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Sample records for western tianshan china

  1. Petrology and U-Pb zircon dating of coesite-bearing metapelite from the Kebuerte Valley, western Tianshan, China

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    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Lifei; Tian, Zuolin; Bader, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the petrology and U-Pb dating of coesite-bearing garnet-phengite schist from the Kebuerte Valley, Chinese western Tianshan. It mainly consists of porphyroblastic garnet, phengite, quartz and chlorite with minor amounts of paragonite, albite, zoisite and chloritoid. The well preserved coesite inclusions (˜100 μm) in garnet are encircled by a narrow rim of quartz. They were identified by optical microscopy and confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Using the computer program THERMOCALC, the peak metamorphic conditions of 29 kbar and 565 °C were obtained via garnet isopleth geothermobarometry. The predicted UHP peak mineral assemblage comprises garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + carpholite + coesite + phengite. The metapelite records prograde quartz-eclogite-facies metamorphism, UHP coesite-eclogite-facies peak metamorphism, and a late greenschist-facies overprint. Phase equilibrium modeling predicts that garnet mainly grew in the mineral assemblages garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + chloritoid + glaucophane + quartz + phengite and garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + carpholite + glaucophane + quartz + phengite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of the coesite-bearing metapelite yielded the peak metamorphic age 320.4 ± 3.7 Ma. For the first time, age data of coesite-bearing UHP metapelite from the Chinese western Tianshan are presented in this paper. They are in accord with published ages obtained from eclogite from other localities in the Chinese western Tianshan and the Kyrgyz South Tianshan and therefore prove a widespread occurrence of UHP metamorphism.

  2. Closing history of the southern Tianshan oceanic basin, western China: an oblique collisional orogeny

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    Chen, Chuming; Lu, Huafu; Jia, Dong; Cai, Dongsheng; Wu, Shimin

    1999-02-01

    The Tianshan (Tien Shan) Range is an important Paleozoic collisional orogenic belt and the key to understand the central Asia tectonic evolution. This paper integrates our research results with the existing Chinese and international literature on sedimentology, geochemistry, isotopic geochronology, paleontonology and paleomagnetism of the Tianshan and Tarim regions to propose that the oblique collision may have played an important role in the late Paleozoic closing of the southern Tianshan oceanic basin. As a result of the Sinian (latest Proterozoic, younger than 800 Ma) continental extension and rifting process, the Tarim and Yili blocks separated from their parent continent in the Late Cambrian-Ordovician. The southern Tianshan oceanic crusts between the two blocks subducted northward beneath the southern margin of the Yili block in the Silurian. During the Devonian-Early Carboniferous, the Tarim block rapidly drifted to the north and rotated about 46° clockwise. This process induced the collision of the Yili micro-continent with the eastern segment (present geographical position) of the Tarim continent in the Late Devonian, and the southern Tianshan oceanic crust evolved to be a west-facing remnant oceanic basin. During the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian, the Tarim block, located within an almost constant latitude range, rotated about 26° clockwise with respect to the Yili micro-continent, which ultimately closed the remnant oceanic basin in a `scissors-like' manner from east to west and completed the Tarim-Yili collision. Subsequent A-type subduction of the Tarim continental crust and lithosphere-scale sinistral shearing generated a magmatic arc on the southern margin of the Tarim-Yili suture zone. The Late Permian-Early Triassic clastics deposited in a peripheral foreland basin developed above the arc.

  3. Lateral structural variations and drainage response along the Misikantage anticline in the western Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt, southern Tianshan, NW China

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    Tang, Pengcheng; Rao, Gang; Li, Shiqin; Yu, Yangli; Pei, Yangwen; Wang, Xin; Shen, Zhongyue; Chen, Ninghua; Zhao, Bo

    2017-11-01

    The Cenozoic Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt (KFTB) along the southern piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains (NW China) provides excellent chances for investigating active deformation and its controls on landscape topography. In contrast to the well-imaged eastern KFTB, the structural deformation in the western part complicated by the development of early-stage salt structures still has not been well investigated. On the basis of seismic reflection profiles, well data and surface geology, combined with previously determined paleomagnetic ages, this study focuses on the deformation style, onset and average shortening rate of the Misikantage anticline in the western KFTB. Together with the morphometric analysis of satellite images and digital elevation models (DEMs), we have demonstrated that: 1) the Misikantage anticline is an asymmetric detachment fold, where the fold geometry, amounts of shortening, outcropping strata and channel network patterns vary along strike; 2) syntectonic growth strata recognized from seismic profiles combined with paleomagnetic ages indicate that the folding started at 2.4 Ma and resulted in 0.3-0.9 km of shortening, yielding an average shortening rate of 0.12-0.38 mm/yr; 3) the landscape topography and drainage networks markedly change in response to lateral structural variations. These findings would provide a basis for further comparisons of compressional structures between the eastern and western KFTB, which are also helpful in better understanding active folding in fold-and-thrust belts particularly where thick salt is involved in deformation.

  4. Identification and partial characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional dairy products produced by herders in the western Tianshan Mountains of China.

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    Zuo, F L; Feng, X J; Chen, L L; Chen, S W

    2014-11-01

    Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from herders' traditional dairy products collected from Xinjiang, China. The species Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis and conventional observation. The strains' fermentation characteristics, including milk acidification, proteolysis, autolysis, antimicrobial activity and diacetyl production, were assayed and compared. Strains NL24 and NL31 showed the highest proteolytic activity-2·75 and 2·08 mmol Phe l(-1) milk, respectively. Strains C, NL41, SW2, Z3-11, NL42 and Z2-91 had high autolytic activity. In addition, most of the wild strains produced diacetyl, half of them to high levels. This study provides a clue to LAB biodiversity in traditional dairy foods produced by herders in the western Tianshan Mountains. High-performing strains should be further evaluated for practical application in value-added fermented dairy products. Our results reveal a certain variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in traditional dairy products from Xinjiang. Some of the LAB strains, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus NL24 and Lactobacillus paracasei SW2, possess excellent functional properties and have the potential for application in indigenous fermented dairy products. Performance of the newly isolated strains in cheese or yogurt manufacturing was further evaluated. Application of the high-performing strains to enrich the flavour of fermented dairy products is highly desirable and holds great commercial potential. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Different stages of chemical alteration on metabasaltic rocks in the subduction channel : evidence from the Western Tianshan metamorphic belt, NW China.

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    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Dong; Tan, Yulong; Wang, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    To understand the geochemistry of subduction zone metamorphism, especially the large-scale mass transfer at forearc to subarc depths, we carried out a detailed study of a ∼1.5 m size metabasaltic block with well-preserved pillow structures from the Chinese Western Tianshan high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. This metabasaltic block is characterized by omphacite-rich interiors gradually surrounded by abundant channelized (veins) glaucophane-rich patches toward the rims. The glaucopha...

  6. Different stages of chemical alteration on metabasaltic rocks in the subduction channel: Evidence from the Western Tianshan metamorphic belt, NW China

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    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Dong; Tan, Yulong; Wang, Guodong

    2017-09-01

    To understand the geochemistry of subduction zone metamorphism, especially the large-scale mass transfer at forearc to subarc depths, we carried out a detailed study of a ∼1.5 m size metabasaltic block with well-preserved pillow structures from the Chinese Western Tianshan high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. This metabasaltic block is characterized by omphacite-rich interiors gradually surrounded by abundant channelized (veins) glaucophane-rich patches toward the rims. The glaucophane-rich rims share the same peak metamorphic conditions with omphacite-rich interiors, but have experienced stronger blueschist-facies overprinting during exhumation. Representative samples from the glaucophane-rich rims and omphacite-rich interiors yield a well-defined Rb-Sr isochron age of 307 ± 23 Ma, likely representing this overprinting event. Both glaucophane-rich rims and omphacite-rich interiors show elevated K-Rb-Cs-Ba-Pb-Sr contents relative to their protolith, reflecting a large-scale enrichment of these elements and formation of abundant phengite during subduction. Compared with the omphacite-rich interiors, the glaucophane-rich rims have gained rare earth elements (REEs, >25%), U-Th (∼75%), Pb-Sr (>100%) and some transition metals like Co and Ni (25-50%), but lost P (∼75%), Na (>25%), Li and Be (∼50%); K-Rb-Cs-Ba show only 10% loss. These chemical changes would be caused by serpentinite-derived fluids during the exhumation in the subduction channel. Therefore, there are two stages of fluid action in the subduction channel. As the formation of phengite stabilizes K-Rb-Cs-Ba at the first stage, the residual fluids released from the phengite-rich metabasaltic rocks would be depleted in these elements, which are unlikely to contribute to elevated contents of these elements in arc magmas if phengite remains stable at subarc depths. In addition, the decrease of U/Pb ratios as the preferred enrichment of Pb over U in the eclogitic rocks during the first stage

  7. On the teleconnection patterns to precipitation in the eastern Tianshan Mountains, China

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    Zhong, Yu; Wang, Binbin; Zou, Chris B.; Hu, Bill X.; Liu, Youcun; Hao, Yonghong

    2017-11-01

    The Tianshan Mountains are known as the "water tower" in the arid region of Central Asia. Change in precipitation amount and pattern can have a profound impact on regional civilization and life supporting ecosystems. For this study, a systematic analysis of long-term precipitation data for the eastern Tianshan Mountains was conducted to investigate the influence of climate teleconnections on annual and intra-annual precipitation using data collected between 1951 and 2014 from 39 meteorological stations. Annual precipitation has increased during the past six decades at an average rate of 6.7 mm/10 years largely due to the increase in precipitation during the intra-annual wet period (May-October). The annual precipitation and its rate of increase were higher in the northwestern region. Annual precipitation was found to be most strongly correlated with index of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), and partially correlated with indices of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Pacific North American Teleconnection Pattern (PNA), Arctic Oscillation (AO), El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). ISM was positively correlated with the precipitation in almost the entire region during the intra-annual wet period, while it showed positive correlations in the northern slope and the alpine region, and negative correlations in the southern slope during the intra-annual dry period (November to April). PDO had much weaker influence both in spatial scale and strength and primarily affected low elevations on the southern slopes of the middle and western regions. The impacts of PNA and AO on precipitation were weak and localized. ENSO and NAO indices were almost not correlated with annual precipitation observation in the eastern Tianshan Mountains.

  8. On the teleconnection patterns to precipitation in the eastern Tianshan Mountains, China

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    Zhong, Yu; Wang, Binbin; Zou, Chris B.; Hu, Bill X.; Liu, Youcun; Hao, Yonghong

    2017-02-01

    The Tianshan Mountains are known as the "water tower" in the arid region of Central Asia. Change in precipitation amount and pattern can have a profound impact on regional civilization and life supporting ecosystems. For this study, a systematic analysis of long-term precipitation data for the eastern Tianshan Mountains was conducted to investigate the influence of climate teleconnections on annual and intra-annual precipitation using data collected between 1951 and 2014 from 39 meteorological stations. Annual precipitation has increased during the past six decades at an average rate of 6.7 mm/10 years largely due to the increase in precipitation during the intra-annual wet period (May-October). The annual precipitation and its rate of increase were higher in the northwestern region. Annual precipitation was found to be most strongly correlated with index of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), and partially correlated with indices of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Pacific North American Teleconnection Pattern (PNA), Arctic Oscillation (AO), El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). ISM was positively correlated with the precipitation in almost the entire region during the intra-annual wet period, while it showed positive correlations in the northern slope and the alpine region, and negative correlations in the southern slope during the intra-annual dry period (November to April). PDO had much weaker influence both in spatial scale and strength and primarily affected low elevations on the southern slopes of the middle and western regions. The impacts of PNA and AO on precipitation were weak and localized. ENSO and NAO indices were almost not correlated with annual precipitation observation in the eastern Tianshan Mountains.

  9. Correction of two Upper Paleozoic stratigraphic units in the Tianshan Mountains region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and implications on the Late Paleozoic evolution of Tianshan tectonic complex, Northwest China

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    Zhong-Qiang Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses two tectonostratigraphic concerns on the Late Paleozoic Tianshan tectonic complex (TTC, Xinjiang, Northwest (NW China: (1 stratigraphic succession and age constraint of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange, eastern Tianshan Mountains and (2 timing of closure of the southern Tianshan ocean and accretion of the Siberian craton recorded in the Aiweiergou (AWEG area, eastern Tianshan Mountains by integrating stratigraphy, palaeontology, tectonopalaeogeography and palaeobiogeography. In the Bayingou area, the detailed palaeontological survey denies the presence of brachiopod Gigantoproductus fauna, typical of the Early Carboniferous faunas in central–south Tianshan complex, in the Anjihai Formation. In contrast, the Anjihai brachiopod assemblage, as a whole, appears to have a high affinity with the Late Devonian faunas of the eastern Junggar Basin, northern Xinjiang, suggesting a Late Devonian age for the Anjihai Formation. The overlying Shadawang Formation yields the Early Carboniferous radiolarians. These two units form the main part of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange, which therefore is likely Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous in age. The Bayingou area has been likely part of the northern Tianshan-Junggar block since the Late Devonian, although it may have been part of the Central Tianshan tectonostratigraphic province prior to the Late Devonian. The topmost strata of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange are characterized by alternation of volcanics, conglomerate and mudstone, and are better re-assigned to the Taoxigou Group rather than the Keguqingshan Formation. The Bayingou ophiolite mélange comprises the Late Devonian Anjihai Formation, the Carboniferous Bayingou and Shadawang Formations, and the Early Permian Taoxigou Group. In the AWEG area, the Permian and Triassic rocks were previously misinterpreted as the Late Permian turbidites and Late Triassic red beds, respectively. In fact, the Permian successions in AWEG

  10. Iron mineralization at the Songhu deposit, Chinese Western Tianshan: a type locality with regional metallogenic implications

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    Wang, Chun-Long; Wang, Yi-Tian; Dong, Lian-Hui; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Evans, Noreen J.; Zhang, Bing; Ren, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Hosted by volcaniclastics of the Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation, the Songhu iron deposit is located in the central segment of the Awulale metallogenic belt, Chinese Western Tianshan. Mineralization and alteration are structurally controlled by orogen-parallel NWW-striking faults. Integrating with mineralogical and stable isotopic analyses based on paragenetic relationships, two types of iron mineralization have been identified. The deuteric mineralization (Type I) represented by brecciated, banded, and disseminated-vein ores juxtaposed with potassic-calcic alteration in the inner zone, which was formed from a magmatic fluid generated during the late stages of regional volcanism. In contrast, the volcanic-hydrothermal mineralization (Type II) is characterized by hydrothermal features occurring in massive and agglomerated ores with abundant sulfides, and was generated from the magmatic fluid with seawater contamination. Two volcaniclastic samples from the hanging and footwall of the main orebody yield zircon U-Pb ages of 327.8 ± 3.1 and 332.0 ± 2.0 Ma, respectively, which indicate Middle Carboniferous volcanism. Timing for iron mineralization can be broadly placed in the same epoch. By reviewing geological, mineralogical, and geochemical features of the primary iron deposits in the Awulale metallogenic belt, we propose that the two types of iron mineralization in the Songhu iron deposit are representative regionally. A summary of available geochronological data reveals Middle-Late Carboniferous polycyclic ore-related volcanism, and nearly contemporaneous iron mineralization along the belt. Furthermore, petro-geochemistry of volcanic-volcaniclastic host rocks indicates that partial melting of a metasomatized mantle wedge under a continental arc setting could have triggered the continuous volcanic activities and associated metallogenesis.

  11. An ecology-oriented exploitation mode of groundwater resources in the northern Tianshan Mountains, China

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    Shang, Haimin; Wang, Wenke; Dai, Zhenxue; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, ecological degradation caused by irrational groundwater exploitation has been of growing concern in arid and semiarid regions. To address the groundwater-ecological issues, this paper proposes a groundwater-resource exploitation mode to evaluate the tradeoff between groundwater development and ecological environment in the northern Tianshan Mountains, northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Field surveys and remote sensing studies were conducted to analyze the relation between the distribution of hydrological conditions and the occurrence of ecological types. The results show that there is a good correlation between groundwater depth and the supergene ecological type. Numerical simulations and ecological assessment models were applied to develop an ecology-oriented exploitation mode of groundwater resources. The mode allows the groundwater levels in different zones to be regulated by optimizing groundwater exploitation modes. The prediction results show that the supergene ecological quality will be better in 2020 and even more groundwater can be exploited in this mode. This study provides guidance for regional groundwater management, especially in regions with an obvious water scarcity.

  12. Climate-driven speedup of alpine treeline forest growth in the Tianshan Mountains, Northwestern China.

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    Qi, Zhaohuan; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Xiuchen; Hao, Qian

    2015-02-01

    Forest growth is sensitive to interannual climatic change in the alpine treeline ecotone (ATE). Whether the alpine treeline ecotone shares a similar pattern of forest growth with lower elevational closed forest belt (CFB) under changing climate remains unclear. Here, we reported an unprecedented acceleration of Picea schrenkiana forest growth since 1960s in the ATE of Tianshan Mountains, northwestern China by a stand-total sampling along six altitudinal transects with three plots in each transect: one from the ATE between the treeline and the forest line, and the other two from the CFB. All the sampled P. schrenkiana forest patches show a higher growth speed after 1960 and, comparatively, forest growth in the CFB has sped up much slower than that in the ATE. The speedup of forest growth at the ATE is mainly accounted for by climate factors, with increasing temperature suggested to be the primary driver. Stronger water deficit as well as more competition within the CFB might have restricted forest growth there more than that within the ATE, implying biotic factors were also significant for the accelerated forest growth in the ATE, which should be excluded from simulations and predictions of warming-induced treeline dynamics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

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    Wei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I late Ordovician–early Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean; (II middle Silurian–middle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III late Devonian–late Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks; (IV early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting; (V late Permian–Triassic the first intraplate orogeny; (VI Jurassic–Palaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII Neocene–Quaternary intraplate orogeny.

  14. Baseflow simulation using SWAT model in an inland river basin in Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China

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    Y. Luo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Baseflow is an important component in hydrological modeling. The complex streamflow recession process complicates the baseflow simulation. In order to simulate the snow and/or glacier melt dominated streamflow receding quickly during the high-flow period but very slowly during the low-flow period in rivers in arid and cold northwest China, the current one-reservoir baseflow approach in SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool model was extended by adding a slow- reacting reservoir and applying it to the Manas River basin in the Tianshan Mountains. Meanwhile, a digital filter program was employed to separate baseflow from streamflow records for comparisons. Results indicated that the two-reservoir method yielded much better results than the one-reservoir one in reproducing streamflow processes, and the low-flow estimation was improved markedly. Nash-Sutcliff efficiency values at the calibration and validation stages are 0.68 and 0.62 for the one-reservoir case, and 0.76 and 0.69 for the two-reservoir case. The filter-based method estimated the baseflow index as 0.60, while the model-based as 0.45. The filter-based baseflow responded almost immediately to surface runoff occurrence at onset of rising limb, while the model-based responded with a delay. In consideration of watershed surface storage retention and soil freezing/thawing effects on infiltration and recharge during initial snowmelt season, a delay response is considered to be more reasonable. However, a more detailed description of freezing/thawing processes should be included in soil modules so as to determine recharge to aquifer during these processes, and thus an accurate onset point of rising limb of the simulated baseflow.

  15. Multifractal filtering methods to investigate tectono-magmatic framework in the Eastern Tianshan mineral district, China

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    Zhao, Jie; Cheng, Qiuming; Wang, Wenlei

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Tianshan district is a critical Cu-polymetallic mineralization zone in China. Influenced by the northward plate subduction, geological framework generally extends along the EW direction, dominated by which spatial distributions of volcanic activities, volcanic sediments and granitic intrusions are EW oriented as well. Gravity data sensitive to mass variations of earth crust are often employed to detect and recognize buried geological bodies (e.g., ore bodies, buried intrusions, faults, etc.). Fault traces as products of complex and cascade geological processes possess self-similarity, anisotropy and other fractal/multifractal characters. Multifractal theories and methods are, therefore, appropriate to analyze faults and investigate their causative geological processes. In addition, mineral exploration in this area is frequently impeded by Gobi-desert coverage, since geo-information of interests will become weak, missing and/or inadequate. Many of former studies had demonstrated that fractal/multifractal approaches are efficient tools to explore complicated geological events. Especially in shallow covered areas, weak geo-information can be enhanced significantly. This study applies a multifractal filtering method to gravity and geochemical data, which is objective to identify Fe-Cu-Au mineralization related faulted structures. The multifractal filter, spectrum-area (S-A) model is currently employed to characterize anisotropic properties of geological framework in the study area. According to the filtered anomaly and background patterns, mineralized districts can mostly be targeted along the faulted zones and around the intermediate-felsic intrusive rocks in the Aqishan-Yamansu volcanic basin. Nevertheless, the jointly used upward continuation and vertical derivation cannot achieve patterns as the S-A filter due to the scale variance of the model. The S-A model defined based on the self-similarity and scale invariance of their corresponding sections on

  16. Omphacite-bearing calcite marble and associated coesite-bearing pelitic schist from the meta-ophiolitic belt of Chinese western Tianshan

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    Lü, Zeng; Bucher, Kurt; Zhang, Lifei

    2013-10-01

    In the meta-ophiolitic belt of Chinese western Tianshan, marble (5-50 cm thick) is found interlayered with pelitic schist. The marble is mainly composed of calcite (>90% in volume) and accessory phases include omphacite, quartz, dolomite, albite, phengite, clinozoisite and titanite with or without rutile core. This is the first omphacite (Jd35-50) reported from marble of Chinese western Tianshan. It mainly occurs in the calcite matrix, rarely as inclusion in albite. The presence of omphacite suggests that the layered marble was subjected to eclogite-facies metamorphism, consistent with the occurrence of high-Si phengite (Si a.p.f.u. up to 3.7) and aragonite relic in albite. The associated pelitic schist consists of quartz, white mica (phengite + paragonite), garnet, albite, amphibole (barroisite ± glaucophane) and rutile/titanite, as well as minor amounts of dolomite, tourmaline and graphite. Coesite is optically recognized within porphyroblastic pelitic garnet and is further confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. Thermodynamic models support the UHP metamorphism of calcite marble, similar to the associated pelitic schist. Shared UHP-LT history of calcareous and pelitic rocks in Chinese western Tianshan suggests that the supracrustal carbon-rich sediments have been carried to depths of >90 km during fast subduction and thus are potential sources for carbon recycled into arc crust.

  17. Modeling glacier mass balance and runoff in the Koxkar river basin on the south slope of the Tianshan Mountains, China, from 1959 to 2009

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    Xu, M.; Han, H.; Kang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources provided by alpine glaciers are an important pillar for people living in the arid regions in the west of China. In this study, the HBV (Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenavdelning) model was applied to simulate glacier mass balance and runoff in the Koxkar river basin on the south slope of Mt. Tumur, western Tianshan Mountains. Daily temperature and precipitation were calculated by multiple linear regressions and gradient-inverse distance weighting, respectively, based on in-situ observed data by automatic weather stations (AWSs) in the basin (2007-2009) and at four meteorological stations neighbering the basin (1959-2009). In-situ observed daily data for 3-year air temperature and precipitation was input data for HBV. The model was calibrated by runoff in 2007/08 and 2009/10, and validated by runoff in 2008/09 and 2010/11. Generally, the model could simulate runoff very well. Thus, the annual glacier mass balance and runoff were calculated using the HBV model driven by interpolated meteorological data for the period of 1959-2009. The simulated glacier mass balance were reasonable when compared with those observed values at nearby glaciers, indicating a decrease trend of mass balance in the basin with an average value of -370.4 mm a-1 since 1959. The annual runoff showed a slight increase trend (5.51 mm a-1). Futher analysis indicated that the runoff is more sensitive to temperature than precipitation amuont in the Koxkar river basin.

  18. Modeling Glacier Mass Balance and Runoff in the Koxkar River Basin on the South Slope of the Tianshan Mountains, China, from 1959 to 2009

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    Min Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Water resources provided by alpine glaciers are an important pillar for people in the arid regions of west China. In this study, the Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenavdelning (HBV light model was applied to simulate glacier mass balance (GMB and runoff in the Koxkar River Basin (KRB on the south slope of Mount Tumur, in the western Tianshan Mountains. Daily temperature and precipitation were calculated by multiple linear regressions and gradient-inverse distance weighting, respectively, based on in-situ observed data by automatic weather stations (AWSs in the Koxkar River Basin (KRB; 2007–2009 and four meteorological stations neighboring the basin (1959–2009. Observed daily air temperature and precipitation were input into HBV model. The runoff data in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 were used to calibrate and validate the model in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Generally, the model simulated runoff very well. The annual glacier mass balance and runoff were calculated by the HBV model and were driven by interpolated meteorological data between 1959 and 2009. The calculated glacier mass balances were reasonable, and were compared with nearby glaciers. The results indicate the decreasing trend of mass balance in the Koxkar Glacier, with an average value of ablation of −370.4 mm·a−1 between 1959 and 2009. The annual runoff showed an increasing trend (5.51 mm·a−1. Further analysis showed that the runoff is more sensitive to temperature than precipitation in KRB.

  19. A hundred year record of anthropogenic influences on the sedimentary geochemistry from Lake Sayram, Tianshan Mountains in northwestern China

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    Wu, J.; Shen, B.

    2016-12-01

    Northwestern China has many arid inland lakes and wetlands, and it is characterized with climate variability and human impact. Lake Sayram is a deep, closed lake in the Tianshan Mountains of northwest China. In this study, we explore the trajectory of recent climate and environmental change using a 30-cm sediment record obtained from the center of Lake Sayram. With 210Pb and 137Cs dating and organic-inorganic geochemical methods, including element content, carbonate content, δ13C andδ18O of bulk carbonate, source-specific biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we reconstruct regional environmental change over the past about 100 yrs. High evaporation modifies δ13C andδ18O of the dissolved inorganic carbon in lake water and may be responsible for the covariance between δ13C andδ18O of bulk carbonate. Alkenone unsaturation indices are associated with climatic change, and the PAHs and metal contents reflect the impacts of human activities. Constrained cluster analysis of the multi-proxy indices was used to partition sediment deposition into three periods. Prior to 1960, the climate was dryer with high evaporation, and lake water had higher salinity. The vertical distributions of PAHs had little changed and low molecular weight PAHs were dominated PAHs. In this period, there existed one obvious drier climatic event at about 1920s with the sediment record of aeolian dust transport. From the 1960s to 1990s, high molecular weight PAHs and heavy metal delivery to sediments increased slowly, associated with relatively weak economic development in Xinjiang region. Thereafter, contamination by heavy metals increased markedly, especially after the 1990s, a sharp increase in PAHs level and individuals was observed too. The results clearly demonstrate that the environmental change in Lake Sayram before the 1960s strongly depended on the natural discharge, whereas at later stages, it was significantly influenced by human activities.

  20. Magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide mineralization of the Huangshannan mafic-untramafic intrusion, Eastern Tianshan, China

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    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, YongQiang; Ke, Junjun

    2015-06-01

    The Huangshannan Ni-Cu (-PGE) sulfide deposit, a new discovery from geological prospecting in Eastern Tianshan, is in a belt of magmatic Ni-Cu (-PGE) sulfide deposits along the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The host intrusion of the Huangshannan deposit is composed of a layered ultramafic sequence and a massive gabbro-diorite unit. The major sulfide orebodies occur mainly within websterite and lherzolite in the layered ultramafic sequence. In-situ zircon U-Pb dating analyses yielded a crystallization age of 282.5 ± 1.4 Ma, similar to the ages of the Permian Tarim mantle plume. Samples from the Huangshannan intrusion are characterized by nearly flat rare earth elements patterns, negative Zr, Ti and Nb anomalies, arc-like Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios, and significantly lower rare earth element and immobile trace element contents than the Tarim basalts. These characteristics suggest that the Huangshannan intrusion was not generated from the Tarim mantle plume. The primary magma for the Huangshannan intrusion and its associated sulfide mineralization were formed from different pulses of picritic magma with different degrees of crustal contamination. The first pulse underwent an initial removal of 0.016% sulfide in the deep magma chamber. The evolved magma reached sulfide saturation again in the shallow magma chamber and formed sulfide ores in lherzolite. The second pulse of magma reached a level of 0.022% sulfide segregation at staging chamber before ascending up to the shallow magma chamber. In the shallow conduit system, this sulfide-unsaturated magma mixed with the first pulse of magma and with contamination from the country rocks, leading to the formation of sulfide ores in websterite. The third magma pulse from the deep chamber formed the unmineralized massive gabbro-diorite unit of the Huangshannan intrusion.

  1. Changes in diversity and biomass of bacteria along a shallow snow pit from Kuytun 51 Glacier, Tianshan Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shu-Rong; Shang, Tian-Cui; Chen, Yong; Jing, Z.-F.; Yao, Tandong

    2009-12-01

    Microorganisms vary in both biomass and diversity composition along glacial depth profiles. However, it is not well known about the major processes controlling the structure diversity shift of microorganisms in a glacier, although, aeolian deposition has been widely accepted as one mechanism regulating the distribution of microorganisms in snow. To better understand the distribution of microorganisms in a glacier, variations in bacterial diversity and biomass along a pit profile from the Kuytun 51 Glacier in the Tianshan Mountains in China were investigated by using 16S rRNA gene library sequencing and flow cytometric analysis with cell sorting markers. Four clone libraries were established from each of the different sampling depths from the snow pit. A total of 311 insert clones were preliminarily screened by HaeIII-based amplified rRNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and 83 representatives of the unique ARDRA patterns were sequenced. Sequence analysis showed that the bacteria in the snow pit were affiliated with 23 known subphyla within the members of the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria phyla. To examine diversity shifts in snow, the diversity structures from the snow pit were also compared with those previously recovered from the different habitats along the Kuytun 51 Glacier surface and from the deep Malan Glacier. The results showed structure shift patterns in bacterial diversity among the surface, deep snow, and deep ice. Sequence analysis displayed a dramatic diversity shift from a mixture of Cyanobacteria and other eubacteria across the glacial surface to other eubacteria without Cyanobacteria in the deep snow. However, the biogeochemical analyses showed great variability in the measured abiotic and biotic components along the pit profile, which reinforced the idea of aeolian deposition being a dominant mechanism controlling the size and diversity of microorganisms in snow. Overall, the findings indicated a

  2. Variations in Stable Carbon Isotope Composition and Leaf Traits of Picea schrenkiana var. tianschanica along an Altitude Gradient in Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China

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    Huiwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the morphological and physiological responses of leaves to changes in altitudinal gradients, we examined ten morphological and physiological characteristics in one-year-old needles of Picea schrenkiana var. tianschanica at ten points along an altitudinal gradient from 1420 to 2300 m a.s.l. on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northwest China. Our results indicated that LA, SD, LPC, and LKC increased linearly with increasing elevation, whereas leaf δ13C, LNC, Chla + b, LDMC, LMA, and Narea varied nonlinearly with changes in altitude. With elevation below 2100 m, LNC, Narea, and Chla + b increased, while LDMC and LMA decreased with increasing altitude. When altitude was above 2100 m, these properties showed the opposite patterns. Leaf δ13C was positively correlated with Narea and LNC and negatively correlated with SD and LA, suggesting that leaf δ13C was indirectly controlled by physiological and morphological adjustments along altitudinal gradients. Based on the observed maximum values in LNC, Narea, Chla + b, and LA and the minimum values in LMA and LDMC at the elevation of 2100 m, suggesting higher photosynthetic capacity and greater potential for fast growth under superior optimum zone, we concluded that the best growing elevation for P. schrenkiana var. tianschanica in the Tianshan Mountains was approximately 2100 m.

  3. Drought history inferred from tree ring δ 13C and δ 18O in the central Tianshan Mountains of China and linkage with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobao; Liu, Xiaohong; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Tuo; Sun, Weizhen; An, Wenling; Wang, Wenzhi; Wu, Guoju; Zeng, Xiaomin; Ren, Jiawen

    2014-05-01

    Annual tree ring δ 18O and δ 13C chronologies from 1790 to 2008 were established using Tianshan spruce ( Picea schrenkiana) in the central Tianshan Mountains of northwestern China. Temperature has a positive effect on tree ring δ 18O and δ 13C in the study area, while precipitation and relative humidity have negative effects. The standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) considered all of these effects and was significantly negatively correlated with tree ring δ 18O and δ 13C. We combined the tree ring δ 18O and δ 13C series to reconstruct the past 192 years of SPEI, which accounted for about 46 % of the total variance of SPEI from 1950 to 2006. The reconstruction showed good spatial agreement with gridded data in Palmer Drought Severity Index and precipitation and an inverse relationship with temperature. Our SPEI reconstruction reveals several wet and dry periods over the past 192 years and has good agreement with other drought records. Wavelet analysis showed quasi-periodic 10-, 20-, 30-, and 70-year fluctuations in the reconstruction. The 10-, 20-, and 30-year periodicities may reflect the potential influence of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Overall, this study indicates that the SPEI is a potential drought index, and the winter NAO affects regional moisture conditions in the long term.

  4. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Jueluotage native copper mineralized basalt, Eastern Tianshan, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dayu; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Said, Nuru; Lu, Yongjun; Pirajno, Franco

    2013-09-01

    The Jueluotage native copper mineralized basalt is located in the Jueluotage Volcanic-sedimentary Belt, Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region. The basalt, amygdaloidal basalt and tuff, which host native copper mineralization, were erupted in the lower strata of the Late Carboniferous Matoutan Formation. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the basaltic occurrences at Shilipo, Heilongfeng, Changchengshan and Dongjianfeng have fractionated chondrite-normalized REE distributions and distinctly negative primitive mantle-normalized Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. The whole-rock strontium, neodymium and lead isotopic data indicate low εSr(t) (-7.9 to +23.6), high εNd(t) (+2.5 to +7.1), with restricted 206Pb/204Pb (18.152-18.491), 207Pb/204Pb (15.521-15.562) and 208Pb/204Pb (37.978-38.251) ranges. On the basis of these data, we report that the Cu-bearing basalt is associated with high-iron tholeiitic basalts that were sourced from depleted continental lithosphere mantle garnet-bearing peridotite. The primary magma of the Cu-bearing basalt was: (1) relatively low in silica and magnesium; and (2) underwent only slight olivine and clinopyroxene crystal fractionation during the magmatic evolution process. In the Jueluotage belt, the Shilipo basalt lavas display significant geochemical similarities to numerous mafic intrusions that are present throughout the Jueluotage belt. Those mafic lavas and intrusions probably represent successive pulses of mafic magmatism, which lasted between ca. 310 and 270 Ma. A crucial empirical observation is that the Jueluotage volcanic-sedimentary belt is a well-known metallogenic province that contains a wide range of copper, nickel, gold, and iron mineral deposits. These mineral systems were formed at different times and are associated with radically different ore-forming processes. However, they are all within the Jueluotage belt, which is interpreted to be a suture zone between the Junggar and Tarim plates, northwestern China. We

  5. The High-Pressure Cataclasites from SW Tianshan, China: An Implication for the Mechanisms of Intermediate-Depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2012-12-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes have been observed in several presently active subduction zones worldwide, at the depth of 70 to 300 km. It is considered to be closely related to metamorphic dehydration reactions in the subducting slabs. However, there are not enough field evidences in previous studies to support this hypothesis. Two types of cataclasites which are possibly related to metamorphic dehydration reactions have been discovered and collected from the high to ultra-high pressure (HP-UHP) metamorphic belt in southwestern Tianshan, China, which is generally recognized as a typical oceanic cold subduction zone. Based on the mineralogy of fragments in the cataclasites, they are classified into blueschist cataclasites and eclogite cataclasites. There are few detail studies of blueschist cataclasites and eclogite cataclasites in oceanic subduction zone worldwide, especially of blueschist cataclasites in previous studies. This study is aimed to understand the relationship between metamorphic dehydration reactions and seismicity in the subducting slab through the field evidence. For the blueschist cataclasites, the blueschist fragments are cemented by eclogite facies matrix. The matrix is basically veins formed in the original fractures of the cataclasites. The blueschist fragments are composed of approximately 75% glaucophane, 20% epidote/zoisite and minor amount of garnet, while the matrix contains about 20% garnet, 5% omphacite, 45% actinolite (mostly altered from omphacite), 25% epidote/zoisite with some minor minerals. The petrographic observations and mineral chemical analysis indicate that the cataclasites formed during the transition from blueschist to ecologite. In the eclogite-facies cataclasites, the eclogite-facies fragments are cemented by matrix of garnet-mica schists and later carbonate fluids. The mineral assemblage of eclogite fragments is dominated by more than 90% omphacite, with rutile, sphene and garnet as accessory mineral. The matrix that

  6. Influence of the Tianshan Mountains on Arid Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J. W.; Vecchi, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arid Central Asia is roughly bisected at the Tianshan Mountains (a northern offshoot of the Tibetan Plateau) into an eastern and western area, each with unique climatological characteristics. The eastern desert (~75-115E, 35-55N) has a summer precipitation maximum, and the western desert (~50-75E, 35-55N) has a winter precipitation maximum. A new high-resolution (50 km atmosphere/land) global coupled climate model is run with the Tianshan Mountains removed to determine whether these mountains are responsible for the climatological east-west differentiation of Arid Central Asia. Multi-centennial simulations for the control and no Tianshan runs highlight statistically significant effects of the Tianshan. The Tianshan are found to fully explain the spatial separation of the deserts, but only partially explain their differences in precipitation climatology. The Tianshan also create a few unexpected remote effects: 1) enhancement of the east Asian monsoon due to the Tianshan's stationary wave train, and 2) remote warming of mountains farther east due to reduction of snow cover and corresponding albedo decrease. Arid Central Asia comprises the only significant midlatitude deserts, and is the site of widespread grassland degradation in recent years. This study helps clarify the basic climate of this unique region, and hopefully paves the way for better understanding and prediction of how it will respond to future climate and land-use change.

  7. Carboniferous rifted arcs leading to an archipelago of multiple arcs in the Beishan-Tianshan orogenic collages (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Ji'en; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Dongfang

    2017-10-01

    The Beishan and East Tianshan Orogenic Collages in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) record the final stages of evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. These collages and their constituent arcs have an important significance for resolving current controversies regarding their tectonic setting and age, consequent accretionary history of the southern CAOB, and the closure time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. In this paper, we present our work on the southern Mazongshan arc and the northern Hongyanjing Basin in the Beishan Orogenic Collage (BOC), and our comparison with the Bogda arc and associated basins in the East Tianshan Orogenic Collage. Field relationships indicate that the Pochengshan fault defines the boundary between the arc and basin in the BOC. Volcanic rocks including basalts and rhyolites in the Mazongshan arc have bimodal calc-alkaline characteristics, an enrichment in large ion lithophile elements such as Rb, Ba, and Pb and depletion in high field-strength elements (e.g., Nb and Ta), which were probably developed in a subduction-related tectonic setting. We suggest that these bimodal calc-alkaline volcanic rocks formed in rifted arcs instead of post-orogenic rifts with mantle plume inputs. By making detailed geochemical comparisons between the Mazongshan arc and the Bogda arc to the west, we further propose that they are similar and both formed in arc rifts, and helped generate a Carboniferous archipelago of multiple arcs in the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. These data and ideas enable us to postulate a new model for the tectonic evolution of the southern CAOB.

  8. Intra-continental back-arc basin inversion and Late Carboniferous magmatism in Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Constraints from the Shaquanzi magmatic suite

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    Hongjun Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Yamansu belt, an important tectonic component of Eastern Tianshan Mountains, of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China hosts many Fe–(Cu deposit. In this study, we present new zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical data of the volcanic rocks of Shaquanzi Formation and diorite intrusions in the Yamansu belt. The Shaquanzi Formation comprises mainly basalt, andesite/andesitic tuff, rhyolite and sub-volcanic diabase with local diorite intrusions. The volcanic rocks and diorites contain ca. 315–305 Ma and ca. 298 Ma zircons respectively. These rocks show calc-alkaline affinity with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs, light rare-earth elements (LREEs, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs in primitive mantle normalized multi-element diagrams, which resemble typical back-arc basin rocks. They show depleted mantle signature with εNd(t ranging from +3.1 to +5.6 for basalt; +2.1 to +4.7 for andesite; −0.2 to +1.5 for rhyolite and the εHf(t ranges from −0.1 to +13.0 for andesites; +5.8 to +10.7 for andesitic tuffs. We suggest that the Shaquanzi Formation basalt might have originated from a depleted, metasomatized lithospheric mantle source mixed with minor (3–5% subduction-derived materials, whereas the andesite and rhyolite could be fractional crystallization products of the basaltic magma. The Shaquanzi Formation volcanic rocks could have formed in an intra-continental back-arc basin setting, probably via the southward subduction of the Kangguer Ocean beneath the Middle Tianshan Massif. The Yamansu mineralization belt might have undergone a continental arc to back-arc basin transition during the Late Carboniferous and the intra-continental back-arc basin might have closed in the Early Permian, marked by the emplacement of dioritic magma in the Shaquanzi belt.

  9. Primary fluids entrapped at blueschist to eclogite transition: evidence from the Tianshan meta-subduction complex in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner

    2001-06-01

    The Tianshan is the first locality worldwide where primary fluids at blueschist to eclogite transition have been documented. Veins containing high-pressure minerals in massive host eclogites transitional to blueschists, or eclogite boudins surrounded by blueschists, indicate that a free fluid phase was present at the time of eclogitization. The high-pressure veins are predominantly composed of omphacite fibers with minor quartz or calcite. The transition from blueschist- to eclogite-facies parageneses occurs as "dehydration" halos around these veins. Clinozoisite, paragonite, glaucophane, and omphacite inclusions preserved in garnet porphyroblasts in wall eclogites document the transformation of blueschist to eclogite. C-axis-parallel, non-planar populations of fluid inclusions were trapped during the growth of omphacite in high-pressure veins and dehydrated wall rocks. Low salinity H2O + NaCl +/- solid-bearing inclusions are preserved in omphacite fibers in veins and matrix omphacite of wall rocks. None of the isochores of these low salinity aqueous fluid inclusions intersect peak eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions, suggesting that, although the textural evidence constrains the entrapment of fluid inclusions to peak metamorphic conditions, their densities must have been modified during exhumation. The fluids are interpreted to have been derived from the host blueschist as a result of dehydration reactions such as 13 Gln+5 Czo=9 Prp+26 Jd+12 Di+19 Qtz+15 H2O and Gln+Pg=Prp+3 Jd+2 Otz+2 H2O. The similarity of vein and wall rock mineral compositions, fluid inclusion characteristics and O-isotope data also favor an internal source for the fluids. The major element composition of veins indicate that Si, Na, and Ca-rich aqueous fluids were released during dehydration at a depth of 50+/-10 km within a Paleozoic subduction zone.

  10. Trace-element mobilization in slabs due to non steady-state fluid rock interaction: Constraints from an eclogite-facies transport vein in blueschist (Tianshan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Timm; Klemd, Reiner; Gao, Jun; Garbe-Schönberg, Carl-Dieter

    2008-06-01

    The mafic high-pressure rocks of the Tianshan (NW China) display an interconnected network of eclogite-facies veins derived by prograde blueschist dehydration. They provide insight into fluid-rock interaction and element load during long-distance fluid flow occurring due to the major fluid release of subducting oceanic crust. This case study focuses on an eclogite-facies transport vein, its blueschist host and the reaction zone (blueschist-alteration zone), which is located in the central part of the vein. The blueschist mainly consists of glaucophane, micas, epidote, dolomite, and garnet while the vein consists of omphacite, quartz, and apatite. Within the blueschist-alteration zone glaucophane, paragonite, and dolomite have been replaced by omphacite and garnet. Rock textures indicate that the infiltration of external fluids produced the transport vein, most likely due to hydraulic embrittlement. These fluids also triggered the eclogitization of the blueschist-alteration zone. The almost twice as high Li concentration of the vein and the blueschist-alteration zone in comparison to the blueschist host supports the assumption of an external origin of the fluids. The low in trace element vein-forming fluid caused a strong mobilization of all trace elements in those parts of the host the passing fluid reacted with. 40-80% of the trace elements were scavenged which coincided with a loss of the large-ion-lithophile- and light-rare-earth-elements (LILE and LREE), almost double the loss of the heavy-rare-earth and high-field-strength-elements (HREE and HFSE). Around 75% of the total carbon was released as CO 2 into the reactive fluid. The main difference between the blueschist host and the blueschist-alteration zone is the replacement of glaucophane, dolomite, and titanite by omphacite, garnet, and minor rutile respectively, whereas garnet, epidote, rutile, and phengite occur in both zones of the rock. Therefore, the fluid-flow regime rather than the mineral assemblages

  11. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  12. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  13. Regional competitiveness: The case of Western China

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    Vuković Darko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the concept of regional competitiveness and the factors that influence on it. A large number of various authors explain this concept, based on its different aspects, including: productivity, mikroaspekts (firm, quality of human capital, innovation, technology, infrastructure, social capital, etc.. Taking into account complex nature of regional competitiveness, it is difficult to determine a standard definition of this term. The second part of this paper refers to the case of western China. Substantial disparity in regional development is a reality in every geographically large country, and the causes of the disparity are numerous and complex. Regional inequality has been an important issue in China. This paper generally summarized China's Western regions geography, government policies and development situation. The authors put forward some practical strategies on how to help the western regions create a favorable environment to attract national and international investment.

  14. Continental crust melting induced by subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean: Insight from the Latest Devonian granitic magmatism in the southern Yili Block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wan, Bo; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping

    2018-03-01

    The Tianshan belt of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt was generated by Paleozoic multi-stage subduction and final closure of several extinct oceans, including the South Tianshan Ocean between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim blocks. However, the subduction initiation and polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean remain issues of highly debated. This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes, as well as zircon Hf isotopic data of the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous granitic rocks in the Wusun Mountain of the Yili Paleozoic convergent margin, which, together with the spatial-temporal distributions of regional magmatic rocks, are applied to elucidate their petrogenesis and tectonic linkage to the northward subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean. Our zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that these granites were emplaced at the time interval of 362.0 ± 1.2-360.3 ± 1.9 Ma, suggesting a marked partial melting event of the continental crust in the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous. These granites, based on their mineral compositions and textures, can be categorized as monzogranites and K-feldspar granites. Geochemically, both monzogranites and K-feldspar granites have characters of I-type granites with high K2O contents (4.64-4.83 wt.%), and the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, while the monzogranites have features of unfractionated I-type granites. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic modeling results suggest that ca. 20-40% mantle-derived magmas may be involved in magma mixing with continental crust partial melts to generate the parental magmas of the granites. The mantle-derived basaltic magmas was inferred not only to be a major component of magma mixture but also as an important heat source to fuse the continental crust in an extensional setting, which is evidenced by the high zircon saturation temperatures (713-727 °C and 760-782 °C) of the studied granites. The Latest Devonian to

  15. Petrological and geochemical features of the early Paleozoic granitic gneisses and iron ores in the Tianhu iron deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiahao; Mao, Jingwen; Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Shen, Ping

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports whole-rock geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for ore-hosted granitic gneisses, mineral compositions of oxides, and sulfur isotopic data for sulfides in iron ores from the Tianhu deposit, central part of the Eastern Tianshan. Our results can provide crucial constraints on the genesis of granitic gneisses and early Paleozoic tectonic setting of the Eastern Tianshan. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on magmatic zircons yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 463 to 438 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization ages of the granitic protoliths and the formation ages of the Tianhu Group. Zircon U-Pb age of ore-hosted granitic gneiss (ca. 459 Ma) can provide reliable constrains on upper limit for iron mineralization age in the Tianhu deposit. Geochemical characteristics suggest that the protoliths of the Tianhu granitic gneisses are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline granitic rocks, exhibiting typical subduction-related features such as strong enrichment in LREE and LILE and depletion in HFSE. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show a positive trend from 463 to 438 Ma, indicating that 460 Ma magmas came from both ancient and juvenile sources, whereas 438 Ma magmas involved more juvenile material. Some early Paleozoic granitoids were recently identified in the Eastern Tianshan with the ages between ca. 475 and ca. 425 Ma. The formation of these early Paleozoic granitoids was in response to subduction processes, suggesting that subduction of Junggar Ocean probably began in the Early Ordovician and lasted until Late Silurian. Pyrite and pyrrhotite in iron ores have δ34SCDT values from + 4.6 to + 15.7‰, which are consistent with the marine source, but inconsistent with the magmatic source or those involved evaporites in skarn iron deposit. Geological, geochemical, and isotopic data suggest that the Tianhu iron ores were formed by volcano-sedimentary processes in a subduction environment during the early Paleozoic time, and Tianhu is a

  16. International experience of green development in Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhen, Lin; Hu, Jie; Du, Bingzhen; Liu, Jiyuan; Sun, Chuanzhun; Wu, Ruizi; Long, Xin; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Green development emphasizes co-development between economic and environmental dimensions, and is a peoplecentered sustainable development approach. Western China demands green development, and international experience could provide necessary, unique and important help and support for Western

  17. Metamorphic P-T-t-d evolution of (U)HP metabasites from the South Tianshan accretionary complex (NW China) - Implications for rock deformation during exhumation in a subduction channel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldner, J.; Oliot, E.; Schulmann, K.; Štípská, P.; Kusbach, Vladimír; Anczkiewicz, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, July (2017), s. 161-187 ISSN 1342-937X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : eclogite * Tianshan massif * (U)HP metamorphic belt Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 6.959, year: 2016

  18. Barcoding poplars (Populus L.) from western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianju; Jiang, Dechun; Shang, Huiying; Dong, Miao; Wang, Gaini; He, Xinyu; Zhao, Changming; Mao, Kangshan

    2013-01-01

    Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS) among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M), trnG-psbK (G) and psbK-psbI (P), and trnH-psbA (H) and rbcL (R); the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I) is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I), and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in plants, especially for taxonomic groups that have complex evolutionary histories

  19. Barcoding poplars (Populus L. from western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianju Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M, trnG-psbK (G and psbK-psbI (P, and trnH-psbA (H and rbcL (R; the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I, and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in

  20. Insight into Central Asian flora from the Cenozoic Tianshan montane origin and radiation of Lagochilus (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Sanderson, Stewart C; Byalt, Vyacheslav V; Sukhorukov, Alexander P

    2017-01-01

    The Tianshan Mountains play a significant role in the Central Asian flora and vegetation. Lagochilus has a distribution concentration in Tianshan Mountains and Central Asia. To investigate generic spatiotemporal evolution, we sampled most Lagochilus species and sequenced six cpDNA locations (rps16, psbA-trnH, matK, trnL-trnF, psbB-psbH, psbK-psbI). We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA, DEC, and BBM for ancestral area/biome reconstruction. Our results clearly show that the Tianshan Mountains, especially the western Ili-Kirghizia Tianshan, as well as Sunggar and Kaschgar, was the ancestral area. Ancestral biome was mainly in the montane steppe zone of valley and slope at altitudes of 1700-2700 m, and the montane desert zone of foothill and front-hill at 1000-1700 m. Here two sections Inermes and Lagochilus of the genus displayed "uphill" and "downhill" speciation process during middle and later Miocene. The origin and diversification of the genus were explained as coupled with the rapid uplift of the Tianshan Mountains starting in late Oligocene and early Miocene ca. 23.66~19.33 Ma, as well as with uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Central Asian aridification.

  1. Skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites in the Harlik arc at Kalatage, E. Tianshan (NW China): Slab melting in the Devonian-early Carboniferous in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qigui; Yu, Mingjie; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Yuechen; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Jiangjian; Lü, Xiaoqiang

    2018-03-01

    The geodynamic control of mineralization in the accretionary evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) has long been controversial. Here we report new field, geochemical and geochronological data on recently defined porphyry and skarn-type ore deposits (Devonian-Early Carboniferous) in the Kalatage area in the middle of the Harlik-Dananhu arc, Eastern Tianshan, NW China in the southern CAOB, with the aim of better understanding the accretionary tectonics and genesis of porphyry and skarn-type mineralization. The Yudai porphyry Cu-(Au) deposits and the Xierqu skarn Cu-Fe-(Au) deposits are closely associated with Middle Devonian adakitic diorite porphyries (382-390 Ma), which are calc-alkaline and characterized by high Na2O/K2O ratios and Sr contents (310-1020 ppm), strong depletion of HREE (e.g., Yb = 0.80-1.44 ppm) and Y (7.68-14.50 ppm), and all enriched in Rb, Sr, Ba, K and depleted in Nb and Ti. They are characterized by distinctive Eu positive anomalies, high Na2O contents and MORB-like Sr and Nd isotope signatures (high εNd(t) = +6.1 to +7.0 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70412-0.70462). These adakites most likely formed by melting of a young/hot subducted oceanic slab, and adakites in general are important carriers of porphyry Cu ± (Au) deposits. Early Carboniferous adakites in the Tuwu area south of Kalatage are known to have similar features. Therefore, skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites get younger from north to south, suggesting southward migration of the Harlik-Dananhu arc from 390 Ma to 322 Ma. These data indicate that partial melting of hot (and/or young) oceanic crustal slabs were an important mechanism of accretionary crustal growth and mineralization in the southern CAOB.

  2. Exploring the Changing Roles of Western Subsidiaries in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years of economic development, the role of subsidiaries in China has changed. China has become an important host country for subsidiaries of western multinational companies seeking cost advantages and/or access to the emerging market potential. The objective of this paper...

  3. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of ecological capital and their relation to climate change and the changes of land use and land cover on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Chen, Xiuwan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Xianfeng; Zhou, Kefa; Wang, Xinli

    2007-09-01

    Ecological capital of an ecosystem is the total value of the direct biological products in the system and the value of ecological service. The assessment of ecological capital is a new research area emerged from the challenge in the interdisciplinary research of ecology and social development. It is fundamental to establish a green national economy accounting system. Scientific evaluation of ecological capital is helpful for considering ecological cost in making the decision for economic development, and it is demanded for sustainable development. In this study, a quantitative assessment model of ecological property has been developed based on the analysis of per unit yield in the conventional ecology together with the utilization of remote sensing data from the Landsat TM, CBERS, MODIS, and NOAA database, land use and land cover data, and field measurements. The study area covers Changji Autonomous District, Xinjiang, China on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountain that is located in a typical arid area. Dynamic monitoring of ecological capital was performed using remote sensing techniques. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of ecological properties were characterized. The effects of land cover and land use as well as climate change on those variation and distribution were analyzed. The results show a significant increase in the ecological capital during 1990-2003. The spatial distribution of ecological properties is characterized by a negative gradient from higher altitudes to lower altitudes (plains) and from oases to deserts, which is consistent with the zonal distribution of vegetation in arid areas. Due to global warming, the climate in Xinjiang has been changed into a warmer and wetter environment during the last 50 years, which improves the plant growing conditions in the alpine regions, piedmont hilly regions, and the oases. On the other hand, the natural environment in the arid and semiarid regions in northwest China becomes more severe, and the

  4. Language Ability and Adjustment: Western Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Although the standard of English proficiency is rising in China, using English in conversations with Chinese host nationals may be difficult. Therefore, proficiency in the Chinese language, may promote the adjustment of foreign business expatriates in China. To test this proposition, a mail survey...... was directed to Western business expatriates assigned to China. Controlling for the time expatriates had spent in China, results showed that their language ability had a positive association with their sociocultural adjustment. Not surprisingly, this positive relationship was strongest for interaction...

  5. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.

  6. Physicochemical characteristics and sources of atmospheric dust deposition in snow packs on the glaciers of western Qilian Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind-blown dust derived from the arid and semi-arid regions is an important atmospheric component affecting the Earth's radiation budget. Dust storms are prevailing in central Asia. Deposition of atmospheric dust in snow was measured on Glacier No.12 (5040 m a.s.l. in the Laohugou Basin and Shiyi Glacier (4510 m a.s.l. in the Yeniugou Basin, of western Qilian Mountains, China, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, chemistry, SEM–EDX analysis and Nd–Sr isotopic composition. An analysis of spatial distribution of dust concentration and size distribution in the snow cover at two sites suggests that deposition of dust in western Qilian Mountains is different between sites as the environment changes from west to east. Mean mass concentration of dust with 0.57 < d<40 μm in the snow is 3461 μg kg−1 on Glacier No.12 and 2876 μg kg−1 on Shiyi Glacier, respectively. Annual flux of dust deposition to western Qilian Mountains has a range of 143.8–207.6 μg cm−2 yr−1 for particles with 0.57 < d<40 μm. Dust layers in the snowpit contain Ca- and Na-rich materials typically found in Asian dust particles. Number–size distribution indicated that most of the dust diameter is <2.0 μm, implying the significant influences of finer particles to alpine glacier regions of central Asia. Volume size distributions of dust particles showed single-modal structures having volume median diameters from 3 to 22 μm, which is comparable to the results of dust deposition on glaciers of the adjacent Tianshan Mountains in western China. SEM–EDX analysis suggested that dust particles were mainly composed of mineral particles, besides some fly ash particles and soot. EDX shows that mineral particles contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, etc. The Nd–Sr isotopic composition of insoluble particles in two glaciers showed that Badain Jaran Desert and Qaidam Basin were the most possible source

  7. Creating a low carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention and behaviour change analysisa case study of a heritage site (Tianshan Tianchi, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhaoping; Wall, Geoffrey; Wang, Fang

    2017-06-01

    This study attempts to explore the establishment of a low-carbon tourism community by public cognition, intention, and behaviour change analysis in a case study of a heritage site, China. Low carbon tourism advocates a way of travel with low energy consumption, low pollution and low CO2 emissions during personal activities. Behaviour change is not only influenced by internal individual aspects including a person's awareness, attitudes, and capacity to change, but is also driven by external social aspects including the culture and environments in which a person lives. In this paper, questionnaire surveys and field interviews were used to obtain basic information, and with reference to TPB, studied and analyzed the characteristics of cognition, intention and behaviour change practice by low carbon tourism community economy participants. With the help of SPSS analysis software, we found that a person's educational level or occupation might affect cognition of low carbon tourism, and motives for participating in low carbon tourism could reflect the public's perception of its emotional value, cognitive value and functional value. Most respondents knew about low carbon tourism; however, when putting it into practice, habitual behaviour was the main barrier for tourists while the residents were passive and followed the needs and choices of the tourists. Therefore, a comprehensive low carbon tourism community system was proposed not only for addressing the aspects of awareness, intention, and practice from individual behavior, but also for covering policy, infrastructure, institution systems and mechanisms at the community level.

  8. Decadal Variation in Surface Characteristics over Xinjiang, Western China, from T/P Altimetry Backscatter Coefficients: Evidence of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyun Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The backscatter coefficient, known as sigma0, is an important measurement of satellite radar altimetry and a key parameter for land altimetry because of its close relationship with the physical properties and geometric features of land coverage under global/regional climate change effects. Using the TOPEX/Poseidon GDR-M dataset from January 1993 to December 2004, we study the spatial and temporal distribution of sigma0 at bands Ku and C over Xinjiang, western China. The results show that the sigma0 is influenced by the water distribution over land and the time evolution of sigma0 has clear seasonal changes. River basins or deserts are classified over the spatial distribution based on different sigma0 values. For example, high sigma0 values are found in the Tarim River Basin and low values are found in the Taklimakan Desert. The periodic components of sigma0 time series are determined using the fast Fourier transformation method. The annual variation is the dominating cycle and the semi-annual variation is the secondary signal. The amplitudes of sigma0 time series at bands Ku and C are also given and most areas have quite low amplitudes except for the Tarim River Basin. Several areas including the Tarim River Basin, Tianshan Mountain and Taklimakan Desert are selected for sigma0 time series spacial analysis to discuss the reasons for variations in sigma0. The main factors are precipitation and vegetation growth, which are affected by the global/regional climate change. The correlation between the brightness temperature, which is related to the water-vapor content in the atmosphere measured by TMR at the 21 GHz channel and sigma0 at two bands, is analyzed.

  9. R&D Subsidiary Mandates of Western MNEs in China:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    in the world (Motohashi, 2012). These R&D investments to a large extent are flowing into technological parks with good supporting infrastructure in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen (Stanley et al., 2013; Walsh, 2007). Aside from the lucrative advantages of offshoring R&D to China, there are numerous...... at contributing to the debate about why many Western MNCs in China struggle to transform their locally-oriented R&D subsidiaries to centers with global competence-creating R&D mandate. There are many well-developed theoretical and practical concepts that provide a good point of departure for this investigation...

  10. Species clarification of the culinary Bachu mushroom in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Sulayman, Mamtimin; Zhu, Xue-Tai; Zhao, Yong-Chang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; Hyde, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    The Bachu mushroom, previously identified as Helvella leucopus, is characterized by a saddle-shaped, to irregularly lobed pileus, with a gray, brown to blackish hymenium and a whitish to pale receptacle surface and white, terete stipe with enlarged basal grooves. It has high economic value, mostly as a dietary supplement in western China, and its medicinal functions have raised broad interest. In the present paper species of the Bachu mushroom in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China were investigated with morphology and DNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from ITS, 28S and TEF1 sequence data strongly supported lineages corresponding to morphological features. The Bachu mushroom, which differs from the European Helvella leucopus, comprises two distinct new species, namely Helvella bachu and Helvella subspadicea. In this paper we introduce the new species with descriptions and figures and compare them with similar taxa. The European Helvella spadicea is also re-examined, described and illustrated. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  11. The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Aqishan-Yamansu belt, Eastern Tianshan: Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes of igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liandang; Chen, Huayong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Weifeng; Yang, Juntao; Yan, Xuelu

    2018-03-01

    The Aqishan-Yamansu belt in the Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang, NW China) is an important mineralization belt. The belt mainly comprises Carboniferous volcanic, volcaniclastic and clastic rocks, and hosts many intermediate-felsic intrusions and Fe (-Cu) deposits. The biotite diorite, felsic brecciated tuff, granodiorite and syenite from the western Aqishan-Yamansu belt are newly zircon U-Pb dated to be 316.7 ± 1.4 Ma, 315.6 ± 2.6 Ma, 305.8 ± 1.9 Ma and 252.5 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The mafic rocks (mafic brecciated tuff and diabase porphyry) are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline series, LILE-rich (e.g., Rb, Ba and Pb), HFSE-depleted (e.g., Nb and Ta), and have high Mg#(44-60), Nb/Ta (15.0-20.0), Ba/La (>30) and Ba/Nb (>57) values/ratios, and low Th/Yb ratios (2.10) and positive εNd(t) (>5.7), combined with variable Nb/Ta ratios (9.52-21.4), Y/Nb ratios (1.47-39.7) and Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 16.225-17.640, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.454-15.520, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.097-38.025) suggest that these rocks were magma mixing products between juvenile crustal-derived magmas and minor mantle-derived magmas. Combined published works with our new ages, geochemical and isotopic data, we propose that the Aqishan-Yamansu belt was an Early Carboniferous fore-arc basin during the southward subduction of the Kangguer oceanic slab beneath the Yili-Central Tianshan block. With the continuing southward subduction, the Aqishan-Yamansu fore-arc basin initiated to close, which generated the mafic and intensive intermediate-felsic magmatism associated with regional Fe (-Cu) mineralization.

  12. Mercury distribution and deposition in glacier snow over western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Huang, Jie; Wang, Feiyue; Mark, Loewen; Xu, Jianzhong; Armstrong, Debbie; Li, Chaoliu; Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang

    2012-05-15

    Western China is home to the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the polar regions, yet little is known about how the glaciers in this area affect the transport and cycling of mercury (Hg) regionally and globally. From 2005 to 2010, extensive glacier snow sampling campaigns were carried out in 14 snowpits from 9 glaciers over western China, and the vertical distribution profiles of Hg were obtained. The Total Hg (THg) concentrations in the glacier snow ranged from glacier snows from the northern region where atmospheric particulate loading is comparably high. Glacier snowpit Hg was largely dependent on particulate matters and was associated with particulate Hg, which is less prone to postdepositional changes, thus providing a valuable record of atmospheric Hg deposition. Estimated atmospheric Hg depositional fluxes ranged from 0.74 to 7.89 μg m(-2) yr(-1), agreeing very well with the global natural values, but are one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the neighboring East Asia. Elevated Hg concentrations were observed in refrozen ice layers in several snowpits subjected to intense melt, indicating that Hg can be potentially released to meltwater.

  13. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  14. Hydrologic modulation of seismicity in western China 1991-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph-Flagg, Noah; Day, Jesse; Manga, Michael; Bürgmann, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Hydrologic loading, changes in pore fluid pressures, solid earth tides, and stresses due to thermoelastic expansion have all been proposed to modulate seismicity in a range of tectonic and climatic settings. Seismicity from 1991-2014 (24,892 events) in western China, between 20° and 60° N and between 105° and 70° E, appears to be seasonally modulated with 50% more shallow events in the spring and fall than the summer and winter. We show that this modulation is statistically significant using Schuster tests, analysis of variance tests, and the multifrequential periodogram approach on complete catalogs, a catalog of repeating earthquakes (Schaff and Richards, JGR, 2011), and declustered catalogs. Leveraging the tectonic and climatic heterogeneity in our study region, we compare each of the proposed causes of modulation to observations. We find that the spatial variation of modulation correlates best with spatial variation in hydrologic loading as measured by the GRACE satellites.

  15. Deep Western Boundary Current in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Jiwei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhu, Yuchao; Yang, Qingxuan; Qu, Tangdong

    2017-08-24

    Deep western boundary current (DWBC) was observed for the first time by an array of 6 current meter moorings southeast of the Zhongsha Islands in the South China Sea (SCS) deep basin during the period from August 2012 to January 2014. In the mean, the DWBC in the SCS flows southwestward with core velocity of 2.0 cm/s and a volume transport of 1.65 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3/s). Its temporal variability is dominated by intraseasonal fluctuations with period around 90 days. The main axis of the DWBC, characterized by a low temperature core, tends not to shift with the 90-day fluctuation.

  16. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  17. Cultural Novelty and Adjustment: Western Business Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Although seldom formally tested, the traditional assumption in the literature on expatriate management is that the greater the cultural novelty of the host country, the more difficult it would be for the expatriate to adjust. To be able to test this proposition, a mail survey was directed towards...... Western business expatriates in China. Three sociocultural adjustment variables were examined; general, interaction and work adjustment. Although a negative relationship was hypothesized between cultural novelty and the three adjustment variables, results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis...... showed that there was no significant association between them. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that it is as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a very similar culture as to a very dissimilar culture, is fundamental. Implications of this potentially crucial finding are discussed...

  18. Fluid-mediated metal transport in subduction zones and its link to arc-related giant ore deposits: Constraints from a sulfide-bearing HP vein in lawsonite eclogite (Tianshan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Lei; Gao, Jun; John, Timm; Klemd, Reiner; Su, Wen

    2013-11-01

    High-pressure (HP) veins in eclogites provide insight into element mobility during fluid-rock interaction in subduction zones. Here, we present a petrological-geochemical study of a sulfide-bearing HP vein and its massive lawsonite eclogite host rock from the Chinese Tianshan (ultra-)high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic belt. The omphacite-dominated vein is enveloped by a garnet-poor, sulfide-bearing eclogite-facies reaction selvage. Lawsonite, garnet, omphacite, glaucophane and other HP minerals occur as inclusions in pyrite porphyroblasts of the selvage rock, indicating that the selvage formed prograde under eclogite-facies conditions. Relicts of wall-rock garnet (Grt_I) cores in recrystallized selvage garnet (Grt_II) close to the wall rock and the Ca distribution in Grt_II, which images the overgrown selvage matrix, indicate that the selvage formed due to dissolution-precipitation processes as a consequence of fluid-rock interaction of the wall rock eclogite with the vein-forming fluid. The peak metamorphic P-T conditions of the wall-rock eclogite are estimated at ca. 590 °C and 23 kbar. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the reaction selvage experienced: (1) a depletion of the large-ion lithophile elements (K-Rb-Ba) of up to 100% relative to their concentrations in the wall-rock eclogite; (2) a moderate depletion of the HREE and some transition metal elements including Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, and Mn (10-40%); (3) a significant enrichment of CaO (up to 50-80%), Sr (up to ˜200%), Pb (up to ˜170%) and S (up to ˜210%); (4) a slight to moderate enrichment of the LREE (10-20%) and MREE (0-40%); whereas (5) the HFSE show no significant variations.

  19. Geochemical Characteristics of Granitoids in southwest Tianshan: Four Stages for Geodynamic Evolution of the Southwest Tianshan Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Paleozoic intrusive rocks widely exposed in the west Tianshan orogenic belt provides key to understand the geodynamic evolution of the central Asian orogenic belt. A synthesis involving the data for Chinese Yili-central Tianshan and southwest Tianshan and comparison of Kyrgyz Tianshan with a broader dataset including zircon U-Pb ages, zircon Hf isotopic composition, major and trace elements for Paleozoic intrusions are presented to classify the Paleozoic intrusive rocks in four categories which corresponding to subduction of the Terskey Ocean, initial subduction stage of South Tianshan Ocean (STO), major subduction stage of the STO, and collisional to post-collisional stages. The subduction of the Terskey Oceanic crust finally caused the closure of the Terskey Ocean and the opening of the South Tianshan back-arc basin. The development of the Southwest Tianshan back-arc basin formed the STO, which subducted under the Yili-central Tianshan during early Silurian to early Carboniferous, and consequently formed huge arc magmatic rocks. Both the Silurian and early Carboniferous intrusions showing arc geochemical characteristics were derived from partial melting of juvenile arc-derived rocks with involvement of old continental crust. The STO finally closed by the end of early Carboniferous. Afterwards, geodynamic setting changed from convergence to extensional during late Carboniferous to early Permian periods. There is a significant geodynamic change from convergence to extension during late Carboniferous to early Permian, which may be resulted from breakoff of the subducted slab (Fig. 1). Such processes caused upwelling of asthenosphere and triggered partial melting of continental crust, as evidenced by emplacement of voluminous granitic rocks. References: An F, et al, 2013. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 78: 100-113; Zhu YF, 2011. Ore Geology Reviews, 40: 108-121; Zhu YF, et al, 2009. Geological Society, London, 166: 1085-1099; Zhu YF et al, 2016. Journal of Earth

  20. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region. PMID:26082870

  1. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region.

  2. Detecting one-hundred-year environmental changes in Western China using seven-year repeat photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huai; Yin, Kaipu; Wang, Haiyan; Zhong, Shenxian; Wu, Ning; Shi, Fusun; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng; Ma, Zhihai; Fang, Xiuqin; Li, Weizhong; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui

    2011-01-01

    Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 -1930), known as 'Chinese' Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes.

  3. Detecting one-hundred-year environmental changes in Western China using seven-year repeat photography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Chen

    Full Text Available Due to its diverse, wondrous plants and unique topography, Western China has drawn great attention from explorers and naturalists from the Western World. Among them, Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 -1930, known as 'Chinese' Wilson, travelled to Western China five times from 1899 to 1918. He took more than 1,000 photos during his travels. These valuable photos illustrated the natural and social environment of Western China a century ago. Since 1997, we had collected E.H. Wilson's old pictures, and then since 2004, along the expedition route of E.H. Wilson, we took 7 years to repeat photographing 250 of these old pictures. Comparing Wilson's photos with ours, we found an obvious warming trend over the 100 years, not only in specific areas but throughout the entire Western China. Such warming trend manifested in phenology changes, community shifts and melting snow in alpine mountains. In this study, we also noted remarkable vegetation changes. Out of 62 picture pairs were related to vegetation change, 39 indicated vegetation has changed to the better condition, 17 for degraded vegetation and six for no obvious change. Also in these photos at a century interval, we found not only rapid urbanization in Western China, but also the disappearance of traditional cultures. Through such comparisons, we should not only be amazed about the significant environmental changes through time in Western China, but also consider its implications for protecting environment while meeting the economic development beyond such changes.

  4. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  5. [Comparison between transmission of modern western medicine in China and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Ming

    2009-05-01

    In the middle period of the 16th century, western medicine had been introduced successively into China and Japan by the medium of Catholic missionaries. The transmission mode of western medicine in the two countries differed dramatically from each other due to the political, economic and social cultural differences of that time. In China, the transmission of western medicine focused on the theory first and transferred to the practical use later; while in Japan, it began with clinical treatment, then rose from the technology to the theory. As a result, the cognition to the western medical knowledge and medical system as well as the transplanting and localization in China and Japan were significantly different. The local western medical groups emerged earlier in Japan than in China, and the attitude toward western medicine was also more positive and a national health system was quickly established. The corresponding situation in China obviously lagged behind the one in Japan, and China learned from the successful experiences of Japan for a time.

  6. Cenozoic to active deformation in Western Yunnan (Myanmar China border)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socquet, A.; Pubellier, M.

    2003-04-01

    The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures as well as GPS and seismicity for active structures to unravel the Neogene to Present evolution. Western Yunnan is crossed by three continental-size ductile shear zones characterized by high mountain belts mainly composed of high-grade metamorphics and mylonitic rocks, and affected by active faulting. The easternmost metamorphic range, the Gaoligong Shan composed of verticalized foliated granites and mylonites is flattened westward and joins the Mogok metamorphic belt in Myanmar. East of the Gaoligong Shan, lie the Chong Shan and the Ailao / Diangcan Shan metamorphic ranges, which presents a vertical shistosity and a left-lateral motion. These three shear zones are separated by sedimentary fold-and-thrust-belts in the East, and , West of the Gaoligong, by Quaternary basins and volcanics. Preliminary results indicate that the Shan Scarp constituted the major strike-slip boundary between Indochina and India during Eocene to Miocene time, and accommodated deformation in right-lateral wrench. At the same time, the Ailao / Diangcan Shan and the Chong Shan zones were sheared left-laterally allowing the displacement toward the SE of Indochina block relative to south China. In the Miocene, ductile deformation migrated north along the Shan Scarp to the Mogok / Ruili metamorphic belt and the Gaoligong belt, dragging the Chong Shan right-laterally and superimposing a late right-lateral ductile deformation on its metamorphic rocks. The present-day relative motion between India and Sundaland, inferred from GPS processing, reaches 35 mm / yr in the Myanmar area. It is classically

  7. Late Cenozoic evolution in the Pamir-Tian Shan convergence: New chronological constraints from the magnetostratigraphic record of the southwestern Tianshan foreland basin (Ulugqat area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingqing; Huang, Baochun; Biggin, Andrew J.; Piper, John D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The northeastern Pamir-Tian Shan convergence zone is a key region for understanding ongoing intracontinental mountain building. A detailed magnetostratigraphic study combined with color reflectance variations of continental sediments from the 1120 m-thick Sankeshu Section in the south west sector of the Tianshan Foreland Basin of western China yields important insights into the tectonic evolution of this zone. Correlation with the geomagnetic polarity time scale identifies deposition lasting from 16.7 to 2.6 Ma with a marked increase in sedimentation rate at 7 Ma. A further rapid increase occurred after 2.6 Ma with influx of the conglomeratic Xiyu Formation. Observed height-dependent changes of rock magnetic parameters (shape parameter T and AMS ellipsoid parameters) show that these sediments were influenced by weak deformation, with the sediments accumulated before 11 Ma recording a signature of compressive deformation from northward indentation by the Pamir. The succession of sedimentary events in the foreland basin is comparable to previous investigations of magnetostratigraphic and sedimentological analyses, and with thermochronology collectively showing that deformation in the Tian Shan region has been concentrated in Miocene and later times. The regional correlations resulting from these analyses show that sedimentary events correlate with the episodic nature of regional uplift with the latter inducing climatic changes that are in turn recorded in the sediment record.

  8. Structural styles and zircon ages of the South Tianshan accretionary complex, Atbashi Ridge, Kyrgyzstan: Insights for the anatomy of ocean plate stratigraphy and accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Miao; Xiao, Wenjiao; Orozbaev, Rustam; Bakirov, Apas; Sakiev, Kadyrbek; Pak, Nikolay; Ivleva, Elena; Zhou, Kefa; Ao, Songjian; Qiao, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhixin

    2018-03-01

    The anatomy of an ancient accretionary complex has a significance for a better understanding of the tectonic processes of accretionary orogens and complex because of its complicated compositions and strong deformation. With a thorough structural and geochronological study of a fossil accretionary complex in the Atbashi Ridge, South Tianshan (Kyrgyzstan), we analyze the structure and architecture of ocean plate stratigraphy in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The architecture of the Atbashi accretionary complex is subdivisible into four lithotectonic assemblages, some of which are mélanges with "block-in-matrix" structure: (1) North Ophiolitic Mélange; (2) High-pressure (HP)/Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) Metamorphic Assemblage; (3) Coherent & Mélange Assemblage; and (4) South Ophiolitic Mélange. Relationships between main units are tectonic contacts presented by faults. The major structures and lithostratigraphy of these units are thrust-fold nappes, thrusted duplexes, and imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy. All these rock units are complicatedly stacked in 3-D with the HP/UHP rocks being obliquely southwestward extruded. Detrital zircon ages of meta-sediments provide robust constraints on their provenance from the Ili-Central Tianshan Arc. The isotopic ages of the youngest components of the four units are Late Permian, Early-Middle Triassic, Early Carboniferous, and Early Triassic, respectively. We present a new tectonic model of the South Tianshan; a general northward subduction polarity led to final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean in the End-Permian to Late Triassic. These results help to resolve the long-standing controversy regarding the subduction polarity and the timing of the final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean. Finally, our work sheds lights on the use of ocean plate stratigraphy in the analysis of the tectonic evolution of accretionary orogens.

  9. Fandom, Youth and Western Pop Music in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuanhao

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of globalization and social media, fan culture in China has undergone huge transformation. However, in the context of a socialist market economy (Fung, 2009) and state control, Chinese fan culture has shown different characteristics from elsewhere. This article attempts to provide a political and economic background that examines the development of fandom in China and investigates the relationship between young people and fan culture by looking into the practices of fan communitie...

  10. A Study on the Functions of Western Cultural Non-Verbal Behavior in English Classroom in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    In China, English classroom is the main place of English language acquisition. Therefore, how to improve English classroom teaching effectively has become the scholars' concern. This paper reports a study conducted at North China Electric Power University on the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom in China.…

  11. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  12. An Analysis of Problems in College Students' Participation in the Western China Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumei, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Since its initiation in 2003, the College Student Western China Program has had several satisfying achievements. At the same time, however, problems exist in the project. This article gives a brief analysis of problems encountered in the project from the aspects of publicity and campaign work, plans and schedules, student participation, voluntary…

  13. Reflections on the Difficulties of Educational Development in Minority Areas of Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wang

    2017-01-01

    At present, the development of education in western China's rural and ethnic minority areas faces problems including the management of boarding schools, the education of left-behind children, and changing the functions of schools. Resolving these problems requires not only changing traditional ways of thinking, but also placing minority education…

  14. Home Language and Educational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yanbi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of home language usage on minority student educational attainment in western China. Using survey data, the author finds that non-Chinese-speaking minority students are at a disadvantage in the transition to senior secondary schools. However, their transition to junior secondary schools is even more complicated. Rural…

  15. Environmental consequences of an expanding and westernizing dairy sector in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moria, Laura

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, dramatic changes in traditional Chinese diets are observed. This so-called westernization of diets, among others, depicts a shift towards the consumption of more dairy. Per caput consumption and production of dairy in China tripled during the last decade. Cow milk production

  16. Golden Key Program. Common Education for Visually Impaired Children in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bailun

    This paper describes a new program in the Western provinces of China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet, and Inner Mongolia) that is designed to integrate 20,000 children with low-vision into general education classrooms. The Golden Key Research Center of Education for Visually Impaired has been working with the…

  17. A western OR delegation to the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, C C

    1996-03-01

    Nursing in the People's Republic of China (PRC) is beginning to revitalize after decades of the repression and obliteration of nursing education programs under the rule of Mao Tse-tung. A delegation of American, Australian, and Canadian perioperative nurses traveled to the PRC for a series of professional exchanges with Chinese OR nurse colleagues. The exchange was an affirmation of the common commitment to caring that all nurses share.

  18. Re-ordering the Region? China, Latin America and the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Philips

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available – China in Latin America: The Whats and Wherefores, by R. Evan Ellis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.– Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations beyond the Washington Consensus, edited by Alex E. Fernández Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2010.– The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, by Kevin P. Gallagher and Roberto Porzecanski. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.– China and Latin America: Economic Relations in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Rhys Jenkins and Enrique Dussel Peters. Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik, 2009.– China’s Expansion into the Western Hemisphere: Implications for Latin America and the United States, edited by Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2008.

  19. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  20. Sedimentary provenance in response to Carboniferous arc-basin evolution of East Junggar and North Tianshan belts in the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Fu, Dong; Kusky, Timothy; Ruan, Kunpeng; Zhou, Wenxiao; Zhang, Xionghua

    2018-01-01

    The North Tianshan and East Junggar belts in north Xinjiang, China, are two key terranes for the Paleozoic tectonic reconstruction of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their Carboniferous paleogeographic setting and arc-basin relationships remain disputed. To better-constrain these problems, we carried out an investigation on the provenance of Carboniferous sandstones from the Yaomoliang Formation in East Junggar and the Qijiaojing Formation in North Tianshan. Modal and geochemical analyses reveal that the sediments are mainly derived from arc-related terranes. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show distinct differences between the East Junggar and North Tianshan belts. The upper Yaomoliang Formation has a Late Carboniferous depositional age (ca. 315 Ma) with a single peak spectrum of detrital zircon ages, which is similar with zircon ages from the igneous rocks and associated accretionary complexes in East Junggar belt, suggesting that it was probably derived from the East Junggar arc. The samples from the Qijiaojing Formation have Early Carboniferous depositional ages (ca. 330 Ma to 354 Ma). Their complicated detrital zircon age peaks resemble the detrital and igneous zircon ages from the Harlik-Dananhu arc, implying that their source terrane could be the Harlik-Dananhu arc, as revealed by the near-source petrographic and arc-derived geochemical features. In combination with our results and the published data, we suggest two distinctive Carboniferous arc-basin systems, the Kelamaili Ocean-related arc-basin which is characterized by the northward subduction beneath the East Junggar arc, and the Bogda intra-arc basin which evolved from splitting the previous Harlik-Dananhu arc by the rollback of the subducting North Tianshan oceanic plate. The sedimentary provenance evidence reveals that the Kelamaili Ocean has not closed until ca. 315 Ma. The multiple arc-basin systems in North Xinjiang indicate an archipelago-type subduction and accretionary

  1. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. After removing the background influences, we find significant anthropogenic NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr−1 on average, relative to 2005, with the largest increments (15 % yr−1 or more over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial-level regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005–2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr−1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr−1 and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr−1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr−1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and −3.3 ± 0.3 % yr−1 over the Pearl River Delta. Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve

  2. Cooperation and Conflict: Faction Problem of Western Medicine Group in Modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeongeun

    2016-08-01

    After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government. In addition, they formed a faction by the country where they studied or the language they learned. The factions included the Britain - America faction(yingmeipai) consisting of the Britain - America studied doctors or graduates from Protestant missions based medical schools, and the Germany - Japan faction(deripai), graduates from medical schools by Japanese or German government and the Chinese government. In 1915, they founded the National Medical Association of China mainly consisting of the Britain - America faction and the National Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of China led by the Germany - Japan faction. Initially, exchanges were active so most of eminent doctors belonged the two associations at the same time. They had a consciousness of a common occupation group as a doctor who had learned Western medicine. Thus, they actively cooperated to keep their profits against Chinese medicine and enjoy their reputation. Their cooperation emitted light particularly in translation of medical terms and unified works. Thanks to cooperation, the two associations selected medical terminologies by properly using the cases of the West and Japan. Additionally, medical schools of the Britain - America faction and the Germany - Japan faction produced various levels of the Western Medicine Group doctors

  3. INTRODUCING WESTERN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO CHINA: SHOPFLOOR WORKERS' PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Gamble

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of host country employees is often portrayed as a particularly fraught dimension for multinational firms. The problems involved are considered exponentially greater when there are substantial institutional differences and 'cultural distance' between the host country and a firm's parent country, as is assumed to be the case for Western firms operating in China. Based upon detailed case study research conducted at a UK-invested firm in China between 1999 and 2003 and a comparative study of a Chinese state-owned firm, this paper explores the veracity of such assumptions. The findings indicate that Western human resource management practices can be transplanted successfully and questions the degree to which foreign-invested enterprises need to adopt 'the Chinese way of doing things'. Indeed, such practices can be innovative in the Chinese context and provide a competitive source of differentiation for multinationals as employees.

  4. [Research progress on molecular identification and biologic behavior of Taenia saginata in Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huai-En; Mou, Rong

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiological investigation of taeniasis saginata in 10 counties of 7 provinces/ autonomous regions in western China. The morphological observation of adult worms, molecular identification of 10 isolates of the worms, experimental infection on pigs and cattle with Taenia saginata and T. asiatica, observation on development and biology behavior of cysticercus, and pathological changes in the intermediate host pig and cattle revealed that T. asiatica is a new species, instead of a subspecies of T. saginata.

  5. Cooperation and Conflict: Faction Problem of Western Medicine Group in Modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun JO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China’s intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government. In addition, they formed a faction by the country where they studied or the language they learned. The factions included the Britain - America faction(yingmeipai consisting of the Britain - America studied doctors or graduates from Protestant missions based medical schools, and the Germany - Japan faction(deripai, graduates from medical schools by Japanese or German government and the Chinese government. In 1915, they founded the National Medical Association of China mainly consisting of the Britain - America faction and the National Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of China led by the Germany – Japan faction. Initially, exchanges were active so most of eminent doctors belonged the two associations at the same time. They had a consciousness of a common occupation group as a doctor who had learned Western medicine. Thus, they actively cooperated to keep their profits against Chinese medicine and enjoy their reputation. Their cooperation emitted light particularly in translation of medical terms and unified works. Thanks to cooperation, the two associations selected medical terminologies by properly using the cases of the West and Japan. Additionally, medical schools of the Britain - America faction and the Germany – Japan faction produced various levels of the Western

  6. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  7. The thermal evolution of Chinese central Tianshan and its implications: Insights from multi-method chronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiyuan; Chen, Wen; Hodges, Kip V.; Xiao, Wenjiao; Cai, Keda; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Liu, Li-Ping; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2018-01-01

    The Chinese Tianshan is located in the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and formed during final consumption of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the late Palaeozoic. In order to further elucidate the tectonic evolution of the Chinese Tianshan, we have established the temperature-time history of granitic rocks from the Chinese Tianshan through a multi-chronological approach that includes U/Pb (zircon), 40Ar/39Ar (biotite and K-feldspar), and (U-Th)/He (zircon and apatite) dating. Our data show that the central Tianshan experienced accelerated cooling during the late Carboniferous- to early Permian. Multiple sequences of complex multiple accretionary, subduction and collisional events could have induced the cooling in the Tianshan Orogenic Belt. The new 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He data, in combination with thermal history modeling results, reveal that several tectonic reactivation and exhumation episodes affected the Chinese central Tianshan during middle Triassic (245-210 Ma), early Cretaceous (140-100 Ma), late Oligocene-early Miocene (35-20 Ma) and late Miocene (12-9 Ma). The middle Triassic cooling dates was only found in the central Tianshan. Strong uplift and deformation in the Chinese Tianshan has been limited and localized. It have been concentrated in around major fault zone and the foreland thrust belt since the early Cretaceous. The middle Triassic and early Cretaceous exhumation is interpreted as distal effects of the Cimmerian collisions (i.e. the Qiangtang and Kunlun-Qaidam collision and Lhasa-Qiangtang collision) at the southern Eurasian margin. The Cenozoic reactivation and exhumation is interpreted as a far field response to the India-Eurasia collision and represents the beginning of modern mountain building and denudation in the Chinese Tianshan.

  8. Gender differences in job quality and job satisfaction among doctors in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yang; Li, Lingui; Bian, Ying

    2017-12-28

    Few studies about gender differences in job quality and job satisfaction among medical professionals have been carried out in China. So the objectives of this study were to examine whether and to what extent gender differences existed in job quality and job satisfaction of doctors in rural western China. From 2009 to 2011, a total of 1472 doctors from 103 selected county-level health care facilities in rural western China were recruited into the study. Information about the doctors' demographic characteristics, job quality, and job satisfaction was collected through a designed questionnaire. Besides examining gender differences in single dimensions of job quality and job satisfaction, principal component analysis was used to construct a composite job quality index to measure the differences in the comprehensive job quality, and exploratory factor analysis was applied to evaluate the differences in the overall job satisfaction. Chi-square test was used to calculate differences between proportions, and t-test was used to compare differences between means. Among the doctors, there were 705 males and 767 females (ratio 1:1.09). Male doctors had significantly higher monthly salaries, longer working hours, more times of night shifts per month, longer continuous working hours, and longer years of service at current facilities, and marginally significantly higher hourly wage and longer years of service in current professions. However, female doctors showed greater overall job qualities. Significant and marginally significant gender differences were only found in satisfaction with remuneration compared to workload, the chance of promotion and working environment. But female showed greater satisfaction in the overall job satisfaction and the factor including sub-aspects of working environment, remuneration compared to workload, the chance of promotion, utilization of subjective initiative, and sense of achievement. Gender differences in job quality and job satisfaction did

  9. Breast-feeding patterns of ethnic groups in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Wang, Ting; Liu, Fang; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lengxia; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To determine the breast-feeding pattern of four main ethnic groups (the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang) living in rural western China. The study utilized a cross-sectional design. Forty-five counties in ten provinces in western China in 2005. A sample of 11 783 children younger than 36 months old (8960 Han, 1281 Uygur, 792 Tibetan and 750 Zhuang) and their mothers were recruited using a stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling method. The rates of exclusive breast-feeding of children at 6 months of age in the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups were 11.6 %, 0.8%, 4.4% and 13.8%, respectively. The rates of any breast-feeding for children at 24 months of age were 8.5%, 25.7%, 3.0% and 4.3% in the four ethnic groups, respectively. After adjusting for related factors, Zhuang children had a higher odds ratio of exclusive breast-feeding to 6 months compared with Han children, whereas Uygur and Tibetan children had lower odds ratio (Zhuang: OR=1.291; 95% CI 1.006, 1.657; Uugur: OR=0.062; 95% CI 0.032, 0.121; Tibetan: OR=0.323; 95% CI 0.220, 0.475). Uygur children had a lower hazard ratio of discontinued breast-feeding compared with Han children, whereas Tibetan children had a higher hazard ratio (Uygur: HR=0.368; 95% CI 0.333, 0.408; Tibetan: HR=1.366; 95% CI 1.244, 1.500). The breast-feeding pattern differed among the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups. The results suggest that health education regarding the benefits of breast-feeding is needed in rural western China.

  10. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-06-03

    Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors' Association.TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Impact of Illness and Medical Expenditure on Household Consumptions: A Survey in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuangnan; Jiang, Yefei; Shia, BenChang; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study is to examine the associations between illness conditions and out-of-pocket medical expenditure with other types of household consumptions. In November and December of 2011, a survey was conducted in three cities in western China, namely Lan Zhou, Gui Lin and Xi An, and their surrounding rural areas. Results Information on demographics, income and consumption was collected on 2,899 households. Data analysis suggested that the presence of household members with chronic diseases was not associated with characteristics of households or household heads. The presence of inpatient treatments was significantly associated with the age of household head (p-value 0.03). The level of per capita medical expense was significantly associated with household size, presence of members younger than 18, older than 65, basic health insurance coverage, per capita income, and household head occupation. Adjusting for confounding effects, the presence of chronic diseases was negatively associated with the amount of basic consumption (p-value 0.02) and the percentage of basic consumption (p-value 0.01), but positively associated with the percentage of insurance expense (p-value 0.02). Medical expenditure was positively associated with all other types of consumptions, including basic, education, saving and investment, entertainment, insurance, durable goods, and alcohol/tobacco. It was negatively associated with the percentage of basic consumption, saving and investment, and insurance. Conclusions Early studies conducted in other Asian countries and rural China found negative associations between illness conditions and medical expenditure with other types of consumptions. This study was conducted in three major cities and surrounding areas in western China, which had not been well investigated in published literature. The observed consumption patterns were different from those in early studies, and the negative associations were not observed. This

  12. Comparison of China-US Engineering Ethics Educations in Sino-Western Philosophies of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gui Hong

    2015-12-01

    Ethics education has become essential in modern engineering. Ethics education in engineering has been increasingly implemented worldwide. It can improve ethical behaviors in technology and engineering design under the guidance of the philosophy of technology. Hence, this study aims to compare China-US engineering ethics education in Sino-Western philosophies of technology by using literature studies, online surveys, observational researches, textual analyses, and comparative methods. In my original theoretical framework and model of input and output for education, six primary variables emerge in the pedagogy: disciplinary statuses, educational goals, instructional contents, didactic models, teaching methods, and edificatory effects. I focus on the similarities and differences of engineering ethics educations between China and the U.S. in Chinese and Western philosophies of technology. In the field of engineering, the U.S. tends toward applied ethics training, whereas China inclines toward practical moral education. The U.S. is the leader, particularly in the amount of money invested and engineering results. China has quickened its pace, focusing specifically on engineering labor input and output. Engineering ethics is a multiplayer game effected at various levels among (a) lower level technicians and engineers, engineering associations, and stockholders; (b) middle ranking engineering ethics education, the ministry of education, the academy of engineering, and the philosophy of technology; and (c) top national and international technological policies. I propose that professional engineering ethics education can play many important roles in reforming engineering social responsibility by international cooperation in societies that are becoming increasingly reliant on engineered devices and systems. Significantly, my proposals contribute to improving engineering ethics education and better-solving engineering ethics issues, thereby maximizing engineering

  13. The characteristics and origins of cleat in coal from Western North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, X.; Feng, Y.; Chen, J.; Pan, J. [Jiaozuo Institute of Technology, Henan, 454000 Jiaozuo (China)

    2001-06-01

    Cleat in coal influences the occurrence, migration, and production of coalbed methane. Therefore, research on the cleat can provide some important information for coalbed methane exploration and development. The characteristics and origin of cleat in coal of Western North China are discussed with respect to field investigation and laboratory experiments. Cleat in coal of Western North China can be divided into two classes: face cleat and butt cleat. Three network patterns of face and butt cleats are identified: reticular, isolated, and random. When the vitrinite reflectance is less than 1.35%, the cleat frequency increases with the rise of coal rank. When the reflectance is more than 1.35%, there are three relationships between the cleat frequency and coal rank: with the rise of coal rank, (1) the cleat frequency decreases, (2) remains constant, or (3) decreases slowly and then remains constant. The mineral filling in the cleats is mainly calcite, rarely clay minerals and pyrite. Intrinsic tensile forces, fluid pressure, and tectonic stresses are three controls to form cleats. Two mechanisms of cleat annealing, which are the filling of secondary maceral and agglutination, are revealed. Finally, the controls on the cleat annealing are briefly described.

  14. Population Genetic Structure and Species Status of Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans) in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guannan; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the population genetic structure of Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) from the mountains of western China to determine their species status, using genotypic data of ten microsatellite DNA loci and DNA sequences from one mitochondrial gene. A total of 197 samples from eight sites were examined, which cover a large range of elevations (559-3457 m), as well as all three traditionally defined species (or subspecies). AMOVA did not reveal any particularly large among-groups structure, whether the sites were grouped by drainage, elevation, region, or species (subspecies). Individual assignment tests placed all samples into two genetic clusters, which largely corresponded to their geographic locations. An isolation-by-distance pattern was also detected when an outlier population (site 3) was excluded. Furthermore, a mitochondrial gene tree revealed deep divergence among haplotypes, sometimes within the same site. The clade patterns were partially associated with geographic distribution but had no resemblance to the traditional 2- or 3-species classification. Overall, these toad populations harbor a large amount of genetic diversity and have very high population differentiation, but taken together the evidence suggests that all populations belong to a single species. Our results are consistent with most previous molecular studies, and we recommend using Bufo gargarizans to represent all Asiatic toad populations from western China without subspecies division.

  15. Floristic Survey of Summer Aspect in Chosen China Clay Pits in Western Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Botková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different china clay pits in the western part of the Czech Republic were explored and plant species were determined. These chosen pits were: Hájek-western part, Chlumčany, Horní Bříza, Otovice and Podlesí II. China clay pits with active excavation represent a specific environment concerning both physical and chemical characteristics. This article is presenting a list of the higher plants which were found within active excavation or former excavation areas. Species with a protection status according to the Czech legislation are presented in more detail. 189 different species have been found in total, including 2 species from category C4 – potentially vulnerable taxa, 6 species from category C3 – endangered taxa and 1 species from the C1 – critically threatened taxa from the Red List of Vascular Plants of the Czech Republic. 28 different species occurred at each of the five sites. Predominant species favour sandy substratum and bare surface.

  16. Child body mass index in four cities of East China compared to Western references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiqi; Jiang, Yifang; Jing, Xinming; Fu, Sulin; Jiang, Yan; Lin, Zhongfang; Sheng, Zhihua; Cole, Tim J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The rising trends in child obesity worldwide are poorly documented in China. Aim The present study compared the distribution of body mass index (BMI) by age in children from four cities in East China with Western references. Subjects and methods 94 370 boys and 90 048 girls aged 0–19 years from Shanghai, Jinan, Xuzhou and Hefei were measured in 1999–2004 for length/height and weight. The LMS method was used to construct BMI centiles for each city. Shanghai children aged 0–6 years in 1986 and US and UK BMI references were used for comparison. Results The median BMI curves for the four cities differed in shape from those for the USA and UK. Chinese boys were fatter than US boys in early to mid-childhood but less so in adolescence, and US boys were fatter at age 18. Within China the adiposity rebound was earlier in boys than girls. Shanghai children were appreciably fatter in 2000 than in 1986, and boys more so than girls. Conclusions The roots of child obesity lie in early life, particularly in boys, and are linked to economic development, which has important implications for both the aetiology of child obesity and the health of current and future Chinese children. PMID:19085513

  17. A Vertical and Horizontal Comparison of Sustainable Development Status in Western China from the Perspective of Ecological Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hui-ying; DONG, HONG-LIN; Jin, Bo

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of ecological footprint theory, the ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity of western China and 12 provinces and cities in 2009 are calculated. From the perspective of ecological footprint, the sustainable development status of west China and 12 provinces and cities in 2009 and 1999 are compared vertically and horizontally. Results assume that no matter weighting by using local or national ecological carrying capacity, the west area laid in the unsustainable develo...

  18. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  19. Evidence for Borna disease virus infection in neuropsychiatric patients in three western China provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Xu, M-M; Zeng, L; Liu, S; Liu, X; Wang, X; Li, D; Huang, R-Z; Zhao, L-B; Zhan, Q-L; Zhu, D; Zhang, Y-Y; Xu, P; Xie, P

    2014-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-cytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that can infect a wide variety of vertebrate species from birds and primates to humans. Several studies have been carried out to investigate whether BDV is associated with neuropsychiatric diseases. However, this association is still inconclusive. Two panels of subjects consisting of 1,679 various neuropsychiatric patients and healthy people from three western China provinces were enrolled in this study. BDV p24 or p40 RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected in the first panel of 1,481 subjects using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the BDV RNA-positive individuals were subjected to BDV p24 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BDV p24 or p40 RNA in PBMCs and p24 antibodies in plasma were detected in the second panel of 198 subjects by RT-qPCR and Western blot. A higher prevalence for BDV RNA was demonstrated in patients with viral encephalitis (6.70%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (6.70%), schizophrenia (9.90%) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (12.70%) compared to healthy controls in the first panel. CSF p24 antibodies were demonstrated in three viral encephalitis patients, two schizophrenia patients and two major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. The prevalences of p24 antibodies in plasma from patients with viral encephalitis (13.24%), multiple sclerosis (25.00%) and Parkinson's disease (22.73%) were significantly higher than healthy controls. This study demonstrates that BDV infection also exists in humans from three western China provinces, and suggests the involvement of the contribution of BDV in the aetiology of Chinese patients with some neuropsychiatric disorders, including viral encephalitis, schizophrenia, CFS, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.

  20. Origin, divergence, and phylogeny of asexual Epichloë endophyte in Elymus species from western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë species are likely derived directly from sexual Epichloë species that then lost their capacity for sexual reproduction or lost sexual reproduction because of interspecific hybridization between distinct lineages of sexual Epichloë and/or asexual Epichloë species. In this study we isolated asexual Epichloë endophytes from Elymus species in western China and sequenced intron-rich regions in the genes encoding β-tubulin (tubB) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tefA). Our results showed that there are no gene copies of tubB and tefA in any of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences in this study formed a single clade with asexual Epichloë bromicola from Hordeum brevisubulatum, which implies asexual Epichloë endophytes that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species likely share a common ancestor with asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin. Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents.

  1. Origin, divergence, and phylogeny of asexual Epichloe endophyte in Elymus species from western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    Full Text Available Asexual Epichloë species are likely derived directly from sexual Epichloë species that then lost their capacity for sexual reproduction or lost sexual reproduction because of interspecific hybridization between distinct lineages of sexual Epichloë and/or asexual Epichloë species. In this study we isolated asexual Epichloë endophytes from Elymus species in western China and sequenced intron-rich regions in the genes encoding β-tubulin (tubB and translation elongation factor 1-α (tefA. Our results showed that there are no gene copies of tubB and tefA in any of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences in this study formed a single clade with asexual Epichloë bromicola from Hordeum brevisubulatum, which implies asexual Epichloë endophytes that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species likely share a common ancestor with asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin. Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents.

  2. Organic walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Tarim Basin, western China: Implications for the retreat of the Paratethys Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothe, A.; Houben, A.J.P.; Bosboom, R.E.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    Paleogene sediments of the Tarim basin in western China hold the easternmost extent of the Paratethys Sea, an epicontinental sea that covered a large part of Eurasia and probably extended to the Mediterranean Tethys in the west. The late Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary record of the

  3. Reflections on the Application of the Western Reproduction Theory in the Research into the Education of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Li

    2007-01-01

    The "reproduction theory" was conceived and born in the research into educational inequalities in Western countries. Famous as the theory is, when it is to be applied in the research into education in China, a few factors must be taken into consideration: the subjects investigated must be educational inequalities that have come into…

  4. Eastward Expansion of Western Learning: A Study of Westernisation of China's Modern Education by Chinese Government Overseas-Study Scholarships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ren-Jie Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to trace back the history of how Chinese Government attempted to strengthen its national power by learning from the USA, Western Europe and Japan since the mid-nineteenth century, as well as to analyse the influences Westernisation had on the development of China's modern education. In this process, the Chinese Government…

  5. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  6. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  7. The asymmetric distribution of phytoplankton in anticyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenfen; Tang, Shilin; Huang, Rui Xin; Yin, Kedong

    2017-02-01

    An anticyclonic eddy's periphery is characterized by large horizontal density gradients, strain and vertical velocity. In this paper we document the asymmetric distribution of phytoplankton around the periphery of anticyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea based on 432 eddies detected from satellite data. The high level of phytoplankton occurs consistently at the northwestern periphery of eddies, with a maximum positive chlorophyll anomaly greater than 0.01 mg m-3. The asymmetric distribution of phytoplankton primarily tags the non-uniform surface velocity field varying from 0.15 m s-1 to 0.3 m s-1 along the eddy's periphery. The coastal boundary and off-coast jet may be the primary cause of the non-uniform flow. Associated with the non-uniform flow speed, the combined effects of the velocity convergence and steepened northwestern part of the eddies act to sharpen the density fronts and tend to result in an ageostrophic secondary circulation at the northwestern edge of the eddy. The upward component of the ageostrophic secondary circulation can enhance the nutrient flux into the euphotic layer, thereby increasing phytoplankton productivity. Anticyclonic eddy-induced ageostrophic secondary circulation appears to be an important mechanism for increasing phytoplankton productivity in the oligotrophic waters of the South China Sea.

  8. Pregnancy outcome in women with epilepsy in Western China: A prospective hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixu; Zhu, Huili; Qiu, Xiangmiao; Zhu, Xi; Peng, Anjiao; Duan, Jianan; Chen, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Gaps exist in the diagnosis and treatment of women with epilepsy (WWE) between China and Euro-American countries. We aim to find out and share our experience of the multidisciplinary integrated treatment for WWE. We prospectively registered WWE who were diagnosed by both epileptologists and obstetrician in our green way system for the past 5years (2009-2015). Registration information include years of education, epilepsy history, seizure type and frequency, pregnancy and delivery complications, delivery mode, and Apgar score of newborn. All data were analyzed by SAS 9.3 version. We included 137 cases of maternal epilepsy (155 pregnancies with average maternal age of 26years old). 18 cases underwent epilepsy surgery before pregnancy. 103 pregnancies (66.45%) were cesarean section, 52 (33.55%) were natural childbirth, only 10 pregnancies have pregnancy complications, 2 have delivery complication, and 15 have seizures during delivery process. Most offspring were healthy when they were born (only 11 newborn got Apgar scoreartificial feeding, followed by 39 (16.77%) of mixed feeding and 26 of breastfeeding. Clinical features and perinatal outcome of Chinese WWE are similar to western WWE. For mode of delivery, even suggested by our epileptologists and obstetrician to deliver naturally, more patients selected cesarean section. Moreover, withdrawal of AEDs during pregnancy is common. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to standard management of WWE and establish a more practical green way for WWE in China, to keep up with developed countries and improve the health level of birth in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thrust and fold tectonics and the role of evaporites in deformation in the Western Kuqa Foreland of Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuping Chen; Liangjie Tang; Zhijun Jin [University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). Basin and Reservoir Research Center; Key Lab. for Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Education Ministry in Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China); Chengzao Jin [PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Xuejun Pi [Tarim Oilfield Co., PetroChina Co. Ltd., Korla, Xinjiang (China)

    2004-09-01

    The Kuqa foreland between the Tarim basin and the Tianshan Mountains is rich in oil and gas. Based on field work and seismic profiles, the structural styles and their formation mechanisms were determined, and the role of evaporites in the deformation was demonstrated. The main structural styles in the overburden are detachment folds, large scale nappes, triangle zones, gentle and wide synclines, fault-propagation folds and pop-ups. The main structures in the substrate are small-scale thrust faults, duplexes, pop-ups and fault-bend and fault-propagation folds, and formed mainly at the end of the Pliocene under north-south compression. The evaporite layer in the lower section of the Paleogene is the decollement zone for the disharmonic deformations in the overburden and in the substrate. The detachment along the evaporite layer made it possible for compressive stresses to be transmitted farther in the overburden than in the substrate. Deformation in the overburden is more extensive than in the substrate at the leading edge of deformation. At the trailing edge of deformation, the structural highs in the overburden closely correspond to those in the substrate, which is of significance for petroleum exploration in the western Kuqa foreland. (author)

  10. Chronological constraints on tectonic evolution of the Chinese Tianshan Orogen through detrital zircons from modern and paleo-river sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rong; Guan, Shuwei; Han, Baofu

    2017-04-01

    The Chinese Tianshan Orogen marked the prolonged, complicated interactions between the southwestern Paleo-Asian Ocean and surrounding blocks. Massive new and previous detrital zircon U-Pb chronological data from modern and paleo-river sands (more than 7000 ages from 102 samples) were compiled to constrain its tectonic evolution. The Chinese Tianshan Orogen is characterized by predominant Paleozoic and minor Mesozoic and Precambrian detrital zircon ages that show multimodal characteristic. The oldest Phanerozoic zircon population (peak at 475 Ma) results from subduction and closure of the Early Paleozoic Terskey Ocean. But the absence of this peak in Chinese North and southern South Tianshan suggests that the subductions of the North and South Tianshan oceans may not initiate until Late Ordovician, with subsequent 460-390 Ma and 360-320 Ma arc magmatism. Similar to magmatic suite in classic collisional orogens, the youngest massive 320-270 Ma magmatism is supposed to be post-collisional. The North and South Tianshan oceans therefore probably had their closure to form the Chinese Tianshan Orogen during Late Carboniferous. The weak Mesozoic intra-plate magmatism further argues against a Late Permian-Triassic Tianshan Orogen for the lack of extensive syn- and post-collisional magmatism. Moreover, the diverse Precambrian detrital zircon age patterns indicate that the surrounding blocks have distinct tectonic evolution and short-term amalgamation during the Neoproterozoic.

  11. Late Miocene episodic lakes in the arid Tarim Basin, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Zhonghui; An, Zhisheng; Sun, Jimin; Chang, Hong; Wang, Ning; Dong, Jibao; Wang, Huanye

    2014-11-18

    The Tibetan Plateau uplift and Cenozoic global cooling are thought to induce enhanced aridification in the Asian interior. Although the onset of Asian desertification is proposed to have started in the earliest Miocene, prevailing desert environment in the Tarim Basin, currently providing much of the Asian eolian dust sources, is only a geologically recent phenomenon. Here we report episodic occurrences of lacustrine environments during the Late Miocene and investigate how the episodic lakes vanished in the basin. Our oxygen isotopic (δ(18)O) record demonstrates that before the prevailing desert environment, episodic changes frequently alternating between lacustrine and fluvial-eolian environments can be linked to orbital variations. Wetter lacustrine phases generally corresponded to periods of high eccentricity and possibly high obliquity, and vice versa, suggesting a temperature control on the regional moisture level on orbital timescales. Boron isotopic (δ(11)B) and δ(18)O records, together with other geochemical indicators, consistently show that the episodic lakes finally dried up at ∼4.9 million years ago (Ma), permanently and irreversibly. Although the episodic occurrences of lakes appear to be linked to orbitally induced global climatic changes, the plateau (Tibetan, Pamir, and Tianshan) uplift was primarily responsible for the final vanishing of the episodic lakes in the Tarim Basin, occurring at a relatively warm, stable climate period.

  12. Late Miocene episodic lakes in the arid Tarim Basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Zhonghui; An, Zhisheng; Sun, Jimin; Chang, Hong; Wang, Ning; Dong, Jibao; Wang, Huanye

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau uplift and Cenozoic global cooling are thought to induce enhanced aridification in the Asian interior. Although the onset of Asian desertification is proposed to have started in the earliest Miocene, prevailing desert environment in the Tarim Basin, currently providing much of the Asian eolian dust sources, is only a geologically recent phenomenon. Here we report episodic occurrences of lacustrine environments during the Late Miocene and investigate how the episodic lakes vanished in the basin. Our oxygen isotopic (δ18O) record demonstrates that before the prevailing desert environment, episodic changes frequently alternating between lacustrine and fluvial-eolian environments can be linked to orbital variations. Wetter lacustrine phases generally corresponded to periods of high eccentricity and possibly high obliquity, and vice versa, suggesting a temperature control on the regional moisture level on orbital timescales. Boron isotopic (δ11B) and δ18O records, together with other geochemical indicators, consistently show that the episodic lakes finally dried up at ∼4.9 million years ago (Ma), permanently and irreversibly. Although the episodic occurrences of lakes appear to be linked to orbitally induced global climatic changes, the plateau (Tibetan, Pamir, and Tianshan) uplift was primarily responsible for the final vanishing of the episodic lakes in the Tarim Basin, occurring at a relatively warm, stable climate period. PMID:25368156

  13. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  14. Phylogeography of the rare Gymnocarpos przewalskii (Caryophyllaceae): indications of multiple glacial refugia in north-western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. M. Ma; M. L. Zhang; S. C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the phylogeography of Gymnocarpos przewalskii Maxim. (Caryophyllaceae), a rare relictual shrub restricted to north-western China, in the context of Quaternary climate oscillations. ThreecpDNAregions (psbA­trnH, ycf6­psbM and rpl32-trnL (UAG)) were sequenced for 160 individuals from 16 populations. High genetic diversity (hT = 0.930, hS = 0.425) and a...

  15. Simulation of a dynamical ecotourism system with low carbon activity: A case from western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Huang, Ping; Xu, Hong

    2018-01-15

    Currently, sustainable tourism is becoming more and more important in developing ecological economies. To achieve low-carbon development, some industries, such as logistics and municipal solid waste, have already taken action, but tourism has not attached sufficient importance to this issue. This paper designs an ecotourism system including tourism, carbon waste (solid waste and sewage), and ecology (water supply and green areas) to simulate low-carbon ecotourism through a quantitative approach. This paper explores the tourism system as well as some interactive factors and studies their quantitative relationship based on historical data. A feedback-loop dynamical system model is designed to simulate tourism, waste carbon, and ecology simultaneously. Finally, a case study applying the feedback-loop dynamical system model to Leshan City, a typical travel destination with colorful natural resources in western China, is conducted to indicate the development of ecotourism in an environmentally friendly economy, which verifies the positive effects of the model. Results show a coordinating upward tendency of tourism, solid waste carbon, and ecology from the dynamical model. When tourism increases, solid waste accumulation increases; however, the amount of sewage dumped directly into nature decreases sharply. After analysis of investment policy scenarios, the research indicates that more funds for sewage treatment will attract more tourists. To maintain the equilibrium of carbon waste, more funds shall be invested in solid waste treatment in the long term. Some discussions about local policy are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology of and risk factors for neonatal candidemia at a tertiary care hospital in western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichang Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and clinical characteristics of neonatal candidemia are poorly understood in western China. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of neonatal candidemia in the Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2015. Electronic databases were reviewed and data on Candida species were isolated from blood cultures and candidemia incidence, risk factors, and mortality were extracted. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify risk factors associated with candidemia. Results During the 4-year period, candidemia was identified in 69 newborns, for an incidence rate of 13.6 per 1000 admissions. Prolonged antibiotic therapy duration [odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence incidence (95% CI = 1.06, 1.01–1.10], total parenteral nutrition [OR, 95% CI = 6.03, 2.10–17.30] and neurodevelopmental impairment (OR, 95% CI = 7.34, 1.18–45.80 were all associated with increased odds of candidemia development in infants (P value was 0.010, 0.001, 0.033, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 7.2% in the candidemia group. Conclusions Prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy, presence of total parenteral nutrition and neurodevelopmental impairment were the major risk factors associated with neonatal candidemia. This study highlights the importance of the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal candidemia.

  17. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng eWu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit (SSU rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the -Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments.

  18. [Morphological observation on the adult worms of Taenia saginata in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Qiu, Xue-Li; Chen, Yan; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Huang, Jiang; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Ke; Ling-Hu, Yan

    2007-02-28

    To investigate the morphological characteristics of the adult worms of Taenia saginata from four areas of Western China. 42, 41, 7 and 18 integral worms of Taenia saginata were collected from Duyun and Congjiang of Guizhou Province, Wushi of Xinjiang, and Lhasa of Tibet respectively. The length of worms was measured and the segments were counted. The specimens of scolex, mature and gravid proglottids of the worms were stained, measured and photographed. The mean length of the worms from Duyun, Congjiang, Wushi and Lasa was (1.81+/-0.69) m, (3.84+/-1.32) m, (2.76+/-0.86) m and (3.72+/-1.12) m, and with (574.64+/-189.33), (913.84+/-317.41), (971.29+/-168.30) and (940.38+/-368.26) proglottids, respectively. The mean ratio of the distance between two lateral excretory vessels and the length of vitellarium of the mature proglottids was (1.71+/-0.13), (2.23+/-0.06), (2.03+/-0.21), (2.31+/-0.15) respectively. All the 3 parameters of the worms from Duyun were significantly less than those from other 3 areas (PTaenia saginata asiatica, while those of the worms from Congjiang, Wushi and Lhasa are alike to those of Taenia saginata saginata.

  19. Site fidelity in the Sichuan Torrent Frog (Amolops mantzorum in a montane region in western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Bo Liao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I used mark-recapture technique to estimate site fidelity in a subtropical high-elevation torrent frog (Amolops mantzorum during the breeding season in Fengtongzhai National Nature Reserve in western China. I captured, measured, and individually marked 30 males and 15 females in 20 May 2007. I recorded each individual’s initial positions using a Global Positioning System (GPS. For each night from 21 May to 10 June 2007, I recaptured the marked individuals and recorded capture points. The results showed that 16 males and 4 females were never recaptured in the field experiment. Most of the remaining individuals were recaptured only one time. Males and female were recaptured more than 2 and 8 times, respectively. Males and females were recaptured from subsequent positions as far apart as 55 m and 30 m, as close as 0.2 m and 0.1 m. Average neighbor distances on successive capture positions of males recaptured was 10.1 m, and that of females was 4.2 m, suggesting that there were significant difference in site fidelity between females and males. However, there was not significant average activity distance between the sexes. For females, small average activity areas were 10.9 ± 14.9 m2.

  20. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yucheng; Tan, Liangcheng; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Baozhan; Wang, Jianjun; Cai, Yanjun; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment, and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the γ-Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments. PMID:25870592

  1. Assessment for the impact of dust events on measles incidence in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhou, Jianding; Yang, Sixu; Zhao, Yuxin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-05-01

    Dust events affect human health in both drylands and downwind environments. In this study, we used county-level data during the period of 1965-2005 to assess the impact of dust events on measles incidence in Gansu province in Western China. We used Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to set up the cyclical regression model; in particular, we set the model to downwind direction for the typical cities in the Hexi Corridor as well as the capital city Lanzhou. The results showed that Spring measles incidence was the highest in the Hexi Corridor, where dust events occur the most frequently over Gansu province. Measles incidence declined on the pathway of dust storms from west to east due to the weakening of both intensity and duration in dust storms. Measles incidence was positively correlated with monthly wind speed and negatively correlated with rainfall amount, relative humidity, and air pressure. Measles incidence was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) positively correlated with daily coarse particles, e.g., TSP and PM10. According to the cyclical regression model, average monthly excess measles that is related to dust events was 39.1 (ranging from 17.3 to 87.6), 149.9 (ranging from 7.1 to 413.4), and 31.3 (ranging from 20.6 to 63.5) in Zhangye, Lanzhou, and Jiuquan, respectively.

  2. Evidence for natural Borna disease virus infection in healthy domestic animals in three areas of western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Zhan, Qunling; Wang, Zhenhai; Xu, Mingming; Zhu, Dan; He, Feng; Liu, Xia; Huang, Rongzhong; Li, Dan; Lei, Yang; Xie, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-cytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that can infect many vertebrate species, including humans. To date, BDV infection has been reported in a range of animal species across a broad global geographic distribution. However, a systematic epidemiological survey of BDV infection in domesticated animals in China has yet to be performed. In current study, BDV RNA and antibodies in 2353 blood samples from apparently healthy animals of eight species (horse, donkey, dog, pig, rabbit, cattle, goat, sheep) from three areas in western China (Xinjiang province, Chongqing municipality, and Ningxia province) were assayed using reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) and ELISA assay. Brain tissue samples from a portion of the BDV RNA- and/or antibody-positive animals were subjected to RT-qPCR and western blotting. As a result, varying prevalence of BDV antibodies and/or RNA was demonstrated in various animal species from three areas, ranging from 4.4 % to 20.0 %. Detection of BDV RNA and/or antibodies in Chongqing pigs (9.2 %) provided the first known evidence of BDV infection in this species. Not all brain tissue samples from animals whose blood was BDV RNA and/or antibody positive contained BDV RNA and protein. This study provides evidence that BDV infection among healthy domestic animal species is more widespread in western China than previously believed.

  3. The climate change for Jehol Biota and its revolution in early Cretaceous in Western Liaoning, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Weijers, J.; Wang, C.; 973 Project; Igcp555

    2010-12-01

    Jehol Biota is known by us as the biological assemblage of eosestheria, Ephemeropsis trisetalis and Lycoptera at the beginning. And then we found more fossils at near time such as Sinosauropteryx, Confuciusornis, Cathayornis, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Archaefructaceae and other fossils in Western Liaoning, China. With the finding of those fossils, we become to think about what is the environment of this area in that time, what led to the development of such livings? In early Cretaceous, there are a lot of basins in North of Liaoning which were with plain layer in side, a lot of Lakes and volcano campaign frequently. We built up a section located in Sihetun of Liaoning with the layer is volcano-lake face. Date of the bottom is Aptian period. From TEX86 dates, we can know that the Paleatemperature is from? (the samples from the bottom is on testing and will be known soon, ), 17°C (Lake surface temperature, in the middle layer), and then 22°C(Lake surface temperature, on the top of the layer). The climate was changed from the seasonal arid or semi-arid into a warm and humid climate. With his kind of changing of the environment, the lives of Jehol Biota can survive, evolve and multiple in those basins. The movement of the volcano took the nutrients from the earth which made a flourishing many plants and plankton. This is the power of the evolution of plants. The early angiosperm came out in this time in this area which is called as Archaefructaceae. In the same time, the direction-sense, mass death of the birds and the macrofaunas showed that the exploration of the volcanoes made a lot of animals die and then be covered very quickly. In such an area where death and living was fast, there must be a quickly evolution. And it led to the formation and preservation of a large number of fossils. we found the same fossils out of the basin but later on date which showed the climate transferred to hot and dry later, and the livings in the basin were strong enough so that

  4. Bootstrapping data envelopment analysis of efficiency and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the public hospital reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Li; Fang, Hai-Qing; Tao, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Zhao-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Jun; Cai, Miao; Xu, Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2017-10-01

    China implemented the public hospital reform in 2012. This study utilized bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the 2012 public hospital reform. Data from 127 county public hospitals (39, 45, and 43 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, respectively) were collected during 2012-2015. Changes of TE and productivity over time were estimated by bootstrapping DEA and bootstrapping Malmquist. The disparities in TE and productivity among public hospitals in the three regions of China were compared by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. The average bias-corrected TE values for the four-year period were 0.6442, 0.5785, 0.6099, and 0.6094 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, and the entire country respectively, with average non-technical efficiency, low pure technical efficiency (PTE), and high scale efficiency found. Productivity increased by 8.12%, 0.25%, 12.11%, and 11.58% in China and its three regions during 2012-2015, and such increase in productivity resulted from progressive technological changes by 16.42%, 6.32%, 21.08%, and 21.42%, respectively. The TE and PTE of the county hospitals significantly differed among the three regions of China. Eastern and Western China showed significantly higher TE and PTE than Central China. More than 60% of county public hospitals in China and its three areas operated at decreasing return scales. There was a considerable space for TE improvement in county hospitals in China and its three regions. During 2012-2015, the hospitals experienced progressive productivity; however, the PTE changed adversely. Moreover, Central China continuously achieved a significantly lower efficiency score than Eastern and Western China. Decision makers and administrators in China should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase the efficiency of county

  5. Notes on some Indo-Pacific Pontoniinae III-IX descriptions of some new genera and species from the Western Indian Ocean and the South China Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruce, A.J.

    1967-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 1 III. Anapontonia denticauda Bruce, 1966, from the western Indian Ocean . . 2 IV. Mesopontonia gorgoniophila gen. nov., sp. nov., from the South China Sea 13 V. Metapontonia fungiacola gen. nov., sp. nov., from the western Indian Ocean 23 VI. The genus

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning self-medication with antibiotics among university students in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bing; Zhou, Zhongliang; Xu, Guiping; Yang, Dingkun; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Minghuan; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Guilan; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behaviours of university students on the use of antibiotics. A knowledge-attitude-practice questionnaire was developed and distributed to undergraduate students of Xi'an Jiaotong University, comprising 18 schools/colleges in Shaanxi Province, western China. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were applied to identify risk factors associated with self-medication with antibiotics. Of the 731 respondents (response rate = 73.1%), 294 (40.2%) had self-medicated with antibiotics in the past 6 months. Most of the antibiotics (59.2%) for self-medication were purchased without prescription in retail pharmacies. The median score of students' knowledge about antibiotics was 4 (IQR: 3-6) of a maximum possible score of 10. Students had moderately accurate beliefs towards antibiotics. More than half of the students (56.5%) were storing antibiotics frequently. During self-medication, 16.7% of students claimed to have experienced adverse reactions, and 30.6% had used antibiotics to prevent common colds. The majority preferred to use broad-spectrum antibiotics, and nearly half preferred intravenous antibiotics. Over 44% of students had changed antibiotic dosage, and 36.5% had switched to another antibiotic during the treatment course. Logistic regression analysis identified college and home town as independent risk factors for self-medication with antibiotics (P antibiotics, and a high rate of self-medication. This highlights the need for focused educational intervention and stricter governmental regulation concerning antibiotic use and sale in retail pharmacies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A random comparative study of terbinafine versus griseofulvin in patients with tinea capitis in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S; Hu, H; Abliz, P; Wan, Z; Wang, A; Cheng, W; Li, R

    2011-11-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of terbinafine with griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea capitis in Western China. Children (2-14 years of age) with clinically diagnosed and potassium hydroxide microscopy-confirmed tinea capitis were randomized into three groups: group GRI4 received 4 weeks of griseofulvin; group TBF2 received 2 weeks of terbinafine; and Group TBF4 received 4 weeks of terbinafine. Clinical and mycological evaluations were done in 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks and 1 year after therapy started. The isolated pathogenic fungi were evaluated for in vitro susceptibility by detecting the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against terbinafine, griseofulvin, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. The clinical effectiveness rate of GRI4, TBF2, and TBF4 were 100% (95% CI-confidence interval: 82-100%), 96.3% (95% CI: 81-100%), and 100%(95% CI: 85-100%), respectively, at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for the 3 groups; clinical cure rates were 84.2%(95% CI: 77-99%), 85.2%(95% CI: 71-98%), and 78.3%(95% CI: 61-95%), respectively, at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for all agents; mycological cure rates were 100%(95% CI: 74-100%), 95.0%(95% CI: 74-100%), and 94.1%(95% CI: 50-93%) at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for the 3 groups. In vitro, all patient-derived cultures were sensitive to the four antifungal agents. Data from the clinical trial and in vitro antifungal activity indicated that terbinafine is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment for Trichophyton infections (T. violaceum; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; and T. tonsurans) of the scalp, i.e., a 2- to 4-week course of terbinafine is as effective as a 4-week course of griseofulvin; in fact, a 2-week course of terbinafine is sufficient. Terbinafine is an effective alternative to griseofulvin against tinea capitis of Trichophyton infections.

  8. An equity analysis of health examination service utilization by women from underdeveloped areas in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuyan; Gao, Jianmin; Zhou, Zhongliang; Yan, Ju'e; Xu, Yongjian; Yang, Xiaowei; Li, Yanli

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to examine the sources of inequity in health examination service utilization by women from underdeveloped areas in western China. Based on data from the 5th National Health Service Survey in Shaanxi province, women's utilization of health examination services was examined according to gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates. The equity of health examination service utilization by 15- to 64-year-old women and the factors contributing to inequity were determined using the health concentration index, decomposition of the concentration index, and the horizontal inequity index. The examination rates for gynecological, cervical smear, and breast exams for 15- to 64-year-old women in Shaanxi province were 40.61%, 27.08%, and 24.59%, respectively. The horizontal inequity indices of gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates were 0.0480, 0.0423, and 0.0764, respectively, and each examination rate was higher for wealthy individuals. The contribution rates of economic status to the inequalities in gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates were 65.80%, 74.31%, and 56.49%, respectively. The contribution rates of educational status to the inequalities in gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates were 21.01%, 14.83% and 30.00%, respectively. The contribution rates of age to the inequalities in gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates were 25.77%, 26.55%, and 18.40%, respectively. Women's health examination rates differed between populations with different socio-demographic characteristics. There is pro-wealth inequality in each examination rate. This study found that financial status, age, and education level were the main reasons for the unequal utilization of health examination services.

  9. An equity analysis of health examination service utilization by women from underdeveloped areas in western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Qian

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the sources of inequity in health examination service utilization by women from underdeveloped areas in western China.Based on data from the 5th National Health Service Survey in Shaanxi province, women's utilization of health examination services was examined according to gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates. The equity of health examination service utilization by 15- to 64-year-old women and the factors contributing to inequity were determined using the health concentration index, decomposition of the concentration index, and the horizontal inequity index.The examination rates for gynecological, cervical smear, and breast exams for 15- to 64-year-old women in Shaanxi province were 40.61%, 27.08%, and 24.59%, respectively. The horizontal inequity indices of gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates were 0.0480, 0.0423, and 0.0764, respectively, and each examination rate was higher for wealthy individuals. The contribution rates of economic status to the inequalities in gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates were 65.80%, 74.31%, and 56.49%, respectively. The contribution rates of educational status to the inequalities in gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates were 21.01%, 14.83% and 30.00%, respectively. The contribution rates of age to the inequalities in gynecological, cervical smear, and breast examination rates were 25.77%, 26.55%, and 18.40%, respectively.Women's health examination rates differed between populations with different socio-demographic characteristics. There is pro-wealth inequality in each examination rate. This study found that financial status, age, and education level were the main reasons for the unequal utilization of health examination services.

  10. Application of NOAA-AVHRR for desertification monitoring in central Asia and western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aixia; Wang, Changyao; Liu, Zhengjun; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Junbang

    2004-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to estimate the boundary between vegetated and non-vegetated areas and to assess the condition of desertification in central Asia and western China located in arid and semiarid regions. Remote sensing data used in this study are a time-series of 10-day maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites derived from Global Area Coverage of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) from 1982 to 2000. Taking place and development of desertification in the arid and semiarid regions directly influence the density and growth status of vegetation, making surface vegetation a most important indicator to desertification assessment. Vegetation is very sparse in desert and therefore onset of green-up in the desert was undetectable with AVHRR NDVI data. The occurrence of onset of green-up, as determined with time series NDVI data was used to identify desert and non-desert areas. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the monthly NDVI (maximum-value composite) is used as a parameter to characterize the changes of vegetation in this work. The CoV can be used to compare the amount of variation in different sets of samples data. Changes in the value of the pixel-level CoV over time can be interpreted as a measure of vegetative biomass change over that time. The method to detect and quantify changes in CoV values for each pixel over 20-year period for which data was available is based on linear regression. If the CoV values exhibit a statistically significant decrease over time, it is possible to conclude that the area imaged in that pixel is under desertification.

  11. Genesis of the Permian karstic Pingguo bauxite deposit, western Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Qizuan; Yang, Shujuan; Liang, Yayun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yan; Guan, Tao

    2017-10-01

    More than 0.5 billion tons of late Permian bauxite overlies the karstic topography of the Maokou Formation of western Guangxi in China. Here, we provide new mineralogical, geochemical, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic, and pyrite S isotope and trace element compositional data for the Pingguo bauxite deposit, aiming to further our understanding of the genesis of Permian bauxite. The Pingguo bauxite contains three distinct layers: a lower layer dominated by ferric clay or weathered iron ore, a middle layer of cryptocrystalline and oolitic bauxite ore, and an upper layer dominated by argillaceous bauxite. The bauxite ore is mainly diaspore, pyrite, chamosite, and anatase, whereas the argillaceous bauxite contains diaspore, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, pyrite, and anatase. Two types of pyrite have been identified within the bauxite: fine-grained and framboidal pyrite (Py1) occurring in aggregates and coarse-grained and euhedral pyrite (Py2). Py1 is enriched in trace elements and is thought to have a diagenetic origin, whereas Py2 is deficient in trace elements and is considered to have formed by later recrystallization. The S isotopic composition of pyrite (-34.11 to -18.91‰) and visible ovoid microorganisms within the bauxite provide evidences of microbial activity during bauxite formation. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition of the bauxite indicates that these ores were generated by the weathering of basalts belonging to the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP) and limestones of the Maokou Formation. Microorganisms were likely to have enhanced the dissolution and weathering of the parent rock and facilitated the precipitation of diaspore under near-surface conditions.

  12. Geology and geochemistry of telluride-bearing Au deposits in the Pingyi area, Western Shandong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.-B.; Mao, J.-W.; Niu, S.-Y.; Li, Y.-F.; Li, M.-W.

    2006-07-01

    Telluride-bearing gold deposits of the Pingyi area, western Shandong, China, are located on the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. There are two main types of deposits: (i) mineralized cryptoexplosive breccia, e.g., Guilaizhuang; and (ii) stratified, finely-disseminated mineralization hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g., Lifanggou and Mofanggou deposits. In Guilaizhuang, the cryptoexplosive breccia is formed within rocks of the Tongshi complex and Ordovician dolomite. The mineralization is controlled by an E-W-trending listric fault. Stratified orebodies of the Lifanggou and Mofanggou deposits are placed along a NE-trending, secondary detachment zone. They are hosted within dolomitic limestone, micrite and dolomite of the Early-Middle Cambrian Changqing Group. The mineralization in the ore districts is considered to be related to the Early Jurassic Tongshi magmatic complex that formed in a continental arc setting on the margin of the North China Craton. The host rocks are porphyritic and consist predominantly of medium- to fine-grained diorite and pyroxene (hornblende)-bearing monzonite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of diorites give a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 175.7 ± 3.8 Ma. This is interpreted as representing the crystallization age of the Tongshi magmatic complex. Considering the contact relationships between the magmatic and host sedimentary rocks, as well as the genetic link with the deposits, we conclude that this age is relevant also for the formation of mineralization in the Pingyi area. We hence consider that the deposits formed in the Jurassic. The principal gold minerals are native gold, electrum and calaverite. Wall-rock alteration comprises pyritization, fluoritization, silicification, carbonatization and chloritization. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that all the analyzed inclusions are of two-phase vapor-liquid NaCl-H2O type. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions vary from 103 °C to 250 °C, and the ice melting

  13. Three-dimensional lithospheric S wave velocity model of the NE Tibetan Plateau and western North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchen; Li, Yonghua; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhu, Lupei; Wang, Chunyong; Bao, Xuewei; Wu, Yan

    2017-08-01

    We present a new 3-D lithospheric Vs model for the NE Tibetan Plateau (NETP) and the western North China Craton (NCC). First, high-frequency receiver functions (RFs) were inverted using the neighborhood algorithm to estimate the sedimentary structure beneath each station. Then a 3D Vs model with unprecedented resolution was constructed by jointly inverting RFs and Rayleigh wave dispersions. A low-velocity sedimentary layer with thicknesses varying from 2 to 10 km is present in the Yinchuan-Hetao graben, Ordos block, and western Alxa block. Velocities from the middle-lower crust to the uppermost mantle are generally high in the Ordos block and low in the Alxa block, indicating that the Alxa block is not part of the NCC. The thickened crust in southwestern Ordos block and western Alxa block suggests that they have been modified. Two crustal low-velocity zones (LVZs) were detected beneath the Kunlun Fault (KF) zone and western Qilian Terrane (QLT). The origin of the LVZ beneath the KF zone may be the combined effect of shear heating, localized asthenosphere upwelling, and crustal radioactivity. The LVZ in the western QLT, representing an early stage of the LVZ that has developed in the KF zone, acts as a decollement to decouple the deformation between the upper and lower crust and plays a key role in seismogenesis. We propose that the crustal deformation beneath the NETP is accommodated by a combination of shear motion, thickening of the upper-middle crust, and removal of lower crust.

  14. Possible association of the western Tibetan Plateau snow cover with the decadal to interdecadal variations of northern China heatwave frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiwei [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Jiang, Zhihong; Zhong, Shanshan; Wang, Lijuan [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Li, Jianping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    Northern China has been subject to increased heatwave frequency (HWF) in recent decades, which deteriorates the local droughts and desertification. More than half a billion people face drinking water shortages and worsening ecological environment. In this study, the variability in the western Tibetan Plateau snow cover (TPSC) is observed to have an intimate linkage with the first empirical orthogonal function mode of the summer HWF across China. This distinct leading mode is dominated by the decadal to inter-decadal variability and features a mono-sign pattern with the extreme value center prevailing over northern China and high pressure anomalies at mid- and upper troposphere over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. A simplified general circulation model is utilized to examine the possible physical mechanism. A reduced TPSC anomaly can induce a positive geopotential height anomaly at the mid- and upper troposphere and subsequently enhance the climatological high pressure ridge over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. The subsidence associated with the high pressure anomalies tends to suppress the local cloud formation, which increases the net radiation budget, heats the surface, and favors more heatwaves. On the other hand, the surface heating can excite high pressure anomalies at mid- and upper troposphere. The latter further strengthens the upper troposphere high pressure anomalies over Mongolia and the adjacent regions. Through such positive feedback effect, the TPSC is tied to the interdecadal variations of the northern China HWF. (orig.)

  15. Geological characteristics and ore-forming process of the gold deposits in the western Qinling region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajun; Liu, Chonghao; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Yujie; Mao, Zhihao; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yinhong; Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Degao; Zhang, Huafeng; Shan, Liang; Zhu, Laimin; Lu, Rukui

    2015-05-01

    The western Qinling, belonging to the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen between the North China Block and South China Block, is one of the most important gold regions in China. Isotopic dates suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids in the western Qinling region emplaced during the Middle-Late Triassic, and the deposits formed during the Late Triassic. Almost all gold deposits in the western Qinling region are classified as orogenic, Carlin-type, and Carlin-like gold deposits, and they are the products of Qinling Orogenesis caused by the final collision between the North China Block and the South China Block. The early subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic crust and the latter collision between South Qinling Terrane and the South China Block along the Mian-Lue suture generated lithosphere-scale thermal anomalies to drive orogen-scale hydrothermal systems. The collision-related magmatism also provided heat source for regional ore-forming fluids in the Carlin-like gold deposits. Orogenic gold deposits such as Huachanggou, Liziyuan, and Baguamiao lie between the Shang-Dan and Mian-Lue sutures and are confined to WNW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones in Devonian and Carboniferous greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks that were highly-deformed and regionally-metamorphosed. These deposits are typical orogenic gold deposits and formed within a Late Triassic age. The deposits show a close relationship between Au and Ag. Ores contain mainly microscopic gold, and minor electrum and visible gold, along with pyrite. The ore-forming fluids were main metamorphic fluids. Intensive tectonic movements caused by orogenesis created fluid-migrating channels for precipitation locations. Although some orogenic gold deposits occur adjacent to granitoids, mineralization is not synchronous with magmatism; that is, the granitoids have no genetic relations to orogenic gold deposits. As ore-forming fluids converged into dilated fractures during the extension stage of orogenesis

  16. Prevalence of eye diseases and causes of visual impairment in school-aged children in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Zhou, Xi-Yuan; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of refractive error, visual impairment, and eye diseases in school-aged children in western China. The survey was done in a representative county (Yongchuan District, Chongqing Municipality) of western China. Cluster random sampling was used to select children aged 6 to 15 years. We conducted door-to-door surveys and eye examinations including optometry, stereoscopic vision test, eye position and eye movement, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, retinoscopy, and fundus examination after cycloplegia with 1% cyclopentolate. Among 3469 children, data were available for 3079 (88.76%). The prevalences of eye diseases were, in descending order, refractive error (20.69%; 637/3079), conjunctivitis (11.76%; 362/3079), amblyopia (1.88%; 58/3079), color vision defect (0.52%; 16/3079), keratitis (0.36%; 11/3079), strabismus (0.29%; 9/3079), cataract (0.23%; 7/3079), pathologic myopia (0.19%; 6/3079), and ocular trauma (0.13%; 4/3079). The prevalence of corneal leucoma, corneal staphyloma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, and myelinated nerve fibers was 0.03% (1/3079) for each. The prevalence of visual impairment was 7.70% (237/3079), and the major causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive error (86.08%; 204/237), amblyopia (9.70%; 23/237), pathologic myopia (1.27%; 3/237), congenital cataract (0.42%; 1/237), and others (2.11%; 5/237). Among school-aged children in a less developed area of western China, refractive error was the most prevalent eye disorder, and uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment.

  17. Acceptability of Male Circumcision among College Students in Medical Universities in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Jiang

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC's acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China.A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews.Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790, 55.2% (n = 988 were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners' hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC's acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629-13.559, knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097-2.323, and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312-2.021. The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%, followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3% said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction.MC's acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future.

  18. Acceptability of Male Circumcision among College Students in Medical Universities in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junjun; Su, Jinming; Yang, Xiaobo; Huang, Mingbo; Deng, Wei; Huang, Jiegang; Liang, Bingyu; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Ye, Li; Liang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC's acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang) to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews. Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790), 55.2% (n = 988) were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners' hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC's acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629-13.559), knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097-2.323), and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312-2.021). The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%), followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3%) said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction. MC's acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future.

  19. "New" seed in "old" China : impact of CIMMYT Collaborative Programme on maize breeding in South-Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Y.

    1998-01-01

    China is the most populated country with the most limited amount of arable land per head of the population in the world. Development and distribution of modern varieties of the three staples, rice, wheat and maize, to insure national food security, have been the core tasks and first

  20. The Origin of the Chinese Central Tianshan Block in the Southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from Detrital Zircon Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Long, X.; Yuan, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese Central Tianshan Block (CTB) is one of the oldest continental fragments in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Although it is vital for understanding the evolution of the CAOB, its origin has been poorly studied. The CTB was previously suggested to have been originated from the North China, the South China, the Tarim cratons or the East European Craton (Baltica). A total of 165 concordant U-Pb and Hf isotopic analyses of detrital zircon are obtained from three meta-sediments in the CTB, including one meta-sandstone from Xingxingxia formation and one meta-sandstone as well as one quartzite from Kawabulake formation. Detrital zircon grains from the Xingxingxia and Kawabulake formations are dominated by respective youngest age populations at 1002 Ma and 930-960 Ma, providing constraints on the maximum depositional ages for these two formations. Zircon grains from the meta-sediments have very similar age distributions, with two dominant peaks at 0.93-1.0 Ga and 1.0-1.6 Ga and a minor peak at 2.3-2.7 Ga. They have similar Hf isotopic signatures, suggesting that the meta-sediments in the CTB share similar sedimentary provenance. The early Neoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are mainly local-derived, whereas the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic grains are both autochthonous and allochthonous. The occurrence of these Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic zircon grains are coincident with the Nuna breakup and the Rodinia assembly. This suggests that the CTB might experience the tectonic switching of the Nuna to the Rodinia. The distinct Meso-Neoproterozoic age patterns and Hf isotopic compositions of these detrital grains from the CTB and the surrounding blocks indicate that the CTB was not located close to the North China, the South China or the Tarim cratons in Precambrian. Our new data suggest that the CTB was most likely once a part of the East European Craton before the Neoproterozoic. This study was supported by National Basic Research Program of China

  1. Black carbon record of the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng

    2016-12-01

    Wildfire is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing regional fire regimes. The results demonstrate that wildfires occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the regional vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. Wildfire occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that regional-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.

  2. Invasion Genetics of the Western Flower Thrips in China: Evidence for Genetic Bottleneck, Hybridization and Bridgehead Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Sun, Jing-Tao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jin-Bo; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes) were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes) was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global FST = 0.043, P<0.001) among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming) to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China. PMID:22509325

  3. Invasion genetics of the Western flower thrips in China: evidence for genetic bottleneck, hybridization and bridgehead effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ming Yang

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, is an invasive species and the most economically important pest within the insect order Thysanoptera. F. occidentalis, which is endemic to North America, was initially detected in Kunming in southwestern China in 2000 and since then it has rapidly invaded several other localities in China where it has greatly damaged greenhouse vegetables and ornamental crops. Controlling this invasive pest in China requires an understanding of its genetic makeup and migration patterns. Using the mitochondrial COI gene and 10 microsatellites, eight of which were newly isolated and are highly polymorphic, we investigated the genetic structure and the routes of range expansion of 14 F. occidentalis populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and microsatellite data revealed that the genetic diversity of F. occidentalis of the Chinese populations is lower than that in its native range. Two previously reported cryptic species (or ecotypes were found in the study. The divergence in the mitochondrial COI of two Chinese cryptic species (or ecotypes was about 3.3% but they cannot be distinguished by nuclear markers. Hybridization might produce such substantial mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Furthermore, we found low genetic differentiation (global F(ST = 0.043, P<0.001 among all the populations and strong evidence for gene flow, especially from the three southwestern populations (Baoshan, Dali and Kunming to the other Chinese populations. The directional gene flow was further supported by the higher genetic diversity of these three southwestern populations. Thus, quarantine and management of F. occidentalis should focus on preventing it from spreading from the putative source populations to other parts of China.

  4. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among drug users in western China: implications for HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiegang; Jiang, Junjun; Li, Jonathan Z; Yang, Xiaobo; Deng, Wei; Abdullah, Abu S; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Zou, Yunfeng; Ye, Li; Xie, Peiyan; Wei, Fumei; Xu, Na; Wei, Bo; Liang, Hao

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among drug users in western China and the implications for HIV transmission in this population are described. A cross-sectional survey of male drug users was conducted in methadone maintenance therapy clinics and detoxification centers in three western provinces of China between September 2009 and December 2010. Participants in the study completed a questionnaire about demographics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, drug use history, sexual risk behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 1,304 drug users surveyed, nearly 54% never used condoms during sexual intercourse with a spouse or cohabitant, and this behavior was associated with coming from Chongqing (OR=1.86, pdrugs at age 30 and above (OR=1.80, pbehavior was associated with being married or cohabiting (OR=0.30, pdrugs at age 31 and above (OR=0.42, pbehavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=2.81, pbehavior was associated with coming from Guangxi (OR=6.26, pbehavior was associated with having received free condoms from authorities in the past year (OR=0.26, pbehaviors among drug users in Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang are common. Additional intervention strategies are needed to control the spread of HIV in this population.

  6. Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

  7. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-29

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  8. Impact of the zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure in western rural China: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Shen, Qian; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Li, Zongjie; Wu, Lina; Fang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    To assess the long-term effects of the introduction of China's zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditures after reimbursement. An interrupted time series was used to evaluate the impact of the zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement at primary health institutions in Fufeng County of Shaanxi Province, western China. Two regression models were developed. Monthly average hospitalisation expenditure and monthly average hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement in primary health institutions were analysed covering the period 2009 through to 2013. For the monthly average hospitalisation expenditure, the increasing trend was slowed down after the introduction of the zero-markup drug policy (coefficient = -16.49, P = 0.009). For the monthly average hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement, the increasing trend was slowed down after the introduction of the zero-markup drug policy (coefficient = -10.84, P = 0.064), and a significant decrease in the intercept was noted after the second intervention of changes in reimbursement schemes of the new rural cooperative medical insurance (coefficient = -220.64, P China. However, hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement were still increasing. More effective policies are needed to prevent these costs from continuing to rise. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A study of the technique of western blot for diagnosis of lyme disease caused by Borrelia afzelii in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi Yun; Hao, Qin; Hou, Xue Xia; Jiang, Yi; Geng, Zhen; Wu, Yi Mou; Wan, Kang Lin

    2013-03-01

    To study the technique of Western blot for the diagnosis of Lyme disease caused by Borrelia afzelii in China and to establish the standard criteria by operational procedure. FP1, which is the representative strain of B. afzelii in China, was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, electro transfer and immunoblotting assays. The molecular weights of the protein bands of FP1 were analyzed by Gel-Pro analysis software. In a study using 451 serum samples (159 patients with Lyme disease and 292 controls), all observed bands were recorded. The accuracy of the WB as a diagnostic test was established by using the ROC curve and Youden index. Criteria for a positive diagnosis of Lyme disease were established as at least one band of P83/100, P58, P39, OspB, OspA, P30, P28, OspC, P17, and P14 in the IgG test and at least one band of P83/100, P58, P39, OspA, P30, P28, OspC, P17, and P41 in the IgM test. For IgG criteria, the sensitivity, specificity and Youden index were 69.8%, 98.3%, and 0.681, respectively; for IgM criteria, the sensitivity, specificity and Youden index were 47%, 94.2%, and 0.412, respectively. Establishment of WB criteria for B. afzelii is important in validating the diagnostic assays for Lyme disease in China. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. The gender gap among school children in poor rural areas of western China: evidence from a multi-province dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Mo, Di; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-09-29

    The gender gap remains a major impediment in the path towards equality and it is especially wide in low-income countries. Up to the early 2000s, many studies documented extensive inequalities in China: girls had poorer health, less nutrition and less education than their male counterparts. The goal of this study is to examine whether the gender gap persists, given that China is now making the transition into the ranks of upper-middle income countries. We consider educational outcomes, mental and physical health status, as well as non-cognitive outcomes. We draw on a dataset containing 69,565 observations constructed by combining data from 7 different school-level surveys spanning 5 provinces. The surveys were all conducted by the authors between 2008 and 2013 using uniform survey instruments and data collection protocols in randomly selected schools across western provinces in rural China. The sample children range in age from 9 to 14 years (with 79 % of the sample being aged 10 to 12). Our analysis compares rural girls with rural boys in terms of 13 different indicators. With the exception of anemia rates, the health outcomes of girls are equal to those of boys. Girls and boys are statistically identical in terms of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and prevalence of intestinal worm infections. Girls performed better than boys on five of six cognitive and educational performance indicators. Girls performed worse than boys on all mental health indicators. All estimates are robust to the inclusion of different age ranges, controlling for the level of household assets, ethnic minority status, as well as the addition of provincial dummies. Our findings suggest that with the exception of non-cognitive outcomes, anemia and standardized math test scores, the gender gap in our study areas in China appears to be diminishing.

  11. Drivers of Poverty Reduction in Lagging Regions: Evidence from Rural Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaensen, L.; Pan Lei, Lei; Wang, S.

    2010-01-01

    Using 2000-04 panel data this study analyses the pathways rural households followed out of poverty in two lagging provinces of China, Inner Mongolia and Gansu. Rising labour productivity in agriculture has been key, and still holds much promise. Labour mobility has also been important in Gansu. So

  12. Free and Forced Rossby Waves in the Western South China Sea Inferred from Jason-1 Satellite Altimetry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO at the period of 40~70 days. Analysis of remotelysensed sea surface height (SSH anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5ºE -115ºE and 12ºN -13.5ºN. Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves.

  13. Association between dietary protein intake and the risk of hypertension: a cross-sectional study from rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruru; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao; Zhao, Yaling; Li, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoning

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for an association between dietary proteins and the risk of hypertension in rural Chinese adults, whose diets are protein-poor and unbalanced, is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary proteins on hypertension among adults of rural western China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hanzhong, China, and 2241 residents were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether dietary proteins (total, plant and animal protein) were independently correlated with hypertension. The total protein intake was inadequate (51.7 g per day for male and 40.1 g per day for female), accounting for 56-71% of the Chinese recommended nutrient intakes or adequate intakes. Nearly 80% of protein intake derived from plants, especially grains, and the proportion derived from plants was higher in females than in males. The daily animal protein intake was 12.1 g for males and 8.3 g for females. For females, no significant association was found between hypertension and total protein or plant protein intake. However, animal protein intake was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of hypertension after controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, body mass index and other dietary nutrients. In addition, the odds ratio for the upper quartile compared with the bottom quartile was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.43-0.95, P for trend intake in females. For males, we did not observe a significant association between dietary proteins and hypertension or blood pressure. In conclusion, for the western rural Chinese population, especially women, whose dietary protein intake is low and largely derived from plants, the intake of animal protein may be related to a decreased risk of hypertension.

  14. A TOU Pricing Mechanism to Promote Renewable Energy Consumption: The Case of the Western Inner Mongolia Grid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-xiu He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The curtailment of wind power and photovoltaic power is becoming increasingly serious from the year 2012 to present in China. And the small installed capacity captive coal-fired power plants have been developed rapidly aiming to cut production costs. Therefore, by the substitution of renewable energy for captive coal-fired power plants, this paper establishes a time-of-use (TOU pricing mechanism with a linkage between the supply side and the demand side to promote renewable energy consumption, which is applied to the Western Inner Mongolia grid in China. The results show that the benefits to the grid company, electricity users, renewable energy producers, and social environment are influenced by the quantity of renewable energy purchased in the market, the market price for renewable energy, the quantity of electricity from grid to peak shaving, the carbon price, and the quantity of electricity generated by captive coal-fired power plants shifting to grid, in which the first factor has the greatest influence on the benefits of stakeholders. Furthermore, improving the accuracy of renewable energy generation forecast and optimizing using electricity behaviors by considering the renewable energy generation characteristics could ensure the TOU mechanism implementation successfully.

  15. The Protestant medical missions to China: the introduction of Western medicine with vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Modern medicine in China began with the arrival of Anglo-American Protestant missionaries in the early 19th century. Conditions were vastly different from the times of the Jesuits in Peking during the 17th and 18th centuries, when the priests enjoyed the endorsement of the Court and high officials. Faced with hostile and xenophobic officialdom and populace, surgeons of the British East India Company in collaboration with missionaries took the initiative. In 1805 Dr Alexander Pearson (1780-1874) introduced smallpox vaccination in Macao and Canton. Reverend Dr Robert Morrison (1782-1834) of the London Missionary Society with another East India Company Surgeon, Dr John Livingstone (1829) opened a dispensary for the poor in Macao in 1820. These pioneers paved the way for later Anglo-American medical missionaries who revolutionized medical practice in China.

  16. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Wagner, Anita K; Yang, Shimin; Jiang, Minghuan; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Limited access to essential medicines is a global problem. Improving availability and affordability of essential medicines is a key objective of the National Essential Medicine Policy (NEMP) in China. In its initial implementation in 2009, the NEMP targeted primary hospitals with policies designed to increase availability of essential medicines and reduce patients' economic burden from purchasing medicines. We assessed medicine availability and price during the early years of the health reform in Shaanxi Province in underdeveloped western China. We undertook two public (hospitals) and private (pharmacy) sector surveys of prices and availability of medicines, in September, 2010 and April, 2012, by a standard methodology developed by WHO and Health Action International. We measured medicine availability in outlets at the time of the surveys and inflation-adjusted median unit prices (MUPs), taking 2010 as the base year. We used general estimating equations to calculate the significance of differences in availability from 2010 to 2012 and the Wilcoxon signed rank test to calculate the significance of differences in adjusted median prices. We collected data from 50 public sector hospitals and 36 private sector retail pharmacies in 2010 and 72 public hospitals and 72 retail pharmacies in 2012. Mean availability of surveyed medicines was low in both the public and private sectors; availability of many essential medicines decreased from 2010 to 2012, particularly in primary hospitals (from 27·4% to 22·3% for lowest priced generics; pFund (71103141/G0308), the China Medical Board Faculty Development Awards, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011jdhz62), the Shaanxi Provincial Social Science Fund (10E066), and the Harvard Medical School Pharmaceutical Policy Research Fellowship. Copyright © 2013 Fang et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  17. The Rugose Coral Fauna from the Upper Part of the Heyuanzahai Formation in Western Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xunlian

    1994-01-01

    The material studied here is from the Malutang-Heyuanzhai region of Shidian County, Yunnan Province, China. In this region Devonian is well developed and may be divided into eight formations. They include the Lower Devonian Xiangyangsi Formation, the Wangjiacun Formation, the Shabajiao Formation, the Middle Devonian Xibiantang Formation and Malutang Formation, the upper Middle to lower Upper Devonian Heyuanzhai Formation and the Upper Devonian Dujiacun Formation. Rugose corals are known from ...

  18. Lower Devonian trace fossils and their paleoenvironmental significance from the western Yangtze Plate, South China

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, LI-JUN; ZHAO, ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    Abundant and diverse trace fossils occur in the littoral-neritic sediments recording an Early Devonian transgression in South China. The well-exposed Ganxi section is located in the Longmen Mountain 100 km northwest of Chendu, Sichuan. The Lower Devonian strata are dominated by sandstones, siltstones, muddy shales, limestones, bioclastic limestones, and muddy limestones. About thirteen ichnogenera were systematically described, including Arenicolites, ?Balanoglossites, Chondrites, Cylindrichn...

  19. Paleoseismology and slip rate of the western Tianjingshan fault of NE Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinnan; Li, Chuanyou; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Zhang, Peizhen; Zheng, Wenjun; Pierce, Ian K. D.; Wang, Xuguang

    2017-09-01

    We present results from a detailed investigation of the horizontal displacement distribution, timing of paleoearthquakes and left-lateral slip rate on the western Tianjingshan fault. Measurements of 240 offset streams and ridges confirm that the fault is left-lateral and record evidence of repeated ∼3-4 m coseismic offsets along the 60-km-long fault. This suggests that ∼6 earthquakes may have occurred along the entire western Tianjingshan fault with repeated occurrence of earthquakes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Structural and stratigraphic relationships exposed in our five trenches in combination with previously reported studies further indicate that the fault has ruptured in as many as six paleoearthquakes since the late Quaternary. Paleoseismic data show that the average recurrence interval for Holocene earthquakes is approximately 5,000 yr. The most recent earthquake along the western Tianjingshan fault occurred ∼1.2 ± 0.1 kyr BP, indicating that this fault segment did not rupture in the M 7.5 historical earthquake of 1709 that ruptured the central Tianjingshan fault. We estimate that the Holocene slip rate of the western Tianjingshan fault is ∼1.1-1.2 mm/yr based on measurements of the age and offset of stream channels. Compared with the relatively fast slip rate of the Haiyuan fault (∼4-6 mm/yr), we suggest that the Tianjingshan fault acts as an essential active fault accommodating the sinistral displacement and crustal shortening deformation in NE Tibet.

  20. Crustal structure beneath the western Hubei Province of China from joint inversion of ambient noise and receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Zhu, L.; Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate crustal S-wave structure beneath the western Hubei Province, which is located at a topographic step in China with high-rising plateaus to the west and low-elevation plains to the east. We collected two-year continuous seismic waveform records of 22 permanent broadband stations and six-month records of 29 portable stations and did cross-correlations of the waveform data between stations. We then measured phase/group velocity dispersion curves from 8 to 35s using frequency-time analysis (FTAN) method and performed surface wave tomography using the fast marching method to obtain phase/group velocity maps. We finally constructed high resolution 3-D shear-wave velocity structure beneath the western Hubei Province from joint inversion of surface wave dispersion data and receiver functions. The 3D model shows shear velocity variations are well correlated with geological features, such as sedimentary basins and mountain ranges. In particular, a high velocity anomaly beneath the Three Gorges Reservoir Dam indicates that it is located in a tectonic stable region.

  1. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ren-cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  2. A new ctenochasmatid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous, western Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shunxing; Wang, Xiaolin

    2011-12-01

    A nearly complete skull of a new ctenochasmatid pterosaur, Pterofiltus qiui gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cretaceous deposits of Liaoning, China, is described here. The specimen (IVPP V12339), was collected from the shale of the lower Yixian Formation (125 Ma) at the Zhangjiagou locality. It has the following combination of characters: about 112 teeth in total (including the upper and lower jaws); the dentition occupies more than 50% of the skull length; the anterior teeth vary in size; the mandibular symphysis is longer than half of the whole mandible length; in ventral view, an apparent symphyseal trough in the median part of the symphysis.

  3. LATE TRIASSIC OBLIQUE EXTRUSION OF UHP/HP COMPLEXES IN THE ATBASHI ACCRETIONARY COMPLEX OF SOUTH TIANSHAN, KYRGYZSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhumation and tectonic emplacement of eclogites and blueschists take place in forearc accretionary complexes by either forearc- or backarc-directed extrusion, but few examples have been well analysed in detail. Here we present an example of oblique wedge extrusion of UHP/HP rocks in the Atbashi accretionary complex of the Kyrgyz South Tianshan.

  4. A distribution list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera of Tian-Shan within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Korb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.

  5. A new ctenochasmatid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous, western Liaoning, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunxing Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A nearly complete skull of a new ctenochasmatid pterosaur, Pterofiltus qiui gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cretaceous deposits of Liaoning, China, is described here. The specimen (IVPP V12339, was collected from the shale of the lower Yixian Formation (125 Ma at the Zhangjiagou locality. It has the following combination of characters: about 112 teeth in total (including the upper and lower jaws; the dentition occupies more than 50% of the skull length; the anterior teeth vary in size; the mandibular symphysis is longer than half of the whole mandible length; in ventral view, an apparent symphyseal trough in the median part of the symphysis.Um crânio quase completo de um novo pterossauro ctenochasmatídeo, Pterofiltus qiui gen. et sp. nov., de depósitos do Cretáceo Inferior de Liaoning, China é descrito. O exemplar (IVPP V12339 foi coletado de um argilito da parte inferior da Formação Yixian (125 Ma na localidade Zhangjiagou. A nova espécie possui a seguinte combinação de caracteres: aproximadamente 112 dentes (incluindo ambas as arcadas; dentição ocupando mais de 50% do comprimento do crânio; dentes anteriores de tamanho variado; sínfise mandibular ocupando mais da metade do comprimento da mandíbula; abertura ventral na parte média da sínfise mandibular.

  6. Reconstructing upper water structure of western South China Sea in MIS 3 using planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J.; Huang, B.; Niu, Y.; Chen, M.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, climate scientists have realized that tropical-subtropical monsoon system is one of the most important elements of Global climate system. East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), with its significant impacts on the climate and economics of the most populous region on earth, keeps enticing climate scientist into great interests. Further, the changes of EASM in a highly fluctuating Global climate ambient (Marin Isotope Stage 3, MIS 3) is of special attention as such climate condition is expected if Global Warming continues. In this study, we analyzed the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) and δ18O in shells of planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white s.s.) sampled from Core 17954. This core was retrieved from western South China Sea (SCS) where EASM dominates during summer and generates upwelling in modern days. By pairing Mg/Ca-Paleothermometer and δ18O proxy of planktonic foraminiferal shells, paleo- sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of western SCS during MIS 3 was reconstructed, which would help us tracking the evolution of EASM in this period. In addition, our results are compared with other data, mainly thermocline and primary productivity data from previous studies on these samples. We find, in MIS 3, strong millennium fluctuations characterize δ18O record of foraminiferal shells as it does to Greenland Ice Core and Hulu Cave stalagmite. This probably implies a tele-connection of global climate or a combination of strong influences from Northern Hemisphere High Latitude climate and tropical-subtropical monsoon system (represented by Hulu Cave stalagmite) on western SCS. Besides, in MIS 3, five distinct relative shallow periods of thermocline (referred as S1~S5) are identified. In S1~S4, SST of western SCS was lower and primary productivity was higher, suggesting an enhanced upwelling and strengthened EASM during these periods. On the other hand, SSS was also lower in S1~S4, which can be easily understood

  7. Trends of increase in western medical services in traditional medicine hospitals in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley Charles B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compare changes in types of hospital service revenues between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM hospitals and Western-medicine based general hospitals. Methods 97 TCM hospitals and 103 general hospitals were surveyed in years of 2000 and 2004. Six types of medical service revenue between the two types of hospitals were compared overtime. The national statistics from 1999 to 2008 were also used as complementary evidence. Results For TCM hospitals, the percentage of service revenue from Western medicine increased from 44.3% to 47.4% while the percentage of service revenue from TCM declined from 26.4% to 18.8% from 1999 to 2004. Percentages of revenue from laboratory tests and surgical procedures for both types of hospitals increased and the discrepancy between the two types of hospitals was narrowed from 1999 to 2004. For TCM hospitals, revenues from laboratory tests increased from 3.64% to 5.06% and revenues from surgical procedures increased from 3.44% to 7.02%. General hospitals' TCM drug revenue in outpatient care declined insignificantly from 5.26% to 3.87%, while the decline for the TCM hospitals was significant from 19.73% to 13.77%. The national statistics from 1999 to 2008 showed similar trends that the percentage of revenue from Western medicine for TCM hospitals increased from 59.6% in 1999 to 62.2% in 2003 and 66.1% in 2008 while the percentage of revenue from TCM for TCM hospitals decreased from 18.0% in 1999, 15.4% in 2003, and 13.7% in 2008. Conclusion Western medicine has become a vital revenue source for TCM hospitals in the current Chinese health care environment where government subsidies to health care facilities have significantly declined. Policies need to encourage TCM hospitals to identify their own special and effective services, improve public perception, increase demand, strengthen financial sources, and ultimately make contributions to preserving one of the national treasures.

  8. Permian oolitic carbonates from the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China, and their paleoclimatic and paleogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Jin, Xiaochi; Li, Fei; Shen, Yang

    2017-06-01

    Marine carbonate ooids are environment-sensitive and hence valuable for paleoclimatic and paleogeographic reconstructions. This paper describes Permian ooids from the Baoshan Block in western Yunnan, China, in order to offer a new means to refine the uncertain paleogeographic details of this Gondwana-derived block. Four major types of ooids (micritic ooids, compound ooids, leached ooids and half-moon ooids) are documented from the Hewanjie Formation in the northern and the Shazipo Formation in the southern Baoshan Block. These ooids are dated via biostratigraphic analysis to be Wordian-early Wuchiapingian and signify an ameliorated shallow-marine temperature for the Guadalupian strata of the Baoshan Block. Results of this study, coupled with literature data, reveal diachronous debut of Permian ooids among the Gondwana-derived blocks: mostly Sakmarian in Central Taurides of Turkey, Central Iran, Central Pamir and Karakorum Block versus Wordian-Capitanian in Baoshan Block, Peninsular Thailand and South Qiangtang. In contrast, Asselian-Sakmarian strata of Baoshan Block as well as Peninsular Thailand and South Qiangtang are characterized by glaciomarine diamictites. These observations suggest that the Baoshan Block was probably situated at a considerably higher paleolatitude under distinct influence of Gondwana glaciation during the Asselian-Sakmarian than those blocks yielding Sakmarian ooids. Moreover, marine ooids are virtually absent nearby the equator within the Permian Tethys, similar to the modern situation. The Baoshan Block is accordingly interpreted to drift to warm-water southern mid-latitudes during the Wordian-Capitanian and remain to the south of Central Iran, Karakorum Block and South China, which were equatorially located in the Capitanian.

  9. [Correlation Between Nursing Work Environment and Nurse Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention in the Western Region of Mainland China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Meng; Fang, Jin-Bo

    2016-02-01

    Nurse burnout and low job satisfaction are main reasons that cause nurses to leave their current position. Improving the nursing work environment may reduce the severity of job burnout and of job dissatisfaction and thus decrease the turnover intention of nursing staff. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the nursing work environment and the outcome variables of burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in the western region of Mainland China. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Survey data were collected between February and December 2012 from 1,112 clinical nurses working at 83 medical, surgical, and intensive care units in 20 hospitals across the western region of Mainland China. Multistage sampling was conducted on some of the participants. The research instruments that were used included the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Nurse Job Satisfaction Scale, and the self-developed basic information and turnover intention questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0. The level of statistical significance was set at pwork environment, collegial nurse-physician relations earned the most favorable mean scores (3.57±0.68; total=4 points), whereas adequacy of staffing and resources earned the lowest (3.21±0.82). Over half of the participants (58.4%) reported experiencing a high level of emotional exhaustion (EE) burnout, 45.2% reported experiencing a high level of depersonalization (DP) burnout, and 24.6% reported experiencing a high level of personal accomplishment (PA) burnout. About 59% of the participants were satisfied with their work and 3.8% reported intention to leave. Participants in self-reported "favorable" work environments were less likely to report high burnout, less likely to report intention to leave, and more likely to report job satisfaction than their peers in self-reported "poor

  10. Geochemistry, grouping and origins of crude oils in the Western Pearl River Mouth Basin, offshore South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, M. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry

    2003-07-01

    Thirty-seven crude oils and 20 source rocks were selected for detailed molecular geochemical and isotopic analyses in order to establish the genetic relationships between the discovered oils and various petroleum source facies in the Western Pearl River Basin, offshore South China Sea. Four groups of oils were identified. The Group I oils, distributed in the southwestern WC19-1 field of Wenchang B sag, are characterized by high abundance of 4-methyl steranes relative to regular steranes, low abundance of bicadinanes and high {delta}{sup 13}C values, showing good correlation with the medium-deep lacustrine source facies in the Wenchang Formation. The Group II oils represent the majority of the discovered oil reserves in the study area, including those from the Qionghai uplift and the northeast block of the WC19-1 oil field. These oils have moderate concentrations of C{sub 30} 4-methylsteranes, abundant bicadinanes and low values, and correlate well with the shallow lake source facies of the Wenchang Formation in the Wenchang B and A sags. The group III oils, found in the Wenchang A sag and surrounding areas, are devoid of C{sub 30} 4-methylsteranes, with abundant bicadinanes and similar {delta}{sup 13}C values to those of the Group II oils. These characteristics show close affinity with the coal-bearing sequence in the Enping Formation, thus suggesting a coaly source for these oils. The Group IV oils, found only in the WC8-3 field, display intermediate chemical compositions between the Group II and Group III oils, most likely from mixed sources in the Wenchang A sag. These oil-source genetic relationships suggest dominantly short distance oil migration and thus strong source facies controls on the geographic distribution of oil and gas fields within the Western Pearl River Mouth Basin.

  11. Geochemistry, grouping and origins of crude oils in the Western Pearl River Mouth Basin, offshore South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baojia Huang; Xianming Xiao [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangdong (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry; Mingqiang Zhang [CNOOC Nanhai West Research Institute, Guangdong (China)

    2003-07-01

    Thirty-seven crude oils and 20 source rocks were selected for detailed molecular geochemical and isotopic analyses in order to establish the genetic relationships between the discovered oils and various petroleum source facies in the Western Pearl River Basin, offshore South China Sea. Four groups of oils were identified. The Group I oils, distributed in the southwestern WC19-1 field of Wenchang B sag, are characterized by high abundance of 4-methyl steranes relative to regular steranes, low abundance of bicadinanes and high {delta}{sup 13}C values, showing good correlation with the medium-deep lacustrine source facies in the Wenchang Formation. The Group II oils represent the majority of the discovered oil reserves in the study area, including those from the Qionghai uplift and the northeast block of the WC19-1 oil field. These oils have moderate concentrations of C{sub 30} 4-methylsteranes, abundant bicadinanes and low {delta}{sup 13}C values, and correlate well with the shallow lake source facies of the Wenchang Formation in the Wenchang B and A sags. The group III oils, found in the Wenchang A sag and surrounding areas, are devoid of C{sub 30} 4-methylsteranes, with abundant bicadinanes and similar {delta}{sup 13}C values to those of the Group II oils. These characteristics show close affinity with the coal-bearing sequence in the Enping Formation thus suggesting a coaly source for these oils. The Group IV oils, found only in the WC8-3 field, display intermediate chemical compositions between the Group II and Group III oils, most likely from mixed sources in the Wenchang A sag. These oil-source genetic relationships suggest dominantly short distance oil migration and thus strong source facies controls on the geographic distribution of oil and gas fields within the Western Pearl River Mouth Basin. (author)

  12. Late Quaternary Planktic Foraminifer Fauna andMonsoon Upwelling Records from the Western South China Sea, Near the Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Sen Yu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sediment core MD012394 from the Vietnam coastal upwelling area in the western South China Sea was investigated in order to reconstruct the last Quaternary monsoon upwelling based on planktic foraminifer fauna assemblages and fauna-based sea surface temperature (SST estimates. The age model of core MD012394 was constructed using oxygen isotope stratigraphy of the planktic foraminifer G. sacculifer, with 10 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C dating of planktic foraminifers from the sediment samples. Our studies on the relative and absolute abundances of planktic foraminifer assemblages reveal eight dominant species in core MD012394: N. dutertrei + N. pachyderma (right coiling, G. ruber, G. glutinata, G. sacculifer, P. obliquiloculata, G. menardii + G. tumida, G. calida, and G. inflata. In a Q-mode factor analysis of the fauna abundance data, the fauna factors show variations that do not parallel the glacial/interglacial changes throughout the last 135 kyr. The relative abundance patterns of G. inflata and N. dutertrei (including N. pachyderma-R are interpreted as hydrographic proxies for East Asian summer and winter monsoon, respectively, in the current study. We calculated the fluctuations in the SST using the Revised Analog Method (RAM in MD012394 and found that the abundance changes of the summer monsoon upwelling indicator G. inflata were similar and nearly synchronous. This suggests that the summer monsoon-driven upwelling signal was strong near the local summer insolation maximum, which induced low SSTs, particular around ~11, 33, 59, and 83 kya. Our studies support the view that the strengths of both summer insolation and the East Asian summer monsoon have determined the relative abundance of planktic foraminifers and the SSTs in the western SCS during the last 135 kyr.

  13. The Response of Grain Potential Productivity to Land Use Change: A Case Study in Western Jilin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of land use change on grain potential productivity is one of the most important topics in the research of land use/cover change and its effects. Western Jilin, located on the edge of an ecotone in northern China, and its land use have changed dramatically in recent decades, with significant impact on grain potential productivity. This study evaluated the grain potential productivity in different conditions and analyzed the response to land use change based on land use data, meteorological data and statistical data by using the Global Agro-ecological Zone model. Results showed that (1 grain potential productivity of Western Jilin in 2010 was 19.12 million tons, an increase of 34.8% over 1975 because of changes in land use and in climate; (2 due to land use change, grain potential productivity in the study area increased between 1975 and 2000, however, it decreased between 2000 and 2010; (3 conversion in type of land use and an increase in irrigation percentage caused grain potential productivity to increase by 0.70 million tons and 3.13 million tons respectively between 1975 and 2000; between 2000 and 2010, grain potential productivity had an increase of 0.17 million tons due to the increase in farmland area, but it decreased by 1.88 million tons because the irrigation percentage declined from 36.6% to 24.7%. Therefore, increasing investment in agriculture, improving land quality and increasing the conversion rate of grain potential productivity to actual production would be a better choice for ensuring national food security and achieving sustainable land use.

  14. GRACE, GLDAS and measured groundwater data products show water storage loss in Western Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiwo, Juana Paul; Lu, Wenxi; Tao, Fulu

    2012-01-01

    Water storage depletion is a worsening hydrological problem that limits agricultural production in especially arid/semi-arid regions across the globe. Quantifying water storage dynamics is critical for developing water resources management strategies that are sustainable and protective of the environment. This study uses GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) and measured groundwater data products to quantify water storage in Western Jilin (a proxy for semi-arid wetland ecosystems) for the period from January 2002 to December 2009. Uncertainty/bias analysis shows that the data products have an average error wetland ecosystems and people's livelihoods. For sustainable restoration and preservation of wetland ecosystems in the region, it is critical to develop water resources management strategies that limit groundwater extraction rate to that of recharge rate.

  15. Metallogenic regularity of the Masiluo-Zhangjiapingzi area, Western Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaowen; Zhang, Shugen; Kang, Yalong

    2017-03-01

    The Masiluo-Zhangjiapingzi area is one of the most important target areas for ore exploration in western Sichuan, which has abundant gold and copper ore deposits. Substantial ore deposits in this area include the Masiluo gold deposit, Zhangjiapingzi gold deposit, Dongjia wuji specular hematite deposit, Gonglikong Cu-Au deposit, and Bazhe Cu-Au-Fe deposit. This study characterized the metallogenic regularity of the Masiluo-Zhangjiapingzi area using observations of the regional geological background and the characteristics of a typical deposit in this area. The ore deposits were found to be controlled by stratigraphy, geological structures, and magma with distinctive zoning characteristics—gold mineralization on the west part, Cu- Au mineralization on the northeastern part, and Fe-Cu-Au mineralization on the southeastern part.

  16. Lack of Migrant Involvement in Environmental Migration Projects in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijuan YANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas de migración forzada debida a la degradación ambiental exponen a los emigrantes a un número de riesgos potenciales. Este artículo apunta a explorar la contribución de la gobernanza institucional y la participación de emigrantes para la mitigación de estos riesgos. Con base en una encuesta empírica llevada a cabo en dos pueblos en la provincia de Ningxia de China, consideramos las relaciones interactivas de los emigrantes y el gobierno local, y hallamos que la naturaleza participativa de las instituciones locales juega un rol fundamental en determinar el éxito de las políticas de migración. Por ende, los riesgos de desubicación social no son consecuencias inevitables impuestas sobre los emigrantes: cuando se les da la oportunidad, ellos se pueden adaptar e influenciar los proyectos con el fin de mitigar los riesgos a los que son expuestos.

  17. An unusual long-tailed pterosaur with elongated neck from western Liaoning of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Kellner, Alexander W A; Jiang, Shunxing; Meng, Xi

    2009-12-01

    A new long-tailed pterosaur, Wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov, is described based on an almost complete skeleton (IVPP V15113) representing an individual with an estimated wing span of 730 mm. The specimen was discovered in strata that possibly represent the Daohugou Bed (or Daohugou Formation) at Linglongta, Jianchang, Liaoning Province, China. Wukongopterus lii is a non-pterodactyloid pterosaur diagnosed by the first two pairs of premaxillary teeth protruding beyond the dentary, elongated cervical vertebrae (convergent with Pterodactyloidea), and a strongly curved second pedal phalanx of the fifth toe. The specimen further has a broken tibia that indicates an injury occurred while the individual was still alive. Taphonomic aspects provide indirect evidence of an uropatagium, supporting the general hypothesis that at least all non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs show a membrane between the hind limbs. A phylogenetic analysis including most non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs shows that Wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov. lies outside the Novialoidea, being cladistically more primitive than the Rhamphorhynchidae and Capylognathoides. This analysis differs from previous studies and indicates that more work is needed before a stable picture of non-pterodactyloid pterosaur relationships is achieved.

  18. Field-evolved resistance to insecticides in the invasive western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Li, Bing-Yan; Chen, Jin-Cui; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Lin; Reitz, Stuart; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    To understand the current status of insecticide resistance of the invasive western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, in China, the responses of six field populations to six commonly used insecticides, i.e. spinosad, spinetoram, cyantraniliprole, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, were evaluated in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain. Field populations tended to be less susceptible than the laboratory strain. The population from Shouguang, Shandong Province, showed the lowest levels of susceptibility. A 15.64-fold and 17.29-fold resistance to spinosad and spinetoram was detected in the Shouguang population. A 11.74-fold and 13.64-fold resistance to cyantraniliprole was detected in populations from Daxing in the Beijing area and Shouguang. All populations showed a low level of resistance to imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, except for the Shouguang population, which was 127.58-fold more resistant to pyriproxyfen. Variations in resistance to the tested insecticides were observed among the sampled population. Spinosad and spinetoram were the most efficient insecticides and are recommended for use in an integrated management programme. Resistance management strategies should be implemented to reduce the potential for resistance evolving. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. [Environmental concerns on geochemical mobility of lead, zinc and cadmium from zinc smelting areas: western Guizhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Tang-Fu; Zhou, Wan-Chun; Ao, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Jun-Fang

    2009-07-15

    Indigenous zinc smelting activity, widely spread in western Guizhou, China, had caused serious pollution of heavy metals of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in soil and water and posed risk to the local ecosystem. Geochemical distribution and mobility of Pb, Zn and Cd in soil, waste residue and waters were investigated in a small watershed in order to provide scientific base for the approach to pollution control and remediation. Concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in smelting residues averaged at 4 632 mg/kg, 8 968 mg/kg, and 58 mg/kg, respectively; whereas Pb 234 mg/kg, Zn 400 mg/kg and Cd 9.6 mg/kg in average in the soils around the smelting areas were measured. The sequential geochemical extraction test showed that Pb, Zn and Cd in the contaminated soils had high mobility and bioavailability for the metals, whereas smelting waste residues had lower mobility and bioavailability because their concentrations presented small percentages (all less than 0.2%) in the exchangeable fraction. Concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were high in the local stream water but low in groundwater. In the surface water, Pb, Zn and Cd were significantly concentrated in the suspended sediment. The results indicated that metal-rich erosion process of smelting residue and contaminated soil contributed to mobility of the metals into stream water.

  20. Using temporarily coherent point interferometric synthetic aperture radar for land subsidence monitoring in a mining region of western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongdong; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Zhongbo; Du, Sen

    2017-04-01

    Yuyang mine is located in the semiarid western region of China where, due to serious land subsidence caused by underground coal exploitation, the local ecological environment has become more fragile. An advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique, temporarily coherent point InSAR, is applied to measure surface movements caused by different mining conditions. Fifteen high-resolution TerraSAR-X images acquired between October 2, 2012, and March 27, 2013, were processed to generate time-series data for ground deformation. The results show that the maximum accumulated values of subsidence and velocity were 86 mm and 162 mm/year, respectively; these measurements were taken above the fully mechanized longwall caving faces. Based on the dynamic land subsidence caused by the exploitation of one working face, the land subsidence range was deduced to have increased 38 m in the mining direction with 11 days' coal extraction. Although some mining faces were ceased in 2009, they could also have contributed to a small residual deformation of overlying strata. Surface subsidence of the backfill mining region was quite small, the maximum only 21 mm, so backfill exploitation is an effective method for reducing the land subsidence while coal is mined.

  1. Ten-year epidemiology of chemical burns in western Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chunjiang; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Han, Chunmao

    2016-05-01

    Chemical burns occur frequently in western Zhejiang Province. This study documents the epidemiology of chemical burns in the region using burn data from a local specialized hospital. Results from this analysis will assist in the planning of prevention strategies for high-risk occupations and groups. A 10-year retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients with chemical burns admitted to the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery from January 2004 to December 2013. Information obtained for each patient included demographics (gender, age, occupation and education), location of the burn, cause of the burn, and categories of chemicals. Data regarding the season of admittance, prehospital treatment, wound site/size (area, region, and depth), accompanying injuries, operations, length of hospital stay and mortality were also assessed. A total of 690 patients (619 males, 71 females; average age: 30.6±12.4 years) were admitted to the department for chemical burns. Over the 10-year period, the incidence of chemical burns showed an increasing tendency. Chemical burns occurred most frequently in patients aged 20-59 years (94.79%). Most of the chemical burns were work-related, primarily in private enterprises (47.97%) and state-owned enterprises (24.93%). Operations (68.99%) and machine problems (17.26%) were the main causes of chemical burns in the workplace. With regard to burns caused by chemicals, most were caused by acids (72.01%), with hydrofluoric acid and sulphuric acid causing 51.45%. Most chemical burns occurred in the summer and autumn seasons (61.02%). The burn size was burns covering >40% TBSA. The most common burn sites were the upper extremities (31.57%), lower extremities (19.86%), and head and neck (28.83%). Most patients (581 (84.20%)) received water washing treatment on site immediately after exposure. The most common accompanying injuries included inhalation injury, ocular burns and digestive tract injury. The average hospital stay was 17.0±23

  2. US-China collaborative study of Western Tibet: progress report and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi Razi, A.; Huang, G.; Levin, V. L.; Roecker, S. W.; Ping, X.; Cao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    While Tibetan plateau has been the focus of numerous geophysical studies to date, logistics of access to the region resulted in the majority of them being concentrated on the eastern half of the plateau. At the same time global-scale studies suggest lateral variability in properties beneath the seemingly uniform plateau. We are conducting a passive seismological study to improve the degree of understanding of the western side of the Tibetan plateau, with crustal and uper mantle structure being the key objectives. Since the summer of 2007 we operate a broadband array in western Tibet, between longitudes of 79 and 83 deg. East. The array started with 10 nodes, and has been densified by additional 20 nodes in late summer of 2009. We expect the larger array to operate through the summer of 2011. We retrieved and archived data from the first 12 months of recording. Using these data, we develop preliminary constraints on the crustal structure of the region. We use P and S wave travel time data from local earthquakes to develop a 1D velocity model by simultaneously inverting for vertical velocity distribution and earthquake locations. Having examined records of over 300 events present in the Chinese national catalog, we retained data from 268 events that yielded approximately 1200 arrivals at nine sites for which data were recovered. A large fraction of these earthquakes are almost due north from our array, within the intense aftershock sequence that followed a March, 2008 M=7.2 earthquake on the TIbet -Tarim Basin border. Preliminary assessment of apparent P wave speed obtained using catalog earthquake locations showed a large scatter most likely caused by uncertainties in hypocentral parameters. We also use records of teleseismic P waves to develop crustal thickness constraints using receiver function analysis. Results we obtain are similar to other areas in TIbet, with a likely Moho-converted Ps phase seen at 8-10 s delay. A site near the Himalaya also shows evidence

  3. An unusual long-tailed pterosaur with elongated neck from western Liaoning of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new long-tailed pterosaur, Wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov, is described based on an almost complete skeleton (IVPP V15113 representing an individual with an estimated wing span of 730 mm. The specimen was discovered in strata that possibly represent the Daohugou Bed (or Daohugou Formation at Linglongta, Jianchang, Liaoning Province, China. Wukongopterus lii is a non-pterodactyloid pterosaur diagnosed by the first two pairs of premaxillary teeth protruding beyond the dentary, elongated cervical vertebrae (convergent with Pterodactyloidea, and a strongly curved second pedal phalanx of the fifth toe. The specimen further has a broken tibia that indicates an injury occurred while the individual was still alive. Taphonomic aspects provide indirect evidence of an uropatagium, supporting the general hypothesis that at least all non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs show a membrane between the hind limbs. A phylogenetic analysis including most non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs shows that Wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov. lies outside the Novialoidea, being cladistically more primitive than the Rhamphorhynchidae and Capylognathoides. This analysis differs from previous studies and indicates that more work is needed before a stable picture of non-pterodactyloid pterosaur relationships is achieved.Um novo pterossauro de cauda longa, Wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov., é descrito baseado em um esqueleto quase completo (IVPP V15113 de um indivíduo com abertura alar estimada em 730 mm. O exemplar foi encontrado nas camadas Daohugou (ou Formação Daohugou em Linglongta, Jianchang, Província de Liaoning, China. Wukongopterus lii é um pterossauro não-pterodactilóide diagnosticado pela presença de dois pares de dentes pré-maxilares posicionados antes do início do dentário, vertebras cervicais alongadas (convergente com os Pterodactyloidea e a segunda falange do quinto dígito do pé fortemente curvada. Este espécime também apresenta uma tíbia quebrada

  4. A new species of Dyspessa Hübner, (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Western China, with catalogue of Chinese species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Saldaitis, Aidas; Pekarsky, Oleg

    2016-04-29

    The genus Dyspessa is the largest genus of carpenter moths including 60 valid species, widely distributed in Western Palearctic, especially in Sahara desert, Minor Asia, Iran and Central Asia (Yakovlev 2011; 2015). Most of the species have a small distribution range, limited by mountain ranges or deserts (Yakovlev & Dubatolov 2013). The only known trophic preferences of Dyspessa are their specialization to different species of the plant genus Allium (Alliaceae) (Yakovlev 2015). There are only three species known from China, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Dyspessa saissanica Yakovlev, 2014 (erroneously listed for Hami (Xinjiang) as Dyspessa salicicola (Eversmann, 1848) (Yakovlev 2005), Dyspessa tristis A. Bang-Haas, 1912 (known by a single male from Chinese part of Mongolian Altai mountains collected by Grigory Grumm-Grzhimaylo (probably in June 2003, Kurtu river of Kran river basin) and Dyspessa rueckbeili Yakovlev, 2007, described from Central Asia, Altyn Tagh [Altun Shan] (Altun Shan is a mountain range in northwestern China that separates the eastern Tarim Basin from the Tibetan Plateau (Yakovlev 2007). The western third is in Xinjiang while the eastern part forms the border between Qinghai to the south and Xinjiang and Gansu to the north). During a study of the new Dyspessa specimens from Western China, West South part of Xinjiang the new species, described below, was found.

  5. Mycorrhizal specificity, preference, and plasticity of six slipper orchids from South Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Yang, Zhu L; Li, Shu-Yun; Hu, Hong; Huang, Jia-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi of six endangered species, Paphiopedilum micranthum, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum dianthum, Cypripedium flavum, Cypripedium guttatum, and Cypripedium tibeticum, from two closely related genera in the Orchidaceae from Southwestern China, were characterized using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and part of the large subunit gene of mitochondrial rDNA (mtLSU) sequences. The most frequently detected fungi belonged to the Tulasnellaceae. These fungi were represented by 25 ITS sequence types and clustered into seven major clades in the phylogenetic analysis of 5.8S sequences. Species of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium shared no fungal ITS sequence types in common, but their fungal taxa sometimes occurred in the same major clade of the 5.8S phylogenetic tree. Although it had several associated fungal ITS sequence types in a studied plot, each orchid species had in general only a single dominant type. The fungal sequence type spectra of different species of Paphiopedilum from similar habitats sometimes overlapped; however, the dominant sequence types differed among the species and so did the sequence-type spectra within Cypripedium. Orchids of P. micranthum and P. armeniacum transplanted from the field and grown in two greenhouses had a greater number of mycorrhizal associations than those sampled directly from the field. Root specimens from P. micranthum taken from the greenhouses were preferably associated with mycobionts of the Tulasnella calospora complex, while those from the field had mycorrhizal associations of other tulasnelloid taxa. Such plasticity in mycorrhizal associations makes ex situ conservation or even propagation by means of mycorrhization of axenically grown seedlings possible.

  6. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  7. Characteristics of precipitation in the rainy season of Koxkar Glacier, Tianshan Mountain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. C.; Yao, S. X.; Han, H. D.; Zhao, Q. D.

    2017-08-01

    Precipitation is widely recognized as the major driving force of hydrologic system, and changes of its pattern could have direct impacts on water resources, especially in mountains. The total precipitation and rain days based on observation were analysed in Koxkar glacier catchment in rainy season during the period of 2009 - 2016. The results have shown that the total precipitation of rainy season fluctuates randomly with no significant trend of increasing or decreasing. The rain days of different precipitation classes differ noticeably, and are inconsistent with the contribution of total precipitation in rainy season. The maximum daily precipitation influences the monthly precipitation. These characteristics of rainy season precipitation display the important factor for the study of glacier changes.

  8. Dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization in tea plantations converted from farmland at Western Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Renhuan; Zheng, Zicheng; Li, Tingxuan; Zhang, Xizhou; He, Shuqin; Wang, Yongdong; Liu, Tao; Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming and land use change are some of the drivers affecting soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The Grain for Green Project, local natural resources, and geographical conditions have resulted in farmland conversion into tea plantations in the hilly region of Western Sichuan. However, the effect of such land conversion on SOC mineralization remains unknown. In order to understand the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in tea plantations converted from farmland, this study considered the different years (i.e., 2-3, 9-10, and 16-17 years) of tea plantations converted from farmland as the study site, and soil was incubated for 28 days at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C to measure the soil respiration rate, amount, and temperature coefficient (Q10). Temperature and land use type interactively affected the SOC mineralization rate, and the cumulative amount of SOC mineralization in all the plots was the largest at 35°C. SOC mineralization was greater and more sensitive to temperature changes in the farmland than in the tea plantations. Compared with the control, tea plantation soils showed lower SOC mineralization rate and cumulative mineralization amount. The 16-17-year-old tea plantation with a low SOC mineralization amount and high SOC content revealed the benefits of carbon sequestration enhancement obtained by converting farmland into tea plantations. The first-order kinetic equation described SOC mineralization dynamics well. Farmland conversion into tea plantations appeared to reduce the potentially mineralizable carbon pool, and the age of tea plantations also had an effect on the SOC mineralization and sequestration. The relatively weak SOC mineralization temperature sensitivity of the tea plantation soils suggested that the SOC pool of the tea plantation soils was less vulnerable to warming than that of the control soils.

  9. Characterizations of geothermal springs along the Moxi deep fault in the western Sichuan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jihong; Xu, Mo; An, Chengjiao; Wu, Mingliang; Zhang, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    Abundant geothermal springs occur along the Moxi fault located in western Sichuan Province (the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau), highlighted by geothermal water outflow with an unusually high temperature of 218 °C at 21.5 MPa from a 2010-m borehole in Laoyulin, Kangding. Earthquake activity occurs relatively more frequently in the region and is considered to be related to the strong hydrothermal activity. Geothermal waters hosted by a deep fault may provide evidence regarding the deep underground; their aqueous chemistry and isotopic information can indicate the mechanism of thermal springs. Cyclical variations of geothermal water outflows are thought to work under the effect of solid earth tides and can contribute to understanding conditions and processes in underground geo-environments. This paper studies the origin and variations of the geothermal spring group controlled by the Moxi fault and discusses conditions in the deep ground. Flow variation monitoring of a series of parameters was performed to study the geothermal responses to solid tides. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are evaluated with Na-K-Mg data. The abundant sulfite content, dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) data are discussed to study the oxidation-reduction states. Strontium isotopes are used to trace the water source. The results demonstrate that geothermal water could flow quickly through the Moxi fault the depth of the geothermal reservoir influences the thermal reservoir temperature, where supercritical hot water is mixed with circulating groundwater and can reach 380 °C. To the southward along the fault, the circulation of geothermal waters becomes shallower, and the waters may have reacted with metamorphic rock to some extent. Our results provide a conceptual deep heat source model for geothermal flow and the reservoir characteristics of the Moxi fault and indicate that the faulting may well connect the deep heat source to shallower depths. The

  10. Monitoring crustal movements in northern Tianshan Mountain based on GPS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vilayev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring results for the period 2009–2014 by ten standard GPS stations allowed to determine the crustal movements of seismically active region in south-eastern Kazakhstan. Maps of movement velocity were made in geocentric coordinate system and in reference system of the Eurasian continent. GPS points displacements reflect the features of modern deformation processes that are notable in the high seismic activity region. The structure of the velocity field divergence qualitatively confirms major deformation in the sublatitudinal direction which is parallel to the main ridge of the northern Tianshan Mountain. The epicenters of earthquakes are in agreement with the border areas of compression–tension, as well as the allocated areas of multidirectional rotary motion. The conclusion is that GPS monitoring of the movements of the Earth's crust can be used to evaluate the territory's stress–strain state for the purpose of seismic zoning and seismic risk assessment.

  11. Organizational atmosphere for Chinese graduates with overseas degrees and/or work experience abroad --- A comparison of a Western multinational enterprise in China and a Chinese state-owned enterprise in consumer goods industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse and compare the organizational atmosphere for Chinese graduates who have overseas degrees and/or work experience abroad in two types of firms in China: Western multinational corporations (MNCs) and Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The research is focused on the Chinese consumer goods industry, and Mars China and China Resources Vanguard Shop (CRVS) were selected for the case study. Ten telephone interviews were used. Participants included recent graduates and...

  12. Trends and variability in streamflow and snowmelt runoff timing in the southern Tianshan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan-Jun; Shen, Yanjun; Fink, Manfred; Kralisch, Sven; Chen, Yaning; Brenning, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Streamflow and snowmelt runoff timing of mountain rivers are susceptible to climate change. Trends and variability in streamflow and snowmelt runoff timing in four mountain basins in the southern Tianshan were analyzed in this study. Streamflow trends were detected by Mann-Kendall tests and changes in snowmelt runoff timing were analyzed based on the winter/spring snowmelt runoff center time (WSCT). Pearson's correlation coefficient was further calculated to analyze the relationships between climate variables, streamflow and WSCT. Annual streamflow increased significantly in past decades in the southern Tianshan, especially in spring and winter months. However, the relations between streamflow and temperature/precipitation depend on the different streamflow generation processes. Annual precipitation plays a vital role in controlling recharge in the Toxkon basin, while the Kaidu and Huangshuigou basins are governed by both precipitation and temperature. Seasonally, temperature has a strong effect on streamflow in autumn and winter, while summer streamflow appears more sensitive to changes in precipitation. However, temperature is the dominant factor for streamflow in the glacierized Kunmalik basin at annual and seasonal scales. An uptrend in streamflow begins in the 1990s at both annual and seasonal scales, which is generally consistent with temperature and precipitation fluctuations. Average WSCT dates in the Kaidu and Huangshuigou basins are earlier than in the Toxkon and Kunmalik basins, and shifted towards earlier dates since the mid-1980s in all the basins. It is plausible that WSCT dates are more sensitive to warmer temperature in spring period compared to precipitation, except for the Huangshuigou basin. Taken together, these findings are useful for applications in flood risk regulation, future hydropower projects and integrated water resources management.

  13. Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2013-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage

  14. Geochemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and geodynamic implications of Early Cretaceous basalts from the western Qinling orogenic belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Yuejun; Cawood, Peter A.; Dong, Yunpeng

    2018-01-01

    The Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt was formed by the collision of the North and South China Cratons during the Early Mesozoic and subsequently developed into an intracontinental tectonic process during late Mesozoic. Field investigations identified the presence of late Mesozoic basalts in the Duofutun and Hongqiang areas in the western Qinling orogenic belt. The petrogenesis of these basalts provides an important constraint on the late Mesozoic geodynamics of the orogen. The representative basaltic samples yield the 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of about 112 Ma. These samples belong to the alkaline series and have SiO2 ranging from 44.98 wt.% to 48.19 wt.%, Na2O + K2O from 3.44 wt% to 5.44 wt%, and MgO from 7.25 wt.% to 12.19 wt.%. They demonstrate the right-sloping chondrite-normalized REE patterns with negligible Eu anomalies (1.00-1.10) and PM-normalized patterns enriched in light rare earth element, large ion lithophile element and high field strength element, similar to those of OIB rocks. These samples additionally show an OIB-like Sr-Nd isotopic signature with εNd(t) values ranging from +6.13 to +10.15 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7028 to 0.7039, respectively. These samples are geochemically subdivided into two groups. Group 1 is characterized by low Al2O3 and high TiO2 and P2O5 contents, as well as high La/Yb ratios (>20), being the product of the high-pressure garnet fractionation from the OIB-derived magma. Group 2 shows higher Al2O3 but lower P2O5 contents and La/Yb ratios (<20) than Group 1, originating from asthenospheric mantle with input of delaminated lithospheric component. In combination with available data, it is proposed for the petrogenetic model of the Early Cretaceous thickened lithospheric delamination in response to the asthenospheric upwelling along the western Qinling orogenic belt.

  15. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  16. Zircon ages, geochemistry and Nd isotopic systematics for the Palaeoproterozoic 2.3-1.8 Ga Kuilyu Complex, East Kyrgyzstan - The oldest continental basement fragment in the Tianshan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, A.; Alexeiev, D. V.; Kovach, V. P.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Mikolaichuk, A. V.; Xie, H.; Sobel, E. R.

    2017-03-01

    Precambrian microcontinents represent key tectonic units in the accretionary collages of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and their geological history is reasonably well established since the Mesoproterozoic but remains weakly constrained for older epochs due to a scarcity of exposed Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean rocks. Early Precambrian rocks were previously reported from several metamorphic complexes in the Kyrgyz Tianshan orogenic belt, mainly based on multigrain conventional zircon dating, but the present study only confirmed such rocks at one site, namely in the Kuilyu Complex of eastern Kyrgyzstan. New single grain SHRIMP II zircon ages, geochemical data, and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions for granitoid gneisses of the Kuilyu Complex elucidate the age, origin and tectonic settings of this oldest continental fragment in the Tianshan. The Kuilyu Complex is part of the basement in the Ishim - Middle Tianshan microcontinent. It consist of a strongly deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal assemblage of paragneisses and schists which are tectonically interlayered with amphibolites, migmatites and granitoid gneisses. Our zircon dating indicates that the Kuilyu Complex contains two suites of Palaeoproterozoic granitoid gneisses with magmatic protolith ages of ca. 2.32-2.33 Ga and 1.85 Ga. Granitoid magmatism at 1.85 Ga was almost immediately followed by amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ca 1.83 Ga, evidenced by growth of metamorphic zircon rims. The older, ca 2.3 Ga granitoid gneisses chemically correspond to calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type magnesian quartz diorite and granodiorite. The protolith of the younger, ca. 1.85 Ga granite-gneiss is an alkalic-calcic, metaluminous to peraluminous, ferroan medium-grained porphyric granite with chemical features resembling A-type granites. The 2.3 Ga and 1.85 Ga granitoid gneisses have slightly to distinctly negative initial εNd values of -1.2 and -6.6, and similar depleted mantle Nd model ages of 2

  17. Climatological analysis of passage-type tropical cyclones from the Western North Pacific into the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Ming Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclone (TC climatological characteristics with passage from the Western North Pacific (WNP into the South China Sea (SCS during the June - November season are analyzed in this study. These TCs tend to form in the WNP west of 150°E, and on average westward by 7 - 12° in longitude than TCs that do not track into the SCS. Their formation locations migrate with the monsoon trough, moving northward from June to August, and southward from September to November. The probability of a WNP TC moving into the SCS varies seasonally, with only 12 - 18% of the WNP TCs doing so during August-September due to more northern TC formation. However, this probability rises to 25 - 26% in June - July and 25 - 32% in October - November with more southern TC formation. The passage-type TCs generally form in the eastern part of an elongated lower-level cyclonic anomaly of the 10-day low-pass filtered environmental circulation in the 10 - 20°N zone, which is paired with an anticyclonic anomaly to the north. Between this circulation pair, anomalous easterly flows steer these TCs westward, giving them a westward track into the SCS. The formation of these passage-type TCs is associated with a southward displacement of the monsoon trough and a westward intensification of the Pacific subtropical high in August and September. During June - July (October - November, the associated features appear as a southeastward (meridional expansion of the monsoon trough and a northward displacement of the Pacific subtropical high.

  18. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  19. The relationship of alcohol consumption with left ventricular mass in people 35 years old or older in rural areas of Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjing; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Wei; Feng, Rui; Feng, Panpan; Gu, Jun; Liu, Gang; Lei, Han

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol intake and left ventricular mass (LVM) independent of the effects of blood pressure and other factors in rural areas of Western China. The present study included 1007 subjects (487 men and 520 women) aged ≥35 years from the Tongan district, Chongqing, China. The quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption were estimated from a validated questionnaire. Echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular dimensions. Drinkers was associated with higher LVM compared with nondrinkers (β = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-12.5, P = .015). A dose-dependent higher LVM across increasing alcohol consumption was observed (P consumption (P for interaction = .013) and frequency of alcohol consumption (P for interaction = .025) were strongly associated with higher LVM when stratified by blood pressure. However, interactions linked to age, body mass index, and gender were found to be no significant difference. These results indicate that both quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption are independent predictors of LVM in rural areas of Western China. The effects of alcohol consumption on LVM are enhanced among subjects with hypertension. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining Optimal Strategies to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality in Rural Areas in Western China: an Assessment Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Su Fang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wen, Chun Mei; Xu, Xiao Chao; Guo, Yan

    2015-08-01

    China, as a whole, is about to meet the Millennium Development Goals for reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR), but the disparities between rural area and urban area still exists. This study estimated the potential effectiveness of expanding coverage with high impact interventions using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). It was found that gestational hypertension, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, neonatal asphyxia, and neonatal childhood pneumonia and diarrhea are still the major killers of mothers and children in rural area in China. It was estimated that 30% of deaths among 0-59 month old children and 25% of maternal deaths in 2008 could be prevented in 2015 if primary health care intervention coverage expanded to a feasible level. The LiST death cause framework, compared to data from the Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance System, represents 60%-80% of neonatal deaths, 40%-50% of deaths in 1-59 month old children and 40%-60% of maternal deaths in rural areas of western China. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Emulation vs. indigenization in the reception of Western psychology in Republican China: an analysis of the content of Chinese psychology journals (1922-1937).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Geoffrey; Cheung, Boris Tat; Ru, Han

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the practice of empirical psychology in China during the Republican period using a content analysis of its journals. By seeking answers to questions of what kinds of psychology from the West first attracted the Chinese; whether they found a way of developing a psychology more in tune to their own cultural assumptions of selfhood; and to what uses they felt the new discipline could be put, it shows the extent to which its journal content adopted a Western or an indigenous orientation. It thus contributes to the recent debate about indigenization of psychology globally and situates the origins of these issues in China much earlier than has been envisaged by contemporary Chinese indigenous psychologists. Throughout this period, indigenous concerns informed the research agenda, the dominant practice being psychometrics. But because of a lack of social support, they remained largely confined to the pages of psychology journals. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of three intervention models for promoting circumcision among migrant workers in western China to reduce local sexual transmission of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyi Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China. METHODS: A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits. RESULTS: All three models significantly increased the participants' knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670 of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002 compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12 or three-stage model (P=0.10. CONCLUSIONS: A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models.

  3. Eco-environmental problems and effective utilization of water resources in the Kashi Plain, western Terim Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nian-Feng; Tang, Jie; Han, Feng-Xiang

    2001-02-01

    Since ancient times, water resources, mainly from melting snow in the high mountains, have nourished a large area of an oasis in the Kashi Plain in the western Terim Basin, China. In the last half-century, however, the rapid growth of population and the overexploitation of water, soil, and biological resources have led to drought, salinization, and desertification in the area, and consequently have hindered the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, groundwater reservoirs with sustainable water supplies equivalent to 44.65×108 m3/year were identified, which has made it possible to implement several projects in the area to improve the ecological and agricultural environment. Three strategies are proposed for the integrated development and management of both surface-water and groundwater resources in the area. Résumé. Depuis des temps anciens, les ressources en eaux, provenant surtout de la fonte des neiges en montagne, ont alimenté une large part d'une oasis de la plaine de Kashi, dans le bassin occidental de Terim (Chine). Au cours des derniers cinquante ans, toutefois, l'accroissement rapide de la population et la surexploitation de l'eau, des sols et des ressources biologiques ont provoqué la sécheresse, la salinisation et la désertification de la région cela a eu pour conséquence d'entraver le développement d'une agriculture durable. Cette étude identifie les réserves en eau souterraine, susceptibles de fournir durablement 44,65×108 m3/an, ce qui a permis de réaliser plusieurs projets dans cette région pour améliorer l'environnement écologique et agricole. Trois stratégies sont proposées pour le développement intégré et la gestion simultanée des ressources en eau de surface et en eau souterraine de cette région. Resumen. Los recursos hídricos, procedentes fundamentalmente del deshielo en alta montaña, han nutrido desde tiempo inmemorial una gran área de un oasis situado en las llanuras de Kashi, en la cuenca occidental

  4. The Merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine in China: Old Ideas Cross Culturally Communicated through New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, James A.

    Cross-cultural communication between China and the West, instigated in 1979 by the establishment of an open-door policy in China, has led to the merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with the medical practices of the West. The result of these medical exchanges is a blending of medical practices that proves to be more effective in the…

  5. Implication of World Health Organization growth standards on estimation of malnutrition in young Chinese children: Two examples from rural western China and the Tibet region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how malnutrition rates change in young Chinese children when 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards are used instead of 1978 WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference. Cross-sectional survey data were used from rural western China and the Tibet region. The heights and weights of children of malnutrition between two references differed in magnitude. The scale of change in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight is much greater when 2006 reference was introduced. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Association between the Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) and nutritional status of 6- to 35-month-old children in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Mi, Baibing; Wang, Duolao; Zhang, Ruo; Yang, Jiaomei; Liu, Danmeng; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the quality of feeding practices and children's nutritional status in rural western China. A sample of 12,146 pairs of 6- to 35-month-old children and their mothers were recruited using stratified multistage cluster random sampling in rural western China. Quantile regression was used to analyze the relationship between the Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) and children's nutritional status. In rural western China, 24.37% of all infants and young children suffer from malnutrition. Of this total, 19.57%, 8.74% and 4.63% of infants and children are classified as stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the quantile regression results suggested that qualified ICFI (ICFI > 13.8) was associated with all length and HAZ quantiles (P<0.05) and had a greater effect on the following: poor length and HAZ, the β-estimates (length) from 0.76 cm (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.99 cm) to 0.34 cm (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.59 cm) and the β-estimates (HAZ) from 0.17 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24) to 0.11 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.19). Qualified ICFI was also associated with most weight quantiles (P<0.05 except the 80th and 90th quantiles) and poor and intermediate WAZ quantiles (P<0.05 including the 10th, 20th 30th and 40th quantiles). Additionally, qualified ICFI had a greater effect on poor weight and WAZ quantiles in which the β-estimates (weight) were from 0.20 kg (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.26 kg) to 0.06 kg (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.12 kg) and the β-estimates (WAZ) were from 0.14 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.21) to 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10). Feeding practices were associated with the physical development of infants and young children, and proper feeding practices had a greater effect on poor physical development in infants and young children. For mothers in rural western China, proper guidelines and messaging on complementary feeding practices are necessary.

  7. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related...... lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument...... values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern replicates partly those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed consistent...

  8. [Experience of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first case of imported Zika virus disease in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yichu; Zeng, Liping; Bao, Wen; Xu, Pinghua; Zhong, Gongrong

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. To explore the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Zika virus disease, the treatment process of the first imported case in China was reviewed. The first imported Zika virus disease in China was admitted to Ganxian People's Hospital in Jiangxi Province on February 6th, 2016, and the patient received isolation treatment for 9 days and cured later. The effect of antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection was evaluated based on clinical diagnosis and treatment process of the patient. A 34-year old male patient was admitted with chief complaint of fever for 9 days, orbital pain and itching rash for 4 days on February 6th, 2016. (1) Epidemiological characteristics: the patient was bitted by mosquitoes during his business trip in Venezuela since January 1st, where Zika virus disease was spreading. On January 20th he had dizziness without fever, and the symptom disappeared after taking medicines without details. Paroxysmal dizziness, chills and mild fever without myalgia was experienced on January 28th. On February 3rd small red rash appeared in the neck, spreading to anterior part of chest, limbs and trunk, and the fever, fatigue, nausea was continued, and a new symptom of paroxysmal pain in back of ears and orbits appeared, during which he had not go to hospital. The symptoms relieved on February 4th. He returned to Ganxian County on February 5th, he had yellow stool 3 times with normal temperature, without abdominal pain, and red rash still appeared in the neck. He went to Ganxian People's Hospital on February 6th, 2016. (2) Clinical manifestation: the vital signs showed a temperature of 36.8?centigrade, a pulse rate of 80 bpm, a respiratory rate of 20 bpm, and a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa). It was showed by physical examination that red rash appeared in the neck, and no superficial enlarged

  9. Prevalence and Years of Life Lost due to Disability from Dental Caries among Children and Adolescents in Western China, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Deng, Ying; Liu, Shi Wei; He, Jun; Ji, Kui; Zeng, Xin Ying; Yang, Shu Juan; Xu, Xin Yin; Luo, Yu; Zhou, Mai Geng; Zhang, Jian Xin

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence and years lived with disability (YLD) from dental caries among children and adolescents and the time trends over the past two decades in Sichuan province, the largest province in west China. Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD2015), which systematically assessed the epidemiological characteristics of major diseases and their transitions by country and region from 1990 to 2015, we extracted the estimated results for China. We then used the Bayesian meta-regression method to estimate the sex- and age-specific prevalences and YLDs from dental caries among children and adolescents under 15 years old in Sichuan province and compared them with global and national indicators for the same period. In 2015, there were almost 6 million cases of dental caries in children and adolescents (aged caries was 55.9%, and the YLDs value was 10.8 per 100,000, while it was 24.3% and 5.1 per 100,000 respectively among 5- to 14-year-olds; for those aged 5 to 14 years, the prevalence of permanent caries was 21.5%, and the YLDs value was 11.5 per 100,000. From 1990 to 2015, the prevalence of dental caries for children under 5 years increased substantially, by 16.2%, and the YLDs increased by 8.7%. Among those aged 5 to 14 years, the prevalence increased and the YLDs decreased. Dental caries remains a huge health burden in Western China. In contrast to the global and national data, the trend has increased rapidly over the past 25 years in this region. This work provides suggestions for the prevention and control for oral health in China with the policy of two-child. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. Run-off analyses using isotopes and hydrochemistry in Yushugou River basin, eastern Tianshan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhongqin; Jiang, Chanwen

    2017-08-01

    Yushugou River basin of East Tianshan Mountains receives water from melting glaciers. In recent years, the glaciers retreated strongly due to global warming which intensified the water cycle in the river basin. For this reason, the relation of water bodies based on hydrochemistry and isotope in the summer flood was carried out. Hydrochemistry research showed that there was frequent hydraulic interaction between river water and groundwater. Studying the isotopes and Cl- of river water, glacier meltwater, groundwater and precipitation, indicated that Yushugou River was recharged by the glacier meltwater, groundwater and precipitation during the summer flood period. The analysis result based on the three-component mixing model showed that Yushugou River was recharged by 54.9% of glacier meltwater, 37.6% of the run-off came from groundwater, while less than 8% was contributed by precipitation. The study suggests that the role of glacier meltwater and groundwater, especially glacier meltwater, should be specially concerned in water resource protection and reasonable utilization, and the injection of glacier meltwater is the main reason for run-off variation in this alpine basin during the summer flood period.

  11. [Vulnerability of eco-economy in northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-zhai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Xin-shi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Jiang, Guang-hui

    2008-04-01

    Based on the theoretical meaning of vulnerability, a vulnerability assessment of eco-econom in fifteen counties in the northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains was conducted. The ecosystem services change to land use was regarded as the impact, and based on the fourteen indices from resource holding, society development, and economy development statistic data, the adaptive ability was evaluated by using the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy synthetic evaluation. On the basis of assessment results of impact and adaptive capacity, the fifteen counties were divided into five classes under the assessment principles, and the district with higher-class number was of more vulnerability. The first class included Usu City and Changji City, the second class included Hutubi County, Miquan County, Fukang City, Jimsar County, Qitai County and Mori Kazak Autonomous County, the third class included Karamay City and Urumqi City, the fourth class included Kuitun City and Shawan County, and the fifth class included Jinghe County, Shihezi City and Manas County. The vulnerability reflected the level of eco-environment change and socioeconomic development, and the vulnerability assessment could be a good way to ensure the sustainable development. Aiming to decrease the vulnerability, various districts belonging to different class of vulnerability should establish relevant tactics according to the vulnerability factors to accelerate the region's sustainable development.

  12. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  13. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hang; Feng, Da; Tang, Shangfeng; He, Zhifei; Xiang, Yuanxi; Wu, Tailai; Wang, Ruoxi; Shao, Tian; Liu, Chunyan; Shao, Piaopiao; Feng, Zhanchun

    2017-02-09

    Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR) of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.060-3.912; p smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116-4.291; p < 0.05). This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  14. Strategic Use of Analytical Information in Transport Planning in China : How Is It Different from Western Democracies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, R.; Mouter, N.; de Jong, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Theory on the strategic use of knowledge in planning large infrastructure projects is comparatively well-developed in the fields of public policy and urban/transport planning for Western democracies. But how policymakers make use of knowledge and what position policy analysts hold in non-Western

  15. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  16. Origin of Permian extremely high Ti/Y mafic lavas and dykes from Western Guangxi, SW China: Implications for the Emeishan mantle plume magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xijun; Liang, Qiongdan; Li, Zhenglin; Castillo, Paterno R.; Shi, Yu; Xu, Jifeng; Huang, Xianglin; Liao, Shuai; Huang, Wenlong; Wu, Weinan

    2017-06-01

    Late Permian mafic flows and dikes are prominent features in and around the Western Guangxi region in southern China. Based on petrographic, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data, the western Guangxi mafic rocks are geochemically akin to the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) high-Ti basalts, except that they possess extremely elevated Ti/Y ratios (750-2000). The Dy/Yb and Ti/Y vs. Dy/Dy∗ covariations of the mafic rocks indicate a garnet-controlled magmatic differentiation of a mafic melt at relatively great depth. The limited εNd(t) range from +0.41 to +1.81 also suggests minimal crustal contamination of such a melt. Geochemical modeling using TiO2/Yb vs. Nb/Yb and Zr/Y vs. Nb/Y projections indicate that the parental melts of the western Guangxi mafic rocks formed at a low degree (thick continental lithosphere. Thus, the Guangxi extremely high Ti/Y mafic rocks most likely represent a part of outer zone of the ELIP plume magmatism. Results of this study reinforce the previously proposed temporal and spatial distribution of the ELIP.

  17. [Distribution of Chlorophyll-a and Eutrophication State in Tianchi Lake of Tianshan Mountains in Summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Ma, Jian; Wang, Yin-ya; Yin, Xiang-jiang

    2015-07-01

    From June to August in 2014, the distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and correlations with environmental factors were investigated, the eutrophication status and causes were discussed in Tianchi Lake of Tianshan Mountains. The results showed that the Chl-a concentrations ranged from 2. 11 to 4. 06 µg. L -1 with a mean value of (2. 8 ± 0. 69) µg . L-1 in summer, the vertical distribution of Chl-a in different monitoring zones had a similar characteristic that the Chl-a concentration in epilimnionis (2-12 m) was higher than those at the surface (0-2 m) and hypolimnion (below 12 m). The Chl-a concentration had significant negative correlations with depth and conductivity, significant positive correlations with water temperature, pH value, the concentration of dissolved oxygen, the cell density of algae and TP, and less correlation with TN. The mean concentrations of TN and TP in Tianchi Lake in summer were 0.27 mg . L-1 and 0.035 mg. L-1 respectively, both of which exceeded the international standards of general eutrophic lakes. The modified Carlson trophic state index was used to assess the eutrophication status of Tianchi Lake, which is currently at a moderate eutrophication level. The reasons might be the increased nutrients attributed to soil erosion, and algae blooms due to the changes in the composition of hydrobios. Therefore, it is important to use ecological restoration and management to protect the water quality and surrounding vegetation, which may mitigate the risk of eutrophication in Tianchi Lake.

  18. Access to affordable medicines after health reform: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys in Shaanxi Province, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yu Fang, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: The National Natural Science Fund (71103141/G0308, the China Medical Board Faculty Development Awards, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2011jdhz62, the Shaanxi Provincial Social Science Fund (10E066, and the Harvard Medical School Pharmaceutical Policy Research Fellowship.

  19. Socio-demographics, sexual behaviours, and use of HIV prevention services among men who have sex with men and women in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenzhen; Zhong, Xiaoni; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Hao; Peng, HongBin; Zhong, Xiao Hua; Liu, Xiyao; Huang, Ailong

    2016-02-01

    This paper looks into the differences of sexual risk behaviours and prevention services among men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only. The data from a cross-sectional survey of 159 men who have sex with men and women and 1186 men who have sex with men only in western China is analysed. It is found that men who have sex with men and women, with multiple anal sex partners, have higher rates of selling and buying sex than men who have sex with men only, but obtain less HIV-related knowledge from partners or HIV consulting and testing services. More efforts should be made to promote safer sexual behaviours and reduce the barriers for access to health services. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the Food Related...... Lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument......, which was tested for statistical robustness and used as a basis for the derivation of consumer segments. Construct validity of the instrument was then investigated by profiling the segments in terms of consumer values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products...

  1. Intraspecific genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria immitis samples from Western China using complete ND1 and 16S rDNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Liang, Yinan; Zhong, Xiuqin; Wang, Ning; Hu, Dandan; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2014-06-01

    Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is the causative agent of an important zoonotic disease that is spread by mosquitoes. In this study, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of D. immitis were performed based on complete ND1 and 16S rDNA gene sequences, which provided the foundation for more advanced molecular diagnosis, prevention, and control of heartworm diseases. The mutation rate and evolutionary divergence in adult heartworm samples from seven dogs in western China were analyzed to obtain information on genetic diversity and variability. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayes methods based on the complete gene sequences. The results suggest that D. immitis formed an independent monophyletic group in which the 16S rDNA gene has mutated more rapidly than has ND1. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Oral rehydration salt use and its correlates in low-level care of diarrhea among children under 36 months old in rural Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenlong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao; Dang, Shaonong

    2013-03-19

    Since 2000, there has been a decline in the proportion of oral rehydration salts (ORS) therapy in childhood diarrhea. How to sustain and achieve a high level of ORS therapy continues to be a challenge. The data of 14112 households and 894 villages in 45 counties across 10 provinces of Western China were collected in 2005. Generalized estimated equation logistic regression models were used to identify the determinants of ORS use in home-based and village-level care. The therapy rate of ORS was 34.62%. This rate in home-based care (HBC) was significantly lower than that in village-level care (VLC), township-level care or county-level-or-above care. The children in the families with several pre-school-aged children (OR = 0.29 95% CI: 0.10, 0.86) or of the smaller age (12 vs 36 months: OR = 0.10 95% CI 0.02, 0.41; 24 vs 36 months: OR = 0.26 95% CI 0.09, 0.77) were less likely to receive ORS therapy against diarrhea in HBC. The children whose family had the habit of drinking boiled water (OR = 2.77 95% CI 1.30-5.91), or whose caretakers received educational materials about childhood diseases (OR = 3.08 95% CI 1.54, 6.16), or who were living in the villages in which village clinics had the available ORS packages (OR = 3.94 95% CI 2.25, 6.90) were more likely to receive ORS therapy against diarrhea in VLC. There thus, ORS promoting program should give the highest priority to home care. ORS promoting strategies for low-level care could be strengthened based on children characteristics, the habit of drinking water and the situation of receiving educational material in the families and on the availability of ORS packages in village clinics in rural Western China.

  3. Assessment of diabetes care and the healthcare system in economically and transport underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Linqiu; Zhang, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaoqian; Li, Shengyong; Yang, Wei; Tong, Nanwei

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of diabetes care and characteristics of the healthcare system in underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 288 diabetic patients with a multistage cluster sampling method in Zhongjiang County (Sichuan Province) between October 2009 and April 2010. Sixty-two village clinics, 23 town health centers, and a county central hospital were included to assess the availability of diabetes-related medical resources, in addition to diabetes-related medical insurance, reimbursement policies, and manpower. Of 288 patients, 38.2 % monitored their blood glucose regularly. Targets for fasting blood glucose (≤7 mmol/L) and blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg) were achieved by 7.6 % and 9.7 % of patients, respectively. On average, each patient paid US$120 out of pocket annually for out-patient diabetes care, with a maximum US$86 reimbursed. The county central hospital was the only healthcare facility in the county that could provide all essential diabetes-related drugs and process-of-care measures and tests, except measures of HbA1c and the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio. Insulin was not available at village clinics, and only 29 % of village clinics had glucometers. "Certified" doctors were not available to provide primary care in village clinics. The quality of diabetes care was quite poor in underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China. Recommendations for further intervention research to improve diabetes healthcare include increasing investment in medical infrastructure, improving the availability of essential drugs and process measures, organizing regular diabetes patient education, and recruiting village doctors. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Species-level phylogeographical history of Myricaria plants in the mountain ranges of western China and the origin of M. laxiflora in the Three Gorges mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yong; Huang, Hongwen

    2009-06-01

    Myricaria species in China occur mostly in the major high-altitude mountain areas in and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The one major exception to this is M. laxiflora which is restricted to the Three Gorges mountain region. In this study, we investigate species-level phylogeographical patterns of Myricaria species in western China and the origin of M. laxiflora. The results show that most chloroplast haplotypes are species-specific, except for one haplotype which is shared by three widespread species. Higher haplotype diversity within the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region supports the hypothesis that the Himalayas are the centre of origin for Myricaria. The phylogeny of Myricaria was geographically structured, and an estimated Bayesian chronology suggested the main divergence events occurred during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (approximately 1.46-2.30 million years ago). The overall phylogeographical pattern was characterized by vicariance events and regional demographical expansion, reflecting a major influence of geological and climatic events on the evolution of Myricaria species. Our data suggest that M. laxiflora has an ancient origin, but has experienced recent population expansion through the Three Gorges Valley. The origin of M. laxiflora was estimated to be during the Early Pleistocene but its demographical expansion was more recent at about 0.015 million years ago. This highlights the unique phylogeographical history of the Three Gorges mountain region, and the deep imprint of the watercourse connections of the Yangtze River Valley on the phylogeographical structure of the species in this region.

  5. Maternal lifestyle and nutritional status in relation to pregnancy and infant health outcomes in Western China: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Yang, Chun-Xia; Sun, Xin

    2017-06-19

    Improving the health and nutrition of women and children is a priority for Western China, where the economy is less developed. Due to the dynamic nature of lifestyle, modern food habits and nutrition, there is a need to update our limited knowledge and understanding of maternal lifestyle and nutritional status and their impact on pregnancy and infant health outcomes. While breast milk is the preferred feeding option, infant formula use is widespread in China. It is thus necessary to examine the effects of formula consumption on growth and morbidity. This is an ongoing prospective cohort study started in 2015 in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. A sample of 1901 pregnant women at 15-20 weeks of gestation were recruited from four maternal and child health hospitals and are followed prospectively to 12 months post partum. Detailed information on maternal lifestyle and nutritional status, obstetric complications, pregnancy outcomes, infant feeding practices, illnesses of the mother and infant and growth trajectory is collected through personal interviews, anthropometric measures and medical records and local health management system records retrieval. Multilevel mixed regression models, adjusted for clustering, will be applied to investigate the association between various exposure variables of interest and the longitudinal outcomes, taking into account the correlated data structure and the nesting of observations. Kaplan-Meier test and Cox regression analysis will be used to analyse the time-to-event data. Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committee of West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University and the Human Research Ethics Committee of Curtin University. Results will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng; Huang, Guang; Sørensen, Bjarne T; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2011-04-01

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument, in which a number of dimensions of the original instrument had to be omitted. This revised instrument was tested for statistical robustness and used as a basis for the derivation of consumer segments. Construct validity of the instrument was then investigated by profiling the segments in terms of consumer values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern replicates partly those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed consistent value-attitude-behaviour profiles. The results also suggest which dimensions may be missing in the instrument in a more comprehensive instrument adapted to Chinese conditions, most notably a broader treatment of eating out activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microhabitat use of the western black-crested gibbon inhabiting an isolated forest fragment in southern Yunnan, China: implications for conservation of an endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qingyong; Liang, Zongli; Xie, Meng; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhang, Mingwang; Li, Yan; Li, Ying; Jiang, Xuelong

    2018-01-01

    Due to the synergistic effects of hunting and habitat loss, populations of the western black-crested gibbon are currently restricted to isolated forest fragments. The home range use of this species in fragmented forests is presumptively related to spatial, food and vegetation attributes, as in other primates. We examined the distributions of different food resources, the structure of the vegetation (tree density, DBH, and height), and the microhabitat use of one gibbon group in an isolated and disturbed forest at Bajiaohe in southern Yunnan, China. The results indicated that the gibbons used the edge habitat frequently, which was subject to more anthropogenic disturbance than the interior forest, and they appeared to adapt to discontinuous canopy cover by using bamboo and tsaoko plants for travel. The group also modified its diet in response to fluctuations in food availability and the local flora. However, the gibbons intensively used areas with high tree fruit availability across the two study periods. It is suggested that the microhabitat use by the group was mostly affected by the distribution of particular food resources and canopy gaps caused by selective logging. Protecting the current distribution area and planting native important food species to boost habitat quality and connectivity should be considered as part of conservation plans of the western black crested gibbon living in limited areas.

  8. Numerical tsunami simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We carried out tsunami numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive tsunami outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 tsunami source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum tsunami heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the tsunami source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The tsunami source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the tsunami propagation is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of tsunami we simulated tsunamis for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai

  9. Tectonic attribution of the Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia and implications for the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Western North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the Langshan basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Han, Bao-Fu; Feng, Li-Xia; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Bo; Kong, Ling-Jie

    2016-09-01

    The Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia, China, is situated on the conjunction of the Alxa Block in the west, the northern North China Craton (NCC) in the east, and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the north, but its tectonic attribution has long been in debate, because the Alxa Block may be an independent Precambrian block from the NCC and the boundary between the two blocks may lie along the Bayanwulashan, to the west of the Langshan, instead of around the Helanshan area, to the east of the Langshan. In this study, new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of four gneisses, one amphibolite, and three granites, combined with previously published age data from Langshan basement rocks, indicate that the Langshan area may be subdivided into the Main Langshan, to the north of a series of NNW-trending faults, and the Southern Langshan in the south. The Main Langshan basement rocks were mainly formed during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, with five major stages of 2.7 Ga (2686 Ma), 2.6 Ga (2619-2563 Ma), 2.5 Ga (2534-2491 Ma), 1.95 Ga (1969-1938 Ma), and 1.7 Ga (1672 Ma). These stages are largely consistent with the major tectonothermal events of the northern NCC during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic but significantly different from the principal formation period (ca. 2.5-1.9 Ga) of Alxa basement rocks. The Southern Langshan is characterized by the presence of late Paleoproterozoic ( 1.9 Ga) and Neoproterozoic ( 0.9 Ga) rocks, and the latter is consistent with the Neoproterozoic magmatism in central Alxa Block, which might be formed in a orogenesis-related compressional environment, in contrast to contemporaneous rift-related extensional tectonic setting within the NCC. Therefore, the Main Langshan and the Southern Langshan are most likely closely related to the northern NCC and the Alxa Block, respectively.

  10. Natural gas geological characteristics and great discovery of large gas fields in deep-water area of the western South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate the petroleum exploration in deep sea of China, since the period of “the 11th Five-Year Plan”, the sedimentary process, source rock formation and hydrocarbon generation and expulsion process in deep-water area of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the western South China Sea have been studied systematically using the data like large-area 3D seismic survey, logging, drill core (cuttings and geochemical analysis, providing three innovative understandings, i.e. excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, good accumulation conditions, and grouping and zonal distribution of large exploration targets. From the study, the following conclusions are drawn. First, the deep-water area located in the southern and central parts of the Qiongdongnan Basin was formed under the control of such tectonic events as Indosinian–Eurasian Plate collision, Himalayan uplifting and South China Sea expansion, and experienced Paleogene lift and Neogene depression stages. Second, accompanied by lacustrine deposition, faulting activity was violent in Eocene; whereas in Early Oligocene, rift continued to develop under a sedimentary environment of marine–terrestrial transitional facies and littoral-neritic facies. Third, oil generation predominated Eocene lacustrine mudstone and gas generation predominated Lower Oligocene marine–terrestrial transitional facies coal-measure strata compose two sets of major source rocks. Fourth, analysis in respect of thermal evolution level, hydrocarbon generation volume and hydrocarbon generation intensity shows that Ledong, Lingshui, Baodao and Changchang sags belong to potential hydrocarbon-rich kitchens, among which Ledong and Lingshui sags have been proved to have great hydrocarbon generation potential by drilling. Fifth, researches of deep-water sedimentology and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics reveal that Paleogene and Neogene plays are developed vertically, and favorable hydrocarbon accumulation zones like the Central

  11. Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and

  12. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  13. High-pressure mafic oceanic rocks from the Makbal Complex, Tianshan Mountains (Kazakhstan & Kyrgyzstan): Implications for the metamorphic evolution of a fossil subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Melanie; Klemd, Reiner; Konopelko, Dmitry

    2013-09-01

    The Makbal Complex in the western Tianshan Mountains of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan consists of HP/UHP metasedimentary host rocks which enclose various HP mafic blocks or boudins. These mafic rocks comprise rare eclogites (sensu stricto and sensu lato), garnet amphibolites (retrograded eclogites) and a newly discovered glaucophanite (glaucophane-garnet-omphacite bearing rock). So far the Makbal Complex has been interpreted to predominantly consist of continental lithologies and the mafic rocks were considered as dismembered dikes intruding continental metasediments. This interpretation is mainly based on the geological relationship and bulk rock chemistry of the different rock types. It was further suggested that the continental lithologies of the Makbal Complex underwent eclogite-facies metamorphism in a former subduction zone. In the present study we combined conventional geothermometry, P-T pseudosection modeling and major and trace element whole rock geochemistry for different mafic samples (glaucophanite and eclogites (sensu lato)) in order to shed light on both the metamorphic evolution and the protoliths of the mafic HP rocks in the Makbal Complex. Prograde to peak-pressure clockwise P-T paths of glaucophanite and eclogites (sensu lato) were modeled using garnet isopleth thermobarometry. The results show that the glaucophanite and eclogite (sensu lato) samples experienced similar prograde P-T paths and slightly different peak metamorphic conditions at ~ 560 °C at 2.4 GPa for the former and between ~ 520 °C at 2.2 GPa and ~ 555 °C at ~ 2.5 GPa for the latter, corresponding to burial depths between 70 and 85 km. Whole rock major and trace element analyses and petrological evidence imply that the various rock types at the Makbal Complex most likely originated from different precursor rocks. Eclogites (sensu lato) are believed to represent strongly retrogressed former eclogite-facies rocks that had never been eclogites (sensu stricto, i.e. > 70 vol.% garnet and

  14. Effects of Stubble Management on Soil Fertility and Crop Yield of Rainfed Area in Western Loess Plateau, China

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    G. B. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of continuous cereal cropping, tillage and stubble removal reduces soil fertility and increases soil erosion on sloping land. The objective of the present study was to assessment soil fertility changes under stubble removal and stubble retention in the Loess Plateau where soil is prone to severe erosion. It was indicated that soil N increased a lot for and two stubble retention treatments had the higher N balance at the end of two rotations. Soil K balance performed that soil K was in deficient for all treatments and two stubble retention treatments had lower deficit K. The treatments with stubble retention produced higher grain yields than the stubble removal treatments. It was concluded that stubble retention should be conducted to increase crops productivity, improve soil fertility as well as agriculture sustainability in the Loess plateau, China.

  15. What Contributes to the Activeness of Ethnic Minority Patients with Chronic Illnesses Seeking Allied Health Services? A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Actively seeking health services lies at the core of effective models of chronic disease self-management and contributes to promoting the utilization of allied health services (AHS. However, the use of AHS by ethnic minority Chinese, especially the elderly living in rural areas, has not received much attention. This study, therefore, aims to explore the association between personal characteristics and the activeness of ethnic minority patients with chronic diseases in rural areas of western China seeking AHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health knowledge level and health communication channels of the sampled patients. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of these predictors with the activeness of the surveyed patients in seeking AHS. A total of 1078 ethnic minorities over 45 years old who had chronic conditions were randomly selected from three western provinces in China and were interviewed in 2014. It is found that the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS is the most salient predictor affecting the activeness of Chinese ethnic minorities in seeking AHS. The probability is 8.51 times greater for those insured with NCMS to actively seek AHS than those without (95% Confidence Interval (CI 4.76–15.21; p < 0.001. Moreover, participants between 60 and 70 years old and those who have five to six household members are more likely to seek AHS compared with other social groups (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.28–2.97, p = 0.007; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.15–2.36, p = 0.002. However, the activeness of patients seeking AHS is lower for those who have better household economic conditions. Besides socio-demographic predictors, the Chinese ethnic minorities’ activeness in seeking AHS is clearly associated with the communication channels used for receiving health information, which include direct communication with doctors (OR = 5.18, 95% CI 3.58–7

  16. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  17. Exhuming the Meso–Cenozoic Kyrgyz Tianshan and Siberian Altai-Sayan: A review based on low-temperature thermochronology

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    Stijn Glorie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermochronological datasets for the Kyrgyz Tianshan and Siberian Altai-Sayan within Central Asia reveal a punctuated exhumation history during the Meso–Cenozoic. In this paper, the datasets for both regions are collectively reviewed in order to speculate on the links between the Meso–Cenozoic exhumation of the continental Eurasian interior and the prevailing tectonic processes at the plate margins. Whereas most of the thermochronological data across both regions document late Jurassic–Cretaceous regional basement cooling, older landscape relics and dissecting fault zones throughout both regions preserve Triassic and Cenozoic events of rapid cooling, respectively. Triassic cooling is thought to reflect the Qiangtang–Eurasia collision and/or rifting/subsidence in the West Siberian basin. Alternatively, this cooling signal could be related with the terminal terrane-amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. For the Kygyz Tianshan, late Jurassic–Cretaceous regional exhumation and Cenozoic fault reactivations can be linked with specific tectonic events during the closure of the Palaeo-Tethys and Neo-Tethys Oceans, respectively. The effect of the progressive consumption of these oceans and the associated collisions of Cimmeria and India with Eurasia probably only had a minor effect on the exhumation of the Siberian Altai-Sayan. More likely, tectonic forces from the east (present-day coordinates as a result of the building and collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogen and rifting in the Baikal region shaped the current Siberian Altai-Sayan topography. Although many of these hypothesised links need to be tested further, they allow a first-order insight into the dynamic response and the stress propagation pathways from the Eurasian margin into the continental interior.

  18. Change of iron species and iron solubility in Asian dust during the long-range transport from western China to Japan

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    Y. Takahashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the North Pacific, transport and deposition of mineral dust from Asia appear to be one of major sources of iron which can regulate growth of phytoplankton in the ocean. In this process, it is essential to identify chemical species of iron contained in Asian dust, because bioavailability of iron in the ocean is strongly influenced by the solubility of iron, which in turn is dependent on iron species in the dust. Here, we report that clay minerals (illite and chlorite in the dusts near the source collected at Aksu (western China can be transformed into ferrihydrite by atmospheric chemical processes during their long-range transport to eastern China (Qingdao and Japan (Tsukuba based on the speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS and other methods such as X-ray diffraction and chemical extraction. As a result, Fe molar ratio in Aksu (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 70 : 25 : 5 was changed to that in Tsukuba (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 65 : 10 : 25. Moreover, leaching experiments were conducted to study the change of iron solubility. It was found that the iron solubility for the dust in Tsukuba (soluble iron fraction: 11.8 % and 1.10 % for synthetic rain water and seawater, respectively was larger than that in Aksu (4.1 % and 0.28 %, respectively, showing that iron in the dust after the transport becomes more soluble possibly due to the formation of ferrihydrite in the atmosphere. Our findings suggested that secondary formation of ferrihydrite during the transport should be considered as one of important processes in evaluating the supply of soluble iron to seawater.

  19. Record of Permian-Early Triassic continental arc magmatism in the western margin of the Jiamusi Block, NE China: petrogenesis and implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wenchun; Dong, Yu; Bi, Junhui; Wang, Zhihui; Ji, Zheng; Yang, H.; Ge, W. C.; Dong, Y.; Bi, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Ji, Z.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemical data for the Permian to Early Triassic granitoids from the western margin of the Jiamusi Block (WJB), NE China. The intermediate to felsic (SiO2 = 59.67-74.04 wt%) granitoids belong to calc-alkaline series and are characterized by enrichments in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements with pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, revealing typical continental magmatic arc geochemical signatures. The zircon U-Pb determinations on the granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite and quartz diorite samples yielded ages between ca. 275-245 Ma, which, together with the published coeval intrusive rocks, indicates that Permian to Early Triassic continental arc magmatism occurred extensively in the WJB. The low and mainly negative zircon ɛ Hf( t) values between -7.6 and +1.6 and the zircon Hf model ages of 1.2-1.8 Ga, which are significantly older than their crystallization ages, suggest that they were mainly derived from reworking of ancient crustal materials with a limited input of juvenile components. The geochemical systematics and petrogenetic considerations indicate that the studied granitoids were generated from a zone of melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization, i.e., a MASHed zone at the base of Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic continental crust, where large portions of igneous rocks and minor clay-poor sediments involved in the source region. In combination with regional geological data, we argue that the Jiamusi Block was unlikely the rifted segment of the Songliao Block and two possible geodynamical models were proposed to interpret the formation of the ca. 275-245 Ma granitoids in the WJB. In the context of Permian global plate reconstruction, we suggest that Paleo-Pacific plate subduction was initiated in the Permian to Early Triassic beneath the Jiamusi Block, and even whole eastern NE China.

  20. 20-50-day oscillation of summer Yangtze rainfall in response to intraseasonal variations in the subtropical high over the western North Pacific and South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jiangyu; Wu, Guoxiong [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China); Sun, Zhang [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China); Zhejiang Meteorological Observatory, Hangzhou (China)

    2010-04-15

    The spatio-temporal variability in summer rainfall within eastern China is identified based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of daily rain-gauge precipitation data for the period 1979-2003. Spatial coherence of rainfall is found in the Yangtze Basin, and a wavelet transform is applied to the corresponding principal component to capture the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of Yangtze rainfall. The ensemble mean wavelet spectrum, representing statistically significant intraseasonal variability, shows a predominant oscillation in summer Yangtze rainfall with a period of 20-50 days; a 10-20-day oscillation is pronounced during June and July. This finding suggests that the 20-50-day oscillation is a major agent in regulating summer Yangtze rainfall. Composite analyses reveal that the 20-50-day oscillation of summer Yangtze rainfall arises in response to intraseasonal variations in the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which in turn is modulated by a Rossby wave-like coupled circulation-convection system that propagates northward and northwestward from the equatorial western Pacific. When an anomalous cyclone associated with this Rossby wave-like system reaches the South China Sea (SCS) and Philippine Sea, the WNPSH retreats northeastward due to a reduction in local pressure. Under these conditions, strong monsoonal southwesterlies blow mainly toward the SCS-Philippine Sea, while dry conditions form in the Yangtze Basin, with a pronounced divergent flow pattern. In contrast, the movement of an anomalous anticyclone over the SCS-Philippine Sea results in the southwestward extension of the WNPSH; consequently, the tropical monsoonal southwesterlies veer to the northeast over the SCS and then converge toward the Yangtze Basin, producing wet conditions. Therefore, the 20-50-day oscillation of Yangtze rainfall is also manifest as a seesaw pattern in convective anomalies between the Yangtze Basin and the SCS-Philippine Sea. A considerable zonal

  1. Genetic diversity and drug resistance among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in western Yunnan: a hot area of viral recombination in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The emergence of an HIV-1 epidemic in China was first recognized in Dehong, western Yunnan. Due to its geographic location, Dehong contributed greatly in bridging HIV-1 epidemics in Southeast Asia and China through drug trafficking and injection drug use; and also extensively to the HIV genetic diversity in Yunnan and China. We attempt to monitor HIV-1 in this area by studying the HIV-1 genetic distribution and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in various at-risk populations. Methods Blood samples from a total of 320 newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals, who were antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, were collected from January 2009 to December 2010 in 2 counties in Dehong. HIV-1 subtypes and pol gene drug resistance (DR) mutations were genotyped. Results Among 299 pol sequences successfully genotyped (93.4%), subtype C accounted for 43.1% (n=129), unique recombinant forms (URFs) for 18.4% (n=55), CRF01_AE for 17.7% (n=54), B for 10.7% (n=32), CRF08_BC for 8.4% (n=25) and CRF07_BC for 1.7% (n=5). Subtype distribution in patients infected by different transmission routes varied. In contract to the previous finding of CRF01_AE predominance in 2002-2006, subtype C predominated in both injecting drug users (IDUs) and heterosexually transmitted populations in this study. Furthermore, we found a high level of BC, CRF01_AE/C and CRF01_AE/B/C recombinants suggesting the presence of active viral recombination in the area. TDR associated mutations were identified in 4.3% (n=13) individuals. A total of 1.3% of DR were related to protease inhibitors (PIs), including I85IV, M46I and L90M; 0.3% to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), including M184I; and 2.7% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), including K103N/S, Y181C, K101E and G190A. Conclusion Our work revealed diverse HIV-1 subtype distributions and intersubtype recombinations. We also identified a low but significant TDR mutation rate among ART-naive patients. These findings

  2. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of the Uradzhongqi magmatic complex in western Inner Mongolia, China: A record of early Permian post-collisional magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xueyuan; Li, Wenbo; Zhong, Richen; Hu, Chuansheng; Zhu, Feng; Li, Zhihua

    2017-08-01

    The magmatic complex in Uradzhongqi, Inner Mongolia, is located in the western segment of the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The dominant components in the complex include syenogranite, monzogranite, granodiorite, diorite and gabbro. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are common in syenogranite and granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the ages of these rocks range from 283 to 270 Ma, suggesting an early Permian emplacement. The syenogranite and monzogranite are peraluminous I-type granites, exhibiting conspicuous negative Eu anomaly, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The granodiorites, diorites and MMEs are metaluminous in composition, show high Al2O3, MgO and Fe2O3T contents and weak negative Eu anomaly, as well as LREE and LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion. The gabbros show weak positive Eu anomaly and slight REE differentiation. The Sr-Nd isotope compositions show that the source of mafic magma was depleted mantle (DM) with possible involvement of enriched mantle II (EM II), whereas the felsic magma was derived from the Archean lower crust. Petrographic observation and analytical results of mineralogy, geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes indicate that the main petrogenesis of these magmatic rocks is the mixing of underplating mafic magma and felsic magma. Tectonically, the complex pluton was formed within a post-collisional regime, and the underplating in this area provides another piece of evidence for the vertical growth of the western segment of the northern margin of the NCC.

  3. The influence of the rural health security schemes on health utilization and household impoverishment in rural China: data from a household survey of western and central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS, voluntary health insurance and the Medical Financial Assistance (MFA, financial relief program were established in 2003 for rural China. The aim of this study was to document their coverage, assess their effectiveness on access to in-patient care and protection against financial catastrophe and household impoverishment due to health spending, and identify the factors predicting impoverishment with and without these schemes. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Information on personal demographic characteristics, chronic illness status, health care use, household expenditure, and household health spending were collected by interview. Results NRCMS covered 90.8% of the studied individuals and among the designated poor, 7.6% had their premiums paid by MFA. Of those referred for hospitalization in the year prior to the interview, 34.3% failed to comply, mostly (80.2% owing to financial constraints. There was no significant difference in the unmet need for admission between the insured with NRCMS and the uninsured. Before reimbursement, the incidence of catastrophic health payment (household health spending more than 40% of household's capacity to pay and medical impoverishment (household per capita income falling below the poverty line due to medical expense was 14.3% and 8.2%, respectively. NRCMS prevented 9.9% of the households from financial catastrophe and 7.7% from impoverishment, whereas MFA kept just one household from impoverishment and had no effect on financial catastrophe. Household per capita expenditure and household chronic disease proportion (proportion of members of a household with chronic illness were the most important determinants of the unmet need for admission, risk of being impoverished and the chance of not being saved

  4. Sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River in North-Western China under conditions of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of Populus euphratica. Household surveys

  5. Isotopic evidences of groundwater circulation in the Kaidu River, South Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAN, Yuting; Métivier, François; Chen, Yaning; He, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2015-04-01

    Water demand always exceeds supply in many parts of the world, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions. Groundwater is the primary input to hydrological systems like surface water bodies in polar and high mountain regions. A reasonable application of water isotopes requires a good understanding of the isotopic fractionation in processes controlling the isotopic composition of surface water and groundwater. Through the review of published papers, we find there is still scope for improving the understanding of groundwater isotopes: (1) quite few studies on groundwater circulation via kinetic fractionation of stable isotopes in the arid region of Central Asia; (2) several shortcomings on the quantitative assessment of water recycling for mountain-plain area. Tianshan Mountains, located in Xinjiang Province, is always called water tower in Central Asia and play an important role in the water cycle. In this paper, we implemented hydro-chemical index and Stable isotope mass balance method to study transformation of groundwater with surface water and to quantify recharge proportion between water bodies of typical regions. As a first step towards quantifying the contribution of groundwater, three-component mixing model of Kaidu River Basin into its constituent components has been done. Chemistry type of headstreams in this basin is mainly Ca-Mg-HCO3, while major ions and salinity of surface water show an increasing trend with the water rising time, which could be attributable to significant features of surface water evaporation and concentration. After that chemistry type of oasis-plain area in the basin is mainly Ca-HCO3-CO4. Groundwater recharge ratio was processed via spatial scale, it is only about 15% in upstream areas, while it accounted for 45% or more in the middle and lower reaches. Two groundwater recharge districts were divided according to the distribution characteristics of surface water. The first recharge district is from mountain area with spring

  6. Health status of adolescents in the Tibetan plateau area of western China: 6 years after the Yushu earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Yang, Hongyang; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Lulu

    2017-07-29

    An earthquake struck Yushu in Qinghai province of China on April 14, 2010, causing 2698 deaths and 12,135 injuries.The present study aimed to assess the health status, and associated determinants, of child survivors in the epicenter of the Yushu earthquake 6 years after the event. A cross-sectional survey was performed among students from two junior schools in Yushu County. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, Kruskal-Wallis H tests and stepwise linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. The mean scores onmental component summary (MCS)and physical component summary (PCS) were 42.13 (SD 7.32) and 42.04 (SD 8.07), respectively. Lower PCS in the aftermath of an earthquake was associated with being trapped/in danger, injured to self, receiving no escape training while lowerMCS in the aftermath of an earthquake was associated with a lower grade level, not living with parents, fear during the earthquake, death in the family, and not receiving psychological counseling after the earthquake. In conclusion, the results of the present study help to expand our knowledge regarding the health status of child survivors 6 years after the Yushu earthquake. Our study provides evidence-based suggestions for specific long-term health interventions in such vulnerable populations.

  7. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (Kangding-Litang-Batang geothermal belt. Cluster analysis and factor analysis are employed to character the hydrochemical properties of hot springs in different fault zones and the possible hydrochemical evolution processes of these hot springs. Our study shows that the hot springs can be divided into three groups based on their locations. The hot springs in the first group mainly originate from the volcanic rock and the springs in the second group originate from the metamorphic rock while the springs in the third group originate from the result of mixture of shallow water. Water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and the water environment are the three dominant factors that control the hydrochemical evolution process in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. These results are also in well agreement with the isotopic and chemical analysis.

  8. Assessment of urban sustainability efficiency based on general data envelopment analysis: a case study of two cities in western and eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Shan, Peng; Wang, Chenxing; Quan, Yuan; Wu, Di; Zhao, Chunli; Wu, Gang; Deng, Hongbing

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable urban development focuses on enhancing urban well-being, while also balancing the demands of urban social and economic development, natural resource consumption, and environmental pollution. This work used general data envelopment analysis to assess the urban sustainability efficiency (USE) and sustainability potential (SP) in Lanzhou and Xiamen, two cities that are characteristic of urban areas in western and eastern China. The assessment indicator system included important natural and urban welfare factors as input and output indices, respectively. The results showed that overall urban sustainability efficiency increased in Lanzhou and Xiamen from 1985 to 2010, but that the sustainability of natural resources clearly decreased. The urban sustainability efficiency of Xiamen was higher than that of Lanzhou, and the sustainability potential of Xiamen was lower than that of Lanzhou; this indicates that Xiamen performed better in terms of urban sustainable development. The urban sustainability efficiency in Xiamen has increased with increasing urban population, and the rate and scale of economic development have been higher than in Lanzhou. The assessment and analysis performed in this study show that cities with different natural resources and development characteristics have different forms, patterns, and trajectories of sustainable development.

  9. Deformation and Source Parameters of the 2015 Mw 6.5 Earthquake in Pishan, Western China, from Sentinel-1A and ALOS-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmao Wen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR was used to determine the seismogenic fault and slip distribution of the 3 July 2015 Pishan earthquake in the Tarim Basin, western China. We obtained a coseismic deformation map from the ascending and descending Sentinel-1A satellite Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans (TOPS mode and the ascending Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2 satellite Fine mode InSAR data. The maximum ground uplift and subsidence were approximately 13.6 cm and 3.2 cm, respectively. Our InSAR observations associated with focal mechanics indicate that the source fault dips to southwest (SW. Further nonlinear inversions show that the dip angle of the seimogenic fault is approximate 24°, with a strike of 114°, which is similar with the strike of the southeastern Pishan fault. However, this fault segment responsible for the Pishan event has not been mapped before. Our finite fault model reveals that the peak slip of 0.89 m occurred at a depth of 11.6 km, with substantial slip at a depth of 9–14 km and a near-uniform slip of 0.2 m at a depth of 0–7 km. The estimated moment magnitude was approximately Mw 6.5, consistent with seismological results.

  10. [Effects of forest gap on seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial biomass car- bon in Picea asperata forest in Miyaluo of Western Sichuan, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Gui; Hao, Kai-Jie; Li, Xian-Wei; Fan, Chuan; Chen, Yue-Lin; Liu, Yun-Ke; Wang, Xie

    2014-09-01

    Effects of gap sizes (50, 100 and 150 m2) on seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in soil surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) were investigated in a 50-year old Picea asperata plantation in Miyaluo forest, Western Si- chuan, China. In the four seasons, the SOC and MBC contents were higher in the soil surface than in soil subsurface in the four treatments, and varied insignificantly in different seasons. Compared with the control, the SOC content increased by 35.4%, 21.2% and 10.3% in soil surface, and by 45.5%, 25.0% and 12.1% in soil subsurface with the forest gaps of 50, 100 and 150 m2, respectively. The MBC content increased by 26.7%, 16.7%, 11.3% and 24.4%, 12.6%, 7.3% in soil surface and subsurface, respectively. There were significant negative relationship between soil SOC content and the soil pH and moisture, and significant positive relationship between soil SOC content and soil temperature. Significant effects of SOC content, soil pH, soil temperature, soil moisture on MBC content were observed, suggesting that forest gaps could significantly affect envi- ronmental conditions, and increasing gaps could reduce microbial activity and decomposition rate and decrease soil SOC and MBC contents.

  11. Heavy metals in fish tissues/stomach contents in four marine wild commercially valuable fish species from the western continental shelf of South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Huang, Hong-Hui; Wang, Liang-Gen; Ning, Jia-Jia; Du, Fei-Yan

    2017-01-30

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) were determined in four commercially valuable fish species (Thunnus obesus, Decapterus lajang, Cubiceps squamiceps and Priacanthus macracanthus), collected in the western continental shelf of the South China Sea. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in fish muscles were 0.006-0.050, 0.13-0.68, 0.18-0.85, 0.11-0.25, 0.12-0.77, and 2.41-4.73μg/g, wet weight, respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in all species were below their acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of these wild fish species may be safe, with health risk assessment based on the target hazard quotients (THQ) and total THQ, indicating no significant adverse health effects with consumption. The average concentrations of Zn were higher in gills than in stomach contents, backbones or muscle, while conversely, the other heavy metals had higher concentrations in stomach contents than in other tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemotaxonomic Studies of Nine Gentianaceae Species from Western China Based on Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Jin, Hang

    2016-05-01

    Gentianaceae species which widely occur all over the world are used as folk medicine and raw food material with bitter properties. Although comparative analysis on metabolites in several Gentianaceae species has been reported, metabolic similarities used for chemotaxonomic studies are not yet clear. To systematically characterise the variations of holistic metabolome and characteristic metabolites (iridoid glycosides and phenols) in nine Gentianaceae species from western China. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to determine the variations of holistic metabolome. A targeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was established for determination of seven characteristic metabolites and identification of their derivatives. Both FT-IR and LC-MS/MS data were subjected to chemometrics analysis for exploring variations in iridoid glycosides and phenols within these species. Holistic metabolome in genera Gentiana and Swertia was largely different. Diversity of the biosynthetic pathway of iridoid glycosides was also observed in these species. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation according to infrageneric classifications of genus Gentiana. Some secondary metabolites, such as mangiferin, rhodenthoside A-C, isoorientin, isovitexin, amarogentin, and swertianolin would serve as potential chemotaxonomic markers to differentiate Gentianaceae species. Furthermore, the accumulation of the six major metabolites seems to depend on geographical regions in Sect. Monopodiae and Sect. Cruciata. The combination of LC-MS/MS and FT-IR would provide some potential evidence on chemotaxonomic studies of Gentianaceae. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Expression analysis of E-cad and vascular endothelial growth factor in triple-negative breast cancer patients of different ethnic groups in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weihua; Li, Yongtao; Ou, Jianghua; Wang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Chenguang; Yi, Lina; Xue, Laiti; Zhang, Mingshuai

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the expression of E-cadherin (E-cad) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) of Han and Uygur women patients in western China, and their relationship with clinical features of TNBC.Totally, 172 cases of Han TNBC patients and 79 cases of Uighur TNBC patients were enrolled. The expressions of E-cad and VEGF were detected with immunohistochemistry. The correlation of E-cad and VEGF expression with lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, and histological grade were analyzed. The 5-year disease-free survival rate of the 2 groups was also evaluated.There was no significant difference in the 5-year disease-free survival rate (P > .05) and the expression of E-cad between the 2 groups. The positive rate of VEGF in Han was significantly lower than that in Uygur (P cad was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, and histological grade (-1≤r cad and VEGF and their relationship with clinical features of TNBC suggest that Uygur TNBC patients might have different prognostic factors as compared with Han patients.

  14. Surface sediments in the marsh-sandy land transitional area: sandification in the western Songnen Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaofei; Grace, Michael; Zou, Yuanchun; Yu, Xuefeng; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The development of sandification process was studied, by monitoring the changes of sediment characteristics, at marsh-sandy land intersections in China's Songnen region. A series of sediment collection plates were deployed in the region; after one year, sediments in these plates were analyzed for changes of mass and chemical characteristics. The sediment flux and the sand content of the sediments decreased with the increasing longitudinal distance between the sampling site and the centre line of a sand dune. The mean sediment flux was 29 ± 14 kg m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.6 ± 0.3 kg m(-2) yr(-1) in the sandy land and marsh, respectively. Strong, positive correlations were found between the concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr, all of which were also negatively correlated with the sand content. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, P, Fe, Ti, V and Zr in the marsh sediment samples were all significantly greater than the corresponding concentrations of the sandy land (pmarsh could be divided into three distinct zones. Sand expansion extended about 88 m into the marsh. The mean sand content in the sediments of the sandy land was 91% and then 64% in the marsh, which in turn was higher than that of marshes outside the influence of sandification, suggesting that the marsh in the marsh-sandy land transitional area has already undergone extensive sandification in the past. The study results provide information on the wetland's function of indicating and buffering the sandification process.

  15. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Xue

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of the natural atmosphere and the influence by long-range transport of air pollution are key issues in the atmospheric sciences. Here we present two intensive field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in late spring and summer of 2003 at Mt. Waliguan (WLG, 36.28° N, 100.90° E, 3816 m a.s.l., a baseline station in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most VOC species exhibited higher concentrations in late spring than in summer. A typical diurnal variation was observed with higher nighttime levels, in contrast to results from other mountainous sites. Five different air masses were identified from backward trajectory analysis showing distinct VOC speciation. Air masses originating from the central Eurasian continent contained the lowest VOC levels compared to the others that were impacted by anthropogenic emissions from China and the Indian subcontinent. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (version 3.2 and constrained by a full suite of measurements was developed to probe the photochemistry of atmosphere at WLG. Our results show net ozone production from in situ photochemistry during both late spring and summer. Oxidation of nitric oxide (NO by the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2 dominates the ozone production relative to the oxidation by the organic peroxy radicals (RO2, and the ozone is primarily destroyed by photolysis and reactions with the HOx (HOx = OH + HO2 radicals. Ozone photolysis is the predominant primary source of radicals (ROx = OH + HO2 + RO2, followed by the photolysis of secondary oxygenated VOCs and hydrogen peroxides. The radical losses are governed by the self and cross reactions among the radicals. Overall, the findings of the present study provide insights into the background chemistry and the impacts of pollution transport on the pristine atmosphere over the Eurasian continent.

  16. Epidemiology of Candida albicans and non-C.albicans of neonatal candidemia at a tertiary care hospital in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinjian; Ding, Yanling; Wei, Ba; Wang, Lin; Xu, Shaolin; Qin, Peixu; Wei, Liuhua; Jiang, Lijun

    2017-05-06

    Although the majority of Candida infections occur in the developing world, candidemia epidemiology is poorly understood in these countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of non-Candida albicans (non-C. albicans) candidemia among neonates at Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital in China. A retrospective review of all positive blood culture about Candida species in neonatal intensive care unit was conducted between January 2012 and November 2015. Information about demographics, risk factors and outcome of candidemia were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors associated with the development of non-C.albicans candidemia. The prevalence of candidemia in infants was 1.4%. Non-C.albicans was responsible for 56.5% of neonatal candidemia. The predisposing factors for development of non-C.albicans candidemia among infants included mechanical ventilation [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 3.13, 1.07-9.14; P = 0.037] and use of assisted reproductive technology (OR, 95%CI = 4.52, 1.39-14.77; P = 0.012). The overall mortality rate of candidemia was 8.7% and non-C.albicans attributed to 83.3% of all mortalities. Non-C.albicans species are the major cause of candidemia in local neonatal group. The study highlights the urgent needs to evaluate the possibility of development of non-C.albicans candidemia in neonates exposed to these risk factors and much emphasis must be laid on the early implementation of medical intervention to reduce the incidences of candidemia in neonates.

  17. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-Western Pacific on the variability of typhoon landfall on the China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The landfall activity of typhoons (TYs) along the coast of China during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variation during 1965-2010. We identify three sub-periods of TY landfall activity in JAS along the China coast in this period, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (Period I) and 1998-2010 (Period III), and less during 1982-1995 (Period II). We find that the interdecadal variation might be related to the combined effects of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase changes and sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (IO-WP). During the negative PDO phase in Periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP), inducing easterly flow in its northern part, which favors TY landfall along the eastern China coast. Warm SST anomalies over the tropical IO-WP during Period III induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP through both the Gill-pattern response to the warm SST in the tropical IO and the anomalous meridional circulation induced by the warm SST in the tropical WNP. As a result, the northern South China Sea and WNP (10°-20° N) are dominated by southeasterly flow, which favors TYs making landfall on both the southern and eastern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TYs making landfall along the China coast during Period III than during Period I, which shows cool SST anomalies in the tropical IO-WP.

  19. [Characteristics of soil macrofaunal community structure in secondary forest and forest plantations in western Qinling Mountains of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Liang; Cao, Jing; Li, Shi-Jie; Pan, Chun-Lin; Pan, Cheng-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Long-term disturbance of human beings on secondary forest ecosystem would have profound impacts on belowground ecological processes, whereas the community structure and functional diversity of soil fauna would be sensitive to the changes of belowground ecological processes, with significance as an indicator of the changes. In this study, the method of hand-sorting was adopted to investigate the density of soil macrofaunal community in a secondary forest and the Pinus tabulaeformis, Larix kaempferi, Picea abie, and Picea asperata plantations of nearly 30 years old in Xiaolongshan forest area of western Qinling Mountains, and the PCA ordination and one-way ANOVA analysis were applied to analyze the community structure and trophic group composition of soil macrofauna in the five forest types. In the P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations, the density of soil macrofaunal community was 3.0 and 2.1 times of that in the secondary forest, respectively, and the consumers/decomposers ratio of the community was obviously higher than that in the secondary forest. Among the plantations, P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations had a significantly higher consumers/decomposers ratio of soil macrofaunal community than P. abies and P. asperata plantations. There was an obvious difference in community structure of soil macrofauna among the four plantations. The density of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations was 3.5 and 2.1 times higher than that in P. asperata plantation, respectively, whereas the group richness of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis plantation was 1.5 times of that in P. abies and P. asperata plantations.

  20. [Effects of snow pack on soil nitrogen transformation enzyme activities in a subalpine Abies faxioniana forest of western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yin, Rui; Li, Zhi-Ping; Gou, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Shi-Shan

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the dynamics of the activities of urease, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer under three depths of snow pack (deep snowpack, moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack) over the three critical periods (snow formed period, snow stable period, and snow melt period) in the subalpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan in the winter of 2012 and 2013. Throughout the winter, soil temperature under deep snowpack increased by 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively in comparison with moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack. In general, the three nitrogen-related soil enzyme activities under shallow snowpack were 0.8 to 3.9 times of those under deep snowpack during the winter. In the beginning and thawing periods of seasonal snow pack, shallow snowpack significantly increased the activities of urease, nitrate and nitrite reductase enzyme in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Although the activities of the studied enzymes in soil organic layer and mineral soil layer were observed to be higher than those under deep- and moderate snowpacks in deep winter, no significant difference was found under the three snow packs. Meanwhile, the effects of snowpack on the activities of the measured enzymes were related with season, soil layer and enzyme type. Significant variations of the activities of nitrogen-related enzymes were found in three critical periods over the winter, and the three measured soil enzymes were significantly higher in organic layer than in mineral layer. In addition, the activities of the three measured soil enzymes were closely related with temperature and moisture in soils. In conclusion, the decrease of snow pack induced by winter warming might increase the activities of soil enzymes related with nitrogen transformation and further stimulate the process of wintertime nitrogen transformation in soils of the subalpine forest.

  1. Petrogenesis of the Majiari ophiolite (western Tibet, China): Implications for intra-oceanic subduction in the Bangong-Nujiang Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang-tai; Liu, Wei-liang; Xia, Bin; Cai, Zhou-rong; Chen, Wei-yan; Li, Jian-feng; Yin, Zheng-xin

    2017-09-01

    The Majiari ophiolite lies in the western Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone, which separates the Qiangtang and Lhasa blocks in central Tibet. The ophiolite consists of peridotite, gabbro/diabase and basalt. Zircon U-Pb dating yielded an age of 170.5 ± 1.7 Ma for the gabbro, whereas 40Ar/39Ar dating of plagioclase from the same gabbro yielded ages of 108.4 ± 2.6 Ma (plateau age) and 112 ± 2 Ma (isochron age), indicating that the ophiolite was formed during the Middle Jurassic and was probably emplaced during the Early Cretaceous. Zircons from the gabbro have εHf(t) values ranging from +6.9 to +10.6 and f(Lu/Hf) values ranging from -0.92 to -0.98. Mafic lavas plot in the tholeiitic basalt field but are depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti and enriched in Rb, Ba and Th in the N-MORB-normalized trace element spider diagram. These lavas have whole-rock εNd(t) values of +5.9 to +6.6, suggesting that they were derived from a depleted mantle source, which was probably modified by subducted materials. The Majiari ophiolite probably formed in a typical back-arc basin above a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) mantle wedge. Intra-oceanic subduction occurred during the Middle Jurassic and collision of the Lhasa and South Qiangtang terranes likely occurred in the Early Cretaceous. Thus, closure of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethys Ocean likely occurred before the Early Cretaceous.

  2. Attribution of satellite-observed vegetation trends in a hyper-arid region of the Heihe River basin, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Roderick, M. L.; Shen, Y.; Sun, F.

    2014-09-01

    Terrestrial vegetation dynamics are closely influenced by both climate and by both climate and by land use and/or land cover change (LULCC) caused by human activities. Both can change over time in a monotonic way and it can be difficult to separate the effects of climate change from LULCC on vegetation. Here we attempt to attribute trends in the fractional green vegetation cover to climate variability and to human activity in Ejina Region, a hyper-arid landlocked region in northwest China. This region is dominated by extensive deserts with relatively small areas of irrigation located along the major water courses as is typical throughout much of Central Asia. Variations of fractional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2012 were determined using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index data with 250 m spatial resolution over 16-day intervals. We found that the fractional vegetation cover in this hyper-arid region is very low but that the mean growing season vegetation cover has increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 4.5% in 2012. The largest contribution to the overall greening was due to changes in green vegetation cover of the extensive desert areas with a smaller contribution due to changes in the area of irrigated land. Comprehensive analysis with different precipitation data sources found that the greening of the desert was associated with increases in regional precipitation. We further report that the area of land irrigated each year can be predicted using the runoff gauged 1 year earlier. Taken together, water availability both from precipitation in the desert and runoff inflow for the irrigation agricultural lands can explain at least 52% of the total variance in regional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2010. The results demonstrate that it is possible to separate the satellite-observed changes in green vegetation cover into components due to climate and human modifications. Such results inform management on the implications for water

  3. Crustal contamination and sulfide immiscibility history of the Permian Huangshannan magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, East Tianshan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Hong-Ye; Xue, Sheng-Chao

    2016-11-01

    The Huangshannan mafic-ultramafic intrusion is a Permian Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing intrusion in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The intrusion consists of an ultramafic unit, which is composed of lherzolite and olivine websterite, and a mafic unit, which is composed of olivine gabbronorite, gabbronorite and leuco-gabbronorite. This intrusion was formed by two separate pulses of magma: a more primitive magma for the early ultramafic unit and a more evolved magma for the late mafic unit. U-Pb isotope geochronology of zircon from the mafic unit yields an age of 278 ± 2 Ma. According to its olivine and Cr-rich spinel compositions, the estimated parental magma of lherzolite for the Huangshannan intrusion has 12.4 wt.% MgO, indicating picritic affinity. Fractional crystallization modeling results and the presence of rounded sulfide inclusions in an olivine crystal (Fo 86.7) indicate that sulfide immiscibility was achieved at the beginning of olivine fractionation. Co-magmatic zircon crystals from gabbronorite have a δ18O value close to 6.5‰, which is 1.2‰ higher than the typical mantle value and suggests significant crustal contamination (∼20%). The positive εHf(t) values of co-magmatic zircon (which vary from +9.2 to +15.3) and positive whole rock εNd(t) values (which vary from +4.7 to +7.8) also indicate that the parental magma was derived from a depleted mantle source and contaminated by 5-20% juvenile arc crust and then by ∼5% upper crustal materials. However, modeling results of sulfur content at sulfide saturation reveal that such a large amount of crustal contamination is not sufficient to trigger sulfide saturation in the parental magma, which strongly suggests that external sulfur addition, probably during contamination, has played a critical role in causing sulfide immiscibility. Furthermore, the arc magmatism geochemical signatures of the Huangshannan intrusion, such as significant Nb and Ta depletion relative to La and low Ca contents in olivine, are interpreted as the result of slab-derived fluid modification during previous subduction. We speculate that the contamination of juvenile arc crust may have occurred in the lower crust because of picritic magma underplating and that partial melting in the mantle was triggered by the impingement of a mantle plume or lithosphere delamination in a post-subduction environment.

  4. Evolution of oceanic molybdenum and uranium reservoir size around the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition: Evidence from western Zhejiang, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lei; Schoepfer, Shane D.; Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The "Cambrian explosion" is one of the most fascinating episodes of diversification in the history of life; however, its relationship to the oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere around the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition is not fully understood. Marine inventories of redox-sensitive trace elements reflect the relative balance of oxidative weathering on land and deposition in anoxic water masses, and can be used to explore the evolution of oceanic and atmospheric redox conditions. For this study, we conducted a series of geochemical analyses on the upper Lantian, Piyuancun, and Hetang formations in the Chunye-1 well, part of the lower Yangtze Block in western Zhejiang. Iron speciation results indicate that the entire studied interval was deposited under anoxic conditions, with three intervals of persistent euxinia occurring in the uppermost Lantian Fm., the lower Hetang Formation (Fm.), and the upper Hetang Fm. Molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) contents and Mo/TOC and U/TOC ratios from the anoxic/euxinic intervals of the Chunye-1 well, combined with published data from the sections in the middle and upper Yangtze Block, suggest that the oceanic Mo reservoir declined consistently from the Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3, while the size of the oceanic U reservoir remained relatively constant. Both metals were depleted in the ocean in lower Cambrian Stage 4, before increasing markedly at the end of Stage 4. The lack of an apparent increase in the size of the marine Mo and U reservoir from the upper Ediacaran to Cambrian Stage 3 suggests that oxic water masses did not expand until Cambrian Stage 4. The increase in marine Mo and U availability in the upper Hetang Fm. may have been due to the expansion of oxic water masses in the oceans, associated with oxygenation of the atmosphere during Cambrian Stage 4. This expansion of oxic waters in the global ocean postdates the main phase of Cambrian diversification, suggesting that pervasive oxygenation of the ocean on a large

  5. Maternal health care seeking by rural Tibetan women: characteristics of women delivering at a newly-constructed birth center in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyaltsen, Kunchok; Gipson, Jessica D; Gyal, Lhusham; Kyi, Tsering; Hicks, Andrew L; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-09-22

    Increasing skilled birth attendance at delivery is key to reducing maternal mortality, particularly among marginalized populations. Despite China's successful rollout of a national policy to promote facility deliveries, challenges remain among rural and ethnic minority populations. In response, a Tibetan Birth and Training Center (TBTC) was constructed in 2010 to provide high-quality obstetric care in a home-like environment to a predominantly Tibetan population in Tso-ngon (Qinghai) province in western China to improve maternal care in the region. This study examines if and how first users of the TBTC differ from women in the broader community, and how this information may inform subsequent maternal health care interventions in this area. Trained, Tibetan interviewers administered a face-to-face, quantitative questionnaire to two groups of married, Tibetan women: women who had delivered at the TBTC between June 2011-June 2012 (n = 114) and a non-equivalent comparison group of women from the same communities who had delivered in the last two years, but not at the TBTC (n = 108). Chi-squared and ANOVA tests were conducted to detect differences between the samples. There were no significant differences between the samples in education or income; however, women from the TBTC sample were significantly younger (25.55 vs. 28.16 years; p importance of health facility amenities indicated minimal differences between the samples. However, as compared to the community sample, the TBTC sample had a greater proportion of women who reported having the final say regarding where to deliver (26% vs. 14%; p = 0.02) and having a friend or family member who delivered at home (50% vs. 28%; p educated women. Minimal differences in women's characteristics and perceptions regarding delivery care between the two samples suggest that the TBTC is serving a broad cross-section of women. Differences between the samples with respect to delivery care decision-making and desire

  6. The Cretaceous - Paleogene paleogeography of Central Asia recorded in depositional environments of the Proto-Paratethys Sea in the Tarim Basin (Western China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel Kaya, Mustafa; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Proust, Jean-Noel; Bougeois, Laurie; Meijer, Niels; Frieling, Joost; Fioroni, Chiara; Stoica, Marius; Roperch, Pierrick; Mamtimin, Mehmut; Aminov, Jovid

    2017-04-01

    The Proto-Paratethys, a shallow epicontinental sea, extended from Cretaceous to Paleogene times across Eurasia from the Mediterranean Tethys to the Tarim Basin in western China. Transgressive and regressive episodes of the Proto-Paratethys Sea have been previously recognized but their timing, extent and depositional environments remain poorly constrained especially for the Cretaceous and early Paleogene. This hampers understanding of their driving mechanisms (geodynamic and/or eustatic) and paleoclimatic consequences on regional aridification and monsoons. As part of the ERC "MAGIC" project, we report an integrated sedimentologic and stratigraphic analysis of the Proto-Paratethys from its initial Cretaceous onset to the final Paleogene retreat from multiple investigated sections in the western border of Tarim Basin. Facies associations include field observations and microfacies analyses from carbonate samples. New bio- and magneto-stratigraphic results from key intervals are also provided to testify the previously constructed regional stratigraphic framework. The previously controversial number of marine incursions in the Tarim Basin is resolved to 6 (3 Cretaceous and 3 Paleogene) also recognized in the neighboring Tajik and Turan Basins to the west and the present-day Alai Valley. The eastward extent of these marine incursions varied through time with a maximum extent during late Paleocene - early Eocene. The first marine incursion is a Cenomanian transgression recorded in the marls and calcareous mudstones of the Kukebai Formation. The next two are Coniacian and Campanian transgressions recognized in the carbonate units of the Yigeziya Formation. The first Paleogene incursion is characterized by thick evaporites of the Paleocene Aertashi Formation overlain by the marine shales of the Lower Qimugen Formation. The latter represents the maximum extent and the deepest environments of the Proto-Paratethys. The marine Kalatar limestones and silty shales of the Wulagen

  7. Two new Gammarus species and a new name (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridae) from Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangyan; Meng, Kaibaryer; Hou, Zhonge

    2017-06-02

    Two new species of the genus Gammarus are described and illustrated from Northwest China. A new species name Gammarus tianshan nom. nov. is proposed to replace G. montanus Hou et al., 2004. Gammarus simplex sp. nov. from Altay, Xinjiang, is characterized by uropod III with simple setae on both rami and urosomite I only with setae on dorsal margin. Gammarus glaber sp. nov. from Qinghai, is characterized by uropod III with few simple and plumose setae. Detailed morphological description and differences from related species are discussed. A distribution map of the new species and related species is provided.

  8. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

    2014-03-17

    The western sector of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous "Yanshanian" intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India-Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U-Th-Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India-Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India-Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Effects of the ground surface temperature anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau on the rainfall over northwestern China and western Mongolia in July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Yang, Ben; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Jing; Huang, Anning; La, Mengke

    2017-10-01

    A significantly negative interannual relationship is identified between the ground surface temperature (GTS) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the rainfall over northwestern China and western Mongolia (NWC-WM) through analyzing the Chinese weather station data, GPCP precipitation, and ERA-Interim reanalysis in July during 1980-2012. This relationship is verified by the model sensitivity experiments carried out by using RegCM4.1 during 1982-2011. The positive/negative GTS forcing of three different magnitudes is added in two key regions over the TP in RegCM4.1. One of the key regions covers the central and eastern TP (denoted as TPC). The other covers the northern and north slope of the TP (denoted as TPN). The model results suggest that when the GTS anomalies in either of the two key regions are negative (positive), the rainfall anomalies over NWC-WM are positive (negative), which is consistent with observations. Furthermore, rainfall anomalies over NWC-WM are more sensitive to the GTS anomalies over the TPN region than those over the southern TP. The model results also reveal that the negative (positive) GTS anomalies over region TPN mainly cause the decrease (increase) of the latent heat release related to rainfall (surface sensible heat) and descent (ascent) over the TPN region but ascent (descent) to the north of the TP between 40° and 50° N. In addition, the specific humidity between 40° and 50° N is increased (decreased). Therefore, the increase (decrease) in specific humidity and the ascent (descent) between 40° and 50° N cause the increase (decrease) in the rainfall over NWC-WM.

  10. Geochemical Characteristics of Cenozoic Jining Basalts of the Western North China Craton: Evidence for the Role of the Lower Crust, Lithosphere, and Asthenosphere in Petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Suan Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jining volcanic field located in the southern margin of the Mongolian plateau and the western North China Block consists of four rock types: quartz tholeiite, olivine tholeiite, alkali olivine basalt and basanite. These rocks have a wide range of K-Ar ages from ~36 to < 0.2 Ma. The early volcanism was voluminous and dominated by flood-type fissure eruptions of tholeiites, whereas the later phase was represented by sparse eruptions of basanitic lavas. Thirty-six samples analyzed in this study show a wide range in SiO2 contents from 44% ~ 54%. They all are sodium-rich and high-Ti basalts that, however, show marked isotopic variations between two end-members: (1 tholeiites that have higher 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7048 ~ 0.7052, and lower £`Nd of -0.8 to -2.4 and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb of 16.9 ~ 17.2, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.3 ~ 15.4 and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.1 ~ 37.7; and (2 basanites that have lower 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7035 ~ 0.7044, and higher £`Nd of +1.3 to +4.9 and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb of 17.7 ~ 18.0, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.4 ~ 15.5 and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.8 ~ 38.2. Alkali olivine basalt that occurs as a subordinate rock type is geochemically similar to the basanites, but isotopically similar to the tholeiites, characterized by the highest 87Sr/86Sr ratio among the three basaltic suites, coupled with a low Nb/U value (~33.

  11. The formation of the patterns of desert shrub communities on the Western Ordos Plateau, China: the roles of seed dispersal and sand burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie

    2013-01-01

    The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0-1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3-6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession direction

  12. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J

    2014-02-01

    Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g N m(-2) year(-1). Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric.

  13. Field-Scale Spatial Variation of Saline-Sodic Soil and Its Relation with Environmental Factors in Western Songnen Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongrui Yin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of spatial variability and variance structure of salinization parameters using classical and geostatistical method in Songnen Plain of China, which is one of largest saline-sodic areas in the World, and to analyze the relationship between salinization parameters, including soil salinity content (SC, electrical conductivity (EC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, and pH, and seven environmental factors by Pearson and stepwise regression analysis. The environmental factors were ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures at four layers (0–10 cm, 10–30 cm, 30–60 cm, and 60–100 cm. The results indicated that SC, EC, and SAR showed great variations, whereas pH exhibited low variations. Four salinization parameters showed strongly spatial autocorrelation resulting from the compound impact of structural factors. The empirical semivariograms in the four parameters could be simulated by spherical and exponential models. The spatial distributions of SC, EC, SAR and pH showed similar patterns, with the coexistence of high salinity and sodicity in the areas with high ground elevation. By Pearson analysis, the soil salinization parameters showed a significant positive relationship with ground elevation, but a negative correlation with surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures. Both correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that ground elevation is the most important environmental factor for spatial variation of soil sanilization. The results from this research can provide some useful information for explaining mechanism of salinization process and utilization of saline-sodic soils in the Western Songnen Plain.

  14. Field-scale spatial variation of saline-sodic soil and its relation with environmental factors in Western Songnen Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Guangxin; Yin, Xiongrui; Liu, Zhijun

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of spatial variability and variance structure of salinization parameters using classical and geostatistical method in Songnen Plain of China, which is one of largest saline-sodic areas in the World, and to analyze the relationship between salinization parameters, including soil salinity content (SC), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and pH, and seven environmental factors by Pearson and stepwise regression analysis. The environmental factors were ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures at four layers (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, 30-60 cm, and 60-100 cm). The results indicated that SC, EC, and SAR showed great variations, whereas pH exhibited low variations. Four salinization parameters showed strongly spatial autocorrelation resulting from the compound impact of structural factors. The empirical semivariograms in the four parameters could be simulated by spherical and exponential models. The spatial distributions of SC, EC, SAR and pH showed similar patterns, with the coexistence of high salinity and sodicity in the areas with high ground elevation. By Pearson analysis, the soil salinization parameters showed a significant positive relationship with ground elevation, but a negative correlation with surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moistures. Both correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that ground elevation is the most important environmental factor for spatial variation of soil sanilization. The results from this research can provide some useful information for explaining mechanism of salinization process and utilization of saline-sodic soils in the Western Songnen Plain.

  15. Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to examine the effect of household and community characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health payment in Western and Central Rural China. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Independent variables included village characteristics, household income, chronic illness status, health care use and health spending. A composite contextual variable, named village deprivation, was derived from socio-economic status and availability of health care facilities in each village using factor analysis. Dependent variables were whether household health payment was more than 40% of household's capacity to pay (catastrophic health payment and whether household per capita income was put under Chinese national poverty line (1067 Yuan income per year after health spending (impoverishment. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the independent variables on the two outcomes. Results Households with low per capita income, having elderly, hospitalized or chronically ill members, and whose head was unemployed were more likely to incur financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health expenditure. Both catastrophic and impoverishing health payments increased with increased village deprivation. However, the presence of a village health clinic had no effect on the two outcomes, nor did household enrollment in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (national health insurance. Conclusions Village deprivation independently increases the risk for financial hardship due to health payment after adjusting for known household-level factors. This suggests that policy makers need to view the individual, household and village as separate units for policy targeting.

  16. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and genesis of the high-temperature geothermal system in the Tashkorgan basin of the Pamir syntax, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiman; Pang, Zhonghe; Yang, Fengtian; Yuan, Lijuan; Tang, Pinghui

    2017-11-01

    High-temperature geothermal systems in China, such as those found in Tenchong and Tibet, are common. A similar system without obvious manifestations found in the Tashkorgan basin in the western Xinjiang Autonomous Region, however, was not expected. The results from borehole measurements and predictions with geothermometers, such as quartz, Na-K and Na-K-Mg, indicate that the reservoir temperature is approximately 250-260 °C. Geothermal water is high in Total Dissolved Solids (>2.5 g/L) and SiO2 content (>273 mg/L), and the water type is Cl·SO4-Na, likely resulting from water-rock interactions in the granodiorite reservoirs. Based on isotope analysis, it appears to be recharged by local precipitation and river water. Evidence from the relationships between major ions and the Cl and molar Na/Cl ratio suggests mixing between deep geothermal water and shallow cold groundwater during the upwelling process. Mixing ratios calculated by the relationship between Cl and SiO2 show that the proportion from cold end-members are 96-99% and 40-90% for riparian zone springs and geothermal water from boreholes, respectively. Active regional tectonic and Neo-tectonic movements in the Pamir syntax as well as radioactive elements in the granodiorite reservoir of the Himalayan stage provide basis for the high heat flow background (150-350 mW/m2). NNW trending fault systems intersecting with overlying NE faults provide circulation conduits with high permeability for geothermal water.

  17. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...

  18. China gives gas; China geeft gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, P. (ed.)

    2003-02-01

    Shell is involved in a large project (West to East Pipeline between the Tarim Basin and Sjanghai) to transport natural from the eastern part of China to the cities in the western part of China. [Dutch] Shell wordt partner in een megaproject (aanleg van de West-Oost Gaspijpleiding tussen het Tarim Bekken en Sjanghai) om via aardgas de grote steden in China leefbaar te maken.

  19. A new P-T-t path of eclogites from Chinese southwestern Tianshan: constraints from P-T pseudosections and Sm-Nd isochron dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin-Xue; Zhang, Li-Fei; Shen, Xiao-Jie; Bader, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The southwestern Tianshan orogenic belt hosts one of the Earth's rare occurrences of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks derived from subducted oceanic crust. To address its poorly constrained and controversial P-T-t evolution, for this study, three representative samples, two paragonite-epidote eclogites (H505-26 and H76-10) and one glaucophane-phengite eclogite (H711-1) are selected, and Sm-Nd geochronology and detailed phase equilibria modeling are combined. Garnet porphyroblasts from the three studied eclogites have well-preserved growth zoning with rim-ward increasing pyrope and decreasing spessartine contents. Phase equilibria modeling reveals that the investigated garnets grew in the lawsonite eclogite facies; in eclogite H505-26 during heating and burial, and in eclogites H76-10 and H711-1 during heating and decompression. Temperatures of 460-590 °C derived for the three eclogites are below the closure temperature of the Sm-Nd system, and, thus, the garnet-omphacite-whole rock Sm-Nd isochron ages have the potential to reflect garnet growth, i.e., eclogite facies metamorphism. The three eclogites yield consistent Sm-Nd isochron ages of 309 ± 4.6 Ma (H505-26), 306 ± 15 Ma (H76-10) and 305 ± 11 Ma (H711-1), reflecting HP eclogite facies metamorphism. Based on the new geochronology, detailed investigation of phase equilibria and published data, a clockwise P-T-t path with post-Pmax heating - decompression, subsequent isothermal decompression and final cooling - decompression is predicted for the eclogites from Chinese southwestern Tianshan. We propose, subduction of the South Tianshan paleo-ocean began before 346 Ma, the eclogite facies prograde metamorphism of the subducting oceanic crust occurred at 346-333 Ma, peak eclogite facies metamorphism at 320-305 Ma, and buoyancy-driven exhumation of the oceanic crust at 296-226 Ma.

  20. Petrology, zircon U-Pb ages, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of the Late Paleozoic gold-bearing magmatic rocks (porphyry intrusions) in Jiamante area, Northwest Tianshan: Implications for petrogenesis and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongliang; Cai, Keda; Wang, Xiangsong

    2017-04-01

    A series of Cu-Au-Mo deposits distributed from east to west in the Northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NTOB), which is located in the northwestern China. The tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes of these deposits have been disputed. This paper presents whole-rock geochemical data, in-situ U-Th-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition for granite porphyry and quartz porphyry in the Jiamante gold deposit from the Yelimodun Basin, in the NTOB. These two type representative high potassium granitic intrusions have the LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 350.8±4 Ma, 351.7±3 Ma and 350.4±5 Ma, 353.9±2.5 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization ages. High contents of SiO2 ( 71.1-75.2wt.%), K2O (4.96-6.33 wt.%), Al2O3 (12.45-14.35 wt.%) and low contents of Fe2O3T (1.47-3.25 wt.%), MgO (0.3-0.5 wt.% ), and CaO (0.49-1.29wt.%), High ASI (Alumina Saturation Index, Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O+K2O)=1.37-1.80 molecular ratios) can be found in these rocks. These porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but deplet in high field strength elements and are characterized by moderately negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.27-0.66) and strong depletion in Ba, Nb,Ti and Sr elements. These two porphyries have negative and positive zircon ɛHf(t) (-11.6 to +6.7) values, low Mg# ratios (21.85-35.51wt%), and low Cr (3.24ppm -11.35ppm) and Ni (1.88ppm-13.41ppm) contents. The regional geological and geochemical characteristics of the Early Carboniferous rocks in the Northwestern Tianshan show that peraluminous granitoids, with hybrid Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic signatures, suggesting that their parental magmas could be derived from the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block and the sediments from the Yili Block. In combination with the compositions of the volcanic rocks and basic lavas in the region in the Early Carboniferous, we suggest that the Jiamante peraluminous granitic porphyries and quartz porphyries were generated by the interaction

  1. Syntectonic emplacement of the Triassic biotite-syenogranite intrusions in the Taili area, western Liaoning, NE China: Insights from petrogenesis, rheology and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Liu, Yongjiang; Jin, Wei; Neubauer, Franz; Zhao, Yingli; Liang, Chenyue; Wen, Quanbo; Feng, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Qing

    2017-05-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is one of the oldest cratons in the world, and it recently becomes a hot study area because of large volumes of Mesozoic intrusions associated with lithospheric thinning contributing to cratonic destruction in late Mesozoic times. However, the timing of initial thinning and destruction is still controversial. The Taili area, western Liaoning Province, in the northeastern part of the NCC well exposes the Archean basement rocks and the Mesozoic magmatic rocks with variable plastic deformation. This study focuses on the syntectonic emplacement of the Triassic biotite-syenogranite intrusions, in order to understand their petrogenesis, timing as well as the geological significance. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages reveal that the biotite-syenogranites formed between 246 and 191 Ma, and contain many ancient (2564-2317 Ma) zircon xenocrysts. Geochemical data suggests that the biotite-syenogranites display an adakitic affinity with high Sr/Y = 135-167 and (La/Yb)N = 48-69, as well as negligible Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.87-0.94), high negative zircon εHf(t) values (-15.5 to -21.5) and ancient TDM2 ages (2246-2598 Ma). This data suggests that the parent magmas were generated from partial melting of thickened Archean lower crustal rocks probably due to the bidirectional amalgamation of the NCC with the NE China micro-blocks and the Yangtze Craton in its north and south, respectively. In the middle part of the Taili area, magmatic fabrics are well preserved in the biotite-syenogranite intrusion characterized by the strong preferred orientation of biotite and hornblende crystals, which parallel to the intrusion margin and are slightly oblique to the gneissosity of the sheared host Neoarchean granitic gneisses. The quartz grain size piezometer suggests that the paleo-differential stresses weaken toward to the central part of the intrusion, ranging from 21.40-22.22 MPa to 16.74-19.34 MPa, during quartz crystallization in the emplacement stage. This allow

  2. Using Parent and Teacher Voices in the Creation of a Western-Based Early Childhood English-Language Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Paik, Jae H.; Wanerman, Todd; Johnson, Rebecca; Li, Hui; Duh, Shinchieh

    2015-01-01

    The current English-language research and educational program was driven by an initiative to create a more interactive, theme-based bilingual language education model for preschools in Chengdu, China. During a 2-week teacher education program centered at the Experimental Kindergarten of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Chengdu, China, a team of…

  3. Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and water in the Tarim River basin, Western China: the Taiji-Tire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, F.; Hu, H.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a historical socio-hydrological analysis of the Tarim River basin (TRB), Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in Western China, from the time of the opening of the Silk Road to the present. The analysis is aimed at exploring the historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems and at identifying common patterns or organizing principles underpinning socio-hydrological systems (SHS). As a self-organized entity, the evolution of the human-water system in the Tarim Basin reached stable states for long periods of time, but then was punctuated by sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances. In this study, we discuss three stable periods (i.e., natural, human exploitation, and degradation and recovery) and the transitions in between during the past 2000 years. During the "natural" stage that existed pre-18th century, with small-scale human society and sound environment, evolution of the SHS was mainly driven by natural environmental changes such as river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stage, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, it experienced rapid population growth, massive land reclamation and fast socio-economic development, and humans became the principal players of system evolution. By the 1970s, the Tarim Basin had evolved into a new regime with a vulnerable eco-hydrological system seemingly populated beyond its carrying capacity, and a human society that began to suffer from serious water shortages, land salinization and desertification. With intensified deterioration of river health and increased recognition of unsustainability of traditional development patterns, human intervention and recovery measures have since been adopted. As a result, the basin has shown a reverse regime shift towards some healing of the environmental damage. Based on our analysis within TRB and a common theory of social development, four general types of SHSs are defined according to their characteristic spatio

  4. A conceptual socio-hydrological model of the co-evolution of humans and water: case study of the Tarim River basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2015-02-01

    The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are critically important issues but remain poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable for improving our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simplified conceptual socio-hydrological model based on logistic growth curves is developed for the Tarim River basin in western China and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a co-evolutionary model. The study area is the main stream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four sub-systems, i.e., the hydrological, ecological, economic, and social sub-systems. In each modeling unit, the hydrological equation focusing on water balance is coupled to the other three evolutionary equations to represent the dynamics of the social sub-system (denoted by population), the economic sub-system (denoted by irrigated crop area ratio), and the ecological sub-system (denoted by natural vegetation cover), each of which is expressed in terms of a logistic growth curve. Four feedback loops are identified to represent the complex interactions among different sub-systems and different spatial units, of which two are inner loops occurring within each separate unit and the other two are outer loops linking the two modeling units. The feedback mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive relations for model parameters, i.e., the colonization and mortality rates in the logistic growth curves that are jointly determined by the state variables of all sub-systems. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed with this conceptual model to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the

  5. The use of artificial neural network analysis and multiple regression for trap quality evaluation: a case study of the Northern Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin in western China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangren Shi; Xingxi Zhou; Guangya Zhang; Xiaofeng Shi; Honghui Li [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

    2004-03-01

    Artificial neural network analysis is found to be far superior to multiple regression when applied to the evaluation of trap quality in the Northern Kuqa Depression, a gas-rich depression of Tarim Basin in western China. This is because this technique can correlate the complex and non-linear relationship between trap quality and related geological factors, whereas multiple regression can only describe a linear relationship. However, multiple regression can work as an auxiliary tool, as it is suited to high-speed calculations and can indicate the degree of dependence between the trap quality and its related geological factors which artificial neural network analysis cannot. For illustration, we have investigated 30 traps in the Northern Kuqa Depression. For each of the traps, the values of 14 selected geological factors were all known. While geologists were also able to assign individual trap quality values to 27 traps, they were less certain about the values for the other three traps. Multiple regression and artificial neural network analysis were, therefore, respectively used to ascertain these values. Data for the 27 traps were used as known sample data, while the three traps were used as prediction candidates. Predictions from artificial neural network analysis are found to agree with exploration results: where simulation predicted high trap quality, commercial quality flows were afterwards found, and where low trap quality is indicated, no such discoveries have yet been made. On the other hand, multiple regression results indicate the order of dependence of the trap quality on geological factors, which reconciles with what geologists have commonly recognized. We can conclude, therefore, that the application of artificial neural network analysis with the aid of multiple regression to trap evaluation in the Northern Kuqa Depression has been quite successful. To ensure the precision of the above mentioned geological factors and their related parameters for each

  6. Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses from the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for the Triassic biotic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xueqian; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Woods, Adam; Pei, Yu; Wu, Siqi; Fang, Yuheng; Luo, Mao; Xu, Yaling

    2017-10-01

    Two Anisian (Middle Triassic) marine ichnocoenoses are reported from the Boyun and Junmachang (JMC) sections located along the eastern and western margins of the Kamdian Continent, Yunnan Province, Southwest China, respectively. The Boyun ichnoassemblage is middle Anisian in age and is dominated by robust Rhizocorallium, while the JMC ichnoassemblage is of an early Anisian age and is characterized by the presence of Zoophycos. The ichnoassemblage horizons of the Boyun section represent an inner ramp environment, while the JMC section was likely situated in a mid-ramp setting near storm wave base as indicated by the presence of tempestites. The ichnofossil-bearing successions are usually highly bioturbated in both the Boyun (BI 3-5, BPBI 5) and JMC (BI 3-4, BPBI 3-4) sections. Three large, morphologically complicated ichnogenera: 1) Rhizocorallium; 2) Thalassinoides; and, 3) Zoophycos characterize the Anisian ichnocoenoses. Of these, Rhizocorallium has mean and maximum tube diameters up to 20.4 mm and 28 mm, respectively, while Thalassinoides mean and maximum tube diameters are 14.2 mm and 22 mm, respectively. Zoophycos is present in the early Anisian strata of the JMC section, and represents the oldest known occurrence of this ichnogenus following the latest Permian mass extinction. Similar to coeval ichnoassemblages elsewhere in the world, the Yunnan ichnocoenoses embrace a relatively low ichnodiversity, but their burrows usually penetrate deeply into the sediment, and include large and complex Rhizocorallium and Thalassinoides. All of these ichnologic features are indicative of recovery stage 4 after the latest Permian crisis. Anisian ichnoassemblages occur globally in six different habitat settings, and all show similar ecologic characteristics except for slightly different degrees of ichnotaxonomic richness, indicating that depositional environment is not a crucial factor shaping the recovery of the trace-makers, but may have an impact on their ichnodiversity

  7. Zoning of mineralization in hypogene porphyry copper deposits: Insight from comb microfractures within quartz-chalcopyrite veins in the Hongshan porphyry Cu deposit, western Yunnan, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Liang, Guang-He; Qin, Ke-Zhang

    2012-08-01

    The origin of zonal mineralization in porphyry copper deposit is important for understanding the mineralization processes. We propose a new, modified "orthomagmatic" genetic model for mineralization zoning in hypogene porphyry copper deposits. This new model is based on the features and formation mechanism of comb microfractures in quartz-chalcopyrite veins within pyrite vein from the Hongshan porphyry copper deposit in Zhongdian County, western Yunnan Province, SW-China. The main evidence for this model is volume expansion related to crystallization of chalcopyrite, magnetite and K-metasomatism in the deposit. Comb microfractures are well developed in quartz-chalcopyrite veins and are present as comb-quartz veinlets consisting of a zone of central longitudinal quartz overprinted by laterally grown quartz combs. Chalcopyrite fragments lie perpendicular to the central quartz veinlet and were dismembered by the quartz combs. The combed microfractures are typical tensional hydrofractures. The formation of the comb microfractures is related to volume expansion that was induced by crystallization of chalcopyrite from a chalcopyrite melt that resulted in the subsequent increase of volumetric pressure in the confined residual silica melt. The formation mechanism of the comb microfractures, including volume expansion induced by crystallization, increases volumetric pressure, hydrofracturing and fluid expulsion, and was the most likely process for zoning of minerals in hypogene porphyry copper deposits. Fabrics in the veins and veinlets are consistent with overpressuring and injection and are common structures that are directly related to volumetric pressure and crystallization of chalcopyrite and magnetite and K-metasomatism in hypogene porphyry copper deposits. The volume expansion ratio of chalcopyrite mineral to melt and that of magnetite mineral to melt are approximately 19 vol.% and 20 vol.%, respectively. The volume expansion rate of a monomolecular lattice is ⩾8

  8. Whole-genome optical mapping and finished genome sequence of Sphingobacterium deserti sp. nov., a new species isolated from the Western Desert of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chao; Zhou, Zhengfu; Molnár, István; Li, Xinna; Tang, Ran; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lin; Su, Shiyou; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated ZWT, was isolated from a soil sample of the Western Desert of China, and its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic position were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred on TGY medium at 5-42°C with an optimum of 30°C, and at pH 7.0-11.0 with an optimum of pH 9.0. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c or C16:1ω6c/C16:1ω7c) (39.22%), iso-C15:0 (27.91%), iso-C17:0 3OH (15.21%), C16:0 (4.98%), iso-C15:0 3OH (3.03%), C16:0 3OH (5.39%) and C14:0 (1.74%). The major polar lipid of strain ZWT is phosphatidylethanolamine. The only menaquinone observed was MK-7. The GC content of the DNA of strain ZWT is 44.9 mol%. rDNA phylogeny, genome relatedness and chemotaxonomic characteristics all indicate that strain ZWT represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium. We propose the name S. deserti sp. nov., with ZWT (= KCTC 32092T = ACCC 05744T) as the type strain. Whole genome optical mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to derive a finished genome sequence for strain ZWT, consisting of a circular chromosome of 4,615,818 bp in size. The genome of strain ZWT features 3,391 protein-encoding and 48 tRNA-encoding genes. Comparison of the predicted proteome of ZWT with those of other sphingobacteria identified 925 species-unique proteins that may contribute to the adaptation of ZWT to its native, extremely arid and inhospitable environment. As the first finished genome sequence for any Sphingobacterium, our work will serve as a useful reference for subsequent sequencing and mapping efforts for additional strains and species within this genus.

  9. [Long-Term Different Fertilizations Changed the Chemical and Spectrum Characteristics of DOM of the Irrigation-Desert Soil in North-Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dan-na; Cao, Wei-dong; Bag, Xing-guo; Bai, Jin-shun; Zhang, Jiu-dong; Lu, Bing-lin; Gao, Song-juan; Zeng, Nao-hua; Wang, Xue-cui; Katsuyoshi, Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    By using Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and Elemental Analyzer, spectrum and chemical characteristics of soil DOM affected by long-term different fertilizations were investigated in irrigation-desert soil in North-western China based on an experiment started from 1988. Four different fertilization treatments were included, i. e., organic fertilizer (OF), green manure (GM), chemical fertilizer (CF) and a control of no fertilization (CK). The results showed that fertilization could increase the contents of DOM. Compared to CK, the treatments of OF, GM, CF increased the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 37%, 29%, 16%; increased the dissolved nitrogen (DON) by 334%, 257%, 182%; increased the total carbohydrate (TCs) by 90%, 25%, 2%; and increased the total organic acids (TOAs) by 195%, 116%, 58%; respectively. Furthermore, DOC, DON, TCs, and TOAs in the OF treatment were significantly higher than those in CK, they were also significantly higher in the GM and CF treatments except for TCs. The ultraviolet-visible analysis showed that fertilizations enhanced the SUVA(254), SUVA(260), SUVA(272) and SUVA(280) of DOM, indicating that fertilizations increased the aromatic and hydrophobic percentage, humification degree, and average molecular weight, and thus resulting in more stability of DOM. Same trends were showed for all the 4 ultraviolet spectrum absorption values in different fertilizations, i. e., the strongest effect was found in the OF treatment, and then was the GM treatment and CF treatment successively. From the results by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, the characteristic peak of aromatic in the OF treatment was observed shifting from 1 625 to 1 649 cm(-1), which was close to the characteristic peak of humin, suggesting that the aromaticity of DOM in the OF treatment was higher than the other treatments. The characteristic peaks of C-O at 1 260-1 000 cm(-1) belonging to sugar, alcohol, and carboxylic acid

  10. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min

    2017-10-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  11. The Formation of the Patterns of Desert Shrub Communities on the Western Ordos Plateau, China: The Roles of Seed Dispersal and Sand Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yange; Yang, Xiaohui; Shi, Zhongjie

    2013-01-01

    The western Ordos Plateau is a key area of shrub diversity and a National Nature Reserve of endangered shrub species in north-west China. Desert expansion is becoming the most important threat to these endangered species. However, little is known about the effects of sand burial on the dynamics of the shrub community. This study aims to investigate how the shrubs as a community and as different individual shrubs respond to the disturbances caused by the desert expansion. The approach used by this study is to separate the seed-dispersal strategy from the sand-burial forces that are involved in structuring the shrub communities at different disturbance stages. Four communities for different disturbance stages were surveyed by using 50×50 m plots. The individual shrubs were classified into coloniser and successor groups at the seed-dispersal stage and strong and weak sand-burial tolerance groups at the sand-expansion stage. We employed spatial point pattern analysis with null models for each community to examine the seed-dispersal strategy and sand-burial forces affecting community distribution patterns. At the seed-dispersal stage, the interactions between the colonisers and the successors showed significant positive correlation at a scale of 0–1 m and significant negative correlation at a scale of 2 m; significant negative correlations between the groups with strong and weak sand-burial tolerance in the early stage of sand expansion at scales of 3–6 m, and significant positive correlation in the later stage of sand expansion at a scale of 13 m, were found. Seed-dispersal strategy is a reasonable mechanism to explain the shrub community pattern formation in the earlier stages, whereas sand burial is the primary reason for the disappearance of shrubs with weak sand-burial tolerance, this irreversible disturbance causes homogenisation of the community structure and produces aging populations of shrub species. This has an important influence on the succession

  12. The Features of Condensate Water and Its Guide on Gas Proudction in upper Triassic Gas Reservoir of Western Sichuan Depression, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, C.; Lou, Z.

    2012-12-01

    In upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation of western Sichuan depression, China, there developed ultrathight sandstones reservoirs, of which the mean porosity is 4.02% and the permeability mode is less than 0.1×10-3μm2. Because of the ultrathight sandstones, thick gaseous- liquid phase transition develops in the upper Trassic Xujiahe Formation. The absolute quantity of gaseous water is lager. Due to the change of temperature and pressure at the wellhead, the gaseous water in gas reservoir becomes condensate water. Therefore, the condensate water of low salinity can be widely found at the original productive process in the Xujiahe Formation reservoir, such as wells named Lian 150, Xin 851, Xin 853, Xin 856, Dayi 101, Dayi 103. The main cations are K++Na+, while the anions are HCO3- and Cl-. The main water type is CaCl2, followed by NaHCO3, Na2SO4 and MgCl2. The PH of condensate water is 5.28-8.20 with mean value 6.40. The salinity of condensate water is lower than that of formation water. The milligram equivalent (mEq) percent of ion is used to study the features of condensate water. The anions (mEq) distribution of condensate water are scattered in ternary diagram, while that of formation water concentrate upon the SO42- and Cl- endpoints. The percent of HCO3-(mEq) in condensate water is higher than that of formation water. There is no obvious difference of cations mEq percent between condensate water and formation water, which indicates that condensate water strongly affected by formation water. Through this study, condensate water may originate from formation water and then be affected by complicated physical and chemical interactions. The condensate water is affected by gas and formation water. The relationship between condensate water and gas yield is very close. The variations of water yield, salinity and ions composition can reflect the change of gas yield. Taking well Xin 856 for example, which is located in Xinchang gas felid, there exist a relationship between

  13. Study of the geodynamic evolution of the Chinese Tianshan metamorphic belt to unravel deep processes occurring at the plate interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayet, L.; John, T.; Agard, P.; Becker, H.; Gao, J.

    2016-12-01

    Field-based studies of fossil plate interfaces can be used to provide constraints on the mechanical behaviour of subduction channel processes at depth. The Chinese Tianshan metamorphic belt (TMB) represents a suitable test area to study such processes since it contains fresh high-pressure rocks and well exposed structures in its central part. Lithologies composed of intercalated metasediments and volcanoclastics are likely derived from the trench during subduction with incorporation of first metapelitic-rich components and then increasing amounts of psammitic- and mafic-rich components and few carbonates. During burial, this material as well as pieces of the upper oceanic crust (pillow basalts) were scrapped off the slab and stacked to the upper plate and/or to the subduction channel at depth. During exhumation most of the deformation was accommodated by shearing and schistosity developed at blueschist-facies conditions (glaucophane lineations). A systematic sampling survey was carried out in the area through two N-S transects in order to reconstruct the P-T-t history of the central part of the TMB. Peak pressures and temperatures were estimated independently using Raman spectroscopy (quartz inclusions in garnet (P) and carbonaceous material (T)) and electron microprobe analysis (Zr-in rutile) on metasediments and metabasites. These yield coherent peak conditions of 530±30°C and 2.3±3 GPa. We combined these results with new geochronological Rb-Sr data to constrain the age of underplating and exhumation. We finally propose a tentative model for the geodynamic evolution of the TMB, based on field observations and P-T-t conditions. The TMB is interpreted to represent an erosive margin with accretion and stacking of tectonic slices at depths of 70 km, implying strong coupling/decoupling processes around this depth. During later exhumation this stack of detached material was brought back to the surface as a single unit undergoing shearing with minor internal

  14. An Observational Study of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea: Local, Regional, and Basin-Wide Perspectives on a Western Boundary Current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andres, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    .... An observational study of the Kuroshio was conducted using data collected in the East China Sea (ECS) north of Okinawa from December 2002 through November 2004 with an array of inverted echo sounders and acoustic Doppler current profilers...

  15. Assessing China's Relations with Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... of China's policy agenda toward Africa. Media outlets and Western scholars often suggest that China's relationship with Africa is built on its dependency on and demand for energy resources, markets, and investment opportunities for its booming industries and job seeking workers. China has often been.

  16. Google in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong

  17. Aeolian particle transport inferred using a ~150-year sediment record from Sayram Lake, arid northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied sediment cores from Sayram Lake in the Tianshan Mountains of northwest China to evaluate variations in aeolian transport processes over the past ~150 years. Using an end-member modeling algorithm of particle size data, we interpreted end members with a strong bimodal distribution as having been transported by aeolian processes, whereas other end members were interpreted to have been transported by fluvial processes. The aeolian fraction accounted for an average of 27% of the terrigenous components in the core. We used the ratio of aeolian to fluvial content in the Sayram Lake sediments as an index of past intensity of aeolian transport in the Tianshan Mountains. During the interval 1910-1930, the index was high, reflecting the fact that dry climate provided optimal conditions for aeolian dust transport. From 1930-1980, the intensity of aeolian transport was weak. From the 1980s to the 2000s, aeolian transport to Sayram Lake increased. Although climate in northwest China became more humid in the mid-1980s, human activity had by that time altered the impact of climate on the landscape, leading to enhanced surface erosion, which provided more transportable material for dust storms. Comparison of the Lake Sayram sediment record with sediment records from other lakes in the region indicates synchronous intervals of enhanced aeolian transport from 1910 to 1930 and 1980 to 2000.

  18. Necessity of organized low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer: From epidemiologic comparisons between China and the Western nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Hong-Feng; Liu, Yang; Yang, Tian-Xia; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Xin-Zu

    2017-01-03

    To compare the proportion of stage I lung cancer and population mortality in China to those in U.S. and Europe where lung cancer screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has been already well practiced. The proportions of stage I lung cancer in LDCT screening population in U.S. and Europe were retrieved from NLST and NELSON trials. The general proportion of stage I lung cancer in China was retrieved from a rapid meta-analysis, based on a literature search in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. The lung cancer mortality and prevalence of China, U.S. and Europe was retrieved from Globocan 2012 fact sheet. Mortality-to-prevalence ratio (MPR) was applied to compare the population survival outcome of lung cancer. The estimated proportion of stage I lung cancer in China is merely 20.8% among hospital-based cross-sectional population, with relative ratios (RRs) being 2.40 (95% CI 2.18-2.65) and 2.98 (95% CI 2.62-3.38) compared by LDCT-screening population in U.S. and Europe trials, respectively. MPR of lung cancer is as high as 58.9% in China, with RRs being 0.46 (95% CI 0.31-0.67) and 0.58 (95% CI 0.39-0.85) compared by U.S. and Europe, respectively. By the epidemiological inference, the LDCT mass screening might be associated with increasing stage I lung cancer and therefore improving population survival outcome. How to translate the experiences of lung cancer screening by LDCT from developed counties to China in a cost-effective manner needs to be further investigated.

  19. An Observational Study of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea: Local, Regional, and Basin-Wide Perspectives on a Western Boundary Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    ECS-Kuroshio transport observations (see Figure 44c). We calculate Qy using ∇H×τPDO in Equation (13) and integrating, not from Baja California ...through- iii flow and recirculation transports, and K. Kim for providing Tsushima Current transport data. Helpful suggestions from anonymous reviewers...narrow jets exist along the basins’ western boundaries. Quantifying heat , mass, and momentum transport carried in these western boundary currents is

  20. Cultural and Gender Differences in Perceptions of Stressors and Coping Skills: A Study of Western and African College Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Ismail Hussein

    2003-01-01

    Tests the universal nature of stress and coping behavior among overseas college students in China and provides basic information towards understanding the problems that result from stress and coping which can best be defined in cultural terms. Results indicated that academic and interpersonal sources of stress were the most common Stressors…

  1. Silk, porcelain and lacquer : China and Japan and their trade with Western Europe and the New World, 1500-1644. A survey of documentary and material evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llorens Planella, Maria Teresa (Teresa Canepa)

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the prolific early European trade and consumption of three Asian manufactured goods: Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese lacquer in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and has shown how the material cultures of late Ming China and Momoyama/early Edo Japan

  2. Chinese Managerial Culture Versus Western Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Renand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As China is believed to be the market of the twenty-first century, entering China is not an option but a strategic requirement for many organizations. However, numerous Western managers who are well equipped with technical background know almost nothing about the pioneers who are reshaping the world's second largest economy. Consequently, this cross-sectional analysis explores the managerial implication of the Chinese dialectic logic vs. Western formal logic, particularistic Chinese culture vs. universalistic Western culture. Then it investigates the Chinese socialization vs. Western technical expertise and completes the analysis on the Chinese vs. American pattern of management development including a comparison of their respective MBA.

  3. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  4. Coverage and factors associated with influenza vaccination among kindergarten children 2-7 years old in a low-income city of north-western China (2014-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Qin, Ying; Yang, Juan; Han, Wei; Lei, Youju; Feng, Huaxiang; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Li, Yanming; Yu, Hongjie; Feng, Luzhao; Shi, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Influenza vaccination has been shown to be the most effective preventive measure to reduce influenza virus infection and its related morbidity and mortality. Young children aged 6-59 months are recommended as one of the priority groups for seasonal influenza vaccination in China. Our study was conducted to evaluate the level of influenza vaccination coverage during 2014-15 and 2015-16 influenza seasons among kindergarten children aged 2-7 years in Xining, a low-income city of north-western China, and to explore potential factors for noncompliance associated with influenza vaccination. The coverage rate of influenza vaccination was 12.2% (95 CI: 10.6-14.2%) in 2014-15 and 12.8% (95 CI: 11.1-14.7%) in 2015-16. The low coverage rate was found to be primarily associated with the lack of knowledge about influenza vaccine in children's parents. The most common reason for vaccine declination was the concern about adverse reactions of vaccine. Therefore tailored information should be provided by clinician and public health doctors for targeted groups through effective methods to improve public understanding of vaccination.

  5. [A historical survey of diphtheria in the Western World, China and Japan. Part II: Modern age (from sixteenth century to the beginning of nineteenth century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A

    1996-09-01

    In Europe and North America, literatures on diphtheritic diseases was increasing from sixteenth to eighteenth century. In New England of North America, diphtheria and scarlet fever occurred epidemically in mingled form from 1735 to the succeeding year. Thereafter, many physicians in Europe and America treated patients of diphtheria and had different opinions about the nature of croup and diphtheria. In China, its own clinical medicine progressed extraordinarily during the modern age. Laryngeal specialists appeared and wrote special monographs about the pharynx and larynx. A physician wrote about "epidemic exanthem", which the author presumes to be a complicated form of scarlet fever and diphtheria. In Japan, diphtheria occurred in sporadic form usually, and in epidemic form occasionally. Japanese physicians studied medicine from China since the ancient age, and also introduced European medicine through the Netherlands in the eighteenth century. So Japanese physicians learned knowledge about throat diseases and diphtheria from Chinese and European medicine.

  6. Reassessment of petrogenesis of Carboniferous–Early Permian rift-related volcanic rocks in the Chinese Tianshan and its neighboring areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqi Xia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Carboniferous−Early Permian rift-related volcanic successions, covering large areas in the Chinese Tianshan and its adjacent areas, make up a newly recognized important Phanerozoic large igneous province in the world, which can be further divided into two sub-provinces: Tianshan and Tarim. The regional unconformity of Lower Carboniferous upon basement or pre-Carboniferous rocks, the ages (360–351 Ma of the youngest ophiolite and the peak of subduction metamorphism of high pressure–low temperature metamorphic belt and the occurrence of Ni-Cu-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion with age of ∼352 Ma and A-type granite with age of ∼358 Ma reveal that the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean might take place in the Early Mississippian. Our summation shows that at least four criteria, being normally used to identify ancient asthenosphere upwelling (or mantle plumes, are met for this large igneous province: (1 surface uplift prior to magmatism; (2 being associated with continental rifting and breakup events; (3 chemical characteristics of asthenosphere (or plume derived basalts; (4 close links to large-scale mineralization and the uncontaminated basalts, being analogous to those of many “ore-bearing” large igneous provinces, display Sr-Nd isotopic variations between plume and EM1 geochemical signatures. These suggest that a Carboniferous asthenosphere upwelling and an Early Permian plume played the central role in the generation of the Tianshan–Tarim (central Asia large igneous province.

  7. Metamorphic evolution of ultrahigh-pressure rocks from Chinese southwestern Tianshan and a possible indicator of UHP metamorphism using garnet composition in low-T eclogites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin-Xue; Zhang, Li-Fei; Bader, Thomas; Shen, Ting-Ting

    2014-09-01

    How to identify ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism in the absence of coesite is a key problem to gain the correct P-T history for an orogenic belt. In this study, garnet composition combined with the pseudosection approach was used to identify ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and to determine P-T paths for eclogites and metapelites from Chinese southwestern Tianshan. Porphyroblastic garnets from both eclogites and metapelites develop pronounced chemical core-rim textures: the relatively homogeneous core with low pyrope [Prp; Mg/(Ca + Mn + Mg + Fe2+) × 100] and grossular [Grs; Ca/(Ca + Mn + Mg + Fe2+) × 100] content is overgrown by a thin rim with sharply increased Prp and Grs. Phase equilibria modeling indicates that the ultrahigh-pressure rocks have undergone a clockwise P-T path characterized by heating during early exhumation with peak P-T at 31-33 kbar and 490-520 °C. The P-T pseudosections for eclogites show that isopleths of Prp and Grs strongly depend on temperature and pressure, respectively, especially in the stability fields of glaucophane-lawsonite-bearing eclogite facies assemblages. This indicates that garnet composition provides robust thermobarometric constraints. Consequently, we propose a Prp-Grs diagram which is subdivided into a high-pressure region and an ultrahigh-pressure region by the quartz-coesite-transition curve. Those garnet compositions which fall into the ultrahigh-pressure region are regarded to have experienced ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. This approach is expected to be a useful tool to qualitatively identify ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism for glaucophane-lawsonite-bearing eclogites and its particular strength is the quick examination of large datasets comprising samples with similar bulk composition. Using this method, garnet compositions of eclogites and mafic blueschists from Chinese southwestern Tianshan and lawsonite eclogites worldwide are plotted in the Prp-Grs diagram and several possible ultrahigh

  8. Maternal health care seeking by rural Tibetan women: Characteristics of women delivering at a newly-constructed birth center in western China

    OpenAIRE

    Gyaltsen, K; Gipson, JD; Gyal, L; Kyi, T; Hicks, AL; Pebley, AR

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Gyaltsen et al. Background: Increasing skilled birth attendance at delivery is key to reducing maternal mortality, particularly among marginalized populations. Despite China's successful rollout of a national policy to promote facility deliveries, challenges remain among rural and ethnic minority populations. In response, a Tibetan Birth and Training Center (TBTC) was constructed in 2010 to provide high-quality obstetric care in a home-like environment to a predominantly Tibetan popula...

  9. Followers of Confucianism or a New Generation? Learning Culture of Mainland Chinese: In Pursuit of Western-Based Business Education Away from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    The mainland Chinese learning culture has evolved due to the rapid changes in the economic, political, cultural and demographic demands. The changing characteristics of the Chinese students' learning behavioral styles and preferences, as well as the challenges faced in pursuit of Western-based education, are discussed with suggested…

  10. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Ma, Rulin; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Zhang, Jingyu; Wei, Bin; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Jiaolong; Pang, Hongrui; Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-02-08

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into local preventive

  11. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and petrogenesis of metabasites from the western Beihuaiyang zone in the Hong'an orogen, central China: Implications for detachment within subducting continental crust at shallow depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Can; Liu, Li-Xiang; Li, Yuan; Gu, Xiao-Feng; Song, Biao

    2017-09-01

    Deformed low-grade metabasites from the western segment of the Beihuaiyang zone in the Hong'an orogen, central China can be divided into two types, i.e. meta-gabbro and meta-basalt. These lithologies have been studied by using whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic analyses, and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating. Concordant zircon U-Pb ages of 631 ± 5 Ma and 623 ± 14 Ma are obtained for the meta-gabbros, consistent with a previously reported U-Pb age of 635 ± 5 Ma. The meta-basalt was dated to have a protolith age of middle Neoproterozoic (∼750 Ma) and a metamorphic age at ca. 240 Ma. The all studied metabasites occur as block or slice within a metamorphosed Ordovician volcanic zone (originally named as the Dingyuan Formation) and are in tectonic contact to each other. The gabbro and basalt emplaced at ∼630 Ma and ∼750 Ma, respectively in a continental rifting setting, whereas their present country rocks were erupted at ∼465 Ma in an arc setting. The Pb-isotope compositions of the low-grade meta-gabbros and meta-basalts are similar to those from the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) meta-igneous rocks with an upper continental crust affinity. The protolith ages of the studied relatively low-grade meta-basic rocks are in good agreement not only with ages for two episodes of middle and late Neoproterozoic mafic and felsic magmatism in the Suizhou to Zaoyang areas at the northern margin of the South China Block, but are also in agreement with the protolith ages of UHP meta-igneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Therefore, these Neoproterozoic low-grade metabasites are considered to be exotic and they may have been detached and offscraped from the subducting upper crust of the South China Block at shallow depths during continental collision in the Triassic. They were subsequently exhumed in the initial stage of continental subduction, and thrusted over the Paleozoic metamorphosed rocks in the southern margin of the North China Block or as foreign slices

  12. Effects of tides on the cross-isobath movement of the low-salinity plume in the western Yellow and East China Seas in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Hirose, Naoki; Yuan, Dongliang; Moon, Jae-Hong; Pan, Xishan

    2017-07-01

    Offshore extension of the fresh Subei coast water is identified in winter based on in site salinity observation data in this and previous studies. A high-resolution regional ocean circulation model is used to investigate the cross-isobath movement of low salinity-water over the Yellow and East China Seas, and it has reproduced the salinity distribution observed in the winter of 2014-2015 successfully. The model suggests that the low-salinity water is basically degenerated back to the eastern coast of China in winter because of strong northeasterly wind. However, a part of the low-salinity water extends offshore in the southeast direction across the 20-50 m isobaths over the Yangtze Bank, which cannot be explained by either the northerly winter monsoon or the Changjiang discharge. Numerical experiments suggest that the cross-isobath transport of the soluble substances is highly attributed to the tidal residual current, flowing southeastward across 20-50 m isobaths over the whole Yangtze Bank. The results of controlled experiments also indicate that the bottom shear of the tidal current, rather than the tidal mixing, plays a significant role in the cross-isobath current during winter.

  13. 108 WESTERN INFLUENCE ON CHINESE AND NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    American style skyscrapers with western modern architecture which signifies that they have followed the trend of modernity. Today, many cities in China could boast of city skyline with modern designs for comfort. b) Chinese Weddings: Many Chinese have adopted the western form of white wedding ceremony. They see the.

  14. Kinematics of active deformation across the Western Kunlun mountain range (Xinjiang, China), and potential seismic hazards within the southern Tarim Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilbaud, Christelle; Simoes, Martine; Barrier, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    The Western Kunlun mountain range is a slowly converging intra-continental orogen where deformation rates are too low to be properly quantified from geodetic techniques. This region has recorded little seismicity, but the recent July 2015 (Mw 6.4) Pishan earthquake shows that this mountain range...... remains seismic. To quantify the rate of active deformation and the potential for major earthquakes in this region, we combine a structural and quantitative morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, along the topographic mountain front in the epicentral area. Using a seismic profile, we derive...

  15. Exploring status and determinants of prenatal and postnatal visits in western China: in the background of the new health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaojing; Zhou, Zhongliang; Dang, Shaonong; Xu, Yongjian; Gao, Jianmin; Zhou, Zhiying; Su, Min; Wang, Dan; Chen, Gang

    2017-07-20

    Prenatal and postnatal visits are two effective interventions for protection and promotion of maternal health by reducing maternal mortality and improving the quality of birth. There is limited nationally representative data regarding the changes of prenatal and postnatal visits since the latest health system reform initiated in 2009 in Shaanxi, China. The aim of this study was to explore the current status and determinants of prenatal and postnatal visits in the background of new health system reform. Data were drawn from two waves of National Health Service Surveys in Shaanxi Province which were conducted prior and post the health system reform in 2008 and 2013, respectively. A concentration index was employed to measure the degree of income-related inequality of maternal health services utilization. Multilevel mix-effects logistic regressions were applied to study the factors associated with prenatal and postnatal visits. The study sample consists of 2398 women aged 15-49 years old. The data of the 5th National Health Services Survey in 2013 showed in the criterion of the World Health Organization (WHO), the percentage of women receiving ≥4 prenatal visits was 84.79% for urban women and 82.20% for rural women, with women receiving ≥3 postnatal visits were 26.48 and 25.29% for urban and rural women respectively. In the criterion of China's ≥ 5 prenatal visits the percentages were 72.25% for urban women and 70.33% for rural women; 61.69% of urban women and 71.50% of rural women received ≥1 postnatal visits. As for urban women, the concentration index of postnatal visit utilization was -0.075 (95% CI:-0.148, -0.020) after the health system reform. The determinants related to prenatal and postnatal visits were the change of reform, women's education, parity and the delivery institution. This study showed the utilization of prenatal and postnatal visits met the requirement of the WHO, higher than other areas in China and other developing countries after

  16. The financial impact of the 'zero-markup policy for essential drugs' on patients in county hospitals in western rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Zhou

    Full Text Available With a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to assess whether the Zero-markup Policy for Essential Drugs (ZPED reduces the medical expense for patients at county hospitals, the major healthcare provider in rural China.Data from Ningshan county hospital and Zhenping county hospital, China, include 2014 outpatient records and 9239 inpatient records. Quantitative methods are employed to evaluate ZPED. Both hospital-data difference-in-differences and individual-data regressions are applied to analyze the data from inpatient and outpatient departments.In absolute terms, the total expense per visit reduced by 19.02 CNY (3.12 USD for outpatient services and 399.6 CNY (65.60 USD for inpatient services. In relative terms, the expense per visit was reduced by 11% for both outpatient and inpatient services. Due to the reduction of inpatient expense, the estimated reduction of outpatient visits is 2% among the general population and 3.39% among users of outpatient services. The drug expense per visit dropped by 27.20 CNY (4.47 USD for outpatient services and 278.7 CNY (45.75 USD for inpatient services. The proportion of drug expense out of total expense per visit dropped by 11.73 percentage points in outpatient visits and by 3.92 percentage points in inpatient visits.Implementation of ZPED is a benefit for patients in both absolute and relative terms. The absolute monetary reduction of the per-visit inpatient expense is 20 times of that in outpatient care. According to cross-price elasticity, the substitution between inpatient and outpatient due to the change in inpatient price is small. Furthermore, given that the relative reductions are the same for outpatient and inpatient visits, according to relative thinking theory, the incentive to utilize outpatient or inpatient care attributed to ZPED is equivalent, regardless of the 20-times price difference in absolute terms.

  17. Cross section of the lower part of the upper Triassic in the western part of the Szechwan basin and situation of the sedimentation in these deposits. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den, K.; Khe, Ch.; Khe, L.; Tsin, D.

    1982-01-01

    Depositing of the upper Triassic, developed very broadly (in contrast to the lower Triassic which are encountered sporadically) plays an important role in the oil and gas geology of the Szechwan basin. A detailed description is made (including lithology and community of minerals) of the cross section of the Maantan series. The series is 329 m thick. It is separated by nonconformities from the Tyantszinshan series (from the bottom) and Syaotantszy (from the top). Based on the encountered ammonites, foraminifera, spores and pollen, etc. the series is classified with the Karniyskiy stage. In the beginning of this century, the transgression of the Tetis Sea, extending to the southeast of the Aba-Gartsze region reached the western part of the basin. As a result, a series was deposited of mainly organogenic-detrital limestones. In the middle and late Karniyskiy time, the sea was extended further to the southeast. The admixture of terrigenous material is great in the deposits of the corresponding part of the series. From the data of studies, the western part of the Szechwan basin is compared with the eastern shelf of the Aba-Gartsze Sea.

  18. Ethnic Differences in Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Guo, Shuxia; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Shugang; Xu, Shangzhi; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Heng; Ma, Rulin

    2014-01-01

    Background The global pandemic of obesity has become a disastrous public health issue that needs urgent attention. Previous studies have concentrated in high-income urban settings and few cover low-income rural settings especially nomadic residents in mountain areas. This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China’s far west and investigated their prevalence and ethnic differences of obesity. Methods A questionnaire-based survey and physical examination of 8,036 individuals were conducted during 2009–2010, using stratified cluster random sampling method in nomadic Kazakhs and rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) in 18 villages, Xinjiang, China, about 4,407 km away from capital Beijing. Obesity was defined by BMI and WC. Results The overall prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in Kazakh adults were 18.3% and 60.0%, respectively and in Uyghur, 7.6% and 54.5%, respectively. Female’s prevalence of obesity was higher than male’s for general obesity (45–54 age group in Uyghur, P = 0.041) and abdominal obesity (≥55 years in Kazakhs, P55∼ = 0.010, P65∼ = 0.001; and ≥18 years in Uyghurs, Pethnic Kazakhs and Uyghurs. The prevalence rates were different in these two minorities depending on ethnicity, gender, and age. Kazakhs, females and elderly people may be prioritized in prevention of obesity in western China. Because of cost-effectiveness in measuring BMI and WC, we recommend that BMI and WC be integrated into local preventive policies in public health toward screening obesity and related diseases in low-income rural minorities. PMID:25188373

  19. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  20. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  1. Conducting business in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J H

    1996-10-01

    Chinese culture is governed by an ancient set of values. Despite the gradual infiltration of Western culture, these historical practices remain highly visible in all interactions between Chinese people. For Western companies to set up and maintain viable businesses in China, it is essential that they have an understanding of Chinese heritage. This article identifies key elements of Chinese customs and business practices and explains their significance.

  2. A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; van Roermund, Herman; Zhang, Lifei; Spiers, Chris

    2012-04-01

    In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U-Th-Pb monazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the dominant rock association in the Xitieshan ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt, north Qaidam, western China. Results are consistent with the following complex polyphase tectono-metamorphic evolution. The kyanite/sillimanite bearing garnet biotite gneisses contain monazite ages of 938 ± 23 Ma and zircon SHRIMP ages of 945 ± 7 Ma, referring to a Neoproterozoic metamorphism, i.e. similar to the age of the Jinning orogeny in the Yangtze block of southern China. This correlation suggests that the paragneiss has affinities with the Yangtze block (South China block). The Neoproterozoic monazites were found inside coarse grained porphyroblastic garnets containing amphibolite facies mineral inclusion assemblages. The kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses also contain early Paleozoic monazite ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma, detected in amphibolite facies mineral assemblages associated with matrix minerals. Using phase equilibrium- and geothermobarometric calculations, PT conditions of 560-610 °C/5.8-7.0 kbar and 610-675 °C/4.6-6.5 kbar were calculated respectively for both amphibolite facies assemblages. The early Paleozoic ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma were detected in 8 monazite grains from the investigated paragneiss samples. Based on the Y and Eu contents variation of the early Paleozoic monazite domains (measured by EMP), the 422-425 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to have formed during an amphibolite facies tectono-metamorphic overprint that post-dates (U)HP metamorphism and can thus be related to exhumation of previously deeply subducted rocks. Alternatively, the 455-460 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to represent the age of the prograde subduction

  3. Exploring status and determinants of prenatal and postnatal visits in western China: in the background of the new health system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal and postnatal visits are two effective interventions for protection and promotion of maternal health by reducing maternal mortality and improving the quality of birth. There is limited nationally representative data regarding the changes of prenatal and postnatal visits since the latest health system reform initiated in 2009 in Shaanxi, China. The aim of this study was to explore the current status and determinants of prenatal and postnatal visits in the background of new health system reform. Methods Data were drawn from two waves of National Health Service Surveys in Shaanxi Province which were conducted prior and post the health system reform in 2008 and 2013, respectively. A concentration index was employed to measure the degree of income-related inequality of maternal health services utilization. Multilevel mix-effects logistic regressions were applied to study the factors associated with prenatal and postnatal visits. Results The study sample consists of 2398 women aged 15-49 years old. The data of the 5th National Health Services Survey in 2013 showed in the criterion of the World Health Organization (WHO, the percentage of women receiving ≥4 prenatal visits was 84.79% for urban women and 82.20% for rural women, with women receiving ≥3 postnatal visits were 26.48 and 25.29% for urban and rural women respectively. In the criterion of China’s ≥ 5 prenatal visits the percentages were 72.25% for urban women and 70.33% for rural women; 61.69% of urban women and 71.50% of rural women received ≥1 postnatal visits. As for urban women, the concentration index of postnatal visit utilization was −0.075 (95% CI:-0.148, −0.020 after the health system reform. The determinants related to prenatal and postnatal visits were the change of reform, women’s education, parity and the delivery institution. Conclusions This study showed the utilization of prenatal and postnatal visits met the requirement of the WHO

  4. Linking the initial subduction of the South Tianshan Oceanic Plate and associated magmatism to Kazakhstan orocline: insights from petrogenesis of granites in the southern Yili Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    The Kazakhstan orocline is a striking collage system of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. It has been documented to be a composite continent via assembly of several orogenic components by the Devonian and finally to attain its U-shaped structure through oroclinal bending in the Late Paleozoic. In order to reveal the relationship between the Kazakhstan orocline and regional magmatism, granitic rocks including monzogranites and K-feldspar granites in the south limb of the orocline have been conducted geochronological and geochemical studies. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of the monzogranites gave crystallization ages of 360±1.8 Ma and 360.5±1.7 Ma, and the K-feldspar granites have a coeval age (361.3±1.8 Ma). Both of the granites are high-K granites, and show enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE) and obvious negative Eu anomalies. They display negative anomalies in Ba, Nb, Sr, Eu, and Ti. The K-feldspar granites have higher SiO2, K2O contents and lower MgO, Fe2O3T, Zr contents than those of the monzogranites. Geochemical data support that the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, and the monzogranites are unfractionated I-type granites. Distinguishable Nd and Hf isotope suggest that the K-feldspar granites and the monzogranites may share a common magma chamber. The negative Eu anomalies and depletions of Ba and Sr possibly imply plagioclase as residue in the magma source. The Sr-Nd isotopic data and the ɛHf(t) values (-3.6 - 2.9) indicate that the parental magma was probably derived from crustal rock with minor mantle-derived melt. The new geochemical data and regional geology evidences indicate that the granites may be generated in a continental back-arc environment, which was inferred to be a response to the initial subduction of the South Tianshan Oceanic Plate. Given that the Kazakhstan orocline was developed during this period, it is plausible to link the initial subduction of the South Tianshan Oceanic Plate and associated

  5. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-01-01

    an empirical study on the distribution and cluster pattern of China׳s REEI based on the analysis on the industrial output value, the number and location of key companies/industrial bases, through on-site survey and updating statistical data. Results highlighted that in general, four REEI clusters were formed......China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... in western China, while R&D and high-tech equipment manufacture were clustered in eastern coastal regions. Based on the empirical study and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of the roles of stakeholders involved REEI of China, we further proposed various strategic measures and policy implications to better...

  6. [Nursing career of Christianity church in China and its social influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y M

    2016-11-28

    Nursing is an important component of modern western medicine. Modern nursing was introduced into China by western missionaries. Modern nursing education promoted the establishment of professionalization of modern nursing in China, helped the development of western medicine and western hospitals, and exerted profound influences to the lifestyle modification and the independence and liberation of women.

  7. Effect of Slope, Rainfall Intensity and Mulch on Erosion and Infiltration under Simulated Rain on Purple Soil of South-Western Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple soil is widely distributed in the hilly areas of the Sichuan basin, southwest China, and is highly susceptible to water erosion. The triggering of this process is related to slope, rainfall intensity and surface cover. Therefore, this study assesses the effects of different simulated rainfall intensities with different slopes on hydrological and erosional processes in un-mulched and mulched purple soils. Results show that the sediment and water losses increased with an increase of rainfall intensity and slope steepness. Generally, the slope contribution (Sc on water and sediment losses decreased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness under both un-mulched and mulched soil. In un-mulched conditions, water losses were independent of slope steepness (Sc < 50% during the highest rainfall intensity. However, in mulched soil, the higher contributions of slope (Sc and rainfall (Rc were found for water and sediment losses, respectively, i.e., >50%, except during the increase in slope steepness from 15° to 25° under the highest rainfall intensity (120 mm·h−1. The effectiveness of mulch was more pronounced in reducing sediment losses (81%–100% compared with water losses (14%–100%. The conservation effectiveness of mulch both decreased and increased with slope steepness for water and sediment losses, respectively, under higher rainfall intensities. Water infiltration and recharge coefficient (RC decreased with an increase of slope steepness, while with an increase in rainfall intensity, the water infiltration and RC were increased and decreased, respectively, in both un-mulched and mulched soil. On the other hand, mulched soil maintained a significantly (α = 0.05 higher infiltration capacity and RC compared to that of the un-mulched soil.

  8. Household survey analysis of the impact of comprehensive strategies to improve the expanded programme on immunisation at the county level in western China, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqing; Xing, Yi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Yue, Chenyan; Zhu, Xu; Hipgrave, David

    2016-03-10

    To evaluate interventions to improve routine vaccination coverage and caregiver knowledge in China's remote west, where routine immunisation is relatively weak. Prospective pre-post (2006-2010) evaluation in project counties; retrospective comparison based on 2004 administrative data at baseline and surveyed post-intervention (2010) data in selected non-project counties. Four project counties and one non-project county in each of four provinces. 3390 children in project counties at baseline, and 3299 in project and 830 in non-project counties post-intervention; and 3279 caregivers at baseline, and 3389 in project and 830 in non-project counties post-intervention. Multicomponent inexpensive knowledge-strengthening and service-strengthening and innovative, multisectoral engagement. Standard 30-cluster household surveys of vaccine coverage and caregiver interviews pre-intervention and post-intervention in each project county. Similar surveys in one non-project county selected by local authorities in each province post-intervention. Administrative data on vaccination coverage in non-project counties at baseline. Changes in vaccine coverage between baseline and project completion (2010); comparative caregiver knowledge in all counties in 2010. Crude (χ(2)) analysis of changes and differences in vaccination coverage and related knowledge. Multiple logistic regression to assess associations with timely coverage. Timely coverage of four routine vaccines increased by 21% (pimmunisation in public-sector performance standards, are affordable and effective interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Estimation of supraglacial debris thickness using a novel target decomposition on L-band polarimetric SAR images in the Tianshan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Li, Zh.; Tian, B. S.; Han, H. D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Zhou, J. M.; Chen, Q.

    2017-04-01

    Debris is widely distributed in the ablation zones of mountain glaciers in the Tianshan Mountains. Supraglacial debris can accelerate or hamper glacier ablation, depending on its thickness. Thus, it plays an important role in the mass balance of debris-covered glaciers. This paper proposes a novel method to estimate supraglacial debris thickness by using L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar. A new model-based target decomposition is used to extract the surface scattering, double bounce, and volume scattering components. The surface scatter model uses the extended Bragg scatter, which considers the depolarization effect for rough surfaces. The volume scatter model uses elliptical scatterers, which approximate the shape of the solids in the debris. The volume scattering power is related to the dielectric properties of the debris, the radar wavelength, the incidence angle, and the elliptical scatter shape. Once the target decomposition is performed, the debris thickness can be inverted from the volume scattering power and other known parameters. Through comparison with a large number of field measurements, the inversion is shown to be reasonable, and the accuracy is validated to be ±0.12 m. Based on the inversion map in the study area, the debris thicknesses of the Koxkar glacier and its neighboring glaciers are presented and analyzed.

  10. Responses of CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O fluxes to increasing nitrogen deposition in alpine grassland of the Tianshan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaihui; Gong, Yanming; Song, Wei; He, Guixiang; Hu, Yukun; Tian, Changyan; Liu, Xuejun

    2012-06-01

    To assess the effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in alpine grassland of the Tianshan Mountains in central Asia, CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O fluxes were measured from June 2010 to May 2011. Nitrogen deposition tended to significantly increase CH(4) uptake, CO(2) and N(2)O emissions at sites receiving N addition compared with those at site without N addition during the growing season, but no significant differences were found for all sites outside the growing season. Air temperature, soil temperature and water content were the important factors that influence CO(2) and N(2)O emissions at year-round scale, indicating that increased temperature and precipitation in the future will exert greater impacts on CO(2) and N(2)O emissions in the alpine grassland. In addition, plant coverage in July was also positively correlated with CO(2) and N(2)O emissions under elevated N deposition rates. The present study will deepen our understanding of N deposition impacts on GHG balance in the alpine grassland ecosystem, and help us assess the global N effects, parameterize Earth System models and inform decision makers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is China a Leviathan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo address the problem why China, as a communist country, moves in the opposite direction when the public sector has undergoing a continuous growth in most Western economies since the World War I, we offer a new approach that the de facto fiscal decentralization curtails government size

  12. EMNEs from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    and innovation in Western companies gained momentum some decades ago. However, the recent developments in the field also include the spread of the phenomenon to companies from the emerging economies. In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of the ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese...

  13. China: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    respects, physicians trained in traditional medi- cine and those trained in Western medicine constitute separate groups with diflerent interests. For...China: Rule by Purge," Asian Survey, 25, No. 6, June 1985, 638-58. Schram, Stuart R. "To Utopia and Back: A Cycle in the History of Chinese Communist

  14. Cenozoic faults and faulting phases in the western Tarim Basin (NW China): Effects of the collisions on the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Tian, Zuo-Ji; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Wen, Lei; Zhao, Yan; Jia, Tie-Gan

    2016-12-01

    The Bachu Rise in the western Tarim Basin is the fore-bulge of the Kunlun late Cenozoic intra-continental foreland basin system formed under the far-field effect of India-Asia collision. Cenozoic faults and faulting are abnormally developed in the Bachu Rise and its adjacent area. Taking the Niaoshan-Gudongshan area on the southern boundary of the Bachu Rise as the key study area, 5 Cenozoic faulting phases were identified in the Bachu Rise and its adjacent area after careful seismic interpretation. They are end Cretaceous ∼ beginning Paleogene (ca. 65 Ma) décollement-thrusting, end Paleogene ∼ beginning Neogene (ca. 23 Ma) décollement-thrusting, end Miocene ∼ beginning Pliocene (ca. 5 Ma) basement-involved thrusting, late Pliocene ∼ early Pleistocene (ca. 3-2 Ma) normal faulting, middle Pleistocene ∼ Holocene (ca. <1.5 Ma) décollement-thrusting and strike-slip faulting. The Middle Cambrian and Paleogene gypsum-salt layers serve as the two main décollement layers in the study area. Thrusting of ca. 65 Ma was under the far-field effect of the collision between Lhasa (part of the Cimmerian Continent) and Asia; and the other 4 Cenozoic faulting phases were all under the far-field effect of the India-Asia collision. The late Cenozoic faulting is characterized by pulse thrust. There is one tectonic pause between each two successive thrust pulses. The compressive tectonic stress is weaker and even evolved into a slight tensional tectonic stress and forms normal fault in the tectonic pauses.

  15. Depression among Low-Income Female Muslim Uyghur and Kazakh Informal Caregivers of Disabled Elders in Far Western China: Influence on the Caregivers' Burden and the Disabled Elders' Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiyan; He, Bin; Wang, Yuhuan; Wu, Fuchen; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenting; Yang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to and improving the mental health of the informal caregivers of disabled elders has become a global public health priority. This study focused on low-income female Uyghur and Kazakh informal caregivers of disabled elders residing in China's far west. It investigated the prevalence of and the major related factors of depressive emotion. A cross-sectional study was performed from September 2013 to January 2014 in Shawan Prefectures, Tuokexun Prefectures, Bole Prefecture and Urumchi city. Shawan Prefecture has the highest proportion of Kazakhs, whereas Tuokexun Prefectures, Bole Prefecture and Urumchi city have the highest proportion of Uyghurs in Muslim ethnic Uygur and Kazakh communities. Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is located in remote western China; this area is approximately 3,105 km (1,929 miles) away from Beijing. A total of 444 female Uyghur and Kazakh informal caregivers of disabled elders participated in this study. The self-rating depression scale, the Zarit burden interview, and the SF-36 questionnaire were used to evaluate the state of caregiver depression, caregiver burden, and quality of life (QOL), respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression analyses, correlation with Spearman's rho and independent-sample t-tests; a P-value of disabled elders more than 60 years old, total hours spent on caring daily≥8h, duration of caring≥5 years, negative self-evaluation of health condition, having caregiver burden, elders' medium degree of disability and elders' heavy degree of disability had a higher risk of caregiver depression. By contrast, daughter/daughter-in-law of disabled elders; unemployed carers, family's per capita income >US$235.48(1500 yuan), high social support, and high QOL of disabled elders were each associated with a lower risk of depressive emotion. Moreover, informal caregivers with depression obtained high care burden scores; at the same time, disabled elders who were looked

  16. Inclusion of glacier processes for distributed hydrological modeling at basin scale with application to a watershed in Tianshan Mountains, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we proposed: (1) an algorithm of glacier melt, sublimation/evaporation, accumulation, mass balance and retreat; (2) a dynamic Hydrological Response Unit approach for incorporating the algorithm into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model; and (3) simulated the transient glacie...

  17. Geochemical and zircon isotopic evidence for extensive high level crustal contamination in Miocene to mid-Pleistocene intra-plate volcanic rocks from the Tengchong field, western Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Shi, Yuruo; Williams, Ian S.; Anderson, J. Lawford; Wu, Zhonghai; Wang, Shubing

    2017-08-01

    SHRIMP zircon Pb/U dating of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the Tengchong area, western Yunnan Province, China, shows that the dacite and andesitic breccia lavas from Qushi village were intruded at 480 ± 10 ka and 800 ± 40 ka, respectively. Moreover, Pb/U dating of trachyandesite from Tuantian village and olivine basalt from Wuhe village give weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 2.82 ± 0.08 Ma and 12.28 ± 0.30 Ma. Corrections for initial 230Th disequilibrium of zircon were used for the former two younger ages. The Tengchong volcanic rocks have a large range of SiO2 (48.6-66.9 wt.%) and mostly belong to a high-K calc-alkaline series. The lavas originated from heterogeneous sources and were modified by subsequent fractional crystallization. The REE and other trace element patterns of the Tengchong volcanic rocks resemble magmas having a large component of continental crust. All have similar degrees of LREE and HREE fractionation and are enriched in LILE, La, Ce and Pb, with depletions in Nb, Ta, Ti, Sr and P relative to primitive mantle. Zircon δ18O values of 6.96 ± 0.17 and 7.01 ± 0.24‰ and highly varied negative εHf(t) values of - 1.5 to - 11.0 and - 10.3 to - 13.7, as well as the presence of inherited zircon grains in the studied samples, indicate that the magmas contain crustal material on a large scale. The Tengchong volcanic rocks have HFSE ratios (e.g., Nb/Ta, La/Nb, Zr/Y) similar to continental flood basalts, indicative of an intra-plate extensional tectonic setting. Widespread distributed faults might have facilitated upwelling of mantle-derived melts and eruptions from shallow crustal magma chambers to form the large volcanic field.

  18. U-Pb zircon, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the age and origin of Early Palaeozoic I-type granite from the Tengchong-Baoshan Block, Western Yunnan Province, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Hu, RuiZhong; Gao, Shan; Feng, CaiXia; Huang, Zhilong; Lai, Shaocong; Yuan, Honglin; Liu, Xiaoming; Coulson, Ian M.; Feng, Guangying; Wang, Tao; Qi, YouQiang

    2009-09-01

    Herein we present new U-Pb zircon ages, whole-rock geochemical data and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data for an Early Palaeozoic monzogranite batholith from the Tengchong-Baoshan Block, Western Yunnan Province, China. Mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that this granitoid is a high-K, calc-alkaline, I-type granite. SHRIMP and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) analysis of zircon yields ages of between 499 ± 5 Ma and 502 ± 5 Ma, for three samples from the batholith. The monzogranite is characterised by high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7132-0.7144), negative ɛNd( t) (-9.7 to -9.40) and ɛHf( t) (-10 to -13.1), and is interpreted to derive from remelting of pre-existing Palaeoproterozoic, high-K, metabasaltic rocks of the upper crust. The granitoid magma underwent extensive fractional crystallisation of biotite ± hornblende, ilmenite, titanite, K-feldspar and plagioclase during emplacement. The crystallisation temperature of the magma lies in the range 633-733 °C, however, there is no evidence to suggest crustal assimilation occurred during its ascent. Like the ˜500 Ma, I-type granite of this study, there occur numerous granitoid rocks of Early Palaeozoic age (490-470 Ma) in adjacent regions across the entire Tengchong-Baoshan Block ( Chen et al., 2004, 2005; Song et al., 2007). This episode of plutonism is coeval with the widespread granitoid magmatism found throughout the Indian Plate and the Himalayan Orogenic Belt that are both subordinate parts of the ancient, Gondwana supercontinent. We infer, therefore, that the Tengchong-Baoshan Block may also have formed part of Gondwana, and that it separated from this supercontinent along with other crustal blocks during the Late Palaeozoic. Moreover, based on the findings of this study, we document the occurrence of arc-related magmatism in the Tengchong-Baoshan Block during the late Palaeoproterozoic.

  19. High-precision U-Pb geochronology of the Jurassic Yanliao Biota from Jianchang (western Liaoning Province, China): Age constraints on the rise of feathered dinosaurs and eutherian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhuyin; He, Huaiyu; Ramezani, Jahandar; Bowring, Samuel A.; Hu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lijun; Zheng, Shaolin; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Zhonghe; Deng, Chenglong; Guo, Jinghui

    2016-10-01

    The Yanliao Biota of northeastern China comprises the oldest feathered dinosaurs, transitional pterosaurs, as well as the earliest eutherian mammals, multituberculate mammals, and new euharamiyidan species that are key elements of the Mesozoic biotic record. Recent discovery of the Yanliao Biota in the Daxishan section near the town of Linglongta, Jianchang County in western Liaoning Province have greatly enhanced our knowledge of the transition from dinosaurs to birds, primitive to derived pterosaurs, and the early evolution of mammals. Nevertheless, fundamental questions regarding the correlation of fossil-bearing strata, rates of dinosaur and mammalian evolution, and their relationship to environmental change in deep time remain unresolved due to the paucity of precise and accurate temporal constraints. These limitations underscore the importance of placing the rich fossil record of Jianchang within a high-resolution chronostratigraphic framework that has thus far been hampered by the relatively low precision of in situ radioisotopic dating techniques. Here we present high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology by the chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) from three interstratified ash beds previously dated by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) technique. The results constrain the key fossil horizons of the Daxishan section to an interval spanning 160.89 to 160.25 Ma with 2σ analytical uncertainties that range from ±46 to ±69 kyr. These data place the Yanliao Biota from Jianchang in the Oxfordian Stage of the Late Jurassic, and mark the Daxishan section as the site of Earth's oldest precisely dated feathered dinosaurs and eutherian mammals.

  20. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming

    2011-12-01

    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  1. Ordovician conodonts of the Tarim Region, Xinjiang, China: Occurrence and use as paleoenvironment indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-hao, Wang; Yu-ping, Qi; Bergström, Stig M.

    2007-03-01

    A review of the distribution of different Ordovician conodont faunas in eight areas of the Tarim Region shows that these conodont faunas can be classified into the North China and South China types. The North China type is characterized by Aurilobodus leptosomatus, A. aurilobodus, A. simplex, Tangshanodus tanshanensis, Loxodus dissectus, Parasseratognathus paltodiformis, Microcoelodus symmetricus, Belodina compressa, B. confluens, Pseudobelodina dispansa, Yaoxianognathus yaoxianensis, and Taoqupognathus blandus. These were adapted to shallow, warm-water environments. The South China type is represented by the genera Amorphognathus, Baltoniodus, Cahabagnathus, Eoplacognathus, Lenodus, Microzarkodina, Oepikodus, Paroistodus, Paracordylodus, Periodon, Polonodus, and Pygodus, which were adapted to outer shelf, deeper, and colder water environments. Using the general pattern of conodont distribution, it is possible to interpret the various depositional environments and to reconstruct broad changes in palaeogeography of the Tarim Region during Ordovician time. In general, during Tremadocian to early Middle Ordovician time, most of the Tarim Region was a shallow semi-restricted platform that became deeper towards the north and east, with an open platform in Kalping and in the northern part of Taklimakan Desert. A slope and deep basin existed in the current Tianshan Mountains region. The Tarim sea was shallow during the Early Ordovician and became deeper during "Caradocian" (Sandbian and Early Katian) time, to become shallow again during "Ashgillian" (Late Katian) time, with the exception of part of central Taklimakan, which was a land area during "Caradocian" (Sandbian and Early Katian) time.

  2. Exploring Servitization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  3. High‐precision U‐Pb geochronology of the Jurassic Yanliao Biota from Jianchang (western Liaoning Province, China): Age constraints on the rise of feathered dinosaurs and eutherian mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Zhuyin; He, Huaiyu; Ramezani, Jahandar; Bowring, Samuel A; Hu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lijun; Zheng, Shaolin; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Zhonghe; Deng, Chenglong; Guo, Jinghui

    2016-01-01

    The Yanliao Biota of northeastern China comprises the oldest feathered dinosaurs, transitional pterosaurs, as well as the earliest eutherian mammals, multituberculate mammals, and new euharamiyidan...

  4. The Cretaceous system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.Q.; Chen, P.J.; Wei, M.J. [Capital Normal University, Beijing (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper provides an outline of Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China, which is based on rich data obtained from recent researches. Cretaceous deposits are widespread in China. Most strata are of nonmarine origin and marine sediments occur only in Tibet, western Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, Taiwan and limited localities of eastern Heilongjiang. All deposits are rich in fossils and well-constrained biostratigraphically. The stratigraphic successions of different regions are illustrated, and general stratigraphic division and correlation have been introduced. The marine deposits are described in the Tibetan Tethys, Kashi-Hotan Region of Xinjiang, eastern Heilongjiang, western Yunnan and Taiwan; the nonmarine deposits are outlined from northeast China, southeast China, southern interior China, southwest China, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region, and northwestern China intermontane basins. The sedimentary facies and paleogeography are diversified. In Tibet the basin evolution is largely related to the subduction and collision of the Indian Plate against the Eurasian Continent, and shows a tectonic evolution in the Cretaceous. Foraminifera are a dominant biota in the Tibet Tethys. Nonmarine sediments include variegated and red beds, coal- or salt-bearing horizons, and volcanic rocks. These deposits contain diverse and abundant continental faunas and floras, as well as important coal and oil resources. The Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China have presented a foundation for geological studies.

  5. Lifelong Learning in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong learning in China is explored in terms of China’s developing modernization in the areas of agriculture, industry, military, and science and technology. Issues involving labor distribution allocation, skill and training, and potential problems are addressed. The role of adult learning in China is contrasted with Western ideas and traced through time to show how it has changed to accommodate the country’s needs in terms of illiteracy and skill development and used to be inexplicably intertwined with the country’s political agenda and educational policy.

  6. [Research on child neglect situation and influential factors of left-behind children and living-with-parents children aged 6-17 year-old in rural areas of two provinces, western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhong, Zhaohui; Pan, Jianping; Li, Qunying; Zhong, Yun; Sun, Haoling

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the situation and the influential factors of child neglect between left-behind children and living-with-parents children aged 6-17 years in the rural areas in western China. Students were randomly selected according to the principle of multi-stage stratified cluster sampling and they were from three cities in Shanxi and four districts in Chongqing. Among the 4,131 children, there were 1,874 students in the 6-11 years group and the left-behind children accounted for 50.21% (941/1,874) in this group. There were 2,257 students in the 12-17 years old group and the left-behind children accounted for 53.35% (1,204/2,257) in this group. The questionnaire named "Evaluation on Neglect for Elementary and Secondary School Students Aged 6-17 Years in Rural Areas in China" was used in the field investigation. The students' neglect frequency was described by neglect rate and the factors affecting students' neglect were analyzed by means of binary logistic regression. In the 6-11 years old group, the neglect rates of left-behind children and living-with-parents children were 63.03% (474/752) and 43.87% (347/791), respectively (χ2=58.86, Pchildren and living-with-parents children were 60.64% (627/1 034) and 53.57% (495/924), respectively (χ2=9.96, Pchildren, compared to the factors about boys, younger mother (≤40 years old), presence of parents' income reduction within the last year and nuclear family, the factors about girls, elder mother (41-49 years), absence of parents' income reduction within the last year and three-generation family or single-parent family were associated with lower neglect risk, and OR values were 0.67, 0.68, 0.70, 0.73, and 0.43 (Pchildren, the factors about other nationalities, non-only child, no separate room at home, and non-resident children were associated with high neglect risk, and OR values were 1.85, 1.34, 1.46, and 1.32 (Pchildren and parents as well as good relationship between parents, fair or poor relationship was associated

  7. Depression among Low-Income Female Muslim Uyghur and Kazakh Informal Caregivers of Disabled Elders in Far Western China: Influence on the Caregivers’ Burden and the Disabled Elders’ Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuchen; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Wenting; Yang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Background Paying attention to and improving the mental health of the informal caregivers of disabled elders has become a global public health priority. This study focused on low-income female Uyghur and Kazakh informal caregivers of disabled elders residing in China’s far west. It investigated the prevalence of and the major related factors of depressive emotion. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from September 2013 to January 2014 in Shawan Prefectures, Tuokexun Prefectures, Bole Prefecture and Urumchi city. Shawan Prefecture has the highest proportion of Kazakhs, whereas Tuokexun Prefectures, Bole Prefecture and Urumchi city have the highest proportion of Uyghurs in Muslim ethnic Uygur and Kazakh communities. Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is located in remote western China; this area is approximately 3,105 km (1,929 miles) away from Beijing. A total of 444 female Uyghur and Kazakh informal caregivers of disabled elders participated in this study. The self-rating depression scale, the Zarit burden interview, and the SF-36 questionnaire were used to evaluate the state of caregiver depression, caregiver burden, and quality of life (QOL), respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression analyses, correlation with Spearman’s rho and independent-sample t-tests; a P-value of disabled elders more than 60 years old, total hours spent on caring daily≥8h, duration of caring≥5 years, negative self-evaluation of health condition, having caregiver burden, elders’ medium degree of disability and elders’ heavy degree of disability had a higher risk of caregiver depression. By contrast, daughter/daughter-in-law of disabled elders; unemployed carers, family’s per capita income >US$235.48(1500 yuan), high social support, and high QOL of disabled elders were each associated with a lower risk of depressive emotion. Moreover, informal caregivers with depression obtained high care burden scores; at the same time

  8. The New Presence of China in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western

  9. Western EFL Teachers and East-West Classroom-Culture Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Steven T.

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys some of the conflicts endemic to foreigners teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in China. Though learning English is very popular in China now and China is one of the most popular destinations for Western EFL teachers, neither the teaching nor learning of English comes without certain clashes in the classroom. These…

  10. Expatriate Cross-Cultural Training for China: Views and Experience of 'China Hands'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the views and experience of cross-cultural training (CCT) of experienced Western business expatriates ("China Hands") assigned to China. Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were extracted from a mail questionnaire...... that CCT improved core managerial activities and therefore could have helped them to become better managers in China. Practical implications - The views of experienced China Hands will be of use to a wide variety of management practitioners, given the competitive nature of the Chinese business environment....... Original/value - The paper offers the view of experienced management practitioners concerning the Chinese business environment. The findings will be of value to both Western business people in China as well as business people considering an expatriate positing to China....

  11. Hydrous parental magmas of Early to Middle Permian gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia, North China: New constraints on deep-Earth fluid cycling in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Yi-Zhi

    2017-08-01

    The role of fluids in the formation of the Permian-aged Xigedan and Mandula gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia was significant to the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), and the active northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) U-Pb zircon geochronology establishes that the Xigedan gabbroic intrusion in the northern NCC was emplaced at 266 Ma, and is therefore slightly younger than the ca 280 Ma Mandula gabbroic intrusion in the XMOB. Along with their felsic counterparts, the mafic igneous intrusions record extensive bimodal magmatism along the northern NCC and in the XMOB during the Early to Middle Permian. The Mandula gabbroic rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7040-0.7043) and positive εNd(t) (+6.2 to +7.3) and εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +14.5), resembling to those of contemporaneous Mandula basalts. These features, together with the presence of amphibole and the enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE, e.g., Rb, Ba, U and Sr) and depletion of Nb-Ta suggest that the parental magmas of the Mandula mafic igneous rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by water-rich fluids. In contrast, the Xigedan gabbroic rocks are characterised by high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7078-0.7080) and zircon δ18O values (5.84-6.61‰), but low εNd(t) (-9.3 to -10.2) and εHf(t) values (-8.76 to -8.54), indicative of a long-term enriched subcontinental lithosphere mantle source that was metasomatized by recycled, high δ18O crustal materials prior to partial melting. The high water contents (4.6-6.9 wt%) and arc-like geochemical signature (enrichment of fluid-mobile elements and depletion of Nb-Ta) of the parental magmas of the Xigedan gabbroic rocks further establish the existence of a mantle hydration event caused by fluid/melts released from hydrated recycled oceanic crust. Incompatible element modelling shows that 5-10% partial melting of an enriched mantle source by

  12. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  13. South China Sea Wave Characteristics During Typhoon Muifa Passage in Winter 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Cheng, Kuo-Feng

    2008-01-01

    Ocean wave characteristics in the western Atlantic Ocean (Hurricane Region) to tropical cyclones have been investigated extensively, but not the regional seas in the western Pacific such as the South China Sea (Typhoon Region...

  14. Insights into a fossil plate interface of an erosional subduction zone: a tectono-metamorphic study of the Tianshan metamorphic belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayet, Lea; Moritz, Lowen; Li, Jilei; Zhou, Tan; Agard, Philippe; John, Timm; Gao, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zone seismicity and volcanism are triggered by processes occurring at the slab-wedge interface as a consequence of metamorphic reactions, mass-transfer and deformation. Although the shallow parts of subduction zones (60km). In order to better understand the plate interface dynamics at these greater depths, one has to rely on the rock record from fossil subduction zones. The Chinese Tianshan metamorphic belt (TMB) represents an ideal candidate for such studies, because structures are well exposed with exceptionally fresh high-pressure rocks. Since previous studies from this area focused on fluid-related processes and its metamorphic evolution was assessed on single outcrops, the geodynamic setting of this metamorphic belt is unfortunately heavily debated. Here, we present a new geodynamic concept for the TMB based on detailed structural and petrological investigations on a more regional scale. A ~11km x 13km area was extensively covered, together with E-W and N-S transects, in order to produce a detailed map of the TMB. Overall, the belt is composed of two greenschist-facies units that constitute the northern and southern border of a large high-pressure (HP) to ultra high-pressure (UHP) unit in the center. This HP-UHP unit is mainly composed of metasediments and volcanoclastic rocks, with blueschist, eclogite and carbonate lenses. Only the southern part of the HP-UHP unit is composed of the uppermost part of an oceanic crust (e.g., pillow basalts and deep-sea carbonates). From south to north, the relative abundance and size of blueschist massive boudins and layers (as well as eclogite boudins) decreases and the sequence is increasingly interlayered with metasedimentary and carbonate-rich horizons. This indicates that the subducted material was dominated by trench filling made of sediments and volcanoclastic rocks, with only subordinate pieces of oceanic crust/lithosphere. The whole sequence is cut by km-scale major shear planes orientated WNW-ESE showing

  15. Propelling medical humanities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  16. CIVIL JUSTICE IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a basic and comprehensive introduction of Chinese civil justice. It gives a complete picture of Chinese civil justice, including the brief history, the court and judge system, the outline of the procedure, and the internationalization. Through the introduction, one can find that Chinese civil procedure law is a mixture of Soviet procedural concept, Chinese local culture, and western procedural concept and rules. It is still a developing procedure and experiences a process from resisting western procedural concept to gradually accepting and learning from it. It used to be a supra-inquisitorial trial model with overwhelming focus on conciliation, but is now transforming to aparty disposition trial model with preference to conciliation under the premise of voluntariness. With the globalization of economy, the international cooperation of China, especially with the BRICS countries, will also become more and more important.

  17. Descriptors of server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    China with the huge market potential it possesses is an important issue for subsidiaries of western multinational companies. The objective of this paper is therefore to strengthen researchers’ and practitioners’ perspectives on what are the descriptors of server capabilities. The descriptors...... are relevant to determine subsidiary roles and as an indication of the capabilities required. These descriptors are identified through extensive literature review and validated by case studies of two Danish multinational companies subsidiaries operating in China. They provided the empirical basis...

  18. Spotting Information biases in Chinese and Western Media

    OpenAIRE

    Wurzer, Dominik; Qin, Yumeng

    2017-01-01

    Newswire and Social Media are the major sources of information in our time. While the topical demographic of Western Media was subjects of studies in the past, less is known about Chinese Media. In this paper, we apply event detection and tracking technology to examine the information overlap and differences between Chinese and Western - Traditional Media and Social Media. Our experiments reveal a biased interest of China towards the West, which becomes particularly apparent when comparing th...

  19. Globalising China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rien T. Segers

    2013-01-01

    In 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China decided to gradually open up its economy to achieve more economic development. Three and a half decades later, China has become an economic force to be reckoned with, surpassing Japan as the second largest economy in the world in 2010. China’s

  20. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  1. Active and Passive Smoking, Chronic Disease and Poverty in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Active and Passive Smoking, Chronic Disease and Poverty in China. The globalization of the tobacco industry is a major threat to public health worldwide. At present, smoking rates in China are very high among men (63%) and low among women (4%). But with the arrival of multinational tobacco companies and western ...

  2. Earth fissures in Qinglong Graben in Yuncheng Basin, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianwei Qiao

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... Key Laboratory of Western China Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering, Xi'an 710 054, Shaanxi, China. *Corresponding ... trend of the five earth fissures are parallel to the general strike of the normal fault, i.e., geological drilling and ..... Ngecu W M and Nyambok I O 2000 Ground subsidence and.

  3. China's economic embrace of Africa: An international comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broich, T.; Szirmai, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the entry of China into the game of foreign finance in Africa. It analyses the scope, destination and sectoral distribution of Chinese financial flows and trade in comparison with Western patterns and trends of aid, foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. China's foreign aid

  4. China in West Africa's regional development and security plans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China's recent rise began with its designation as the world's 'factory' by Western multinational companies in the 1980s, seeking to increase their profit margins by outsourcing production to areas with cheap but disciplined labour. As China moves beyond the initial phase of labour-intensive industries to more technologically ...

  5. Pet Dogs Benefit Owners' Health: A "Natural Experiment" in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Bruce; Na, Fu; Zheng, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a "natural experiment" taking place in China on the impact of dogs on owners' health. Previous Western research has reported modest health benefits, but results have remained controversial. In China pets were banned in urban areas until 1992. Since then dog ownership has grown quite rapidly in the major…

  6. Diverging Trajectories: Economic Rebalancing and Labour Policies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Boy Lüthje; Institute of Social Research

    2014-01-01

    "This paper develops a new approach to analyse labour relations at the level of companies, industries, and regions in China. Referring to Western and Chinese labour sociology and industrial relations theory, the author applies the concept of 'regimes of production' to the context of China's emerging capitalism. This article focuses on China's modern core manufacturing industries (i.e. steel, chemical, auto, electronics, and textile and garment); it explores regimes of production in major corp...

  7. Malaysian perceptions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abu Bakar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Malasia que consistía en Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak y Singapur ganó su independencia de los Británicos el 16 de septiembre de 1963. Malaya ganó su independencia de los británicos el 31 de agosto de 1957. En 1965 Singapur era independiente de Malasia. Malasia es una democracia parlamentaria y capitalista. Por otra parte, es una nación multi-religiosa y multirracial. Malasia ha sido poblada por los Malays, los Chinos, los Indios y otros. Los Malays son musulmanes y el Islam es la religión de la federación de Malasia. La nación tiene una larga historia con China pero esa nunca colonizó ningún área en Malasia. Los estados occidentales, fundamentalmente Portugueses y Olandeses colonizaron ciertas áreas en Malasia y luego los Británicos colonizaron la entera región. La percepción malasiana de China está influenciada por muchos factores internos y externos tales como el factor ideologico-político, el desarrollo económico así como las relaciones y la diplomacia nacionales, regionales e internacionales. Este breve artículo presenta la percepción malasiana de China desde un punto de vista cultural, político y económico._____________ABSTRACT:Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore gained her independence from the British on 16 September 1963. Malaya gained her independence from the British on 31 August 1957. In 1965 Singapore was independent from Malaysia. Malaysia is a parliamentary democratic and capitalistic nation. Moreover, Malaysia is a multi-religious and multiracial nation. Malaysia has been populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians and others. The Malays are Muslims and Islam is the religion of the Federation of Malaysia. Malaysia has a very long history with China but China never colonized any area in Malaysia. The Western nations namely the Portuguese and the Dutch colonized certain areas in Malaysia and then the British colonized the whole Malaysia. Malaysian perceptions of China are influenced by many

  8. Himalayan Mountain Range, Taklimakan Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Looking north from Kashmir India (27.5N, 76.5E) into the Tibetan Plateau and beyond, the Taklimakan Desert of far western China appears to be covered with an extensive layer of haze that blankets the entire region. Reaching even into the western Siberian Plains of the CIS. This rugged land is one of the world's richest treasure troves of mineral wealth but the accessability into this remote area is so difficult that it is not yet economically feasible.

  9. Sex Ideologies in China: Examining Interprovince Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality have become increasingly visible in China, leading scholars to claim that a national "sex revolution" is under way. However, China's internal sociocultural diversity calls this nation-level generalization into question. How do sex ideologies vary across China's distinct provinces? To what extent are interprovince variations in sex ideologies associated with distinct macrolevel social factors in China? In this research, data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the 2011 Chinese Statistics Yearbook were analyzed using multilevel models to test four contending theories of interprovince differences in sex ideologies in China: modernization, Westernization, deindustrialization, and the "rice theory." The modernization theory was unsupported by the results, as socioeconomic development is not significantly associated with sex ideologies. Higher levels of deindustrialization and Westernization were associated with less traditional sex ideologies, but the strength of association varied across the domains of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality. The rice theory was consistently supported, as the distinction between rice and wheat agriculture explained up to 30% of the province-level variance in sex ideologies. The findings underline the roles of both long-standing geographic differences and recent social changes in shaping China's ideational landscape of sex.

  10. Consumer perceptions of CSR: (how) is China different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Dolen, W.; Ma, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most studies on consumers and corporate social responsibility (CSR) have focused on Western contexts. Consequently, good insight is lacking into non-Western markets where consumers may respond differently. China is a case in point, despite the popularity of the CSR concept and high societal

  11. Developing Students' Intercultural Communication Competences in Western Etiquette Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochi

    2010-01-01

    How to develop students' intercultural communication competences is a controversial issue in foreign language education in China. In this article, the author attempts to offer an answer to this issue by putting forward a proposition for developing students' intercultural communication competences in western etiquette teaching. First of all, the…

  12. The use of photovoltaics for rural electrification in northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Li Jingming; Gao Shangbin [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China)

    1998-09-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies in China is becoming increasingly important to meet the needs of a large rural population. Solar and wind renewable resources in particular are available in regions of China that at present have no access to conventional grid power. Two regions in China that have an acute lack of electricity are a large region in northern and western China and the coastal island region of China. These regions have attracted the attention of the Chinese government in terms of increasing the quality of life and standard of living conditions of the rural population. These regions have also attracted the attention of domestic Chinese companies and of international companies, governments, and multilateral development organizations as a potential market for renewable energy rural electrification systems. This paper focuses on the bilateral cooperation between the US Department of Energy and China in providing assistance for the use of renewable technologies for rural electrification in northwestern China.

  13. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-ping; ZHOU, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; SAVOLAINEN, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China, published by Princeton University Pres...

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Vegetation Growth in Arid Northwest of China from 1982 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have concluded that the increase in vegetation in the arid northwest of China is related to precipitation rather than temperature. However, these studies neglected the effects of climate warming on water availability that arise through changes in the melting characteristics of this snowy and glaciated region. Here, we characterized vegetation changes using the newly improved third-generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GIMMS-3g NDVI from 1982 to 2011. We analyzed the temperature and precipitation trends based on data from 51 meteorological stations across Northwest China and investigated changes in the glaciers using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data. Our results indicated an increasing trend in vegetation greenness in Northwest China, and this increasing trend was mostly associated with increasing winter precipitation and summer temperature. We found that the mean annual temperature increased at a rate of 0.04 °C per year over the past 30 years, which induced rapid glacial melting. The total water storage measured by GRACE decreased by up to 8 mm yr−1 and primarily corresponded to the disappearance of glaciers. Considering the absence of any observed increase in precipitation in the growing season, the vegetation growth may have benefited from the melting of glaciers in high-elevation mountains (i.e., the Tianshan Mountains. Multiple regression analysis showed that temperature was positively correlated with NDVI and that gravity was negatively correlated with NDVI; together, these variables explained 84% of the NDVI variation. Our findings suggest that both winter precipitation and warming-induced glacial melting increased water availability to the arid vegetation in this region, resulting in enhanced greenness.

  15. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  16. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  17. 黃遵憲對晚清引介日本教育制度及建立西式教育的貢獻 Huang Zunxian’s Contribution to the Introduction of Aspects of the Japanese Education System and the Establishment of Western-style Education in Late Qing China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    周愚文 Yu-Wen Chou

    2014-06-01

    developments. When the Qing government did finally begin to establish a new education system, Huang Zunxian was not directly involved. Nevertheless, Huang Zunxian can be said to have made a significant contribution towards the introduction into China of aspects of the Japanese education system and towards the establishment of Western-style education in China. Unfortunately, the authorities did not recognize the full value of Huang’s recommendations. As a result, the new education system that was eventually designed was not fully suited to China’s real needs.

  18. Is Bigger Better? Size of the Location and Adjustment of Business Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    China could be a challenging destination for Western business expatriates. However, their extent of adjustment to life and work could be contingent on the size of the location of their assignment. Maybe Westerners more easily adjust to large cities with their more Western-style way of life and co...

  19. The effect of health literacy and self-management efficacy on the health-related quality of life of hypertensive patients in a western rural area of China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenli; Lang, Juntao; Xuan, Lixia; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a common and frequently occurring chronic disease of the cardiovascular system. Besides the pathological factors, the occurrence and exacerbation of hypertension are also associated with many factors of lifestyle and behaviors. Thus hypertensive patients' Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is not only influenced by the disease itself but also by many subjective factors such as health literacy and self-management efficacy, especially in the deeper part of southwestern China and thus is less developed compared to the other places. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the HRQL of hypertensive patients and health literacy and self-management efficacy as well as how they affect the HRQL, so as to provide a theoretical reference for improving the HRQL of patients with hypertension in less developed areas. This was a cross-sectional study of baseline data from a clustered randomized controlled trial. The study design had passed a cross-national peer review and accepted grants by the China Medical Board. It was also registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-OOR-14005563). A standardized questionnaire adapted from a previous validated WHO questionnaire was used for the survey which included detailed questions about patient's socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported information. Patients' HRQL was measured by the Mandarin version of the 36-item Short Form. We used the validated Mandarin version of the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-Item Scale to assess patients' self-management efficacy. The validated three-item Brief Health Literacy Screening (BHLS) was used to measure the patients' health literacy. A structural equation model was constructed, and p ≤ 0.05 was taken as significant. Demographic characteristics, health literacy and self-management efficacy have all significant effects on HRQL. Age, education level, self-management efficacy and health literacy were significantly

  20. Petroleum geology of Kela-2, the most productive gas field in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengzao, Jia [PetroChina Company Limited, Beijing 100011 (China); Qiming, Li [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development (RIPED), PetroChina, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-04-15

    The Kela-2 gas field, located in the Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin, is the most productive gas field in China, based on per unit surface acreage. The gas trap is a subsurface anticline formed along an E-W trending thrust belt in front of the southern Tianshan Mountains. The gas pay zones are located in fine-grained sandstones of a fan delta front facies in the Lower Cretaceous Bashijiqik Formation (K{sub l}bs), and Eogene evaporitic rocks serve as regional cap rocks. The gases were derived primarily from over-mature Jurassic coal measures. Peak gas generation and final shaping of the Kela-2 structure occurred relatively late, in the late Himalayan orogeny (5-0 Ma). Thrust faulting appears to have played a significant role in the hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation and preservation in this foreland basin. Detailed delineation of the Kela-2 gas field indicates that high-quality regional cap rocks are essential for the formation of the super-rich, abnormally pressured, giant gas fields, while buried anticlines under the overthrust zone are the favorable gas habitat. Late gas accumulation is considered to be decisive for the conservation of the giant gas fields. (author)

  1. Fostering structural change? China's divergence and convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analyses the divergence and convergence of the characteristics of China's economic relationships with Africa – trade, investment and aid – with Africa's 'traditional' partners, i.e. Western industrialised countries. It argues that these relationships may foster structural transformation of African economies. The latter ...

  2. Cratons' thermal state in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Zhang, Linyou

    2017-04-01

    There are three cratons in China, the North China Craton, the Tarim Craton, and the Yangtze Craton. Each craton has experienced complicated evolution histories since their formation, presents distinct thermal regime, and displays different stability. The Tarim Craton keeps its stability till now. The eastern North China Craton has been destructed in the Mesozoic, but the western North China Craton still stable. The stability of the Yangtze craton is a controversial issue, and the newest study believed it experienced similar tectono-thermal events as the North China Craton and has also been destructed in the Mesozoic. Several sedimentary basins developed in these cratons, and most of them are rich of oil-gas resources. These basins have different formation mechanism and experienced distinct tectono-thermal evolution, which resulted in individual thermal histories. The sedimentary basins have recorded distinct thermal evolution of these craton. We analyze the heat flow data, lithospheric thermal thickness, basins' thermal histories together with tectono-thermal events in these cratons, with aim to provide ideas for geodynamical mechanism on the craton stability/destruction, as well as implications for hydrocarbon generation.

  3. Why Chinese People Play Western Classical Music: Transcultural Roots of Music Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the complex relationship between Confucian values and music education in East Asia, particularly its history in China. How does one account for the present "cultural fever" of Western classical music that has infected more than 100 million Chinese practitioners? It is proposed that Western classical music finds…

  4. First Triassic palaeomagnetic constraints from Junggar (NW China) and their implications for the Mesozoic tectonics in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulet, Flavien; Chen, Yan; Cogné, Jean-Pascal; Rabillard, Aurélien; Wang, Bo; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Cluzel, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Northwestern China belts result from the Palaeozoic collage of Central Asia and the subsequent reactivations due to far-field effects of the Mesozoic Tibetan and the Cenozoic Himalayan collisions. Triassic is a crucial period to understand and decipher the tectonics related to these two episodes. About 250 oriented palaeomagnetic cores from 43 sites were collected from six sections of Upper Permian to Late Triassic sandstone, in South and West Junggar, Northwestern China. Thermomagnetic, IRM and hysteresis measurements reveal magnetite as the main carrier of the magnetic remanence with minor hematite and maghemite. Stepwise thermal demagnetisation has generally isolated two components. The low temperature component, up to 300-350 °C, displays a direction consistent with the present-day geomagnetic field. The locality-mean directions related to the high temperature component (above 350 °C) were also calculated. Two out of six sections display intense viscous magnetisation and the occurrence of maghemite reveals a possible Cenozoic chemical remagnetisation for these two localities. For the other four localities, we assume that the magnetisation is primary because: (1) AMS measurements reveal a primary fabric, (2) there are local occurrences of antipodal polarities, and (3) palaeolatitudes of tilt-corrected poles are compatible with previous studies. The consistency between the Early Triassic poles of West and South Junggar indicates that Junggar evolved as a rigid block only since Early Mesozoic. The comparison of the Late Palaeozoic and the Early Mesozoic poles of Junggar and those of Siberia and Tarim shows major rotations between the Late Permian and the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. These periods of discrete rotations are characterized by strike-slip faulting in Tianshan and Altai and they may correlate with the major episodes of coarse-grained detrital sedimentation and uplift of the range. Especially, the counter-clockwise rotations of Junggar relative to

  5. A Silurian-early Devonian slab window in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from high-Mg diorites, adakites and granitoids in the western Central Beishan region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Li, Jinyi; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan orogenic belt is a key region for deciphering the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Here in this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element, and zircon Hf isotopic data for the Baitoushan, and Bagelengtai plutons in the western Central Beishan region to address the accretionary processes. The Baitoushan pluton consists of quartz diorites, monzonites and K-feldspar granites, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 435 Ma, 421 Ma and 401 Ma, respectively. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites exhibit relatively high MgO contents and Mg# values (63-72), display enrichments in LILEs and LREEs, and exhibit high Ba (585-1415 ppm), Sr (416-570 ppm) and compatible element (such as Cr and Ni) abundances, which make them akin to typical high-Mg andesites. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites were probably generated by the interaction of subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. The Baitoushan K-feldspar granites are ascribed to fractionated I-type granites with peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics. They exhibit positive εHf(t) values (2.43-7.63) and Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (0.92-1.60 Ga). Those early Devonian granites, including Baitoushan K-feldspar granite and Gongpoquan leucogranites (402 Ma), are derived from melting of the mafic lower crust and/or sediments by upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle. The Bagelengtai granodiorites exhibit similar geochemical signatures with that of typical adakites, with a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 435 Ma. They exhibit relatively high Sr (502-628 ppm) and Al2O3 (16.40-17.40 wt.%) contents, and low MgO (1.02-1.29 wt.%), Y (3.37-6.94 ppm) and HREEs contents, with relatively high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. The Bagelengtai granodiorites were derived from partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust, with significant contributions of subducted sediments, subsequently

  6. China: current trends in pharmaceutical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying

    2008-04-01

    Pharmaceutical discovery and development is expensive and highly risky, even for multinational corporations. As a developing country with limited financial resources, China has been seeking the most cost-effective means to reach the same level of innovation and productivity as Western countries in the pharmaceutical industry sector. After more than 50 years of building up talent and experience, the time for China to become a powerhouse in pharmaceutical innovation is finally approaching. Returnee scientists to China are one of the reasons for the wave of new discovery and commercialization occurring within the country. The consolidation of local Chinese pharmaceutical companies and foreign investment is also providing an agreeable environment for the evolution of a new generation of biotechnology. The opportunity for pharmaceutical innovation is also being expedited by the entry of multinational companies into the Chinese pharmaceutical market, and by the outsourcing of research from these companies to China.

  7. Introduction. History, Culture and Modernity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotelind Müller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a short introduction to the main topics and aims of this thematic issue on history, culture and modernity in China. It outlines the multi-faceted approaches to a (or more than one modernity between and beyond Westernisation and Sinicisation as formulated in the twentieth century, be it in Republican China, Taiwan or the People's Republic, and how this is reflected in "Western" historiography on China. For China, (rearticulations of "alternatives" would open up the possibility for more than just one single, homogenising, culturalist-essentialist (and top-down defined "Chinese dream". Since discussions of modernity are always closely linked to the concerns of the present, shifts in global economy and politics might, in turn, also lead to new conceptions of what a "global modernity" (if such a single entity exists should mean and how the Chinese case might relate (or contribute to it.

  8. The population distribution pattern in Xinjiang autonomous region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X

    1994-01-01

    Population distribution in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in China follows a high-density horseshoe-shaped pattern of oases surrounded by mountains and desert comprising 70% of the territory. The Region has the largest geographic area of all provinces, has 15.8 million people, and a population density of 9.5/sq. km. 90% of the total population lives in the more than 500 oases, with a population density of 200 people/sq. km. About 80% of the population has lived in the northwestern part of the province over the past 40 years; density is 15.5 people/sq. km compared to only 3.2 people/sq. km in the southeast. Population concentration is affected by natural resource distribution (water), industrial and agricultural production, transportation, and immigration. Population density increased by 4.7 times in northern Xinjiang, 1.2 times in the south, and 2.9 times in the east. Population concentration is also affected by elevation patterns. The largest population (46.33%) is situated in areas 1000-1500 meters above sea level, with declines at either increased or decreased elevations. Population density declines as elevation increases. Most of the old oases were situated in basins between 500 and 1000 meters in the north and between 1000 and 1500 meters in the south. Areas below 500 meters in the north and areas below 100 meters in the south are desert. Population distribution varied among the southern slope of the Altay Mountains, the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains between 100 and 2500 meters, the eastern part of the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, the southern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, the western part of the southern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains, in Pamirs and the eastern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, and old oases at 500-1000 meters in the heart of Xinjiang, where major transportation routes cross China.

  9. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  10. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  11. China's Developing Arctic Policies: Myths and Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lanteigne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and Far North regions of the world have grown in importance for China's international interests in recent years, and in 2013 China became an observer state in the Arctic Council. Beijing has sought to develop an Arctic policy based on scientific research and partnerships, including in the areas of environmental studies and climate change issues, as well as development and economic issues. As the Arctic gains more international attention due to the effects of ice melting and the possibility of the region becoming a new source of resources, concerns have been raised about a scramble for riches and economic advantages. China, as a rising political and economic power, has been subject to much scrutiny, especially from the West, about its emerging agenda in the Arctic region. Although China is not an Arctic state, the concerns are based on predictions that Beijing is seeking to play a stronger and perhaps even dominant role in the Arctic, and this has led to many misconceptions about China's Arctic policy. The result has been a "clash of identities" between Chinese and Western perceptions, and in order to understand why these diverging views have appeared, it is necessary to first examine the origins of "myths" about China's regional Arctic policies, and then examine their roles, using constructivist theory, before suggesting ways for both China and the international community to address this divergence.

  12. Outsourcing CO2 within China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-07-09

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  13. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  14. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  15. China academics feel a sting scientists fear crackdown jeopardized research strides

    CERN Multimedia

    Sanger, David E

    1989-01-01

    An international conference on HTS in China a failure after western speakers boycott the event and Chinese speakers forced to study speeches of the Chinese government leader instead of preparing papers (1 page).

  16. The Image of Africa in China: The Emerging Role of Chinese Social Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    While the debate on Africa's image is sliding into two extremes in the Western world, either too desperate or too optimistic, China's narrative on this continent remains politically oriented and does...

  17. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  18. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  19. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  20. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of anthropogenic pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Emmons, L. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Guo, Y.; Tao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies as well as a fully-tagged approach, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  1. Shaping modern nursing development in China before 1949

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhong, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Nursing becoming a respectable, decent profession for educated Chinese women was a challenging undertaking. The early advancement of nursing in China was a collective effort of the missionary medicine, the private foundations, and the endurance, dedication and hardworking of the Chinese as well as foreign nurses. Western missionary introduced modern nursing in China and laid the preliminary foundation for its development, while the upgrading of nursing education from training to higher learni...

  2. China’s Evolving Foreign Policy in Africa: A New Direction for China’s Non-Intervention Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    between China and Egypt.91 The Suez Crisis in 1956 found China supporting the Egyptian government and denouncing any efforts towards a Western...After studying the 2013 French-led intervention in Mali and the 2007 Darfur crisis in Sudan, evidence points to three main drivers pressing China’s...Press, 2006), 217. 6 Ibid; Sudarsan Raghavan, “With Oil at Stake, South Sudan’s Crisis Matters to its Customers,” The Washington Post, January 20

  3. "As Far as the Government Is a Good Government, It Is Democratic": Citizenship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiudi

    2015-01-01

    The concept of citizenship is mainly viewed as a Western construct. This article argues an understanding of citizenship education in China not only simply as a grounding in schooling and procedural knowledge of systems of Chinese government but, more broadly, whether in schools or society, whether in China or overseas, that develops dispositions,…

  4. Friend or Foe: The Impact of Undergraduate Teaching Evaluation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Huang, Yvonne Xianhan; Zhong, Binglin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance in higher education has been an important issue not only in western countries but also in China. This study, based on Harman's framework, analyses the features and implementation of undergraduate teaching evaluation (UTE) through case studies of four different universities in Guangdong province, southern China. The findings…

  5. Teaching Political Science in China: Observations and Suggestions from a Foreign Visitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes teaching Western political theory at Beijing University (China) in 1987, a period of political modernization. Suggests changes to enhance education and scholarship in China concerning instructional pedagogy. Notes the need for critical writing skills, finds students limited in their ability to analyze scholarly writing, and recommends…

  6. Comparing China and the West: Who is ready for the challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Blair

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative culture studies often seem to come up halfempty: the China specialist may object if half the readings focus not on China but the West, and the teacher of Western Civilization may object to half the class’s attention being turned away from the subject he or she was hired to teach.

  7. Towards a typology of server capabilities of MNC subsidiaries in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years of economic development, the role of subsidiaries in China has changed. China has become an important host country for subsidiaries of western MNCs because of the huge market potential it possesses. The objective of this paper is to strengthen researchers’ and practitioners...

  8. The Economic Phenomena of Net Games and of Bit Coins in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hanlin

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with a special but highly-developing industry in China, net game industry. Due to the significant construction and improvement have been happening at China since 30 years ago, and the influence of traditional culture, population boom or demographic dividend and the invasion of western technologies and cultures, net game industry, which has been only existing for less than 15 years at China, has become one of most profitable industries and changed the living of millions...

  9. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  10. THE MARKETING PLAN FOR WEIDUOLIYA WESTERN-STYLED RESTAURANT IN CHENGDE

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Jingwen

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is done for the academic study on International Business and Marketing Logistic at Satakunta University of Applied Sciences (SAMK) in Finland. The purpose of this study is to create a marketing plan for Weiduoliya western-styled restaurant in Chengde, China. The author has seen the massive growth in foreign res-taurants business over the past five years in China. This marketing plan is to support running student’s own restaurant business after her graduation. The auth...

  11. History of modern optics ad optoelectronics development in China

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Shouyun

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of memoir papers on the development of modern and contemporary optics and optoelectronics in China from the 18th to 20th centuries. The papers were written by famous scientists in China, including members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, sharing their experience in different fields of optics and optoelectronics development. This is a unique book in understanding the natural science history of optics and optoelectronics. It gives you the general idea about how the western optical science spread to China in the 17th to 18th century; the cradle of the contemporary optics in China; Birth, development and application of lasers in China; high energy and high power lasers for laser antiballistic missile and laser nuclear fusion; development of Chinese optical communication and optical information storage; laser and infrared optics research for space science; development of Chinese optical instruments, etc.

  12. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  13. Combating echinococcosis in China: strengthening the research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Men-Bao; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Wu, Wei-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2017-11-21

    Echinococcosis is a neglected zoonotic disease, causing great morbidity and mortality due to the wide distribution of its endemic areas. China holds a high percentage in the global burden of both cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. A national survey conducted between 2012 and 2016 showed that an estimated 50 million people are at risk of contracting the disease in western China, of whom about 0.17 million are cases with echinococcosis.Despite this, research and development on echinococcosis in China is greatly inadequate compared to that in other countries. In this paper, we argue that there is a need for more research and work to be conducted in China on echinococcosis, including researching techniques in regards to diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, and developing products through technical transformation and piloting strategies to control and even elimination.However, great opportunities exist for China to strengthen the research and development on this disease through initiatives such as Health China 2030, the Belt and Road Initiative, the China-Africa cooperation, as well as through further cooperation between China and the World Health Organization. All of these can bring us closer to controlling echinococcosis in China as well as in other countries. One element of crucial importance will be the training and development of professionals, which can be strengthened through international cooperation.

  14. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.

  15. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  16. Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...

  17. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  18. Western USA groundwater drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  19. Linking Tarim Basin sea retreat (west China) and Asian aridification in the late Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Grothe, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; Villa, G.; Mandic, O.; Stoica, M.; Huang, W.; Yang, W.; Guo, Z.; Krijgsman, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarim Basin in western China formed the easternmost margin of a shallow epicontinental sea that extended across Eurasia and was well connected to the western Tethys during the Paleogene. Climate modelling studies suggest that the westward retreat of this sea from Central Asia may have been as

  20. Chinese books on Western calendrical calculations and Japanese calendrical calculators in Edo era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuhiko

    2005-06-01

    From the end of Ming to the beginning of Qing China many Western scientific books were translated into Chinese by Jesuit missionaries with cooperation of Chinese intellectuals. The Tokugawa government began to permit the importation of them as an exception to the Shogunate's seclusion policy in 1720. In this paper the author discussed the acceptances of them, especially Chinese books on Western calendrical calculations by Japanese calendrical calculators in 18th-19th centuries.

  1. Temporal and spatial variations of high-impact weather events in China during 1959-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Wen, Kangmin; Cui, Linli

    2017-07-01

    The variation and trend in the frequency and duration of four types of high-impact weather (HIW) events were examined using daily surface climate data and linear regression method, and results show that for both the frequency and the duration, the trends of hot weather events were not significant in most parts of China, though for the China as a whole, they had increased with rates of 0.4 days and 0.1 spells of hot weather per decade respectively. The frequency of cold weather events had decreased significantly in most parts of China, particularly in northern, northeastern, and western China, where it increased at rates of 2-8 days per decade in most stations, but the duration of cold weather events were not significant in most parts of China. The frequency of gale weather events had decreased in almost all of China, with a rate of 3.7 days per decade for the China as a whole, and the duration of gale weather events had decreased mainly in northeastern and northern China, western Xinjiang, southwestern Sichuan, and some coastal areas of Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, and Fujian. The frequency of rainstorm weather events was not significant in most parts of China, and the duration of rainstorm weather events was not significant in the whole of China. With global climate change, there would be an increase in the hot and rainstorm weather events, so mitigation/adaptation strategies for such weather events are essential for local government and social public.

  2. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    that industrial Western military culture negatively influenced the ability to wage .... revolution occurred when Western troops started to pay attention to local support for ... The fourth principle is the priority of the fight against the insurgents'.

  3. Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  4. Active and Passive Smoking, Chronic Disease and Poverty in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The globalization of the tobacco industry is a major threat to public health worldwide. At present, smoking rates in China are very high among men (63%) and low among women (4%). But with the arrival of multinational tobacco companies and western marketing practices these rates are likely to increase, particularly among ...

  5. Why Didn't China Discover the New World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolla, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The rise of China, as well as any of the emerging economies, has much to offer students and teachers of social studies--especially in the fields of history and economics. Traditionally, history education in the United States has emphasized Western civilization and provided instruction for educators with that end in mind. In an era of increased…

  6. Petrocodon villosus (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Guangxi, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, X.; Zhou, S.-B.; Wen, F.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Gesneriaceae from south-western Guangxi, China, Petrocodon villosus, is described and illustrated. It resembles P. ferrugineus, but is differentiated by several characters, such as the size of bracts, calyx and corolla, the indumentum of leaf blades, calyx, filaments and the outside

  7. The relation of vegetation over the Tibetan Plateau to rainfall in China during the boreal summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zhiyan; Zhang, Renhe [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Beijing (China); Zhao, Ping [National Meteorological Information Centre, Beijing (China)

    2011-03-15

    The relationship between vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and summer (June-August) rainfall in China is investigated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Earth Resources Observation System and observed rainfall data from surface 616 stations in China for the period 1982-2001. The leading mode of empirical orthogonal functions analysis for summer rainfall variability in China shows a negative anomaly in the area from the Yangtze River valley to the Yellow River valley (YYR) and most of western China, and positive anomalies in southern China and North China. This mode is significantly correlated with summer NDVI around the southern TP. This finding indicates that vegetation around the southern TP has a positive correlation with summer rainfall in southern China and North China, but a negative correlation with summer rainfall in YYR and western China. We investigate the physical process by which vegetation change affects summer rainfall in China. Increased vegetation around the southern TP is associated with a descending motion anomaly on the TP and the neighboring area to the east, resulting in reduced surface heating and a lower Bowen ratio, accompanied by weaker divergence in the upper troposphere and convergence in the lower troposphere on the TP. In turn, these changes result in the weakening of and a westward shift in the southern Asian High in the upper troposphere and thereby the weakening of and an eastward withdrawal in the western Pacific subtropical high. These features result in weak circulation in the East Asian summer monsoon. Consequently, enhanced summer rainfall occurs in southern China and North China, but reduced rainfall in YYR. (orig.)

  8. Crustal structure of China from deep seismic sounding profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Mooney, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    More than 36,000 km of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles have been collected in China since 1958. However, the results of these profiles are not well known in the West due to the language barrier. In this paper, we summarize the crustal structure of China with a new contour map of crustal thickness, nine representative crustal columns, and maps showing profile locations, average crustal velocity, and Pn velocity. The most remarkable aspect of the crustal structure of China is the well known 70+ km thickness of the crust of the Tibetan Plateau. The thick (45-70 km) crust of western China is separated from the thinner (30-45 km) crust of eastern China by the north-south trending seismic belt (105??E). The average crustal velocity of China ranges from 6.15 to 6.45 km/s, indicating a felsic-to-intermediate bulk crustal composition. Upper mantle (Pn) velocities are 8.0 ?? 0.2 km/s, equal to the global continental average. We interpret these results in terms of the most recent thermo-tectonic events that have modified the crust. In much of eastern China, Cenoxoic crustal extension has produced a thin crust with a low average crustal velocity, similar to western Europe and the Basin and Range Province, western USA. In western China, Mesozoic and Cenoxoic arc-continent and continent-continent collisions have led to crustal growth and thickening. Inferences on the process of crustal thickening are provided by the deep crustal velocity structure as determined by DSS profiles and other seismological studies. A high velocity (7.0-7.4 km/s) lower-crustal layer has been reported in western China only beneath the southernmost Tibetan Plateau. We identity this high-velocity layer as the cold lower crust of the subducting Indian plate. As the Indian crust is injected northward into the Tibetan lower crust, it heats and assimilates by partial melting, a process that results in a reduction in the seismic velocity of the lower crust in the central and northern Tibetan Plateau

  9. Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia) in China: native range expansion or recent introduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Edwards, O R; Kang, L; Fuller, S J

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we explore the population genetics of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA) (Diuraphis noxia), one of the world's most invasive agricultural pests, in north-western China. We have analysed the data of 10 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial sequences from 27 populations sampled over 2 years in China. The results confirm that the RWAs are holocyclic in China with high genetic diversity indicating widespread sexual reproduction. Distinct differences in microsatellite genetic diversity and distribution revealed clear geographic isolation between RWA populations in northern and southern Xinjiang, China, with gene flow interrupted across extensive desert regions. Despite frequent grain transportation from north to south in this region, little evidence for RWA translocation as a result of human agricultural activities was found. Consequently, frequent gene flow among northern populations most likely resulted from natural dispersal, potentially facilitated by wind currents. We also found evidence for the long-term existence and expansion of RWAs in China, despite local opinion that it is an exotic species only present in China since 1975. Our estimated date of RWA expansion throughout China coincides with the debut of wheat domestication and cultivation practices in western Asia in the Holocene. We conclude that western China represents the limit of the far eastern native range of this species. This study is the most comprehensive molecular genetic investigation of the RWA in its native range undertaken to date and provides valuable insights into the history of the association of this aphid with domesticated cereals and wild grasses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Quantitative analysis of agricultural land use change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jieming; Dong, Wenjie; Wang, Shuyu; Fu, Yuqing

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on land use change in China. Crop sown area is used as index to quantitatively analyze the temporal-spatial changes and the utilization of the agricultural land. A new concept is defined as potential multiple cropping index to reflect the potential sowing ability. The impacting mechanism, land use status and its surplus capacity are investigated as well. The main conclusions are as following; During 1949-2010, the agricultural land was the greatest in amount in the middle of China, followed by that in the country's eastern and western regions. The most rapid increase and decrease of agricultural land were observed in Xinjiang and North China respectively, Northwest China and South China is also changed rapid. The variation trend before 1980 differed significantly from that after 1980. Agricultural land was affected by both natural and social factors, such as regional climate and environmental changes, population growth, economic development, and implementation of policies. In this paper, the effects of temperature and urbanization on the coverage of agriculture land are evaluated, and the results show that the urbanization can greatly affects the amount of agriculture land in South China, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Southwest China. From 1980 to 2009, the extent of agricultural land use had increased as the surplus capacity had decreased. Still, large remaining potential space is available, but the future utilization of agricultural land should be carried out with scientific planning and management for the sustainable development.

  11. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  12. Management of Membranous Nephropathy in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaadhel, Talal; Cattran, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    20.0-36.8% of adult-onset NS cases. The presence of anti-PLA2R antibodies in serum or PLA2R on renal biopsy is the most predictive feature for the diagnosis of IMN and is used in both the East and West; however, appropriate screening to rule out secondary causes should still be performed. (2) Several observational (nonrandomized) Asian studies indicate a good response to corticosteroids alone in IMN patients, although no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been done in Asian membranous patients at high risk of progression. Corticosteroid monotherapy has failed in randomized controlled studies in Western countries and is therefore not recommended. (3) Cyclophosphamide is the most commonly prescribed alkylating agent in Europe and China. Also, chlorambucil is still used in some Western countries, particularly in Europe. In North America, CNIs are the more common first-line treatment. (4) Cyclosporine is predominantly used as monotherapy in North America, although KDIGO and Japanese guidelines still recommend a combination with low-dose corticosteroids. Clinical studies both in Asia and Europe showed no or little effects of monotherapy with mycophenolate mofetil compared to standard therapies. (5) There are encouraging data from nonrandomized Western studies for the use of rituximab and a few small studies using adrenocorticotropic hormone. Clinical trials are ongoing in North America to confirm these observations. These drugs are rarely used in Asia. (6) A Chinese study reported that 36% of IMN patients suffered from venous thromboembolism versus 7.3% in a North American study. Prophylactic anticoagulation therapy is usually added to IMN patients with a low risk of bleeding in both Eastern and Western countries. (7) The Chinese traditional medicine herb triptolide, which might have podocyte-protective properties, is used in China to treat IMN. An open-label, multicenter RCT showed that Shenqi, a mixture of 13 herbs, was superior to corticosteroids plus

  13. Western Perceptions of Hong Kong Ten Years on: A Corpus-Driven Critical Discourse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winnie; Lam, Phoenix W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the Western perceptions of and relations with Hong Kong a decade after the reversion of the sovereignty from Britain to China in 1997. Previous studies have demonstrated that the West had a significantly negative view on the future of Hong Kong with respect to the handover. According to recent observations, however, the…

  14. Landscape–oriented new town development in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøstedt, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Serious environmental degradation has followed China’s rapid urban growth. In the wake of unprecedented urbanization, modernization and economic development, new models to expand cities in more sustainable ways are actively sought. This study addresses the question of how Western design firms can...... contribute to raising the level of environmental sustainability in the development of new towns in China. The main research question explores whether landscape-oriented urbanism—a mode of practice that allows landscape to give direction to urban development—can provide tools for Western design firms...... to approach environmental sustainability in this setting. Hence, the study aims to shed light on the prospects for landscape-oriented development of new towns in China and the subsequent practical implications for Western design firms. The study introduces site-reading, inspired by site theories and theory...

  15. JPRS Report - China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-27

    its officials to take effective measures to save fishery resources in the South China Sea, said today’s CHINA DAILY. Experts from the province’s...seafood product department warn that overfishing is exhausting resources. The monthly fish catch in the South China Sea is estimated at about one...uncovered in the province. To save fisheries in the South China Sea, he urged to improve supervision. "The main task in this will be to control the number

  16. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  17. "Misunderstanding China" Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Area China Education Project, Stanford, CA.

    The short unit, designed around the use of the film "Misunderstanding China", is a secondary level study of American stereotypes of China. The major objective of the unit is to help students understand the origins and causes of stereotypes. While the case in point is China, the unit can be used in any context where stereotyping is…

  18. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    China relations as a bargaining process. Whereas China negotiates for a new status in the system with redefined interests, the United States and other countries need to adjust their old political practices. China's ‘core interest’ diplomacy launched in 2009 is the first step in revealing ‘private information...

  19. Breviscapine Injection Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Western Medicine on Angina Pectoris Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of breviscapine injection in combination with Western medicine on the treatment of patients with angina pectoris. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Wanfang Database, the Chongqing VIP Information Database and the China Biomedical Database were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs that evaluated the effects of Western medicine compared to breviscapine injection plus Western medicine on angina pectoris patients. The included studies were analyzed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. The literature search yielded 460 studies, wherein 16 studies matched the selection criteria. The results showed that combined therapy using Breviscapine plus Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone for improving angina pectoris symptoms (OR=3.77, 95% Cl: 2.76~5.15 and also resulted in increased electrocardiogram (ECG improvement (OR=2.77, 95% Cl: 2.16~3.53. The current evidence suggests that Breviscapine plus Western medicine achieved a superior therapeutic effect compared to Western medicine alone.

  20. Towards Internationalising the Curriculum: A Case Study of Chinese Language Teacher Education Programs in China and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danping; Moloney, Robyn; Li, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative curricular inquiry of teacher education programs of Chinese as a foreign language in China and Australia. While there is an increasing demand for qualified Chinese language teachers both within China and Western countries, pre-service teacher training is regarded as one of the major factors in impeding success in…

  1. Long-term monitoring of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    X. W. Fu; X. Feng; L. H. Shang; S. F. Wang; H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in the Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China biennially from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60 ± 0.51 ng m−3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in eastern, southwestern and western China, indicating a relatively low regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in northeastern China. Measurements at a site in ...

  2. Two years of measurements of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    X. W. Fu; X. Feng; L. H. Shang; S. F. Wang; H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60±0.51 ng m−3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in Eastern, Southwestern, and Western China, indicating a relatively lower regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in Northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (...

  3. Environmental non-governmental organizations and urban environmental governance: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqin; He, Qiao; Shao, Shuai; Cao, Jianhua

    2018-01-15

    Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) play an increasingly important role in the process of urban environmental governance, especially in some developing countries such as China. However, existing studies pay little attention to such an issue in China. In this paper, we consider 113 cities in China from the pollution information transparency index (PITI) list released by ENGOs as the treatment group and some other cities as the control group, and use the difference-in-differences (DID) model and propensity score matching DID (PSM-DID) model to explore the role of ENGOs in China's urban environmental governance. The results show that ENGOs play a significantly positive and robust role in China's urban environmental governance. Furthermore, using regression analysis for eastern, central, and western China, we find that the influence of ENGOs exists in eastern and central China rather than in western China. In addition, the results of the Placebo test indicate that the effect of ENGOs shows an upward trend since 2008. We suggest that ENGOs' role should be strengthened in China, and governments at various levels should take into account environmental information released by ENGOs and consider appropriate measures to improve local environment quality using the obtained information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. International collaboration for developing graduate education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Gwen; Liu, Huaping

    2005-01-01

    The rapid expansion of China's influence on the world stage underscores the significance of nursing education and practice development. From collaborative models with other universities, nursing leaders in China are moving towards development of their own models that merge the uniqueness of Eastern philosophy with elements of Western models. Qualified nurse leaders are increasingly replacing physicians as faculty while nursing comes of age in a time of change and advancing knowledge. This article describes the outcomes of 2 projects to develop graduate nursing education in China, launched by the China Medical Board within the context of early Chinese nursing education history. The 2 programs produced a total of 88 new Masters of Science in Nursing, signaling a new generation of Chinese nursing leadership and posing a model for international partnership.

  5. Servitization in China via an External Service Partner Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Frandsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a European manufacturer providing...... services in China in order to develop a better understanding of the challenges. An in-depth multiple case study approach was taken to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network. Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China....... The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also congruent within the external service partner network. Furthermore, the findings suggest that an external service partner may not be able...

  6. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  7. Rehabilitating China's largest inland river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqing; Chen, Yaning; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xia, Yang

    2009-06-01

    Wetlands are particularly important for conserving China's biodiversity but riparian wetlands in the Tarim River basin in western China have been reduced by 46% during the last 3 decades. The world's largest habitat for Populus euphratica, which is in the Tarim River basin, significantly shrank. To protect and restore the deteriorated ecosystems along the Tarim River and its associated wetlands, China's government initiated a multimillion dollar river restoration project to release water from upper dams to the dried-up lower reaches of the Tarim River starting in 2000. We monitored the responses of groundwater and vegetation to water recharge in the lower reaches of the river from 2000 to 2006 by establishing nine 1000-m-long transects perpendicular to the river at intervals of 20-45 km along the 320-km river course below the Daxihaizi Reservoir, the source of water conveyance, to Lake Taitema, the terminus of the Tarim River. Water recharges from the Daxihaizi Reservoir to the lower reaches of the Tarim River significantly increased groundwater levels and vegetation coverage at all monitoring sites along the river. The mean canopy size of the endangered plant species P. euphratica doubled after 6 years of water recharge. Some rare migrating birds returned to rest on the restored wetlands in summer along the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The biggest challenge facing decision makers, however, is to balance water allocation and water rights between agricultural and natural ecosystems in a sustainable way. A large number of inhabitants in the Tarim Basin depend on these limited water resources for a living. At the same time, the endangered ecosystems need to be protected. Given the ecological, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical realities in the Tarim Basin, adaptive water policies and strategies are needed for water allocation in these areas of limited water resources. ©2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. [Burden of colorectal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Jufang; Huang, Huiyao; Ren, Jiansong; Li, Ni; Dai, Min

    2015-07-01

    that average annual percentage change (AAPC) of age-standardized colorectal cancer mortality increased by 0.7% (P < 0.05) from 1987 to 2000. More attention should be paid to the prevention and control of colorectal cancer in urban area and in male population in China. Similar to the western countries, the burden of colorectal cancer in China would continue to become serious if no population based prevention and control programs are conducted.

  9. Foreign and Domestic Contributions to Springtime Ozone Pollution over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Yan, Y.; Lin, W.; Chen, H.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant that damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China' ozone pollution. Here, we use the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations to quantify the springtime contributions of ozone transported to China from regions with large anthropogenic emissions. Model simulations have been validated by comparisons with ground-based measurements, aircraft, ozonesonde, and satellite observations, leading confidence to model's ability of simulating ozone over China. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone air quality. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign emissions contribute 40% near the surface and increases with altitude, and the contribution reaches up to 70% in the upper troposphere. Ozone pollution from North America and Europe mainly accompany strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities that are favorable to the long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 1 4 ppb over Western and Northern China. Despite much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is greater than European contribution due to the nearly tripled anthropogenic VOC emissions. Ozone transported from South and Southeast Asia has a significant impact on Southern China, and contributes more efficiently in the upper troposphere due to strong upwelling. Anthropogenic emissions of Japan and South Korea enhance ozone over China's east coastal regions by 2 4 ppb. Overall, China's domestic ozone pollution is affected significantly by foreign anthropogenic emissions, which is in part because although China emits large amounts of ozone precursors, its substantial NOx emissions suppress

  10. Assessing Light Pollution in China Based on Nighttime Light Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and economic development inevitably lead to light pollution, which has become a universal environmental issue. In order to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns and evolvement rules of light pollution in China, images from 1992 to 2012 were selected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS and systematically corrected to ensure consistency. Furthermore, we employed a linear regression trend method and nighttime light index method to demonstrate China’s light pollution characteristics across national, regional, and provincial scales, respectively. We found that: (1 China’s light pollution expanded significantly in provincial capital cities over the past 21 years and hot-spots of light pollution were located in the eastern coastal region. The Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regions have formed light pollution stretch areas; (2 China’s light pollution was mainly focused in areas of north China (NC and east China (EC, which, together, accounted for over 50% of the light pollution for the whole country. The fastest growth of light pollution was observed in northwest China (NWC, followed by southwest China (SWC. The growth rates of east China (EC, central China (CC, and northeast China (NEC were stable, while those of north China (NC and south China (SC declined; (3 Light pollution at the provincial scale was mainly located in the Shandong, Guangdong, and Hebei provinces, whereas the fastest growth of light pollution was in Tibet and Hainan. However, light pollution levels in the developed provinces (Hong Kong, Macao, Shanghai, and Tianjin were higher than those of the undeveloped provinces. Similarly, the light pollution heterogeneities of Taiwan, Beijing, and Shanghai were higher than those of undeveloped western provinces.

  11. Sino/American cooperation for PV development in the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Rapid growth in economic development, coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of the rural countryside, have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and rural areas in China. Environmental pollution from the increased use of coal-fired steam turbines to meet this capacity expansion is a concern. There is a growing interest in China to develop renewable-energy resources and technologies to meet energy demands and help mitigate pollution problems. In February 1995, Secretary Hazel O`Leary of the U.S. Department of Energy signed an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol Agreement with the Chinese State Science and Technology Commission in Beijing, China. Under this agreement, projects using photovoltaics for rural electrification are being conducted in Gansu Province in western China and Inner Mongolia in northern China, providing the basis for much wider deployment and use of photovoltaics for meeting the growing rural energy demands of China.

  12. Archeomagnetism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data

  13. Self and the Other in the Confucian Cultural Context: Implications of China's Higher Education Development for Comparative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2011-01-01

    The central purpose of China's modern higher education has been to combine Chinese and Western elements at all levels including institutional arrangements, research methodologies, educational ideals and cultural spirit, a combination that brings together aspects of Chinese and Western philosophical heritages. This, however, has not been achieved.…

  14. Acute Kidney Injury in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Josée; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2016-10-01

    ) The lower incidence rates observed in Asian countries (except Japan) may be due to a poorer recognition rate, for instance because of less systematically performed serum creatinine tests. (3) AKI patients in South and Southeastern Asia are younger than in East Asia and Western countries and present with fewer comorbidities. (4) Asian countries (and to a certain extent Latin America) face specific challenges that lead to AKI: nephrotoxicity of traditional herbal and less strictly regulated nonprescription medicines, environmental toxins (snake, bee, and wasp venoms), and tropical infectious diseases (malaria and leptospirosis). A higher incidence and less efficient management of natural disasters (particularly earthquakes) are also causes of AKI that Western countries are less likely to encounter. (5) The incidence of obstetric AKI decreased globally together with an improvement in socioeconomic levels particularly in China and India in the last decades. However, antenatal care and abortion management must be improved to reduce AKI in women, particularly in rural areas. (6) Earlier nephrology referral and better access to peritoneal dialysis should improve the outcome of AKI patients.

  15. Climate Change: U.S.-China Partnership for Global Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    of famine and disease, and the instability of nations due to massive refugees and immigration as a result of climate change—these conditions create...infrastructures along the coast; and the glaciers in the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau and the Tianshan Mountains will continue to retreat at an accelerated...hospitable to anti-democracy radical factions that pose international security risks. Consider India , which is currently a stable nuclear nation

  16. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  17. Medical missionaries to China: the Jesuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2011-05-01

    The 15th and 16th centuries saw a religious revival in Europe and an increased interest in church missions. With geographical discoveries supported by strong monarchies in Spain, Portugal and later France, Catholic missions and in particular the Society of Jesus resumed the spread of Christianity to China. Convinced that it was wise policy to address themselves to the most influential upper classes, the Jesuits under the leadership of Father Matteo Ricci became friendly with the aristocrats and the intelligentsia. The Jesuits introduced Western scientific ideas into China and even practised medicine. Between periods of adversity and persecutions, Chinese emperors who valued them for their scientific expertise generally tolerated their missionary activities. Any lasting influence on Chinese culture was limited.

  18. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  19. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  20. Historically-informed nursing: A transnational case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Grypma, Sonya; Cao, Yingjuan; Bu, Lijuan; Shen, Lin; Davidson, Patricia M

    2018-01-01

    The term 'nurse' (hushi-'caring scholar') did not enter the Chinese language until the early 20th century. Modern nursing-a fundamentally Western notion popularized by Nightingale and introduced to China in 1884-profoundly changed the way care of the sick was practiced. For 65 years, until 1949, nursing developed in China as a transnational project, with Western and Chinese influences shaping the profession of nursing in ways that linger today. Co-authored by Chinese, Canadian, and American nurses, this paper examines the early stages of nursing in one province of China as an exemplar of the transnational nature of nursing development. By identifying sociopolitical influences on the early development of nursing in Shandong, the authors aimed not only to contribute to the nascent body of knowledge on China nursing history, but also to heighten readers' sensitivity to the existence of historical echoes, residue, and resonances in their own nursing practices. Tracing current issues, values, or practices back to their roots provides context and helps us to better understand the present. Whether we are aware of the details or not, the gestalt of nursing practice in a particular place has been shaped by its history-including in Shandong province in China. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Subseasonal variability during the South China Sea summer monsoon onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Renguang [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, 4041 Powder Mill Road, Suite 302, Calverton, MD (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Analysis of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data for the period 1998-2007 reveals large subseasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperature (SST) of the South China Sea during the summer monsoon onset. These subseasonal SST changes are closely related to surface heat flux anomalies induced by surface wind and cloud changes in association with the summer monsoon onset. The SST changes feed back on the atmosphere by modifying the atmospheric instability. The results suggest that the South China Sea summer monsoon onset involves ocean-atmosphere coupling on subseasonal timescales. While the SST response to surface heat flux changes is quick and dramatic, the time lag between the SST anomalies and the atmospheric convection response varies largely from year to year. The spatial-temporal evolution of subseasonal anomalies indicates that the subseasonal variability affecting the South China Sea summer monsoon onset starts over the equatorial western Pacific, propagates northward to the Philippine Sea, and then moves westward to the South China Sea. The propagation of these subseasonal anomalies is related to the ocean-atmosphere interaction, involving the wind-evaporation and cloud-radiation effects on SST as well as SST impacts on lower-level convergence over the equatorial western Pacific and atmospheric instability over the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea. (orig.)

  2. AHP 40:THE MOUNTAIN CHANGERS: LIFESTYLE MIGRATION IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Sigley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early twenty-first century, the People's Republic of China (PRC continues its remarkable transformation that encompasses all facets of social life. One of the most significant, visible forms of such change is urbanization. Chinese cities are rapidly expanding and, according to some reports, will grow by a staggering 400 million people over the next several decades. In just under forty years China will have transformed from a predominantly rural to urban society, a pace of urbanization not matched in previous human experience. Yet while migration in China has in recent decades been overwhelmingly of people moving from the countryside to the city, and to a lesser extent (but also quite large given the size of China's population migration of more well educated urbanites and professionals between cities, there has been a small flow of people in the other direction, that is, of those leaving the metropolises of the eastern seaboard to seek out alternative lifestyles in the mountains of western China, and in particular to places like Yunnan in the southwest. These are akin to the "sea changers" and "tree changers" found in more affluent Western societies and can be included in the relatively new phenomenon of "lifestyle migration." This paper provides a preliminary overview of this phenomenon in the context of Dali, a prefectural city in Yunnan Province.

  3. Genetic structure and colonization history of the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W; Kerdelhué, C; Ye, H

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker), a major invasive pest worldwide, was first described in Fujian (China) in 1849 and has dispersed to tropical and subtropical Asia and the South Pacific region. Few data are available on its colonization history and expansion processes. This pilot study attempted to reconstruct the colonization history and pathways of this pest in China and neighboring Southeast Asian countries based on mitochondrial DNA. Results of the study showed six genetic groups corresponding to geographical characteristics, although the pattern was relatively weak. Homogeneous genetic patterns were observed within southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Continuous colonization from the coast of southern China to inland regions of China and northern Vietnam was suggested. Strong genetic structure was observed in western China, Thailand, and Laos. The isolation of four of the six groups was most probably attributable to major topographical barriers of western China. Yunnan acted as a contact zone of B. tau in China and neighboring Southeast Asia. The absence of isolation by distance and the overall low phylogeographic structure of B. tau suggested that long distance dispersal events and human activities could play a major role in the colonization and expansion patterns of B. tau. By analyzing the genetic diversity, gene flow, haplotype phylogeny, and demographic history of 23 fly populations, we hypothesized that B. tau could have been introduced long ago in southern China, from which it further expanded or that southern China could correspond to the native range of this species.

  4. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  5. Western Forests and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    United States Environmental Protection Agency

    1992-01-01

    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.

  6. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration o...

  7. From Dungans to Xinyimin: China, Chinese Migration and the Changing Sociopolitical Fabric of Central Asian Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the issue of ethnic identity of the Dungans – descendants of early Chinese migrants in Central Asia – and its change and preservation in the context of the fragile social fabric of the Central Asian states that were born from the shadow of the now-defunct Soviet Union, the arduous processes of nation-building plagued by often violent, competing emergent nationalisms as well as political and economic turbulence, and the impact brought by the emergence of the xinyimin (Chinese new migrants. These Chinese-speaking Dungans staying in compact communities mostly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are descendants of political and war refugees from China’s provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu who moved across the border into the territory of Czarist Russia in the later part of the nineteenth century after the crushing of the Northwest Uprising by the Imperial Ch’ing (the Manchu dynasty army which bordered on genocide and ethnic cleansing. This paper analyses how a new ethnic identity has since emerged due partly to the geographical isolation imposed by the formidable natural barrier of the Tianshan (“Heavenly Mountains” However, their Chinese language in the form of a mixture of the Shaanxi and Gansu regionalects, remarkably written today not in Chinese characters but in the Cyrillic alphabet, and Chinese traditions of the Shaanxi and Gansu varieties have been fiercely preserved through the generations until today, including nineteenth-century vocabulary and traditions which are no longer found in modern China, due both to the cohesiveness of communal life and an aversion to marriage outside the community. After analysing the community’s dilemmas of identity preservation and identity creation, this paper then proceeds to look at the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulting in the birth of the post-Soviet independent Central Asian republics, and the influx of the xinyimin from China since the

  8. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  9. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  10. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  11. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  12. All the coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenssen, N

    1993-01-01

    China is emerging as a serious producer of carbon emissions from its burning of coal. China contributes 11% of global carbon emissions, which is still less than its population share. Economic reforms are likely to boost emissions. 33% of all fuel burned in China produces useful energy compared to 50-60% in the USA and Japan. Low prices encourage wasteful use. The Chinese government responds to energy shortages by investing scarce capital in building more mines, power plants, and oil wells. It is unlikely that investing in expanding conventional energy supplies will be a viable solution, regardless of the availability of capital to invest, because air pollution threatens life. Particulate suspension is 14 times greater in China than in the USA. 14% of the country is affected by acid rain. Global warming may be affecting the northern drought prone areas. The solutions must involve greater efficiency. Industrial consumption of energy is more than 66% of energy produced. Energy use for a typical steel or cement factory is 7-75% greater per ton than Western countries, i.e., 55-60% efficiency versus 80% in Europe. The inefficiency is due to poor maintenance and operating procedures and old or obsolete technology. The savings in building a compact, fluorescent light bulb factory is compared to the cost of building coal-fired power plants and transmission facilities. Conservation of heat in northern buildings could be accomplished with boiler improvements, insulation, and double- glazed windows. A $3 billion/year investment could yield a cut in energy demand by nearly 50%. The carbon emissions would be reduced from 1.4 billion tons to 1 billion tons in 2025. Between 1980 and 1985 the energy efficiency program was able to reduce growth in energy from 7% to 4% without slowing growth in industrial production. Since 1985, the government has directed expenditures toward expanding the energy supply, which reduced efficiency expenditures from 10% to 6% of total investment

  13. BENCHMARKING WESTERN BALKAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stošić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relative positions of Western Balkan countries and to determine the differences or similarities in the results based on survey data (of international institutions: EBRD, World Bank, World Economic Forum, Heritage Foundation, and on based on selected key statistical indicators. Using the sample of countries in same region and by applying the method of “multi-country” statistical analysis, it was attempted to establish relation between results obtained in studies of international institutions, and some actual achieved key economic performances by the first measure of correlation (so-called Spearman's coefficient of correlation. The obtained results differ to a smaller or greater extent according to the experiential test we used in the case of this region. Therefore, our findings reveal that overall economic position of selected country cannot be perceived only by relying on one methodology or type of data. Consequently, we point out that multi-criteria are a must and each methodology can be useful, because it emphasizes different aspects of the economic performances and country position.

  14. Moon - Western Near Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  15. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  16. Household Wealth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of househ...

  17. Rare earth element deposits in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-Ling; Hou, Zeng-qian; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    China is the world’s leading rare earth element (REE) producer and hosts a variety of deposit types. Carbonatite- related REE deposits, the most significant deposit type, include two giant deposits presently being mined in China, Bayan Obo and Maoniuping, the first and third largest deposits of this type in the world, respectively. The carbonatite-related deposits host the majority of China’s REE resource and are the primary supplier of the world’s light REE. The REE-bearing clay deposits, or ion adsorption-type deposits, are second in importance and are the main source in China for heavy REE resources. Other REE resources include those within monazite or xenotime placers, beach placers, alkaline granites, pegmatites, and hydrothermal veins, as well as some additional deposit types in which REE are recovered as by-products. Carbonatite-related REE deposits in China occur along craton margins, both in rifts (e.g., Bayan Obo) and in reactivated transpressional margins (e.g., Maoniuping). They comprise those along the northern, eastern, and southern margins of the North China block, and along the western margin of the Yangtze block. Major structural features along the craton margins provide first-order controls for REE-related Proterozoic to Cenozoic carbonatite alkaline complexes; these are emplaced in continental margin rifts or strike-slip faults. The ion adsorption-type REE deposits, mainly situated in the South China block, are genetically linked to the weathering of granite and, less commonly, volcanic rocks and lamprophyres. Indosinian (early Mesozoic) and Yanshanian (late Mesozoic) granites are the most important parent rocks for these REE deposits, although Caledonian (early Paleozoic) granites are also of local importance. The primary REE enrichment is hosted in various mineral phases in the igneous rocks and, during the weathering process, the REE are released and adsorbed by clay minerals in the weathering profile. Currently, these REE-rich clays are

  18. Is There a Stable Value Basis for Organic Food Consumption in China?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    , the studied behavior (purchase of organic vegetables) is significantly related to basic values only in 2009, but unrelated in 2012. We discuss the implications of these findings for the development of a sustainable consumption pattern in China and specifically for consumers adopting “green” solutions invented......The objective this paper is to investigate whether a solid and stable value base exists in China for buying organic food, a western invention, and which values that might be. We study the stability of the value foundation for buying organic food in China by means of two surveys with ordinary...... Chinese consumers collected in 2009 (n = 529) and 2012 (n = 478) outside supermarkets in Guangzhou, China, selling organic food. Consistent with previous studies in Western countries, we find that the attitude towards buying organic vegetables is related to the value type Schwarz terms “Universalism...

  19. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Savolaimen, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-18

    The grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China , published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China.

  20. JPRS Report, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Partial Contents: Political, History, Literary Freedom, Cultures, Finance, Banking, Economics, Foreign Banks, Bond Markets, Agriculture, Machinery, Social, Educations, China, Addresses, Employment, Regional, Political...