to 0.046N/mm(2) in 45% beef emulsion (45EM) sample. All meat-containing samples had significantly higher elasticity than control (0.039N/mm(2)). GI significantly decreased and IVPD value increased in 45EM sample. Five essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan) in pasta digesta increased significantly with increasing meat addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutrino-'pasta' scattering: The opacity of nonuniform neutron-rich matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Perez-Garcia, M.A.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron-rich matter at subnuclear densities may involve complex structures displaying a variety of shapes, such as spherical, slablike, and/or rodlike shapes. These phases of the nuclear pasta are expected to exist in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae. The dynamics of core-collapse supernovae is very sensitive to the interactions between neutrinos and nucleons/nuclei. Indeed, neutrino excitation of the low-energy modes of the pasta may allow for a significant energy transfer to the nuclear medium, thereby reviving the stalled supernovae shock. The linear response of the nuclear pasta to neutrinos is modeled via a simple semiclassical simulation. The transport mean free path for μ and τ neutrinos (and antineutrinos) is expressed in terms of the static structure factor of the pasta, which is evaluated using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations

  6. Transport Properties of the Nuclear Pasta Phase with Quantum Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Rana; Schramm, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    We study the transport properties of nuclear pasta for a wide range of density, temperature, and proton fractions, relevant for different astrophysical scenarios adopting a quantum molecular dynamics model. In particular, we estimate the values of shear viscosity as well as electrical and thermal conductivities by calculating the static structure factor S(q) using simulation data. In the density and temperature range where the pasta phase appears, the static structure factor shows irregular behavior. The presence of a slab phase greatly enhances the peak in S(q). However, the effect of irregularities in S(q) on the transport coefficients is not very dramatic. The values of all three transport coefficients are found to have the same orders of magnitude as found in theoretical calculations for the inner crust matter of neutron stars without the pasta phase; therefore, the values are in contrast to earlier speculations that a pasta layer might be highly resistive, both thermally and electrically.

  7. Physico-chemical properties of ready to eat, shelf-stable pasta during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, E; Curti, E; Cassotta, F; Najm, N E O; Vittadini, E

    2014-02-01

    The changes in physico-chemical properties of RTE shelf stable pasta were studied during storage with a multianalytical and multidimensional approach (with special focus on water status) to understand the ageing process in this product. Pasta hardness and amylopectin recrystallisation increased, macroscopic water status indicators and proton molecular translational mobility remained constant, and significant changes were measured in the proton rotational molecular mobility indicators ((1)H FID, (1)H T2) during storage. Since the main changes observed in RTE pasta during storage were similar to those observed in other cereal-based products, it would be interesting to verify the effect of the anti-staling methods commonly used in the cereal processing industry in improving RTE pasta shelf-stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  9. Intermittent Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Dynamics at Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David; Danieli, Carlo; Flach, Sergej

    The equilibrium value of an observable defines a manifold in the phase space of an ergodic and equipartitioned many-body syste. A typical trajectory pierces that manifold infinitely often as time goes to infinity. We use these piercings to measure both the relaxation time of the lowest frequency eigenmode of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain, as well as the fluctuations of the subsequent dynamics in equilibrium. We show that previously obtained scaling laws for equipartition times are modified at low energy density due to an unexpected slowing down of the relaxation. The dynamics in equilibrium is characterized by a power-law distribution of excursion times far off equilibrium, with diverging variance. The long excursions arise from sticky dynamics close to regular orbits in the phase space. Our method is generalizable to large classes of many-body systems. The authors acknowledge financial support from IBS (Project Code IBS-R024-D1).

  10. Nuclear 'pasta' phase within density dependent hadronic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, S. S.; Marinelli, J. R.; Menezes, D. P.; Moraes, M. M. W. de; Brito, L.; Providencia, C.; Santos, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the onset of the 'pasta' phase with different parametrizations of the density dependent hadronic model and compare the results with one of the usual parametrizations of the nonlinear Walecka model. The influence of the scalar-isovector virtual δ meson is shown. At zero temperature, two different methods are used, one based on coexistent phases and the other on the Thomas-Fermi approximation. At finite temperature, only the coexistence phases method is used. npe matter with fixed proton fractions and in β equilibrium are studied. We compare our results with restrictions imposed on the values of the density and pressure at the inner edge of the crust, obtained from observations of the Vela pulsar and recent isospin diffusion data from heavy-ion reactions, and with predictions from spinodal calculations

  11. A fractional approach to the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, J. A. T.

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem having in mind the generalization provided by Fractional Calculus (FC). The study starts by addressing the classical formulation, based on the standard integer order differential calculus and evaluates the time and frequency responses. A first generalization to be investigated consists in the direct replacement of the springs by fractional elements of the dissipative type. It is observed that the responses settle rapidly and no relevant phenomena occur. A second approach consists of replacing the springs by a blend of energy extracting and energy inserting elements of symmetrical fractional order with amplitude modulated by quadratic terms. The numerical results reveal a response close to chaotic behaviour.

  12. Bushes of vibrational modes for Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechin, G. M.; Novikova, N. V.; Abramenko, A. A.

    2002-06-01

    Some exact solutions and multimode invariant submanifolds were found for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU)- β model by Poggi and Ruffo [Physica D 103 (1997) 251]. In the present paper we demonstrate how results of such a type can be obtained for an arbitraryN-particle chain with periodic boundary conditions with the aid of our group-theoretical approach [Physica D 117 (1998) 43] based on the concept of bushes of normal modes in mechanical systems with discrete symmetry. The integro-differential equation describing the FPU- α dynamics in the modal space is derived. The loss of stability of the bushes of modes for the FPU- α model, in particular, for the limiting case N→∞ for the dynamical regime with displacement pattern having period twice the lattice spacing ( π-mode) is studied. Our results for the FPU- α chain are compared with those by Poggi and Ruffo for the FPU- β chain.

  13. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.

  14. Pengaruh Cara Kematian Dan Tahapan Penurunan Kesegaran Ikan Terhadap Kualitas Pasta Ikan Nila (Oreochromis Niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Imam Restu; Darmanto, YS; Anggo, Apri Dwi

    2014-01-01

    Kualitas produk hasil perikanan dipengaruhi oleh kesegaran ikan. Pengolahan merupakan salah satu cara untuk mempertahankan daya awet dan juga meningkatkan nilai ekonomis ikan. Pasta ikan merupakan salah satu alternatif penganekaragaman produk berbasis produk gel. Pasta ikan merupakan makanan yang berasal dari bahan baku lumatan daging ikan yang ditambahkan dengan tepung, garam dan berbagai jenis sayuran. Cara kematian ikan dan tahapan penurunan kesegaran ikan dapat mempengaruhi kualitas produ...

  15. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This paper analyzes under four different scenarios the adequacy of a $500 million annual deposit into a fund to pay for the cost of cleaning up the Department of Energy's (DOE) three aging uranium enrichment plants. These plants are located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. In summary the following was found: A fixed annual $500 million deposit made into a cleanup fund would not be adequate to cover total expected cleanup costs, nor would it be adequate to cover expected decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) costs. A $500 million annual deposit indexed to an inflation rate would likely be adequate to pay for all expected cleanup costs, including D and D costs, remedial action, and depleted uranium costs

  17. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GLISERIN TERHADAP VISKOSITAS DARI PEMBUATAN PASTA GIGI CANGKANG KERANG DARAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriawan Budiarto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian "Pengaruh Konsentrasi Gliserin Terhadap Viskositas Dari Pembuatan Pasta Gigi Cangkang Kerang Darah" yang dilakukan di PT Biotek Indonesia. Pasta gigi tersebut dibuat dari tepung cangkang kerang darah berukuran 800 mesh dengan campuran gliserin, MgC03, minyak peppermint, ekstrak daun sirih, dan pewarna appel green. Alasan penggunaan cangkang kerang darah adalah untuk memanfaatkan limbah cangkang kerang darah dan kandungan kalsium pada cangkang kerang darah itu tinggi.   Prosedur penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara pembersihan dan pengeringan cangkang kerang darah, grinding dan screening, penambahan bahan-bahan sampai terbentuk gel pasta gigi berwarna hijau seulas, kemudian dilakukan pengukuran viskositas dari masing- masing konsentrasi gliserin dengan menggunakan viskometer Brookfield model LVDVI+, dengan spindle 4, kecepatan 0,3 rpm. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan konsentrasi gliserin ideal pembuatan pasta gigi tersebut adalah sebesar 50%. Pasta gigi ini memenuhi standar SNI 12-3524-1994 dengan viskositas 120.000 cP. Peningkatan kadar gliserin (x terbukti menurunkan viskositas pasta gigi (y menurut persamaan linier : y = -25.900x + 14.200.   Kata kunci : gliserin, viskositas, cangkang, kerang darah, limbah

  18. Health based pasta: redefining the concept of the next generation convenience food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Murali; Prabhasankar, P

    2012-01-01

    Pasta, a delicious meal favorite and the signature dish of many of the world's most famous chefs and a bonding comfort meal for millions all over the world, it has been recognized as an identifying ingredient of traditional healthy Mediterranean and Latin American meals. Pasta has come a long way from the days when it was erroneously considered by consumers to be a "fattening food." Today it is perceived as one of the "healthy options." In fact, because pasta is so supremely versatile as a base to a meal, it is easily possible to serve it in ways to satisfy both our notions of "healthy eating" and our appetites for interesting and tasty food. Pasta, being so popular as a delicious family meal favorite and equally relished all over the world, it deserves a lot than any other food to serve as an ideal functional food. Here we analyze various health ingredients that have been incorporated in pasta as disease/disorder curing agents and/or potent nutritional supplements and their effects on cooking and quality parameters of pasta as well as their various health benefits and therapeutic attributes.

  19. Wheat biotechnology: A minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, Debasis; Khurana, Paramjit

    2001-01-01

    Due to the inherent difficulties associated with gene delivery into regenerable explants and recovery of plantlets with the introduced transgene, wheat was the last among cereals to be genetically transformed. This review attempts to summarize different efforts in the direction of achieving genetic transformation of wheat by various methods. Particle bombardment is the most widely employed procedure for the introduction of marker genes and also for the generation of transformed wheat with int...

  20. PASTA in Penicillin Binding Proteins and Serine/Threonine Kinases: A Recipe of Structural, Dynamic and Binding Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvanese, Luisa; Falcigno, Lucia; Squeglia, Flavia; D'Auria, Gabriella; Berisio, Rita

    2017-11-24

    Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) and Serine Threonine kinases (STPKs) are two classes of bacterial enzymes whose involvement in a series of vital processes in bacterial growth and division is well assessed. Many PBPs and STPKs show linked an ancillary domain named PASTA, whose functional role is not completely deciphered so far. It has been proposed that PASTAs are sensor modules that by binding opportune ligands (i.e. muropeptides) activate the cognate proteins to their functions. However, based on recent data, the sensor annotation sounds true for PASTA from STPKs, and false for PASTA from PBPs. Different PASTA domains, belonging or not to different protein classes, sharing or not appreciable sequence identities, always show identical folds. This survey of the structural, binding and dynamic properties of PASTA domains pursues the reasons why identical topologies may turn in different roles. Amino acid compositions, total charges and distribution of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic patches on the surface, significantly vary among PASTAs from STPKs and PBPs and appear to correlate with different functions. A possible criterion to discriminate between PASTA modules of STPKs or PBPs solely based on their sequences is proposed. Possibly reflecting different species as well as functional roles and evolutionary profile, our routine represents a fast even though approximate method to distinguish between PASTA belonging to different classes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Microbial transglutaminase treatment in pasta-production does not affect the immunoreactivity of gliadin with celiac disease patients' sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Tobias; Ohsam, Jürgen; Pasternack, Ralf; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Kumazawa, Yoshiyuki; Hils, Martin

    2014-07-30

    The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-treatment of pasta-dough on the immunoreactivity with celiac disease patient's sera has been investigated. Modification by MTG has been proven by determination of the MTG reaction product ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine (3.63 μmol/g protein), which was not detectable in non-MTG-treated pasta. Antigenicity has been analyzed by immunoblotting and ELISA using gliadin-extracts from pasta and MTG-treated pasta. Immunoblotting showed that the antibody-population (antigliadin antibodies and antideamidated gliadin antibodies) of the sera is specific for every individual patient. Immunoblotting and ELISA showed that there is no difference in immunoreactivity of gliadin extracted from pasta and MTG-pasta. Recognition pattern and intensity in Western blot as well as antibody titer has also been identical even for sera with a high antideamidated gliadin antibody titer. These results indicate no difference between pasta-gliadin and MTG-pasta-gliadin and especially no increased deamidation in pasta-gliadin by MTG-treatment.

  2. All About the Grains Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equivalents Oatmeal (WG**) ½ cup, cooked 1 packet instant 1 ounce (1/3 cup), dry (regular or ... cup, cooked = 2 ounce-equivalents Pasta-- spaghetti, macaroni, noodles WG**: whole wheat RG**: enriched, durum ½ cup, ...

  3. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  4. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Anawar, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  5. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  6. QUALIDADE DE PASTAS DE CEBOLA /QUALITY OF ONION CREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRÍCIA PRATI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de conservação sobre a qualidade de pasta de cebola armazenada à temperatura ambiente (25ºC. Foram testados três métodos de conservação do produto envasado em vidros: branqueamento da pasta após trituração, seguido de enchimento à quente (BD; branqueamento da matéria-prima antes da trituração, seguido de exaustão e pasteurização (BA; e, branqueamento da matéria-prima antes da trituração, adição de conservante químico e envase a frio em embalagens de vidro (CV e potes plásticos (CP. Os produtos processados foram estocados por 90 dias, sendo avaliados no tempo zero e a cada 30 dias através de análises objetivas de cor e análise sensorial dos atributos aparência, cor, odor e sabor. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente através do teste de médias (Tukey e Análise de Variância (ANOVA. Em relação à avaliação objetiva de cor, todas as amostras apresentaram escurecimento durante o tempo de estocagem. As avaliações sensoriais revelaram que apenas o atributo odor sofreu queda significativa no decorrer do armazenamento das amostras CV e BA. Os demais atributos não apresentaram alterações significativas durante o tempo de avaliação. As amostras tratadas quimicamente apresentaram melhor aparência e cor, que sãofatores importantes para o consumidor.Palavras-chaves: Hortaliças, Conservação, Avaliação Sensorial.

  7. Effect of the inclusion of dry pasta by-products at different levels in the diet of typical Italian finishing heavy pigs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Moschini, M; Giuberti, G; Morlacchini, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of pasta inclusion in finishing pig diets was evaluated on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality. Pigs (144) were assigned to 4 diets with different pasta levels: 0 (control, corn-based diet), 30, 60, or 80%. Pigs fed pasta had greater (linear, PPasta increased (quadratic, PPasta decreased (linear, Ppasta. Pasta could be considered as an ingredient in the diet for typical Italian finishing heavy pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PENGEBLUR DAUN INDIGO PENGHASIL PASTA PEWARNA ALAMI BAGI UKM PENGRAJIN BATIK DI KECAMATAN GUNUNG PATI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayuningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pewarna alami dari daun indigo yang berupa pasta sangat mudah dalam pemrosesannya, sangat menjanjikan apabila dijadikan suatu usaha karena pengusaha batik saat ini sudah tersebar diseluruh propinsi, sehingga kedepannya batik bisa menjadi komoditi eksport dengan pemanfaatan pewarna alamiah ini. Pewarna alami dari pasta daun indigo sangat ramah lingkungan, limbah yang dihasilkan bisa menyuburkan tanaman, selain itu pola penanaman yang sangat mudah. Pasta Indigo pada proses pembuatannya berbiaya rendah, sehingga sangat menguntungkan. Hal ini bisa mensejahterakan penduduk pedesaan dengan memanfaatkan sumberdaya pedesaan dengan budidaya tanaman indigo dengan pemanfaatan lahan-lahan kosong dimana masa petiknya adalah 3 bulan dan setelah 3 tahun tanaman diganti yang baru. Metode kegiatan yang dilaksanakan adalah pelatihan dan bimbingan implementasi IPTEK sederhana melalui pengenalan sistem produksi tepat guna. Hasil yang dicapai adalah mesin pengeblur dan mesin perajang daun khusus berbahan stenlis, sehingga umur ekonomisnya panjang, alat bisa diatur sedemikian rupa sehingga hasil pemotongan daun indigo dengan mesin perajang bisa terpotong sempurna karena kalau dilakukan perendaman bisa maksimal, demikian juga mesin pengeblur sangat efektif karena tidak melakukan secara manual pada proses pengebluran. Pasta Indigo diharapkan mampu meningkatkan peran industri mikro dalam pembangunan daerah, penciptaan lapangan kerja, peningkatan pendapatan bagi Pengrajin batik, maupun yang berkeinginan menekuni usaha penghasil pasta dengan menggandeng para pengrajin batik.

  9. Impact of ionisation on the conservation of fresh stuffed pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhaou, Thouraya

    2012-01-01

    Fresh stuffed pasta are highly appreciated by consumers due to their specific taste and flavor. However, they are perishable foodstuffs having a short shelf life. The aim of this work was to extend their shelf life using three doses of ionizing gamma 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Studing the impact of this treatment on the microbiological (FAMT, E-coli, Staphylococcus coagulase, Sallmonelle, yeasts and molds), physicochemical (pH, water content and water activity), sensory (color) and cooking qualities (swelling, cooking loss and spalling) of the product showed the effectiveness of its doses toward the spoilage and pathogenic flora. However, organoleptic and cooking qualities were significantly affected by the doses 3 and 5 kGy. Only the dose 1 kGy could improve the microbiological quality without influencing the organoleptic and culinary qualities of the product. The shelf life prediction according to ASLT (Accelerated Shelf Life Testing) method of different samples confirmed the effectiveness of the dose 1 kGy which gave the highest shelf life value (62 days). As the shelf life of un-ionized product is 45 days, the 1 kGy dose has allowed extending the shelf life of 17 days.

  10. Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence and modulation instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    We give a qualitative conceptual explanation of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) like recurrence in the onedimensional focusing nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). The recurrence can be considered as a result of the nonlinear development of the modulation instability. All known exact localized solitary wave solutions describing propagation on the background of the modulationally unstable condensate show the recurrence to the condensate state after its interaction with solitons. The condensate state locally recovers its original form with the same amplitude but a different phase after soliton leave its initial region. Based on the integrability of the NLSE, we demonstrate that the FPU recurrence takes place not only for condensate, but also for a more general solution in the form of the cnoidal wave. This solution is periodic in space and can be represented as a solitonic lattice. That lattice reduces to isolated soliton solution in the limit of large distance between solitons. The lattice transforms into the condensate in the opposite limit of dense soliton packing. The cnoidal wave is also modulationally unstable due to soliton overlapping. The recurrence happens at the nonlinear stage of the modulation instability. Due to generic nature of the underlying mathematical model, the proposed concept can be applied across disciplines and nonlinear systems, ranging from optical communications to hydrodynamics.

  11. Tunable heat conduction through coupled Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a study on heat conduction through coupled Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains by using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our attention is dedicated to showing how the phonon transport is affected by the interchain coupling. It has been well accepted that the heat conduction could be impeded by the interchain interaction due to the interface phonon scattering. However, recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that the thermal conductivity of nanoscale materials can be counterintuitively enhanced by the interaction with the substrate. In the present paper, by consecutively varying the interchain coupling intensity, we observed both enhancement and suppression of thermal transport through the coupled FPU chains. For weak interchain couplings, it is found that the heat flux increases with the coupling intensity, whereas in the case of strong interchain couplings, the energy transport is found to be suppressed by the interchain interaction. Based on the phonon spectral energy density method, we attribute the enhancement of the energy transport to the excited phonon modes (in addition to the intrinsic phonon modes), while the upward shift of the high-frequency phonon branch and the interface phonon-phonon scattering account for the suppressed heat conduction.

  12. Absorption and distribution of Zn by spring wheat in high zinc soil and effect of rhizosphere soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Lingyu; Wei Dongpu; Hua Luo; Chen Shibao

    1999-01-01

    The isotope tracer technique was used to study the absorption and distribution of 65 Zn by spring wheat in high zinc soil. The results showed that the distribution of 65 Zn in the organs of spring wheat was in the order as stem leaf>grain>root>wheat husk; the specific activity of 65 Zn and the transfer factor of 65 Zn in the organs of spring wheat were in the order as root>grain>wheat husk>stem leaf. With added 65 Zn increased, the absorption amount of 65 Zn by spring wheat and the distribution of 65 Zn in root increased. The 65 Zn applied was enriched by rhizosphere soil of spring wheat

  13. 77 FR 11065 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey, covering...

  14. 77 FR 15718 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... notice of initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from...

  15. 77 FR 12008 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... notice of initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from...

  16. 77 FR 11485 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Turkey, covering...

  17. 76 FR 6604 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy, covering...

  18. Pengaruh Cara Kematian Ikan Dan Tahapan Penurunan Kondisi Kesegaran Ikan Terhadap Kualitas Pasta Ikan Gurami (Osphronemous Gouramy)

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Danuar Adi; Darmanto, YS; Romadhon, -

    2014-01-01

    Cara kematian ikan dapat mempengaruhi kualitas produk olahannya sehingga diperlukan bahan baku dengan tingkat kesegaran tertentu untuk menghasilkan bahan baku produk olahan yang baik. Salah satu produk olahan tersebut adalah pasta ikan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh cara kematian dan penurunan kesegaran ikan yang berbeda terhadap kualitas pasta ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy). Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan pada penelitian utama adalah eksperimental laboratories ...

  19. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  1. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  2. Pasta Structures of Quark-Hadron Phase Transition in Proto-Neutron Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2011-01-01

    We study the quark-hadron mixed phase in proto-neutron stars with the finite-size effects. In the calculations of pasta structures appeared in the mixed phase, the Gibbs conditions require the pressure balance and chemical equilibrium between two phases besides the thermal equilibrium. We find that the region of the mixed phase is limited due to thermal instability. Moreover, we study the effects of neutrinos to the pasta structures. As a result, we find that the existence of neutrinos make the pasta structures unstable, too. These characteristic features of the hadron-quark mixed phase should be important for the middle stage of the evolutions of proto-neutron stars.

  3. Solitons as candidates for energy carriers in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Ye, Liu; Chen, Han-Shuang; Mao, Shi-Feng; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Currently, effective phonons (renormalized or interacting phonons) rather than solitary waves (for short, solitons) are regarded as the energy carriers in nonlinear lattices. In this work, by using the approximate soliton solutions of the corresponding equations of motion and adopting the Boltzmann distribution for these solitons, the average velocities of solitons are obtained and are compared with the sound velocities of energy transfer. Excellent agreements with the numerical results and the predictions of other existing theories are shown in both the symmetric Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β lattices and the asymmetric Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-α β lattices. These clearly indicate that solitons are suitable candidates for energy carriers in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices. In addition, the root-mean-square velocity of solitons can be obtained from the effective phonons theory.

  4. Cogeneration plant in a pasta factory: Energy saving and environmental benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panno, Domenico; Messineo, Antonio; Dispenza, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Italy produces approximately 4,520,000 tons of pasta annually, which is about 67% of its total productive potential. As factories need electric and thermal energy simultaneously, combined heat and power (CHP) systems are the most suitable. This paper describes a feasibility study of a CHP plant in a pasta factory in Italy while analyzing energy saving and environmental benefits. Commercially available CHP systems suitable for the power range of energy demand in pasta production use reciprocating engines or gas turbines. This study demonstrates how their use can reduce both energy costs and CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gas emission in the environment. An economic analysis was performed following the methodology set out by Italian National Agency for Technology, Energy and Environment (ENEA) based on a discounted cash flow (DCF) method called 'Valore Attuale Netto' (VAN), which uses a cash flow based on the saving of energy when using different energy processes

  5. Disordered nuclear pasta, magnetic field decay, and crust cooling in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Cumming, A.; Schneider, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear pasta, with non-spherical shapes, is expected near the base of the crust in neutron stars. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations of pasta show long lived topological defects that could increase electron scattering and reduce both the thermal and electrical conductivities. We model a possible low conductivity pasta layer by increasing an impurity parameter Qimp. Predictions of light curves for the low mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29, assuming a large Qimp, find continued late time cooling that is consistent with Chandra observations. The electrical and thermal conductivities are likely related. Therefore observations of late time crust cooling can provide insight on the electrical conductivity and the possible decay of neutron star magnetic fields (assuming these are supported by currents in the crust). This research was supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  6. Karakteristik Pasta TiO2 Suhu Rendah untuk Aplikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Al Qibtiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada tulisan ini, diuraikan karakteristik pasta TiO2 suhu rendah untuk aplikasi sel surya berbasis dye-sensitized yang dipreparasi dengan penambahan serbuk TiO2 reflektor. Penambahan TiO2 reflektor sebagai light scattering layer pada pasta dilakukan untuk melihat pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik listrik sel surya yang dihasilkan. Preparasi pasta dilakukan menggunakan bahan komersial yaitu pasta T-Nanooxide D-L (Solaronix dan serbuk pasta WER2-O (Dyesiol sebagai bahan reflector. Bahan tersebut dianalisis struktur kristalnya. Hasil karakterisasi X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukan bahwa bahan TiO2 serbuk yang digunakan adalah nanokristal dengan struktur kristal anatase. Pasta ini dideposisi di atas permukaan plastik dan kaca konduktif (ITO-PET dan FTO dengan metode doctor blade printing. Proses sintering lapisan TiO2 dilakukan pada suhu rendah yaitu 120 ˚C selama 4 jam. Morfologi permukaan lapisan TiO2 dianalisa menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Lapisan TiO2 yang terbentuk diaplikasikan pada DSSC sebagai fotoelektroda. Pewarnaan dengan larutan N-719 (Ruthenium Complex, lapisan elektroda kerja platina dan larutan elektrolit iodine. Karakteristik kurva I-V dengan ukuran sel daerah aktif 1 cm2 diukur menggunakan Sun Simulator AM1,5 dengan sumber cahaya Xenon dan intensitas 50 mW/cm2. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan penambahan serbuk TiO2 reflektor dapat meningkatkan unjuk kerja sel surya fleksibel yang dihasilkan. Efisiensi terbaik DSSC yang dihasilkan adalah 0,166% untuk substrat plastik dan 0,167% untuk substrat kaca.

  7. Sustancias maleables en el proceso de la escultura: pastas cerámicas

    OpenAIRE

    Cambra Antón, Marta de

    2016-01-01

    Esta tesis se basa en la obtención de pastas cerámicas nuevas, mediante el estudio y la combinación de materias primas y otras sustancias que respondan a unas características predeterminadas para ser utilizadas en la creación de la obra artística. Dichas pastas se forman al introducir en las arcillas otras materias que sirven para corregir los defectos que se producen en el moldeado, en el secado o en la cocción. Esta tesis pretende ser un archivo de arcillas sintéticas, testadas y documenta...

  8. PERBEDAAN DAYA HAMBAT PASTA GIGI BERBAHAN HERBAL TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Susi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKaries gigi dan penyakit periodontal dapat dicegah dengan mengontrol pembentukan plak secara teratur. Penggunaan pasta gigi herbal dapat memberikan efek kimia untuk mengontrol pembentukan plak. Studi terdahulu mendapatkan bahwa pasta gigi herbal dapat mengurangi jumlah bakteri utama pada rongga mulut yaitu Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti perbedaan daya hambat beberapa pasta gigi herbal (mengandung siwak, cengkeh, dan daun sirih terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans. Metode penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan meletakkan cakram yang sudah direndam dengan pasta gigi ke medium agar darah yang mengandung koloni Streptococcus mutans. Uji daya hambat bakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi. Terbentuknya zona bening di sekitar koloni bakteri menunjukkan adanya penghambatan pertumbuhan bakteri uji. Hasil uji satu arah ANOVA menunjukkan adanya perbedaan daya hambat yang bermakna antar pasta gigi herbal yang digunakan (p<0.05. Ketiga pasta gigi didapakan memiliki kemampuan antibakteri kuat dengan rata-rata zona hambat 16.075 mm, 13.375 mm dan 11.080 mm. Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa pasta gigi herbal mempunyai efek anti bakteri terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans dengan efek anti bakteri terkuat di tunjukkan oleh pasta gigi mengandung cengkeh.AbstractDental caries and periodontal disease can be eliminated by regularly control plaque formation. The usage of herbal toothpaste is able to give chemical effect toward plaque control. Previous studies shown that the usage of herbal toothpaste was able to reduce the growth of Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteria in the mouth. The study aimed at investigating the difference of zone of inhibition of several herbal toothpastes (siwak- , cloves- , and betel leaves- contained toward the growth of Streptococcus mutans.This study was experimental research using disc that had been immersed and subsequently put it onto Blood agar medium that contain Streptococcus mutans

  9. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  10. Using different classification models in wheat grading utilizing visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basati, Zahra; Rasekh, Mansour; Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Yousef

    2018-04-01

    Wheat is one of the most important strategic crops in Iran and in the world. The major component that distinguishes wheat from other grains is the gluten section. In Iran, sunn pest is one of the most important factors influencing the characteristics of wheat gluten and in removing it from a balanced state. The existence of bug-damaged grains in wheat will reduce the quality and price of the product. In addition, damaged grains reduce the enrichment of wheat and the quality of bread products. In this study, after preprocessing and segmentation of images, 25 features including 9 colour features, 10 morphological features, and 6 textual statistical features were extracted so as to classify healthy and bug-damaged wheat grains of Azar cultivar of four levels of moisture content (9, 11.5, 14 and 16.5% w.b.) and two lighting colours (yellow light, the composition of yellow and white lights). Using feature selection methods in the WEKA software and the CfsSubsetEval evaluator, 11 features were chosen as inputs of artificial neural network, decision tree and discriment analysis classifiers. The results showed that the decision tree with the J.48 algorithm had the highest classification accuracy of 90.20%. This was followed by artificial neural network classifier with the topology of 11-19-2 and discrimient analysis classifier at 87.46 and 81.81%, respectively

  11. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  12. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  13. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem: Simulation and modern dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissert, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    In 1952, Enrico Fermi, John Pasta and Stanislaw Ulam (FPU) simulated the loaded string model, perturbed with small, nonlinear interaction terms. Because Poincare's theorem guarantees the non-existence of a complete set of integrals for three-body problem, they expected to see the diffusion of energy from its single-mode initial condition to all other modes of the string. But for every combination of initial conditions, the energy remained bounded within the lowest few modes. No theoretical explanation existed for this failure of the underlying hypothesis that erogidicity follows from the lack of a complete set of integrals of the motion in a Hamiltonian model. The author traces the history of this problem from the FPU simulation to the point that a consensus was reached concerning its solution twenty years later. During this period, the simulation of nonlinearly-perturbed integral models became the methodology for a new era in dynamics. Through the use of simulation, dynamicists discovered deterministic chaos, in which the exponential separation of pair orbits generate randomness in deterministic macroscopic systems, and a new kind of structure-related to the KAM theorem-that provides limited order in the absence of analytic integrals of the motions. The author maps the set of conceptually-related journal articles into a chronological inference topology that tracks the understanding of this problem of dynamics. Simulating non-integrable models on a digital computer requires the discretization of time and space. These approximations affect what the simulation can reveal about the model, and the model about reality. Simulations play the role of experiments on mathematical models. A discussion is presented of the issues that emerge with the use of simulation as a heuristic device and the groundwork is laid for an epistemology of simulation

  14. Structural and Nutritional Properties of Pasta from Triticum monococcum and Triticum durum Species. A Combined ¹H NMR, MRI, and Digestibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Gabriella; Greco, Fulvia; Cremonini, Mauro A; Brandolini, Andrea; Consonni, Roberto; Gussoni, Maristella

    2015-05-27

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of two different types of pasta, namely Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (cv. Saragolla) and Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cv. Monlis), under different processing conditions. MRI analysis and NMR spectroscopy (i.e., T1 and T2 NMR relaxation times and diffusion parameters) were conducted on pasta, and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of the chemical compounds released by pasta samples during the cooking process was performed. In addition, starch digestibility (enzimatically determined) was also investigated. The NMR results indicated that Saragolla pasta has a more compact structure, ascribed to pasta network and in particular to different technological gluten properties, that mainly determine the lower ability of Monlis pasta in binding water. These results correlate well with the lower rate of starch hydrolysis measured for Monlis pasta compared to Saragolla when both are dried at high temperature.

  15. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  16. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  17. Productividad y eficiencia de uso de nitrógeno y energía en pollos de engorda alimentados con pasta de soya o pasta de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gómez Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos experimentos de sacrificio para evaluar el crecimiento, contenido y deposición de tejidos y retención de proteína y energía en la carne de la canal en pollos en crecimiento alimentados con pasta de canola (PCAN en sustitución de pasta de soya (PSOY. En el Exp 1, seis pollos machos, de 43 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 36 pollos fueron asignados a tres dietas con cantidades crecientes de PCAN (0, 10 y 20 % combinadas con dos niveles de lisina digestible (LD: 0.85 y 0.95 %. En el Exp 2, seis hembras y seis machos, de 28 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 72 pollos fueron asignados, por sexo, a dos dietas (PSOY o PCAN como único ingrediente proteico combinadas con tres niveles de energía (3.0, 3.1 y 3.2 Mcal de EM/kg de alimento. Cada experimento duró dos semanas y al final todos los pollos fueron sacrificados. En el Exp 1, no hubo diferencias estadísticas en la productividad o retención de proteína y energía en la canal entre niveles de PCAN (P>0.05. En el Exp 2, el consumo de alimento, proteína y energía y la deposición de grasa fueron mayores (P<0.05 con PSOY, pero la ganancia de peso, eficiencia alimenticia y retención de proteína y energía en la canal fueron similares entre dietas. Los resultados indican que es factible sustituir parcial o totalmente la pasta de soya por pasta de canola en la dieta de pollos de engorda en crecimiento.

  18. Perubahan warna basis akrilik setelah penggunaan pasta pembersih gigitiruan rosella (The changes of acrylic base color after using roselle pasta denture cleanser)

    OpenAIRE

    Evan G. Tunggal; Moh. Dharmautama; Eri H. Jubhari

    2015-01-01

    This clinical experimental study was aimed to determine the effect of roselle denture cleanser paste usage on acrylic base color degradation. Acrylic base color degradation was assessed by providing roselle denture cleanser to 5 subjects to be used every day. In month 3, 6 and 9, data collection were performed by a professional photographer and assessed by CIELab system. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon and friedman two ways. Acrylic base color, before and after pasta using, show...

  19. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  20. Experimental Demonstration of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Recurrence in a Modulationally Unstable Optical Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Simaeys, G.; Emplit, Ph.; Haelterman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Through a detailed spectral analysis of the propagation of square-shaped laser pulses in optical fibers, we provide the experimental demonstration of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon in modulationally unstable optical waves ruled by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

  1. Exploiting direct and indirect methods for the detection of the total carotenoid content in dried pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Végvári, G.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The total carotenoid concentration (TCC) of several commercially available dried pastas prepared with or without eggs was assessed by means of the two well-established destructive approaches [spectrophotometry (SP) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)] and three non-destructive, direct

  2. Quantitive theory of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infeld, E.

    1981-01-01

    By limiting attention to the lowest-order Fourier modes we obtain a theory of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence that gives excellent agreement with recent numerical results. Both the predicted period of the recurrence and the temporal development of the n = 0 mode are very good fits. The maximum of the n = 1 mode, however, is off by about 30%

  3. Starch and antioxidant compound release during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of gluten-free pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Rosell, Cristina M; de J Perea-Flores, Maria; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2018-10-15

    The microstructure of cooked gluten-free pasta depends on the ingredients used, and this microstructure affects the starch hydrolysis (SH), the release of phenolic compounds (PC) and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the SD and bioaccessibility of PC during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of gluten-free pasta and its relationship with the microstructure. The highest SH was during the intestinal phase (≈60%), but pasta with the highest content of unripe plantain and chickpea presented the lowest release of PC (≈60%). The insoluble dietary fibre could be responsible (≈12.5%) for these effects. The cooked pasta showed high AC in the intestinal phase. Regions with gelatinized starch granules in a less dense protein network and other regions with intact or swollen granules surrounded by a protein network were observed. The starch digestion and bioaccessibility of PC were related to the structure of the matrix. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeting Aging with Functional Food: Pasta with Opuntia Single-Arm Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Candore, Giuseppina; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Aldo; Gambino, Caterina Maria; Ruisi, Paolo; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya; Accardi, Giulia

    2018-06-01

    Interventions to extend life span represent the new perspective in aging investigation. Healthy dietary habits are important modifiable factors that can favor a healthy aging phenotype. Many studies have demonstrated benefits for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus resulting from the traditional Mediterranean foods. Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI), widespread in the Mediterranean basin, belongs to the Cactaceae family. It is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, products containing extracts from OFI fruits or cladodes have been used to control obesity and other metabolic parameters, such as glycemia and lipid profile. The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of pasta with 3% of OFI cladode extracts added to show its beneficial effect in human health. We performed a single arm longitudinal intervention study in 42 healthy volunteers, administrating 500 g/week of this functional pasta for 30 days. Our pasta had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with putative effect on the aging process and related metabolic diseases. We also demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect. The results are preliminary, but it is possible to speculate that our pasta could be considered an effective food for the prevention of age-related metabolic disorders.

  5. Effect of processing on phenolic acids composition and radical scavenging capacity of barley pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paula, Rosanna; Rabalski, Iwona; Messia, Maria Cristina; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Marconi, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids, total phenolics content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity in raw ingredients, fresh and dried spaghetti, and in uncooked and cooked spaghetti were evaluated and compared with semolina spaghetti as a reference. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid found in the free and bound phenolic extracts in all the investigated pasta samples. The addition of barley flour into pasta at incorporation levels of 30, 50 and 100% increased phenolic acids and total phenolics content. Pasta processing did not significantly affect the total phenolics content and free radical scavenging capacity, but a significant reduction in total phenolic acids measured by HPLC was found. Drying process differently affected individual phenolic compounds in the free and bound fractions, and thus, the total phenolic acids content. Free vanillic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids did not significantly change, while p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids of the free extracts showed higher values compared to the corresponding fresh pasta. Cooking did not greatly affect total phenolic acids, more leading to conserving free and bound phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composición de la pasta de cemento Pórtland (Parte II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Esta es Ia segunda parte del articulo que revisa el trabajo de Powers y Brownyard (1948) quienes fueron los primeros que investigaron sistemáticamente a reaccion del cemento con el agua y Ia composicion de Ia pasta de cemento.

  7. Thermal response of a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain with Andersen thermostats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ambrosio, Federico; Baiesi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The linear response to temperature variations is well characterised for equilibrium systems but a similar theory is not available, for example, for inertial heat conducting systems, whose paradigm is the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model driven by two different boundary temperatures. For models of

  8. 76 FR 23973 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... S.r.L. (``Afeltra''), Pasta Zara SpA (``Zara''), Pastificio Di Martino Gaetano & F.lli SpA (``Di..., P.A.P., Riscossa, Rustichella, and Zara (collectively ``certain non-mandatory respondents..., dated November 24, 2010. On November 29, 2010, Di Martino, Felicetti, and Zara withdrew their requests...

  9. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment and natu...... with lower soil N levels, and vice versa for wheat, paving way for future option to reduce N inputs and negative environmental impacts of agricultural crop production......., grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  10. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...

  11. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  12. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Gagne, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are covered: the status of the Government's existing uranium enrichment services contracts, natural uranium requirements based on the latest contract information, uncertainty in predicting natural uranium requirements based on uranium enrichment contracts, and domestic and foreign demand assumed in enrichment planning

  13. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  14. Isolation and characterization of starch from industrial fresh pasta by-product and its potential use in sugar-snap cookie making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Soumaya Zouari; Driss, Dorra; Maktouf, Sameh; Neifar, Mohamed; Kobbi, Ameni; Kamoun, Hounaida; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouze; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouze

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, starch was extracted from fresh pasta by-product (PS) and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Commercial wheat starch (CS) was used as reference. In general, purity was similar between starches studied. However, others compounds such as protein, lipid and ash were significantly different. PS starch granules had large lenticular-shape (25-33 μm) and small spherical-shape (5-8 μm). The pH and color of PS starch were similar to those reported for CS starch. On the other hand, PS had higher water absorption capacity, viscosity and cooking stability than CS. The gelatinization temperature of PS was similar to that of CS (60 and 61 °C). At high temperature (90 °C) both starches had similar rheological behavior. The results achieved suggest that PS starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures such the manufacture of sugar snap cookie. The effects of PS starch addition on the dough making stage and the final cookie quality were analyzed. Improvements in dough cohesiveness (24 %) and springiness (10 %) were significant relative to those of CS dough. Texture profile analysis confirmed the rheological changes.

  15. The external PASTA domain of the essential serine/threonine protein kinase PknB regulates mycobacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turapov, Obolbek; Loraine, Jessica; Jenkins, Christopher H; Barthe, Philippe; McFeely, Daniel; Forti, Francesca; Ghisotti, Daniela; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Bottrill, Andrew R; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mobashery, Shahriar; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Mukamolova, Galina V

    2015-07-01

    PknB is an essential serine/threonine protein kinase required for mycobacterial cell division and cell-wall biosynthesis. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of the external PknB_PASTA domain in mycobacteria results in delayed regrowth, accumulation of elongated bacteria and increased sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. These changes are accompanied by altered production of certain enzymes involved in cell-wall biosynthesis as revealed by proteomics studies. The growth inhibition caused by overexpression of the PknB_PASTA domain is completely abolished by enhanced concentration of magnesium ions, but not muropeptides. Finally, we show that the addition of recombinant PASTA domain could prevent regrowth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and therefore offers an alternative opportunity to control replication of this pathogen. These results suggest that the PknB_PASTA domain is involved in regulation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and maintenance of cell-wall architecture.

  16. Genomic Imprinting Was Evolutionarily Conserved during Wheat Polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghui; Liu, Zhenshan; Gao, Lulu; Yu, Kuohai; Feng, Man; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu; Xin, Mingming

    2018-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be differentially expressed depending on their parent of origin. To evaluate the evolutionary conservation of genomic imprinting and the effects of ploidy on this process, we investigated parent-of-origin-specific gene expression patterns in the endosperm of diploid ( Aegilops spp), tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat ( Triticum spp) at various stages of development via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. We identified 91, 135, and 146 maternally or paternally expressed genes (MEGs or PEGs, respectively) in diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat, respectively, 52.7% of which exhibited dynamic expression patterns at different developmental stages. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that MEGs and PEGs were involved in metabolic processes and DNA-dependent transcription, respectively. Nearly half of the imprinted genes exhibited conserved expression patterns during wheat hexaploidization. In addition, 40% of the homoeolog pairs originating from whole-genome duplication were consistently maternally or paternally biased in the different subgenomes of hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, imprinted expression was found for 41.2% and 50.0% of homolog pairs that evolved by tandem duplication after genome duplication in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, respectively. These results suggest that genomic imprinting was evolutionarily conserved between closely related Triticum and Aegilops species and in the face of polyploid hybridization between species in these genera. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Uranium Enrichment, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF 6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs

  18. The syntactic organization of pasta-eating and the structure of reach movements in the head-fixed mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, Ian Q; Faraji, Jamshid; Kuntz, Jessica R; Mirza Agha, Behroo; Metz, Gerlinde A S; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-09-08

    Mice are adept in the use of their hands for activities such as feeding, which has led to their use in investigations of the neural basis of skilled-movements. We describe the syntactic organization of pasta-eating and the structure of hand movements used for pasta manipulation by the head-fixed mouse. An ethogram of mice consuming pieces of spaghetti reveals that they eat in bite/chew bouts. A bout begins with pasta lifted to the mouth and then manipulated with hand movements into a preferred orientation for biting. Manipulation involves many hand release-reach movements, each with a similar structure. A hand is advanced from a digit closed and flexed (collect) position to a digit extended and open position (overgrasp) and then to a digit closed and flexed (grasp) position. Reach distance, hand shaping, and grasp patterns featuring precision grasps or whole hand grasps are related. To bite, mice display hand preference and asymmetric grasps; one hand (guide grasp) directs food into the mouth and the other stabilizes the pasta for biting. When chewing after biting, the hands hold the pasta in a symmetric resting position. Pasta-eating is organized and features structured hand movements and so lends itself to the neural investigation of skilled-movements.

  19. PASTA repeats of the protein kinase StkP interconnect cell constriction and separation of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchini, Laure; Mercy, Chryslène; Garcia, Pierre Simon; Cluzel, Caroline; Gueguen-Chaignon, Virginie; Galisson, Frédéric; Freton, Céline; Guiral, Sébastien; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gouet, Patrice; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    Eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases (eSTKs) with extracellular PASTA repeats are key membrane regulators of bacterial cell division. How PASTA repeats govern eSTK activation and function remains elusive. Using evolution- and structural-guided approaches combined with cell imaging, we disentangle the role of each PASTA repeat of the eSTK StkP from Streptococcus pneumoniae. While the three membrane-proximal PASTA repeats behave as interchangeable modules required for the activation of StkP independently of cell wall binding, they also control the septal cell wall thickness. In contrast, the fourth and membrane-distal PASTA repeat directs StkP localization at the division septum and encompasses a specific motif that is critical for final cell separation through interaction with the cell wall hydrolase LytB. We propose a model in which the extracellular four-PASTA domain of StkP plays a dual function in interconnecting the phosphorylation of StkP endogenous targets along with septal cell wall remodelling to allow cell division of the pneumococcus.

  20. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained...

  2. Taste-active Components of Beers from Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccum Malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emmer wheat (EW, Triticum dicoccum grows under adverse climatic and soil conditions in the hilly areas of Italy and other temperate regions. So far, EW has been used for pasta or bakery products. The malt obtained from EW was used to produce a light beer, a double malt beer, and beers with 50% (B50 and 30% (B30 EW malt combined with barley malt. These top-fermented beers showed a sweet, fruity, citrus character. The different sensory impact and chemical composition (betaglucans and flavanoids of the beers was related to the germinative energy of EW and the different proportions of malted EW and barley malt. The light beer combines the moderate alcohol (3% vol. with a good intake of natural antioxidants (total phenolic content, TPC, 85 mg l−1, whereas B50 showed a high TPC (109 mg l−1 and the highest beta-glucan content (27 mg l−1.

  3. Consumer attitudes toward new pasta products in Iran market: A qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Aghaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Developed food production lines recently have built factories for novel products to find a position in the market faster, although innovation is still expensive and risky. This study focuses on con-tributors who persuade consumers to purchase new pasta products in Tehran, and tries to determine the correlation among the criteria. This is conducted from the market experts’ view points along with a blend of grounded theory and DEMATEL. The results indicate that quality, price, packag-ing, promotion, phantasm and place parameters enhance new pasta pictures on customers’ buying decision making. According to experts, quality and price are the most influential factors and promo-tion and phantasm are completely ineffective. In addition, cultural parameters, especially local reci-pes as well as customers’ palate are important in this process.

  4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS TO THE PASTA PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulexis Meneses Linares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to combine the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP methodologies for the determination of risks that the food production represents to the human health and the ecosystem. The environmental performance of the production of pastas in the “Marta Abreu” Pasta Factory of Cienfuegos is assessed, where the critical control points determined by the biological dangers (mushrooms and plagues and the physical dangers (wood, paper, thread and ferromagnetic particles were the raw materials: flour, semolina and its mixtures, and the disposition and extraction of them. Resources are the most affected damage category due to the consumption of fossil fuels.

  5. Phase diagram of nuclear 'pasta' and its uncertainties in supernova cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    We examine the model dependence of the phase diagram of inhomogeneous nulcear matter in supernova cores using the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD). Inhomogeneous matter includes crystallized matter with nonspherical nuclei--''pasta'' phases--and the liquid-gas phase-separating nuclear matter. Major differences between the phase diagrams of the QMD models can be explained by the energy of pure neutron matter at low densities and the saturation density of asymmetric nuclear matter. We show the density dependence of the symmetry energy is also useful to understand uncertainties of the phase diagram. We point out that, for typical nuclear models, the mass fraction of the pasta phases in the later stage of the collapsing cores is higher than 10-20%

  6. Time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach to nuclear ``pasta'' at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Klatt, M. A.; Iida, K.; Maruhn, J. A.; Mecke, K.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2013-05-01

    We present simulations of neutron-rich matter at subnuclear densities, like supernova matter, with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation at temperatures of several MeV. The initial state consists of α particles randomly distributed in space that have a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in momentum space. Adding a neutron background initialized with Fermi distributed plane waves the calculations reflect a reasonable approximation of astrophysical matter. This matter evolves into spherical, rod-like, and slab-like shapes and mixtures thereof. The simulations employ a full Skyrme interaction in a periodic three-dimensional grid. By an improved morphological analysis based on Minkowski functionals, all eight pasta shapes can be uniquely identified by the sign of only two valuations, namely the Euler characteristic and the integral mean curvature. In addition, we propose the variance in the cell density distribution as a measure to distinguish pasta matter from uniform matter.

  7. PARTIAL ARTICULAR SUPRASPINATUS TENDON AVULSION (PASTA) LESION. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN REHABILITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotator cuff pathology can contribute to shoulder pain and may affect the performance of sport activities, work, and activities of daily living. The partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion (PASTA) lesion represents a very common type of rotator cuff pathology seen in rehabilitation. When conservative treatment fails, surgery is generally required. Success of recovery depends on several factors, including: repair techniques, healing process related to timing, rehabilitation programs, and patient compliance with home exercises. To date, most treatment modalities and rehabilitation programs are based on clinical experience rather than scientific evidence. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to provide an overview on the PASTA lesion, discuss the common treatment approaches adopted to date and to propose a rehabilitation program based on the available scientific evidence. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:27274431

  8. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1988-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

  9. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1987-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  10. Exact compact breather-like solutions of two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ranja; Dey, Bishwajyoti

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice support exact discrete compact breather-like solutions. We also find exact compact breather solutions of the same lattice in presence of long-range interaction with r -s dependence on the distance in the continuum limit. The usefulness of these solutions for energy localization and transport in various physical systems are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  11. Uranium enrichment: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a general presentation of uranium enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. It gives first some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general and explains the differences between statistical and selective processes in particular. Then a review of the different processes is made with a comparison between them. Finally, some general remarks concerning applications are given and the risks of proliferation related to enrichment are mentioned. (J.S.). 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  12. The enrichment secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einbund, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper will addresses two topics: the background to the present status of the enrichment secondary market and the future outlook of the secondary market in enrichment services, and the viability of the nuclear fuel brokerage industry. These two topics are inevitably connected, as most secondary market activity, not only in enrichment but also in natural uranium, has traditionally been conducted with the participation of brokers. Therefore, the author interrelates these topics

  13. A khorasan wheat-based replacement diet improves risk profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Anne; Dinu, Monica; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Fiorillo, Claudia; Becatti, Matteo; Casini, Alessandro; Marcucci, Rossella; Benedettelli, Stefano; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a replacement diet with products made with organic ancient khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing glucose, insulin, lipid and inflammatory risk factors, and in restoring blood redox balance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to diet with product made with modern organic wheat. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases on 21 T2DM patients (14 females, 7 males). The participants were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, crackers and biscuits) made using semi-whole flour from organic wheat that was either from ancient khorasan wheat or modern control wheat for 8 weeks in a random order. An 8-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Laboratory analyses were performed both at the beginning and at the end of each intervention phase. The metabolic risk profile improved only after the khorasan intervention period, as measured by a reduction in total and LDL cholesterol (mean reduction: -3.7 and -3.4 %, respectively), insulin (-16.3 %) and blood glucose (-9.1 %). Similarly, there was a significant reduction in circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1ra, and a significant increase of total antioxidant capacity (+6.3 %). No significant differences from baseline were noted after the modern control wheat intervention phase. The change (from pre- to post-intervention) between the two intervention arms was significantly different (p diet with ancient khorasan wheat consumption provided additive protection in reducing total and LDL cholesterol, insulin, blood glucose, ROS production, and some inflammatory risk factors, which are all key factors warranting of control in secondary prevention of T2DM compared to a diet with products made with modern wheat.

  14. Curvature effect on nuclear 'pasta': Is it helpful for gyroid appearance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    In supernova cores and neutron star crusts, nuclei are thought to deform to rodlike and slablike shapes, which are often called nuclear pasta. We study the equilibrium properties of the nuclear pasta by using a liquid-drop model with curvature corrections. It is confirmed that the curvature effect acts to lower the transition densities between different shapes. We also examine the gyroid structure, which was recently suggested as a different type of nuclear pasta by analogy with the polymer systems. The gyroid structure investigated in this paper is approximately formulated as an extension of the periodic minimal surface whose mean curvature vanishes. In contrast to our expectations, we find, from the present approximate formulation, that the curvature corrections act to slightly disfavor the appearance of the gyroid structure. By comparing the energy corrections in the gyroid phase and the hypothetical phases composed of d-dimensional spheres, where d is a general dimensionality, we show that the gyroid is unlikely to belong to a family of the generalized dimensional spheres.

  15. Nuclear Pasta at Finite Temperature with the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetrumpf, B; Maruhn, J A; Klatt, M A; Mecke, K; Reinhard, P-G; Iida, K

    2016-01-01

    We present simulations of neutron-rich matter at sub-nuclear densities, like supernova matter. With the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation we can study the evolution of the system at temperatures of several MeV employing a full Skyrme interaction in a periodic three-dimensional grid [1].The initial state consists of α particles randomly distributed in space that have a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in momentum space. Adding a neutron background initialized with Fermi distributed plane waves the calculations reflect a reasonable approximation of astrophysical matter.The matter evolves into spherical, rod-like, connected rod-like and slab-like shapes. Further we observe gyroid-like structures, discussed e.g. in [2], which are formed spontaneously choosing a certain value of the simulation box length. The ρ-T-map of pasta shapes is basically consistent with the phase diagrams obtained from QMD calculations [3]. By an improved topological analysis based on Minkowski functionals [4], all observed pasta shapes can be uniquely identified by only two valuations, namely the Euler characteristic and the integral mean curvature.In addition we propose the variance in the cell-density distribution as a measure to distinguish pasta matter from uniform matter. (paper)

  16. Nuclear pasta in hot dense matter and its implications for neutrino scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, Alessandro; Margueron, Jérôme; Roberts, Luke F.; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    The abundance of large clusters of nucleons in neutron-rich matter at subnuclear density is found to be greatly reduced by finite-temperature effects when matter is close to β equilibrium, compared to the case where the electron fraction is fixed at Ye>0.1 , as often considered in the literature. Large nuclei and exotic nonspherical nuclear configurations called pasta, favored in the vicinity of the transition to uniform matter at T =0 , dissolve at a relatively low temperature Tu as protons leak out of nuclei and pasta. For matter at β equilibrium with a negligible neutrino chemical potential we find that Tuβ≃4 ±1 MeV for realistic equations of state. This is lower than the maximum temperature Tmaxβ≃9 ±1 MeV at which nuclei can coexist with a gas of nucleons and can be explained by a change in the nature of the transition to uniform matter called retrograde condensation. An important new finding is that coherent neutrino scattering from nuclei and pasta makes a modest contribution to the opacity under the conditions encountered in supernovas and neutron star mergers. This is because large nuclear clusters dissolve at most relevant temperatures, and at lower temperatures, when clusters are present, Coulomb correlations between them suppress coherent neutrino scattering off individual clusters. Implications for neutrino signals from galactic supernovas are briefly discussed.

  17. Nuclear Pasta at Finite Temperature with the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Klatt, M. A.; Iida, K.; Maruhn, J. A.; Mecke, K.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2016-01-01

    We present simulations of neutron-rich matter at sub-nuclear densities, like supernova matter. With the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation we can study the evolution of the system at temperatures of several MeV employing a full Skyrme interaction in a periodic three-dimensional grid [1]. The initial state consists of α particles randomly distributed in space that have a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in momentum space. Adding a neutron background initialized with Fermi distributed plane waves the calculations reflect a reasonable approximation of astrophysical matter. The matter evolves into spherical, rod-like, connected rod-like and slab-like shapes. Further we observe gyroid-like structures, discussed e.g. in [2], which are formed spontaneously choosing a certain value of the simulation box length. The ρ-T-map of pasta shapes is basically consistent with the phase diagrams obtained from QMD calculations [3]. By an improved topological analysis based on Minkowski functionals [4], all observed pasta shapes can be uniquely identified by only two valuations, namely the Euler characteristic and the integral mean curvature. In addition we propose the variance in the cell-density distribution as a measure to distinguish pasta matter from uniform matter.

  18. Use of natural compounds to improve the microbial stability of Amaranth-based homemade fresh pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nobile, M A; Di Benedetto, N; Suriano, N; Conte, A; Lamacchia, C; Corbo, M R; Sinigaglia, M

    2009-04-01

    A study on the use of natural antimicrobial compounds to improve the microbiological stability of refrigerated amaranth-based homemade fresh pasta is presented in this work. In particular, the antimicrobial activity of thymol, lemon extract, chitosan and grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) has been tested against mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus spp., yeasts and moulds. A sensory analysis on both fresh and cooked pasta was also run. Results suggest that chitosan and GFSE strongly increase the microbial acceptability limit of the investigated spoilage microorganisms, being the former the most effective. Thymol efficiently reduces the growth of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria and Staphylococcus spp., whereas it does not affect, substantially, the growth cycle of total coliforms. Lemon extract is the less effective in preventing microbial growth. In fact, it is able to delay only total mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial evolution. From a sensorial point of view no significant differences were recorded between the control samples and all the types of loaded amaranth-based pasta.

  19. OPTIMASI FORMULA DAN STRUKTUR MIKROSKOPIK PASTA BEBAS GLUTEN BERBAHAN DASAR PUREE UBI JALAR UNGU DAN TEPUNG KACANG HIJAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Mulyawanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize gluten free pasta formula made from purple sweet potato puree and mung bean flour. Aplication of a mixture design allowed to find the optimal composition to achieve the desirable characteristic. The results showed that the optimal formula was mixture of 45.25% purple sweet potato puree and 51.75% mung bean flour. The characteristics of the chosen formula were springiness of 2.29 mm, 0.38 cohesiveness, cooking loss 17.62%,333.48 ͼHue, Ie   20.59%, and 42.42 mg/L anthocyanin content. Microscopic structure showed that cooked pasta with purple sweet potato puree composition below 50% in the formula had a solid texture appearance.   Keywords: Pasta, purple sweet potatoes, gluten free food, formulation optimization   ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi formula pasta bebas gluten berbahan dasar puree ubi jalar ungu dan tepung kacang hijau. Aplikasi mixture design dalam optimasi formula dapat menghasilkan formula yang optimal dengan karakteristik produk sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi optimal puree ubi jalar ungu dengan tepung kacang hijau dalam formula adalah 45,25% puree ubi jalar ungu dan 51,75% tepung kacang hijau. Pada komposisi tersebut dihasilkan pasta ubi jalar ungu dengan karakteristik yaitu kekenyalan 2,29 mm, cohesiveness 0,38, KKP 17,62%, warna 333,48, Ie   20,59%, dan kandungan antosianin 42,42 mg/L. Dari segi mikroskopik, pasta ubi jalar ungu matang dengan rasio puree ubi jalar ungu dengan formula di bawah 50% sudah menunjukkan adanya struktur yang kompak. Kata kunci: Pasta, ubi jalar ungu, pangan bebas gluten, optimasi formula

  20. [Contribution of soil water at various depths to water consumption of rainfed winter wheat in the Loess tableland, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li Ping; Liu, Wen Zhao

    2017-07-18

    Soil water and stem water were collected in jointing and heading stages of the rainfed winter wheat in the Changwu Loess tableland, and the stable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen in water samples were measured to analyze the contribution of soil water at various depths to water consumption of winter wheat. The results showed that the isotopes were enriched in soil and wheat stem water in comparison with that in precipitation. Under the condition of no dry layer in soil profile, the contributions to wheat water consumption in jointing and heading stages were 5.4% and 2.6% from soil water at 0-30 cm depth, 73.4% and 67.3% at 60-90 cm depth (the main water source for winter wheat), and 7.9% and 13.5% below 120 cm depth, respectively. With the wheat growth, the contribution of soil water below the depth of 90 cm increased. It was concluded that soil evaporation mainly consumed soil water in 0-30 cm depth and wheat transpiration mainly consumed soil water below 60 cm depth in the experimental period. In the production practice, it is necessary to increase rainwater storage ratio during the summer fallow period, and apply reasonable combination of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in order to increase soil moisture before wheat sowing, promote the wheat root developing deep downwards and raise the deep soil water utilization ratio.

  1. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Links Matthew G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets. Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in

  2. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerike, Regine; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-07

    Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14,000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European Commission before the start of the survey. The PASTA website

  3. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.W.; Thomas, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of existing uranium enrichment contracts in the US is reviewed and expected natural uranium requirements for existing domestic uranium enrichment contracts are evaluated. Uncertainty in natural uranium requirements associated with requirements-type and fixed-commitment type contracts is discussed along with implementation of variable tails assay

  4. PLASMA-MEMBRANE LIPID ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY NACL IN WINTER-WHEAT ROOTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MMF; VANHASSELT, PR; KUIPER, PJC

    A highly enriched plasma membrane fraction was isolated by two phase partitioning from wheat roots (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vivant) grown with and without 100 mM NaCl. The lipids of the plasma membrane fraction were extracted and characterized. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were

  5. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  6. Allergen relative abundance in several wheat varieties as revealed via a targeted quantitative approach using MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogniaux, Hélène; Pavlovic, Marija; Lupi, Roberta; Lollier, Virginie; Joint, Mathilde; Mameri, Hamza; Denery, Sandra; Larré, Colette

    2015-05-01

    Food allergy has become a major health issue in developed countries, therefore there is an urgent need to develop analytical methods able to detect and quantify with a good sensitivity and reliability some specific allergens in complex food matrices. In this paper, we present a targeted MS/MS approach to compare the relative abundance of the major recognized wheat allergens in the salt-soluble (albumin/globulin) fraction of wheat grains. Twelve allergens were quantified in seven wheat varieties, selected from three Triticum species: T. aestivum (bread wheat), T. durum (durum wheat), and T. monococcum. The allergens were monitored from one or two proteotypic peptides and their relative abundance was deduced from the intensity of one fragment measured in MS/MS. Whereas the abundance of some of the targeted allergens was quite stable across the genotypes, others like alpha-amylase inhibitors showed clear differences according to the wheat species, in accordance with the results of earlier functional studies. This study enriches the scarce knowledge available on allergens content in wheat genotypes, and brings new perspectives for food safety and plant breeding. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Implantación de un sistema de gestión de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo según OHSAS 18001 en un planta de fabricación y envasado de pasta seca.

    OpenAIRE

    Marco-Famoux, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo se basa en un caso real, un centro industrial donde se produce y envasa pasta seca, y que pertenece a un grupo empresarial de propiedad familiar dedicado a la venta y distribución de pastas alimentarias secas y platos preparados refrigerados a base de pasta fresca.

  8. Substitution of lucerne hay by untreated, urea-enriched and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw was left untreated (WS), enriched with 1.5% urea (UWS), or ammoniated with 5.5% urea in a stack for 8 .... nitrogen concentration for maximal microbial synthesis is in ... faeces and urine samples were taken daily and pooled for.

  9. Developments in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The enrichment services market is still characterized by overcapacities. While consumption worldwide will rise by some 15% to 39,000 t SWU/a over the next ten years, capacities amount to nearly 50,000 t SWU/a. The price for enrichment services probably has reached its all time low. Prices below U.S. $ 100/kg SWU are not likely to cover costs even of the economically most advanced enrichment processes. Urenco has prepared for the difficult enrichment business in the years to come by streamlining and cost cutting measures. The company intends to hold and increase its share of more than 10% in the world market. The uranium enrichment plant of Gronau will be expanded further. Expansion beyond 1000 t is subject to another permit being granted under the Atomic Energy Act, an application for which was filed in December 1994. Centrifuge technology is the superior enrichment technology, i.e., there is still considerable potential for further development. Construction of enrichment plants employing the centrifuge technology in the United States and in France is being pursued in various phases, from feasibility studies to licensing procedures. Before these plants could be implemented, however, considerable problems of organization would have to be solved, and the market would have to change greatly, respectively. The laser process, at the present time, does not seem to be able to develop into a major industrial competitor. (orig.) [de

  10. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongyan; Tian, Ran; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combined effect of elevated O 3 and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. ► Elevated O 3 levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. ► Combined cadmium and elevated O 3 have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O 3 ) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O 3 on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg −1 Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O 3 levels (50% higher than the ambient O 3 ). Present results showed that elevated O 3 led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O 3 levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O 3 levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  11. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  12. BRS 374 – Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 374 is a wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa. It resulted from a cross between the F1 generation of PF 88618/Coker80.33 and Frontana/Karl. BRS 374 belongs to the soft wheat class, has a low plant height, a high potential grain yield, andwhite flour.

  13. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  14. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  15. Canola-Wheat Rotation versus Continuous Wheat for the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Jason C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Vitale, Jeffrey D.; Peeper, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Crop rotations are not common in the wheat belt of the Southern Plains. After years of continuous wheat, weeds have become increasingly difficult and expensive to manage. Yield data were elicited from farmers and used to determine if canola-wheat-wheat rotations are economically competitive with continuous wheat in the region.

  16. THE IMPACT OF REFORMING WHEAT IMPORTING STATE-TRADING ENTERPRISES ON THE QUALITY OF WHEAT IMPORTED

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Recent surveys of wheat importers indicate that countries that import wheat via a state trader are less sensitive to quality issues in import decision making than countries that import wheat through private traders. This study examines conceptually and empirically the impact of the deregulation of wheat imports on the quality and source of wheat imports.

  17. Microwave Pasteurization of Cooked Pasta: Effect of Process Parameters on Texture and Quality for Heat-and-Eat and Ready-to-Eat Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner Melito, Helen S; Jones, Kari E; Rasco, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    Pasta presents a challenge to microwave processing due to its unique cooking requirements. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of microwave processing on pasta physicochemical and mechanical properties. Fettuccine pasta was parboiled for selected times, then pasteurized using a Microwave Assisted Pasteurization System and stored under refrigeration for 1 wk. Samples were analyzed using microscopy, mechanical testing, and chemical analyses after storage. While no significant differences were observed for free amylose among fresh samples, samples parboiled for ≤6 min had significantly higher free amylose, suggesting reduced starch retrogradation. Increased heat treatment increased degree of protein polymerization, observed in microstructures as increased gluten strand thickness and network density. Firmness and extensibility increased with increased parboil time; however, extension data indicated an overall weakening of microwave-treated pasta regardless of total cooking time. Overall, microwave pasteurization was shown to be a viable cooking method for pasta. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  19. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    Full Text Available Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina and Puroindoline b (Pinb genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread and may improve the economic

  20. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.

    2012-01-01

    in predicting grain yield even before maturity for a wide range of growing conditions in the Mediterranean climate, governed by different annual weather patterns. The results were evaluated on the basis of regression and normalized root mean squared error with known crop yield statistics at regional level....... durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...

  1. Avaliação de pastas de cimento Portland contendo cinza pesada moída

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar, Ronaldo; Schankoski, Rudiele Aparecida; Moro, Agostinho João Dal; Repette, Wellington Longuini

    2016-01-01

    Neste trabalho avalia-se a influência da incorporação de cinza pesada moída, obtida da combustão de carvão mineral, em pastas de cimento Portland. A cinza pesada foi incorporada as pastas de cimento em três distribuições granulométricas distintas e dosadas para teores de substituição ao cimento, em volume, de 10%, 30% e 50%. As pastas foram dosadas com duas relações água/aglomerante, em massa, de 0,35 e 0,40. As primeiras idades foram investigadas por calorimetria isotérmica. Após passarem po...

  2. Nuclear ``pasta'' structures in low-density nuclear matter and properties of the neutron-star crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2013-08-01

    In the neutron-star crust, nonuniform structure of nuclear matter—called the “pasta” structure—is expected. From recent studies of giant flares in magnetars, these structures might be related to some observables and physical quantities of the neutron-star crust. To investigate the above quantities, we numerically explore the pasta structure with a fully three-dimensional geometry and study the properties of low-density nuclear matter, based on the relativistic mean-field model and the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We observe typical pasta structures for fixed proton number fraction and two of them for cold catalyzed matter. We also discuss the crystalline configuration of “pasta.”

  3. PASTA DE GESSO COM INCORPORAÇÃO DE RESÍDUO DE GESSO E ADITIVO RETARDADOR DE PEGA

    OpenAIRE

    TROVAO, A. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    A utilização do gesso pela construção civil gera um grande volume de resíduos, no entanto é um material que apresenta propriedades que o torna altamente competitivo no mercado. A principal causa da geração desse resíduo é o rápido endurecimento das pastas. A incorporação de resíduo de gesso às pastas provoca a aceleração no processo de endurecimento, podendo gerar maior volume de resíduos. Essa dissertação teve como objetivo buscar a forma de incorporação do resíduo às pastas de gesso para re...

  4. SIMULAÇÃO COMPUTACIONAL PARA PRODUÇÃO DE PASTA DIAMANTADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Gonçalves Moreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetiva analisar o processo de produção de Pasta Diamantada, avaliando o número de operadores e máquinas, tempos de produção, alocação de atividades, dentre outros parâmetros importantes para avaliar a dinâmica do sistema e suas regras operacionais. O método utilizado tem por base a técnica de Simulação Computacional Estocástica de Eventos Discretos em virtude das variadas fontes de incertezas e da complexidade operacional relacionada ao processo de produção de Pasta Diamantada. O modelo conceitual deste sistema foi construído a partir da técnica IDEF-SIM e traduzido para o software Arena® 12 Rockwell Automation. O modelo de Simulação elaborado permitiu representar diversos cenários com considerável rapidez e flexibilidade, necessários à implantação da empresa ABRASDI. Este método permitiu identificar problemas e oportunidades de melhoria no processo, antes do início das linhas de produção. As principais medidas de desempenho avaliadas foram a taxa de utilização de operadores e o lead time do processo, considerando como restrições o custo da Pasta Diamantada, a qualidade do produto e o tempo total de produção. Os resultados obtidos a partir das análises demonstram que alguns cenários podem ser considerados ideais, dependendo das necessidades da empresa, tendo em vista que consideráveis ganhos podem ser obtidos com algumas mudanças de parâmetros.

  5. Symmetry analysis of the high-order equations for the description of the Fermi – Pasta – Ulam problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, N A; Volkov, A K

    2017-01-01

    Recently some new nonlinear equations for the description of the Fermi – Pasta – Ulam problem have been derived. The main aim of this work is to use the symmetry test to investigate these equations. We consider equations for the description of the α and α + β Fermi – Pasta – Ulam model. We find the infinitesimal operators and Lie groups, admitted by the equations. Using the groups we find the self-similar variables as well as the reductions to the ordinary differential equations. Some exact solutions are also constructed. (paper)

  6. Simulating pasta phases by molecular dynamics and cold atoms. Formation in supernovae and superfluid neutrons in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro

    2010-01-01

    In dense stars such as collapsing cores of supernovae and neutron stars, nuclear 'pasta' such as rod-like and slab-like nuclei are speculated to exist. However, whether or not they are actually formed in supernova cores is still unclear. Here we solve this problem by demonstrating that a lattice of rod-like nuclei is formed from a bcc lattice by compression. We also find that the formation process is triggered by an attractive force between nearest neighbor nuclei, which starts to act when their density profile overlaps, rather than the fission instability. We also discuss the connection between pasta phases in neutron star crusts and ultracold Fermi gases. (author)

  7. Statistical mechanics of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains with the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Melik C.; Sayar, Mehmet; Atılgan, Ali R.

    1997-03-01

    Low-energy vibrations of a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Β (FPU-Β) chain with 16 repeat units are analyzed with the aid of numerical experiments and the statistical mechanics equations of the canonical ensemble. Constant temperature numerical integrations are performed by employing the cubic coupling scheme of Kusnezov et al. [Ann. Phys. 204, 155 (1990)]. Very good agreement is obtained between numerical results and theoretical predictions for the probability distributions of the generalized coordinates and momenta both of the chain and of the thermal bath. It is also shown that the average energy of the chain scales linearly with the bath temperature.

  8. Theories and contemporary challenges of a global pasta leader: the case of Barilla SpA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Ronald Scott

    2015-01-01

    Barilla Holding SpA (Barilla), a successful multinational foods manufacturing company with headquarters in Parma, Italy began with humble beginnings in 1877 (Barilla, 2014a) as a small bread and pasta shop -- Barilla is now a leading global sales player second only to private label brands, jumping from 9-12% of total market from the period 2009-2014 and is the dominant sales leader in both Italy and the US with 2014 sales of 900 and 800 US$ million respectively (Euromonitor, 2015) -- This pap...

  9. Enumeration and stability analysis of simple periodic orbits in β-Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonone, Rupali L.; Jain, Sudhir R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the well-known one-dimensional problem of N particles with a nonlinear interaction. The special case of quadratic and quartic interaction potential among nearest neighbours is the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. We enumerate and classify the simple periodic orbits for this system and find the stability zones, employing Floquet theory. Such stability analysis is crucial to understand the transition of FPU lattice from recurrences to globally chaotic behavior, energy transport in lower dimensional system, dynamics of optical lattices and also its impact on shape parameter of bio-polymers such as DNA and RNA

  10. Thermal response of a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain with Andersen thermostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Federico; Baiesi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    The linear response to temperature variations is well characterised for equilibrium systems but a similar theory is not available, for example, for inertial heat conducting systems, whose paradigm is the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model driven by two different boundary temperatures. For models of inertial systems out of equilibrium, including relaxing systems, we show that Andersen thermostats are a natural tool for studying the thermal response. We derive a fluctuation-response relation that allows to predict thermal expansion coefficients or the heat capacitance in nonequilibrium regimes. Simulations of the FPU chain of oscillators suggest that estimates of susceptibilities obtained with our relation are better than those obtained via a small perturbation.

  11. Exploration of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Behavior in a Magnetic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeramy; Camley, Robert E.; Anderson, Nicholas R.

    2018-04-01

    We study nonlinear spin motion in one-dimensional magnetic chains. We find significant differences from the classic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) problem examining nonlinear elastic motion in a chain. We find that FPU behavior, the transfer of energy among low order eigenmodes, does not occur in magnetic systems with only exchange and external fields, but does exist if a uniaxial anisotropy is also present. The FPU behavior may be altered or turned off through the magnitude and orientation of an external magnetic field. A realistic micromagnetic model shows such behavior could be measurable.

  12. One-electron propagation in Fermi, Pasta, Ulam disordered chains with Gaussian acoustic pulse pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L. D. Da; Dos Santos, J. L. L.; Ranciaro Neto, A.; Sales, M. O.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.

    In this work, we consider a one-electron moving on a Fermi, Pasta, Ulam disordered chain under effect of electron-phonon interaction and a Gaussian acoustic pulse pumping. We describe electronic dynamics using quantum mechanics formalism and the nonlinear atomic vibrations using standard classical physics. Solving numerical equations related to coupled quantum/classical behavior of this system, we study electronic propagation properties. Our calculations suggest that the acoustic pumping associated with the electron-lattice interaction promote a sub-diffusive electronic dynamics.

  13. Enumeration and stability analysis of simple periodic orbits in β-Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonone, Rupali L., E-mail: vaidehisonone@gmail.com; Jain, Sudhir R., E-mail: vaidehisonone@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007, India and Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We study the well-known one-dimensional problem of N particles with a nonlinear interaction. The special case of quadratic and quartic interaction potential among nearest neighbours is the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. We enumerate and classify the simple periodic orbits for this system and find the stability zones, employing Floquet theory. Such stability analysis is crucial to understand the transition of FPU lattice from recurrences to globally chaotic behavior, energy transport in lower dimensional system, dynamics of optical lattices and also its impact on shape parameter of bio-polymers such as DNA and RNA.

  14. Transcatheter pledget-assisted suture tricuspid annuloplasty (PASTA) to create a double-orifice valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jaffar M; Rogers, Toby; Schenke, William H; Greenbaum, Adam B; Babaliaros, Vasilis C; Paone, Gaetano; Ramasawmy, Rajiv; Chen, Marcus Y; Herzka, Daniel A; Lederman, Robert J

    2018-02-06

    Pledget-assisted suture tricuspid valve annuloplasty (PASTA) is a novel technique using marketed equipment to deliver percutaneous trans-annular sutures to create a double-orifice tricuspid valve. Tricuspid regurgitation is a malignant disease with high surgical mortality and no commercially available transcatheter solution in the US. Two iterations of PASTA were tested using trans-apical or trans-jugular access in swine. Catheters directed paired coronary guidewires to septal and lateral targets on the tricuspid annulus under fluoroscopic and echocardiographic guidance. Guidewires were electrified to traverse the annular targets and exchanged for pledgeted sutures. The sutures were drawn together and knotted, apposing septal and lateral targets, creating a double orifice tricuspid valve. Twenty-two pigs underwent PASTA. Annular and chamber dimensions were reduced (annular area, 10.1 ± 0.8 cm 2 to 3.8 ± 1.5 cm 2 (naïve) and 13.1 ± 1.5 cm 2 to 6.2 ± 1.0 cm 2 (diseased); septal-lateral diameter, 3.9 ± 0.3 mm to 1.4 ± 0.6 mm (naïve) and 4.4 ± 0.4 mm to 1.7 ± 1.0 mm (diseased); and right ventricular end-diastolic volume, 94 ± 13 ml to 85 ± 14 ml (naïve) and 157 ± 25 ml to 143 ± 20 ml (diseased)). MRI derived tricuspid regurgitation fraction fell from 32 ± 12% to 4 ± 5%. Results were sustained at 30 days. Pledget pull-through force was five-fold higher (40.6 ± 11.7N vs 8.0 ± 2.6N, P PASTA reduces annular dimensions and tricuspid regurgitation in pigs. It may be cautiously applied to selected patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation and no options. This is the first transcatheter procedure, to our knowledge, to deliver standard pledgeted sutures to repair cardiac pathology. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Experimental Observation of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Recurrence in a Nonlinear Feedback Ring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhong; Patton, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence through soliton dynamics has been realized. The experiment used a magnetic film strip-based active feedback ring. At some ring gain level, a wide spin wave pulse is self-generated in the ring. As the pulse circulates, it separates into two envelop solitons with different speeds. When the fast soliton catches up and collides with the slow soliton, the initial wide pulse is perfectly reconstructed. The repetition of this process leads to periodic recurrences of the initial pulse.

  16. Modulational estimate for the maximal Lyapunov exponent in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauxois, Thierry; Ruffo, Stefano; Torcini, Alessandro

    1997-12-01

    In the framework of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model, we show a simple method to give an accurate analytical estimation of the maximal Lyapunov exponent at high energy density. The method is based on the computation of the mean value of the modulational instability growth rates associated to unstable modes. Moreover, we show that the strong stochasticity threshold found in the β-FPU system is closely related to a transition in tangent space, the Lyapunov eigenvector being more localized in space at high energy.

  17. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model: the birth of numerical simulation

    OpenAIRE

    De Tullio, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    In May 1955 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory published the technical report “Studies of nonlinear problems” by E. Fermi, J. Pasta and S. Ulam in which, for the first time, a computer was used to perform an experiment through numerical simulations. The present paper surveys the history of the experiment, its unexpected outcomes, such as the so-called FPU paradox, and the related studies by some of the greatest mathematicians of the time, following them to the most recent results and discov...

  18. Elaboración de pasta de pescado a partir de especies magras.

    OpenAIRE

    Echevarría Mesia, Christian Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    La presente Memoria Descriptiva tiene como objetivo dar a conocer el proceso de elaboración de Pasta o Surimi de pescado a partir de la especies magras de nuestra región entre las que se consideró a las especies Cichla monoculus (Tucunaré) (Spix, 1829) y Brachyplatystoma tigrinum (Zúngaro Tigre) (IIAP, 2009). Estas peces son especies magras nativos de la Amazonia, con alto potencial para la diversificación de la piscicultura Nacional. La cuenca amazónica no sólo posee gran abundancia de cuerp...

  19. Estimation of color of durum wheat. Comparison of WSB, HPLC, and reflectance colorimeter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Irano, Mario; Panfili, Gianfranco; Acquistucci, Rita

    2005-04-06

    Color is an important parameter involved in the definition of semolina and pasta quality. This character is mainly due to natural pigments (carotenoids) that are present at different levels in cereals and cereal products, due to botanical origin, growing conditions, distribution in the kernel, and technological processes. In food industries, color measurements are usually performed by means of automatic instruments that are rapid and safe, as alternatives to the chemical extraction methods. In this study, automatic measurements (CIE, color-space system L, a, b), water-saturated butanol (WSB), and HPLC determinations have been applied to evaluate the carotenoid content in whole meals and respective semolina samples produced from wheat cultivated in the years 2001 and 2002. In whole meals, total carotenoids, determined by HPLC, were about 3.0 microg/g (2001) and 3.5 microg/g (2002) calculated on dry weight (dw) and about 3.0 and 3.2 microg/g dw in corresponding semolina samples. The b values for the same period were 19.78 and 15.75, respectively, in raw materials and 20.03-21.67 in semolina. Results have confirmed lutein and beta-carotene as the main components mainly responsible for the yellow color in wheat grains. The ability of the index b to express natural dyeing was dependent on sample characteristics as demonstrated by the relationships found between this index and pigments, although the best correlation resulted between HPLC and WSB.

  20. DHPLC technology for high-throughput detection of mutations in a durum wheat TILLING population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Incerti, Ornella; Lozito, Maria Luisa; Simeone, Rosanna; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio

    2016-02-17

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) is a cereal crop widely grown in the Mediterranean regions; the amber grain is mainly used for the production of pasta, couscous and typical breads. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection technologies and high-throughput mutation induction represent a new challenge in wheat breeding to identify allelic variation in large populations. The TILLING strategy makes use of traditional chemical mutagenesis followed by screening for single base mismatches to identify novel mutant loci. Although TILLING has been combined to several sensitive pre-screening methods for SNP analysis, most rely on expensive equipment. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been used in molecular human diagnostic to detect unknown mutations. In this work, we developed a new durum wheat TILLING population (cv. Marco Aurelio) using 0.70-0.85% ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). To investigate the efficiency of the mutagenic treatments, a pilot screening was carried out on 1,140 mutant lines focusing on two target genes (Lycopene epsilon-cyclase, ε-LCY, and Lycopene beta-cyclase, β-LCY) involved in carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains. We simplify the heteroduplex detection by two low cost methods: the enzymatic cleavage (CelI)/agarose gel technique and the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). The CelI/agarose gel approach allowed us to identify 31 mutations, whereas the DHPLC procedure detected a total of 46 mutations for both genes. All detected mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. The estimated overall mutation frequency for the pilot assay by the DHPLC methodology resulted to be of 1/77 kb, representing a high probability to detect interesting mutations in the target genes. We demonstrated the applicability and efficiency of a new strategy for the detection of induced variability. We produced and characterized a new durum wheat TILLING population useful for a better understanding of key gene functions

  1. The competitive enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.W.; Huffman, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    With the enactment of the ''Private Ownership of Special Nuclear Materials Act'' in 1964, the U.S. Government made provisions to enter into the uranium enrichment services business. Since nuclear power was in its infancy and the Government was promoting its growth as well as trying to help U.S. industry sell reactors overseas, the initial contracts (Requirements Contracts) for enrichment services placed most of the risks associated with the supplying of the services on the Government. Projections of nuclear power additions continued to grow and in 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) stopped contracting under Requirements Contracts in order to study which mode of contracting best suited the commercial development of the industry. In mid-1973, the AEC introduced the Long-Term Fixed Commitment (LTFC) contract which shifted the risk to the customer. By mid-1974, AEC had contracts which completely used the enrichment capacity of its complex and refused to accept requests for additional contracts. This action further convinced European nations that they should continue to develop their own enrichment capacity and resulted in the EURODIF and URENCO projects. Before this time the U.S. supplied 100% of the world market for enriching services

  2. Enrichment: Dealing with overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Today's surplus of enrichment capacity will continue until at least the end of this century. This will challenge the ingenuity of the separative work unit (SWU) suppliers as they attempt to keep market share and remain profitable in a very competitive marketplace. The utilities will be faced with attractive choices, but making the best choice will require careful analysis and increased attention to market factors. Current demand projections will probably prove too high to the extent that more reactors are canceled or delayed. The DOE has the vast majority of the unused capacity, so it will feel the most immediate impact of this large surplus in productive capacity. The DOE has responded to these market challenges by planning another reorganization of its enriching operations. Without a major agreement among the governments affected by the current surplus in enrichment capacity, the future will see lower prices, more competitive terms, and the gradual substitution of centrifuge or laser enrichment for the gaseous diffusion plants. The competition that is forcing the gaseous diffusion prices down to marginal cost will provide the long-term price basis for the enrichment industry

  3. Influence of enriched soaking water on shiitake (Lentinus edodes (Berk. Singer mushroom yield and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim RANJBAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake is an edible mushroom native to East Asia. In the present research, the soaking water was targeted as the vehicle to enrich the substrate. The amount of nutrients in the substrate is severely reduced by mycelium growth and development during spawn running and browning period. Some part of this reduction can be compensated by soaking the substrate in the enriched soaking water. In this study, soaking water was enriched by some complement materials and enrichment effects on some important properties of shiitake mushroom were evaluated. The highest biological efficiency (69.88 % was gained with soaking the blocks in wheat bran extraction suspension. The highest dry matter of mushroom was obtained by rice bran extraction suspension as the enriched soaking water. The results of this research showed that some important properties of shiitake mushroom can be improved by soaking the blocks with enriched soaking water. According to the results, wheat bran extraction suspension was the best enriched solution to increase productivity of shiitake mushrooms and rice bran extraction suspension was suitable to improve quality of mushrooms.

  4. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  5. Physicochemical properties of cookies enriched with xylooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, P; Abirami, A; Anbuvahini, N A; Tamil Kumaran, P S; Naresh, M; Malathi, D; Antony, Usha

    2016-07-01

    The growing commercial importance of xylooligosaccharides is based on their beneficial health properties, particularly their ability to stimulate the growth and activity of intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. Xylooligosaccharides are less sweet, acid, and heat stable, with low recommended levels of intake compared to other oligosaccharides. In view of the consumer demand for foods with low sugar, low fat, and high fiber contents, they are suitable for incorporation into bakery products. In this study, we have developed wheat-based cookies incorporated with xylooligosaccharides at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. The nutritive value and physicochemical properties of the cookies changed with xylooligosaccharides incorporation; both crude fiber and dietary fiber contents increased by 14% and 35%, respectively, in the enriched cookies. The moisture levels increased with increase in the percentage of xylooligosaccharides incorporated. Cookies with 5% xylooligosaccharides were found most acceptable, although the color was slightly darker compared to the control, while cookies with 10% and 15% xylooligosaccharides were softer and darker and therefore less acceptable. Enrichment with xylooligosaccharides at 5% provided a product stable for 21 days at room temperature (25 ± 2℃). The storage stability of cookies with higher levels of xylooligosaccharides was less than the 5% xylooligosaccharides cookies and control. The retention of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in the products was relatively high (74%). © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  7. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  8. The effect of hazelnut roasted skin from different cultivars on the quality attributes, polyphenol content and texture of fresh egg pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Giuseppe; Belviso, Simona; Bertolino, Marta; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Dal Bello, Barbara; Ghirardello, Daniela; Giordano, Manuela; Giorgis, Marta; Grosso, Arianna; Rolle, Luca; Gerbi, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Hazelnut skin is the perisperm of the hazelnut kernel. It is separated from the kernel during the roasting process and is normally discarded. Recent studies have reported that hazelnut skin is a rich source of dietary fibre as well as of natural antioxidants owing to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the use of hazelnut skins obtained from different cultivars for enhancing the nutritional value of fresh egg pasta. Skins obtained from roasted hazelnuts of four different varieties were used at three concentrations as a flour replacement in fresh egg pasta. Hazelnut skin concentration significantly influenced all evaluated physicochemical parameters as well as consumers' appreciation for the pasta, but significant differences were also observed between the four varieties. Although pasta produced with 10 and 15% hazelnut skin displayed the highest content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in vitro, pasta containing 5% Tombul hazelnut skin showed maximum consumer preference. The results obtained in the present study highlighted that it is possible to use hazelnut skin in fresh pasta production to obtain a fortified food with high fibre content and antioxidant activity. The characteristics of the resulting pasta were strictly correlated with the hazelnut variety used for skin production and, of course, with the percentage of skin that was added. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Centrifuge enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astley, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    Exxon Nuclear has been active in privately funded research and development of centrifuge enrichment technology since 1972. In October of 1975, Exxon Nuclear submitted a proposal to design, construct, and operate a 3000-MT SWU/yr centrifuge enrichment plant, under the provisions of the proposed Nuclear Fuel Assurance Act of 1975. The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accepted the proposal as a basis for negotiation. It was proposed to build a 1000-MT SWU/yr demonstration increment to be operational in 1982; and after successful operation for about one year, expand the facilities into a 3000-MT SWU/yr plant. As part of the overall centrifuge enrichment plant, a dedicated centrifuge manufacturing plant would be constructed; sized to support the full 3000-MT SWU/yr plant. The selection of the centrifuge process by Exxon Nuclear was based on an extremely thorough evaluation of current and projected enrichment technology; results show that the technology is mature and the process will be cost effective. The substantial savings in energy (about 93%) from utilization of the centrifuge option rather than gaseous diffusion is a compelling argument. As part of this program, Exxon Nuclear has a large hardware R and D program, plus a prototype centrifuge manufacturing capability in Malta, New York. To provide a full-scale machine and limited cascade test capability, Exxon Nuclear is constructing a $4,000,000 Centrifuge Test Facility in Richland, Washington. This facility was to initiate operations in the Fall of 1976. Exxon Nuclear is convinced that the centrifuge enrichment process is the rational selection for emergence of a commercial enrichment industry

  10. Behavior of Triticum durum Desf. arabinoxylans and arabinogalactan peptides during industrial pasta processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelbrecht, J A; Verwimp, T; Grobet, P J; Delcour, J A

    2001-04-01

    Three industrial pasta processing lines for different products (macaroni, capellini and instant noodles) were sampled at three subsequent stages (semolina, extruded, and dried end products) in the process. Arabinoxylans (AX) and arabinogalactan peptides (AGP) were analyzed. Although very low endoxylanase activities were measured, the level of water-extractable AX (WE-AX) increased, probably because of mechanical forces. No change was observed in the level and structural characteristics of AGP. The WE-AX molecular weight (MW) profiles showed a very small shift toward lower MW profiles; those of AGP revealed no changes as a result of the production process. After separation of WE-AX and AGP, (1)H NMR analysis and gas chromatography of the alditol acetates obtained following hydrolysis, reduction, and acetylation revealed no changes in the arabinose substitution profile of the WE-AX samples during pasta processing. At optimal cooking times, WE-AX losses in the cooking water are small (maximally 5.9%). However, the loss of AGP is more pronounced (maximally 25.0%). Overcooking led to more losses of both components.

  11. Propiedades dieléctricas de pastas de cemento con reducido contenido en agua libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Frutos, J.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work the dielectric properties of concrete with and without chlorides as a function of their water contents were studied by the Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. Specimens of cement paste with different water/cement ratio and chlorides content was analyzed. After drying the specimens, the rehydratation was controled by the relative weight increasing. Adetailed study of the dielectric behavior in the range of 20 Hz to 40 MHz according to the water and the chlorides contents was made. The results were discussed in the framework of the material processes.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia como varían las propiedades dieléctricas del material con su contenido en humedad de pastas de cemento, con y sin cloruros, mediante la Espectroscopia de Impedancia Electroquímica, EIS. Para ello se fabricaron pastas de cemento con diferentes relaciones agua/cemento, y con diferente contenido de cloruros. Después de someter las muestras a procesos de secado, se procede a la rehidratación de las mismas, controlando el contenido de agua, por medio del incremento en peso relativo. Se hace un estudio pormenorizado de la respuesta eléctrica del material en el rango de 20Hz a 40MHz, en función del contenido de agua, y de la presencia de cloruros, y se relacionan los resultados con los procesos químicos presentes en el material.

  12. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera. Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20°C for four weeks and were evaluated

  13. Esophageal cancer treated by low dose irradiation, crescendo cisplatin and bleomycin polyacrylate pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, Hitoshi; Okuyama, Shinichi; Lim, In-Su; Yamagata, Rin; Taima, Tadashi

    1983-01-01

    Eight patients with esophageal cancer were treated by a new treatment schedule consisting of low dose irradiation, crescendo cisplatin and bleomycin polyacrylate pasta. As monitored endoscopically, therapeutic responses were satisfactory : seven out of 8 patients have survived for a range of 3 to 20 months and still active at work or cancer-free. However, one patient suffered from a second malignancy of adenocarcinoma of the upper esophagus different from the initial squamous cell carcinoma at the lower esophagus which had successfully been treated 3 months before. The present therapeutic design aims at treatment of lymphatic spreads in the adjacent structures as well as the original tumor in the esophagus and submucosal invasions. It is basically a consecutive, multimodal integration of selective concentration of therapeutic effects (extensive radiotherapy, topical application of bleomycin polyacrylate pasta, lymphatic chasing with colloidal bleomycin, and spatial concentration of cisplatin as the result of radiation-induced inflammation), perpetuation of the repairable DNA damage, and biological amplifications (protection against esophageal perforation with polyacrylate coating, and specific cancer cell recruitment). Application of the present theraeputic design is being expanded to the treatment of cancer of other specific sites such as the head and neck tumors and rectal cancer with undeniable prospects. (author)

  14. Discrete breathers in a two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, Imran A; Wattis, Jonathan A D

    2006-01-01

    Using asymptotic methods, we investigate whether discrete breathers are supported by a two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice. A scalar (one-component) two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice is shown to model the charge stored within an electrical transmission lattice. A third-order multiple-scale analysis in the semi-discrete limit fails, since at this order, the lattice equations reduce to the (2 + 1)-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation which does not support stable soliton solutions for the breather envelope. We therefore extend the analysis to higher order and find a generalized (2 + 1)-dimensional NLS equation which incorporates higher order dispersive and nonlinear terms as perturbations. We find an ellipticity criterion for the wave numbers of the carrier wave. Numerical simulations suggest that both stationary and moving breathers are supported by the system. Calculations of the energy show the expected threshold behaviour whereby the energy of breathers does not go to zero with the amplitude; we find that the energy threshold is maximized by stationary breathers, and becomes arbitrarily small as the boundary of the domain of ellipticity is approached

  15. Esophageal cancer treated by low dose irradiation, crescendo cisplatin and bleomycin polyacrylate pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, Hitoshi; Okuyama, Shinichi; Lin, In-Su; Yamagata, Rin; Taima, Tadashi

    1982-01-01

    Eight patients with esophageal cancer were treated by a new treatment schedule consisting of low dose irradiation, crescendo cisplatin and bleomycin polyacrylate pasta. As monitored endoscopically, their therapeutic responses were satisfactory, and seven out of the eight survived for a range of 3 to 18 months and still active at work or ''cancer-free''. The seventh of the eight suffers from a second malignancy of adenocarcinoma of the cardia, different from the initial squamous cell carcinoma at the lower esophagus which had successfully been treated 3 months before. The present therapeutic design aims at treatment of lymphatic spreads in the adjacent structures as well as the original tumor in the esophagus and submucosal invasions. It is basically a consecutive, multimodal integration of selective concentration of therapeutic effects (extensive radiotherapy, topical application of bleomycin polyacrylate pasta, lymphatic chasing with colloidal bleomycin, and spatial concentration of cisplatin as the result of radiation-induced inflammations), perpetuation of the repairable DNA damage, and biological amplifications (protection against esophageal perforation with polyacrylate coating, and specific cancer cell recruitment). Application of the present therapeutic design is being expanded to treatment of cancer at other specific sites such as the head and neck tumors and rectal cancer with undeniable prospects. (author)

  16. The PASTA chip for the silicon micro strip sensor of the PANDA MVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Alberto; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Di Pietro, Valentino; Quagli, Tommaso; Schnell, Robert; Zaunick, Hans-Georg [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Ritman, James; Stockmanns, Tobias; Zambanini, Andre [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the Micro Vertex Detector, which is the innermost detector of PANDA, there are two different types of sensors: hybrid pixel and double sided micro strips. My work is focused on the development of the ASIC readout for the strips, which in the PANDA experiment must cope with a hit rate up to 50 kHz per channel. The energy loss measurement of the particles crossing the silicon sensor is obtained by implementing the Time over Threshold technique. The first PASTA (PANDA Strip ASIC) prototype is based on a Time to Digital Converter with an analog clock interpolator which combines good time resolution with a low power consumption. A full size chip was developed in a 0.11μ m CMOS technology and delivered in Autumn 2015. It features 64 channels with both analog and digital parts, a digital global controller, LVDS drivers and integrated bias. In the presentation, an overview of PASTA and the results of the first tests is presented.

  17. Neutrino diffusion in the pasta phase matter within the Thomas-Fermi approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, U.J.; Avancini, S.S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, CFM, CP. 476, Florianopolis - SC (Brazil); University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Marinelli, J.R.; Martarello, W. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, CFM, CP. 476, Florianopolis - SC (Brazil); Providencia, C. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2016-09-15

    The behaviour and properties of neutrinos in non-uniform nuclear matter, surrounded by electrons and other neutrinos are studied in the protoneutron star early stage characterized by trapped neutrinos. The nuclear matter itself is modelled by a relativistic mean-field approach, and models with both constant couplings and density-dependent couplings are considered. The so-called nuclear pasta phases at sub-saturation densities, described using the Thomas-Fermi approximation and solved in a Wigner-Seitz cell, are included in the calculation. We obtain the neutrino total cross section and mean free path, taking into account scattering and absorption processes and we compare the final results obtained with different parametrizations. The solution for this problem is important for the understanding of neutrino diffusion in a newly born neutron star after a supernovae explosion. It is shown that the pasta phase will increase the neutrino mean free path by as much as an order of magnitude, therefore contributing for shorter emission time-scales. (orig.)

  18. Neutrino diffusion in the pasta phase matter within the Thomas-Fermi approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, U.J.; Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R.; Martarello, W.; Providencia, C.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour and properties of neutrinos in non-uniform nuclear matter, surrounded by electrons and other neutrinos are studied in the protoneutron star early stage characterized by trapped neutrinos. The nuclear matter itself is modelled by a relativistic mean-field approach, and models with both constant couplings and density-dependent couplings are considered. The so-called nuclear pasta phases at sub-saturation densities, described using the Thomas-Fermi approximation and solved in a Wigner-Seitz cell, are included in the calculation. We obtain the neutrino total cross section and mean free path, taking into account scattering and absorption processes and we compare the final results obtained with different parametrizations. The solution for this problem is important for the understanding of neutrino diffusion in a newly born neutron star after a supernovae explosion. It is shown that the pasta phase will increase the neutrino mean free path by as much as an order of magnitude, therefore contributing for shorter emission time-scales. (orig.)

  19. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Brera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg of deoxynivalenol (DON was  in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg, far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination.

  20. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brera, Carlo; Bertazzoni, Valentina; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Prantera, Elisabetta; De Santis, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg) of deoxynivalenol (DON) was in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg) and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg), far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg) set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination. PMID:24287568

  1. El agrietamiento superficial de las pastas puras de cemento: una interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, J.

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe aborda por métodos analíticos y técnicas de difracción de rayos X el problema de determinar las posibles causas del agrietamiento superficial de galletas de pasta pura de cemento. Se encuentran diferencias de composición y constitución entre la zona superficial agrietada de las galletas y el resto de la masa, hallándose concordancia entre determinados constituyentes químicos calculados a base del análisis químico y los resultados de difracción de rayos X. Se interpretan estas diferencias como atribuibles a una exudación de lechada de la pasta, con extracción de álcalis solubles y yeso. Como consecuencia, la exudación provoca una carbonatación, una mayor retracción y posiblemente un fraguado acelerado en la zona superficial en relación con la masa interior de las galletas. Como causa directa de la ·exudación se acepta la hipótesis de una granulometría anormal del cemento, probablemente debida a un exceso de finos o gruesos por una molienda grosera, y producida por una deficiencia de tipo mecánico en el proceso de molturación del clínker.

  2. US enrichment reduction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    A major national program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is currently under way in the U.S., centered at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), to reduce the potential of research and test reactor fuels for increasing the proliferation of nuclear explosive devices. The main objective of the program is to provide the technical means by which the uranium enrichment to be used in these reactors can be reduced to less than 20% without significant economic and performance penalties. The criteria, basis and goals of the program are consistent with the results of a number of case studies which have been performed as part of the program

  3. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  4. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  5. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  6. Diagnosis of spatial resolution for microbeam scanning PIXE using STIM method and CR-39 track detector in PASTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, T.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Iso, H.; Matsumoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    In PIXE analysis system and Tandem Accelerator facility (PASTA) of NIRS, we are using Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) method and solid track detector to diagnose the spatial resolution of scanning microbeam PIXE analysis system. These methods are widely used by many microbeam facilities. (author)

  7. Effect of water and gluten on physico-chemical properties and stability of ready to eat shelf-stable pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantom, Agoura; Carini, Eleonora; Curti, Elena; Cassotta, Fabrizio; D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    A multi-analytical and multi-dimensional approach was used to investigate the effect of moisture and gluten on physico-chemical properties of shelf-stable ready to eat (RTE) pasta. Moisture and frozen water contents were not affected by formulation nor storage time. Hardness and retrograded amylopectin significantly increased during storage in all samples, more markedly in pasta with the lowest moisture content. Higher amounts of water and gluten reduced pasta hardening and contributed to control RTE pasta quality. (1)H FID became steeper in all samples during storage, but no effect of high moisture and gluten levels was observed on the mobility of these protons. Three proton T2 populations were observed (population C, population D and population E). Population C and D were not resolved during all storage. (1)H T2 relaxation time of the most abundant population (population E) shifted to shorter times and the amount of protons increased during storage, more importantly in the samples with lower moisture and gluten content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of boiling on free and bound phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of commercial gluten-free pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Gabriele; Lucini, Luigi; Chiodelli, Giulia; Giuberti, Gianluca; Montesano, Domenico; Masoero, Francesco; Trevisan, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Cooking by boiling dry pasta could have varying degrees of influence on nutritional and functional components. In the present study, its effect on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, as well as on the comprehensive profile of free and bound phenolics, was investigated in six commercial gluten-free (GF) pasta products. Overall, the heat treatment caused a significant reduction (Pphenolic content as well as FRAP reducing power and ORAC radical scavenging, with significant differences among the pasta samples considered. The highest values were recorded in free phenolic fraction remaining in black rice (41mggallic acid equivalents100g -1 and 25mmolTrolox Equivalents100g -1 ) and quinoa (24mggallic acid equivalents100g -1 and 14mmolTrolox Equivalents100g -1 ) cooked GF pasta. Significant correlations (Pphenolics and both the antioxidant capacity assays performed. UHPLC-ESI/QTOF-MS mass profiling allowed confirming the spectrophotometric results, while identifying the amount of free and bound fractions. Among phenolic classes, lignans exhibited the highest decrease during the cooking process, followed by stilbenes and flavonoids. However, phenolic acids and other phenolics showed the highest stability. Furthermore, cooking by boiling strongly lowered the bound-to-free ratio of phenolic compounds, by an averaged factor ranging from 14-folds for flavonoids to 5-folds for other classes of phenolics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EXPRESSÃO DE GENES DE MEDIADORES CITOTÓXICOS POR CMSP TRATADAS COM PASTAS ENDODÔNTICAS INDICADAS PARA DENTES DECÍDUOS

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda Lanza Nakashima

    2015-01-01

    Pastas iodoformadas (PI) e a base de hidróxido de cálcio (PH) são empregadas na pulpectomia de dentes decíduos, complementando a ação antimicrobiana do preparo químico mecânico e favorecendo o reparo tecidual. Essas pastas ocupam e permanecem por um período de tempo ao longo do canal radicular, entrando em contato com a região periapical e tecidos adjacentes, tornando-se o objetivo deste estudo quantificar a expressão relativa de genes de toxicidade manifestados pelas pastas, de forma a avali...

  10. ÍNDICE GLICÉMICO E INSULINEMICO DE DOS TIPOS DE PASTA DE PRESENTACIÓN LARGA Y CORTA EN INDIVIDUOS SANOS

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch B, Sandra; Barrera A, Gladys; Leiva B, Laura; de la Maza C, M. Pía; Bunout B, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: Las pastas secas (industrializadas) se caracterizan por ser manufacturadas a base de harina dura de trigo y otros cereales, llamado semolina, a diferencia del pan que se prepara con harina fina, lo que supone que la respuesta insulinémica y glicémica debiera ser menor que la del pan. Objetivo: Medir la respuesta glicémica e insulinsulinémica de una pasta seca estándar y una pasta seca enriquecida con huevo, de presentación larga (espagueti) y corta (corbata). Material y Métodos:...

  11. Influência do uso de ovo líquido pasteurizado e ovo desidratado nas características da massa alimentícia Effect of pasteurized liquid egg and dehydrated egg on pasta characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia S.C. Ormenese

    2004-06-01

    no addition of egg, 4 with different proportions of pasteurized liquid egg (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% and 4 with dehydrated egg in the proportions corresponding to those used for the liquid egg (1.19%, 2.38%, 3.57% and 4.76%. The pastas obtained were evaluated with respect to their cooking characteristics (AACC 66-15, 2000, texture (TA-XT2i and color (Minolta. Using sensory tests, the firmness and flavor of the different samples were evaluated, as also the acceptability of the control sample and of those with different amounts of egg. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that, under the conditions used in these tests, it was possible to produce similar products with either of the two commercialized forms of egg studied. In this way, the various advantages of dehydrated egg over liquid egg (ease of transport, storage at room temperature, reduced volume, longer shelf life, ease of mixing with wheat flour could be used without detriment to the final product.

  12. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned wheat, other than durum wheat and red durum...

  13. An Enriching Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nancy A.; Burroughs, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Successful school-community partnerships in Volusia (Florida) Public Schools are the results of marketing creatively, meeting community members' needs, and bringing the right people together. The 3-year old program now offers students of all ages an expanding list of enrichment classes on many subjects for a nominal fee. (MLH)

  14. Uranium enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article includes an introduction about the isotopes of natural uranium, their existence and the difficulty of the separation between them. Then it goes to the details of a number of methods used to enrich uranium: Gaseous Diffusion method, Electromagnetic method, Jet method, Centrifugal method, Chemical method, Laser method and Plasma method.

  15. Requirements for enrichment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Winkels, R.; Trompper, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a high level overview of requirements for Enrichment tools in the Openlaws.eu project. Openlaws.eu aims to initiate a platform and develop a vision for Big Open Legal Data (BOLD): an open framework for legislation, case law, and legal literature from across Europe.

  16. Enriching the Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  17. Availability of enrichment services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenke, E.

    1977-01-01

    The report summarizes major uncertainties which are likely to influence future demands for uranium isotopic enrichment. Since for the next decade the development of nuclear power will be largely concerned with the increment in demand the timely need for enrichment capacity will be particularly sensitive to assumptions about growth rates. Existing worldwide capacity together with capacities under construction will be sufficient well into the 1980's. However, long decision and construction leadtime, uncertainty as to future demand as well as other factors, specifically high capital need, all of which entail financial risks, create hindrances to a timely development of increment. The adequacy of current technology is well demonstrated in plant operation and new technology is under way. Technology is, however, not freely available on a purely commercial basis. Commercial willingness, which anticipates a limited degree of financial risk, is requesting both long term back-up from the utilities that would parallel their firm decisions on the acquisition of nuclear power units, and a protective government umbrella. This situation depends on the symbiotic relationship that exists between the nuclear power generating organizations, the enrichment undertakings and the governments involved. The report accordingly stresses the need for a more cooperative approach and this, moreover, at the multinational level. There is otherwise a risk that proper resources and financing means will not be allocated to the enrichment sector. Export limitations that request the highest degree of industrial processing of nuclear fuel, i.e. the compulsory enrichment of natural uranium, do not serve the interests of overall industrial efficiency

  18. FORMULASI PASTA GIGI BERBAHAN AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH HITAM SEBAGAI ANTIMIKROBA PENYEBAB RADANG GUSI (GINGIVITIS DAN GIGI BERLUBANG (CARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Prasetya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain a formula toothpaste preparations with active ingredient is extracts of black betel leaf which effectively kills microbes cause inflammation of the gums (gingivitis and tooth perforated (caries. The active ingredient is obtained by performing maceration followed by fractionation of the extract. Test of antimicrobial activity against microorganisms Streptococcus mutans & Candida albicans using the diffusion method, which will get an effective concentration to be used for toothpaste formulations with active ingredient is black betel leaf. Then continued with the test and evaluation of the effectiveness of the final dosage form of toothpaste preparations. Obtained from the test concentration of 20% n-hexane extract fraction of black betel leaf have the greatest antimicrobial power against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. And after optimization of the base, obtained the good mass forming of toothpaste with base PGA (Pulvis Gummi Arabica at concentration of 30%. Key words: antimicrobial activity, tooth paste, black betel leaf, formulations   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh formula sediaan pasta gigi berbahan aktif ekstrak sirih hitam yang efektif membunuh mikroba penyebab radang gusi (gingivitis dan gigi berlubang (caries. Bahan aktif diperoleh dengan cara melakukan maserasi yang dilanjutkan dengan fraksinasi dari ekstrak tersebut. Uji aktivitas antimikroba terhadap mikroorganisme Streptococcus mutans & Candida albican menggunakan metode difusi, yang mana akan didapatkan konsentrasi efektif yang akan digunakan untuk formulasi pasta gigi berbahan aktif sirih hitam. Dilanjutkan dengan uji efektivitas dan evaluasi sediaan akhir berupa sediaan pasta gigi. Dari pengujian tersebut diperoleh konsentrasi 20% ekstrak fraksi n-heksana daun sirih hitam mempunyai daya antimikroba paling besar terhadap Streptococcus mutans dan Candida albican. Dan setelah dilakukan optimasi basis, didapatkan penggunaan basis

  19. Promotion of uranium enrichment business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1981-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Power has studied on the basic nuclear power policy, establishing its five subcommittees, entrusted by the Ministry of Nternational Trade and Industry. The results of examination by the subcommittee on uranium enrichment business are given along with a report in this connection by the Committee. In order to establish the nuclear fuel cycle, the aspect of uranium enrichment is essential. The uranium enrichment by centrifugal process has proceeded steadily in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The following matters are described: the need for domestic uranium enrichment, the outlook for overseas enrichment services and the schedule for establishing domestic enrichment business, the current state of technology development, the position of the prototype enrichment plant, the course to be taken to establish enrichment business the main organization operating the prototype and commercial plants, the system of supplying centrifuges, the domestic conversion of natural uranium the subsidies for uranium enrichment business. (J.P.N.)

  20. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed