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Sample records for western pacific darwin

  1. The Darwin Rise demise: the western Pacific guyot heights trace the trans-Pacific Mendocino fracture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Smoot, N.; King, Robert E.

    1997-03-01

    The Darwin Rise has been proposed so many times and in so many forms and places that the time has come to make a more comprehensive examination of the region. Lying on the NW Pacific Plate between the Geisha Guyots, the Mid-Pacific Mountains, the equator, and the trenches, the region is roughly bounded by magnetic anomaly M20 (147 Ma). It was subjected to a massive outpouring of lava about 105 to 120 Ma, which created the guyots and seamounts in that region. Guyots are excellent tools for studying events of long ago because they eroded in the same lowstand in the Cretaceous and guyot relief, therefore, is a surrogate for paleo-sealevel. The relief is derived by subtracting the break depth of the summit plateau of a guyot from the regional depth. Guyot relief would necessarily be less in the center than to the periphery if the feature formed on a pre-existing rise, as has been postulated. The existence of a paleo-Darwin Rise would give concentric contours for the region in question. Of the sixty guyots used in this study, thirty-seven of these guyots were surveyed using SASS multibeam in the Marcus-Wake seamount group. Twenty-three guyots were surveyed using random track single-beam sonar surveys. An entirely different scenario is shown. Data revealed a major fracture passing through the area coevally or after the guyots formed. Because the depths to the summit are not the same now, vertical tectonics occurred after subaerial erosion. This means the fracture formed during and after the erosion (roughly 105 Ma) and influenced the normal sequence of events in guyot formation. Depending on how one deciphers trends through the Hess Rise morass, SASS bathymetry shows a continuation of the Surveyor/Mendocino fracture zone swarm inside the M20 region to the NE of these data. The fracture swarm continues to the western Pacific trench system. Based on this information, if the Darwin Rise ever existed, it had to have done so elsewhere.

  2. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  3. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren

    2006-01-01

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methodsused to estimate surface wind speeds from...

  4. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  5. 75 FR 2197 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Regulatory Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Pacific Fisheries; Regulatory Restructuring; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 9... Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 902 50 CFR Parts 223 and 665 RIN 0648-AU71 Western Pacific Fisheries; Regulatory Restructuring AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  6. Developing an enhanced tropical cyclone data portal for the Southern Hemisphere and the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; de Wit, Roald; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Waqaicelua, Alipate; Kunitsugu, Masashi; Caroff, Philippe; Chane-Ming, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    Tropical cyclones are the most extreme weather phenomena which severely impact coastal communities and island nations. There is an ongoing research (i) on accurate analysis of observed trends in tropical cyclone occurrences, and (ii) how tropical cyclone frequency and intensity may change in the future as a result of climate change. Reliable historical records of cyclone activity are vital for this research. The Pacific Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) program is dedicated to help Pacific Island countries and Timor Leste gain a better understanding of how climate change will impact their regions. One of the key PACCSAP projects is focused on developing a tropical cyclone archive, climatology and seasonal prediction for the regions. As part of the project, historical tropical cyclone best track data have been examined and prepared to be subsequently displayed through the enhanced tropical cyclone data portal for the Southern Hemisphere and the Western Pacific Ocean. Data from the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) Nadi, Fiji and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) in Brisbane, Darwin and Wellington for 1969-1970 to 2010-2011 tropical cyclone seasons have been carefully examined. Errors and inconsistencies which have been found during the quality control procedure have been corrected. To produce a consolidated data set for the South Pacific Ocean, best track data from these four centres have been used. Specifically, for 1969-1970 to 1994-1995 tropical cyclone seasons, data from TCWCs in Brisbane, Darwin and Wellington have been used. In 1995, RSMC Nadi, Fiji has been established with responsibilities for issuing tropical cyclone warnings and preparing best track data for the area south of the equator to 25°S, 160°E to 120°W. Consequently, data from RSMC Nadi have been used as a primary source for this area, starting from the 1995-1996 tropical cyclone season. These data have been combined with the data from

  7. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  8. 76 FR 28422 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... Fishery Management Council (Western Pacific Council), is subject to overfishing. NMFS notifies the appropriate fishery management council (Council) whenever it determines that; overfishing is occurring, a...

  9. Darwin's Navidad embayment, Santiago region, Chile, as a model of the southeastern Pacific shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecioni, G.

    1980-01-01

    The sedimentary sequence of Darwin's Navidad embayment overlies a Carboniferous metamorphic basement, and was deposited in a NNW-striking basin, open toward the sea. The sediments formed in a temperate climate and consist of three marine sequences-Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene-Pliocene. They exhibit some potential for oil and gas. The uppermost sediments of the Navidad Group were deposited in a more extensive sea, which was deeper, with lower wave energy. Near the present Pacific coastline, the sediments are tectonically disturbed. Farther east-and northward, the sediments are not affected by great disturbances. Some good types of stratigraphical traps, such as eolian sand beaches, may be expected. 3 figures.

  10. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.

    2006-11-15

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methods used to estimate surface wind speeds from satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. On the other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. From this annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution using a generalization Abild's method that allows for data wind collected from multiple positions. The choice of this method is justified by a Monte Carlo simulation comparing it to two other methods. The principle output is a map showing fifty year winds in the region. The method is tested against observed winds from Philippine synoptic stations and fair agreement is found for observed and predicted 48 year maxima. However, the almost biasfree performance of the model could be fortuitous, since precise definitions of 'windspeed' in terms averaging time, height above ground and assumed surface roughness are not available, neither for best tracks nor for the synoptic data. The work has been carried out under Danish Research Agency grant 2104-04-0005 'Offshore wind power' and it also covers the findings and analysis carried out in connection with task 1.6 of the project 'Feasibility Assessment and Capacity Building for Wind Energy Development in Cambodia, The Philippines and Vietnam' during 2005-06 under contract 125-2004 with EU

  11. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HMAS DARWIN and other platforms using BT and XBT casts in the North / South Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean from 29 April 1985 to 12 April 1988 (NODC Accession 8800166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the HMAS DARWIN and other platforms in the North / South Pacific Ocean and Indian...

  12. Western North Pacific Typhoons with Concentric Eyewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-19

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00...Pacific CE typhoons between 1997 and 2006. Section 2 describes the data, the analysis method, and the clima - tology. The results regarding the

  13. Darwinism: Evolution or Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Niles R.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that Darwin's theory of evolution was more than a science versus religion debate; rather it was a revolutionary concept that influenced numerous social and political ideologies and movements throughout western history. Traces the impact of Darwin's work historically, utilizing a holistic approach. (RW)

  14. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  15. 75 FR 19942 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Community Demonstration Project Program advisory... Marine Education and Training (MET) program c. Review of Community Demonstration Project Program (CDPP) 4... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV86 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council...

  16. Child pneumonia - focus on the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T K P; Tran, T H; Roberts, C L; Graham, S M; Marais, B J

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in infants and young children (aged pneumonia disease burden, as well as the aetiology and management practices in different parts of the world, with a specific focus on the WHO Western Pacific Region. In 2011, the Western Pacific region had an estimated 0.11 pneumonia episodes per child-year with 61,900 pneumonia-related deaths in children less than 5 years of age. The majority (>75%) of pneumonia deaths occurred in six countries; Cambodia, China, Laos, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Viet Nam. Historically Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the commonest causes of severe pneumonia and pneumonia-related deaths in young children, but this is changing with the introduction of highly effective conjugate vaccines and socio-economic development. The relative contribution of viruses and atypical bacteria appear to be increasing and traditional case management approaches may require revision to accommodate increased uptake of conjugated vaccines in the Western Pacific region. Careful consideration should be given to risk reduction strategies, enhanced vaccination coverage, improved management of hypoxaemia and antibiotic stewardship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2013-04-01

    Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

  18. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E.; Pfister, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide), reactive chemical compounds (ozone, bromine, nitrous oxide), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  19. Role of Western Hemisphere Warm Pool in Rapid Climate Changes over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il

    2017-04-01

    Oceanic states over the western North Pacific (WNP), which is surrounded by heavily populated countries, are closely tied to the lives of the people in East Asia in regards to both climate and socioeconomics. As global warming continues, remarkable increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) have been observed in the WNP in recent decades. Here, we show that the SST increase in the western hemisphere warm pool (WHWP), which is the second largest warm pool on the globe, has contributed considerably to the rapid surface warming and sea level rise in the WNP via its remote teleconnection along the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). State-of-the-art climate models strongly support the role of the WHWP not only on interannual time sales but also in long-term climate projections. We expect that understanding the processes initiated by the WHWP-SST could permit better forecasts of western North Pacific climate and the further development of the socioeconomics of East Asia.

  20. The Younger Dryas and millenial-scale oceanographic variability in the Sulu Sea, tropical western Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Linsley, Braddock K.

    1991-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): A high resolution, AMS carbon-14-dated sediment record from the Sulu Sea clearly indicates the Younger Dryas climatic event affected the western equatorial Pacific. Presence of the Younger Dryas in the tropical western Pacific indicates this climatic event is not restricted to the North Atlantic nor to high latitudes, but is global in extent.

  1. Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee: progress and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee (rGLC WPR was established in 2011 to promote the rational scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (PMDT. We reflect on its achievements, consider the challenges faced, and explore its potential future role. Achievements include the supervision and support of national PMDT action plans, increased local ownership, contextualized guidance, and a strong focus on regional capacity building, as well as a greater awareness of regional challenges. Future rGLC activities should include (1 advocacy for high-level political commitment; (2 monitoring, evaluation, and supervision; (3 technical support and contextualized guidance; and (4 training, capacity building, and operational research. Regional activities require close collaboration with both national and global efforts, and should be an important component of the new Global Drug-resistant TB Initiative.

  2. Volcanic rocks cored on hess rise, Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Windom, K.E.; Seifert, K.E.; Thiede, Jorn

    1980-01-01

    Large aseismic rises and plateaus in the western Pacific include the Ontong-Java Plateau, Magellan Rise, Shatsky Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountains, and Hess Rise. These are relatively old features that rise above surrounding sea floors as bathymetric highs. Thick sequences of carbonate sediments overlie, what are believed to be, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous volcanic pedestals. We discuss here petrological and tectonic implications of data from volcanic rocks cored on Hess Rise. The data suggest that Hess Rise originated at a spreading centre in the late early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian stages). Subsequent off-ridge volcanism in the late Albian-early Cenomanian stages built a large archipelago of oceanic islands and seamounts composed, at least in part, of alkalic rocks. The volcanic platform subsided during its northward passage through the mid-Cretaceousequatorial zone. Faulting and uplift, and possibly volcanism, occurred in the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian stages). Since then, Hess Rise continued its northward movement and subsidence. Volcanic rocks from holes drilled on Hess Rise during IPOD Leg 62 (Fig. 1) are briefly described here and we relate the petrological data to the origin and evolution of that rise. These are the first volcanic rocks reported from Hess Rise. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Mesoscale cyclogenesis over the western north Pacific Ocean during TPARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of mesoscale marine cyclogenesis over the subtropics of the Western Pacific Ocean are investigated. Each case occurred during the THORPEX Pacific Asia Regional Campaign and Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS-08 field phases in 2008. Each cyclone developed from remnants of disturbances that earlier showed potential for tropical cyclogenesis within the tropics. Two of the cyclones produced gale-force surface winds, and one, designated as a tropical cyclone, resulted in a significant coastal storm over eastern Japan. Development was initiated by a burst of organized mesoscale convection that consolidated and intensified the surface cyclonic circulation over a period of 12–24 h. Upper-tropospheric potential vorticity anomalies modulated the vertical wind shear that, in turn, influenced the periods of cyclone intensification and weakening. Weak baroclinicity associated with vertical shear was also deemed important in organizing mesoscale ascent and the convection outbreaks. The remnant tropical disturbances contributed exceptional water vapour content to higher latitudes that led to strong diabatic heating, and the tropical remnants contributed vorticity that was the seed of the development in the subtropics. Predictability of these events more than three days in advance appears to be minimal.

  4. Electrical conductivity imaging in the western Pacific subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi; Baba, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic plate subduction is an important process for the dynamics and evolution of the Earth's interior, as it is regarded as a typical downward flow of the mantle convection that transports materials from the near surface to the deep mantle. Recent seismological study showed evidence suggesting the transportation of a certain amount of water by subduction of old oceanic plate such as the Pacific plate down to 150-200 km depth into the back arc mantle. However it is not well clarified how deep into the mantle the water can be transported. The electromagnetic induction method to image electrical conductivity distribution is a possible tool to answer this question as it is known to be sensitive to the presence of water. Here we show recent result of observational study from the western Pacific subduction zone to examine the electrical conductivity distribution in the upper mantle and in the mantle transition zone (MTZ), which will provide implications how water distributes in the mantle. We take two kinds of approach for imaging the mantle conductivity, (a) semi-global and (b) regional induction approaches. Result may be summarized as follows: (a) Long (5-30 years) time series records from 8 submarine cables and 13 geomagnetic observatories in the north Pacific region were analyzed and long period magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) responses were estimated in the period range from 1.7 to 35 days. These frequency dependent response functions were inverted to 3-dimensional conductivity distribution in the depth range between 350 and 850 km. Three major features are suggested in the MTZ depth such as, (1) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Philippine Sea, (2) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Hawaiian Islands, and (3) a low conductivity anomaly beneath and in the vicinity of northern Japan. (b) A three-year long deployment of ocean bottom electro-magnetometers (OBEM's) was conducted in the Philippine Sea and west Pacific Ocean from 2005

  5. Darwins begejstring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Ingen anden videnskabelig teori har som Darwins evolutionsteori skabt så megen debat uden for videnskabelige kredse. I år kan vi fejre både Darwins 200 års fødselsdag og 150-året for hans hovedværk Om Arternes Oprindelse. Artiklen kan læses på: http://www.aktuelnat.au.dk/fileadmin/an/nr-1/an1......darwins-bg.pdf....

  6. Darwin's legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  7. Solar Influence on Tropical Cyclone in Western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chang, Heon-Young

    2017-12-01

    Solar activity is known to be linked to changes in the Earth’s weather and climate. Nonetheless, for other types of extreme weather, such as tropical cyclones (TCs), the available evidence is less conclusive. In this study the modulation of TC genesis over the western North Pacific by the solar activity is investigated, in comparison with a large-scale environmental parameter, i.e., El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For this purpose, we have obtained the best track data for TCs in the western North Pacific from 1977 to 2016, spanning from the solar cycle 21 to the solar cycle 24. We have confirmed that in the El-Niño periods TCs tend to form in the southeast, reach its maximum strength in the southeast, and end its life as TSs in the northeast, compared with the La-Niña periods. TCs occurring in the El-Niño periods are found to last longer compared with the La-Niña periods. Furthermore, TCs occurring in the El-Niño periods have a lower central pressure at their maximum strength than those occurring in the La-Niña periods. We have found that TCs occurring in the solar maximum periods resemble those in the El-Niño periods in their properties. We have also found that TCs occurring in the solar descending periods somehow resemble those in the El-Niño periods in their properties. To make sure that it is not due to the ENSO effect, we have excluded TCs both in the El-Niño periods and in the La-Niña periods from the data set and repeated the analysis. In addition to this test, we have also reiterated our analysis twice with TCs whose maximum sustained winds speed exceeds 17 m/s, instead of 33 m/s, as well as TCs designated as a typhoon, which ends up with the same conclusions.

  8. The probability of tropical cyclone landfalls in Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, A.; Bellone, E.; Khare, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Western North Pacific (WNP) is the most active basin in terms of tropical cyclone and typhoon occurrences. The densely populated countries that form the western boundary of WNP basin -- e.g. China, Japan and the Philippines -- are exposed to extreme wind gusts, storm surge and fresh water flooding eventually triggered by Tropical Cyclones (TC) events. Event-based catastrophe models (hereafter cat models) are extensively used by the insurance industry to manage their exposure against low-frequency/high-consequence events such as natural catastrophes. Cat models provide their users with a realistic set of stochastic events that expands the scope of a historical catalogue. Confidence in a cat model ability to extrapolate peril and loss statistics beyond the period covered by observational data requires good agreement between stochastic and historical peril characteristics at shorter return periods. In WNP risk management practitioners are faced with highly uncertain data to base their decisions. Albeit 4 national agencies maintain best track catalogues, data are generally based on satellite imageries with very limited central pressure (CP) and maximum velocity (VMAX) measurements -- regular flight reconnaissance missions stopped in 1987. As a result differences up to 20 knots are found in estimates of VMAX from different agencies as documented in experiment IOP-10 during Typhoon Megi in 2010. In this work we present a comprehensive analysis of CP and VMAX probability distributions at landfall across the WNP basin along a set of 150 gates (100 km coast segments) based on best track catalogues from Japan Meteorological Agency, Joint Typhoon Warning Center, China Meteorological Agency and Hong Meteorological Agency. Landfall distributions are then used to calibrate a random-walk statistical track model. A long simulation of 100,000 years of statistical TC tracks will ultimately constitute the central building block of a basin-wide stochastic catalogue of synthetic TC

  9. 78 FR 20616 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Pacific striped marlin 6. Pacific bluefin tuna 7. Cook Islands/Forum Fisheries Agency sub-regional office... Species Act (ESA) Petitioned Species i. Pacific humphead wrasse ii. Eight species of coral reef fish 26... Fishes 30. Length-based stock assessment approach: pros and cons, some examples from Florida, Caribbean...

  10. 76 FR 57715 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... in the Western Pacific; Proposed Information Collection; Seabird-Fisheries Interaction Recovery... of Review: Regular submission (extension of a currently approved collection). Affected Public... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in...

  11. Australia's role in promoting and supporting tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kerrie A

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-one percent of the world's tuberculosis cases are found in the Western Pacific Region. The region has demonstrated a lower rate of decline in incidence than the regions of Africa, the Americas and Europe. Issues around drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes impact on the burden of tuberculosis disease in the Western Pacific Region. Australia has exhibited a low and relatively stable tuberculosis incidence rate but has not progressed toward the desired international goal for tuberculosis elimination (globalisation and Australia's increasing economic and strategic engagement within the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia. Promoting and supporting tuberculosis control within the Western Pacific Region provides an opportunity for Australia to maintain its low tuberculosis incidence rate and progress toward elimination.

  12. 78 FR 17354 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Pacific Community Development Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Collection The collection of information of a community development plan involves no forms, and respondents... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Western Pacific Community Development Program Process AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  13. 75 FR 17070 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XU60 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Hawaii Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; Fishery Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ] ACTION...

  14. 77 FR 34334 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii Shallow-Set Longline Fishery AGENCY... fishery and leatherback and loggerhead sea turtles. NMFS also proposes administrative housekeeping changes... Pacific loggerhead sea turtles. Pelagic fisheries in the U.S. western Pacific are managed under the...

  15. 76 FR 23964 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Purse Seine Prohibited Areas Around American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Purse Seine Prohibited Areas Around American Samoa AGENCY: National Marine... required name and organization fields if you wish to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments... Plan for Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (Pelagics FEP), which describes the issues...

  16. Implications of new economic policy instruments for tuna management in the Western and Central Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeeting, A.D.; Bush, S.R.; Ram-Bidesi, V.; Bailey, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Tuna management in the Western and Central Pacific is complicated by the conflicting interests of countries and agents exploiting tuna resources in the region. Historically, regulatory attempts by Pacific Island Countries to control fishing effort within their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) have

  17. 76 FR 17808 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures AGENCY: National Marine... specifying annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs) for western Pacific fisheries. The... regulated stock will be restricted through one or more inseason accountability measures to ensure that the...

  18. 76 FR 37285 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures AGENCY: National Marine... (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs) for western Pacific fisheries. The final rule is intended to... will be restricted through one or more inseason accountability measures to ensure that the ACL is not...

  19. Biomineralisation of the ferromanganese crusts in the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Guan, Yao; Gong, Jun-Li; Lu, Yang; Lu, Rong-Fei; Wang, Chi

    2017-04-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts are deep-sea sedimentary polymetallic minerals that are explored for their economic potential, particularly for Mn, Cu, Co, Ni and rare earth elements (REEs). The precipitation mechanism of the metallic elements in crusts has remained controversial between chemical oxidation (abiotic origin) and microbial enzymatic processes (biomineralization). In this study, the microbial mineralization in ferromanganese crusts from the Western Pacific Ocean was explored. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses showed abundant micron-scale spherical aggregates of Mn-oxide filaments (20-80 nm), which are closely associated with filamentous cells within the biofilm (biofilm mineralization) exist within the stromatolitic structure. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis suggests that biofilms are dominated by three Mn-oxidizing bacterial species from the families Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas. In addition, Mn concentration in the biofilms is approximately 108 times that of the associated seawater (2.3 ppb Mn). Iron (16.2 wt%), Cu (0.11 wt%), Co (0.719 wt%) and Ni (0.459 wt%) were found in the biofilms via X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). We suggest that biomineralization provides a new perspective for understanding Fe-Mn crustal-related mineral deposits, and the ultra-high microbial trace element enrichment ability is noteworthy. Utilization of microbial activities in accumulating precious metals from seawater may offer a viable alternative for the world's metal production in the future.

  20. Measurements of halogen oxides in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittrock, Folkard; Walker, Hannah; Heard, Dwayne; Ingham, Trevor; Lampel, Johannes; Horbanski, Martin; Großmann, Katja; Bracher, Astrid; Sentian, Justin; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Huang, Ru-Jin; Peters, Enno; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2013-04-01

    Reactive halogens such as iodine, bromine and their oxides have received growing attention in the past years owing to their strong impact on tropospheric composition. In particular, reactive halogens deplete ozone and alter the HOx and NOx ratios, consequently changing the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. The halogen oxides iodine monoxide (IO) and bromine monoxide (BrO), generated from the reaction of atomic I and Br with ozone, play a central role in these processes. Iodine atoms may be released by photolysis of precursor substances such as I2 or volatile iodocarbons emitted from the marine biosphere. Inorganic release processes are also being considered, but they are so far uncertain. Bromine precursors include organic as well as inorganic sources. Here we report on measurements of IO and BrO during and related to the SHIVA field campaign, which has been carried out in November 2011 in the Western Pacific around Borneo. Different techniques have been applied in order to detect the trace gases: cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CE-DOAS), multi axis (MAX)-DOAS, airborne multi axis (AMAX)-DOAS and laser induced fluorescence (LIF, discussed in detail in Heard et al.). While for BrO no clear signal above the detection limit was found, IO levels up to 2.5 ppt were found in the open Sulu Sea and similar levels up to 2 ppt close to seaweed farms around Semporna, Malaysia. In this area both MAX-DOAS and AMAX-DOAS observations gave indication for the presence of uplifted layers of IO. These results are discussed and interpreted by using complementary observations of the main precursor substances. In addition correlation studies taking into account meteorological and oceanic parameters have been carried out to identify possible source processes. Finally the ground-based IO observations have been compared to satellite observations and a reasonable agreement was found.

  1. Quantum Darwinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Darwinism - proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of the system (its information-theoretic progeny) - explains how quantum fragility of individual state can lead to classical robustness of their multitude.

  2. Darwins aktualitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    - han får os til at diskutere os selv. Uddrag af PETER C. KJÆRGAARDs tale ved åbningen af Darwin-udstillingen på Statens Naturhistoriske Museum d. 4. februar. Udgivelsesdato: Marts......- han får os til at diskutere os selv. Uddrag af PETER C. KJÆRGAARDs tale ved åbningen af Darwin-udstillingen på Statens Naturhistoriske Museum d. 4. februar. Udgivelsesdato: Marts...

  3. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  4. Systemic darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  5. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Seon; Scott, Alexander P; Bayer, Jennifer M; Seelye, James G; Close, David A; Li, Weiming

    2003-08-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20 pg-10 ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96 micro g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys.

  6. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of the Nonoccurrence of Tropical Cyclones in the Western North Pacific in August 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the causes of the nonoccurrence of tropical cyclones (TCs in August 2014 by examining large-scale environments. First, over the previous 30 years, the TC genesis frequency in August showed an overall statistically significant decline. In the tropical and subtropical western Pacific, the outgoing longwave radiation anomaly index also exhibited an overall increase until recently. Regarding precipitable water and precipitation, an analysis was performed on the difference between the mean values for August 2014 and the mean values for August over the previous 30 years. As a result, while convective activities were suppressed in the tropical and subtropical western Pacific, convective activities were strong in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. This indicates that while the western North Pacific summer monsoon was weakened in August 2014, the East Asian summer monsoon was strengthened. The weakening of the western North Pacific summer monsoon may have made it difficult for TCs to occur. An analysis of 850 hPa and 500 hPa stream flows showed the strengthening of anomalous huge anticyclonic circulations in the tropical and subtropical western Pacific, whereas anomalously cyclonic circulations were reinforced in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. This was associated with the result that the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH showed further westward and southward expansion in August 2014 compared to the climatological mean WNPSH. Therefore, TCs were unlikely to occur in the tropical and subtropical western Pacific, but anomalous cold northerlies and anomalous warm southerlies converged in the Japanese Islands after originating in China’s central region and passing the East China Sea. Therefore, a favorable environment for the occurrence of precipitation had been formed.

  8. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  9. POTENTIAL OVERLOOKED ANALOGUES TO THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI IN THE WESTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a more detailed examination of subducting margins of the Western and Southwestern Pacific, segments are found that are similar to the segment along the Indian Ocean that ruptured on 26 December 2004. Similarities are found in terms of hypocenter distributions and historical seismicity. The largest reported moment magnitudes in the Western and Southwestern Pacific since 1900 were an 8.5, an 8.4, and an 8.3. Should any substantially larger earthquakes occur along these segments or elsewhere in the Western or Southwestern Pacific, Civil Defense agencies in the Hawaiian Islands should be aware of any possible inadequacies in existing evacuation procedures for western and southern shores.

  10. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, J.; Hoell, A.; Lough, J. M.; Feng, M.; Kuret, A. J.; Clarke, H.; Ricca, V.; Rankenburg, K.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795-2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia.

  11. Western tropical Pacific multidecadal variability forced by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Kucharski, Fred; Li, Jianping; Jin, Fei-Fei; Kang, In-Sik; Ding, Ruiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Observational analysis suggests that the western tropical Pacific (WTP) sea surface temperature (SST) shows predominant variability over multidecadal time scales, which is unlikely to be explained by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation. Here we show that this variability is largely explained by the remote Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). A suite of Atlantic Pacemaker experiments successfully reproduces the WTP multidecadal variability and the AMO-WTP SST connection. The AMO warm SST anomaly generates an atmospheric teleconnection to the North Pacific, which weakens the Aleutian low and subtropical North Pacific westerlies. The wind changes induce a subtropical North Pacific SST warming through wind-evaporation-SST effect, and in response to this warming, the surface winds converge towards the subtropical North Pacific from the tropics, leading to anomalous cyclonic circulation and low pressure over the WTP region. The warm SST anomaly further develops due to the SST-sea level pressure-cloud-longwave radiation positive feedback. Our findings suggest that the Atlantic Ocean acts as a key pacemaker for the western Pacific decadal climate variability.

  12. Sea Power and American Interests in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Definition Since Commodore Matthew Perry arrived, uninvited, with a squadron of U.S. warships in Edo (now Tokyo) Bay in 1854, American Pacific power has...Napoleon, Europe’s great powers endeav- ored to avoid war by managing their relations in variable alliances that brought both national advantage and

  13. 77 FR 59902 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ..., November 1, 2012 13. Administrative Matters. A. Council Member Ethics and Rules of Conduct Training. B... Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold meetings of its 111th Scientific and Statistical Committee... Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) Scientific Committee (SC 8). ] G. Public Comment. H. SSC Discussion...

  14. Diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia H. Peragallo from the western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonik, Inna V.; Orlova, Tatiana Yu; Lundholm, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Asurvey focusing on species belonging to the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia was conducted in the western North Pacific (the northwestern Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk). Light and electron microscopic examination of 314 phytoplankton field samples collected from 1995 to 2006 revealed the pres......Asurvey focusing on species belonging to the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia was conducted in the western North Pacific (the northwestern Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk). Light and electron microscopic examination of 314 phytoplankton field samples collected from 1995 to 2006 revealed...

  15. Defining Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David L

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary theory seems to lend itself to all sorts of misunderstanding. In this paper I strive to decrease such confusions, for example, between Darwinism and Darwinians, propositions and people, organisms and individuals, species as individuals versus species as classes, homologies and homoplasies, and finally essences versus histories. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 76 FR 13330 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Prohibiting Purse Seine Fishing in the U.S. EEZ Around Guam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-AW67 Western Pacific Pelagic... for Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (FEP). If approved by the Secretary of Commerce... (enter ``N/A'' in the required fields if you wish to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic...

  17. 77 FR 34331 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Swordfish Trip Limits in the Hawaii Deep-Set Longline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-BB48 Western Pacific Pelagic... comments (enter ``N/A'' in the required name and organization fields if you wish to remain anonymous... Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (FEP). Entry into the longline fisheries is limited, with...

  18. The Western Pacific Theater of Operations: A Brewing Showdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Pacific include the agreement between the US, Australia and New Zealand , which was signed on September 1, 1951. The agreement stated that any armed... Geography . (accessed May 22, 2016). 28 Office of Naval Intelligence, The PLA Navy New Capabilities and Missions for the 21st Century, 2015 ONI Report. 29...of the human race and the 24-hour news cycle, nothing happens in one part of the globe without the other side knowing about it almost

  19. Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  20. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  1. Observational research study around tropical Western Pacific: PALAU (Pacific Area Long-term Atmospheric observation for Understanding climate change) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Ryuichi

    2017-04-01

    The warm water pool region in the tropical Western Pacific is a key area for global climate systems, as strong atmospheric convective activity in this area is the driving engine of the atmosphere. However, there are many processes between meso-scale convective activities and the global-scale climate, and these are not fully understood yet. To understand the mechanism of clouds-precipitation processes and air-sea interactions over the warm pool in the tropics, there are in need of further investigation on the Western Pacific monsoon and the tropical-extratropical interactions. Toward these objectives, we have continued a long-term observational project named PALAU (Pacific Area Long-term Atmospheric observation for Understanding climate change) around the tropical Western Pacific near the Republic of Palau. The main target of this project is to describe multi-scale interactions of cloud systems to intra-seasonal oscillations affected by monsoon activities. To elucidate the structure of tropical cyclones, which occur over a monsoon trough near Palau, is also a major interest. Since November 2000, we have been continuously operating a surface weather observation site in Palau. We also have conducted several intensive field campaigns targeted for various phenomena. PALAU2013, one of the intensive campaign, was carried out to focus on the formation mechanism of tropical cyclones and their relation to intra-seasonal oscillations and monsoon activity over the tropical Western Pacific. During the campaign, R/V Mirai was placed near Palau and conducted atmospheric and oceanic observations using Doppler radar, radiosonde, CTD and so on. Daily profiling Argo-floats were deployed for analyzing air-sea interactions. To capture the monsoon activity with wide area, we constructed intensified sounding network from Philippines, Palau, and Yap to Guam. Three X-band radars were utilized to obtain the internal structure of cloud systems. Dual-polarization parameters also can be

  2. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  3. 76 FR 32929 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-AY27 Western Pacific Pelagic... pelagic longline fishing for vessels based in American Samoa, as well as other U.S. longline vessels... and organization fields if you wish to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be...

  4. Commentary: BESTTuna: Benefiting from Equitable and Sustainable Trans-boundary Tuna fisheries in the Western Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Bailey, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary we introduce the BESTTuna research programme which addresses the challenges of governing sustainable and equitable tuna fisheries in the Western Pacific. The research in this programme attempts to build an inter-disciplinary understanding of the complex social-ecological

  5. Can Cooperative Management of Tuna Fisheries in the Western Pacific Solve the Growth Overfishing Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.; Martell, S.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Tuna fisheries in the western and central Pacific Ocean are important globally for both food and economic security. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna stocks in this region are declining, in part due to the juvenile bycatch of these species by the purse seine fishery using floating objects and fish

  6. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  7. 75 FR 3416 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Vessel Identification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-AX38 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Vessel Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS PIR, 808-944-2108. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  8. 75 FR 1023 - International Fisheries Regulations; Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... CFR Part 665 [Docket No. 080225267-91393-03] RIN 0648-AW49 International Fisheries Regulations; Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii-based Shallow-set Longline Fishery; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  9. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  10. Interannual variability of the subtropical countercurrent eddies in the North Pacific associated with the Western-Pacific teleconnection pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chun Hoe; Tseng, Yu-heng; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Young, Chih-Chieh

    2017-07-01

    The connection and the relevant dynamical processes between oceanic eddies in the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) region and the atmospheric Western-Pacific (WP) teleconnection is investigated on interannual timescales. North of the STCC region, the local northerly surface wind anomalies cool the ocean surface during negative phases of the WP teleconnection. The local surface cooling modifies the meridional gradient of sea surface temperature (SST), strengthening the SST front at its south. In the STCC region, we show the meridional gradient of surface-heat-flux forcing caused by the local surface cooling is the same order as the Ekman-convergence forcing. The strengthened SST front then leads to the pycnocline shoaling in the STCC region, which can also enhance the growth of baroclinic instability to produce more oceanic eddies, in addition to the enhanced STCC proposed previously. These dynamics are reversed during the positive phases of WP teleconnection.

  11. 75 FR 56507 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... 11. Program Planning and Research A. Annual Catch Limits 1. Recommendations on a Process for... Recommendations E. Public Hearing F. Council Discussion and Action 14. Administrative Matters A. Financial Reports... 149th Council meetings to take recommendations and action on fishery management issues in the Western...

  12. 77 FR 34024 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...). This notice announces an amendment to the agenda. All other previously-published information remains... Fisheries A. Amendment Options for Marianas Purse Seine Area Closure (Action Item) B. Recommendations on... Longline Quarterly Reports F. International Fisheries Meetings 1. Eighth Regular Session of the Western and...

  13. Influence of North Pacific decadal variability on the western Canadian Arctic over the past 700 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, François; Francus, Pierre; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Vuille, Mathias; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Bradley, Raymond S.; Massa, Charly

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how internal climate variability influences arctic regions is required to better forecast future global climate variations. This paper investigates an annually-laminated (varved) record from the western Canadian Arctic and finds that the varves are negatively correlated with both the instrumental Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) during the past century and also with reconstructed PDO over the past 700 years, suggesting drier Arctic conditions during high-PDO phases, and vice versa. These results are in agreement with known regional teleconnections, whereby the PDO is negatively and positively correlated with summer precipitation and mean sea level pressure respectively. This pattern is also evident during the positive phase of the North Pacific Index (NPI) in autumn. Reduced sea-ice cover during summer-autumn is observed in the region during PDO- (NPI+) and is associated with low-level southerly winds that originate from the northernmost Pacific across the Bering Strait and can reach as far as the western Canadian Arctic. These climate anomalies are associated with the PDO- (NPI+) phase and are key factors in enhancing evaporation and subsequent precipitation in this region of the Arctic. Collectively, the sedimentary evidence suggests that North Pacific climate variability has been a persistent regulator of the regional climate in the western Canadian Arctic. Since projected sea-ice loss will contribute to enhanced future warming in the Arctic, future negative phases of the PDO (or NPI+) will likely act to amplify this positive feedback.

  14. Drought-triggered western spruce budworm outbreaks in the Interior Pacific Northwest: A multi-century dendrochronological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Flower; D. G. Gavin; E. K. Heyerdahl; R. A. Parsons; G. M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir forests in the interior Pacific Northwest are subject to sporadic outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, a species widely recognized as the most destructive defoliator in western North America. Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm often occur synchronously over broad regions and lead to widespread loss of leaf area and decrease in growth rates in...

  15. Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2009-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism describes the proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of a quantum system. It explains how the quantum fragility of a state of a single quantum system can lead to the classical robustness of states in their correlated multitude; shows how effective `wave-packet collapse' arises as a result of the proliferation throughout the environment of imprints of the state of the system; and provides a framework for the derivation of Born's rule, which relates the probabilities of detecting states to their amplitudes. Taken together, these three advances mark considerable progress towards settling the quantum measurement problem.

  16. Darwin hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avedis Aznavurian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo XXI, las ideas expresadas por Charles Darwin siguen provocando discusiones y polémicas que trascienden el ámbito de la ciencia y se enfrentan, dentro de las ciencias biológicas, a puntos de vista divergentes acerca de la ortodoxia darwiniana planteando hipótesis evolucionistas con fundamentos científicos; en este artículo se examinan también las posibilidades y los logros en este siglo, revisando las interpretaciones y la aplicación de las ideas básicas a problemas científicos actuales como la conciencia y la medicina darwiniana

  17. Beating the Turkish hollow in the struggle for existence: Darwin, social Darwinism and the Turks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Alper

    2017-10-01

    Despite the vast literature on Darwinism and race, the way in which Darwin's opinions on race were received and used by non-Western circles has been little studied. In the case of the Turks, Darwin's comments have been related to British-Ottoman relations, and Darwin was blamed for stoking anti-Turkish sentiment within Europe. This allegedly resulted in the British occupation of Egypt in the 19th century, the demise of the Ottoman Empire, as well as contemporary Neo-Nazi arson attacks in Germany which targeted Turkish migrants. Consequently, Turkish anti-Darwinists perceive Darwinism to be not merely a false scientific theory, but also a political-ideological instrument of Western hegemony wielded against Turkey and the Islamic World. Turkish Darwinists who responded to those claims, on the other hand, presented Darwin as an egalitarian who could overcome the prejudices of his social class. Further scrutiny, however, proves both accounts to be over-simplistic. This paper aims to throw some light on the context within which Darwin expressed his opinions on Turks and thus contribute to the broader discussion of the relationship between Darwinism and race. More importantly, it aims to familiarise Western readers with one of the cultures of creationism which is very little known, despite its great impact on Muslim masses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Darwin's young admirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Janneke

    2006-09-01

    In 1873, Darwin replied to the second letter from a young Dutch admirer, Nicolaas Doedes, in which he had eagerly asked about Darwin's religious views. Darwin stated that he could not believe that "this grand and wondrous universe" had only arisen by chance, but also showed his doubts about the existence of God. In 1881, Darwin repeated a similar agnostic view. After the death of Darwin in 1882, Doedes incurred the wrath of Francis Darwin by publishing the confession of his father in a Dutch freethinking journal, thus revealing the sensitivity of the information Darwin shared with Doedes.

  19. WHO collaboration in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hisashi [Western Pacific Regional Environmental Health Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Since April 1989 when the World Health Organization`s (WHO`s) activities in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region were presented at the Pacific Basin Conference in Singapore, WHO and its Member States have carried out a number of collaborative activities in hazardous waste management. These activities focused on three main areas: national capacity building in the management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in rapidly industrializing countries, management of clinical or medical waste, and hazardous waste management in Pacific Island countries. This paper summarizes these collaborative activities, identifies the main problems and issues encountered, and discusses future prospects of WHO collaboration with its Member States in the area of hazardous waste management. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Raynal C; Konings, Frank

    2016-01-01

    On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84%) countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  1. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal C Squires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84% countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  2. Clustering analysis of western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone tracks using the Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Seo, K.

    2013-12-01

    A cluster analysis using Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used to characterize tropical cyclone (TC) tracks over the western North Pacific. A False Discovery Rate (FDR) method is used to objectively determine an optimum cluster number. For 620 TC tracks over the WNP from June-October during 1979-2010, the five clusters for TC tracks are selected. These can further be categorized into three major patterns: straight-moving track, recurving track, and quasi-random pattern. Each pattern is characterized by land falling regions: near South and East China, East Asia, and off-shore of Japan. In addition, each pattern shows distinctive properties in its traveling distance, lifetime, intensity (mean minimum sea level pressure), and genesis location. It is revealed that these three patterns are associated with the large-scale dynamics such as variability of the western Pacific subtropical high and the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The impacts of El Nino and NAO will be discussed.

  3. Reproductive biology of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the western Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chi-Lu; Yi-Jay Chang, Yi-Jay Chang; Chien-Chung Tszeng, Chien-Chung Tszeng; Su-Zan Yeh, Su-Zan Yeh

    2009-01-01

    The reproductive biology of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) was assessed from 1001 fish (ranging from 121 to 275 cm in eye-to-fork length; EFL) caught by Taiwanese offshore longliners in the western Pacific Ocean from September 2000 to December 2001 and from 843 gonad samples from these fish, The overall sex ratio of the catch was approximately 1:1 dur ing the sampling period, but blue marlin are sexually dimorphic; females are larger than males. Reprodu...

  4. On the unstable ENSO-Western North Pacific Monsoon relation during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Martín, Inmaculada; Gallego Puyol, David; Ribera Rodriguez, Pedro; Gómez Delgado, Francisco de Paula; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The concept of the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon (WNPSM) appeared for the first time in 1987. Unlike the Indian Summer Monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon, the WNPSM is an oceanic monsoon driven essentially by the meridional gradient of sea surface temperature. Its circulation is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented monsoon trough with intense precipitation and low-level southwesterlies and upper-tropospheric easterlies in the region [100°-130° E, 5°-15°N]. Although this monsoon is mainly oceanic, it modulates the precipitation of densely populated areas such as the Philippines. To date, the WNPSM has been quantified by the so-called Western North Pacific Monsoon Index (WNPMI), an index based on wind anomalies over large domains of the Western Pacific. The requirement of continuous observed wind over remote oceanic areas to compute the WNPMI has limited its availability to the 1949-2014 period. In this work we have extended the index by almost 100 years by using historical observations of wind direction taken aboard ships. Our Western North Pacific Directional Index (WNPDI), is defined as the sum of the persistence of the low-level westerly winds in [5°-15°N, 100°-130°E] and easterly winds in [20°-30°N, 110°-140°E]. The new WNPDI index is highly correlated to the existent WNPMI for the concurrent period (1948-2014). (r=+0.88, pCompetitividad through the project INCITE (CGL2013-44530-P, BES-2014-069733).

  5. Developing an alcohol policy assessment toolkit: application in the western Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Carragher, Natacha; Byrnes, Joshua; Doran, Christopher M; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To demonstrate the development and feasibility of a tool to assess the adequacy of national policies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Methods We developed a quantitative tool – the Toolkit for Evaluating Alcohol policy Stringency and Enforcement (TEASE-16) – to assess the level of stringency and enforcement of 16 alcohol control policies. TEASE-16 was applied to policy data from nine study areas in the western Pacific: Australia, China excluding H...

  6. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  7. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Mate, Bruce R.; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu.; Bradford, Amanda L.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Tsidulko, Grigory A.; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V.; Irvine, Ladd M.

    2015-01-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to S...

  8. Challenges and future perspective for dengue vector control in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Md Abdur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue remains a significant public health issue in the Western Pacific Region. In the absence of a vaccine, vector control is the mainstay for dengue prevention and control. In this paper we describe vector surveillance and vector control in the Western Pacific countries and areas.Vector surveillance and control strategies used by countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region vary. Vector control strategies include chemical, biological and environmental management that mainly target larval breeding sites. The use of insecticides targeting larvae and adult mosquitoes remains the mainstay of vector control programmes. Existing vector control tools have several limitations in terms of cost, delivery and long-term sustainability. However, there are several new innovative tools in the pipeline. These include Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal system and Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium, to inhibit dengue virus in the vector. In addition, the use of biological control such as larvivorous fish in combination with community participation has potential to be scaled up. Any vector control strategy should be selected based on evidence and appropriateness for the entomological and epidemiological setting and carried out in both inter-epidemic and epidemic periods. Community participation and interagency collaboration are required for effective and sustainable dengue prevention and control. Countries and areas are now moving towards integrated vector management.

  9. Rare earth element geochemistry characteristics of seawater and porewater from deep sea in western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinan; Ren, Jiangbo; Guo, Qingjun; Cao, Jun; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Chenhui

    2017-11-28

    Deep-sea sediments contain high concentrations of rare earth element (REE) which have been regarded as a huge potential resource. Understanding the marine REE cycle is important to reveal the mechanism of REE enrichment. In order to determine the geochemistry characteristics and migration processes of REE, seawater, porewater and sediment samples were systematically collected from the western Pacific for REE analysis. The results show a relatively flat REE pattern and the HREE (Heavy REE) enrichment in surface and deep seawater respectively. The HREE enrichment distribution patterns, low concentrations of Mn and Fe and negative Ce anomaly occur in the porewater, and high Mn/Al ratios and low U concentrations were observed in sediment, indicating oxic condition. LREE (Light REE) and MREE (Middle REE) enrichment in upper layer and depletion of MREE in deeper layer were shown in porewater profile. This study suggests that porewater flux in the western Pacific basin is a minor source of REEs to seawater, and abundant REEs are enriched in sediments, which is mainly caused by the extensive oxic condition, low sedimentation rate and strong adsorption capacity of sediments. Hence, the removal of REEs of porewater may result in widespread REE-rich sediments in the western Pacific basin.

  10. Western Pacific emergent constraint lowers projected increase in Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Xie, Shang-Ping; He, Chao; Chen, Zesheng

    2017-10-01

    The agrarian-based socioeconomic livelihood of densely populated South Asian countries is vulnerable to modest changes in Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall. How the ISM rainfall will evolve is a question of broad scientific and socioeconomic importance. In response to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, climate models commonly project an increase in ISM rainfall. This wetter ISM projection, however, does not consider large model errors in both the mean state and ocean warming pattern. Here we identify a relationship between biases in simulated present climate and future ISM projections in a multi-model ensemble: models with excessive present-day precipitation over the tropical western Pacific tend to project a larger increase in ISM rainfall under GHG forcing because of too strong a negative cloud-radiation feedback on sea surface temperature. The excessive negative feedback suppresses the local ocean surface warming, strengthening ISM rainfall projections via atmospheric circulation. We calibrate the ISM rainfall projections using this `present-future relationship’ and observed western Pacific precipitation. The correction reduces by about 50% of the projected rainfall increase over the broad ISM region. Our study identifies an improved simulation of western Pacific convection as a priority for reliable ISM projections.

  11. HIV drug resistance assessment in the Western Pacific region. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongbao; Sutherland, Donald; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Jordan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy is being rapidly scaled-up in Western Pacific region countries. Prevention and assessment of HIV drug resistance is an essential component of successful global antiretroviral therapy scale-up. We performed a systematic review of public health surveys and HIV drug resistance studies conducted in the low- and middle-income countries in the Western Pacific region. A total of 38 publications assessing HIV drug resistance were reviewed. Studies assessing transmitted drug resistance in recently infected individuals or drug resistance among individuals starting antiretroviral therapy found low rates of HIV drug resistance. Assessments of HIV drug resistance emerging in populations receiving antiretroviral therapy demonstrated variable rates of drug resistance, but suggest an urgent need to support antiretroviral therapy adherence and retention in care, ensure the use of quality assured drugs, and guarantee continuous drug supplies. Additionally, programmatic assessment informed by routine standardized surveillance of transmitted and acquired HIV drug resistance is essential to optimize antiretroviral therapy delivery in the Western Pacific region.

  12. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. Shifting Pacific storm tracks as stressors to ecosystems of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P; Wise, Erika K

    2017-11-01

    Much of the precipitation delivered to western North America arrives during the cool season via midlatitude Pacific storm tracks, which may experience future shifts in response to climate change. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the hydroclimate and ecosystems of western North America to the latitudinal position of cool-season Pacific storm tracks. We calculated correlations between storm track variability and three hydroclimatic variables: gridded cool-season standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index, April snow water equivalent, and water year streamflow from a network of USGS stream gauges. To assess how historical storm track variability affected ecosystem processes, we derived forest growth estimates from a large network of tree-ring widths and land surface phenology and wildfire estimates from remote sensing. From 1980 to 2014, cool-season storm tracks entered western North America between approximately 41°N and 53°N. Cool-season moisture supply and snowpack responded strongly to storm track position, with positive correlations to storm track latitude in eastern Alaska and northwestern Canada but negative correlations in the northwestern U.S. Ecosystems of the western United States were greener and more productive following winters with south-shifted storm tracks, while Canadian ecosystems were greener in years when the cool-season storm track was shifted to the north. On average, larger areas of the northwestern United States were burned by moderate to high severity wildfires when storm tracks were displaced north, and the average burn area per fire also tended to be higher in years with north-shifted storm tracks. These results suggest that projected shifts of Pacific storm tracks over the 21st century would likely alter hydroclimatic and ecological regimes in western North America, particularly in the northwestern United States, where moisture supply and ecosystem processes are highly sensitive to the position of cool-season storm tracks.

  14. Darwinizing Gaia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, W Ford

    2017-12-07

    The Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock was co-developed with and vigorously promoted by Lynn Margulis, but most mainstream Darwinists scorned and still do not accept the notion. They cannot imagine selection for global stability being realized at the level of the individuals or species that make up the biosphere. Here I suggest that we look at the biogeochemical cycles and other homeostatic processes that might confer stability - rather than the taxa (mostly microbial) that implement them - as the relevant units of selection. By thus focusing our attentions on the "song", not the "singers", a Darwinized Gaia might be developed. Our understanding of evolution by natural selection would however need to be stretched to accommodate differential persistence as well as differential reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Western Pacific atmospheric nutrient deposition fluxes, their impact on surface ocean productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M.; Hamilton, D.; Baker, A. R.; Jickells, T. D.; Bromley, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Quack, B.; Boyd, P. W.

    2014-07-01

    The atmospheric deposition of both macronutrients and micronutrients plays an important role in driving primary productivity, particularly in the low-latitude ocean. We report aerosol major ion measurements for five ship-based sampling campaigns in the western Pacific from ~25°N to 20°S and compare the results with those from Atlantic meridional transects (~50°N to 50°S) with aerosols collected and analyzed in the same laboratory, allowing full incomparability. We discuss sources of the main nutrient species (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe)) in the aerosols and their stoichiometry. Striking north-south gradients are evident over both basins with the Northern Hemisphere more impacted by terrestrial dust sources and anthropogenic emissions and the North Atlantic apparently more impacted than the North Pacific. We estimate the atmospheric supply rates of these nutrients and the potential impact of the atmospheric deposition on the tropical western Pacific. Our results suggest that the atmospheric deposition is P deficient relative to the needs of the resident phytoplankton. These findings suggest that atmospheric supply of N, Fe, and P increases primary productivity utilizing some of the residual excess phosphorus (P*) in the surface waters to compensate for aerosol P deficiency. Regional primary productivity is further enhanced via the stimulation of nitrogen fixation fuelled by the residual atmospheric iron and P*. Our stoichiometric calculations reveal that a P* of 0.1 µmol L-1 can offset the P deficiency in atmospheric supply for many months. This study suggests that atmospheric deposition may sustain ~10% of primary production in both the western tropical Pacific.

  16. PDO modulation of ENSO effect on tropical cyclone rapid intensification in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xidong; Liu, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) modulates the effect of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropical cyclone rapid intensification (RI) in the western North Pacific. The analysis shows that the interannual relationship between ENSO and annual RI number in warm PDO phases is strong and statistically significant. In cold PDO phases, however, there is no significant correlation between ENSO and RI on the interannual timescale. The enhancement of the interannual ENSO-RI relationship in warm PDO phases is mainly attributable to the change of the environmental vertical wind shear. The PDO in warm (cold) phases can strengthen (weaken) an El Niño event to increase (reduce) the effects of the warm pool of water over the equatorial Pacific in typhoon season by local diabatic heating. El Niño events are accompanied by the stronger Walker circulation in the equatorial Pacific in the warm PDO phase than in the cold PDO phase. In contrast, the Walker circulation pattern and amplitude associated with La Niña events is less affected by the alternate PDO phase. This tends to make the atmospheric response to ENSO stronger (weaker) in warm (cold) PDO phase, and so is the atmospheric teleconnection of ENSO. Our results indicate that the stratification of ENSO-based statistical RI forecast by the PDO can greatly improve the accuracy of statistical RI predictions.

  17. Emission, Dispersion, Transformation, and Deposition of Asian Particulates Over the Western Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turco, Richard P.

    2005-02-28

    In this project we developed and applied a coupled three-dimensional meteorology/chemistry/microphysics model to study the patterns of aerosol dispersion and deposition in the western Pacific area; carried out a series of detailed regional aerosol simulations to test the ability of models to treat emission, dispersion and removal processes prior to long-range transport; calculated and analyzed trajectories that originate in Asian dust source regions and reach the Pacific Basin; performed detailed simulations of regional and trans-Pacific transport, as well as the microphysical and chemical properties, of aerosols in the Asia-Pacific region to quantify processes that control the emission, dispersion and removal of particles; and assessed the contributions of regional-scale Asian particulate sources to the deposition of pollutants onto surface waters. The transport and deposition of aerosols and vapors were found to be strongly controlled by large and synoptic scale meteorology, convection, turbulence, and precipitation, as well as strong interactions between surface conditions and topographical features. The present analysis suggests that accurate representations of aerosol sources, transport and deposition can be obtained using a comprehensive modeling approach.

  18. A Robustness Analysis of CMIP5 Models over the East Asia-Western North Pacific Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP is an international community-based infrastructure that supports climate model intercomparison, climate variability, climate prediction, and climate projection. Improving the performance of climate models over East Asia and the western North Pacific has been a challenge for the climate-modeling community. In this paper, we provide a synthesis robustness analysis of the climate models participating in CMIP-Phase 5 (CMIP5. The strengths and weaknesses of the CMIP5 models are assessed from the perspective of climate mean state, interannual variability, past climate change during the mid-Pliocene (MP and the last millennium, and climate projection. The added values of regional climate models relative to the driving global climate models are also assessed. Although an encouraging increase in credibility and an improvement in the simulation of mean states, interannual variability, and past climate changes are visible in the progression from CMIP3 to CMIP5, some previously noticed biases such as the ridge position of the western North Pacific subtropical high and the associated rainfall bias are still evident in CMIP5 models. Weaknesses are also evident in simulations of the interannual amplitude, such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO-monsoon relationships. Coupled models generally show better results than standalone atmospheric models in simulating both mean states and interannual variability. Multi-model intercomparison indicates significant uncertainties in the future projection of climate change, although precipitation increases consistently across models constrained by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. Regional ocean-atmosphere coupled models are recommended for the dynamical downscaling of climate change projections over the East Asia-western North Pacific domain.

  19. A new centennial index to study the Western North Pacific Monsoon decadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Inmaculada; Gómez-Delgado, F. de Paula; Gallego, David; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon (WNPSM) appeared for the first time in 1987. It is, unlike the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), an oceanic monsoon mostly driven by the meridional gradient of sea surface temperature. Its circulation is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented monsoon trough with intense precipitation and low-level southwesterlies and upper-tropospheric easterlies in the region [100°-130° E, 5°-15°N]. Up to now, the primary index to characterize the WNPSM has been the Western North Pacific Monsoon Index (WNPMI) which covers the 1949-2013 period. The original WNPMI was defined as the difference of 850-hPa westerlies between two regions: D1 [5°-15°N, 100°-130°E] and D2 [20°-30°N, 110°-140°E]. Both domains are included in the main historical ship routes circumnavigating Asia for hundreds of years. Many of the logbooks of these ships have been preserved in historical archives and they usually contain daily observations of wind force and direction. Therefore, it has been possible to compute a new index of instrumental character, which reconstructs the WNPSM back to the middle of the 19th Century, by using solely historical wind direction records preserved in logbooks. We define the monthly Western North Pacific Directional Index (WNPDI) as the sum of the persistence of the low-level westerly winds in D1 and easterly winds in D2. The advantages of this new index are its nature (instrumental) and its length (1849-2013), which is 100 years longer than the WNPMI (which was based on reanalysis data). Our WNPDI shows a high correlation (r=+0.87, pCompetitividad through the project INCITE (CGL2013-44530-P, BES-2014-069733).

  20. Dimethylsulphide (DMS emissions from the western Pacific Ocean: a potential marine source for stratospheric sulphur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Marandino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface and atmospheric measurements of dimethylsulphide (DMS were performed during the TransBrom cruise in the western Pacific Ocean between Japan and Australia in October 2009. Air–sea DMS fluxes were computed between 0 and 30 μmol m−2 d−1, which are in agreement with those computed by the current climatology, and peak emissions of marine DMS into the atmosphere were found during the occurrence of tropical storm systems. Atmospheric variability in DMS, however, did not follow that of the computed fluxes and was more related to atmospheric transport processes. The computed emissions were used as input fields for the Lagrangian dispersion model FLEXPART, which was set up with actual meteorological fields from ERA-Interim data and different chemical lifetimes of DMS. A comparison with aircraft in situ data from the adjacent HIPPO2 campaign revealed an overall good agreement between modelled versus observed DMS profiles over the tropical western Pacific Ocean. Based on observed DMS emissions and meteorological fields along the cruise track, the model projected that up to 30 g S per month in the form of DMS, emitted from an area of 6 × 104 m2, can be transported above 17 km. This surprisingly large DMS entrainment into the stratosphere is disproportionate to the regional extent of the area of emissions and mainly due to the high convective activity in this region as simulated by the transport model. Thus, if DMS can cross the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, we suggest that the considerably larger area of the tropical western Pacific Ocean can be a source of sulphur to the stratosphere, which has not been considered as yet.

  1. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in the Western Pacific Region: update with 2013 case notification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hiatt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the year 2000, tuberculosis (TB prevalence in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region decreased 36%. However, there were an estimated 1.6 million TB cases in the Region in 2013. This study describes a regional analysis using the WHO global TB database data from 2000 to 2013. Methods: TB surveillance data are annually collected from 36 countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region using a web-based system. TB case notifications, treatment outcomes and information on TB/HIV coinfection are analysed descriptively. Stratified analysis of the TB data by age, sex and countries and areas were conducted. Results: Countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region notified 1.3 million new and relapse TB cases in 2013. TB notification rate increased in the early 2000s, stabilized for several years and declined recently. Country-specific TB notification rates declined over time for all age groups in most countries. TB treatment success rates remain high in the Region with 16 countries reaching or maintaining 85% (or higher in 2013. HIV testing among TB cases has increased gradually with approximately 11 000 HIV-positive TB cases diagnosed each year since 2009. Discussion: The results suggest that true TB incidence is possibly declining. Treatment success rates have remained high for six of seven high-burden countries. TB surveillance data analysis is an important source of programmatic and epidemiological information. Careful interpretation of these findings can provide useful insight for programmatic decision-making. While the TB burden remains immense, national TB programmes must evolve and adapt to build upon previous efforts.

  2. Environmental determinants of radiolarian assemblages in the western Pacific since the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Almeida, I.; Cortese, G.; Yu, P.-S.; Chen, M.-T.; Kucera, M.

    2017-08-01

    Radiolarians are a very diverse microzooplanktonic group, often distributed in regionally restricted assemblages and responding to specific environmental factors. These properties of radiolarian assemblages make the group more conducive for the development and application of basin-wide ecological models. Here we use a new surface sediment data set from the western Pacific to demonstrate that ecological patterns derived from basin-wide open-ocean data sets cannot be transferred on semirestricted marginal seas. The data set consists of 160 surface sediment samples from three tropical-subtropical regions (East China Sea, South China Sea, and western Pacific), combining 54 new assemblage counts with taxonomically harmonized data from previous studies. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that winter sea surface temperature at 10 m depth (SSTw) was the most significant environmental variable affecting the composition of radiolarian assemblages, allowing the development of an optimal calibration model (Locally Weighted-Weighted Averaging regression inverse deshrinking, R2cv = 0.88, root-mean-square error of prediction = 1.6°C). The dominant effect of SSTw on radiolarian assemblage composition in the western Pacific is attributed to the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), which is particularly strong in the marginal seas. To test the applicability of the calibration model on fossil radiolarian assemblages from the marginal seas, the calibration model was applied to two downcore records from the Okinawa Trough, covering the last 18 ka. We observe that these assemblages find most appropriate analogs among modern samples from the marginal basins (East China Sea and South China Sea). Downcore temperature reconstructions at both sites show similarities to known regional SST reconstructions, providing proof of concept for the new radiolarian-based SSTw calibration model.

  3. Trans-pacific Dust during Atmospheric River Landfall in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Hu, Z.; Leung, L. R.; Hagos, S. M.; Huang, J.; Qian, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are prominent features of the global water cycle. On long-term average, 20%-50% of annual precipitation over California is attributed to several AR events in the cool season that produce heavy precipitation. Local and trans-Pacific dust has been found to interact with ARs and affect clouds and precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. Such interactions depend on the dust vertical and size distributions and its mineral compositions. Therefore, local and long-range transported dust from different sources may modulate clouds and precipitation differently. In this study, a state-of-the-art model WRF-Chem is used to characterize the evolution of dust distributions and source contributions during AR events that made landfall in the western U.S. in 2010-2015. Quasi-global WRF-Chem simulations are evaluated with reanalysis and observations. The model simulations successfully capture the AR events and aerosol distributions in 2010-2015. During AR landfall in the cool season (September-March), a higher fraction of dust mass is associated with trans-Pacific dust than local dust compared to the average conditions, suggesting that the circulation patterns associated with ARs may enhance transport of dust across the Pacific Ocean. In the U.S. west coast, dust of local origin dominates the total dust amount below 2 km and to the south of 40oN during the AR landfall, while trans-pacific dust dominates above 2 km with comparable contributions from East Asian, African, and Central Asian sources, respectively. The contribution of East Asian dust mass is higher during AR landfall than the average conditions. These results suggest that trans-Pacific dust could be incorporated in orographic clouds at high altitude, with implications to precipitation produced by landfalling ARs in the U.S. west coast.

  4. Economic impacts of climate change on sustainable tuna and billfish management: Insights from the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlgorm, Alistair

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines long-term economic implications of climate change on ocean fisheries, fishing patterns and the management of both fish stocks and fishing nations. General fishery management theory identifies areas of the most immediate impact from climate change, which are assumed to be rises in sea temperatures and altered ocean current movements. The Western Pacific Ocean area is used as a case study to illustrate components of both the biophysical and economic impacts that should be considered in any policy development. These factors influence policy issues for domestic and foreign fishers, with additional risks in these fisheries due to climate change.

  5. Ventilation changes in the western North Pacific since the last glacial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Okazaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reconstructed the ventilation record of deep water at 2100 m depth in the mid-latitude western North Pacific over the past 25 kyr from radiocarbon measurements of coexisting planktic and benthic foraminiferal shells in sediment with a high sedimentation rate. The 14C data on fragile and robust planktic foraminiferal shells were concordant with each other, ensuring high quality of the reconstructed ventilation record. The radiocarbon activity changes were consistent with the atmospheric record, suggesting that no massive mixing of old carbon from the abyssal reservoir occurred throughout the glacial to deglacial periods.

  6. Pacific Rim: A Simulation of a Race through the Western Pacific Rim Countries, Developing Awareness of Their Lands, Peoples, and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantz, Connie; Callis, Janette M.

    This simulation allows students to learn about the lands and customs of the people living in the countries found along the western rim of the Pacific Ocean. The class is divided into eight teams. The phases of the unit include: (1) research; (2) activities; (3) race; and (4) summing up and festival. Each stage of play involves completion of tasks…

  7. Trans-Pacific Transport of Saharan Dust to Western North America: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendry, Ian G. M.; Strawbridge, Kevin B.; O'Neill, Norman; Macdonald, Anne Marie; Liu, Peter S. K.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Anlauf, Kurt G.; Jaegle, Lyatt; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Westphal, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    The first documented case of long range transport of Saharan dust over a pathway spanning Asia and the Pacific to Western North America is described. Crustal material generated by North African dust storms during the period 28 February - 3 March 2005 reached western Canada on 13-14 March 2005 and was observed by lidar and sunphotometer in the Vancouver region and by high altitude aerosol instrumentation at Whistler Peak. Global chemical models (GEOS-CHEM and NRL NAAPS) confirm the transport pathway and suggest source attribution was simplified in this case by the distinct, and somewhat unusual, lack of dust activity over Eurasia (Gobi and Takla Makan deserts) at this time. Over western North America, the dust layer, although subsiding close to the boundary layer, did not appear to contribute to boundary layer particulate matter concentrations. Furthermore, sunphotometer observations (and associated inversion products) suggest that the dust layer had only subtle optical impact (Aerosol Optical Thickness (Tau(sub a500)) and Angstrom exponent (Alpha(sub 440-870) were 0.1 and 1.2 respectively) and was dominated by fine particulate matter (modes in aerodynamic diameter at 0.3 and 2.5microns). High Altitude observations at Whistler BC, confirm the crustal origin of the layer (rich in Ca(++) ions) and the bi-modal size distribution. Although a weak event compared to the Asian Trans-Pacific dust events of 1998 and 2001, this novel case highlights the possibility that Saharan sources may contribute episodically to the aerosol burden in western North America.

  8. Proceedings of Regional Asia Pacific Defence Environmental Workshop Held in Darwin, Australia on 11-14 May 1998 (Environmental Security Series Number 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 1998 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Regional Asia Pacific Defence...3about the size of South Korea, in the Asia /Pacific region alone. The world population continues to grow by approximately 87 million people per year... Asia & Pacific Europe & Former USSR Latin America & Caribbean North America West Asia FIGURE 1: World Population -Recent and Projected Trends. Similar

  9. The Megafaunal Communities of Mn-crusted Guyots in the Central and Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C.; France, S.; Gerringer, M.; Pomponi, S. A.; Amon, D.; Mundy, B.; Molodtsova, T.; Matsumoto, A. K.; Watling, L.; Baco-Taylor, A.

    2016-12-01

    The NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) recently completed the second year of its 3 year CAPSTONE initiative to explore the deep waters of the U.S Pacific Monuments. At the preparation of this abstract, six ROV cruises were completed in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument (MTMNM) and the Johnston Atoll unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRIMNM). A seventh ROV cruise is scheduled for July 27 through August 9 in the Wake unit of PRIMNM. Manganese (Mn)-crusted guyots have been one of the priorities of these cruises. Sixteen guyots have been surveyed to date with 11 more targeted for the dives around Wake. A major science objective has been to gain a better understanding of the megafaunal communities on this type of seamount because interest is building in mining manganese crusts in the Central and Western Pacific, an area referred to as the Prime Crust Zone (PCZ). These surveys revealed the presence of unique animals and in some locations, high density communities of deepwater corals and sponges living on Mn crusts that could be severely impacted by deep sea mining operations. This presentation will summarize the initial findings from the surveys on all 27 guyots and will hopefully raise awareness of the need for cautious and responsible development of the deep sea mining industry.

  10. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Pan

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez, though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  11. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  12. A Millennial-length Reconstruction of the Western Pacific Pattern with Associated Paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Guan, B. T.; Wei, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Western Pacific Pattern (WP) is a lesser known 500 hPa pressure pattern similar to the NAO or PNA. As defined, the poles of the WP index are centered on 60°N over the Kamchatka peninsula and the neighboring Pacific and on 32.5°N over the western north Pacific. However, the area of influence for the southern half of the dipole includes a wide swath from East Asia, across Taiwan, through the Philippine Sea, to the western north Pacific. Tree rings of Taiwanese Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana in this extended region show significant correlation with the WP, and with local temperature. The WP is also significantly correlated with atmospheric temperatures over Taiwan, especially at 850hPa and 700 hPa, pressure levels that bracket the tree site. Spectral analysis indicates that variations in the WP occur at relatively high frequency, with most power at less than 5 years. Simple linear regression against high frequency variants of the tree-ring chronology yielded the most significant correlation coefficients. Two reconstructions are presented. The first uses a tree-ring time series produced as the first intrinsic mode function (IMF) from an Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform. The significance of the regression using the EEMD-derived time series was much more significant than time series produced using traditional high pass filtering. The second also uses the first IMF of a tree-ring time series, but the dataset was first sorted and partitioned at a specified quantile prior to EEMD decomposition, with the mean of the partitioned data forming the input to the EEMD. The partitioning was done to filter out the less climatically sensitive tree rings, a common problem with shade tolerant trees. Time series statistics indicate that the first reconstruction is reliable to 1241 of the Common Era. Reliability of the second reconstruction is dependent on the development of statistics related to the quantile partitioning, and

  13. Modulation of western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity by the Atlantic Meridional Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Villarini, Gabriele; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Rosati, Anthony; Yang, Xiaosong; Jia, Liwei; Zeng, Fanrong

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the year-to-year modulation of the western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclones (TC) activity by the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) using both observations and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Forecast-oriented Low Ocean Resolution Version of CM2.5 (FLOR) global coupled model. 1. The positive (negative) AMM phase suppresses (enhances) WNP TC activity in observations. The anomalous occurrence of WNP TCs results mainly from changes in TC genesis in the southeastern part of the WNP. 2. The observed responses of WNP TC activity to the AMM are connected to the anomalous zonal vertical wind shear (ZVWS) caused by AMM-induced changes to the Walker circulation. During the positive AMM phase, the warming in the North Atlantic induces strong descending flow in the tropical eastern and central Pacific, which intensifies the Walker cell in the WNP. The intensified Walker cell is responsible for the suppressed (enhanced) TC genesis in the eastern (western) part of the WNP by strengthening (weakening) ZVWS. 3. The observed WNPTC-AMM linkage is examined by the long-term control and idealized perturbations experiment with FLOR-FA. A suite of sensitivity experiments strongly corroborate the observed WNPTC-AMM linkage and underlying physical mechanisms.

  14. Surface chlorophyll, westerly winds, and El Nino in the western Pacific warm pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenac, Marie-Hélène; Messié, Monique; Bosc, Christelle

    The western equatorial Pacific warm pool is characterized by sea surface temperature (SST) higher than 29° C and sea surface salinity (SSS) lower than 35. It is usually considered as a broad oligotrophic region with a nitrate exhausted and low chlorophyll (lower than 0.1 mg m-3 ) surface layer. Nevertheless, ocean colour imagery shows that surface chlorophyll concentrations vary at the interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal time-scales. In this study, we use the 2000-2007 SeaWiFS data together with QuikScat wind, TMI SST, altimetric sea level, and OSCAR satellite-derived surface currents to describe and understand the variability of the surface chlorophyll in the region. In particular, nutrient and phytoplankton-rich waters upwelled near the country-regionplaceNew Guinea coast influence the distribution of surface chlorophyll in the equatorial warm pool from intra-seasonal to interannual time-scales. We show that the eastern part of the region is occupied by a quasi-persistent strip of very oligotrophic waters with chlorophyll concentrations close to those observed in the subtropical gyres (0.07 mg m-3 ). It extends over about 20 degrees of longitude and its width varies seasonally and with the El Niño/La Niña phases. Overall, this very oligotrophic zone matches n n the well-documented region with the warmest SST (over 30° C), thickest barrier layer (more than 20 m), and highest sea level (more than 220 cm) of the equatorial Pacific. Its eastern limit matches the eastern edge of the warm pool and moves zonally at seasonal and interannual time-scales. While the eastern edge has been described in previous studies, the western edge is poorly known. It is marked by the 0.1 mg m-3 chlorophyll isoline and its zonal motions occur at seasonal, interannual, and intraseasonal time-scales, as well. We investigate the late-2001 to late-2002 time period to assess the intra-seasonal variability of the surface chlorophyll in relation with the wind intra-seasonal variability

  15. Genetic differentiation across the Western Pacific populations of the hydrothermal vent bivalve Bathymodiolus spp. and the Eastern Pacific (13°N) population of Bathymodiolus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, Dario; Jollivet, Didier; Denis, Françoise

    1994-10-01

    Deep-sea mussels, closely related to the Bathymodiolus genus and individuals of Bathymodiolus thermophilus, were collected on hydrothermal vents of the Lau and North-Fiji back-arc basins (Western Pacific) and at 13°N on the East Pacific Rise, respectively. Separate tissue homogenates were submitted to starch gel electrophoresis in order to study the genetic structure of the populations at 11 enzyme loci. Significant departures from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found at Aat-1, Gpi and Pgm loci without any location specificity. All the observed departures corresponded to heterozygote deficiencies that are common in mollusc bivalves. The genetic variability of these mussels was low in all samples, especially for the North-Fiji population. The genetic distances measured between populations demonstrated that significant genetic differentiation occurs between the Western Pacific mussel populations and the Eastern Pacific B. thermophilus, whereas gene flow appeared to be maintained between the two back-arc basins. The presence of both shared heterozygotes and genetic distances found between the western and the eastern populations do not allow us to separate these allopatric forms as distinct sibling species.

  16. Slow acidification of the winter mixed layer in the subarctic western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Masahide; Nagano, Akira; Fujiki, Tetsuichi; Watanabe, Shuichi

    2017-08-01

    We used carbon dioxide (CO2) system data collected during 1999-2015 to investigate ocean acidification at time series sites in the western subarctic region of the North Pacific Ocean. The annual mean pH at station K2 decreased at a rate of 0.0025 ± 0.0010 year-1 mostly in response to oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. The Revelle factor increased rapidly (0.046 ± 0.022 year-1), an indication that the buffering capacity of this region of the ocean has declined faster than at other time series sites. In the western subarctic region, the pH during the winter decline at a slower rate of 0.0008 ± 0.0004 year-1. This was attributed to a reduced rate of increase of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and an increase of total alkalinity (TA). The reduction of DIC increase was caused by the decline of surface water density associated with the pycnocline depression and the reduction of vertical diffusion flux from the upper pycnocline. These physical changes were probably caused by northward shrinkage of the western subarctic gyre and global warming. Meanwhile, the contribution of the density decline to the TA increase is canceled out by that of the reduced vertical diffusive flux. We speculated that the winter TA increase is caused mainly by the accumulation of TA due to the weakened calcification by organisms during the winter.

  17. Possible relationship between NAO and tropical cyclone genesis frequency in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined a strong positive correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during June and the total tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency in the western North Pacific during July and August. To investigate a possible cause for this relation, the mean difference between highest positive NAO years and lowest negative NAO years was analyzed by dividing into when the El Niño and La Niña years were included and when the El Niño and La Niña years were not included. When the El Niño and La Niña years were included, for positive NAO years, the TCs mostly occurred in the northwestern region of tropical and subtropical western Pacific, and showed a pattern that migrate from the sea northeast of the Philippines, pass the East China Sea, and move toward the mid-latitudes of East Asia. In contrast, for negative NAO years, the TCs mostly occurred in the southeastern region of tropical and subtropical western Pacific, and showed a pattern that migrate westward from the sea southeast of the Philippines, pass the South China Sea, and move toward the southern coast of China and Indochinese peninsula. These two different TC migration patterns affect the recurving location of TC, and for positive NAO years, the recurving of TC was averagely found to take place in the further northeast. In addition, the migration patterns also affect the TC intensity, and the TCs of positive NAO years had stronger intensity than the TCs of negative NAO years as sufficient energy can be absorbed from the ocean while moving north in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. The TCs of negative NAO years showed weak intensity as they weaken or disappear shortly while landing on the southern coast of China and Indochinese peninsula. On the other hand, the above result of analysis is also similarly observed when the El Niño and La Niña years were not included.

  18. Indo-western Pacific ocean capacitor and coherent climate anomalies in post-ENSO summer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shang-Ping; Kosaka, Yu; Du, Yan; Hu, Kaiming; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Huang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    ENSO induces coherent climate anomalies over the Indo-western Pacific, but these anomalies outlast SST anomalies of the equatorial Pacific by a season, with major effects on the Asian summer monsoon. This review provides historical accounts of major milestones and synthesizes recent advances in the endeavor to understand summer variability over the Indo-Northwest Pacific region. Specifically, a large-scale anomalous anticyclone (AAC) is a recurrent pattern in post-El Ni˜no summers, spanning the tropical Northwest Pacific and North Indian oceans. Regarding the ocean memory that anchors the summer AAC, competing hypotheses emphasize either SST cooling in the easterly trade wind regime of the Northwest Pacific or SST warming in the westerly monsoon regime of the North Indian Ocean. Our synthesis reveals a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode that builds on both mechanisms in a two-stage evolution. In spring, when the northeast trades prevail, the AAC and Northwest Pacific cooling are coupled via wind-evaporation-SST feedback. The Northwest Pacific cooling persists to trigger a summer feedback that arises from the interaction of the AAC and North Indian Ocean warming, enabled by the westerly monsoon wind regime. This Indo-western Pacific ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect explains why El Ni˜no stages its last act over the monsoonal Indo-Northwest Pacific and casts the Indian Ocean warming and AAC in leading roles. The IPOC displays interdecadal modulations by the ENSO variance cycle, significantly correlated with ENSO at the turn of the 20th century and after the 1970s, but not in between. Outstanding issues, including future climate projections, are also discussed.

  19. Exploring Western and Eastern Pacific contributions to the 21st century Walker circulation intensification and teleconnected precipitation declines (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. C.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.; Verdin, J. P.; Robertson, F. R.; Alured, D.; Liebmann, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the earth's population, industry, and agricultural systems continue to expand and increase demand for limited hydrologic resources, developing better tools for monitoring, analyzing and perhaps even predicting decadal variations in precipitation will enable the climate community to better inform important policy and management decisions. To this end, in support of the development and humanitarian relief efforts of the US Agency for International Development, USGS, NOAA, UC Santa Barbara, and NASA scientists have been exploring global precipitation trends using observations and new ensembles of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations from the ECHAM5, GFSv2, CAM4 and GMAO models. This talk summarizes this work, and discusses how combined analyses of AGCM simulations and observations might lead to credible decadal projections, for some regions and seasons, based on the strength of the Indo-Pacific warming signal. Focusing on the late boreal spring, a critical period for food insecure Africa, we begin by linearly decomposing 1900-2012 sea surface temperatures (SST) into components loading strongly in the Indo-Western Pacific and Eastern Pacific. Eastern Pacific (EP) SST variations are based on regressions with three time series: the first and second principal components of equatorial Pacific SST and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. These influences are removed from Indo-Pacific SSTs, and the Indo-Western Pacific (IWP) SST variations are defined by the 1st principal component of the residuals, which we refer to as the Indo-West Pacific Warming Signal (IWPWS). The pattern of IWPWS SST changes resembles recent assessments of centennial warming, and identifies rapid warming in the equatorial western Pacific and north and south Pacific convergence zones. The circulation impacts of IWP and EP SST forcing are explored in two ways. First, assuming linear SST forcing relationships, IWP and EP decompositions of ECHAM5, GFS, CAM4 and GMAO AGCM simulations are

  20. Darwin and his publisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, David

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's publisher John Murray played an important, if often underrated, role in bringing his theories to the public. As their letters and publishing archives show they had a friendly, business like and successful relationship. This was despite fundamental scientific and religious differences between the men. In addition to publishing Darwin, Murray also published many of the critical and supportive works and reviews which Darwin's own works excited.

  1. Charles Darwin i 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin blev født d. 12. februar 1809. Hans mest berømte bog, 'Om arternes oprindelse', udkom d. 24. november 1859. Det gør 2009 til noget ganske særligt for både Darwin og evolutionsteorien. Det er nemlig i år både Darwins 200-års fødselsdag og 150-års jubilæet for en af de mest...

  2. What Darwin got wrong

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fodor, Jerry A; Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    .... There are significant scientific and philosophical problems with the theory of natural selection. Darwin claimed the factors that determine the course of evolution are very largely environmental...

  3. Darwin the scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's experimental investigations show him to have been a superb practical researcher. These skills are often underestimated today when assessing Darwin's achievement in the Origin of Species and his other books. Supported by a private income, he turned his house and gardens into a Victorian equivalent of a modern research station. Darwin participated actively in the exchange of scientific information via letters and much of his research was also carried out through correspondence. Although this research was relatively small scale in practice, it was large scale in intellectual scope. Darwin felt he had a strong desire to understand or explain whatever he observed.

  4. Latitudinal distribution of zooplankton communities in the Western Pacific along 160°E during summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-05-01

    A total of 51 mesozooplankton samples collected with a WP2 net from 0 to 200 m depth along 160°E (4°S-46°N) in the Western Pacific from June to July 2014 were analyzed. The latitudinal distribution of mesozooplankton community structure was analyzed. The average biomass and abundance in different provinces generally increased with latitude: the biomass of zooplankton ranged from 1.18 mg DW m- 3 (11°N) to 97.81 mg DW m- 3 (45°N), and the abundance of zooplankton ranged from 45.11 ind. m- 3 (3°S) to 439.84 ind. m- 3 (41°N). The community structure of zooplankton also showed a significant latitudinal variation. At lower latitudes, calanoid copepods were the most abundant group, while cyclopoid copepods were the most abundant group at higher latitudes. Multidimensional scaling analysis of community structure and other physical/chemical/biological characteristics supported five ecological provinces in the northwestern Pacific: the Western Pacific Warm Pool Province (WARM), the North Pacific Tropical Gyre (NPTG), the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPST), the Kuroshio Current Province (KURO) and the Pacific Subarctic Gyres Province (PSAG). The Kuroshio Current Province can be regarded as a transitional zone between the subarctic and northern subtropical area, and this transitional zone corresponds much more closely to the ecocline concept, rather than the ecotone concept.

  5. Western Pacific Tropospheric Ozone and Potential Vorticity: Implications for Asian Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Newell, Reginald E.; Davis, Douglas D.; Liu, Shaw C.

    1997-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (03) cross sections measured with lidar from a DC-8 aircraft over the western Pacific correspond closely with potential vorticity (PV). Both are transported from the middle latitude stratosphere, although this is not the only source of 03, and both have sinks in the tropical boundary layer. 03 and PV are good indicators of photochemical and transport process interactions. In summer, some Asian pollution, raised by convection to the upper troposphere, passes southward into the tropics and to the Southern Hemisphere. In winter, subsidence keeps the pollution at low altitudes where it moves over the ocean towards the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), with photochemical destruction and secondary pollutant generation occurring en route. Convection raises this modified air to the upper troposphere, where some re may enter the stratosphere. Thus winter Asian pollution may at have a smaller direct influence on the global atmosphere than it would if injected at other longitudes and seasons.

  6. Two Decades of Helicobacter pylori: A Review of the Fourth Western Pacific Helicobacter Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A Fallone

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 3 to 6, 2002, Helicobacter enthusiasts gathered in Perth, Australia for the Fourth Western Pacific Helicobacter Congress to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the modern discovery of this organism by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren. The meeting included state-of-the-art lectures highlighting the breakthroughs that have occurred since the discovery of this bacterium. As well, advances from the forefront of current Helicobacter pylori research were presented, particularly in the realm of genomics and molecular biology. A symposium about vaccines and trends for future H pylori research completed this congress. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the highlights from this conference, emphasizing new advances.

  7. Palm harvest impact in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forests in the western Amazon, Andes, and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different...... of ecosystems and use this to propose sustainable policies to the governments. The results are disseminated in a variety of ways, depending on need and stake holders, from popular leaflets and videos for farmers, reports for policy makers to scientific publications for the research community. The team behind...... forest formations and determine the number of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of their populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. We...

  8. Nutritional aspects of changes in disease patterns in the Western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L T; Rosman, A; de Boer, A S; Darnton-Hill, I

    1996-01-01

    One impact of socioeconomic progress on populations has been to reduce the number of cases due to diseases of undernutrition and microbial contamination of food, which affected mostly infants and young children, and to increase those due to diseases of excessive food consumption, which are affecting adults and a growing number of children. This article reviews the main dietary factors which have an influence on cardiovascular disease and cancer, and discusses the link between economic development and increased rates of chronic diseases. There is evidence that the noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors have risen rapidly in countries of the WHO Western Pacific Region. Data from 29 countries and areas in the region indicate that 70% of them show lifestyle diseases in three or more of the top five causes of death. While public health measures have been implemented by some countries to prevent and control nutrition-related chronic diseases, further action is needed.

  9. Intraseasonal oscillation enhancing C5 typhoon occurrence over the tropical western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chun-Hsiung; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2017-04-01

    This study reveals that the atmosphere-ocean coupled intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) enhances the occurrence frequency of Category 5 (C5) typhoons in the western North Pacific (WNP). Climatologically, the major region of C5 typhoon occurrence in the WNP is collocated with the intraseasonal variance of outgoing longwave radiation and tropical cyclone heat potential. The active convection and large ocean heat content associated with ISO create an environment conducive to the occurrence of C5 typhoons. Between 1980 and 2009, approximately 82% of C5 typhoons occurred when one or both of the two conditions were fulfilled. Our results suggest that compared with the thermodynamic factor of ocean heat content, dynamic factors (i.e., convection and near-surface moisture convergence) within the favorable intraseasonal background state likely play a more influential role in inducing C5 typhoons.

  10. Atmospheric aerosol deposition influences marine microbial communities in oligotrophic surface waters of the western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Ishikawa, Akira; Mastunaga, Tomoki; Pointing, Stephen B.; Saito, Yuuki; Kasai, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Koichi; Aoki, Kazuma; Horiuchi, Amane; Lee, Kevin C.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols contain particulates that are deposited to oceanic surface waters. These can represent a major source of nutrients, trace metals, and organic compounds for the marine environment. The Japan Sea and the western Pacific Ocean are particularly affected by aerosols due to the transport of desert dust and industrially derived particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) from continental Asia. We hypothesized that supplementing seawater with aerosol particulates would lead to measurable changes in surface water nutrient composition as well as shifts in the marine microbial community. Shipboard experiments in the Pacific Ocean involved the recovery of oligotrophic oceanic surface water and subsequent supplementation with aerosol particulates obtained from the nearby coastal mountains, to simulate marine particulate input in this region. Initial increases in nitrates due to the addition of aerosol particulates were followed by a decrease correlated with the increase in phytoplankton biomass, which was composed largely of Bacillariophyta (diatoms), including Pseudo-nitzschia and Chaetoceros species. This shift was accompanied by changes in the bacterial community, with apparent increases in the relative abundance of heterotrophic Rhodobacteraceae and Colwelliaceae in aerosol particulate treated seawater. Our findings provide empirical evidence revealing the impact of aerosol particulates on oceanic surface water microbiology by alleviating nitrogen limitation in the organisms.

  11. Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffelfinger, James D; Li, Xi; Batmunkh, Nyambat; Grabovac, Varja; Diorditsa, Sergey; Liyanage, Jayantha B; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Bahl, Sunil; Vannice, Kirsten S; Hyde, Terri B; Chu, Susan Y; Fox, Kimberley K; Hills, Susan L; Marfin, Anthony A

    2017-06-09

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of JE vaccination into national immunization schedules in all areas where the disease is a public health priority (1). This report updates a previous summary of JE surveillance and immunization programs in Asia and the Western Pacific in 2012 (2). Since 2012, funding for JE immunization has become available through the GAVI Alliance, three JE vaccines have been WHO-prequalified,* and an updated WHO JE vaccine position paper providing guidance on JE vaccines and vaccination strategies has been published (1). Data for this report were obtained from a survey of JE surveillance and immunization practices administered to health officials in countries with JE virus transmission risk, the 2015 WHO/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, notes and reports from JE meetings held during 2014-2016, published literature, and websites. In 2016, 22 (92%) of 24 countries with JE virus transmission risk conducted JE surveillance, an increase from 18 (75%) countries in 2012, and 12 (50%) countries had a JE immunization program, compared with 11 (46%) countries in 2012. Strengthened JE surveillance, continued commitment, and adequate resources for JE vaccination should help maintain progress toward prevention and control of JE.

  12. First round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwoon Yong Pok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue surveillance and control. The objective of this programme was to assess dengue diagnostic proficiency among national-level public health laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. Methods: Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 (Module A and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B. A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. Results: All 16 laboratories testing Module A performed reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both RNA and serotype detection. Of these, 15 had correct results for RNA detection and all 16 correctly serotyped the viruses. All nine laboratories performing NS1 antigen detection obtained the correct results. Sixteen of the 18 laboratories using IgM assays in Module B obtained the correct results as did the 13 laboratories that performed IgG assays. Detection of ongoing/recent dengue virus infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 15/19 participating laboratories. Discussion: This first round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics was successfully conducted in national-level public health laboratories in the WHO Western Pacific Region, revealing good proficiency in both molecular and serological testing. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing for dengue virus and other priority pathogens in the Region will be assessed during future rounds.

  13. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific : Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoneda, M; Kitagawa, H; van der Plicht, J; Uchida, M; Tanaka, A; Uehiro, T; Shibata, Y; Morita, M; Ohno, T

    2000-01-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as

  14. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McCallum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

  15. DNA-based characterization of wood-, butt- and root-rot fungi from the western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Although the islands of the western Pacific comprise a hotspot of species, including fungi, a large number of these species have not been catalogued or documented in the scientific literature on an island to island basis. Butt- and root-rot fungi were collected from infected wood and fruiting bodies of diverse tropical trees from forest, agricultural, and...

  16. Darwin and Wagner: Evolution and Aesthetic Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most influential works of the Western nineteenth century were completed in 1859: Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species" and Richard Wagner's opera "Tristan and Isolde." Although created within very different cultural traditions, these works show some striking similarities: both brought about a critical, long-lasting debate and caused…

  17. Coherent climate anomalies over the Indo-western Pacific in post-El Niño summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.; DU, Y.; Hu, K.; Chowdary, J. S.; Huang, G.

    2016-12-01

    El Niño typically peaks in boreal winter, and the associated equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) signal dissipates before subsequent summer. Its impact, however, outlasts until boreal summer in the Indo-western Pacific, featuring basin-wide Indian Ocean warming and tropical Northwestern Pacific cooling accompanied by the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern with surface anomalous anticyclone (AAC) extending from the Philippine Sea to the northern Indian Ocean. Two formation mechanisms have been proposed for these climate anomalies in post-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) summer. One hypothesis invokes the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback in the tropical Northwestern Pacific, while the other points to inter-basin feedback between the Indian Ocean and tropical Northwestern Pacific. Based on a coupled model experiment, we propose an ocean-atmosphere coupled mode that synthesizes the two mechanisms. This Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) mode evolves seasonally from spring to summer under seasonal migration of background state. In spring, the WES feedback is operative in association with the tropical Northwestern Pacific cooling, while in summer the Indian Ocean warming and the inter-basin interaction maintains the AAC. While the IPOC mode is independent of ENSO in mechanism, ENSO can drive this mode in its decay phase. This excitation, however, has undergone substantial interdecadal modulations, depending on ENSO amplitude and persistence of Indian Ocean warming. The ENSO-IPOC correlation is high after the mid-1970s and at the beginning of the 20th century, but low in between.

  18. Determination of dissolved Fe(II) in seawater of the western North Pacific with luminol chemiluminescence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, H.; Mase, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishioka, J.; Takeda, S.

    2010-12-01

    Determination of dissolved Fe(II) in seawater of the western North Pacific with luminol chemiluminescence method Hajime Obata, Akira Mase, Toshitaka Gamo (Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Japan), Jun Nishioka (Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Japan), Shigenobu Takeda (Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Japan) Speciation of iron in the ocean is now important topics because the bioavailability of iron depends on its chemical form in seawater. However, marine biogeochemical process of Fe(II) has not been fully investigated. In this study, we determined Fe(II) in seawaters using the luminol chemiluminescence method after acidifying the samples to pH 6(Hansard and Landing, 2009). The same samples collected in the western North Pacific were analyzed by the flow chemiluminescence methods with acidification to pH 6 and without acidification. The results with both methods were almost identical. Time variation of Fe(II) in seawater after acidifying the samples to pH 6 were examined in the western North Pacific and the Bering Sea. Within 10 minutes, variations of Fe(II) were small in the open ocean waters, whereas Fe(II) concentrations increased rapidly in surface waters collected in the Bering Sea. The acidification method is not always applicable for seawater samples, especially in the marginal sea. Surface distributions of Fe(II) in the western subarctic North Pacific were investigated by using a continuous clean sampling system for surface waters. The Fe(II) concentrations ranged from temperatures. The oxidation rates were slower in the Bering Sea than those in the western North Pacific, implying that the oxidation rates were controlled not only by water temperature but also by organic compounds, such as humic substances.

  19. Variability of the western Pacific warm pool structure associated with El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shijian; Hu, Dunxin; Guan, Cong; Xing, Nan; Li, Jianping; Feng, Junqiao

    2017-10-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) structure inside the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) is usually overlooked because of its distinct homogeneity, but in fact it possesses a clear meridional high-low-high pattern. Here we show that the SST low in the WPWP is significantly intensified in July-October of El Niño years (especially extreme El Niño years) and splits the 28.5 °C-isotherm-defined WPWP (WPWP split for simplification). Composite analysis and heat budget analysis indicate that the enhanced upwelling due to positive wind stress curl anomaly and western propagating upwelling Rossby waves account for the WPWP split. Zonal advection at the eastern edge of split region plays a secondary role in the formation of the WPWP split. Composite analysis and results from a Matsuno-Gill model with an asymmetric cooling forcing imply that the WPWP split seems to give rise to significant anomalous westerly winds and intensify the following El Niño event. Lead-lag correlation shows that the WPWP split slightly leads the Niño 3.4 index.

  20. Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific Ocean before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Zheng, J.; Aono, T.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides such as Pu-239 (half-life: 24100 yr), Pu-240 (half-life: 6560 yr) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 yr) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. In the North Pacific Ocean, two distinct sources of Pu isotopes can be identified; i.e., the global stratospheric fallout and close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater and marine sediment samples collected in the western North Pacific before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station will provide useful background data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The atom ratios of Pu-240/Pu-239 in water columns from the Yamato and Tsushima Basins in the Japan Sea were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18; however, there were no temporal variation of atom ratios during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the Japan Sea. The total Pu-239+240 inventories in the whole water columns were approximately doubled during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the two basins. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 in surface water from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific Ocean, was 0.224 and showed no notable variation from the surface to the bottom with the mean atom ratio being 0.234. The atom ratios for the Pacific coast, near the Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, were approximately the same as the 0.224 ratio obtained from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific margin. The atom ratios in the surficial sediments from Sagami Bay ranged from 0.229 to 0.247. The mean atom ratio in the sediment columns in the East China Sea ranged from 0.248 for the Changjiang estuary to 0.268 for the shelf edge. The observed atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean

  1. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  2. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  3. A Darwin Selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. A Darwin Selection A Comprehensive Darwin Anthology. Shailesh Deshpande Milind Watve. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 7 July 1997 pp 91-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Darwin i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klassiske danske oversættelser af Charles Darwins skrifter, bl.a. Om Arternes Oprindelse, Menneskets Afstamning, Rejse om Jorden og Live og Breve. Indeholder også forskellige 1800-tals reaktioner til Darwin sammen med en række introduktioner, bibliografier og andre ressourcer for studerende og...

  5. Commentary: Darwin at 200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Danita

    2009-01-01

    2009 marked the bicentennial of Charles Darwin's birth (February 12) and the 150th anniversary (in November) of the publication of Darwin's "extended abstract" "On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection." Universities, scientific societies, and disciplinary journals anticipated this event by organizing meetings, theme…

  6. Why the spring North Pacific Oscillation is a predictor of typhoon activity over the Western North Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Huijun; Liu, Jiping; Li, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    ... ) during the period 1968–2010, with a correlation coefficient of 0.62 (above the 99% significance level). When the Northern Low and Southern High pattern over the north Pacific weakens, the TNWNP tends to increase...

  7. Using eddy geopotential height to measure the western North Pacific subtropical high in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun

    2018-01-01

    The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is crucial to the East Asian summer climate, and geopotential height ( H) is widely used to measure the WPNSH. However, a rapidly rising trend of H in the future is projected by the models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Diagnoses based on the hypsometric equation suggest that more than 80% of the rise in H are attributable to zonal uniform warming. Because circulation is determined by the gradient of H rather than its absolute magnitude, the spatially uniform rising trend of H gives rise to difficulties when measuring the WNPSH with H. These difficulties include an invalid western boundary of WNPSH in the future and spurious information regarding long-term trends and interannual variability of WNPSH. Using CMIP5 model simulations and reanalysis data, the applicability of a metric based on eddy geopotential height ( H e ) to the warming climate is investigated. The results show that the H e metric outperforms the H metric under warming climate conditions. First, the mean state rainfall- H e relationship is more robust than the rainfall- H relationship. Second, the area, intensity, and western boundary indices of WNPSH can be effectively defined by the H e = 0-m contour in future warming climate scenarios without spurious trends. Third, the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is more closely related to the H e -based WNPSH indices. We recommend that the H e metric be adopted as an operational metric on the WNPSH under the current warming climate.

  8. The THORPEX-Pacific Asian Regional Campaign and Affiliated Field Campaigns over the Tropical Western North Pacific during August-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, P.

    2008-12-01

    The THORPEX (THe Observing Research and Predictability EXperiment) Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) is a multi-national field campaign that addresses the shorter-range dynamics and forecast skill associated with high-impact weather events of one region (Eastern Asian and the western North Pacific) and their downstream impacts on the medium-range dynamics and forecast skill of another region (in particular, the eastern North Pacific and North America). Although many significant weather events occur over eastern Asia and the western North Pacific, the focus of T-PARC is on various aspects of typhoon activity, which include formation, intensification, structure change, motion, and extratropical transition. Because of the significant impact of typhoon activity on the region of eastern Asia and the western North Pacific, T-PARC is comprised of several affiliated programs. These programs and their national sponsor include: - Tropical Cyclone Structure-2008 (TCS-08) [United States]; - Typhoon Hunter-2008 (TH-08) [Japan]; - Predictability and Observation Experiment (PROBEX) [South Korea]; - Tibetan Plateau Experiment [China]; - The South China Sea Experiment [China]; - Dropsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR) [Taiwan]. In addition to the above list of field campaigns, a significant international component existed via contribution of specific observation platforms. A high-altitude jet aircraft (FALCON) will be operated by the Deutches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). Driftsonde balloon operations will be conducted by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) of France. Although the region of the western North Pacific plays an important and unique role in defining many characteristics of the midlatitude circulation of the Northern Hemisphere, the near-global participation in T-PARC is an indication that the scientific principles being examined with respect to the impacts on downstream weather by significant events

  9. Danes commemorating Darwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: On the one hand...... activities, focusing primarily on celebratory articles carried in widely circulated magazines and newspapers. I identify three types of interpretations of Darwin's ideas which I characterise as ‘radical', ‘evangelical' and ‘safe' science. These different positions were closely linked to the political...... and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism...

  10. Influences of sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans on tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific in May

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jingliang; Chen, Wen; Ma, Tianjiao; Huang, Ronghui

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of sea surface temperature (SST) in different tropical regions on tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) in May. The results revealed that positive SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific (Indian) Ocean in March may lead to increased (decreased) numbers of TCs over the WNP in May by affecting the atmospheric circulation anomalies over the WNP. Warmer SSTs over the tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO) may lead to stronger low-level southwesterly winds and enhanced convection. However, warmer SSTs over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) may enhance the western part of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and suppress convection. Further analysis suggests that changes in the atmospheric circulation anomalies over the WNP are related to changes in environmental factors. Concomitantly with the positive SST anomalies over the TPO, a favorable environment for TC genesis in May is present, with stronger low-level relative vorticity and upper-level divergence, smaller vertical wind shear and abundant water vapor. In contrast, the positive SST anomalies over the TIO might lead to an unfavorable environment for TC genesis over the WNP. This study also investigated the joint contributions of the TPO and TIO, and the results indicate that positive SST anomalies over the TPO and negative SST anomalies over the TIO may lead to an increased number of TC geneses. The analysis of the energy budget suggests that the joint activity of the TPO and TIO influences the barotropic eddy kinetic energy conversions and is mainly attributed to the contributions from the meridional shear of the mean zonal winds and the zonal wind convergence.

  11. Modeling the inorganic bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer over the eastern and western Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Navarro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry burden arising from the degradation of brominated very short-lived organic substances (VSLorg and its partitioning between reactive and reservoir species is needed for a comprehensive assessment of the ozone depletion potential of brominated trace gases. Here we present modeled inorganic bromine abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause based on aircraft observations of VSLorg from two campaigns of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX 2013, carried out over the eastern Pacific, and ATTREX 2014, carried out over the western Pacific and chemistry-climate simulations (along ATTREX flight tracks using the specific meteorology prevailing. Using the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem we model that BrO and Br are the daytime dominant species. Integrated across all ATTREX flights, BrO represents ∼ 43 and 48 % of daytime Bry abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The results also show zones where Br / BrO > 1 depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA, ozone concentration, and temperature. On the other hand, BrCl and BrONO2 were found to be the dominant nighttime species with ∼  61 and 56 % of abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The western-to-eastern differences in the partitioning of inorganic bromine are explained by different abundances of ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, total inorganic chlorine (Cly, and the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions of bromine reservoirs (mostly BrONO2 and HBr occurring on ice crystals.

  12. Modeling the inorganic bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer over the eastern and western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Maria A.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Atlas, Elliot; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Elkins, James W.; Hintsa, Eric J.; Moore, Fred L.

    2017-08-01

    The stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry) burden arising from the degradation of brominated very short-lived organic substances (VSLorg) and its partitioning between reactive and reservoir species is needed for a comprehensive assessment of the ozone depletion potential of brominated trace gases. Here we present modeled inorganic bromine abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause based on aircraft observations of VSLorg from two campaigns of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX 2013, carried out over the eastern Pacific, and ATTREX 2014, carried out over the western Pacific) and chemistry-climate simulations (along ATTREX flight tracks) using the specific meteorology prevailing. Using the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem) we model that BrO and Br are the daytime dominant species. Integrated across all ATTREX flights, BrO represents ˜ 43 and 48 % of daytime Bry abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The results also show zones where Br / BrO > 1 depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA), ozone concentration, and temperature. On the other hand, BrCl and BrONO2 were found to be the dominant nighttime species with ˜ 61 and 56 % of abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The western-to-eastern differences in the partitioning of inorganic bromine are explained by different abundances of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total inorganic chlorine (Cly), and the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions of bromine reservoirs (mostly BrONO2 and HBr) occurring on ice crystals.

  13. Interannual variability and trends in atmospheric methane over the western Pacific from 1994 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yukio; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu; Tohjima, Yasunori; Saeki, Tazu; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2011-07-01

    We present an analysis of interannual variability (IAV) and trends in atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratios over the western Pacific between 55°N and 35°S from 1994 to 2010. Observations were made by the Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), using voluntary observation ships sailing between Japan and Australia/New Zealand and between Japan and North America, sampling background maritime air quasi-monthly (˜10 times per year) with high latitudinal resolution. In addition, simulations of CH4 were performed using NIES atmospheric transport model. A large CH4 increase was observed in the tropics (10°N-5°S) during 1997 (between 15 ± 3 and 19 ± 3 ppb yr-1) and during 1998 for other regions (40°N-50°N: 10 ± 2-16 ± 1 ppb yr-1; 10°S-25°S: 12 ± 2-22 ± 4 ppb yr-1). The CH4 increase leveled off from 1999 to 2006 at all latitudes. The CH4 growth rate was enhanced in 2007 (25°N-50°N: 10 ± 1-12 ± 3 ppb yr-1; 15°S-35°S: 7 ± 1-8 ± 1 ppb yr-1) but diminished thereafter; however, a large CH4 growth (10 ± 1-17 ± 1 ppb yr-1) was observed in 2009 over the northern tropics (0°-15°N). These observations, combined with the simulation results, suggest that to explain the CH4 increase in 2007 would require an increase in surface emissions of ˜20 ± 3 Tg-CH4 yr-1 globally and an increase in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) of 4-7 ± 3 Tg-CH4 yr-1 more than that in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), assuming no change in OH concentrations; alternatively, a decrease in OH concentrations of 4.5 ± 0.6%-5.5 ± 0.5% yr-1 globally would be required if we assume no change in surface emissions. Over the western Pacific, the IAV in CH4 within the northern tropics was characterized by a high growth rate in mid-1997 and a reduced growth in 2007. The present data indicate that these events were strongly influenced by the IAV in atmospheric circulation associated with El Niño and La Niña events. Our observations

  14. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified – one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS. Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.. As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l. and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l., consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three. This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is

  15. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to

  16. Roles of tropical SST anomalies in modulating the western north Pacific anomalous cyclone during strong La Niña decaying years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zesheng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Du, Yan

    2017-07-01

    This study re-explores the roles of tropical SST anomalies in modulating the anomalous cyclone over the Indo-western Pacific during strong La Niña decaying years via a series of numerical experiments. The results suggest that central to eastern equatorial Pacific cooling, western north Pacific (WNP) warming, and Indian Ocean cooling all contribute to the Indo-western Pacific cyclonic wind anomalies. The WNP SST anomalies play a role via a Rossby wave-type response. As the positive SST anomalies in the WNP decay, the local forcing effect decays as well. The Indian Ocean remote forcing seems to play an important role during boreal summer via cold Kelvin wave induced cyclonic shear and boundary layer convergence. During strong La Niña decaying years, the negative SST anomalies in the equatorial central to eastern Pacific can maintain and persist into summer. Such cooling could induce anomalous Walker circulation with ascending branch over the Maritime Continent to Philippines and descending branch over central to eastern Pacific, which links the WNP climate to the equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies. The convective heating over the WNP induced remotely by central to eastern Pacific cooling in turn forces atmospheric Rossby wave to its west, which may amplify the anomalous cyclone over the Indo-western Pacific.

  17. In praise of Darwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin, who was born 200 years ago, is rightly being celebrated as the founding father of modern biology with a series of events around the world this year. Just as Einstein revolutionized physics, so Darwin changed our understanding of life. He came to realize that "natural selection" could account for the huge diversity of life, with more-efficient groups-arising from random variation-always replacing less-efficient groups in a particular environment as a result of competition. After publishing his seminal book On the Origin of Species in 1859-exactly 150 years ago-Darwin, like Einstein, became the most noted scientist of his time.

  18. Out of the Tropics: The Pacific, Great Basin Lakes, and Late Pleistocene Water Cycle in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Barron, John; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Herbert, Timothy; Andreasen, Dyke

    2012-09-01

    The water cycle in the western United States changed dramatically over glacial cycles. In the past 20,000 years, higher precipitation caused desert lakes to form which have since dried out. Higher glacial precipitation has been hypothesized to result from a southward shift of Pacific winter storm tracks. We compared Pacific Ocean data to lake levels from the interior west and found that Great Basin lake high stands are older than coastal wet periods at the same latitude. Westerly storms were not the source of high precipitation. Instead, air masses from the tropical Pacific were transported northward, bringing more precipitation into the Great Basin when coastal California was still dry. The changing climate during the deglaciation altered precipitation source regions and strongly affected the regional water cycle.

  19. Out of the tropics: the Pacific, Great Basin lakes, and late Pleistocene water cycle in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Barron, John; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Herbert, Timothy; Andreasen, Dyke

    2012-09-28

    The water cycle in the western United States changed dramatically over glacial cycles. In the past 20,000 years, higher precipitation caused desert lakes to form which have since dried out. Higher glacial precipitation has been hypothesized to result from a southward shift of Pacific winter storm tracks. We compared Pacific Ocean data to lake levels from the interior west and found that Great Basin lake high stands are older than coastal wet periods at the same latitude. Westerly storms were not the source of high precipitation. Instead, air masses from the tropical Pacific were transported northward, bringing more precipitation into the Great Basin when coastal California was still dry. The changing climate during the deglaciation altered precipitation source regions and strongly affected the regional water cycle.

  20. On the dominant intra-seasonal modes over the East Asia-western North Pacific summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyung-Ja; Oh, Hyoeun

    2017-04-01

    Intra-seasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task due to high impact on 2/3 of world populations' daily life, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intra-seasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): preMeiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. The major modes tend to be dominated by the moisture convergence of the moisture budget equation along the rain-band. The preMeiyu-Baiu mode is strongly linked to both the anomalous low-level convergence and vertical wind shear through baroclinic instability, and the Changma&Meiyu mode has a strengthened tropic-subtropics connection along the western north Pacific subtropical high, which induces vertical destabilization and strong convective instability. The WNPSM and monsoon gyre modes are characterized by anomalous southeasterly flow of warm and moist air from western north Pacific monsoon, and low-level easterly flow, respectively. Prominent difference in response to the ENSO leads to different effects of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific thermal state, and consequently, the distinct moisture supply and instability variations for the EASM intra-seasonal modes. We discuss the major driving forces of sub-seasonal variability over EA-WNPSM regions. Lastly we attempted to determine the predictability sources for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the SST/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the ENSO and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the preMeiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the WNP, which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode

  1. Labor force participation at older ages in the Western Pacific: A microeconomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agree, E M; Clark, R L

    1991-10-01

    Retirement has become a very important stage of life for persons in developed countries. Life expectancy for those over age 60 has increased markedly. Rising real income and the institution of broad based social security systems have encouraged older workers to leave the labor force at younger ages. p]Reductions in older age mortality have also affected the less developed regions. Increases in the number of older persons, coupled with continuing high fertility, have increased the size of the working age population through both large entry cohorts and longevity of current workers. The capacity of the economy to absorb this growth is severely limited. As a result, labor force decisions by older individuals will be of increasing importance.This study provides new evidence on labor force decisions in four developing countries in the Western Pacific: Fiji, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A uniform survey sponsored by the World Health Organization in the four countries of persons aged 60 and over is employed to estimate the determinants of work decisions.

  2. Decadal change of Tropical Cyclone Activity over western North Pacific around late-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.; Yang, J.; Mao, R.; Wang, Y.; Gong, D.

    2014-12-01

    A pronounced decadal change of tropical cyclone (TC) activity was identified over western North Pacific (WNP) around late-1990s. After late-1990s, the WNP total TC genesis number exhibited an evident decrease, particularly over southern WNP region (S-WNP: 5oN-20oN), which was mainly caused by reduced vorticity and descending anomalies. We also detected a significant northward migration of TC genesis from 17.2°N to 18.7°N. The above TC genesis change is attributed to the weakening of monsoon trough and local Hadley cell that is associated with sea surface temperature climate shift around the late-1990s. In terms of three prevailing TC tracks changes, the northwestward-moving track (II) became the most dominant prevailing track mode while the westward-moving track (I) became weaker, and the northeastward-recurving track (III) had a westward shift. The track shifts primarily resulted from the large-scale steering flows change, which also had played a vital role in the modulation of TC regional duration. Thus, the subtropical East Asia tended to have a higher risk of encountering TC while the Southern China had a lower risk. Additionally, a visual reduction was seen in both number and proportion of typhoons reaching categories 1 and 2, and a remarkable poleward migration was also recognized in the average latitudes where TCs have achieved their lifetime-maximum intensity.

  3. A new species of Xenoturbella from the western Pacific Ocean and the evolution of Xenoturbella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroaki; Miyazawa, Hideyuki; Maeno, Akiteru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Kakui, Keiichi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Kanda, Miyuki; Satoh, Noriyuki; Omori, Akihito; Kohtsuka, Hisanori

    2017-12-18

    Xenoturbella is a group of marine benthic animals lacking an anus and a centralized nervous system. Molecular phylogenetic analyses group the animal together with the Acoelomorpha, forming the Xenacoelomorpha. This group has been suggested to be either a sister group to the Nephrozoa or a deuterostome, and therefore it may provide important insights into origins of bilaterian traits such as an anus, the nephron, feeding larvae and centralized nervous systems. However, only five Xenoturbella species have been reported and the evolutionary history of xenoturbellids and Xenacoelomorpha remains obscure. Here we describe a new Xenoturbella species from the western Pacific Ocean, and report a new xenoturbellid structure - the frontal pore. Non-destructive microCT was used to investigate the internal morphology of this soft-bodied animal. This revealed the presence of a frontal pore that is continuous with the ventral glandular network and which exhibits similarities with the frontal organ in acoelomorphs. Our results suggest that large size, oval mouth, frontal pore and ventral glandular network may be ancestral features for Xenoturbella. Further studies will clarify the evolutionary relationship of the frontal pore and ventral glandular network of xenoturbellids and the acoelomorph frontal organ. One of the habitats of the newly identified species is easily accessible from a marine station and so this species promises to be valuable for research on bilaterian and deuterostome evolution.

  4. An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

  5. Satellite radiance data assimilation for binary tropical cyclone cases over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghan; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Joowan; Jin, Chun-Sil; Park, Sang-Hun; Joh, Min-Su

    2017-06-01

    A total of three binary tropical cyclone (TC) cases over the Western North Pacific are selected to investigate the effects of satellite radiance data assimilation on analyses and forecasts of binary TCs. Two parallel cycling experiments with a 6 h interval are performed for each binary TC case, and the difference between the two experiments is whether satellite radiance observations are assimilated. Satellite radiance observations are assimilated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Data Assimilation (WRFDA)'s three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) system, which includes the observation operator, quality control procedures, and bias correction algorithm for radiance observations. On average, radiance assimilation results in slight improvements of environmental fields and track forecasts of binary TC cases, but the detailed effects vary with the case. When there is no direct interaction between binary TCs, radiance assimilation leads to better depictions of environmental fields, and finally it results in improved track forecasts. However, positive effects of radiance assimilation on track forecasts can be reduced when there exists a direct interaction between binary TCs and intensities/structures of binary TCs are not represented well. An initialization method (e.g., dynamic initialization) combined with radiance assimilation and/or more advanced DA techniques (e.g., hybrid method) can be considered to overcome these limitations.

  6. Formulary systems and pharmacy and therapeutics committees in the Western Pacific Region: exploring two Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Dechun, Jiang; Moles, Rebekah

    2013-06-01

    The use of formulary systems and pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committees in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) and the factors associated with their use were explored. Minor additions were made to a previously validated survey and reviewed by a WPR advisory committee. The Basel Statements 26 and 27 survey was made available in eight languages and sent electronically to 1989 hospital pharmacy directors through respective hospital pharmacy associations in the WPR. A total of 797 responses (40%) from 34 nations were received. Of these responses, 87% of hospitals (691 of 797) used a formulary. Also, 93% of respondents (619 of 664) indicated that their hospital had a P&T committee. However, only 44% of respondents (274 of 626) reported that more than half of their formulary medicines were linked to standard treatment guidelines. Furthermore, only 41% of hospitals (247 of 601) had a policy for off-label medication use. The pharmacy directors' perceived benefits of formularies were correlated with having more formulary medicines linked to standard treatment guidelines, basing their use on the best available evidence, and having a policy for the use of off-label medicines. A large proportion of hospitals in the WPR have implemented formularies and P&T committees. Although formularies are commonly used, their effectiveness may be limited, as formularies are often not linked to standard treatment guidelines or the best available evidence.

  7. Water budget and rapidly intensifying tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Zhai, S.; Chen, B.; Li, T.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) relative humidity, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 precipitation, Institut Français pour la Recherche et l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER) evaporation, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) FNL reanalysis and Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) tropical cyclone (TC) best track data are used to examine azimuthal mean and shear-relative water budget components associated with western North Pacific TCs of five intensity change categories: weakening, neutral, slowly intensifying, rapidly intensifying (initial) and rapid intensifying (continuing). The results show that: 1) In terms of azimuthal mean, evaporation plays an important role in both of the onset and continuation of storm rapid intensification (RI) and mid-level environmental relative humidity (ERH) within 600 km plays an important role in continuing RI. 2) Downshear left mid-level ERH and downshear right and upshear right evaporation are crucial for the onset of storm RI. 3) Upshear mid-level ERH, evaporation at all quadrants, upshear inner-core moisture flux convergence (MFC) and precipitation at all quadrants except for downshear left are important for continuing RI. 4) Storms undergoing continuing RI have more symmetric distributions of all the water budget components (i.e., ERH, precipitation, evaporation and MFC) than other storms. Our results suggest that different portions of water budget components play different roles in storm RI.

  8. Contributions of tropical waves to tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the tropical waves and the tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) for the period 1979-2011. Five wave types are considered in this study. It is shown that the TC genesis is strongly related to enhanced low-level vorticity and convection of tropical waves and significant difference are detected in the TC modulation by dynamic and thermodynamic components of the waves. More TCs tend to form in regions of waves with overlapping cyclonic vorticity and active convection. About 83.2% of TCs form within active phase of tropical waves, mainly in a single wave and two coexisting waves. Each wave type-related genesis accounts for about 30% of all TC geneses except for the Kelvin waves that account for only 25.2% of TC geneses. The number of each wave type-related TC genesis consistently varies seasonally with peak in the TC season (July-November), which is attributed to a combined effect of active wave probability and intensity change. The interannual variation in the TC genesis is well reproduced by the tropical wave-related TC genesis, especially in the region east of 150°E. An eastward extension of the enhanced monsoon trough coincides with increased tropical wave activity by accelerated wave-mean flow interaction.

  9. Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, P.J.; Clayson, C.A.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Ocean, the clouds and the cloud-radiation feedback can only be understood in the context of air/sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer. Considerable interest has been shown in attempting to explain why sea surface temperature (SST) rarely rises above 30{degrees}C, and gradients of the SST. For the most part, observational studies that address this issue have been conducted using monthly cloud and SST data, and the focus has been on intraseasonal and interannual time scales. For the unstable tropical atmosphere, using monthly averaged data misses a key feedback between clouds and SST that occurs on the cloud-SST coupling time scale, which was estimated to be 3-6 days for the unstable tropical atmosphere. This time scale is the time needed for a change in cloud properties, due to the change of ocean surface evaporation caused by SST variation, to feed back to the SST variation, to feed back to the SST through its effect on the surface heat flux. This paper addresses the relationship between clouds, surface radiation flux and SST of the TWP ocean over the diurnal cycle.

  10. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Bruce R; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu; Bradford, Amanda L; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Tsidulko, Grigory A; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V; Irvine, Ladd M

    2015-04-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to Sakhalin Island the following spring. Her 22 511 km round-trip is the longest documented mammal migration and strongly suggests that some presumed WGWs are actually EGWs foraging in areas historically attributed to WGWs. The observed migration routes provide evidence of navigational skills across open water that break the near-shore north-south migratory paradigm of EGWs. Despite evidence of genetic differentiation, these tagging data indicate that the population identity of whales off Sakhalin Island needs further evaluation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We measured radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived 134 Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of 134 Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived 134 Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new bathyal mysid of the family Petalophthalmidae (Crustacea: Mysida) from the Bismarck Sea (Western Tropical Pacific Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Vicente, Carlos; Corbari, Laure

    2015-02-27

    A new species of the genus Petalophthalmus (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae) is described, based on one specimen collected from the Bismarck Sea (Papua New Guinea, Western Pacific Ocean). This species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus Petalophthalmus by the globular cornea and the armature of the telson. This new species lives between 800 and 1065 m depth. A discussion on the geographic and bathymetric distribution and an identification key to world species of Petalophthalmus are provided.

  13. Is Darwinism Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futuyma, Douglas J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines principles of evolutionary theory, including such recent changes as punctuated equilibria. Indicates that the incompleteness of Darwin's theory has been replaced with a conceptual framework and empirical information. Controversial issues remain, but the basic ideas still stand strong. (DH)

  14. Darwin as Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ballou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to Steven Shapin’s query in the 'London Review of Books', 'Why such homage?', 'I look at Darwin as a metaphor for creativity, and how Darwin, as evidenced in his own metaphysical notebooks, imagined and performed acts of creation in his pursuit of science. Many of Darwin’s ideas were first conceptualised imaginatively, instinctively almost. In this way, he created concepts, rather than simply discovering them. I include a brief discussion of my experience of rendering Darwin and his life into a portrait in 75 poems and also a discussion of the bio-pic Creation'. As species change over time, but are still related, so a portrait of Darwin is a descendent of the historical man and his words, but is no longer the historical man. 

  15. The Darwin of pangenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    The Darwin of pangenesis is very much another Darwin. Pangenesis is Darwin's comprehensive theory of generation, his theory about all sexual and asexual modes of reproduction and growth. He never explicitly integrated pangenesis with his theory of natural selection. He first formulated pangenesis in the 1840s and integrated it with the physiology, including the cytology, of that era. It was, therefore, not consilient with the newer cytology of the 1860s when he published it in 1868. By reflecting on the role of pangenesis in Darwin's life and work, we can learn to take a wider view of his most general theorising about animal and plant life. 2009 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Darwin's Perplexing Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Today, many would assume that Charles Darwin absolutely rejected any claim of intelligent design in nature. However, review of his initial writings reveals that Darwin accepted some aspects of this view. His conceptualization of design was founded on both the cosmological and the teleological ideas...... from classical natural theology. When Darwin discovered the dynamic process of natural selection, he rejected the old teleological argument as formulated by William Paley. However, he was never able to ignore the powerful experience of the beauty and complexity of an intelligently designed universe......, as a whole. He corresponded with Asa Gray on religious themes, particularly touching the problem of pain and intelligent design in nature. The term “intelligent design” was probably introduced by William Whewell. Principally for theological and philosophical reasons, Darwin could only accept the concept...

  17. Darwins øje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    I artiklen diskuteres beskrivelsen af øjne og perception i J.P. Jacobsens roman Niels Lyhne (1880). Det analyseres det, hvordan Jacobsen håndterer de ændringer på dette felt, som Darwins udviklingshistorie bidrog til, og som udforskedes i detaljer af den tyske fysiolog Hermann von Helmholtz. Der...... forholdet mellem J.P. Jacobsens litterære værker og hans engagement som oversætter og formidler af Darwin fra en ny vinkel. I stedet for at se på tematiske sammenfald med Darwin undersøges de metodologiske og epistemologiske. Herved bliver det tydeligt, at Jacobsen ikke bare indoptager og formidler Darwin...

  18. A Statistical Model of Tropical Cyclone Tracks in the Western North Pacific with ENSO-Dependent Cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    A new statistical model for western North Pacific Ocean tropical cyclone genesis and tracks is developed and applied to estimate regionally resolved tropical cyclone landfall rates along the coasts of the Asian mainland, Japan, and the Philippines. The model is constructed on International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) 1945-2007 historical data for the western North Pacific. The model is evaluated in several ways, including comparing the stochastic spread in simulated landfall rates with historic landfall rates. Although certain biases have been detected, overall the model performs well on the diagnostic tests, for example, reproducing well the geographic distribution of landfall rates. Western North Pacific cyclogenesis is influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This dependence is incorporated in the model s genesis component to project the ENSO-genesis dependence onto landfall rates. There is a pronounced shift southeastward in cyclogenesis and a small but significant reduction in basinwide annual counts with increasing ENSO index value. On almost all regions of coast, landfall rates are significantly higher in a negative ENSO state (La Nina).

  19. How can we fight against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Gu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The public health community is faced with the global challenge posed by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs-producing enterobacteriaceae. The need to address this issue prompted the focus of World Health Day 2011, which was entitled “Antimicrobial resistance: no action today, no cure tomorrow.”In today’s world of international travel, the globalization of drug-resistant bacteria is a pressing issue for public health professionals. In the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region, as well as other regions in the world, more and more new types of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria have come to the forefront. An important example is New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase 1 (NDM-1-carrying enterobacteriaceae, which attracted attention in Europe in 2010 as imported cases associated with health care contact in India and Bangladesh. Although some NDM-1 cases were reported from Australia and Japan,2 no outbreaks were reported in the Western Pacific Region.In this perspective article, we consider four focus areas for countries in the Western Pacific Region to consider when strategizing their response to antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

  20. Influence of ambient water intrusion on coral reef acidification in the Chuuk lagoon, located in the coral‐rich western Pacific Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ko, Young Ho; Lee, Kitack; Noh, Jae Hoon; Lee, Charity M; Kleypas, Joan A; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young

    2016-01-01

    ...) of the Federated States of Micronesia, located in the western Pacific Ocean, were analyzed. The results showed that, during periods of weak intrusion of ambient seawater from the surrounding open ocean, two internal biological processes...

  1. Cruise and Data Report of USA-PRC Joint Air-Sea Interaction Studies in the Western Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 8700374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USA-PRC Joint Program on Air-Sea Interaction Studies in the Tropical Western Pacific is a component of the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Marine and...

  2. Sound velocity from inverted echo sounders (IES) in the western Pacific Ocean from 1992-08-26 to 1993-03-22 (NODC Accession 9300159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains inverted echo sounder data collected from two stations in the western Pacific, TPW nominally @ 2S and 154E and TPE nominally @ 2S and 164E....

  3. Was Darwin a creationist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosans, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the Origin of Species, Darwin contrasts his theory of natural selection with the theory that God independently created each species. This makes it seem as though the Origin offers a scientific alternative to a theological worldview. A few months after the Origin appeared, however, the eminent anatomist Richard Owen published a review that pointed out the theological assumptions of Darwin's theory. Owen worked in the tradition of rational morphology, within which one might suggest that evolution occurs by processes that are continuous with those by which life arises from matter; in contrast, Darwin rested his account of life's origins on the notion that God created one or a few life forms upon which natural selection could act. Owen argued that Darwin's reliance on God to explain the origins of life makes his version of evolution no less supernatural than the special creationist that Darwin criticizes: although Darwin limits God to one or a few acts of creation, he still relies upon God to explain life's existence.

  4. Observations of ice nuclei and heterogeneous freezing in a Western Pacific extratropical storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Stith

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ airborne sampling of refractory black carbon (rBC particles and Ice Nuclei (IN was conducted in and near an extratropical cyclonic storm in the western Pacific Ocean during the Pacific Dust Experiment, PACDEX, in the spring of 2007. Airmass origins were from Eastern Asia. Clouds associated primarily with the warm sector of the storm were sampled at various locations and altitudes. Cloud hydrometeors were evaporated by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI and the residuals were sampled by a single particle soot photometer (SP2 instrument, a continuous flow diffusion chamber ice nucleus detector (CFDC and collected for electron microscope analysis. In clouds containing large ice particles, multiple residual particles were observed downstream of the CVI for each ice particle sampled on average. The fraction of rBC compared to total particles in the residual particles increased with decreasing condensed water content, while the fraction of IN compared to total particles did not, suggesting that the scavenging process for rBC is different than for IN. In the warm sector storm midlevels at temperatures where heterogeneous freezing is expected to be significant (here −24 to −29 °C, IN concentrations from ice particle residuals generally agreed with simultaneous measurements of total ice concentrations or were higher in regions where aggregates of crystals were found, suggesting heterogeneous freezing as the dominant ice formation process in the mid levels of these warm sector clouds. Lower in the storm, at warmer temperatures, ice concentrations were affected by aggregation and were somewhat less than measured IN concentrations at colder temperatures. The results are consistent with ice particles forming at storm mid-levels by heterogeneous freezing on IN, followed by aggregation and sedimentation to lower altitudes. Compositional analysis of the aerosol and back trajectories of the air in the warm sector suggested a possible biomass

  5. Paleo-iron supply to the Western Subarctic Pacific since the last glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P. J.; Robinson, L. F.; Blusztajn, J.; McManus, J. F.; Cook, M. S.; Keigwin, L. D.

    2011-12-01

    A strong and pervasive productivity peak has been observed in cores around the North Pacific during the Bølling-Allerød warm period of the last deglaciation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that this peak may have been caused by an influx of iron from the continental shelves as they were flooded during the deglaciation (1). Here, we examine this hypothesis by reconstructing the flux and sources of detrital material to a sediment core from the Detroit seamount (Vinogradov 19/4 GGC-37, 50.4°N, 167.7°E, 3300m) in the Western Subarctic Pacific since the last glacial maximum (LGM), and compare to several proxies of paleo-productivity. We use 230Th-normalization to reconstruct the flux of biogenic and detrital material, and the neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions to distinguish between volcanic margin and continental loess sources of detrital material. We find that total detrital flux is highest during the last glacial maximum and early deglacial periods, a time of relatively low productivity, with approximately equal contributions from the volcanic margin and from continental loess. Total detrital flux starts to decline around 16kya, but increases again to 80% of the glacial maximum flux around the time of the Bølling-Allerød productivity peak. The local deglacial maximum in detrital flux coincides with a maximum in authigenic uranium, and immediately precedes maxima in opal flux, carbonate flux, benthic foraminifera abundance, and excess 231Pa/230Th. While the local deglacial maximum in detrital flux is consistent with iron stimulation of productivity, we conclude that iron supply alone is not sufficient to explain the deglacial productivity peak, since glacial times exhibited low productivity despite high detrital flux. Further, the relative and absolute contributions of detrital material of volcanic origin is lower during the deglaciation than during the LGM, suggesting that loess may have contributed more iron during the deglacial productivity

  6. ENSO and Western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity simulated in a CGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Satoshi; Matsuura, Tomonori [National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    A high-resolution (T213) coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM) has been used to examine the relationship between El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP). The model simulates ENSO-like events similar to those observed, though the amplitude of the simulated Nino34 sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is twice as large as observed. In El Nino (La Nina) years, the annual number of model TCs in the southeast quadrant of the WNP increases (decreases), while it decreases (increases) in the northwest quadrant. In spite of the significant difference in the mean genesis location of model TCs between El Nino and La Nina years, however, there is no significant simultaneous correlation between the annual number of model TCs over the entire WNP and model Nino34 SST anomalies. The annual number of model TCs, however, tends to decrease in the years following El Nino, relating to the development of anticyclonic circulation around the Philippine Sea in response to the SST anomalies in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Furthermore, it seems that the number of model TCs tends to increase in the years before El Nino. It is also shown that the number of TCs moving into the East Asia is fewer in October of El Nino years than La Nina years, related to the anomalous southward shift of mid-latitude westerlies, though no impact of ENSO on TC tracks is found in other months. It is found that model TCs have longer lifetimes due to the southeastward shift of mean TC genesis location in El Nino years than in La Nina years. As the result of longer fetch of TCs over warm SST, model TCs appear to be more intense in El Nino years. These relationships between ENSO and TC activity in the WNP are in good agreement with observational evidence, suggesting that a finer-resolution CGCM may become a powerful tool for understanding interannual variability of TC activity. (orig.)

  7. P-wave tomography of Northeast Asia: Constraints on the western Pacific plate subduction and mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jincheng; Tian, You; Liu, Cai; Zhao, Dapeng; Feng, Xuan; Zhu, Hongxiang

    2018-01-01

    A high-resolution model of 3-D P-wave velocity structure beneath Northeast Asia and adjacent regions is determined by using 244,180 arrival times of 14,163 local and regional earthquakes and 319,857 relative travel-time residuals of 9988 teleseismic events recorded at ∼2100 seismic stations in the study region. Our tomographic results reveal the subducting Pacific slab clearly as a prominent high-velocity anomaly from the Japan Trench to the North-South Gravity lineament (NSGL) in East China. The NSGL is roughly coincident with the western edge of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ). The subducting Pacific slab has partly sunk into the lower mantle beneath Northeast China, but under the Sino-Korean Craton the slab lies horizontally in the MTZ. The NSGL, as an important tectonic line in Mainland China, is marked by sharp differences in the surface topography, gravity anomaly, crustal and lithospheric thickness and mantle seismic velocity from the east to the west. These features of the NSGL and large-scale hot and wet upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) in the east of the NSGL are all related to the subduction processes of the Western Pacific plate. The Changbai intraplate volcanic group is underlain by a striking low-velocity anomaly from the upper MTZ and the BMW up to the surface, and deep earthquakes (410-650 km depths) occur actively in the subducting Pacific slab to the east of the Changbai volcano. We propose that the Changbai volcanic group is caused by upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and active convection in the BMW. The formation of other volcanic groups in the east of the NSGL is also associated with the subduction-driven corner flow in the BMW.

  8. 76 FR 14367 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures AGENCY: National Marine... ecosystem plans (FEPs) to establish a mechanism for specifying annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability...

  9. Carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere over the western Pacific between 1993 and 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Hidekazu; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Sawa, Yosuke; Tsutsumi, Yukitomo; Ishii, Masao

    1998-08-01

    Air samples at 8.5-13 km were collected regularly using a commercial airliner between Australia and Japan, and they were measured for CO mixing ratios to obtain time series data from April 1993 to July 1996. When averaged over 12 latitudinal bands between 30°N and 30°S, two overall features emerge from these data. First, CO levels in the upper troposphere decreased in all latitudinal bands. Second, the seasonal cycle showed significant differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. In the southern hemisphere a strong maximum in the CO mixing ratio (up to around 90 ppb) was found in October-November. The most likely source for this enhanced CO is tropical biomass burning. Methane oxidation and transport of industrial CO from the northern hemisphere were estimated as relatively minor sources during the austral spring. Air mass trajectories indicate that an extremely high CO level of ˜130 ppb observed in November 1994 between 10° and 20°S was due to enhanced biomass burning in Southeast Asia and/or northern Australia. On the other hand, air mass trajectories for the 20°-30°S region indicate that CO-rich air from biomass burnings over southern Africa or South America was transported across the South Indian Ocean within ˜1 week by the strong westerly winds around the subtropical jet. Thus it is concluded that a rapid horizontal transport coupled with deep convection plays an important role in the appearance of the CO spring peak in the upper troposphere over the western South Pacific.

  10. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in the Western Pacific Region: analysis of 2012 case notification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hiatt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB control in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region has seen substantial progress in the last decade, with a 33% reduction in prevalent TB cases since 2000. The burden remains immense, however, and national TB programmes must evolve and adapt to build upon these gains. Through routine surveillance, countries and areas in the Region reported 1.4 million TB cases in 2012. The case notification rate increased in the early 2000s, appears to have stabilized in recent years and is in decline for all forms and new smear-positive cases. The age and sex breakdown for smear-positive TB case rates by country shows generally higher rates with increased age and declining rates over time for all age groups. Treatment success remains high in the Region, with 15 countries reaching or maintaining an 85% success rate. HIV testing among TB patients has increased gradually along with a slow decline in the number of HIV-positive patients found. The trend of TB notification is heavily influenced by programmatic improvements in many countries and rapidly changing demographics. It appears that cases are being found earlier as reflected in declining rates of smear-positive TB and steady rates of TB in all forms. WHO estimates depict a decline in TB incidence in the Region. HIV testing, while still low, has increased substantially in recent years, with essential TB/HIV services expanding in many countries. TB surveillance data, within inherent limitations, is an important source of programmatic and epidemiological information. Careful interpretation of these findings can provide useful insight for programmatic decision-making.

  11. The Western Equatorial Pacific Thermal Evolution During the Onset of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Elizalde, M. A.; Lea, D. W.

    2006-12-01

    During the late Pliocene, between 3 Ma and 2.5 Ma before present (B.P.), the climate of the Earth underwent profound changes which ultimately led to the onset of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the secular cooling in high latitude and eastern boundary upwelling regions, suggested by foraminiferal oxygen isotopic and sea surface temperature proxy records, associated to the onset of the NHG. We present a sea surface temperature (SST) record (1.8 kyr resolution) based on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca from the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) warm pool ODP Hole 806B, which spans ~500,000 years from 2.3 to 2.8 Ma B.P. Foraminiferal oxygen isotopic features are apparent in the Mg/Ca-SST record. Preliminary cross spectral analyses results between ODP Hole 806B G. ruber o18 and Mg/Ca-SS indicate that these signals are coherent with each other in the 41 kyr periodicity band, and that SSTs lead o18 changes by 1.6 +-1.2 kyrs. The largest SST range in the record is observed between marine isotope stage 99 and 98 (3 degC). Absolute SSTs and the glacial-interglacial (G-I) SST range are similar to those observed during the Pleistocene. The suggestion that warm pool SSTs were similar during the Pleistocene is intriguing in light of the evidence that indicates that high latitude and eastern boundary upwelling regions were significantly warmer during the Pliocene (Wara et al., 2005, Fedorov et al., 2006). We consider the possibility that other factors could affect the absolute calibration of Mg/Ca-based SSTs in the Pliocene.

  12. Insolation and Abrupt Climate Change Effects on the Western Pacific Maritime Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.; Cardenas, M. B.; Siringan, F. P.; Banner, J. L.; lin, K.; Taylor, F. W.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the Asian-Australian monsoon system to changes in summer insolation over the Holocene is recorded in many monsoon-sensitive paleoclimate reconstructions. The response is commonly direct; more summer insolation leads to increased monsoon rainfall over land as captured in stalagmite δ18O records from Oman and China. We evaluate this direct response using a maritime stalagmite record from the island of Palawan, Philippines (10 N, 119 E). The wet season in Palawan occurs over the same months (June-October) as in Oman, India and China. Therefore, we expected the stalagmite δ18O record from Palawan, a proxy of rainfall, to have a similar trend of decreasing monsoon rainfall over the Holocene. However, the Holocene trend in stalagmite δ18O is opposite to that expected: rainfall increases over the Holocene. Our explanation for the Holocene trend observed at Palawan is that the increase in the maritime monsoon balances the reduction in the land monsoon; an explanation that is consistent with previously published coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model results. Seawater δ18O reconstructions from marine sediment cores in the western tropical Pacific contain a freshening trend over the Holocene, also supporting the hypothesis of increase maritime monsoon rainfall. However, the decrease in maritime monsoon rainfall during the Younger Dryas at Palawan matches that observed in Chinese stalagmite records, meeting our original expectation of a similar wet season response in the various Asian-Australian monsoon records. One explanation for the similar Younger Dryas response in these monsoon records is the influence of seasonal changes in sea ice coverage, as previously suggested. A stalagmite δ18O record from Borneo (~800 km SE of Palawan), which lacks evidence of the Younger Dryas, provides supporting evidence for this explanation.

  13. An Observationally Constrained Evaluation of the Oxidative Capacity in the Tropical Western Pacific Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, Julie M.; Anderson, Daniel C.; Canty, Timothy P.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Apel, Eric C.; Arnold, Steve R.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Nicola J.; Bresch, James F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main daytime oxidant in the troposphere and determines the atmospheric lifetimes of many compounds. We use aircraft measurements of O3, H2O, NO, and other species from the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) field campaign, which occurred in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) during January-February 2014, to constrain a photochemical box model and estimate concentrations of OH throughout the troposphere. We find that tropospheric column OH (OHCOL) inferred from CONTRAST observations is 12 to 40% higher than found in chemical transport models (CTMs), including CAM-chem-SD run with 2014 meteorology as well as eight models that participated in POLMIP (2008 meteorology). Part of this discrepancy is due to a clear-sky sampling bias that affects CONTRAST observations; accounting for this bias and also for a small difference in chemical mechanism results in our empirically based value of OHCOL being 0 to 20% larger than found within global models. While these global models simulate observed O3 reasonably well, they underestimate NOx (NO +NO2) by a factor of 2, resulting in OHCOL approx.30% lower than box model simulations constrained by observed NO. Underestimations by CTMs of observed CH3CHO throughout the troposphere and of HCHO in the upper troposphere further contribute to differences between our constrained estimates of OH and those calculated by CTMs. Finally, our calculations do not support the prior suggestion of the existence of a tropospheric OH minimum in the TWP, because during January-February 2014 observed levels of O3 and NO were considerably larger than previously reported values in the TWP.

  14. Marine Fog over the Western Pacific Marginal Seas Based Upon Ship Observations for 1950 - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, C. E.; Koracin, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    An analysis is presented of the marine fog distribution over the western Pacific marginal seas based upon the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) ship observations taken during 1950-2007. Fog occurrence is reported in routine weather reports that are encoded in an ICOADS ship observation. This includes the marginal seas of Okhotsk Sea, Japan Sea, Yellow Sea and South China Sea which have significant fog occurrences with values much greater than in the surrounding ocean with distinct seasonal trends but different generation mechanisms. The greatest occurrence is 55 % in Jun-Jul-Aug over the Okhotsk Sea followed by 28 % over the Japan Sea. This is seasonally controlled by the sea level pressure gradient moving air over a negative sea surface temperature gradient. During Dec-Jan-Feb, the SLP gradient reverses, moving cold, dry continental air over the Okhotsk and Japan Seas, eliminating any fog. The maximum fog over the Okhotsk Sea is over isolated locations with shallow water. In the Japan Sea, the most frequent fog occurs along the north side of the sea over a narrow shelf with the lowest SST of the entire Sea. In the Yellow Sea, the fog frequency peak is from Dec through May. In Mar-Apr-May the highest value is 18 % which is centered at 33 N 122 W while elevated values extend along the China coast to Taiwan. In Jun-Jul-Aug, highest values are mostly confined to the Yellow Sea. In Dec-Jan-Feb, decreased but significant fog occurrences extend along the entire China coast when the highest value in the Yellow Sea is 5 % and in South China Sea it is 6 %. The only other world marine fog occurrence analysis discovered by us is a US Department of Agriculture Jun-Jul-Aug marine fog frequency chart published in 1938 that does not show any fog in the Okhotsk Sea and misses most of the fog occurrence reported by ships in the Yellow Sea.

  15. Simulation of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific based on CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haibo; Zhou, Weican; Zhao, Haikun

    2017-09-01

    Based on the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) models, the tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the summers of 1965-2005 over the western North Pacific (WNP) is simulated by a TC dynamically downscaling system. In consideration of diversity among climate models, Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and equal-weighed model averaging (EMA) methods are applied to produce the ensemble large-scale environmental factors of the CMIP5 model outputs. The environmental factors generated by BMA and EMA methods are compared, as well as the corresponding TC simulations by the downscaling system. Results indicate that BMA method shows a significant advantage over the EMA. In addition, impacts of model selections on BMA method are examined. To each factor, ten models with better performance are selected from 30 CMIP5 models and then conduct BMA, respectively. As a consequence, the ensemble environmental factors and simulated TC activity are similar with the results from the 30 models' BMA, which verifies the BMA method can afford corresponding weight for each model in the ensemble based on the model's predictive skill. Thereby, the existence of poor performance models will not particularly affect the BMA effectiveness and the ensemble outcomes are improved. Finally, based upon the BMA method and downscaling system, we analyze the sensitivity of TC activity to three important environmental factors, i.e., sea surface temperature (SST), large-scale steering flow, and vertical wind shear. Among three factors, SST and large-scale steering flow greatly affect TC tracks, while average intensity distribution is sensitive to all three environmental factors. Moreover, SST and vertical wind shear jointly play a critical role in the inter-annual variability of TC lifetime maximum intensity and frequency of intense TCs.

  16. Subseasonal shift in tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yumi; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-09-01

    The 2013 subseasonal asymmetry in tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) was investigated by using the 1979-2013 RSMC best track dataset. The genesis frequency of the 2013 WNP TCs between June-August (summer) and September-November (fall) manifested an abnormal temporal asymmetry: fewer typhoons (more tropical storms) in summer and more typhoons (normal tropical storms) in fall. The 2013 active summer-tropical storm genesis arose from both a failure of eastward extension of monsoon confluence region, especially in August and a lack of moisture supply for TC genesis over the eastern part of WNP, and consequently from fewer probability to reach typhoon intensity due to the westward movement of favorable location for genesis. Thereafter, the eastward extension of monsoon shear line in September and the establishment of monsoon gyre in October induced the eastward movement of favorable location for genesis which increased probability to reach typhoon intensity. The relative contribution of mid-level relative humidity to the positive GPI change played a major role in favorable condition for typhoon genesis in September (45.2%) and October (50.9%). The monsoon gyre pattern played a leading role in the most active fall-typhoon in 2013 contributing to the highest number of October-typhoon. The eastward-migration of convection mainly contributed to the subseasonal shift of TC genesis location following eastward movement of local SST warming from summer to fall under the La Nina-like neutral state. The enhanced active boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) in fall provided more favorable conditions for TC genesis showing about twice as many TCs occurred regarding BSISO in fall than those in summer. This spatiotemporal asymmetry in the large-scale circulations and moisture conditions between summer and fall accounted for the subseasonal shift of genesis location of TCs, and consequently for the active summer-tropical storm genesis and the

  17. An observationally constrained evaluation of the oxidative capacity in the tropical western Pacific troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, Julie M.; Anderson, Daniel C.; Canty, Timothy P.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Apel, Eric C.; Arnold, Steve R.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Nicola J.; Bresch, James F.; Campos, Teresa L.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Duncan, Bryan; Emmons, Louisa K.; Evans, Mathew J.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Flemming, Johannes; Hall, Samuel R.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Honomichl, Shawn B.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Huijnen, Vincent; Kaser, Lisa; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mao, Jingqiu; Monks, Sarah A.; Montzka, Denise D.; Pan, Laura L.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Stell, Meghan H.; Tilmes, Simone; Turquety, Solene; Ullmann, Kirk; Weinheimer, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main daytime oxidant in the troposphere and determines the atmospheric lifetimes of many compounds. We use aircraft measurements of O3, H2O, NO, and other species from the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) field campaign, which occurred in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) during January-February 2014, to constrain a photochemical box model and estimate concentrations of OH throughout the troposphere. We find that tropospheric column OH (OHCOL) inferred from CONTRAST observations is 12 to 40% higher than found in chemical transport models (CTMs), including CAM-chem-SD run with 2014 meteorology as well as eight models that participated in POLMIP (2008 meteorology). Part of this discrepancy is due to a clear-sky sampling bias that affects CONTRAST observations; accounting for this bias and also for a small difference in chemical mechanism results in our empirically based value of OHCOL being 0 to 20% larger than found within global models. While these global models simulate observed O3 reasonably well, they underestimate NOx (NO + NO2) by a factor of 2, resulting in OHCOL ~30% lower than box model simulations constrained by observed NO. Underestimations by CTMs of observed CH3CHO throughout the troposphere and of HCHO in the upper troposphere further contribute to differences between our constrained estimates of OH and those calculated by CTMs. Finally, our calculations do not support the prior suggestion of the existence of a tropospheric OH minimum in the TWP, because during January-February 2014 observed levels of O3 and NO were considerably larger than previously reported values in the TWP.

  18. Geophysical investigation of seamounts near the Ogasawara fracture zone, western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.-G.; Lee, Kenneth; Hein, J.R.; Moon, J.-W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of multi-channel seismic data obtained during 2000-2001 on seamounts near the Ogasawara Fracture Zone (OFZ) northwest of the Marshall Islands in the western Pacific. The OFZ is unique in that it is a wide rift zone that includes many seamounts. Seven units are delineated on the basis of acoustic characteristics and depth: three units (I, II, and III) on the summit of seamounts and four units (IV, V, VI, and VII) in basins. Acoustic characteristics of layers on the summit of guyots and dredged samples indicate that the seamounts had been built above sea level by volcanism. This was followed by reef growth along the summit margin, which enabled deposition of shallow-water carbonates on the summit, and finally by subsidence of the edifices. The subsidence depth of the seamounts, estimated from the lower boundary of unit II, ranges between 1,550 and 2,040 m. The thick unit I of the southern seamounts is correlated with proximity to the equatorial high productivity zone, whereas local currents may have strongly affected the distribution of unit I on northern seamounts. A seismic profile in the basin around the Ita Mai Tai and OSM4 seamounts shows an unconformity between units IV and V, which is widespread from the East Mariana Basin to the Pigafetta Basin. Copyright ?? The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences; TERRAPUB.

  19. An insight into the western Pacific wintertime moisture sources using dual water vapor isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Ravi; Laskar, Amzad H.; Bhattacharya, Sourendra K.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2017-04-01

    Continuous measurements of isotopic ratios in atmospheric water vapor in a western Pacific region (Taipei, Taiwan) in two winters (2011 and 2012) were made and analyzed to understand the moisture source characteristics. In wintertime, the so-called East Asian Monsoon dominates, largely affecting the climate and meteorology of this region. Being located in the subtropical region, Taipei provides an ideal opportunity for studying interactions between high latitude cold and dry continental air masses and low to mid-latitude warm and wet oceanic air. Indeed, the dual isotope function, d-excess shows the presence of two distinct moisture sources, contributing to the winter vapor isotope variability. Undoubtedly, the dominant moisture source is the high latitude continental cold air masses reaching Taipei with d-excess values of >20‰. Alongside, wet and warm air masses characterized by strong air-sea interaction from the surrounding oceans, possessing d-excess value of ∼10‰ also play a role. The interactions of these two distinct air masses cause the d-excess values to change by as much as ∼20‰ in a few days. Multiple regression analysis shows that source moisture composition and water vapor mixing ratio combined control over 60% of the observed variability. We developed a box model to show that both high and low d-excess events in the winter are primarily controlled by the humidity deficit over the ocean. The information obtained in this study could be used in interpreting the paleoclimate proxies within the East Asian region.

  20. An algorithm for detecting Trichodesmium surface blooms in the South Western Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dandonneau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodesmium, a major colonial cyanobacterial nitrogen fixer, forms large blooms in NO3-depleted tropical oceans and enhances CO2 sequestration by the ocean due to its ability to fix dissolved dinitrogen. Thus, its importance in C and N cycles requires better estimates of its distribution at basin to global scales. However, existing algorithms to detect them from satellite have not yet been successful in the South Western Tropical Pacific (SP. Here, a novel algorithm (TRICHOdesmium SATellite based on radiance anomaly spectra (RAS observed in SeaWiFS imagery, is used to detect Trichodesmium during the austral summertime in the SP (5° S–25° S 160° E–170° W. Selected pixels are characterized by a restricted range of parameters quantifying RAS spectra (e.g. slope, intercept, curvature. The fraction of valid (non-cloudy pixels identified as Trichodesmium surface blooms in the region is low (between 0.01 and 0.2 %, but is about 100 times higher than deduced from previous algorithms. At daily scales in the SP, this fraction represents a total ocean surface area varying from 16 to 48 km2 in Winter and from 200 to 1000 km2 in Summer (and at monthly scale, from 500 to 1000 km2 in Winter and from 3100 to 10 890 km2 in Summer with a maximum of 26 432 km2 in January 1999. The daily distribution of Trichodesmium surface accumulations in the SP detected by TRICHOSAT is presented for the period 1998–2010 which demonstrates that the number of selected pixels peaks in November–February each year, consistent with field observations. This approach was validated with in situ observations of Trichodesmium surface accumulations in the Melanesian archipelago around New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji Islands for the same period.

  1. Progress towards advanced practice roles in Australia, New Zealand and the Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tony [Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle (Australia); Fiji School of Medicine, Suva (Fiji)], E-mail: tony.smith@hnehealth.nsw.gov.au; Yielder, Jill [School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand); Ajibulu, Olusegun [Fiji School of Medicine, Suva (Fiji); Caruana, Edward [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    This paper describes the evolution and current status of advanced practice in medical imaging and radiation therapy in the Oceania region. To date development has been slow, largely ad hoc and based on local needs. Most advanced practice is informal or is regarded as part of the core skills of some individual practitioners. However, recently, there have been signs of change taking place, with a more coordinated and collaborative approach to role development becoming evident. In Australia, although a number of reports and papers have discussed extended clinical roles, especially for diagnostic Radiographers, no concrete action has yet taken place in either discipline. Stakeholders apparently agree that existing extended roles should be formalised, however, and that continuing education must underpin future role extension initiatives. A three-level professional structure, including an advanced practitioner level, has been accepted by the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT), with the support of the District Health Boards of New Zealand (DHBNZ). Implementation is expected to begin before the end of 2008. Meanwhile, recognition of the serious lack of Radiologists in Western Pacific Island Nations led to the training of some Radiographers in radiological interpretation of images between 2004 and 2006. The aim was to up-skill the Radiographers so that they could more reliably flag abnormalities to doctors, a model that may be applicable elsewhere. It is argued that future practice models must include advanced practice roles in order to safely meet the growing demand for medical radiation services. Local factors, such as the structure of the health care system and the depth of engagement of the key stakeholders in planning and implementation, however, are expected to influence the evolution of new clinical practice models in the region.

  2. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  3. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  4. North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, Western U.S. Vegetation, and the Demise of the Miocene Rocky Mountain Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, M.; Wilkins, D.; Barron, J.; Heusser, L.

    2003-12-01

    Between 15 Ma and 5 Ma the vegetation of the western U.S. suffered a profound transition from summer-wet to summer-dry flora. In the middle Miocene extensive deciduous forests covered the region, reminiscent of modern forests of the SE United States. By the beginning of the Pliocene, however, these western `monsoon' forests disappeared and were replaced by vegetation adapted to a Mediterranean climate regime (summer-dry, winter-wet) or by desert vegetation. The change was largely gradual--the west began drying out by about 12 Ma. Extensive grasslands first appeared in eastern Oregon about 7-8 Ma, and the last of the `exotic' Miocene deciduous forest disappeared from the northern California coastal region by 5 Ma. The disappearance of summer precipitation in the west has traditionally been attributed to either the development of a rain shadow to the east of the mountains and/or cooling of the north Pacific Ocean. However, two important lines of evidence indicate that the development of a Sierra/Cascade rain shadow cannot have been the dominant process in the drying out of the western U.S. The gradual drying trend from at least 12 Ma to 5 Ma does not coincide with the known tectonic histories of either the Cascades or the Sierra Nevada range. More importantly, the disappearance of the Miocene flora on the coastal side of the mountain ranges cannot be attributed to a developing rain shadow. Instead the disappearance of coastal flora require a weakening of the moisture source from the north Pacific. We suggest that the drying of the west resulted from stepwise cooling of the north Pacific, which caused the gradual disappearance of a Miocene Rocky Mountain monsoon and a gradual but drastic reduction of summer precipitation. During the middle Miocene, summer sea surface temperatures were relatively warm off the West Coast, feeding moist air into the interior of the western U.S. During the late Miocene, a gradual cooling trend in the north Pacific related to

  5. Genetic diversity of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops sp.) populations in the western North Pacific and the conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing; Nishida, Shin; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tajima, Yuko; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that shape patterns of diversity in highly mobile marine species are poorly understood, but important towards transferable inference on their effective conservation. In this study, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) are studied to address this broader question. They exhibit remarkable geographical variation for morphology, life history, and genetic diversity, and this high level of variation has made the taxonomy of the genus controversial. A significant population structure has been reported for the most widely distributed species, the common bottlenose dolphin (T. truncatus), in almost all ocean basins, though no data have been available for the western North Pacific Ocean (WNP). The genetic diversity of bottlenose dolphins in the WNP was investigated based on 20 microsatellite and one mitochondrial DNA markers for samples collected from Taiwanese, Japanese, and Philippine waters (9°-39°N, 120°-140°E) during 1986-2012. The results indicated that there are at least four genetically differentiated populations of common bottlenose dolphins in the western and central North Pacific Ocean. The pattern of differentiation appears to correspond to habitat types, resembling results seen in other populations of the same species. Our analyses also showed that there was no evident gene flow between the two "sister species", the common bottlenose dolphins, and the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus) occurring sympatrically in our study region.

  6. Spatial variation of the zooplankton community in the western tropical Pacific Ocean during the summer of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing; Wang, Xiaocheng; Dai, Luping; Tao, Zhencheng; Ji, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the zooplankton community in the western tropical Pacific Ocean is poor compared to that of the communities in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. The zooplankton composition, abundance, biomass and community structure in the western Pacific Ocean were studied based on data collected during a synoptic cruise (August-September 2014). Four zooplankton communities were determined via cluster analysis, and these four clusters were mainly spatially related to four different currents: the Luzon Current (LC), Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC), North Equatorial Current (NEC) and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). The estimated mean abundance and biomass of the zooplankton for the whole surveyed area were 146.7±178.1 ind/m3 and 36.9±40.3 mg/m3, respectively. The zooplankton abundance was dominated by small copepods, such as Clausocalanus furcatus, C. pergens, Oncaea mediterranea and Oithona plumifera. The zooplankton abundance and biomass values were lowest in the STCC region and highest in the NECC region. BEST analysis based on surface environmental factors showed that chlorophyll a (chl a), pH, temperature and salinity were the environmental variables that best explained the distribution pattern of the zooplankton community (pw=0.372). The zooplankton abundance was higher south of the salinity front at 16°N, in accordance with the relatively higher nutrient and chl a levels. Maximum zooplankton biomass was found in regions on the periphery of the cyclonic Mindanao Eddy (ME) and anticyclonic Halmahera Eddy (HE).

  7. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  8. Significant Aerosol Influence on the Recent Decadal Decrease in Tropical Cyclone Activity Over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Mori, Masato

    2017-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the number of tropical cyclones (TCs) has decreased markedly in the southeastern part of the western North Pacific (WNP) as a component of the interdecadal variation. This decrease has partially been explained by an internal low-frequency variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific, but influences of external forcing remain unclear. Here we show that past changes in sulfate aerosol emissions contributed approximately 60% of the observed decreasing trends in TC genesis frequency in the southeastern WNP for 1992-2011, using multiple simulations by a global climate model. This decrease was mainly attributed to the increased vertical wind shear and decreased low-level vorticity, associated with a trans-basin multidecadal SST change driven by aerosol forcing. The near-future projection shows that the aerosol forcing still has some potential influence on decadal TC change, but the projected decreasing frequency is mainly due to increasing greenhouse gases forcing.

  9. Reproductive biology of female striped marlin Kajikia audax in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H-Y; Sun, C-L; Yeh, S-Z; Chang, Y-J; Su, N-J; DiNardo, G

    2017-11-15

    Length and mass data for 1260 (536 females, 683 males, 41 sex unknown) striped marlin Kajikia audax were collected at the fish markets of Tungkang, Singkang and Nanfangao from July 2004 to September 2010. Of these samples, 534 gonads (236 females and 298 males) ranging from 95 to 206 cm in eye-to-fork length (LEF ) and 8 to 88 kg in round mass (MR ), were collected. Chi-square tests indicated sex ratios were homogeneous among months in 2004 and 2006-2008, but not in 2005, 2009 and 2010; and there were significant differences in sex ratio by size. The overall sex ratio (RS ) differed significantly from the expected 0·5. Kajikia audax are sexually dimorphic and the proportions of females increased with size between 140 and 210 cm LEF . Reproductive activity was assessed using a gonado-somatic index (IG ), external appearance of the gonads and histological examination and results indicated that the spawning season occurred from April to August with a peak in June to July. Based on histological observations and the distribution of oocyte diameters, K. audax are multiple spawners and their oocytes develop asynchronously. The estimated length-at-50% maturity (LEF50 ) was c. 181 cm (c. 4·8 years of age) for females. The proportion of reproductively active females in the spawning season with ovaries containing postovulatory follicles (0·27) indicated that they spawned every 3·7 days on average. The hydrated oocyte method estimated mean ± S.D. batch fecundity (FB ) to be 4·4 ± 2·02 million eggs; average relative fecundity was 53·6 ± 13·9 oocytes g-1 MR ; and the average annual fecundity was 181·3 ± 48·3 million eggs. The parameters estimated in this study are key information for stock assessments of K. audax in the north-western and central Pacific and will contribute to the conservation, management and sustainable yield of this species. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. A Coral-based Climate Record from the Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Crowley, T. J.; Stephans, C.

    2002-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) serves as a heat engine for Earth's climate and as a major moisture source for its hydrological cycle. Thermal and hydrologic variations in the WPWP are intimately involved with ENSO variations on the interannual timescale, but the role of these variations on decadal to century timescales remains poorly understood because of the paucity of subannually resolved climate and paleoclimate time series from the WPWP. Coral-based proxy records of thermal and hydrologic variations in the WPWP offer a great opportunity to extend the instrumental record and address the modes and mechanisms of tropical climate variability on decadal to century timescales. Coral-based climate records have been exploited in other regions of the tropical oceans, yet such records are rare from the WPWP. Herein we report the initial results of a stable isotopic and elemental ratio study of a ~1.8 m Porites coral head recovered in ~ 8 m of water from offshore of Rabaul, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea (4°S, 152°E) in September, 1998. Rabaul is a site of active volcanism and has had major eruptive episodes in 1998, 1994, 1943-1937, 1878, 1791 and 1767. Rabaul is located within the 29°C contour of mean annual SST field of the WPWP and seawaters surrounding it experience <1°C seasonal range in SST. In contrast, there is a 1 psu seasonal range in SSS. Average annual rainfall exceeds 2 m per year. X-radiography reveals readily discernable growth bands and we estimate an average extension rate of 10 mm/yr. The coral slab was sampled every 0.625 mm yielding an average sample resolution of 16 samples per year. Coral powder was divided into two samples: one for oxygen and carbon isotopic determinations and one for Sr/Ca ratio determinations. Our initial stable isotope results indicate the existence of a robust annual cycle in addition to large isotopic excursions in 1994, likely the result of the large volcanic event of that year. Stable isotope data acquisition

  11. Latitudinal distributions of organic nitrogen and organic carbon in marine aerosols over the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Miyazaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific along the latitudinal transect from 44° N to 10° N in late summer 2008 for measurements of organic nitrogen (ON and organic carbon (OC as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN and total carbon (TC. Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA and diethylammonium (DEA+ at 40–44° N and subtropical regions (10–20° N together with averaged satellite chlorophyll-a data and 5-day back trajectories suggest a significant influence of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. ON exhibited increased concentrations up to 260 ngN m−3 in these marine biologically influenced aerosols. Water-insoluble organic nitrogen (WION was found to be the most abundant nitrogen in the aerosols, accounting for 55 ± 16% of total aerosol nitrogen. In particular, the average WION/ON ratio was as high as 0.93 ± 0.07 at 40–44° N. These results suggest that marine biological sources significantly contributed to ON, a majority of which is composed of water-insoluble fractions in the study region. Analysis of the stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C indicated that, on average, marine-derived carbon accounted for ~88 ± 12% of total carbon in the aerosols. In addition, the δ13C showed higher values (from −22 to −20‰ when ON/OC ratios increased from 0.15 to 0.35 in marine biologically influenced aerosols. These results clearly show that organic nitrogen is enriched in organic aerosols originated from an oceanic region with high biological productivity, indicating a preferential transfer of nitrogen-containing organic compounds from the sea surface to the marine atmosphere. Both WION concentrations and WION/water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC ratios tended to increase with increasing local wind speeds, indicating that sea-to-air emissions of ON via sea spray contribute significantly to the marine organic

  12. Conservation of western sandpipers along the Pacific flyway, Year-end report , July 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to clarify some of the remaining gaps in our knowledge of western sandpipers, the 1995 western sandpiper telemetry study was undertaken with the following...

  13. The maintenance of climatological mean state of the western Pacific warm pool associated with currents based on CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxing

    2017-04-01

    Based on the historical runs from 26 coupled climate mode of the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), the relationship between the equatorial currents and climatological mean of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) are investigated. The results show that there is high correlation between them. A strong south equatorial current not only can cause westward stretch of edge of the WPWP over equator, but also shrink the south part of the WPWP. A strong north equatorial countercurrent can enlarge the north body of the WPWP. The zonal-advective feedback and Bjerknes feedback play the key role in the mean state of WPWP.

  14. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  15. Popper on Darwinism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Popper on Darwinism. M G Narasimhan. Article-in-a-Box Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 4-4. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/11/0004-0004. Author Affiliations.

  16. The Evolution of Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, G. Ledyard; Ayala, Francisco J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular biology and new interpretations of the fossil record are gradually altering and adding to Charles Darwin's theory, which has been the standard view of the process of evolution for 40 years. Several of these developments and interpretations are identified and discussed. (JN)

  17. The theory of Darwin

    CERN Multimedia

    Thuillier,P

    1984-01-01

    Biographie de Charles Darwin, naturaliste anglaise (1809 - 1882), qui demeurait fameux dans l'histoire des sciences, parce qu'il a inventé une théorie qui permet de rendre compte rationnellement en principe de la formation des diverses formes vivantes que nous voyons

  18. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  19. The dynamical and microphysical properties of wet season convection in Darwin as a function of wet season regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert; Collis, Scott; Protat, Alain; Majewski, Leon; Louf, Valentin; Potvin, Corey; Lang, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    A known deficiency of general circulation models (GCMs) is in their representation of convection (Arakawa 2004), typically parameterized using given assumptions about entrainment rates and mass fluxes that depend on the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of convection and lack any sort of representation of the organization of convection. Furthermore, mechanisms that couple large scale forcing and convective organization are poorly represented (Del Genio 2012). The Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) version 1 aims to run at resolutions of 25 km, too coarse for convective parameterizations used in large eddy simulations but too fine for typical convective parameterizations used in GCMs. This prompts the need for observational datasets to validate simulations and guide model development in ACME in several regions of the globe. The focus of this study will be at the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site in Darwin, Australia and the surrounding maritime continent. In Darwin, well defined forcing regimes occur during the wet season of September to April with the onset and the break of the Northern Australian Monsoon (Drosdowsky 1996; Pope et al. 2009). In this study, the vertical velocities retrieved from over ten years of continuous plan position indicator scans from the C-band POLarimetric and Berrima radars stationed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement TWP site in Darwin are derived. This long term dataset in such a region provides an opportunity to explore the statistics of vertical velocities in convection as a function of large scale forcing and modes of convective organization. Initial attempts to classify the convective organizational state and derive vertical velocities using three-dimensional variational data retrieval (Potvin et al. 2012) are shown. The results will be used to validate ACME Regionally Refined Mesh simulations over Darwin as well as guide convective parameterization development.

  20. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Philippe; Lalire, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM) in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ) and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC). This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile survival as the

  1. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gaspar

    Full Text Available Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea. It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC. This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile

  2. Charles Darwin: What Else Did He Write?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Tim M.

    1980-01-01

    Lists a number of books written by Charles Darwin, selected to indicate the depth and breadth of Darwin's biological interests. Each entry is described with a short annotation. Also provides a reading list of references about Darwin's life. (CS)

  3. Yaws in the Western Pacific Region: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Capuano

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific, yaws may be amenable to elimination if adequate resources are provided and political commitment revived. A mapping of yaws prevalence in PNG, Solomon, and Vanuatu is needed before comprehensive country-tailored strategies towards yaws elimination can be developed.

  4. 76 FR 52888 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... rule. SUMMARY: This rule requires specific gear configuration for pelagic longline fishing in the South... for purposes of Executive Order 12866. List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 665 Administrative practice and... species means the following species: English common name Scientific name Tunas: * * * * * * * Pacific...

  5. Aggressive root pathogen Phellinus noxius and implications for western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is an aggressive root rot pathogen affecting tropical and subtropical forests. Causing much damage in tropical Asia, Africa, Taiwan, Japan and the Pacific Islands, its wide host range encompasses more than 200 plant species representing 59 families (Ann et al. 2002). It can devastate agricultural plantations of tea, rubber, cocoa, avocados,...

  6. 77 FR 60637 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... turtles from shrinking populations that face growing threats from climate change and other impacts is not... Pacific loggerhead sea turtles. NMFS also makes administrative housekeeping changes to the regulations... turtle distinct population segment (DPS), leatherback sea turtles, olive ridley sea turtles, and green...

  7. 77 FR 23654 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Modification of American Samoa Large Vessel Prohibited Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...-Rulemaking Portal www.regulations.gov ; or Mail: Michael D. Tosatto, Regional Administrator, NMFS, Pacific... the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the islands. A decade ago, small vessels known as alias... Classification Pursuant to section 304(b)(1)(A) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, the NMFS Assistant Administrator has...

  8. EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN Evolutionary Economics and Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN D. HERNANDEZ U

    Full Text Available A partir del siglo XIX, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. La teoría de Darwin de la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtió en un desafío a la visión del mundo dominante: la newtoniana (Witt, 1999. Este desafío al ideal newtoniano, fue influido, paradójicamente, por estímulos intelectuales proveniente de pensadores fuera de la biología. Estas influencias emanaron de la filosofía liberal del -dejar pasar, dejar hacer- de los siglos XVIII y de principios del siglo XIX. De los diarios de Darwin se destaca la correspondencia con Herbert Spencer, en donde se denota una clara influencia del trabajo de economistas-filósofos como Adam Smith, de la llamada escuela de Edimburgo, y Robert Malthus. Lo paradójico de esta situación es que ahora es Darwin quien, de vuelta, influye sobre los economistas modernos. La revolución darwiniana en la economía moderna consiste en mostrar al capitalismo como un proceso evolucionario explicado por procesos del cambio de patrones en las relaciones entre entidades. Pero gran parte de este estudio de influencia darwiniana no tiene que ver en sí con el estudio de la biología. Está relacionado con los principios y conceptos que definen el mecanismo evolucionario que es fundamento del desarrollo de la teoría evolucionista moderna. Desde el estudio del sistema natural, y sus disciplinas ¿qué podemos aprender en el campo de lo social en los temas de adaptabilidad, ante la adversidad y bio y sociodiversidad? El alto de emprenderismo en regiones y países latinoamericanos es síntoma de resiliencia social y adaptabilidad. Es en la adversidad donde se encuentra más variedad de comportamientos y hay más condiciones ante desafíos estresantes. Dado que la teoría convencional de

  9. Potential for the slow growing coral Diploastrea heliopora to yield multi-century Western Pacific Warm Pool climate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.

    2009-12-01

    Coral-based stable isotope records of climate variability have begun to provide insight into behavior of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), a planetary heat and moisture source and the center of action for the largest source of interannual climate variability on the planet, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, no multi-century stable isotope records from the WPWP exist, as the commonly utilized Porites spp. corals from the WPWP region tend to have a relatively short lifespan (< 200 years). Therefore, development of stable isotope records from the longer lived and slower growing (< 0.5 cm yr-1) coral Diploastrea heliopora is a critical step in generating multi-century WPWP-based climate records and examining modern behavior of ENSO in the context of the immediate preindustrial period. However, previous work has emphasized the difficulty of sampling the intricate skeleton of D. heliopora. Here we have utilized a computer controlled micro-milling stage to extract approximately monthly resolved samples from the columnella of individual polyps of cores collected from a D. heliopora colony from off of Olasana Island (8°07.92’ S, 156°54.50’ E), Western Province, Solomon Islands. The Western Province lies within the WPWP, under the South Pacific Convergence Zone, and ENSO-related variability is exhibited by instrumental salinity, rainfall and temperature time series. The ENSO events contained within the resulting preliminary 52-year (1939-1991) time series of δ18O generated from the Olasana D. heliopora colony are unambiguous, and the ENSO-band filtered time series is strongly correlated with the NINO 3.4 index. Additionally, δ18O variations are highly reproducible between individual polyps sampled. These results suggest that careful sampling of this rarely utilized coral can yield robust, multi-century time series of climate variability from D. heliopora from the WPWP.

  10. Charles Darwin: genius or plodder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Adam S

    2009-11-01

    There is no doubt about the magnitude of Charles Darwin's contributions to science. There has, however, been a long-running debate about how brilliant he was. His kind of intelligence was clearly different from that of the great physicists who are deemed geniuses. Here, the nature of Darwin's intelligence is examined in the light of Darwin's actual style of working. Surprisingly, the world of literature and the field of neurobiology might supply more clues to resolving the puzzle than conventional scientific history. Those clues suggest that the apparent discrepancy between Darwin's achievements and his seemingly pedestrian way of thinking reveals nothing to Darwin's discredit but rather a too narrow and inappropriate set of criteria for "genius." The implications of Darwin's particular creative gifts with respect to the development of scientific genius in general are briefly discussed.

  11. Insights into the crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the High and Western Plateau of the Manihiki Plateau, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. It is assumed, that the formation of the Manihiki Plateau took place during the early Cretaceous in multiple volcanic stages as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong-Java-Nui. The plateau consists of several sub-plateaus of which the Western Plateau und High Plateau are the largest. In addressing the plateau's magmatic evolutionary history, one of the key questions is whether all sub-plateaus experienced the same magmatic history or if distinct phases of igneous or tectonic processes led to its fragmentation. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-224 in 2012; we collected two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection lines, crossing the two main sub-plateaus. Modeling of P- and S-wave phases reveals the different crustal nature of both sub-plateaus. On the High Plateau, the 20 km thick crust is divided into four seismic units, interpreted to range from basaltic composition in the uppermost crust to peridotitic composition in the middle and lower crust. The Western Plateau on the other hand shows multiple rift structures and no indications of basalt flows. With a maximum of 17 km crustal thickness, the Western Plateau is also thinner than the High Plateau. The upper basement layers show relatively low P-wave velocities (3.0 - 5.0 km/s), which infers that on the Western Plateau these layers consist of volcanoclastic and carbonatic rocks rather than basaltic flow units. Later volcanic stages may be restricted to the High Plateau with a possible eastward trend in the center of volcanic activity. Extensive secondary volcanism does not seem to have occurred on the Western Plateau, and its later deformation is mainly caused by tectonic extension and rifting.

  12. [Darwin and bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2009-02-01

    As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  13. Role of scale interactions in the abrupt change of tropical cyclone in autumn over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pang-Chi; Lee, Ting-Hui; Tsou, Chih-Hua; Chu, Pao-Shin; Qian, Yitian; Bi, Mingyu

    2017-01-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity in autumn (September-November) over the western North Pacific experienced an abrupt change in 1998, which can be detected by the Bayesian change-point analysis. During the decade before the regime shift (1988-1997), the occurrence frequency of TC genesis increased significantly over the tropical western Pacific, where the seasonal cyclonic flow, intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and synoptic-scale eddy (SSE) were all strengthened, compared to those observed in the decade after 1998 (1998-2007). The TC trajectories also exhibited spatial differences. During the active decade, the TCs had a higher probability to move westward into the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, and recurved northeastward toward the east of Japan. Meanwhile, the northwestward propagating TCs approaching Taiwan and southeastern coast of China were reduced. To understand the role of mean flow-ISO-SSE interaction in the decadal changes of SSE and associated TC activity, we diagnosed a newly proposed SSE kinetic energy (KE) equation that separates the contributions of seasonal-mean circulation and ISO to the SSE. The results show that, during the active TC decade, the SSE obtained higher KE from both mean flow and ISO through eddy barotropic energy conversion when the enhanced SSE momentum flux interacted with the strengthened monsoon trough and vigorous ISO cyclonic anomaly over the western tropical Pacific. The increased SSE KE contributed positively to the increased TC genesis over the main genesis region (7.5°-20°N, 130°-170°E). It also benefited the growth of TCs over the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea during the active decade. The decadal change in TC frequency over the extratropics was related to the eddy baroclinic energy conversion instead of the barotropic conversion associated with scale interaction. During the active TC decade, SSE gained more (less) KE from the SSE available potential energy over the east of Japan (the East China Sea

  14. Role of scale interactions in the abrupt change of tropical cyclone in autumn over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pang-Chi; Lee, Ting-Hui; Tsou, Chih-Hua; Chu, Pao-Shin; Qian, Yitian; Bi, Mingyu

    2017-11-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity in autumn (September-November) over the western North Pacific experienced an abrupt change in 1998, which can be detected by the Bayesian change-point analysis. During the decade before the regime shift (1988-1997), the occurrence frequency of TC genesis increased significantly over the tropical western Pacific, where the seasonal cyclonic flow, intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and synoptic-scale eddy (SSE) were all strengthened, compared to those observed in the decade after 1998 (1998-2007). The TC trajectories also exhibited spatial differences. During the active decade, the TCs had a higher probability to move westward into the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, and recurved northeastward toward the east of Japan. Meanwhile, the northwestward propagating TCs approaching Taiwan and southeastern coast of China were reduced. To understand the role of mean flow-ISO-SSE interaction in the decadal changes of SSE and associated TC activity, we diagnosed a newly proposed SSE kinetic energy (KE) equation that separates the contributions of seasonal-mean circulation and ISO to the SSE. The results show that, during the active TC decade, the SSE obtained higher KE from both mean flow and ISO through eddy barotropic energy conversion when the enhanced SSE momentum flux interacted with the strengthened monsoon trough and vigorous ISO cyclonic anomaly over the western tropical Pacific. The increased SSE KE contributed positively to the increased TC genesis over the main genesis region (7.5°-20°N, 130°-170°E). It also benefited the growth of TCs over the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea during the active decade. The decadal change in TC frequency over the extratropics was related to the eddy baroclinic energy conversion instead of the barotropic conversion associated with scale interaction. During the active TC decade, SSE gained more (less) KE from the SSE available potential energy over the east of Japan (the East China Sea

  15. Substantive uniformitarianism and Darwinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution has two themes: common descent and natural selection. The first has been controversial from the beginning to the present day, but is now well supported by geological and biological evidence. The idea of natural selection was inspired by Malthus' Essay on the Principle of Population and by the Weltanschauung of his time. Geological evidence, commonly negative, was dismissed as artifact of imperfect geological record. Variation, adaptation, and survival of the fittest are the three steps of natural selection. Adaptation implies the presence of stable environments as the goal; changes, if any, had to be gradual, slow enough for organisms to adapt. The definition of fitness also depends upon frame of reference; fitness has no meaning in a rapidly changing world. Recent geochemical, sedimentological, and paleontological studies revealed past occurrences of convulsive environmental changes as probably causes of biotic crises. Extinction was often not, as Darwin believed, the consequence of multiplication of species and selection of the fittest. Extinction could be the cause of several episodes of accelerated evolution when ecologic niches had been liberated after a catastrophe. The geological investigations of the century after Darwin indicated the inadequacy of those ideas which had been postulated on the basis of social philosophy.

  16. Neutrino physics with DARWIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    DARWIN (DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN) will be a multi-ton dark matter detector with the primary goal of exploring the entire experimentally accessible parameter space for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) over a wide mass-range. With its 40 tonne active liquid xenon target, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level, DARWIN can also search for other rare interactions. Here we present its sensitivity to low-energy solar neutrinos and to neutrinoless double beta decay. In a low-energy window of 2-30 keV a rate of 105/year, from pp and 7Be neutrinos can be reached. Such a measurement, with 1% precision will allow testing neutrinos models. DARWIN could also reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 8.5 · 1027 y to the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of 136Xe after an exposure of 140 t×y of natural xenon. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below 5 GeV/c2, and the event rate from 8B neutrinos would range from a few to a few tens of events per tonne and year, depending on the energy threshold of the detector. Deviations from the predicted but yet unmeasured neutrino flux would be an indication for physics beyond the Standard Model

  17. Darwin on woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Claudine

    2010-02-01

    In his 1871 book The Descent of Man, Darwin exposed the idea of sexual selection as a major principle of human evolution. His main hypothesis, which was already briefly presented in The Origin of Species, is that there exists, besides "natural selection", another form of selection, milder in its effect, but no less efficient. This selection is operated by females to mate and reproduce with some partners that are gifted with more qualities than others, and more to their taste. At more evolved stages, sexual selection was exerted by men who became able to choose the women most attractive to their taste. However, Darwin insists, sexual selection in the human species is limited by a certain number of cultural practices. If Darwin's demonstration sometimes carried the prejudices of his times regarding gender differences he was the first who took into account the importance of sexual choices in his view on evolution, and who insisted on the evolutionary role of women at the dawn of humanity. Thus, he opened the space for a rich reflection, which after him was widely developed and discussed in anthropological and gender studies. 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Pacific Flyway management plan for the Western Population of tundra swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to establish guidelines for the cooperative management of the Western Population (WP) of tundra swans (Cygnus c. columbianus). This...

  19. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…

  20. An Assessment of Multimodel Simulations for the Variability of Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones and Its Association with ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rongqing; Wang, Hui; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Li, Weijing; Long, Lindsey N.; Schemm, Jae-Kyung E.; Peng, Peitao; Wang, Wanqiu; Si, Dong; hide

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of simulations of the interannual variability of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the western North Pacific (WNP) and its association with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as well as a subsequent diagnosis for possible causes of model biases generated from simulated large-scale climate conditions, are documented in the paper. The model experiments are carried out by the Hurricane Work Group under the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Research Program (CLIVAR) using five global climate models (GCMs) with a total of 16 ensemble members forced by the observed sea surface temperature and spanning the 28-yr period from 1982 to 2009. The results show GISS and GFDL model ensemble means best simulate the interannual variability of TCs, and the multimodel ensemble mean (MME) follows. Also, the MME has the closest climate mean annual number of WNP TCs and the smallest root-mean-square error to the observation. Most GCMs can simulate the interannual variability of WNP TCs well, with stronger TC activities during two types of El Niño-namely, eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) El Niño-and weaker activity during La Niña. However, none of the models capture the differences in TC activity between EP and CP El Niño as are shown in observations. The inability of models to distinguish the differences in TC activities between the two types of El Niño events may be due to the bias of the models in response to the shift of tropical heating associated with CP El Niño.

  1. Climatological analysis of passage-type tropical cyclones from the Western North Pacific into the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Ming Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclone (TC climatological characteristics with passage from the Western North Pacific (WNP into the South China Sea (SCS during the June - November season are analyzed in this study. These TCs tend to form in the WNP west of 150°E, and on average westward by 7 - 12° in longitude than TCs that do not track into the SCS. Their formation locations migrate with the monsoon trough, moving northward from June to August, and southward from September to November. The probability of a WNP TC moving into the SCS varies seasonally, with only 12 - 18% of the WNP TCs doing so during August-September due to more northern TC formation. However, this probability rises to 25 - 26% in June - July and 25 - 32% in October - November with more southern TC formation. The passage-type TCs generally form in the eastern part of an elongated lower-level cyclonic anomaly of the 10-day low-pass filtered environmental circulation in the 10 - 20°N zone, which is paired with an anticyclonic anomaly to the north. Between this circulation pair, anomalous easterly flows steer these TCs westward, giving them a westward track into the SCS. The formation of these passage-type TCs is associated with a southward displacement of the monsoon trough and a westward intensification of the Pacific subtropical high in August and September. During June - July (October - November, the associated features appear as a southeastward (meridional expansion of the monsoon trough and a northward displacement of the Pacific subtropical high.

  2. Importance of the Viral Shunt in Nitrogen Cycling in Synechococcus Spp. Growth in Subtropical Western Pacific Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses play an important role in aquatic environments in bacteria and phytoplankton mortality and also in carbon and nutrient recycling through the lysis of living cells. However, the effects of nitrogen regenerated by viral lysis on the growth of picophytoplankton are rarely studied. This study investigated whether the presence of viruses has a positive effect on the daytime frequency of cell division in Synechococcus spp. in the coastal waters of the western subtropical Pacific Ocean. Using cell incubation with natural viral loads and reduced virus treatments, we characterized the abundance and frequency of cell division in Synechococcus spp. over time. Our results clearly showed that during the daytime as much as 30% of Synechococcus spp. were dividing in natural virus-containing samples, a proportion six times that found in the virus-diluted treatment groups (5%. These results suggest that viruses can exert significant effects on nutrient regeneration, enhancing daytime cell division rates in Synechococcus spp.

  3. Tissue concentrations of four Taiwanese toothed cetaceans indicating the silver and cadmium pollution in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Hsien; Zhuang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Lien-Siang; Liu, Jean-Yi; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Chen, Chiee-Young

    2017-11-30

    Muscle, lung, kidney and liver tissues of 45 bycatch and stranded cetaceans, including 14 Grampus griseus (Gg), 7 Kogia simus (Ks), 10 Lagenodelphis hosei (Lh), and 14 Stenella attenuata (Sa), were collected in the waters off Taiwan from 1994 to 1995, and from 2001 to 2012. Baseline concentrations (in μgg(-1) dry weight) of the cetaceans were lung (liver (0.43±0.28) for Ag, and muscle (0.03±0.03)=lung (0.22±0.19)liver (3.82±3.50)liver-Ag and kidney-Cd were found in two Lh. These Taiwanese cetaceans indicate marked Ag and Cd pollution in the recent two decades in the western Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Epidermal Conditions in Critically Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the Waters of Western Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Yang1, Wei-Lung Chang2, Ka-Hei Kwong1, Yi-Ting Yao1 and Lien-Siang Chou2*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of epidermal conditions in a small critically endangered population (<100 individuals of coastal Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the waters of western Taiwan was assessed during a photo-identification study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Of 97 individuals photographically examined, 37% were affected by one or multiple conditions. Besides, mature individuals had significantly higher prevalence than immature ones. Five different skin condition categories were considered, including pox-like lesion, pale lesion, orange film, prolonged ulcer lesion, and nodule on body. This first study to investigate epidermal conditions on S. chinensis in the world offers data for comparison with other studies in the future and new ground for discussion on the health of these animals and the potential impact of anthropogenic activities.

  5. Promising prediction of the monsoon trough and its implication for tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Lu, Riyu; Chen, Guanghua

    2017-07-01

    The monsoon trough (MT) is generally recognized as a feeding ground for tropical cyclones (TCs) over the western North Pacific (WNP). In view of the many challenges that remain in current seasonal TC forecasting, it would be a profound benefit to understand the predictability of variations in the MT and the implications of this for the seasonal prediction of TC activity. This study reveals that high predictability of the MT is shown by the current atmosphere-ocean coupled forecasting system, with the correlation coefficient being 0.84 for the model-ensemble prediction with observations from 1960 to 2005. This high predictability arises mainly from the tropical dipole sea surface temperature over the Maritime Continent and tropical Pacific Ocean, which favors convection around the warm pool and further excites the vorticity anomalies over the WNP. It is further found that good knowledge of the MT could provide promising prediction of TC activity over the WNP, including the occurrence and energy of TCs. The findings of this study suggest that coupling between the WNP circulation and tropical ocean acts as an important source of seasonal predictability in the WNP, and highlight the importance of the MT for seasonal prediction of TCs over the WNP.

  6. Working mothers of the World Health Organization Western Pacific offices: lessons and experiences to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iellamo, Alessandro; Sobel, Howard; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Optimal breastfeeding saves lives. However, suboptimal breastfeeding is prevalent, primarily resulting from inappropriate promotion of infant formula and challenges of working mothers to continue breastfeeding. The article aims to determine the extent to which World Health Organization (WHO) policies protect, promote, and support breastfeeding women working at the WHO, Western Pacific Region. An online survey targeted all female WHO and contractual staff in all country and regional offices, who delivered a baby between July 24, 2008 and July 24, 2013. Respondents advised on how the worksite could better support breastfeeding. Thirty-two female staff from 11 of the 12 WHO offices within the Western Pacific Region responded. "Returning to work" (44%) and "not having enough milk" (17%) were the most commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding. Eighteen (56%) reported using infant formula and 8 (44%) reported that the product was prescribed. Among the suggestions given to better support breastfeeding, 10 (32%) recommended having a private room with a chair, table, electric outlet, and refrigerator. The findings show that women working at the WHO face similar challenges to mothers outside the WHO. Based on the findings, we recommend the following: (1) provide prenatal/postpartum breastfeeding counseling services for employees; (2) establish breastfeeding rooms in country offices and regularly orient staff on agency policies to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; (3) annually celebrate World Breastfeeding Week with employees; (4) encourage other public and private institutions to conduct online surveys and elicit recommendations from mothers on how their workplace can support breastfeeding; and (5) conduct a larger survey among UN agencies on how to better protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  8. Extended-range forecast for the temporal distribution of clustering tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim; Bai, Long; Gao, Jianyun

    2017-11-01

    Based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), an index for clustering tropical cyclogenesis (CTC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) was defined. Around 76 % of total CTC events were generated during the active phase of the CTC index, and 38 % of the total active phase was concurrent with CTC events. For its continuous property, the CTC index was used as the representative predictand for extended-range forecasting the temporal distribution of CTC events. The predictability sources for CTC events were detected via correlation analyses of the previous 35-5-day lead atmospheric fields against the CTC index. The results showed that the geopotential height at different levels and the 200 hPa zonal wind over the global tropics possessed large predictability sources, whereas the predictability sources of other variables, e.g., OLR, zonal wind, and relatively vorticity at 850 hPa and relatively humility at 700 hPa, were mainly confined to the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. Several spatial-temporal projection model (STPM) sets were constructed to carry out the extended-range forecast for the CTC index. By combining the output of STPMs separately conducted for the two dominant modes of intraseasonal variability, e.g., the 10-30 and the 30-80 day mode, useful forecast skill could be achieved for a 30-day lead time. The combined output successfully captured both the 10-30 and 30-80 day mode at least 10 days in advance. With a relatively low rate of false alarm, the STPM achieved hits for 80 % (69 %) of 54 CTC events during 2003-2014 at the 10-day (20-day) lead time, suggesting a practical value of the STPM for real-time forecasting WNP CTC events at an extended range.

  9. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frere, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous

  10. Strengthening collaboration on chemical hazards in food among food safety authorities and the World Health Organization in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bishop

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to highlight the benefits of sharing information to Western Pacific Region Member States and to identify similarities at the regional level in terms of food safety issues and public health protection. In addition, it aims to propose an improved partnership among regional food safety authorities and WHO on targeted objectives.

  11. A Comparison of Dynamical Seasonal Tropical Cyclone Predictions for the Australian and Western Pacific Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kay; Charles, Andrew; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Hendon, Harry; Kuleshov, Yuriy

    2013-04-01

    The Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) issues predictions of tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the Australian and South Pacific regions in the October before the TC season (November to April). Currently, these predictions utilise a statistical model based on the historical relationship between tropical cyclone activity and (i) sea surface temperature anomalies in the Equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) and (ii) the Southern Oscillation Index over the past few decades. Variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-TC relationship that are not contained within the historical record can lead to deficiencies in future predictions. The use of dynamical (physics-based) climate models (GCMs) offers an alternative to statistical TC prediction schemes. Any changes to the environment (whatever their character or cause) are incorporated in the analyses used to initialise a dynamical model. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) Program, BoM is developing dynamically-based seasonal TC predictions for the Australian, South Pacific and North-West Pacific regions. The seasonal TC predictions from two fully-coupled GCMs are evaluated and compared. These models are BoM's Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) and the Japan Meteorological Agency/Meteorological Research Institute Coupled GCM (JMA/MRI-CGCM). The resolution of POAMA's atmospheric component is T42 (~2.5° x 2.5°), while JMA/MRI-CGCM is T95 (~1.8° x 1.8°). Two TC tracking methods are employed and applied to both models to evaluate the influence of model composition and tracking technique on seasonal TC predictions. In the more traditional TC detection scheme TCs are identified where 850-hPa relative vorticity is a maximum (minimum in the Southern Hemisphere) and exceeds a certain threshold. Additionally, the 500-200-hPa thickness and the difference in maximum winds at 850 and 200 hPa are used to differentiate tropical from extratropical

  12. Charles Darwin 1809-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John

    2009-02-01

    The year 2009 is the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the 150th anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species. This article briefly surveys his life and work, dispelling some common myths and summarizes Darwin's achievement and legacy at his death in 1882.

  13. Charles Darwin in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzo, Nelio; Bizzo, Luis Eduardo Maestrelli

    2006-01-01

    Considering geological time as an important epistemological obstacle to the construction of ideas on biological evolution, a study was carried out on the so-called "Darwin Papers". The conclusion was that Charles Darwin's excursion in the Andes during March-April 1835 was a crucial step in this regard. An expedition was carried out in…

  14. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelsey; Haynes, David; Talouli, Anthony; Donoghue, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Western Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oE-180o (western equatorial...

  16. Interannual Variability of Human Plague Occurrence in the Western United States Explained by Tropical and North Pacific Ocean Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Tamara Ben; Gershunov, Alexander; Tristan, Rouyer; Cazelles, Bernard; Gage, Kenneth; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a vector-borne, highly virulent zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It persists in nature through transmission between its hosts (wild rodents) and vectors (fleas). During epizootics, the disease expands and spills over to other host species such as humans living in or close to affected areas. Here, we investigate the effect of large-scale climate variability on the dynamics of human plague in the western United States using a 56-year time series of plague reports (1950–2005). We found that El Niño Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation in combination affect the dynamics of human plague over the western United States. The underlying mechanism could involve changes in precipitation and temperatures that impact both hosts and vectors. It is suggested that snow also may play a key role, possibly through its effects on summer soil moisture, which is known to be instrumental for flea survival and development and sustained growth of vegetation for rodents. PMID:20810830

  17. La Regla de Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caponi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking as a starting point Brandon's account of the principle of natural selection, we argue that it is possible to consider such a principle as bearing the same status of the principle of causation, to wit, that of a methodological rule whose function would be to introduce a "teleological mode of inquiring the living". This way of understanding the principle of natural selection will drive us into an interpretation of Darwinism that is close to that one argued for by Daniel Dennett.

  18. Comparison of the protective effect of a commercially available western diamondback rattlesnake toxoid vaccine for dogs against envenomation of mice with western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus), and southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Charles C; Valore, Erika V; Couto, Marcelo A; Lawson, Gregory W; McCabe, James G

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of a commercially available toxoid manufactured from western diamondback (WD) rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom against envenomation of mice with WD, northern Pacific (NP) rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus), and southern Pacific (SP) rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri) venom. 90 specific pathogen-free female mice. Mice were allocated into 3 cohorts (30 mice/cohort). Mice received SC injections of C atrox toxoid (CAT) vaccine (n = 15/group) or adjuvant (15/group) at day 0 and again at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, mice were challenge-exposed with 1 of 3 venoms. Survival until 48 hours was evaluated by use of log-rank analysis of survival curves and the z test for proportions. 6 of 15 WD-challenged CAT-vaccinated mice, 3 of 15 NP-challenged CAT-vaccinated mice, and 0 of 15 SP-challenged CAT-vaccinated mice survived until 48 hours. All adjuvant-only vaccinates survived ≤ 21 hours. Mean survival time of CAT vaccinates was longer than that of adjuvant-only vaccinates for all venoms (1,311 vs 368 minutes for WD, 842 vs 284 minutes for NP, and 697 vs 585 minutes for SP). Results of the z test indicated a significantly increased survival rate for vaccinates exposed to WD rattlesnake venom but not for vaccinates exposed to NP or SP rattlesnake venom. Log-rank analysis revealed a significant difference between survival curves of vaccinated versus unvaccinated mice exposed to NP but not WD or SP venom. CAT vaccination improved survival rate and survival time after challenge exposure with WD rattlesnake venom and may offer limited protection against NP rattlesnake venom but did not provide significant cross-protection against SP rattlesnake venom.

  19. Travel-Related Parasitic Infections in Travellers to Southeast Asia and Western Pacific Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdur Öztürk, Eylem; Ünver, Ayşegül

    2017-12-01

    In the last decades, there has been a significant increase in international human mobility with increase in the prosperity, travel possibilities, and number of refugees. In the first half of 2016, the Asian continent showed the fastest growth in the number of tourists. Such increase is seen due to the interest in Asian history, culture, and cuisine. In the globalizing world, human mobility causes changes in the epidemiology of diseases and the spread of various infections across continents. Parasitic infections that may pose a risk for travellers to the Asia-Pacific are malaria, leishmaniasis, filariasis, foodborne trematode infections, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted infections, and tourist diarrhea. Consulting a travel medical expert and using health services such as pre-travel vaccination and chemoprophylaxis will reduce the risk of infectious diseases among travelers.

  20. Cloud condensation nuclei characteristics of Asian dust particles over the western and central North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, M.; Furutani, H.; Kawata, R.; Nakayama, H.

    2015-12-01

    Marine aerosols, such as sea salt particles, and sulfate and organic particles originated from marine biotas, exist in the marine atmosphere. Additionally, continental aerosols, such as dust and anthropogenic substances are transported over the open oceans. Variation of number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) depends on the number-size distribution and chemical compositions of aerosols, and affects the lifetime and the reflectivity of clouds over the open oceans. During the R/V Hakuho Maru KH-12-1 cruise from Callao to Tokyo via Honolulu in the Pacific Ocean (23 January - 7 March 2012), aerosol number-size distribution and CCN number concentration were continuously measured, and the marine aerosols for chemical analysis were collected on shipboard. In the marine atmosphere over the Pacific, averaged aerosol total number concentration (TN) was 280 cm-3. Bimodal number-size distributions were observed frequently with peaks at 40-60 nm (Aitken mode) and 160-230 nm (accumulation mode). CCN concentrations were categorized by assuming three types of particles by chemical compositions (i.e., NaCl; a major component of sea salt particles, (NH4)2SO4; a sulfur oxide originated from the marine biotas, and Oxalic acid; a major component among organic carbon (OC) originated from the marine biotas). Activation Rate (AR), which is defined as the ratio of the number concentrations of CCN against TN, varied mainly because of the number-size distribution. Chemical composition was the factor that determined AR values. However, the AR variations caused by changes of the chemical composition were much smaller than those caused changes of the particle size distribution even when Asian dust were observed over the region on 27-29 February. During the long range transport, rapid coagulation among mineral dust, organics and sea salt particles may accelerate the gravitational setting of marine aerosols and supplies the terrestrial substances to the ocean environment.

  1. Nietzsche's aesthetic critique of Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Charles H

    2011-01-01

    Despite his position as one of the first philosophers to write in the "post-Darwinian" world, the critique of Darwin by Friedrich Nietzsche is often ignored for a host of unsatisfactory reasons. I argue that Nietzsche's critique of Darwin is important to the study of both Nietzsche's and Darwin's impact on philosophy. Further, I show that the central claims of Nietzsche's critique have been broadly misunderstood. I then present a new reading of Nietzsche's core criticism of Darwin. An important part of Nietzsche's response can best be understood as an aesthetic critique of Darwin, reacting to what he saw as Darwin having drained life of an essential component of objective aesthetic value. For Nietzsche, Darwin's theory is false because it is too intellectual, because it searches for rules, regulations, and uniformity in a realm where none of these are to be found - and, moreover, where they should not be found. Such a reading goes furthest toward making Nietzsche's criticism substantive and relevant. Finally, I attempt to relate this novel explanation of Nietzsche's critique to topics in contemporary philosophy of biology, particularly work on the evolutionary explanation of culture.

  2. Pleurolucina from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans: a new intertidal species from Curaçao with unusual shell microstructure (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Glover

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new shallow water species of the lucinid bivalve Pleurolucina is described from Curaçao in the southern Caribbean Sea and compared with known species of the genus from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Although confused with the Floridian species P. leucocyma, it is most similar to the eastern Pacific P. undata. As in all studied lucinids, the new species possesses symbiotic bacteria housed in the ctenidia. The shell microstructure is unusual with repeated and intercalated conchiolin layers that have sublayers of ‘tulip-shaped’ calcareous spherules. Predatory drillings by naticid gastropods frequently terminate at the conchiolin layers.

  3. Exceptional warming in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean warm pool has contributed to more frequent droughts in eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Peterson, Thomas C.; Stott, Peter A.; Herring, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, East Africa faced a tragic food crisis that led to famine conditions in parts of Somalia and severe food shortages in parts of Ethiopia and Somalia. While many nonclimatic factors contributed to this crisis (high global food prices, political instability, and chronic poverty, among others) failed rains in both the boreal winter of 2010/11 and the boreal spring of 2011 played a critical role. The back-to-back failures of these rains, which were linked to the dominant La Niña climate and warm SSTs in the central and southeastern Indian Ocean, were particularly problematic since they followed poor rainfall during the spring and summer of 2008 and 2009. In fact, in parts of East Africa, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of below-normal rainy seasons, which may be related to the warming of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans (for more details, see Funk et al. 2008; Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011; Lyon and DeWitt 2012). The basic argument of this work is that recent warming in the Indian–Pacific warm pool (IPWP) enhances the export of geopotential height energy from the warm pool, which tends to produce subsidence across eastern Africa and reduce onshore moisture transports. The general pattern of this disruption has been supported by canonical correlation analyzes and numerical experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (Funk et al. 2008), diagnostic evaluations of reanalysis data (Williams and Funk 2011; Williams et al. 2011), and SST-driven experiments with ECHAM4.5, ECHAM5, and the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3.6) (Lyon and DeWitt 2012).

  4. Fishery management, development and food security in the Western and Central Pacific in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kevin C.; Glazier, Ed; Nicol, Simon J.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-03-01

    In the coming decades, fishery resource managers and policy-makers in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) will be increasingly challenged by the need to ensure food security in the context of a changing climate, increasing human pressure on the marine environment, and limited understanding of marine ecosystems and associated resources. These decision-makers must address a pressing and overarching question - how will pelagic resources and pressures on such resources change over time and space? Answering this question requires ongoing inquiry into critical dimensions of pelagic species and systems, for both the commercial tuna species that are managed by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs), as well as nearshore pelagic fishes that support many small-scale fisheries and are managed at national and local levels. Research priorities include generating further insight into life history and physiology, oceanographic context, movement and migration, food webs, ecosystem dynamics and stock status. Concurrently, socioeconomic research is needed to tailor fisheries management strategies to local, national and regional conditions; and improve understanding of incentive structures among players in RFMOs such as the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission. PICT-based scientists and managers are ideally situated to generate new fisheries-relevant data; however, investments are needed to expand the capacity for research, management, and sustainable fisheries development within PICTs. Such capacity building can be accelerated through collaboration between PICTs, RFMOs, and scientific centers of excellence in Distant Water Fishing Nations. Without increased capacity development, this region will be adversely affected by the impacts of climate change and less able to take advantage of opportunities for economic development.

  5. Dissolved phosphorus pools and alkaline phosphatase activity in the euphotic zone of the western North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eSuzumura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured pools of dissolved phosphorus (P, including dissolved inorganic P (DIP, dissolved organic P (DOP and alkaline phosphatase (AP-hydrolyzable labile DOP (L-DOP, and kinetic parameters of AP activity (APA in the euphotic zone in the western North Pacific Ocean. Samples were collected from one coastal station in Sagami Bay, Japan, and three offshore stations between the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG and the Kuroshio region. Although DIP concentrations in the euphotic zone at all stations were equally low, around the nominal method detection limit of 20 nmol L−1, chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations were one order of magnitude greater at the coastal station. DOP was the dominant P pool, comprising 62–92% of total dissolved P at and above the Chl a maximum layer (CML. L-DOP represented 22–39% of the total DOP at the offshore stations, whereas it accounted for a much higher proportion (about 85% in the coastal surface layers. Significant correlations between maximum potential AP hydrolysis rates and DIP concentrations or bacterial cell abundance in the offshore euphotic zone suggest that major APA in the oligotrophic surface ocean is from bacterial activity and regulated largely by DIP availability. Although the range of maximum potential APA was comparable among the environmental conditions, the in situ hydrolysis rate of L-DOP in the coastal station was 10 times those in the offshore stations. L-DOP turnover time at the CML ranged from 4.5 d at the coastal station to 84.4 d in the NPSG. The ratio of the APA half saturation constant to the ambient L-DOP concentration decreased markedly from the NPSG to the coastal station. There were substantial differences in the rate end efficiency of DOP remineralization and its contribution as the potential P source between the low-phosphate/high biomass coastal ecosystem and the low-phosphate/low biomass oligotrophic ocean.

  6. Dissolved phosphorus pools and alkaline phosphatase activity in the euphotic zone of the Western north pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzumura, Masahiro; Hashihama, Fuminori; Yamada, Namiha; Kinouchi, Shinko

    2012-01-01

    We measured pools of dissolved phosphorus (P), including dissolved inorganic P (DIP), dissolved organic P (DOP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-hydrolyzable labile DOP (L-DOP), and kinetic parameters of AP activity (APA) in the euphotic zone in the western North Pacific Ocean. Samples were collected from one coastal station in Sagami Bay, Japan, and three offshore stations between the North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) and the Kuroshio region. Although DIP concentrations in the euphotic zone at all stations were equally low, around the nominal method detection limit of 20 nmol L(-1), chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations were one order of magnitude greater at the coastal station. DOP was the dominant P pool, comprising 62-92% of total dissolved P at and above the Chl a maximum layer (CML). L-DOP represented 22-39% of the total DOP at the offshore stations, whereas it accounted for a much higher proportion (about 85%) in the coastal surface layers. Significant correlations between maximum potential AP hydrolysis rates and DIP concentrations or bacterial cell abundance in the offshore euphotic zone suggest that major APA in the oligotrophic surface ocean is from bacterial activity and regulated largely by DIP availability. Although the range of maximum potential APA was comparable among the environmental conditions, the in situ hydrolysis rate of L-DOP in the coastal station was 10 times those in the offshore stations. L-DOP turnover time at the CML ranged from 4.5 days at the coastal station to 84.4 days in the NPSG. The ratio of the APA half-saturation constant to the ambient L-DOP concentration decreased markedly from the NPSG to the coastal station. There were substantial differences in the rate and efficiency of DOP remineralization and its contribution as the potential P source between the low-phosphate/high-biomass coastal ecosystem and the low-phosphate/low biomass oligotrophic ocean.

  7. Public sector refraction and spectacle dispensing in low-resource countries of the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Palagyi, Anna; Williams, Carmel; Brian, Garry

    2008-05-01

    Given that uncorrected refractive error is a frequent cause of vision impairment, and that there is a high unmet need for spectacles, an appraisal of public sector arrangements for the correction of refractive error was conducted in eight Pacific Island countries. Mixed methods (questionnaire and semi-structured interviews) were used to collect information from eye care personnel (from Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga and Tuvalu) attending a regional eye health workshop in 2005. Fiji, Tonga and Vanuatu had Vision 2020 eye care plans that included refraction services, but not spectacle provision. There was wide variation in public sector spectacle dispensing services, but, except in Samoa, ready-made spectacles and a full cost recovery pricing strategy were the mainstay. There were no systems for the registration of personnel, nor guidelines for clinical or systems management. The refraction staff to population ratio varied considerably. Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu had the best coverage by services, either fixed or outreach. Most services had little promotional activity or community engagement. To be successful, it would seem that public sector refraction services should answer a real and perceived need, fit within prevailing policy and legislation, value, train, retain and equip employees, be well managed, be accessible and affordable, be responsive to consumers, and provide ongoing good quality outcomes. To this end, a checklist to aid the initiation and maintenance of refraction and spectacle systems in low-resource countries has been constructed.

  8. Darwin would have loved DNA: celebrating Darwin 200

    OpenAIRE

    Bromham, Lindell

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequences now plays a key role in evolutionary biology research. If Darwin were to come back today, I think he would be absolutely delighted with molecular evolutionary genetics, for three reasons. First, it solved one of the greatest problems for his theory of evolution by natural selection. Second, it gives us a tool that can be used to investigate many of the questions he found the most fascinating. And third, DNA data confirm Darwin's grand view of evolution.

  9. Darwin would have loved DNA: celebrating Darwin 200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequences now plays a key role in evolutionary biology research. If Darwin were to come back today, I think he would be absolutely delighted with molecular evolutionary genetics, for three reasons. First, it solved one of the greatest problems for his theory of evolution by natural selection. Second, it gives us a tool that can be used to investigate many of the questions he found the most fascinating. And third, DNA data confirm Darwin's grand view of evolution. PMID:19447813

  10. Monitoring Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Western Pacific Using Satellite Remote Sensing Integrated with Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, C. M.; Phinn, S. R.; Lyons, M. B.; Kovacs, E.; Saunders, M. I.; Leon, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) are typically found in highly dynamic environments where the magnitude and types of physical and biological processes controlling their distribution, diversity and function changes dramatically. Recent advances in the types of satellite image data and the length of their archives that are available globally, coupled with new techniques for extracting environmental information from these data sets has enabled significant advances to be made in our ability to map and monitor coral and SAV environments. Object Based Image Analysis techniques are one of the most significant advances in information extraction techniques for processing images to deliver environmental information at multiple spatial scales. This poster demonstrates OBIA applied to high spatial resolution satellite image data to map and monitor coral and SAV communities across a variety of environments in the Western Pacific that vary in their extent, biological composition, forcing physical factors and location. High spatial resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird, Ikonos and Worldview2) were acquired coincident with field surveys on each reef to collect georeferenced benthic photo transects, over various areas in the Western Pacific. Base line maps were created, from Roviana Lagoon Solomon island (600 km2), Bikini Atoll Marshall Island (800 Km2), Lizard Island, Australia (30 km2) and time series maps for geomorphic and benthic communities were collected for Heron Reef, Australia (24 km2) and Eastern Banks area of Moreton Bay, Australia (200 km2). The satellite image data were corrected for radiometric and atmospheric distortions to at-surface reflectance. Georeferenced benthic photos were acquired by divers or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, analysed for benthic cover composition, and used for calibration and validation purposes. Hierarchical mapping from: reef/non-reef (1000's - 10000's m); reef type (100's - 1000's m); 'geomorphic zone' (10's - 100's m); to

  11. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in situ measurements from the western Pacific area during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-07-01

    During the recent SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive data set of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine was collected in the western Pacific region using the Falcon aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully automated in situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground-based state-of-the-art GC / MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the western Pacific could be a region of strongly increased atmospheric VSLS abundance (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only in the upper troposphere a slightly enhanced amount of total organic bromine from VSLS relative to the levels reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. From the SHIVA observations in the upper troposphere, a budget for total organic bromine, including four halons (H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402), CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the level of zero radiative heating (LZRH), the input region for the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and thus also for the stratosphere. With the exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  12. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  13. Neural Darwinism and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the 'dynamic core'). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized properties of consciousness, both physiological (for example, consciousness is associated with widespread, relatively fast, low amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical system), and phenomenal (for example, consciousness involves the existence of a private flow of events available only to the experiencing subject). While no theory accounts fully for all of these properties at present, we find that ND and its recent extensions fare well.

  14. Charles Darwin, Evolutionary Writings

    OpenAIRE

    Vitoux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Comme le titre l’implique, il s’agit d’une anthologie de textes de provenance diverse destinée à donner à un large public une vue d’ensemble de la théorie darwinienne de l’évolution. Ce projet requiert bien entendu une sélection rigoureuse dans la production foisonnante de Darwin observateur naturaliste, mais cette tâche est facilitée par le fait que peu de ses écrits peuvent être tenus pour « écrits sur l’évolution ». Les plus importants sont au nombre de trois, et ils constituent la quasi-t...

  15. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.

  16. Revisiting the eclipse of Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    The article sums up a number of points made by the author concerning the response to Darwinism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and repeats the claim that a proper understanding of the theory's impact must take account of the extent to which what are now regarded as the key aspects of Darwin's thinking were evaded by his immediate followers. Potential challenges to this position are described and responded to.

  17. Wallace, Darwin and Ternate 1858.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles H

    2014-06-20

    Recent debates on the mailing date of Alfred Russel Wallace's 'Ternate essay' to Charles Darwin in the spring of 1858 have ignored certain details that, once taken into account, alter the matter considerably. Here, a closer look is taken at the critical question of whether Wallace's manuscript-accompanying letter represented a reply to the Darwin letter that arrived in Ternate on 9 March; it is concluded that it very probably did not.

  18. ECONOMIA EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir del siglo xix, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. Las grandes teorías Darwin acerca de la evolución de la vida en la tierra y la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtieron en no menos que un desafío a la visión del mundo dominante: la newtoniana (Witt 1999. Este desafío al ideal newtoniano, fue influido, paradójicamente, por estímulos intelectuales de pensadores fuera de la biología. Estas influencias emanaron de la filosofía social del "dejar pasar, dejar hacer" liberal de los siglos xviii y de principios del siglo xix. De los diarios de Darwin se destaca la correspondencia con Herbert Spencer, en donde se denota una clara influencia del trabajo de economistas-filósofos como Adam Smith, de la llamada Escuela de Edimburgo, y Robert Malthus. Lo paradójico de esta situación es que ahora es Darwin quien, de vuelta, influye sobre los economistas modernos. La revolución darwiniana en la economía moderna consiste en mostrar al capitalismo como un proceso evolucionario explicado por procesos del cambio de patrones en las relaciones entre entidades. Pero gran parte de este estudio de influencia darwiniana no tiene que ver en sí  con el estudio de la biología. Está relacionado con los principios y conceptos que definen el mecanismo evolucionario que es fundamento del desarrollo de la teoría evolucionista moderna. Desde el estudio del sistema natural,y sus disciplinas ¿qué podemos aprender en el campo de lo social en los temas de adaptabilidad, ante la adversidad y bio- y sociodiversidad? El alto grado de emprenderismo en regiones y países latinoamericanos

  19. ECONOMIA EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Hernandez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir del siglo xix, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. Las grandes teorías Darwin acerca de la evolución de la vida en la tierra y la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtieron en no menos que un desafío a la visión del mundo dominante: la newtoniana (Witt 1999. Este desafío al ideal newtoniano, fue influido, paradójicamente, por estímulos intelectuales de pensadores fuera de la biología. Estas influencias emanaron de la filosofía social del "dejar pasar, dejar hacer" liberal de los siglos xviii y de principios del siglo xix. De los diarios de Darwin se destaca la correspondencia con Herbert Spencer, en donde se denota una clara influencia del trabajo de economistas-filósofos como Adam Smith, de la llamada Escuela de Edimburgo, y Robert Malthus. Lo paradójico de esta situación es que ahora es Darwin quien, de vuelta, influye sobre los economistas modernos. La revolución darwiniana en la economía moderna consiste en mostrar al capitalismo como un proceso evolucionario explicado por procesos del cambio de patrones en las relaciones entre entidades. Pero gran parte de este estudio de influencia darwiniana no tiene que ver en sí  con el estudio de la biología. Está relacionado con los principios y conceptos que definen el mecanismo evolucionario que es fundamento del desarrollo de la teoría evolucionista moderna. Desde el estudio del sistema natural,y sus disciplinas ¿qué podemos aprender en el campo de lo social en los temas de adaptabilidad, ante la adversidad y bio- y sociodiversidad? El alto grado de emprenderismo en regiones y países latinoamericanos es síntoma de resiliencia social y adaptabilidad. Es en la adversidad donde mas variedad de comportamiento se encuentra y hay m

  20. Impact of the Fukushima accident on tritium, radiocarbon and radiocesium levels in seawater of the western North Pacific Ocean: A comparison with pre-Fukushima situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, P P; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Kaizer, J; Molnár, M; Nies, H; Palcsu, L; Papp, L; Pham, M K; Jean-Baptiste, P

    2017-01-01

    Tritium, radiocarbon and radiocesium concentrations in water column samples in coastal waters offshore Fukushima and in the western North Pacific Ocean collected in 2011-2012 during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KoK) cruise are compared with other published results. The highest levels in surface seawater were observed for 134Cs and 137Cs in seawater samples collected offshore Fukushima (up to 1.1 Bq L-1), which represent an increase by about three orders of magnitude when compared with the pre-Fukushima concentration. Tritium levels were much lower (up to 0.15 Bq L-1), representing an increase by about a factor of 6. The impact on the radiocarbon distribution was measurable, but the observed levels were only by about 9% above the global fallout background. The 137Cs (and similarly 134Cs) inventory in the water column of the investigated western North Pacific region was (2.7 ± 0.4) PBq, while for 3H it was only (0.3 ± 0.2) PBq. Direct releases of highly contaminated water from the damaged Fukushima NPP, as well as dry and wet depositions of these radionuclides over the western North Pacific considerably changed their distribution patterns in seawater. Presently we can distinguish Fukushima labeled waters from global fallout background thanks to short-lived 134Cs. However, in the long-term perspective when 134Cs will decay, new distribution patterns of 3H, 14C and 137Cs in the Pacific Ocean should be established for future oceanographic and climate change studies in the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  2. Projected changes of the low-latitude north-western Pacific wind-driven circulation under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jing; Chen, Zhaohui; Wu, Lixin

    2017-05-01

    Based on the outputs of 25 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, the projected changes of the wind-driven circulation in the low-latitude north-western Pacific are evaluated. Results demonstrate that there will be a decrease in the mean transport of the North Equatorial Current (NEC), Mindanao Current, and Kuroshio Current in the east of the Philippines, accompanied by a northward shift of the NEC bifurcation Latitude (NBL) off the Philippine coast with over 30% increase in its seasonal south-north migration amplitude. Numerical simulations using a 1.5-layer nonlinear reduced-gravity ocean model show that the projected changes of the upper ocean circulation are predominantly determined by the robust weakening of the north-easterly trade winds and the associated wind stress curl under the El Niño-like warming pattern. The changes in the wind forcing and intensified upper ocean stratification are found equally important in amplifying the seasonal migration of the NBL.

  3. TRMM Based Studies of MJO Convection over the Central Indian Ocean, Maritime Continent, and Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S. A.; Xu, W.

    2014-12-01

    The structure and organization of precipitating cloud populations related to the initiation and evolution of several MJO events have been fully investigated using data collected from the 2011-2012 DYNAMO field campaign over the Central Indian Ocean (CIO). Since DYNMO monitored the MJO behavior for only a few months, it is important to know how the DYNAMO-recorded characteristics compare to the long-term climatology, such as viewed by TRMM satellite measurements. TRMM observations are also capable of providing the regional variability of the convection as the MJO envelope propagates eastward. The objective of this study is to quantify MJO convective characteristics using 15 years of TRMM satellite measurements over three specific regions affected by the MJO including the CIO, Maritime Continent (MC), and Western Pacific (WP). TRMM data are used to quantify not only the precipitating cloud population categorized by radar echo tops and feature size (as have been previously documented), but also their convective intensity, lightning activity, precipitation structures, bulk microphysical properties, and rainfall contributions. Specifically, the radar, ice scattering (microwave), and lightning observations from TRMM are analyzed for the convective spectrum as a function of MJO stage and geographical location. Furthermore, radar characteristics of MJO events based on TRMM PR are quantitatively compared to that of the shipborne radars deployed during TOGA COARE over the WP and DYNAMO over the CIO.

  4. Interaction between Typhoon Vicente (1208) and the western Pacific subtropical high during the Beijing extreme rainfall of 21 July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongren; Xue, Lin; Li, Ying; Wei, Na; Lü, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    The heaviest rainfall in recent six decades fell in Beijing on 21 July 2012, reaching a record of 460 mm within 18 h. This rainfall was a typical remote precipitation event related to Typhoon Vicente (1208). Observational analysis indicates that Vicente influenced distant heavy rainfall by transporting water vapor northward to the Beijing area. This moisture transport was mainly driven by the interaction between Vicente and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) associated with the formation of a low-level southeasterly moisture channel. A set of numerical sensitivity experiments were performed with prescribed typhoons of different intensities to investigate the interaction between Vicente and the WPSH and its effects on this rainstorm process. The results indicate that the WPSH interacting with typhoons of different intensities may exert varying degrees of influence on the development of a southeasterly moisture channel, resulting in a change in rain rate and location over the Beijing area. Specifically, in the presence of an enhanced typhoon, the WPSH shows remarkable withdrawal to the east, which is favorable for a northward extension of the southeasterly moisture channel, thereby increasing moisture supply for the rainstorm. The WPSH tends to stretch westward in a zonal pattern if the typhoon is weakened or removed, hindering the northward extension of the moisture channel. Thus, the rainfall area may be expected to expand or contract, with corresponding increases or decreases in rain rate over the Beijing area with a strengthened or weakened typhoon, respectively.

  5. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, on subtropical Okinawa Island, from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in northern and northeastern China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly winds. The monthly averaged levoglucosan / mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in northern China, Korea and southwestern Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agricultural waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  6. Multiday evolution of convective bursts during western North Pacific tropical cyclone development and nondevelopment using geostationary satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Minhee; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jinwon; Ahn, Myoung-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) develop through latent heating from a series of deep convection. To investigate the evolution of diurnal convective burst (CB) activities prior to TC formation, we analyzed 463 tropical disturbances that developed (80) or not developed (383) into TCs over the western North Pacific during the 2007-2009 period. Geostationary satellite data allowed defining deep convection where infrared (IR) brightness temperature is lower than that of water vapor (WV). Diurnal expansions from time series of IR minus WV mCB) are observed in 67.5% of the 80 TC formation cases and in 13.8% of the 383 nonformation cases. Intensities of the middle-to-low tropospheric relative vorticity of these two groups are comparable on 4 to 5 days prior to TC formation. However, vorticity intensification is weak for nondeveloping disturbances in environments of strong vertical wind shear; these disturbances eventually decay. The vorticity of developing disturbances continuously intensifies to TC strengths. The remaining 32.5% of the TC cases without mCB show weaker initial vorticity, but rapid intensification over 3 day periods before TC formation. The present results reveal that mCB is a common feature in pre-TC stages, and large-scale environments of weak vertical wind shear are critical for the formation of TC-strength circulations.

  7. Modulating Effects of Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies on Sea Surface Temperature Response to Tropical Cyclones Over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanhong; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Cheng, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanic eddies on the temporal and spatial characteristics of sea surface temperature (SST) response to tropical cyclones is investigated in this study based on composite analysis of cyclone-eddy interactions over the western North Pacific. The occurrence times of maximum cooling, recovery time, and spatial patterns of SST response are specially evaluated. The influence of cold-core eddies (CCEs) renders the mean occurrence time of maximum SST cooling to become about half a day longer than that in eddy-free condition, while warm-core eddies (WCEs) have little effect on this facet. The recovery time of SST cooling also takes longer in presence of CCEs, being overall more pronounced for stronger or slower tropical cyclones. The effect of WCEs on the recovery time is again not significant. The modulation of maximum SST decrease by WCEs for category 2-5 storms is found to be remarkable in the subtropical region but not evident in the tropical region, while the role of CCEs is remarkable in both regions. The CCEs are observed to change the spatial characteristics of SST response, with enhanced SST decrease initially at the right side of storm track. During the recovery period the strengthened SST cooling by CCEs propagates leftward gradually, with a feature similar as both the westward-propagating eddies and the recovery of cold wake. These results underscore the importance of resolving mesoscale oceanic eddies in coupled numerical models to improve the prediction of storm-induced SST response.

  8. Barotropic Interactions Between Summertime Tropical Cyclones/Sub-Monthly Wave Patterns and Intraseasonal Oscillations over the Western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Chung Ko Huang-Hsiung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used the barotropic kinetic energy conversion to record the active eddy-mean flow interaction between the TC/sub-monthly wave pattern (TSM and the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO in the western North Pacific (WNP. Overall, the TSM extracted (lost kinetic energy from (to the cyclonic (anticyclonic circulation of the ISO, which is located in the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea, during the ISO westerly (easterly phase. The phase change in barotropic energy conversion was due to the opposite background flow set up by the ISO. When the climatological-mean southwesterly was retained as part of the background flow in both ISO westerly and easterly phases as in previous studies, the ISO along with the low-frequency background flow always provided kinetic energy to the TSM regardless of the phase. The stronger (weaker southwesterly in the ISO westerly (easterly phase, the stronger (weaker energy conversion to the TSM. Climatological mean flow exclusion showed an upscale feedback in the TSM to the ISO during the easterly phase. However, this feedback was weaker than the downscale conversion from the ISO to the TSM during the westerly phase.

  9. Notes on some sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa from the tropical western Pacific, with descriptions of nine new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia R. Galea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three species of sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae, collected from the tropical western Pacific (Taiwan, Philippines, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands during various expeditions of the French Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos program, are discussed. Of these, nine are new to science: Gonaxia nova sp. nov., G. plumularioides sp. nov., Sertularella folliformis sp. nov., Se. plicata sp. nov., Se. pseudocatena sp. nov., Se. splendida sp. nov., Se. tronconica sp. nov., Se. tubulosa sp. nov., and Symplectoscyphus paucicatillus sp. nov. The subspecies Symplectoscyphus johnstoni (Gray, 1843 tropicus Vervoort, 1993 is raised to species but, in order to avoid the secondary homonymy with Sy. tropicus (Hartlaub, 1901, the replacement name, Sy. fasciculatus nom. nov., is introduced. The male and female gonothecae of Diphasia cristata Billard, 1920, the male gonothecae of Gonaxia elegans Vervoort, 1993, as well as the female gonothecae of Salacia macer Vervoort & Watson, 2003, are described for the first time. Additional notes on the morphology of several other species are provided. All taxa are illustrated, in most cases using figures drawn at the same scale, so as to highlight the differences between related species.

  10. Darwin and his Mathematical Inspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    I have been kindly asked by the organizers of the BIOCOMP2007 conference to provide a short sketch of Charles Darwin's contribution to science, and of the role mathematics has played in his discoveries and in subsequent developments. I felt flattered by the invitation but rather unfit to it, since I have no particular expertise in evolutionary theory, and even less in its history; eventually, I decided to accept the invitation, appreciating the opportunity to read some more about Darwin, and the importance of making his contribution better known, at a time where teaching at school the theory of evolution is coming under attack also in Italy (perhaps under American influence). I hope to be able here to give a glimpse of the history of Darwinian thought, and of some current research areas, that will lead some readers towards further reading. There are many excellent books available now about Darwin and Darwinian theory, and my presentation is based on many of them, listed in the Bibliography; I found especially illuminating the book by Gayon Darwinism's Struggle for Survival, a history of theoretical Darwinism illustrating the scientific content, and the philosophical implications, of the debates on evolutionary theory at Darwin's time and up to the "modern synthesis".

  11. The dependence on atmospheric resolution of ENSO and related East Asian-western North Pacific summer climate variability in a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhao, Guijie; Huang, Gang; Wang, Pengfei; Yan, Bangliang

    2017-08-01

    The authors present results for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and East Asian-western North Pacific climate variability simulated in a new version high-resolution coupled model (ICM.V2) developed at the Center for Monsoon System Research of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (CMSR, IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. The analyses are based on the last 100-year output of a 1000-year simulation. Results are compared to an earlier version of the same coupled model (ICM.V1), reanalysis, and observations. The two versions of ICM have similar physics but different atmospheric resolution. The simulated climatological mean states show marked improvement over many regions, especially the tropics in ICM.V2 compared to those in ICM.V1. The common bias in the cold tongue has reduced, and the warm biases along the ocean boundaries have improved as well. With improved simulation of ENSO, including its period and strength, the ENSO-related western North Pacific summer climate variability becomes more realistic compared to the observations. The simulated East Asian summer monsoon anomalies in the El Niño decaying summer are substantially more realistic in ICM.V2, which might be related to a better simulation of the Indo-Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO).

  12. Responding to a measles outbreak in a Pacific island community in western Sydney: community interviews led to church-based immunization clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Scott

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are large Pacific island communities in western and south-western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. In 2011 and 2012, measles outbreaks disproportionally affected children and youth within these communities. The objectives of this study were to explore barriers to immunization in a Pacific island community from the perspectives of community members and health professionals and to conduct a pilot programme whereby immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. Methods: Interviews were conducted with Pacific island community members (N = 12 and health professionals connected with the Pacific island community (N = 7 in 2013. A partnership with a local Samoan church was established to provide an accessible venue for immunization catch-up clinics. Results: Among the community members there were high levels of belief in the importance of immunization and a positive view regarding the protection offered by immunization. A key barrier reported by community members was being busy and therefore having limited time to get children immunized. The important role of the church within the community was emphasized in the interviews, and as a result, two immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. The age range of attendees was 7–33 years. A total of 31 measles, mumps and rubella doses and 19 meningococcal C doses were given during the two clinics. Discussion: The outcomes of the interviews and the subsequent clinics highlighted the potential of churches as a venue for providing public health interventions such as catch-up immunization.

  13. Low-cloud characteristics over the tropical western Pacific from ARM observations and CAM5 simulations: LOW CLOUDS IN ARM OBSERVATIONS AND CAM5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Arunchandra S. [Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami Florida USA; Zhang, Chidong [Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami Florida USA; Klein, Stephen A. [Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California USA; Ma, Hsi-Yen [Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California USA

    2015-09-10

    This study evaluates the ability of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) to reproduce low clouds observed by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) cloud radar at Manus Island of the tropical western Pacific during the Years of Tropical Convection. Here low clouds are defined as clouds with their tops below the freezing level and bases within the boundary layer. Low-cloud statistics in CAM5 simulations and ARM observations are compared in terms of their general occurrence, mean vertical profiles, fraction of precipitating versus nonprecipitating events, diurnal cycle, and monthly time series. Other types of clouds are included to put the comparison in a broader context. The comparison shows that the model overproduces total clouds and their precipitation fraction but underestimates low clouds in general. The model, however, produces excessive low clouds in a thin layer between 954 and 930 hPa, which coincides with excessive humidity near the top of the mixed layer. This suggests that the erroneously excessive low clouds stem from parameterization of both cloud and turbulence mixing. The model also fails to produce the observed diurnal cycle in low clouds, not exclusively due to the model coarse grid spacing that does not resolve Manus Island. This study demonstrates the utility of ARM long-term cloud observations in the tropical western Pacific in verifying low clouds simulated by global climate models, illustrates issues of using ARM observations in model validation, and provides an example of severe model biases in producing observed low clouds in the tropical western Pacific.

  14. Spatial and temporal variabilities of spring Asian dust events and their impacts on chlorophyll-a concentrations in the western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Joo-Eun; Kim, Kitae; Macdonald, Alison M.; Park, Ki-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Yoo, Kyu-Cheul; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yang, Eun Jin; Jung, Jinyoung; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Jiyoung; Choi, Tae-Jun; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Il-Nam

    2017-02-01

    As the western North Pacific Ocean is located downwind of the source regions for spring Asian dust, it is an ideal location for determining the response of open waters to these events. Spatial analysis of spring Asian dust events from source regions to the western North Pacific, using long-term daily aerosol index data, revealed three different transport pathways supported by the westerly wind system: one passing across the northern East/Japan Sea (40°N-50°N), a second moving over the entire East/Japan Sea (35°N-55°N), and a third flowing predominantly over the Siberian continent (>50°N). Our results indicate that strong spring Asian dust events can increase ocean primary productivity by more than 70% (>2-fold increase in chlorophyll-a concentrations) compared to weak/nondust conditions. Therefore, attention should be paid to the recent downturn in the number of spring Asian dust events and to the response of primary production in the western North Pacific to this change.

  15. Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. and Phelliactis yapensis n. sp., two new deep-sea species of Hormathiidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-02-02

    Two new species of hormathiid actiniarians, Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. and Phelliactis yapensis n. sp., are described from a seamount near the Yap Trench in the tropical Western Pacific. Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. has a thick cuticle, a tuberculated column divisible into scapus and scapulus, a complete fifth cycle of mesenteries, an equal number of mesenteries at the margin and at the limbus, and up to 192 tentacles without aboral mesogloeal thickenings that are hexamerously arranged in six cycles. This species differs distinctly from the three known species of Paraphelliactis by the above mentioned features (vs. an incomplete fifth cycle of mesenteries, usually more mesenteries at the margin than at the limbus, and the tentacles with aboral mesogloeal thickenings). So far, it is the only member of the genus Paraphelliactis found in the Western Pacific. Phelliactis yapensis n. sp. has an asymmetric bilobed oral disc and column, tuberculated scapus and scapulus, an incomplete fifth cycle of mesenteries, and up to 162 tentacles with aboral mesogloeal thickenings that are alternately arranged in two cycles. In comparison with other Phelliactis species, the basitrichs of mesenterial filaments of Ph. yapensis are distinctly larger. Phelliactis yapensis n. sp. is the fourth species of Phelliactis found in the Western Pacific.

  16. Shrimp Trap Report data collected by NOAA research vessel Townsend Cromwell from 1980 to 1989 in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean and chartered fishing vessel Pesquedot in 1984 in waters off Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shrimp trapping operations were conducted by NOAA research vessel Townsend Cromwell from 1980 to 1989 in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean to determine...

  17. Wind-Evaporation-Sea Surface Temperature feedback in the western Pacific warm pool during mature phase of 1997-98 El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, I.

    2010-12-01

    The 1997-98 El Niño was one of the strongest events on record, and contains significant interests, such as rapid onset and sudden demise (McPhaden et al., 1999; Wang and Weisberg, 2000; Picaut et al. 2002). These characters were captured by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) observing system, consisting of satellite and in situ measurements. The evolution of the 1997-98 El Niño has been demonstrated from various points of view over the past decade. For the unusual termination, key features were (i) the southward shift of near-date-line surface zonal wind anomalies beginning November 1997, (ii) the disappearance of the easterly from eastern equatorial Pacific in February 1998, and (iii) the reappearance of easterly in the eastern equatorial Pacific in May 1998. For these features, the role of equatorial oceanic wave processes (McPhaden and Yu, 1999; Picaut et al. 2002), effect of intraseasonal wind forcing (Takayabu, 1999), and oceanic response to changes to meridional structure of the near equatorial zonal wind (Vecchi and Harrison, 2006; Vecchi 2006) have been confirmed. Vecchi and Harrison (2006) and Vecchi (2006) proposed consistent demonstration including the equatorial oceanic wave processes and ocean response to unusual wind pattern determined by sea surface temperature (SST) fields in the tropical ocean. Although Vecchi and Harrison (2006) and Vecchi (2006) concentrated wind and SST fields especially from central to eastern equatorial Pacific, these fields in western Pacific warm pool also showed unusual air-sea interaction during mature phase of 1997-98 El Niño. The focus of this study is to describe anomalous SST and wind distribution in the western Pacific warm pool, and to examine possible mechanism of air-sea interaction. During mature phase of 1997-98 El Niño (DJF), high SST region in the central equatorial Pacific is expanded to southward, and anomalous low SST region is appeared off Mindanao, which make large meridional contrast against high

  18. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael Otwoma

    Full Text Available The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA. A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1 Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani and (2 the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03. The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13 in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P < 0.001 suggests that Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1 WIO (2 Eastern Indian Ocean (3 IMPA and (4 Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  19. Response of Spring Diatoms to CO2 Availability in the Western North Pacific as Determined by Next-Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled us to determine phytoplankton community compositions at high resolution. However, few studies have adopted this approach to assess the responses of natural phytoplankton communities to environmental change. Here, we report the impact of different CO2 levels on spring diatoms in the Oyashio region of the western North Pacific as estimated by NGS of the diatom-specific rbcL gene (DNA), which encodes the large subunit of RubisCO. We also examined the abundance and composition of rbcL transcripts (cDNA) in diatoms to assess their physiological responses to changing CO2 levels. A short-term (3-day) incubation experiment was carried out on-deck using surface Oyashio waters under different pCO2 levels (180, 350, 750, and 1000 μatm) in May 2011. During the incubation, the transcript abundance of the diatom-specific rbcL gene decreased with an increase in seawater pCO2 levels. These results suggest that CO2 fixation capacity of diatoms decreased rapidly under elevated CO2 levels. In the high CO2 treatments (750 and 1000 μatm), diversity of diatom-specific rbcL gene and its transcripts decreased relative to the control treatment (350 μatm), as well as contributions of Chaetocerataceae, Thalassiosiraceae, and Fragilariaceae to the total population, but the contributions of Bacillariaceae increased. In the low CO2 treatment, contributions of Bacillariaceae also increased together with other eukaryotes. These suggest that changes in CO2 levels can alter the community composition of spring diatoms in the Oyashio region. Overall, the NGS technology provided us a deeper understanding of the response of diatoms to changes in CO2 levels in terms of their community composition, diversity, and photosynthetic physiology. PMID:27124280

  20. Physical Fighting and Associated Factors among Adolescents Aged 13–15 Years in Six Western Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth violence is an important public health challenge around the world, yet the literature on this problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs has been limited. The present study aims to examine the prevalence of adolescent physical fighting (defined as having been involved in at least one physical fight during the past 12 months in selected LMICs, and its relations with potential risk factors. We included 6377 school-going adolescents aged 13–15 years from six Western Pacific (WP countries that had recently conducted a Global School-based Student Health Survey. Information was gathered through a self-administered anonymous closed-ended questionnaire. The prevalence of adolescent physical fighting varied across countries, ranging from 34.5% in Kiribati to 63.3% in Samoa. The prevalence was higher in boys than in girls, and lower at age 15 than 13–14 years. Physical fighting was significantly associated (pooled odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence intervals (CIs with smoking (1.78, 1.53–2.06, drinking (1.57, 1.33–1.85, drug use (1.72, 1.33–2.23, and missing school (1.72, 1.51–1.95. The association with physical fighting increased with increasing number of joint adverse behaviors (increased from 1.99 (1.73–2.29 for one risk behavior to 4.95 (4.03–6.07 for at least 3 risk behaviors, versus having none of the 4 risk behaviors. The high prevalence of physical fighting and the associations with risk behaviors emphasize the need for comprehensive prevention programs to reduce youth violence and associated risk behaviors.

  1. Probabilistic versus deterministic skill in predicting the western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability with multimodel ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Qun; Yang, Dejian; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Yaocun; Ren, Xuejuan; Tang, Youmin

    2017-04-01

    Based on historical forecasts of three quasi-operational multi-model ensemble (MME) systems, this study assesses the superiority of coupled MME over contributing single-model ensembles (SMEs) and over uncoupled atmospheric MME in predicting the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability. The probabilistic and deterministic forecast skills are measured by Brier skill score (BSS) and anomaly correlation (AC), respectively. A forecast-format dependent MME superiority over SMEs is found. The probabilistic forecast skill of the MME is always significantly better than that of each SME, while the deterministic forecast skill of the MME can be lower than that of some SMEs. The MME superiority arises from both the model diversity and the ensemble size increase in the tropics, and primarily from the ensemble size increase in the subtropics. The BSS is composed of reliability and resolution, two attributes characterizing probabilistic forecast skill. The probabilistic skill increase of the MME is dominated by the dramatic improvement in reliability, while resolution is not always improved, similar to AC. A monotonic resolution-AC relationship is further found and qualitatively explained, whereas little relationship can be identified between reliability and AC. It is argued that the MME's success in improving the reliability arises from an effective reduction of the overconfidence in forecast distributions. Moreover, it is examined that the seasonal predictions with coupled MME are more skillful than those with the uncoupled atmospheric MME forced by persisting sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, since the coupled MME has better predicted the SST anomaly evolution in three key regions.

  2. Tropospheric dry layers in the tropical western Pacific: comparisons of GPS radio occultation with multiple data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckh, Therese; Anthes, Richard; Randel, William; Ho, Shu-Peng; Foelsche, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    We use GPS radio occultation (RO) data to investigate the structure and temporal behavior of extremely dry, high-ozone tropospheric air in the tropical western Pacific during the 6-week period of the CONTRAST (CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics) experiment (January and February 2014). Our analyses are aimed at testing whether the RO method is capable of detecting these extremely dry layers and evaluating comparisons with in situ measurements, satellite observations, and model analyses. We use multiple data sources as comparisons, including CONTRAST research aircraft profiles, radiosonde profiles, AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) satellite retrievals, and profiles extracted from the ERA (ERA-Interim reanalysis) and the GFS (US National Weather Service Global Forecast System) analyses, as well as text">MTSAT-2 satellite images. The independent and complementary radiosonde, aircraft, and RO data provide high vertical resolution observations of the dry layers. However, they all have limitations. The coverage of the radiosonde data is limited by having only a single station in this oceanic region; the aircraft data are limited in their temporal and spatial coverage; and the RO data are limited in their number and horizontal resolution over this period. However, nearby observations from the three types of data are highly consistent with each other and with the lower-vertical-resolution AIRS profiles. They are also consistent with the ERA and GFS data. We show that the RO data, used here for the first time to study this phenomenon, contribute significant information on the water vapor content and are capable of detecting layers in the tropics and subtropics with extremely low humidity (less than 10 %), independent of the retrieval used to extract moisture information. Our results also verify the quality of the ERA and GFS data sets, giving confidence to the reanalyses and their use in diagnosing the full four-dimensional structure of the dry layers.

  3. Annual Net Community Production in the Western Subtropical North Pacific Determined from Argo-O2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Emerson, S. R.; Bushinsky, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to depth (the biological pump) helps maintain the pCO2 of the atmosphere and the O2 content of the oxygen minimum zones of the ocean. In the upper ocean, at steady state over a seasonal cycle the net organic carbon export is equal to the Annual Net Community Production (ANCP). The geographic distribution of this quantity determined by satellite-predicted Net Primary Production (NPP) and the recycling efficiency in the euphotic zone is more heterogeneous than the limited experimental estimates of ANCP. We evaluate the relationship between these two estimates of ANCP in the subtropical Western North Pacific Ocean ( 165o E and 20o N) using oxygen measurements on Argo Floats. In January of 2015 we deployed four floats with Anderaa oxygen sensors attached to a 60 cm stick on top of the float end cap, which can be readily calibrated against atmospheric pO2. We present data from these floats and air-sea oxygen flux calculations. The degree of oxygen supersaturation in summer is 1-2 percent, and in winter it fluctuates between being over and undersaturated. Evaluating the role of bubbles in winter is critical to an accurate determination of the annual flux. While there is not a full year of data at the time of writing this abstract, there will be when the Ocean Science meeting is held. So far, after nine months of measurements, there is a net flux of oxygen to the atmosphere, indicating that photosynthesis exceeds respiration. In February we will present a full annual cycle of air-sea oxygen flux and an estimate of ANCP in this very rarely studied region of the ocean.

  4. Maximum wind radius estimated by the 50 kt radius: improvement of storm surge forecasting over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    Even though the maximum wind radius (Rmax) is an important parameter in determining the intensity and size of tropical cyclones, it has been overlooked in previous storm surge studies. This study reviews the existing estimation methods for Rmax based on central pressure or maximum wind speed. These over- or underestimate Rmax because of substantial variations in the data, although an average radius can be estimated with moderate accuracy. As an alternative, we propose an Rmax estimation method based on the radius of the 50 kt wind (R50). Data obtained by a meteorological station network in the Japanese archipelago during the passage of strong typhoons, together with the JMA typhoon best track data for 1990-2013, enabled us to derive the following simple equation, Rmax = 0.23 R50. Application to a recent strong typhoon, the 2015 Typhoon Goni, confirms that the equation provides a good estimation of Rmax, particularly when the central pressure became considerably low. Although this new method substantially improves the estimation of Rmax compared to the existing models, estimation errors are unavoidable because of fundamental uncertainties regarding the typhoon's structure or insufficient number of available typhoon data. In fact, a numerical simulation for the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan as well as 2015 Typhoon Goni demonstrates a substantial difference in the storm surge height for different Rmax. Therefore, the variability of Rmax should be taken into account in storm surge simulations (e.g., Rmax = 0.15 R50-0.35 R50), independently of the model used, to minimize the risk of over- or underestimating storm surges. The proposed method is expected to increase the predictability of major storm surges and to contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in the western North Pacific, including countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

  5. Response of Spring Diatoms to CO2 Availability in the Western North Pacific as Determined by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Endo

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have enabled us to determine phytoplankton community compositions at high resolution. However, few studies have adopted this approach to assess the responses of natural phytoplankton communities to environmental change. Here, we report the impact of different CO2 levels on spring diatoms in the Oyashio region of the western North Pacific as estimated by NGS of the diatom-specific rbcL gene (DNA, which encodes the large subunit of RubisCO. We also examined the abundance and composition of rbcL transcripts (cDNA in diatoms to assess their physiological responses to changing CO2 levels. A short-term (3-day incubation experiment was carried out on-deck using surface Oyashio waters under different pCO2 levels (180, 350, 750, and 1000 μatm in May 2011. During the incubation, the transcript abundance of the diatom-specific rbcL gene decreased with an increase in seawater pCO2 levels. These results suggest that CO2 fixation capacity of diatoms decreased rapidly under elevated CO2 levels. In the high CO2 treatments (750 and 1000 μatm, diversity of diatom-specific rbcL gene and its transcripts decreased relative to the control treatment (350 μatm, as well as contributions of Chaetocerataceae, Thalassiosiraceae, and Fragilariaceae to the total population, but the contributions of Bacillariaceae increased. In the low CO2 treatment, contributions of Bacillariaceae also increased together with other eukaryotes. These suggest that changes in CO2 levels can alter the community composition of spring diatoms in the Oyashio region. Overall, the NGS technology provided us a deeper understanding of the response of diatoms to changes in CO2 levels in terms of their community composition, diversity, and photosynthetic physiology.

  6. Trophic position increases with thermocline depth in yellowfin and bigeye tuna across the Western and Central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssard, Patrick; Lorrain, Anne; Tremblay-Boyer, Laura; Allain, Valérie; Graham, Brittany S.; Menkes, Christophe E.; Pethybridge, Heidi; Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Point, David; Leroy, Bruno; Receveur, Aurore; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Vourey, Elodie; Bonnet, Sophie; Rodier, Martine; Raimbault, Patrick; Feunteun, Eric; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Lebreton, Benoit; Otake, Tsuguo; Letourneur, Yves

    2017-05-01

    Estimates of trophic position are used to validate ecosystem models and understand food web structure. A consumer's trophic position can be estimated by the stable nitrogen isotope values (δ15N) of its tissue, once the baseline isotopic variability has been accounted for. Our study established the first data-driven baseline δ15N isoscape for the Western and Central Pacific Ocean using particulate organic matter. Bulk δ15N analysis on 1039 muscle tissue of bigeye and yellowfin tuna were conducted together with amino acid compound-specific δ15N analysis (AA-CSIA) on a subset of 21 samples. Both particulate organic matter and tuna bulk δ15N values varied by more than 10‰ across the study area. Fine-scaled trophic position maps were constructed and revealed higher tuna trophic position (by ∼1) in the southern latitudes compared to the equator. AA-CSIA confirmed these spatial patterns for bigeye and, to a lesser extent, yellowfin tuna. Using generalized additive models, spatial variations of tuna trophic positions were mainly related to the depth of the 20°C isotherm, a proxy for the thermocline behavior, with higher tuna trophic position estimates at greater thermocline depths. We hypothesized that a deeper thermocline would increase tuna vertical habitat and access to mesopelagic prey of higher trophic position. Archival tagging data further suggested that the vertical habitat of bigeye tuna was deeper in the southern latitudes than at the equator. These results suggest the importance of thermocline depth in influencing tropical tuna diet, which affects their vulnerability to fisheries, and may be altered by climate change.

  7. Long-term ecosystem change in the western North Pacific inferred from commercial fisheries and top predator diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezaki, Shiroh; Kiyota, Masashi; Okamura, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the current status of marine ecosystems is necessary for the sustainable utilization of ecosystem services through fisheries and other human activities under changing environmental conditions. Understanding of historical changes in marine ecosystems can help us to assess their current status. In this study, we analyzed Japanese commercial fishery catch data and scientific survey data of the diet of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus, NFS) to investigate potential long-term ecosystem changes in the western North Pacific Ocean off northeastern Japan over the past 60 years. Total commercial catches experienced peaks around 1960 and during the 1980s, decreasing to low levels around 1970 and after 1990. Catches were substantively impacted by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in 2011. Species composition of the commercial catch changed over time, resulting in changes in the mean trophic level (MTL) of the catches. Trends in observed commercial catches were affected by many factors, including species population fluctuations potentially related to large-scale environmental shifts, migration and distribution patterns of species related to local oceanography, changes in fishing technology, and the introduction of fishery management frameworks. The composition of NFS diet also changed over time: although overall changes were small, MTL derived from NFS stomach contents declined from the early 1970s to the late 1980s. This fall in the MTL of the diet of NFS is suggestive of a shift in pelagic fish fauna from a "mackerel-dominant regime" to a "sardine-dominant regime". Inconsistencies between changes in species composition and MTLs of the commercial catch and NFS diet resulted from differences in commercial fishing targeting and NFS foraging behavior strategies. Although commercial catch is a valuable source of information for investigating historical changes in fisheries, biological resources, and ecosystems, catch data should be interpreted carefully and

  8. Controlling effects of mesoscale eddies on thermohaline structure and in situ chlorophyll distribution in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Zhenyan; Zhang, Kainan

    2017-11-01

    Based on the conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) data collected at 93 hydrographic stations during a marine cruise and on contemporary satellite altimeter observations, a series of eddies have been observed passing over the stratified upper water of the Parece Vela Basin. The results from hydrographic measurements and in situ chlorophyll fluorescence measurements have revealed that these eddies exerted significant controlling effects on the thermohaline structure and chlorophyll distribution, especially on the prevalent subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCML). Based on these observations and particulate beam attenuation coefficient (cp) data, the in situ phytoplankton bloom around the pycnocline can be largely attributable to the formation of a well-developed SCML in the studied system. The uplift of the cold subsurface water within the cyclone, shoaling the pycnocline to a shallower layer, resulted in a low-temperature anomaly and different salinity anomalies at different depths. This uplift in the cyclone further caused the SCML to appear at a shallower depth with a higher in situ chlorophyll concentration than that in the normal domain. Conversely, the sinking of the warm surface water to the subsurface layer within the anticyclone depressed the pycnocline to a deeper layer and generated a high-temperature anomaly and opposite salinity anomalies compared with the cyclone. The sinking of the pycnocline within the anticyclone considerably influenced the characteristics of the SCML, which had a deeper depth and a lower in situ chlorophyll concentration than that of the normal sea. This study contributes rare quasi-synchronous CTD observations capturing mesoscale eddies and provides valuable descriptions of the variations in the SCML under the influence of mesoscale eddies based on in situ optical measurements from the seldom-discussed western North Pacific.

  9. Clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing in the Western Pacific Region based on the FIP Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2015-06-01

    Clinical pharmacy services have been associated with decreased mortality rates, length of stay, medication errors, adverse drug reactions and total cost of care. Such services have recently been introduced to the Western Pacific Region (WPR), particularly in Asia. A survey to measure clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing has been validated in the WPR and can be used to explore the implementation of such services. To explore the implementation of clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing in the WPR and the barriers and facilitators involved in their implementation. Hospital pharmacies in the WPR. Hospital pharmacy directors in the WPR were emailed a link to the validated survey. Surveys were available in English, Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Lao, Khmer, French and Mongolian. (1) Percentage of hospitals offering clinical pharmacy services. (2) Percentage of in-patients receiving a medication history, review or discharge counselling by a pharmacist. In total, 726 responses were received from 31 countries and nations. Nearly all hospitals, 90.6 % (658/726), stated they provided clinical pharmacy services. On average 28 % of their clinical pharmacists attended medical rounds regularly. The median percentage of inpatients receiving a medication history and discharge counselling by a pharmacist was 40 and 30 % respectively. Higher internal facilitator factor scores significantly increased the likelihood of offering clinical services and having pharmacists attend medical rounds regularly. Internal facilitators included individual pharmacist traits and pharmacy departmental structure/resources. Higher environmental facilitator factor scores and having a higher percentage of pharmacists attend medical rounds regularly significantly increased the likelihood of inpatients receiving a medication history, a medication review and discharge counselling by a pharmacist. Environment facilitators included government support, patient and physician

  10. The Modulation and Decadal Change of Madden-Julian Oscillation on Tropical Cyclone in the Western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the climatological relationship between the Modden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and Tropical Cyclone (TC) activity in the Western North Pacific (WNP) and its decadal variability. Based on the knowledge of the modulation of MJO on TC in WNP, a set of data including the RMM(Real-time Multivariate MJO)index from RMRC(bureau of meteorology)of the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research,the best tracks from the Navy Joint Typhoon Warming Center(JTWC),daily data of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis were used.The result shows that TC frequency in WNP exhibited a statistically significant decrease during the period of 1998-2010, comparing to the period of 1979-1997.The decrease on TC frequency in WNP mainly occured during MJO active phases 4,5,6,and 7. In further investigation on comparison of cycle days of MJO, duration of MJO active phases (4,5,6,and 7),low-frequency wind at 850hPa, large-scale convection circulation and vatiability of Surface Sea Temperatures (SST) and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) in MJO active phases between 1979-1997 and 1998-2010, we found that: during 1998-2010,cycle days of MJO and duration of MJO active phases exhibited a significant decrease; low-frequency wind at 850hPa showed an eastern-wind transition; convective areas in MJO active phases decreased and anormaly of its SST were more negative. These may be reasons of difference of TC frequency in the period of 1979-1997 and 1998-2010.

  11. Growth and survival of pacific coho salmon smolts exposed as juveniles to pesticides within urban streams in western Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams, with concentrations often exceeding those reported in surface waters within agricultural areas. The authors studied growth, survival, and return rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts exposed to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of the pesticides most frequently reported within urban streams in western Washington State, USA, in fall through early spring. Exposure concentrations were selected to represent a reasonable worst-case scenario based on field monitoring data. Smolts were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail either from fertilization through swim-up (2007-2008) or from fertilization through smoltification (2007-2008 and 2008-2009), coded wire tagged, and released in 2008 and 2009. Pre-release endpoints (growth, survival, sex ratio, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, and gonado- and hepatosomatic indices) were not affected. However, the number of returning adults exposed to the cocktail to swim-up (0.90%, n = 42) was more than double that of unexposed controls (0.38%, n = 26) in 2008, whereas in 2009, fish exposed through smoltification returned in lower numbers (0.15%, n = 18) than controls (0.37%, n = 30). Variability in return rates among treatments between years was comparable to that observed in previous whole life cycle studies with Pacific salmon and other contaminants. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides in urban streams does not directly impair early life stages of coho salmon, and that additional studies incorporating releases of larger numbers of smolts across several years are necessary to adequately quantify effects on return rates. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Interdecadal variation of tropical cyclone genesis and its relationship to the monsoon trough over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jingliang; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wen

    2017-04-01

    This study reexamines the recent interdecadal shift in tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the late 1990s. An interdecadal decrease in the frequency of the WNP TC genesis was observed during 1998-2013 compared to the period of 1979-1997. The spatial distribution of the interdecadal decrease of the WNP TC genesis running northwest-southeast, consistent with the monsoon trough (MT) zone. The results imply that the WNP genesis may be closely related to the MT on the interdecadal timescale. After the late 1990s, the intensity of the WNP MT becomes weaker and it extends more westward, thereby providing an unfavorable condition for the TC genesis. Through a diagnosis of the energetics, we suggested that the barotropic energy conversion in the eastern part of the WNP MT tends to be weakened in the late 1990s, hence less energy to support the WNP TC genesis. Both the meridional shear and the convergence of the mean zonal winds over the eastern WNP MT have an important impact on the conversion from mean kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy, which can be considered as the atmospheric cause of the interdecadal decrease of TC genesis. Additionally, the tropical depression (TD)-type waves associated with the WNP MT are significantly different before and after the late 1990s. Before the late 1990s, the off-equatorial TD-type waves could be distinctly observed, with clear transitions along the WNP MT. However, these transitions were vague after the late 1990s.

  13. Reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in Southern Kurils (North-Western Pacific) based on palaeolake sediment proxies from Shikotan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Grebennikova, Tatiana A.; Razjigaeva, Nadezhda G.; Ganzey, Larisa A.; Belyanina, Nina I.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Kaistrenko, Victor M.; Gorbunov, Aleksey O.; Kharlamov, Andrey A.; Rudaya, Natalia; Palagushkina, Olga; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    We investigated a well-dated sediment section of a palaeolake situated in the coastal zone of Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurils) for organic sediment-geochemistry and biotic components (diatoms, chironomids, pollen) in order to provide a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes and palaeo-events (tsunamis, sea-level fluctuations and landslides) in Holocene. During the ca 8000 years of sedimentation the changes in organic sediment-geochemistry and in composition of the diatoms and chironomids as well as the shifts in composition of terrestrial vegetation suggest that the period until ca 5800 cal yr BP was characterized by a warm and humid climate (corresponds to middle Holocene optimum) with climate cooling thereafter. A warm period reconstructed from ca 900 to at least ca 580 cal yr BP corresponds to a transition to a Nara-Heian-Kamakura warm stage and can be correlated to a Medieval Warm Period. After 580 cal yr PB, the lake gradually dried out and climatic signals could not be obtained from the declining lacustrine biological communities, but the increasing role of spruce and disappearance of the oak from the vegetation give evidences of the climate cooling that can be correlated with the LIA. The marine regression stages at the investigated site are identified for ca 6200-5900 (at the end of the middle Holocene transgression), ca 5500-5100 (Middle Jomon regression or Kemigawa regression), and ca 1070-360 cal yr BP (at the end of Heian transgression). The lithological structure of sediments and the diatom compositions give evidences for the multiple tsunami events of different strengths in the Island. Most remarkable of them can be dated at around ca 7000, 6460, 5750, 4800, 950 cal yr BP. The new results help to understand the Holocene environmental history of the Southern Kurils as a part of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems in the North-Western Pacific region.

  14. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  15. Potential use of a regional climate model in seasonal tropical cyclone activity predictions in the western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au-Yeung, Andie Y.M.; Chan, Johnny C.L. [City University of Hong Kong, Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre, School of Energy and Environment, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    This study investigates the potential use of a regional climate model in forecasting seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity. A modified version of Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) is used to examine the ability of the model to simulate TC genesis and landfalling TC tracks for the active TC season in the western North Pacific. In the model, a TC is identified as a vortex satisfying several conditions, including local maximum relative vorticity at 850 hPa with a value {>=}450 x 10{sup -6} s{sup -1}, and the temperature at 300 hPa being 1 C higher than the average temperature within 15 latitude radius from the TC center. Tracks are traced by following these found vortices. Six-month ensemble (8 members each) simulations are performed for each year from 1982 to 2001 so that the climatology of the model can be compared to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) observed best-track dataset. The 20-year ensemble experiments show that the RegCM3 can be used to simulate vortices with a wind structure and temperature profile similar to those of real TCs. The model also reproduces tracks very similar to those observed with features like genesis in the tropics, recurvature at higher latitudes and landfall/decay. The similarity of the 500-hPa geopotential height patterns between RegCM3 and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40 Year Re-analysis (ERA-40) shows that the model can simulate the subtropical high to a large extent. The simulated climatological monthly spatial distributions as well as the interannual variability of TC occurrence are also similar to the JTWC data. These results imply the possibility of producing seasonal forecasts of tropical cyclones using real-time global climate model predictions as boundary conditions for the RegCM3. (orig.)

  16. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC, the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO. This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2. Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels" can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  17. On the Upper Ocean Thermal Structure in a Western North Pacific Ocean Model: Model Evaluation and Sensitivity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mien-Tze Kueh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the upper water column of the western North Pacific are simulated with the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS. The model is driven by surface fluxes of heat, momentum and freshwater without prescribing sea surface temperature or salinity. A series of numerical experiments are conducted to explore the sensitivity of the upper ocean thermal structure to the parameterized solar penetration scheme and two common practices to control model climate through a flux correction term and a nudging term. The absorption of solar radiation by the water column beneath the sea surface destabilizes the upper layers to cause a stronger mixing and deeper mixed layer in the warm season (from April to September. Therefore, removing solar penetration from the model results in an exceptionally stable surface layer, and tends to produce an overly shallow mixed layer in the warm season. The experiment with a prescribed net surface heat flux shows that the model is unable to maintain a heat balance in the upper water column, producing a cooling trend. Experiments with a flux correction term are able to keep the simulated sea surface temperature (SST from a long term drift by adjusting the amount of the net surface heat flux. However, unrealistic net surface heat flux is produced in the experiment, when the model assumes no solar penetration. The implementation of a weak temperature nudging (1/50 days toward a long term mean climatology prevents the model from simulating a cold bias during long term integration. The experiment with solar penetration and a weak nudging produces reasonable interannual variability during the period of 1995 - 2006 without flux corrections. The nudging terms steer advective heat fluxes towards the climatological mean state so as to avoid long-term drift in upper water column heat content. A detailed understanding of the function of nudging terms in controlling the hydrodynamics of the water column remains to be

  18. Oxygenated volatile organic carbon in the western Pacific convective center: ocean cycling, air-sea gas exchange and atmospheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlundt, Cathleen; Tegtmeier, Susann; Lennartz, Sinikka T.; Bracher, Astrid; Cheah, Wee; Krüger, Kirstin; Quack, Birgit; Marandino, Christa A.

    2017-09-01

    A suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs - acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal and butanone) were measured concurrently in the surface water and atmosphere of the South China Sea and Sulu Sea in November 2011. A strong correlation was observed between all OVOC concentrations in the surface seawater along the entire cruise track, except for acetaldehyde, suggesting similar sources and sinks in the surface ocean. Additionally, several phytoplankton groups, such as haptophytes or pelagophytes, were also correlated to all OVOCs, indicating that phytoplankton may be an important source of marine OVOCs in the South China and Sulu seas. Humic- and protein-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) components seemed to be additional precursors for butanone and acetaldehyde. The measurement-inferred OVOC fluxes generally showed an uptake of atmospheric OVOCs by the ocean for all gases, except for butanal. A few important exceptions were found along the Borneo coast, where OVOC fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere were inferred. The atmospheric OVOC mixing ratios over the northern coast of Borneo were relatively high compared with literature values, suggesting that this coastal region is a local hotspot for atmospheric OVOCs. The calculated amount of OVOCs entrained into the ocean seemed to be an important source of OVOCs to the surface ocean. When the fluxes were out of the ocean, marine OVOCs were found to be enough to control the locally measured OVOC distribution in the atmosphere. Based on our model calculations, at least 0.4 ppb of marine-derived acetone and butanone can reach the upper troposphere, where they may have an important influence on hydrogen oxide radical formation over the western Pacific Ocean.

  19. Oxygenated volatile organic carbon in the western Pacific convective center: ocean cycling, air–sea gas exchange and atmospheric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlundt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs – acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal and butanone were measured concurrently in the surface water and atmosphere of the South China Sea and Sulu Sea in November 2011. A strong correlation was observed between all OVOC concentrations in the surface seawater along the entire cruise track, except for acetaldehyde, suggesting similar sources and sinks in the surface ocean. Additionally, several phytoplankton groups, such as haptophytes or pelagophytes, were also correlated to all OVOCs, indicating that phytoplankton may be an important source of marine OVOCs in the South China and Sulu seas. Humic- and protein-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM components seemed to be additional precursors for butanone and acetaldehyde. The measurement-inferred OVOC fluxes generally showed an uptake of atmospheric OVOCs by the ocean for all gases, except for butanal. A few important exceptions were found along the Borneo coast, where OVOC fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere were inferred. The atmospheric OVOC mixing ratios over the northern coast of Borneo were relatively high compared with literature values, suggesting that this coastal region is a local hotspot for atmospheric OVOCs. The calculated amount of OVOCs entrained into the ocean seemed to be an important source of OVOCs to the surface ocean. When the fluxes were out of the ocean, marine OVOCs were found to be enough to control the locally measured OVOC distribution in the atmosphere. Based on our model calculations, at least 0.4 ppb of marine-derived acetone and butanone can reach the upper troposphere, where they may have an important influence on hydrogen oxide radical formation over the western Pacific Ocean.

  20. Latitudinal distributions of organic nitrogen and organic carbon in marine biologically influenced aerosols over the western North Pacific in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Jung, J.; Furutani, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Latitudinal distributions of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC) as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC) were measured in marine aerosols collected in the western North Pacific in summer 2008. Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and diethylammonium (DEA+) at 40-44N and subtropical regions (10-20N), together with averaged satellite chlorophyll a data and five-day back trajectory, suggest significant influences of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. In the marine biologically influenced aerosols, ON exhibited increased concentrations up to 260 ngN m-3. We found that water-insoluble organic nitrogen (WION) was the most abundant N in the marine aerosols, which accounted for 67±15% of total aerosol N. In particular, the average WION/ON ratio was as high as 0.93±0.07 at 40-44N. These results suggest that marine biological sources significantly contributed to ON, a majority of which is composed of water-insoluble fractions in the study region. The stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) showed higher values (from -22‰ to -20‰) when ON/OC ratios increased from 0.15 to 0.35. The results clearly show an enrichment of nitrogen in organic aerosols originated from the oceanic region with high biological productivity and indicate preferential transfer of nitrogen-containing compounds from the sea surface to marine atmosphere. Furthermore, both WION concentrations and WION/WIOC ratios showed positive correlations with local wind speeds, suggesting that ON contributes significantly as a nutrient-affiliated element to primary marine organic aerosols over the study region. We will discuss possible chemical properties of WION including proteins and gel-like particles, and potential processes for primary and secondary production of aerosol ON.

  1. Galapagos: Darwin, evolution, and ENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Charles D

    2009-10-01

    This year is especially important in the history of the theory of evolution; 2009 is the bicentennial anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the sesquicentennial anniversary of his publication, The Origin of Species. Darwin visited the Galapagos Islands as a young man, which greatly influenced his thinking. My son Jim and I had the good fortune to visit these islands in January 2009 and see firsthand what led Darwin to arrive at his monumental insights into the origins of life on this planet. I have described my observations and related some of this experience to the ear, nose, and throat, albeit with whimsy in several instances. Nonetheless, some of the adaptations in the animals on these unique islands may have bearing on my hypotheses related to the incidence and pathogenesis of otitis media in humans. It is hoped the reader will share my enthusiasm for the experience we had on these fantastic islands and tour them in the future.

  2. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  3. 78 FR 18302 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; 5-Year Extension of Moratorium on Harvest of Gold Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Pacific; 5-Year Extension of Moratorium on Harvest of Gold Corals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... of gold corals in the U.S. Pacific Islands through June 30, 2018. NMFS intends this proposed rule to prevent overfishing and to stimulate research on gold corals. DATES: Comments must be received by April 25...

  4. Darwin en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Con motivo de la gentil designación de la Junta Directiva de la Academia a presentar el comentario a la exposición del académico Felipe Guhl, sobre el periodo americano de Charles Darwin en el siglo XIX, me pareció que debía buscar las fuentes de la eventual presencia de Darwin, o de sus ideas, en nuestro país. Así es que, muy brevemente, trataré de mostrar a Ustedes lo que encontré al respecto en tiempos pre-darwinistas -en lo que se denominaba el Nuevo Reino de Granada- y, luego, en tiempos post-darwinistas.

    Gracias a los trabajos sobre la ciencia en la Colonia que hemos venido desarrollando en el Instituto de Genética Humana en compañía del académico Jaime Bernal, lo primero que nos vino a la mente, al comentar sobre esta sesión en días pasados, fueron las páginas que habíamos leído en El Orinoco Ilustrado del padre José Gumilla, S.J. (1686-1750, publicado en 1741 casi cien años antes del viaje del Beagle. En el capítulo titulado “De las primeras gentes que pasaron a la América y el modo”, se refiere Gumilla a la hipótesis del padre José de Acosta, S.J. (1540-1600, quien en su obra Historia natural y moral de las indias, escrita en el Perú en 1590, había ya postulado el estrecho que el danés Vitus Bering (1681-1741 describiría casi 150 años después, en 1741, cuando El Orinoco ilustrado salía de la imprenta en España. Veamos cómo se refirió Gumilla a las predicciones de su correligionario:

    “De modo que la principal dificultad de la gran comprensión del padre Acosta, no fue tanto el tránsito del hombre a las Américas, cuanto el de los animales perfectos, en especial los nocivos e inútiles; porque si la navegación fue de caso pensado (lo cual no es probable tuvieron malísimo gusto en llevar consigo tantos enemigos; si el tránsito fue casual, arrebatados de una o de varias borrascas (que es lo más creíble ¿quién creerá que la carga de los

  5. Darwin på arabisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riexinger, Martin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Det var to revolutionære spor, som i begyndelsen af 1800-talet gødede jorden for introduktionen af Darwins evolutionsteori i Mellemøsten, og muslimer spillede stort set ingen rolle for den udviklingen. Ny bog om islam og evolutionsteorien.......Det var to revolutionære spor, som i begyndelsen af 1800-talet gødede jorden for introduktionen af Darwins evolutionsteori i Mellemøsten, og muslimer spillede stort set ingen rolle for den udviklingen. Ny bog om islam og evolutionsteorien....

  6. Gilson, Darwin, and Intelligent Design

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond J. FitzGerald

    2015-01-01

    The article starts with stating the fact that today there is an increasing recognition of difficulties with Darwinism accompanied by vigorous responses on the part of Darwin’s defenders; among the instances of challenge to the dominant theory, one can find a book of Gilson, From Aristotle to Darwin and Back Again, and those behind the Intelligent Design movement. In relating the book of Gilson to the ID proponents, the author concludes that, while in some ways they are on the same side in opp...

  7. Succession of functions, from Darwin to Dohrn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caianiello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    By formulating in 1875 his major theoretical achievement, the "principle of succession of functions", Dohrn was consciously entering the controversy between Darwin and Mivart. Dohrn's principle enjoyed the approval of Darwin, but not his enthusiasm. The paper examines the evolution of Darwin's original idea of 'conversion of functions' in the 6th edition of his Origin, following Mivart's criticism, and contrasts the overtly functionalist interpretation entailed in Dohrn's formulation with Darwin's increasing structuralist hesitations as to the origin of evolutionary novelty. A more accurate analysis of Dohrn's principle, however, appears to corroborate the thesis that Dohrn was equally receptive to Darwin's argument as to Mivart's criticism.

  8. Quantum Darwinism as a Darwinian process

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    The Darwinian nature of Wojciech Zurek's theory of Quantum Darwinism is evaluated against the criteria of a Darwinian process as understood within Universal Darwinism. The characteristics of a Darwinian process are developed including the consequences of accumulated adaptations resulting in adaptive systems operating in accordance with Friston's free energy principle and employing environmental simulations. Quantum theory, as developed in Zurek's research program and encapsulated by his theory of Quantum Darwinism is discussed from the view that Zurek's derivation of the measurement axioms implies that the evolution of a quantum system entangled with environmental entities is determined solely by the nature of the entangled system. There need be no further logical foundation. Quantum Darwinism is found to conform to the Darwinian paradigm in unexpected detail and is thus may be considered a theory within the framework of Universal Darwinism. With the inclusion of Quantum Darwinism within Universal Darwinism a...

  9. Shipboard Measurements of the Distribution of Methane Mixing Ratio and 13CH4 in the Western Pacific: The Impact of Tropical Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, A.; Martin, R.; Moss, R.; Allan, W.; Lowe, D.; Renwick, J.

    2007-12-01

    Trace gas transport in the troposphere from the Northern to Southern Hemisphere is profoundly influenced by the position and strength of two meteorological zones: the Inter-Tropical and South Pacific Convergence Zones (ITCZ and SPCZ). In the mid-Pacific these zones are well separated, vary with season and El Nino Southern Oscillation events, and are usually well defined. In the Western Pacific the situation is more complicated with the zones often joining in a wedge east of Indonesia or disappearing altogether. The situation is further complicated by complex tropical meteorology involving deep convection. Here we present the first results of a joint project aimed at examining the impact of the ITCZ and SPCZ on the transport of atmospheric trace gases from the Northern to the Southern Hemispheres in the tropical Western Pacific. The project (developed between the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research - NIWA, and the Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies - NIES) uses high precision measurements of methane mixing ratio and the stable methane carbon isotopic species 13CH4 as atmospheric tracers supplemented by measurements of related species such as CO, 13CO, and 14CO. The measurements are made on large clean air samples (up to 1~m3) collected aboard bulk carrier ships operated by the Japanese shipping company Toyofuji on voyages between New Zealand and Japan. These air samples provide excellent snapshots of trace gas mixing ratio and isotopic gradients between the hemispheres as well as in-depth information on changes through the convergence zones. We show the initial results from 6 voyages between May 2004 and January 2007 illustrating the clearly defined latitudinal gradients in mixing ratio and isotopic composition, and their seasonal variations. One particular voyage (December 2005) showcases the distinct "zones" in trace gas distribution as the ship moved from south to north through the SPCZ and ITCZ, and highlights the

  10. Multi-scale variation of the meridional movement of the western Pacific warm pool and its associated large-scale climate features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guojun; Yang, Song; Zheng, Dawei

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated variation of the meridional movement of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP). The variation was measured by the central latitude (Clat) of the WPWP on various time scales. Its relationships with global sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and atmospheric circulation were examined by applying several advanced statistical methods. First, the techniques of wavelet analysis and least-square adjustment were used to depict the time-frequency features and the mean dominant oscillating time scales of the Clat. Then, a multi-stage filtering technique was applied to illustrate the related dominant oscillating signals. We also examined the time-frequency characteristics of the relationships between Clat and the leading modes of the Indo-Pacific oceans by employing a cross-covariance function analysis and a multiple moving-window method. The physical mechanisms for the relationships between Clat and the patterns of SST, precipitation, and atmospheric circulation were discussed. Results indicated that there is a weakening trend in the oscillation of Clat mainly because the quasi-annual oscillation of Clat increases in January-March and decreases in July-September. The semi-annual oscillation of Clat closely interacts with the westerly wind over the summer hemisphere of the tropical western Pacific Ocean and with the easterly wind over the winter hemisphere of the ocean. The interannual component of Clat corresponds to El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean basin-wide warming or cooling with strengthened oscillations in the 1970s, and the lower-frequency component of Clat closely corresponds to the central Pacific type of El Niño from the 1990s.

  11. Deficiencies and possibilities for long-lead coupled climate prediction of the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Schemm, Jae Kyung E. [Climate Prediction Center/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Long-lead prediction of waxing and waning of the Western North Pacific (WNP)-East Asian (EA) summer monsoon (WNP-EASM) precipitation is a major challenge in seasonal time-scale climate prediction. In this study, deficiencies and potential for predicting the WNP-EASM precipitation and circulation one or two seasons ahead were examined using retrospective forecast data for the 26-year period of 1981-2006 from two operational couple models which are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFS) and the Bureau of Meteorology Research Center (BMRC) Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA). While both coupled models have difficulty in predicting summer mean precipitation anomalies over the region of interest, even for a 0-month lead forecast, they are capable of predicting zonal wind anomalies at 850 hPa several months ahead and, consequently, satisfactorily predict summer monsoon circulation indices for the EA region (EASMI) and for the WNP region (WNPSMI). It should be noted that the two models' multi-model ensemble (MME) reaches 0.40 of the correlation skill for the EASMI with a January initial condition and 0.75 for the WNPSMI with a February initial condition. Further analysis indicates that prediction reliability of the EASMI is related not only to the preceding El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) but also to simultaneous local SST variability. On other hand, better prediction of the WNPSMI is accompanied by a more realistic simulation of lead-lag relationship between the index and ENSO. It should also be noted that current coupled models have difficulty in capturing the interannual variability component of the WNP-EASM system which is not correlated with typical ENSO variability. To improve the long-lead seasonal prediction of the WNP-EASM precipitation, a statistical postprocessing was developed based on the multiple linear regression method. The method utilizes the MME prediction of the EASMI and

  12. Tropical cyclone genesis frequency over the western North Pacific simulated in medium-resolution coupled general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, Satoru [University of Tokyo, Center for Climate System Research, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Takayabu, Yukari N. [University of Tokyo, Center for Climate System Research, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Research Institute for Global Change, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Chan, Johnny C.L. [City University of Hong Kong, Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-10-15

    This study examines the tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency over the western North Pacific simulated in atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation models from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. We first evaluate performances of eight models with atmospheric horizontal resolution of T63 or T106 by analyzing their daily-mean atmospheric outputs of twentieth-century climate simulations available from the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison database. The genesis frequency is validated against the best-track data issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Five of the eight models reproduce realistic horizontal distribution of the TC genesis with a large fraction over the 10 -20 N, 120 -150 E area. These five high-performance models also realistically simulate the summer-winter contrast of the frequency. However, detailed seasonal march is slightly unrealistic; four of the models overestimate the frequency in the early season (May-June) while all of them underestimate the frequency in the mature season (July-September). Reasons for these biases in the seasonal march for the five high-performance models are discussed using the TC genesis potential (GP) index proposed by Emanuel and Nolan (in Am Meteor Soc, pp 240-241, 2004). The simulated GP has seasonal biases consistent with those of the TC genesis frequency. For all five models, the seasonal biases in GP are consistent with those in environmental lower-tropospheric vorticity, vertical wind shear, and relative humidity, which can be attributed to the simulated behavior of monsoon trough. The observed trough migrates northward from the equatorial region to reach the 10 -20 N latitudinal band during the mature season and contributes to the TC frequency maximum, whereas the simulated trough migrates northward too rapidly and reaches this latitude band in the early season, leading to the overestimation of the TC genesis frequency. In the

  13. Cycling of Dissolved Organic Phosphorus and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Euphotic Zone of the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzumura, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for marine organisms. In oligotrophic environments, concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphate (SRP), the most bioavailable form of phosphorus, are low and have been hypothesized to constrain the primary productivity. Evidence has been found that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) supports a significant fraction of primary production through hydrolytic remineralization of DOP to SRP by alkaline phosphatase (APA). In this study, DOP biogeochemistry was investigated at three locations of the open-ocean environment in the Kuroshio region and at a semi-eutrophic coastal site of the western North Pacific. Concentrations of SRP, DOP and hydrolyzable ester-P were measured in the euphotic zone. Kinetic parameters of APA were determined using a fluorogenic substrate, including potential maximum velocity (Vmax), apparent Michaelis-Menten half-saturation constant (Km), and turnover time (TA) of APA hydrolyzable DOP. SRP concentrations were quite low (≤ 10 nM) in the surface seawater and rapidly increased below the chlorophyll a maximum layer (CML). DOP concentration ranged from 29 to 223 nM. Above the CML, DOP composed a major fraction accounting for 60-100% of dissolved total P. A significant linear relationship was found between the concentrations of SRP and hydrolyzable ester-P (R2 = 0.83, P < 0.01). This suggests active utilization of ester-P under phosphate-depleted conditions. In the Kuroshio region, Vmax of APA exhibited the highest value at the surface water (0 m) and decreased rapidly with depth, while at the coastal site the peak value was found at CML. TA of hydrolyzable DOP was quite variable among the locations and increased with depth especially below CML. The estimated values of in situ hydrolysis rate were much lower (2-34%) than the potential Vmax which was determined with the addition of an excess amount of the substrate. The results suggest that marine microbes can efficiently and rapidly utilize hydrolyzable DOP

  14. A Self-Powered Fast-Sampling Profiling Float in support of a Mesoscale Ocean Observing System in the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T.; Chao, Y.; Davis, R. E.; Jones, J.

    2012-12-01

    This talk will describe a new self-powered profiling float that can perform fast sampling over the upper ocean for long durations in support of a mesoscale ocean observing system in the Western North Pacific. The current state-of-the-art profiling floats can provide several hundreds profiles for the upper ocean every ten days. To quantify the role of the upper ocean in modulating the development of Typhoons requires at least an order of magnitude reduction for the sampling interval. With today's profiling float and battery technology, a fast sampling of one day or even a few hours will reduce the typical lifetime of profiling floats from years to months. Interactions between the ocean and typhoons often involves mesoscale eddies and fronts, which require a dense array of floats to reveal the 3-dimensional structure. To measure the mesoscale ocean over a large area like the Western North Pacific therefore requires a new technology that enables fast sampling and long duration at the same time. Harvesting the ocean renewable energy associated with the vertical temperature differentials has the potential to power profiling floats with fast sampling over long durations. Results from the development and deployment of a prototype self-powered profiling float (known as SOLO-TREC) will be presented. With eight hours sampling in the upper 500 meters, the upper ocean temperature and salinity reveal pronounced high frequency variations. Plans to use the SOLO-TREC technology in support of a dense array of fast sampling profiling floats in the Western North Pacific will be discussed.

  15. Ship-borne FTIR measurements of CO and O3 in the Western Pacific from 43° N to 35° S: an evaluation of the sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 have been measured in the Western Pacific (43° N to 35° S during a ship campaign with Research Vessel Sonne in fall 2009. Observations have been performed using ship-based solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry, flask sampling, balloon sounding, and in-situ Fourier Transform infrared analysis. The results obtained are compared to the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model for atmospheric composition. In general, a very good agreement is found between the GEOS-Chem model and all instruments. The CO and O3 distributions show a comparable variability suggesting an impact from the same source regions. Tagged-CO simulations implemented in the GEOS-Chem model make it possible to differentiate between different source processes and source regions. The source regions are verified with HYSPLIT backward trajectory calculations. In the Northern Hemisphere fossil fuel combustion in Asia is the dominant source. European and North American fossil fuel combustion also contribute to Northern Hemispheric CO pollution. In the Southern Hemisphere contributions from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are dominant; African biomass burning has a significant impact on Western Pacific CO pollution. Furthermore, in the tropical Western Pacific enhanced upper tropospheric CO within the tropical tropopause layer mainly originates from Indonesian fossil fuel combustion and can be transported into the stratosphere. The source regions of the measured O3 pollution are simulated with a tagged-O3 simulation implemented in the GEOS-Chem model. Similar source regions compared to the tagged-CO simulations are identified by the model. In the Northern Hemisphere contributions from Asia, Europe, and North America are significant. In the Southern Hemisphere emissions from South America, south-east Africa, and Oceania significantly contribute to the measured O3 pollution.

  16. Long-term and large-scale epidemiology of Brucella infection in baleen whales and sperm whales in the western North Pacific and Antarctic Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kazue; Bando, Takeharu; Abe, Erika; Kawai, Yasushi; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    In a long-term, large-scale serologic study in the western North Pacific Ocean, anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the 1994-2010 offshore surveys (21%, 285/1353) and in the 2006-2010 Japanese coastal surveys (20%, 86/436), in Bryde's whales (B. edeni brydei) in the 2000-2010 offshore surveys (9%, 49/542), in sei whales (B. borealis) in the 2002-2010 offshore surveys (5%, 40/788) and in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the 2000-2010 offshore surveys (8%, 4/50). Anti-Brucella antibodies were not detected in 739 Antarctic minke whales (B. bonaerensis) in the 2000-2010 Antarctic surveys. This suggests that Brucella was present in the four large whale populations inhabiting the western North Pacific, but not in the Antarctic minke whale population. By PCR targeting for genes of outer membrane protein 2, the Brucella infection was confirmed in tissue DNA samples from Bryde's whales (14%, 2/14), sei whales (11%, 1/9) and sperm whales (50%, 2/4). A placental tissue and an apparently healthy fetus from a sperm whale were found to be PCR-positive, indicating that placental transmission might have occurred and the newborn could act as a bacterial reservoir. Marked granulomatous testes were observed only in mature animals of the three species of baleen whales in the western North Pacific offshore surveys, especially in common minke whales, and 29% (307/1064) of total mature males had abnormal testes. This study provides an insight into the status of marine Brucella infection at a global level.

  17. Decreasing trend of tropical cyclone genesis frequency in July-August over the western North Pacific in the last 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae; Shim, Chang-Sup

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzed the frequency of tropical cyclones (TCs) that occurred in each month of July to September, which is when most TCs occur during a year, in the western North Pacific for the last 20 years. Since the mid-1990s, the TC genesis frequency has tended to decrease during July to August but to increase during September. Therefore, the time series of the TC genesis frequency during July to August was analyzed. The average TC genesis frequency during July to August was 10TCs. Until 2006, a greater number of years had a TC genesis frequency more than 10TCs; however, from 2006, a greater number of years had a TC genesis frequency less than 10TCs. To determine why the TC genesis frequency showed this change in the mid-2000s, the difference between the average of July and August 2007 to 2014 (0714) and that of July and August 1995 to 2006 (9506) was analyzed. With regard to the TC genesis frequency, TCs occurred largely in the eastern sea of the Philippines during 0714 and in the distant eastern sea of the Philippines during 9506. With regard to the TC passage frequency, TCs came ashore at the southeastern area of China via the South China Sea from the Philippines during 0714 and tended to go north toward Korea and Japan through the East China Sea from the distant eastern sea of the Philippines during 9506. The cause of the differences in TC tracks between the two periods was verified through an analysis of the 850- and 500-hPa streamlines. During 0714, anomalous anticyclonic circulations were strengthened in most areas of the western North Pacific. Therefore, the TC genesis frequency during 0714 was lower than that during 9506 in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific; in particular, in this area, anomalous easterlies were strengthened, which caused TCs to go toward the southeastern area of China.

  18. Hygroscopic growth of water-soluble matter extracted from remote marine aerosols over the western North Pacific: Influence of pollutants transported from East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, K

    2016-07-01

    We examined the hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) nebulized from water extracts of total suspended particles (TSP) collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during January to September 2003. The hygroscopic growth factor g(RH) of the aerosol particles was measured using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) with an initial dry particle diameter of 100nm and relative humidity (RH) of 5-95%. The measured growth factor at 90% RH, g(90%), ranged from 1.51 to 2.14 (mean: 1.76±0.15), significantly lower than that of sea salts (2.1), probably owing to the heterogeneous reactions associated with chloride depletion in sea-salt particles and water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The g(90%) maximized in summer and minimized in spring. The decrease in spring was most likely explained by the formation of less hygroscopic salts or particles via organometallic reactions during the long-range transport of Asian dust. Cl(-) and Na(+) dominate the mass fractions of WSM, followed by nss-SO4(2-) and WSOM. Based on regression analysis, we confirmed that g(90%) at Chichijima Island largely increased due to the dominant sea spray; however, atmospheric processes associated with chloride depletion in sea salts and WSOM often suppressed g(90%). Furthermore, we explored the deviation (average: 18%) between the measured and predicted g(90%) by comparing measured and model growth factors. The present study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic pollutants (SO2, NOx, organics, etc.) and the interactions with sea-salt particles often suppress the hygroscopic growth of marine aerosols over the western North Pacific, affecting the remote background conditions. The present study also suggests that the HCl liberation leads to the formation of less hygroscopic aerosols over the western North Pacific during long-range transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaeriyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium (Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP in the North Pacific is still unclear due to the limitation of direct measurement of the seawater in the open ocean. We present the result of direct observation of radioactive Cs in surface seawater collected from a broad area in the western and central North Pacific in July 2011, October 2011 and July 2012. We also conducted a simple particle tracking experiment to estimate the qualitative spatial distribution of radioactive Cs in the North Pacific. 134Cs was detected at 94 stations out of 123 stations, and 137Cs was detected at all stations. High 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations more than 10 m Bq kg−1 were observed in the area of the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 144° E and 155° E in July 2011, in the area 147–175° E around 40° N in October 2011, and the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 155° E and 175°30´ E in July 2012. Combining the result of direct observations and particle tracking experiment, the radioactive Cs derived from the FNPP had been dispersed eastward to the central North Pacific during 2011. It was considered from the horizontal distribution that radioactive Cs was dispersed not only eastward but also north- and southward in the central North Pacific. Pronounced dilution process of radioactive Cs from the FNPP during study period is suggested from temporal change in the activity ratio of 134Cs / 137Cs, which was decay-corrected on 6 April 2011, and relationships between radioactive Cs and temperature.

  20. Deepwater carbonate ion concentrations in the western tropical Pacific since 250 ka: Evidence for oceanic carbon storage and global climate influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bingbin; Li, Tiegang; Xiong, Zhifang; Algeo, Thomas J.; Chang, Fengming

    2017-04-01

    We present new "size-normalized weight" (SNW)-Δ[CO32-] core-top calibrations for three planktonic foraminiferal species and assess their reliability as a paleo-alkalinity proxy. SNWs of Globigerina sacculifer and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei can be used to reconstruct past deep Pacific [CO32-], whereas SNWs of Pulleniatina obliquiloculata are controlled by additional environmental factors. Based on this methodological advance, we reconstruct SNW-based deepwater [CO32-] for core WP7 from the western tropical Pacific since 250 ka. Secular variation in the SNW proxy documents little change in deep Pacific [CO32-] between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene. Further back in time, deepwater [CO32-] shows long-term increases from marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e to MIS 3 and from early MIS 7 to late MIS 6, consistent with the "coral reef hypothesis" that the deep Pacific Ocean carbonate system responded to declining shelf carbonate production during these two intervals. During deglaciations, we have evidence of [CO32-] peaks coincident with Terminations 2 and 3, which suggests that a breakdown of oceanic vertical stratification drove a net transfer of CO2 from the ocean to the atmosphere, causing spikes in carbonate preservation (i.e., the "deglacial ventilation hypothesis"). During MIS 4, a transient decline in SNW-based [CO32-], along with other reported [CO32-] and/or dissolution records, implies that increased deep-ocean carbon storage resulted in a global carbonate dissolution event. These findings provide new insights into the role of the deep Pacific in the global carbon cycle during the late Quaternary.

  1. Gilson, Darwin, and Intelligent Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J. FitzGerald

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with stating the fact that today there is an increasing recognition of difficulties with Darwinism accompanied by vigorous responses on the part of Darwin’s defenders; among the instances of challenge to the dominant theory, one can find a book of Gilson, From Aristotle to Darwin and Back Again, and those behind the Intelligent Design movement. Inrelating the book of Gilson to the ID proponents, the author concludes that, while in some ways they are on the same side in opposing the anti-creation thrust of Darwinism, Gilson is neutral on the validity or truth of Darwin’s biological hypothesis. Gilson, however, whose book preceded the ID movement by some twenty years, seeks to analyze Darwinism from the perspective of the classical philosophy of nature. He well understands that, according to modern scientific method, final causes are excluded from consideration, but he calls for a biophilosophy which will be open to the reality of human experience as Aristotle was and recognize that teleology is present in nature. According to him, even if teleology seems to be a contestable explanation, chance as understood by Darwinists is the pure absence of explanation.

  2. Ghelen, Darwin e la salamandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallori Rasini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GEHLEN, DARWIN AND THE SALAMANDER   Arnold Gehlen creates a theory of man as “lacking being” that leads to a theory of a “superior being”. Man is radically different from animal, and Gehlen uses the biological idea of human neoteny to refuse the Darwinian theory of human evolution. However his arguments are preconceived and ineffectual.

  3. Quality maternal and newborn care to ensure a healthy start for every newborn in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, H; Sobel, H

    2014-09-01

    In the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, the high rates of births attended by skilled health personnel (SHP) do not equal access to quality maternal or newborn care. 'A healthy start for every newborn' for 23 million annual births in the region means that SHP and newborn care providers give quality intrapartum, postpartum and newborn care. WHO and the UNICEF Regional Action Plan for Healthy Newborn Infants provide a platform for countries to scale-up Early Essential Newborn Care (EENC). The plan emphasises the creation of an enabling environment for the practice of EENC; thereby, preventing 50,000 newborn deaths annually. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. The Modulation of Tropical Storm Activity in the Western North Pacific by the Madden-Julian Oscillation in GEOS-5 AGCM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Hye-Mi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Yoo, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on tropical storm (TS) activity in the western North Pacific, using observations and GEOS-5 simulations at 50-km horizontal resolution. While GEOS-5 produces an MJO of faster propagation and weaker amplitude, it nevertheless reproduces the observed modulation of TS activity by the MJO with the highest TS genesis and increased track density in the active phases of MJO. The study suggests that the simulation of the sub-seasonal variability of TS activity could be improved by improving the simulations of the MJO in climate models.

  5. Overlap of eastern and western mangroves in the South-western Pacific: hybridization of all three Rhizophora (Rhizophoraceae) combinations in New Caledonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duke, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent survey of mangroves in New Caledonia located 7 taxa of the genus Rhizophora – with 6 coexisting in one estuary. This is arguably the greatest concentration of co-occurring Rhizophora taxa anywhere. Two are well-known mangrove species of the Indo West Pacific, R. stylosa and R. apiculata,

  6. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  7. Potential impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-Western Pacific on the variability of typhoon landfall on the China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The landfall activity of typhoons (TYs) along the coast of China during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variation during 1965-2010. We identify three sub-periods of TY landfall activity in JAS along the China coast in this period, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (Period I) and 1998-2010 (Period III), and less during 1982-1995 (Period II). We find that the interdecadal variation might be related to the combined effects of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase changes and sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (IO-WP). During the negative PDO phase in Periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP), inducing easterly flow in its northern part, which favors TY landfall along the eastern China coast. Warm SST anomalies over the tropical IO-WP during Period III induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP through both the Gill-pattern response to the warm SST in the tropical IO and the anomalous meridional circulation induced by the warm SST in the tropical WNP. As a result, the northern South China Sea and WNP (10°-20° N) are dominated by southeasterly flow, which favors TYs making landfall on both the southern and eastern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TYs making landfall along the China coast during Period III than during Period I, which shows cool SST anomalies in the tropical IO-WP.

  8. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  9. Reconstruction of the springtime East Asian Subtropical Jet and Western Pacific pattern from a millennial-length Taiwanese tree-ring chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Guan, B. T.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Cook, E. R.; Wei, K.-Y.; Chang, S.-T.

    2015-03-01

    The East Asian subtropical jet (EAJ) and the closely related Western Pacific pattern (WP) are among the most important features in global atmospheric dynamics, but little is known about their long-term variability. This study presents reconstructions of the Spring EAJ index (EAJI) and the Spring WP index (WPI) based on significant relationships identified between mean values for these features and a millennial length tree-ring width chronology of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, a high-mountain cloud forest species from northeastern Taiwan. Tree-ring based reconstructions of high pass filtered versions of the EAJI and WPI (EAJI 5YR and WPI 5YR) presented herein explain 42 and 31 % of the WPI 5YR and EAJI 5YR, respectively, and display acceptable reliability back to A.D. 1237. A significant trend present in the long-term variance of the reconstructed EAJI and WPI after A.D. 1860 suggests long-term increasing variability in the spring mean latitudinal placement and/or the strength/breadth of the EAJ core region near Taiwan and Japan and in the trajectory of the EAJ over the North Pacific. Related features affected by changes in the EAJ include the North Pacific storm track and Asian Dust transport.

  10. Darwin's ‘one special difficulty’: celebrating Darwin 200

    OpenAIRE

    Joan M Herbers

    2009-01-01

    Darwin identified eusocial evolution, especially of complex insect societies, as a particular challenge to his theory of natural selection. A century later, Hamilton provided a framework for selection on inclusive fitness. Hamilton's rule is robust and fertile, having generated multiple subdisciplines over the past 45 years. His suggestion that eusociality can be explained via kin selection, however, remains contentious. I review the continuing debate on the role of kin selection in eusocial ...

  11. External quality assessment for arbovirus diagnostics in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, 2013–2016: improving laboratory quality over the years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yazid Abdad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA programme for arbovirus diagnostics. By 2016, it had grown into a global programme with participation of 96 laboratories worldwide, including 25 laboratories from 19 countries, territories and areas in the Region. The test performance of the 25 laboratories in the Region in 2016 was high with 23 (92% reporting correct results in all specimens for dengue and chikungunya viruses. For Zika virus, 18 (72% of the 25 laboratories reported correct results in all specimens, while seven (28% demonstrated at least one error. When comparing iterations of this EQA programme in the Region between 2013 and 2016, the number of participating laboratories increased from 18 to 25. The first round only included dengue virus, while the latest round additionally included chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses. Proficiency for molecular detection of dengue virus remained high (83–94% over the four-year period. The observed proficiency for arbovirus diagnostics between 2013 and 2016 is an indicator of laboratory quality improvement in the Region.

  12. [Recent progress of international harmonization of crude drugs and medicinal plants--activity of FHH (The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Nobuo

    2011-03-01

    The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH) was established in 2002. The general proposed objective of the FHH is to promote public health by recognizing and developing standards and technical guidelines that aim to improve the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. At a sub-committee meeting of FHH nomenclature and standardization held in Tokyo, all the participants recognized the importance of comparing the descriptions of herbal medicines contained in member countries' pharmacopoeias or monograph standards as the first step in the harmonization of nomenclature and standardization. It was agreed to set up five expert working groups (EWG) to carry out the following specific tasks: 1) Nomenclature, 2) Testing Methods in Monographs, 3) List of Chemical Reference Standards (CRS) and Reference of Medicinal Plant Materials (RMPM), 4) List of Analytically Validated Methods, and 5) Information on General Tests. In this review, we report four topics of FHH activities from 2002-2009 as follows: 1) Comparative study on testing methods and specification values for crude drugs used in monographs among four Western Pacific regional countries (Japan, China, Korea and Vietnam), 2) Comparative study on TLC conditions for identification, chemical assay conditions for component quantification used in monographs among the four countries, 3) Comparative study on general testing methods for crude drugs among the four countries, 4) Comparative study on TLC identification for crude drugs used in monographs among the four countries considering harmonization and clean analysis.

  13. Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Pesticides in Biomass Burning Emissions to Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan A.; Killin, Robert K.; Woods, Jim; Wilson, Glenn; Schmedding, David; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2014-01-01

    The trans-Pacific and regional North American atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides in biomass burning emissions was measured in air masses from April to September 2003 at two remote sites in western North America. Mary’s Peak Observatory (MPO) is located in Oregon’s Coast Range and Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO) is located on the tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. During this time period, both remote sites were influenced by PAH and pesticide emissions from forest fires in Siberia and regional fires in Oregon and Washington State. Concurrent samples were taken at both sites on June 2 and August 4, 2003. On these dates, CPO had elevated gas phase PAH, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and retene concentrations (ppesticide mass was lost from soil due to burning. These data suggest that the transPacific and regional atmospheric transport of biomass burning emissions results in elevated PAH and pesticide concentrations in western North America. The elevated pesticide concentrations are likely due to re-emission of historically deposited pesticides from the soil and vegetation during the fire event. PMID:19320158

  14. Asymmetric response of tropical cyclone activity to global warming over the North Atlantic and western North Pacific from CMIP5 model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-Sun R.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hyeong-Seog; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Joo-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Recent improvements in the theoretical understanding of the relationship between tropical cyclones (TCs) and their large-scale environments have resulted in significant improvements in the skill for forecasting TC activity at daily and seasonal time-scales. However, future changes in TC activity under a warmer climate remain uncertain, particularly in terms of TC genesis locations and subsequent pathways. Applying a track-pattern-based statistical model to 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model runs for the historical period and the future period corresponding to the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 emissions scenarios, this study shows that in future climate conditions, TC passage frequency will decrease over the North Atlantic, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico, but will increase over the western North Pacific, especially that hits Korea and Japan. Unlike previous studies based on fine-resolution models, an ensemble mean of CMIP5 models projects an increase in TC activity in the western North Pacific, which is owing to enhanced subtropical deep convection and favorable dynamic conditions therein in conjunction with the expansion of the tropics and vice versa for the North Atlantic. Our results suggest that North America will experience less TC landfalls, while northeast Asia will experience more TCs than in the present-day climate. PMID:28134343

  15. Asymmetric response of tropical cyclone activity to global warming over the North Atlantic and western North Pacific from CMIP5 model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-Sun R; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Chan, Johnny C L; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hyeong-Seog; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Joo-Hong

    2017-01-30

    Recent improvements in the theoretical understanding of the relationship between tropical cyclones (TCs) and their large-scale environments have resulted in significant improvements in the skill for forecasting TC activity at daily and seasonal time-scales. However, future changes in TC activity under a warmer climate remain uncertain, particularly in terms of TC genesis locations and subsequent pathways. Applying a track-pattern-based statistical model to 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model runs for the historical period and the future period corresponding to the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 emissions scenarios, this study shows that in future climate conditions, TC passage frequency will decrease over the North Atlantic, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico, but will increase over the western North Pacific, especially that hits Korea and Japan. Unlike previous studies based on fine-resolution models, an ensemble mean of CMIP5 models projects an increase in TC activity in the western North Pacific, which is owing to enhanced subtropical deep convection and favorable dynamic conditions therein in conjunction with the expansion of the tropics and vice versa for the North Atlantic. Our results suggest that North America will experience less TC landfalls, while northeast Asia will experience more TCs than in the present-day climate.

  16. Impact of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived (134)Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived (137)Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess (137)Cs activity concentration relative to the (134)Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived (137)Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and the bomb-derived (137)Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m(-2), respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Moist Static Energy and Budget between the GCM-Simulated Madden–Julian Oscillation and Observations over the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Liping

    2013-07-01

    The moist static energy (MSE) anomalies and MSE budget associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) simulated in the Iowa State University General Circulation Model (ISUGCM) over the Indian and Pacific Oceans are compared with observations. Different phase relationships between MJO 850-hPa zonal wind, precipitation, and surface latent heat flux are simulated over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, which are greatly influenced by the convection closure, trigger conditions, and convective momentum transport (CMT). The moist static energy builds up from the lower troposphere 15–20 days before the peak of MJO precipitation, and reaches the maximum in the middle troposphere (500–600 hPa) near the peak of MJO precipitation. The gradual lower-tropospheric heating and moistening and the upward transport of moist static energy are important aspects of MJO events, which are documented in observational studies but poorly simulated in most GCMs. The trigger conditions for deep convection, obtained from the year-long cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations, contribute to the striking difference between ISUGCM simulations with the original and modified convection schemes and play the major role in the improved MJO simulation in ISUGCM. Additionally, the budget analysis with the ISUGCM simulations shows the increase in MJO MSE is in phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over the western Pacific, while out of phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over the Indian Ocean. However, the NCEP analysis shows that the tendency of MJO MSE is in phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over both oceans.

  18. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  19. Amino acid and hexosamine in the equatorial western Pacific: vertical fluxes and individual preservation through water column to surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, H.; Gupta, L. P.; Ishizuka, T.

    2002-12-01

    Amino acids (AA) and hexosamines (HA) are major constituents for all living organisms, constituting important fractions of labile organic carbon and nitrogen. They usually decompose rapidly than bulk OM and must be expected to be closely linked to biogeochemical processes. In spite of such importance, our understanding of degradation processes of labile components is still limited. Therefore vertical fluxes and preservation of AA and HA from water column to surface sediments are investigated at the western equatorial Pacific. The settling particles were composed of fairly fresh AA, which could be derived from siliceous diatom with less amount of calcareous plankton. In contrast, AA were degraded in sediments and porewaters. Each AA showed highly variable preservation ratio from settling to sedimentary particles. Compared with glycine, the calculated preservation ratio was the lowest (0%) for cysteine, followed by phenylalanine (6%), tyrosine (17%), methionine (47%), leucine (60%), isoleucine (65%), proline (67%), valine (91%), serine (99%), arginine (107%), threonine (112%), alanine (115%), glutamic acid (114%), aspartic acid (150%), lysine (166%) and histidine (186%). Beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least labile AA. Probably they are so difficult to degrade for bacteria to get biochemical energy that the degradation proceeds fairly slowly. In contrast, after burial, even most labile, aromatic and sulfur-containing AA, degrade at a rate similar to the other protein AA. In spite of complicated reactions, most of the AA showed first-order reaction kinetics during the degradation in the sediments. The decomposition rate constant k (kyr-1) in this study was 2-3 orders lower than those in coastal marine environments. Better preservation of HA over AA in the sediments was probably due to the general incorporation of HA into structural biopolymer matrices, such as bacterial cell-walls and chitinous material. Abundant glycine in the AA in the sediments is

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyosi Sato

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m and long streamer (up to 7 m tori-line and of two different colors (yellow and red of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  1. Chinese paleontology and the reception of Darwinism in early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaobo

    2017-09-25

    The paper examines the social, cultural and disciplinary factors that influenced the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by China's first generation paleontologists. Darwinism was mixed with Social Darwinism when first introduced to China, and the co-option of Darwinian phrases for nationalistic awakening obscured the scientific essence of Darwin's evolutionary theory. First generation Chinese paleontologists started their training in 1910s-1920s. They quickly asserted their professional identity by successfully focusing on morphology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Surrounded by Western paleontologists with Lamarckian or orthogenetic leanings, early Chinese paleontologists enthusiastically embraced evolution and used fossils as factual evidence; yet not enough attention was given to mechanistic evolutionary studies. The 1940s saw the beginning of a new trend for early Chinese paleontologists to incorporate more biological and biogeographical components in their work, but external events such as the dominance of Lysenkoism in the 1950s made the Modern Synthesis pass by without being publicly noticed in Chinese paleontology. Characterized by the larger goal of using science for nation building and by the utilitarian approach favoring local sciences, the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by first generation Chinese paleontologists raise important questions for studying the indigenizing efforts of early Chinese scientists to appropriate Western scientific theories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  3. Annualized diameter and height growth equations for Pacific Northwest plantation-grown Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Weiskittel; S.M. Garber; G.P. Johnson; D.A. Maguire; R.A. Monserud

    2007-01-01

    Simulating the influence of intensive management and annual weather fluctuations on tree growth requires a shorter time step than currently employed by most regional growth models. High-quality data sets are available for several plantation species in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, but the growth periods ranged from 2 to 12 years. Measurement...

  4. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... stability and local food production. This objective would be supported through the following projects: (a... CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional Office, 808-944-2108... H. Menashes, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service...

  5. 78 FR 32181 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; 5-Year Extension of Moratorium on Harvest of Gold Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Pacific; 5-Year Extension of Moratorium on Harvest of Gold Corals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries.... SUMMARY: This final rule extends the region-wide moratorium on the harvest of gold corals in the U.S... stimulate research on gold corals. DATES: This rule is effective June 28, 2013. ADDRESSES: Background...

  6. Darwin and the divine experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels Henrik; Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark Darwin’s theory of evolution was known early on and viewed with respect, but did not make immediate scientific converts. In the 1870s, when Darwinism was promoted by free thinkers, public debates began to flourish, but religious reactions were remarkably few and mostly undramatic. Since...... natural theology was not assumed by Lutheran theologians, the issue of design vs. chance was not prevalent. Discussions focused rather on scripture and the general challenge of naturalism, and if Darwin’s name was included, the concern was human uniqueness and the social consequences of Darwinism....... Religious responses thus targeted the materialism of semi-popular Darwinism more than the substance of Darwin’s theory. Around 1900, however, many aspects of Darwin’s theory were accepted. At that time, however, leading biologists found that Darwin’s theory needed to be complemented by a Lamarckian emphasis...

  7. Oceanic dispersion of radioactive cesium in the western North Pacific - Eastward dispersion in surface water and southward intrusion with mode water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ambe, Daisuke; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Ono, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Tomowo [National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-8648 (Japan); Morita, Takami [Fisheries Research Agency, 2-3-3, Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 220-6115 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 resulted in elevation of the level of anthropogenic radioactivity in the marine environment in the western North Pacific from atmospheric fallout and direct discharges of highly radioactive liquid waters. Intensive monitoring on iodine-131, cesium-134 (Cs-134) and cesium-137 (Cs-137) in seawater near offshore FNPP, and those in marine organisms in the broad area around Japan were conducted, while the information of radioactive contamination in the North Pacific is still limited due to the limitation of the observational data. In this study, we report the concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater collected from western North Pacific during June 2011 and November 2012. The eastward dispersion of FNPP-derived radioactive cesium in the surface water has been observed with prevention of southward dispersion due to the strong eastward current (Kuroshio Extension; KE) in the North Pacific. Although the concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were remarkably decreased between 2011 and 2012 at 145 deg. E and 155 deg. E, they were almost comparable between these two years at 175 deg. E. The inventories of Cs-137 between 0-500 m around KE at 147 deg. E were ranged from 3800 to 11000 Bq/m{sup 2} in October 2011, and from 1000 to 2400 Bq/m{sup 2} in November 2012. Surface water had the highest concentration of radioactive Cs at northern part of KE, subsurface peak of radioactive Cs were observed at KE and south of KE in both years. Furthermore, the southward dispersion of FNPP-derived radioactive Cs in the subsurface waters were also observed south of Japan Islands. We found the FNPP-derived Cs-134 (1.8-6.8 mBq/kg) at southernmost 18 deg. N, 135 deg. deg. E in September 2012. The potential density at the subsurface peaks of Cs-134 and increase of water column inventories of Cs-137 after the winter season of 2011-2012, suggested that the main water mass

  8. Pacific Flyway management plan for Pacific brant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla) population (PFBP) is made up of brant breeding in Alaska, the western Canadian arctic, and the eastern Russian arctic, and...

  9. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  10. An Assessment of Ozone Photochemistry in the Extratropical Western North Pacific: Impact of Continental Outflow During the Late Winter/Early Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J.; Davis, D.; Chen, G.; Bradshaw, J.; Sandholm, S.; Kondo, Y.; Liu, S.; Browell, E.; Gregory, G.; Anderson, B.; hide

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the influence of photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone distributions over the extratropical western North Pacific. The analysis presented here is based on data collected during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West Phase B (PEM-West B) field study conducted in February-March 1994. Sampling in the study region involved altitudes of 0-12 km and latitudes of 10deg S to 50deg N. The extratropical component of the data set (i.e., 20-50deg N) was defined by markedly different photochemical environments north and south of 30deg N. This separation was clearly defined by an abrupt decrease in the tropopause height near 30deg N and a concomitant increase in total O3 column density. This shift in overhead O3 led to highly reduced rates of O3 formation and destruction for the 30-50deg N latitude regime. Both latitude ranges, however, still exhibited net O3 production at all altitudes. Of special significance was the finding that net O3 production prevailed even at boundary layer and lower free tropospheric altitudes (e.g., less than 4 km), a condition uncommon to Pacific marine environments. These results reflect the strong impact of continental Outflow of O3 precursors (e.g., NO and NMHCS) into the northwestern Pacific Basin. Comparisons with PEM-West A, which sampled the same region in a different season (September-October), revealed major differences at altitudes below 4 km, the altitude range most influenced by continental outflow. The resulting net rate of increase in the tropospheric O3 column for PEM-West B was 1-3 % per day, while for PEM-West A it was approximately zero. Unique to the PEM-West B study is the finding that even under wintertime conditions substantial column production of tropospheric O3 can occur at subtropical and mid-latitudes. While such impacts may not be totally unexpected at near coast locations, the present study suggests that the impact from continental outflow on the marine BL could extend out to distances of more

  11. A revised estimate of Pacific-North America motion and implications for Western North America plate boundary zone tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.

    1987-01-01

    Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.

  12. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the CARLOS DARWIN and Other Platforms in the North Pacific Ocean and other locations in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from from 1963-04-23 to 1967-12-12 (NODC Accession 6900148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the CARLOS DARWIN in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected by US Navy; Ships of...

  13. DARWIN Y LOS DILEMAS SOCIALES Darwin and the Social Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO ROSAS

    Full Text Available Describo el proyecto de explicación darwiniana de la moral siguiendo los lineamientos básicos de Darwin, como fueron expuestos en el Origen del hombre. A diferencia de la interpretación tradicional, sostengo que Darwin no asumió, y que no es forzoso asumir en una perspectiva darwiniana, un conflicto inevitable entre la selección individual y la selección de grupo en la explicación de la moral. Ambas trabajan en sinergia favoreciendo los rasgos que soportan el comportamiento moral en humanos. Sostengo también que de este proyecto se derivan dos enseñanzas importantes, una para la filosofía moral y otra para la concepción de la selección natural. La primera es que los dilemas sociales están en el corazón de la moral humana; la segunda es que la cooperación está en el núcleo de la selección natural. Ilustro el segundo punto con investigaciones recientes sobre la evolución de los organismos multicelulares.I describe the project of a Darwinian explanation of morality following Darwin’s basic ideas as expressed in The Descent of Man. In contrast to the traditional interpretation, I argue that Darwin did not assume, nor is it necessary to assume in a Darwinian perspective, an inevitable conflict between individual and group selection in the explanation of morality. Both operate in synergy to favor traits that support moral behavior. I also argue that two teachings result from this Darwinian project, one for moral philosophy and the other for the theory of natural selection. The first puts social dilemmas in the heart of human morality; the second puts cooperation in the core of natural selection. I illustrate the second point with recent research into the evolution of multicellular organisms.

  14. Darwin's Book: On the Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. It focuses on the contents of the Origin as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  15. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  16. The Evolution of Textbook Misconceptions about Darwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Textbooks for GCE Advanced Level Biology have provided over-simplified and inaccurate accounts of Charles Darwin's contribution to the study of evolution over a period of many decades. They have credited him with field skills and insight that he did not possess, and repeated several historical inaccuracies. Darwin's strength was as a synthesiser…

  17. Darwin's Eclipse Concerned Function versus Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Warren W.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on a article by Dewsbury (February-March 2009) in which he stated, "Darwin provided a viable mechanism for evolutionary change, natural selection" (p. 67). Although this view is consistent with the modern synthesis, the author argues that (a) the natural selection "mechanism" provided by Darwin was not initially accepted by scientists…

  18. Nietzsche’s reception of Darwinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, Pieter

    1979-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that the influence of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution on Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1900) is to be understood in terms of Nietzsche's concept """"Obermensch"""" (overman). Hardly any attention has been paid to the question of the status of Darwin's theory in

  19. Darwin's Legacy to Comparative Psychology and Ethology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Gordon M.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous seminal contributions to the study of animal behavior over his long career. This essay places these contributions in the context of Darwin's life, showing his long-standing interest in psychological and behavioral issues encompassing all species, including humans. Ten areas are highlighted: natural history;…

  20. Guidebook of the Western United States: Part F - The Southern Pacific lines, New Orleans to Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Nelson Horatio

    1933-01-01

    The Southern Pacific Railroad from New Orleans to Los Angeles, a distance of about 2,000 miles, passes through a region exhibiting a great variety of geographic and industrial conditions. The climate, especially the amount of precipitation, is the most influential factor in causing this variety. The low Coastal Plain of southern Louisiana and eastern Texas, with ample rainfall and thick rich soils, is a province distinct in configuration, human occupations, and products. There are extensive swamps, prairies, and wooded areas, but a large part of the land is under cultivation, with sugarcane, cotton, and rice as the principal crops. The streams are wide and slow, the winter climate is mild, and the summer heat is tempered by breezes from the Gulf of Mexico. Flourishing towns occur at short intervals, and some of them are growing rapidly. The entire region is underlain by a great thickness of sand and clay of alluvial origin. In central-eastern Texas the Coastal Plain is higher, the soil conditions are materially different, the streams run more swiftly, swamps become rare, and although much land is under cultivation, many areas are either in pasture or not cleared. The vegetation changes with change of soil and increase of altitude, and the crops are more diversified than in the lower parts of the Coastal Plain. The region is underlain by sandstone, shale, and other formations, which rise toward the west, cropping out in regular succession as they are crossed from east to west. Some of these formations are hard enough to make ridges and knobs, and there is general terracing at various levels. Parts of the highest lands are remnants of an old plain of former wide extent. Beyond San Antonio the traveler observes several changes in the general aspect of the country, for although the Coastal Plain extends west to Del Rio, there is both a gradual increase in elevation to about 1,000 feet and a marked diminution of rainfall to the west, which greatly affect landscape and

  1. Water property and current distributions along the WHP-P9 section (137°-142°E) in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ikuo; Takatsuki, Yasushi; Kamiya, Hitomi; Kawae, Satoshi

    1998-06-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency carried out full-depth, high-resolution hydrographic measurements in July-August 1994 along the 137°-142°E line as a contribution to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The line spans the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific with a full set of water mass and current distributions. At 28°N to the south of the Kuroshio recirculation, there exists an eastward current distinct from the currents associated with the subtropical fronts. The eastward current is characterized by the meridional thermal gradient extending down to 1500-m depth. Deep silicate has a meridional boundary at 25°N, forming two cores of the maximum to the north and south of the boundary. The northern core centered at 28°N is meridionally coincident with other property extrema, indicating an inflow from the Northwest Pacific Basin down to 2000-m depth. The southern core centered at 16°N suggests another westward inflow from the East Mariana Basin to the West Mariana Basin. A broad isopycnal depression at middepths and bottom water properties over the Shikoku and West Mariana Basins indicate a near-bottom circulation along which the inflow water through the Yap-Mariana Junction at 12°N fills the West Mariana Basin and then spreads to the Shikoku Basin and Philippine Basin successively. A part of the bottom water from the South Pacific bifurcates around the Yap-Mariana Junction and enters the West Caroline Basin via the Yap Trench. This supports another path of deep water inflow to the Philippine Basin from the southernmost channel at 4000-m depth.

  2. Multidecadal, centennial, and millennial variability in sardine and anchovy abundances in the western North Pacific and climate-fish linkages during the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwae, Michinobu; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Sagawa, Takuya; Ikehara, Ken; Irino, Tomohisa; Takemura, Keiji; Takeoka, Hidetaka; Sugimoto, Takashige

    2017-12-01

    Paleorecords of pelagic fish abundance could better define the nature of fishery productivity dynamics and help understand responses of pelagic fish stocks to long-term climate changes. We report a high-resolution record of sardine and anchovy scale deposition rates (SDRs) from Beppu Bay, Southwest Japan, showing multidecadal and centennial variability in the abundance of Japanese sardine and Japanese anchovy during the last 2850 years. Variations in the sardine SDR showed periodicities at ∼50, ∼100, and ∼300 yr, while variations in the anchovy SDR showed periodicities at ∼30 and ∼260 yr. Comparisons between and correlation analyses of the time series of the sardine and anchovy SDRs demonstrate that there is not a consistent out-of-phase relationship during the last 2850 years. This indicates that the multidecadal alternations in the sardine and anchovy populations commonly seen in the 20th century did not necessarily occur during earlier periods. The Japanese sardine SDR record shows a long-term decreasing trend in the amplitudes of the multidecadal to centennial fluctuations. This decreasing trend may have resulted from an increasing trend in the winter sea surface temperature in the western North Pacific. The multicentennial variability in sardine abundance during the last millennium is consistent with the variabilities in the abnormal snow index in East Asia and the American tree ring-based Pacific Decadal Oscillation index, suggesting a basin-wide or regional climate-marine ecosystem linkage.

  3. Changes in intense tropical cyclone activity for the western North Pacific during the last decades derived from a regional climate model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowska, Monika; Feser, Frauke; Zhang, Wei; Mei, Wei

    2017-11-01

    An atmospheric regional climate model (CCLM) was employed to dynamically downscale atmospheric reanalyses (NCEP/NCAR 1, ERA 40) over the western North Pacific and South East Asia. This approach is used for the first time to reconstruct a tropical cyclone climatology, which extends beyond the satellite era and serves as an alternative data set for inhomogeneous observation-derived records (Best Track Data sets). The simulated TC climatology skillfully reproduces observations of the recent decades (1978-2010), including spatial patterns, frequency, lifetime, trends, variability on interannual and decadal time scales and their association with the large-scale circulation patterns. These skills, facilitated here with the spectral nudging method, seem to be a prerequisite to understand the factors determining spatio-temporal variability of TC activity over the western North Pacific. Long-term trends (1948-2011 and 1959-2001) in both simulations show a strong increase of intense tropical cyclone activity. This contrasts with pronounced multidecadal variations found in observations. The discrepancy may partly originate from temporal inhomogeneities in atmospheric reanalyses and Best Track Data, which affect both the model-based and observational-based trends. An adjustment, which removes the simulated upward trend, reduces the apparent discrepancy. Ultimately, our observational and modeling analysis suggests an important contribution of multi-decadal fluctuations in the TC activity during the last six decades. Nevertheless, due to the uncertainties associated with the inconsistencies and quality changes of those data sets, we call for special caution when reconstructing long-term TC statistics either from atmospheric reanalyses or Best Track Data.

  4. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  5. Chemical Characteristics of Continental Outflow from Asia to the Troposphere over the Western Pacific Ocean during September - October 1991: Results from PEM-West A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Klemm, K. I.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Blake, D. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Heikes, B. G.; Gregory, G. L.; hide

    1996-01-01

    An important objective of the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A (PEM-West A) was the chemical characterization of the outflow of tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particles from the Asian continent over the western Pacific Ocean. This paper summarizes the chemistry of this outflow during the period September - October 1991. The vertical distributions of CO, C2H6, and NO(x), showed regions of outflow at altitudes below 2 km and from 8 to 12 km. Mixing ratios of CO were approx. equals 130 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), approx. equals 1OOO parts per trillion by volume (pptv) for C2H6, and approx. equals 100 pptv for NO(x) in both of these regions. Direct outflow of Asian industrial materials was clearly evident at altitudes below 2 km, where halocarbon tracer compounds such as CH3CCl3 and C2Cl4 were enhanced about threefold compared to aged Pacific air. The source attribution of species outflowing from Asia to the Pacific at 8-12 km altitude was not straightforward. Above 10 km altitude there were substantial enhancements of NO(y), O3, CO, CH4, SO2, C2H6, C3H8, C2H2, and aerosol Pb-210 but not halocarbon industrial tracers. These air masses were rich in nitrogen relative to sulfur and contained ratios of C2H2/CO and C3H8/C2H6 (approx. equals l.5 and 0.1 respectively) indicative of several- day-old combustion emissions. It is unclear if these emissions were of Asian origin, or if they were rapidly transported to this region from Europe by the high wind speeds in this tropospheric region (60 - 70 m/s). The significant cyclonic activity over Asia at this time could have transported to the upper troposphere emissions from biomass burning in Southeast Asia or emissions from the extensive use of various biomass materials for cooking and space heating. Apparently, the emissions in the upper troposphere were brought there by wet convective systems since water-soluble gases and aerosols were depleted in these air masses. Near 9 km altitude there was a distinct

  6. DARWIN Y LOS DILEMAS SOCIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO ROSAS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Describo el proyecto de explicación darwiniana de la moral siguiendo los lineamientos básicos de Darwin, como fueron expuestos en el Origen del hombre. A diferencia de la interpretación tradicional, sostengo que Darwin no asumió, y que no es forzoso asumir en una perspectiva darwiniana, un conflicto inevitable entre la selección individual y la selección de grupo en la explicación de la moral. Ambas trabajan en sinergia favoreciendo los rasgos que soportan el comportamiento moral en humanos. Sostengo también que de este proyecto se derivan dos enseñanzas importantes, una para la filosofía moral y otra para la concepción de la selección natural. La primera es que los dilemas sociales están en el corazón de la moral humana; la segunda es que la cooperación está en el núcleo de la selección natural. Ilustro el segundo punto con investigaciones recientes sobre la evolución de los organismos multicelulares.

  7. Tectonic block rotation, arc curvature, and back-arc rifting: Insights into these processes in the Mediterranean and the western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, L M; Ellis, S [GNS Science, PO Box 30368, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mann, P [Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States)], E-mail: l.wallace@gns.cri.nz

    2008-07-01

    The fastest modern-day tectonic block rotations on Earth (up to 9 degrees/Myr) occur in the forearcs of convergent plate margins where a transition from collision of a bathymetric high to subduction of normal oceanic crust occurs. GPS techniques have enabled accurate documentation of the kinematics of these rotations, leading us to develop a conceptual model where the change from collision to subduction exerts a torque on microplates within the plate boundary zone, causing them to spin rapidly about an axis at the collision point. We have investigated geophysical and geological data from several active plate boundaries (from the western Pacific and Mediterranean regions) to document a compelling spatial and temporal relationship between the transition from collision to subduction, plate boundary curvature, and rapid tectonic block rotations. In some cases, these microplate rotations can initiate back-arc rifting. We also present numerical modelling results supporting our conceptual model for block rotations at collision/subduction transition. Our results suggest that the rate of microplate rotation depends on the incoming indentor velocity, and can be greatly enhanced by: (1) extensional stresses acting at the subduction interface (possibly due to slab roll back), and (2) a low-viscosity back-arc. Where viscosity of the back-arc is low, forearc microplate rotation dominates. In contrast, tectonic escape of strike-slip fault-bounded microplates is predicted in areas where the back-arc viscosity is high. Previous workers have suggested that the kinematics of the Anatolian block and back-arc rifting in the Aegean are influenced by some combination of forces associated with Arabia/Eurasia collision, and/or subduction (including slab rollback) at the Hellenic trench. Based on previous work from active western Pacific arcs, we propose that the collision of two separate indentors (Arabian promontory in the east, Apulian platform in the west), is a fundamental tectonic

  8. Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins (‘snubfin’ and ‘humpback dolphins’, hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as ‘near threatened’ by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05–0.09; Pgenetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin. PMID:24988113

  9. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M; Kopps, Anna M; Allen, Simon J; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; Pdolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin.

  10. Importance of Ekman transport and gyre circulation change on seasonal variation of surface dissolved iron in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanowatari, Takuya; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Uchimoto, Keisuke; Nishioka, Jun; Mitsudera, Humio; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2017-05-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and it constitutes an important element in the marine carbon cycle in the ocean. This study examined the mechanisms controlling seasonal variation of dissolved Fe (dFe) in the western subarctic North Pacific (WSNP), using an ocean general circulation model coupled with a simple biogeochemical model incorporating a dFe cycle fed by two major sources (atmospheric dust and continental shelf sediment). The model reproduced the seasonal cycle of observed concentrations of dFe and macronutrients at the surface in the Oyashio region with maxima in winter (February-March) and minima in summer (July-September), although the simulated seasonal amplitudes are a half of the observed values. Analysis of the mixed-layer dFe budget indicated that both local vertical entrainment and lateral advection are primary contributors to the wintertime increase in dFe concentration. In early winter, strengthened northwesterly winds excite southward Ekman transport and Ekman upwelling over the western subarctic gyre, transporting dFe-rich water southward. In mid to late winter, the southward western boundary current of the subarctic gyre and the outflow from the Sea of Okhotsk also bring dFe-rich water to the Oyashio region. The contribution of atmospheric dust to the dFe budget is several times smaller than these ocean transport processes in winter. These results suggest that the westerly wind-induced Ekman transport and gyre circulation systematically influence the seasonal cycle of WSNP surface dFe concentration.

  11. Distribution of {delta}{sup 14}C in western North Pacific and tracing carbons of human origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Takafumi; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Togawa, Orihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment; Watanabe, Shuichi; Tsunogai, Shizuo [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Kuji, Tomoyuki [Japan marine Sience Fundation, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Seawater were collected at six points, 0deg to 48degN around 165degE. Dissolved inorganic carbonates was reduced into graphite. The ratio C-11/C-12 was measured by the accelerator mass analyzer. {sup 14}C concentration was calculated from {delta}{sup 13}C value calculated from the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio. {sup 14}C resulting from the nuclear weapon test was calculated by comparing estimated {sup 14}C and real {sup 14}C concentration. It was compared with that in 1970s. {sup 14}Cbomb has dissolved into North Pacific Intermediate Water in Arctic latitude, which has moved to Mid-latitude. (A. Yamamoto)

  12. Community structures of actively growing bacteria shift along a north-south transect in the western North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Akito; Hamasaki, Koji

    2008-04-01

    Bacterial community structures and their activities in the ocean are tightly coupled with organic matter fluxes and thus control ocean biogeochemical cycles. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), halogenated nucleoside and thymidine analogue, has been recently used to monitor actively growing bacteria (AGB) in natural environments. We labelled DNA of proliferating cells in seawater bacterial assemblages with BrdU and determined community structures of the bacteria that were possible key species in mediating biochemical reactions in the ocean. Surface seawater samples were collected along a north-south transect in the North Pacific in October 2003 and subjected to BrdU magnetic beads immunocapture and PCR-DGGE (BUMP-DGGE) analysis. Change of BrdU-incorporated community structures reflected the change of water masses along a north-south transect from subarctic to subtropical gyres in the North Pacific. We identified 25 bands referred to AGB as BrdU-incorporated phylotypes, belonging to Alphaproteobacteria (5 bands), Betaproteobacteria (1 band), Gammaproteobacteria (4 bands), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group bacteria (5 bands), Gram-positive bacteria (6 bands), and Cyanobacteria (4 bands). BrdU-incorporated phylotypes belonging to Vibrionales, Alteromonadales and Gram-positive bacteria appeared only at sampling stations in a subtropical gyre, while those belonging to Roseobacter-related bacteria and CFB group bacteria appeared at the stations in both subarctic and subtropical gyres. Our result revealed phylogenetic affiliation of AGB and their dynamic change along with north-south environmental gradients in open oceans. Different species of AGB utilize different amount and kinds of substrates, which can affect the change of organic matter fluxes along transect.

  13. Interannual variability of human plague occurrence in the Western United States explained by tropical and North Pacific Ocean climate variability.

    OpenAIRE

    Ari, Tamara Ben; Gershunov, Alexander; Tristan, Rouyer; Cazelles, Bernard; Gage, Kenneth; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Plague is a vector-borne, highly virulent zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It persists in nature through transmission between its hosts (wild rodents) and vectors (fleas). During epizootics, the disease expands and spills over to other host species such as humans living in or close to affected areas. Here, we investigate the effect of large-scale climate variability on the dynamics of human plague in the western United States using a 56-year ti...

  14. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  15. Phylogeny of Darwin's finches as revealed by mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A; O'hUigin, C; Figueroa, F; Grant, P R; Grant, B R; Tichy, H; Klein, J

    1999-04-27

    Darwin's finches comprise a group of passerine birds first collected by Charles Darwin during his visit to the Galápagos Archipelago. The group, a textbook example of adaptive radiation (the diversification of a founding population into an array of species differentially adapted to diverse environmental niches), encompasses 14 currently recognized species, of which 13 live on the Galápagos Islands and one on the Cocos Island in the Pacific Ocean. Although Darwin's finches have been studied extensively by morphologists, ecologists, and ethologists, their phylogenetic relationships remain uncertain. Here, sequences of two mtDNA segments, the cytochrome b and the control region, have been used to infer the evolutionary history of the group. The data reveal the Darwin's finches to be a monophyletic group with the warbler finch being the species closest to the founding stock, followed by the vegetarian finch, and then by two sister groups, the ground and the tree finches. The Cocos finch is related to the tree finches of the Galápagos Islands. The traditional classification of ground finches into six species and tree finches into five species is not reflected in the molecular data. In these two groups, ancestral polymorphisms have not, as yet, been sorted out among the cross-hybridizing species.

  16. Radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the ocean interior of the western North Pacific Ocean through 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Inomata, Yayoi; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Oka, Eitarou; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke

    2017-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major pathways, direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. Activities of radiocaesium released from FNPP1 accident were measured as vertical profiles at 11 stations in 2011, at 14 stations in 2012, at 13 station in 2015 and at 6 stations in 2016 in the North Pacific Ocean to study transport processes in the ocean interior of the North Pacific Ocean. The major pathway from surface to ocean interior after injected in the ocean surface can be considered subduction of central mode water (CMW) and subduction of subduction of subtropical mode water (STMW) at potential densities of 26.1-26.3 for CMW and 25.1-25.3 for STMW, respectively. In June 2012 at 34°N-39°N along 165°E corresponding to the formation region of central mode water (CMW) located north of the Kuroshio Extension, 134Cs activity showed a maximum at around potential density= 26.3 kg m-3. 134Cs activity was higher in CMW than in any of the surrounding waters, including STMW. These observations also indicate that the most effective pathway by which FNPP1-derived radiocaesium is introduced into the ocean interior on a 1-year time scale is CMW formation and subduction. In June-July 2015 at 36 deg. N-44 deg. N along 165 deg. E and June 2016 at 38-40N, 165-170 deg. E, there are only very week signal of subduction of Fukushima derived radiocaesium at in the CMW formation region, which means that subducted radiocaesium might have moved eastward from this region. In June 2012, 134Cs activity reached a maximum of 6.12 ± 0.50 Bq m-3 at a 151-m depth (potential density, 25.3 kg m-3) at 29 deg. N, 165 deg. E. This subsurface maximum, which was also observed along 149°E, might reflect the southward transport of FNPP1-derived radiocaesium in association with the formation and subduction of subtropical mode water (STMW) from the region south

  17. A Reconstruction of Subtropical Western North Pacific SST Variability Back to 1578, Based on a Porites Coral Sr/Ca Record from the Northern Ryukyus, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Y.; Alibert, C.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We present a seasonal reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST) from 1578 to 2008, based on a Porites coral Sr/Ca record from the northern Ryukyus, within the Kuroshio southern recirculation gyre. Interannual SST anomalies are generally 0.5°C, making Sr/Ca-derived SST reconstructions a challenging task. Replicate measurements along adjacent coral growth axes, enabled by the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique used here, give evidence of rather large uncertainties. Nonetheless, derived winter SST anomalies are significantly correlated with the Western Pacific atmospheric pattern which has a dominant influence on winter temperature in East Asia. Annual mean SSTs show interdecadal variations, notably cold intervals between 1670 and 1700 during the Maunder Minimum (MM) and between 1766 and 1788 characterized by a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Cold summers in 1783 and 1784 coincide with the long-lasting Laki eruption that had a profound impact on the Northern Hemisphere climate, including the severe "Tenmei" famine in Japan. The decades between 1855 and 1900 are significantly cooler than the first half of the twentieth century, while those between 1700 and 1765, following the MM, are warmer than average. SST variability in the Ryukyus is only marginally influenced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, so that external forcing remains the main driver of low-frequency temperature changes. However, the close connection between the Kuroshio extension (KE) and its recirculation gyre suggests that decadal SST anomalies associated with the KE front also impact the Ryukyus, and there is a possible additional role for feedback of the Kuroshio-Oyashio variability to the large-scale atmosphere at decadal timescale.

  18. Climate Prediction Center Darwin Sea Level Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Darwin sea level pressures and anomalies during 1951-present. The anomalies are departures...

  19. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  20. Darwin's perplexing paradox: intelligent design in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Today, many would assume that Charles Darwin absolutely rejected any claim of intelligent design in nature. However, review of his initial writings reveals that Darwin accepted some aspects of this view. His conceptualization of design was founded on both the cosmological and the teleological ideas from classical natural theology. When Darwin discovered the dynamic process of natural selection, he rejected the old teleological argument as formulated by William Paley. However, he was never able to ignore the powerful experience of the beauty and complexity of an intelligently designed universe, as a whole. He corresponded with Asa Gray on religious themes, particularly touching the problem of pain and intelligent design in nature. The term "intelligent design" was probably introduced by William Whewell. Principally for theological and philosophical reasons, Darwin could only accept the concept for the universe as a whole, not with respect to individual elements of the living world.

  1. Charles Darwin and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretó, Juli; Bada, Jeffrey L; Lazcano, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    When Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species 150 years ago he consciously avoided discussing the origin of life. However, analysis of some other texts written by Darwin, and of the correspondence he exchanged with friends and colleagues demonstrates that he took for granted the possibility of a natural emergence of the first life forms. As shown by notes from the pages he excised from his private notebooks, as early as 1837 Darwin was convinced that "the intimate relation of Life with laws of chemical combination, & the universality of latter render spontaneous generation not improbable". Like many of his contemporaries, Darwin rejected the idea that putrefaction of preexisting organic compounds could lead to the appearance of organisms. Although he favored the possibility that life could appear by natural processes from simple inorganic compounds, his reluctance to discuss the issue resulted from his recognition that at the time it was possible to undertake the experimental study of the emergence of life.

  2. Darwinizing the Danes, 1859-1909

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.; Gregersen, Niels Henrik; Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Charles Darwin is a crucial figure in nineteenth-century science with an extensive and varied reception in different countries and disciplines. His theory had a revolutionary impact not only on biology, but also on other natural sciences and the new social sciences. The term ‘Darwinism', already...... popular in Darwin's lifetime, ranged across many different areas and ideological aspects. and his own ideas about the implications of evolution for human cognitive, emotional, social and ethical capacities were often interpreted in a way that did not mirror his own intentions. The implications...... for religious, philosophical and political issues and institutions remain as momentous today as in his own time. This volume conveys the many-sidedness of Darwin's reception and exhibit his far-reaching impact on our self- understanding as human beings....

  3. Dudley Knox Library Welcomes Robert Darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, John

    2015-01-01

    A slide show featuring Robert Darwin, Hollywood scriptwriter, Actor and Producer and an Electronics Technician's Mate 3rd Class at the Naval Training School, Del Monte, to accompany his Knox Talk at the Dudley Knox Library.

  4. Quantum Darwinism in hazy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech

    2010-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. After a general introduction to this framework, we demonstrate how non-ideal initial states of the environment (e.g., mixed states) affect its ability to act as a communication channel for information about the system. The environment's capacity for transmitting information is directly related to its ability to increase its entropy. Therefore, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information. However, despite this, the environment almost always redundantly transmits information about the system.

  5. Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2009-12-01

    Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent Champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a `copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Arguments are presented for an isomorphism between Bayesian Methods and Darwinian processes. Universal Darwinism, as the term has been developed by Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, is the collection of scientific theories which explain the creation and evolution of their subject matter as due to the Operation of Darwinian processes. These subject matters span the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences. The principle of Maximum Entropy states that Systems will evolve to states of highest entropy subject to the constraints of scientific law. This principle may be inverted to provide illumination as to the nature of scientific law. Our best cosmological theories suggest the universe contained much less complexity during the period shortly after the Big Bang than it does at present. The scientific subject matter of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences has been created since that time. An explanation is proposed for the existence of this subject matter as due to the evolution of constraints in the form of adaptations imposed on Maximum Entropy. It is argued these adaptations were discovered and instantiated through the Operations of a succession of Darwinian processes.

  6. Sisyphean evolution in Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Bailey D; Zink, Robert M

    2015-08-01

    The trajectory of speciation involves geographic isolation of ancestral populations followed by divergence by natural selection, genetic drift or sexual selection. Once started, the process may experience fits and starts, as sometimes diverging populations intermittently reconnect. In theory populations might cycle between stages of differentiation and never attain species status, a process we refer to as Sisyphean evolution. We argue that the six putative ground finch species (genus Geospiza) of the Galápagos Islands represent a dramatic example of Sisyphean evolution that has been confused with the standard model of speciation. The dynamic environment of the Galápagos, closely spaced islands, and frequent dispersal and introgression have prevented the completion of the speciation process. We suggest that morphological clusters represent locally adapted ecomorphs, which might mimic, and have been confused with, species, but these ecomorphs do not form separate gene pools and are ephemeral in space and time. Thus the pattern of morphological, behavioural and genetic variation supports recognition of a single species of Geospiza, which we suggest should be recognized as Darwin's ground finch (Geospiza magnirostris). We argue that instead of providing an icon of insular speciation and adaptive radiation, which is featured in nearly every textbook on evolutionary biology, Darwin's ground finch represents a potentially more interesting phenomenon, one of transient morphs trapped in an unpredictable cycle of Sisyphean evolution. Instead of revealing details of the origin of species, the mechanisms underlying the transient occurrence of ecomorphs provide one of the best illustrations of the antagonistic effects of natural selection and introgression. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Organic composition of single and submicron particles in different regions of western North America and the eastern Pacific during INTEX-B 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Day

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Single particles were collected from an aircraft platform as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – Phase B (INTEX-B conducted over the eastern Pacific and western North America. Single particle spectra were obtained using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS. Bulk submicron particles were also collected and organic functional group and elemental concentrations were quantified with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Single particle spectra were classified into metaclasses associated with different sources and atmospheric processing. Particles with spectra indicative of secondary organic aerosol production and combustion sources were found at several locations and a range of altitudes. At lower altitudes, particles with spectra resembling soil dust and biomass burning fingerprints were commonly observed. The types of particle spectra most commonly observed aloft were similar to those observed during a previous study over the northwestern Pacific, indicating that long-range transport may have been an important particle source. Single particle spectra provided evidence that condensation and surface-limited oxidation contributed to particle growth. Organic mass (OM concentrations ranged from 1 to 7 μg m−3 and averaged 2.4–4.1 μg m−3. Alkane functional groups were the largest fraction of OM, averaging 1.9–2.1 μg m−3 or 50–76% of OM, followed by alcohol functional groups (0.35–0.39 μg m−3, 9–14%. Organic and elemental concentrations are compared within and among geographical air mass regions: "Pacific" free troposphere, "Continental" free troposphere, "Seattle" metropolitan region, and the California "Central Valley". OM concentrations were highest and most variable in the Central Valley (3.5±2 μg m−3. Oxygen-to-carbon ratios were

  8. Body size and substrate type modulate movement by the western Pacific crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster solaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Cowan, Zara-Louise; Nadler, Lauren E; Caballes, Ciemon F; Hoey, Andrew S; Messmer, Vanessa; Fletcher, Cameron S; Westcott, David A; Ling, Scott D

    2017-01-01

    The movement capacity of the crown-of-thorns starfishes (Acanthaster spp.) is a primary determinant of both their distribution and impact on coral assemblages. We quantified individual movement rates for the Pacific crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster solaris) ranging in size from 75-480 mm total diameter, across three different substrates (sand, flat consolidated pavement, and coral rubble) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The mean (±SE) rate of movement for smaller (350 mm total diameter. Mean (±SE) rates of movement varied with substrate type, being much higher on sand (36.53 ± 1.31 cm/ min) compared to consolidated pavement (28.04 ± 1.15 cm/ min) and slowest across coral rubble (17.25 ± 0.63 cm/ min). If average rates of movement measured here can be sustained, in combination with strong directionality, displacement distances of adult A. solaris could range from 250-520 m/ day, depending on the prevailing substrate. Sustained movement of A. solaris is, however, likely to be highly constrained by habitat heterogeneity, energetic constraints, resource availability, and diurnal patterns of activity, thereby limiting their capacity to move between reefs or habitats.

  9. Body size and substrate type modulate movement by the western Pacific crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster solaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan S Pratchett

    Full Text Available The movement capacity of the crown-of-thorns starfishes (Acanthaster spp. is a primary determinant of both their distribution and impact on coral assemblages. We quantified individual movement rates for the Pacific crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster solaris ranging in size from 75-480 mm total diameter, across three different substrates (sand, flat consolidated pavement, and coral rubble on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The mean (±SE rate of movement for smaller (350 mm total diameter. Mean (±SE rates of movement varied with substrate type, being much higher on sand (36.53 ± 1.31 cm/ min compared to consolidated pavement (28.04 ± 1.15 cm/ min and slowest across coral rubble (17.25 ± 0.63 cm/ min. If average rates of movement measured here can be sustained, in combination with strong directionality, displacement distances of adult A. solaris could range from 250-520 m/ day, depending on the prevailing substrate. Sustained movement of A. solaris is, however, likely to be highly constrained by habitat heterogeneity, energetic constraints, resource availability, and diurnal patterns of activity, thereby limiting their capacity to move between reefs or habitats.

  10. Numerical tsunami simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We carried out tsunami numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive tsunami outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 tsunami source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum tsunami heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the tsunami source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The tsunami source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the tsunami propagation is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of tsunami we simulated tsunamis for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai

  11. 20-50-day oscillation of summer Yangtze rainfall in response to intraseasonal variations in the subtropical high over the western North Pacific and South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jiangyu; Wu, Guoxiong [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China); Sun, Zhang [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China); Zhejiang Meteorological Observatory, Hangzhou (China)

    2010-04-15

    The spatio-temporal variability in summer rainfall within eastern China is identified based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of daily rain-gauge precipitation data for the period 1979-2003. Spatial coherence of rainfall is found in the Yangtze Basin, and a wavelet transform is applied to the corresponding principal component to capture the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of Yangtze rainfall. The ensemble mean wavelet spectrum, representing statistically significant intraseasonal variability, shows a predominant oscillation in summer Yangtze rainfall with a period of 20-50 days; a 10-20-day oscillation is pronounced during June and July. This finding suggests that the 20-50-day oscillation is a major agent in regulating summer Yangtze rainfall. Composite analyses reveal that the 20-50-day oscillation of summer Yangtze rainfall arises in response to intraseasonal variations in the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which in turn is modulated by a Rossby wave-like coupled circulation-convection system that propagates northward and northwestward from the equatorial western Pacific. When an anomalous cyclone associated with this Rossby wave-like system reaches the South China Sea (SCS) and Philippine Sea, the WNPSH retreats northeastward due to a reduction in local pressure. Under these conditions, strong monsoonal southwesterlies blow mainly toward the SCS-Philippine Sea, while dry conditions form in the Yangtze Basin, with a pronounced divergent flow pattern. In contrast, the movement of an anomalous anticyclone over the SCS-Philippine Sea results in the southwestward extension of the WNPSH; consequently, the tropical monsoonal southwesterlies veer to the northeast over the SCS and then converge toward the Yangtze Basin, producing wet conditions. Therefore, the 20-50-day oscillation of Yangtze rainfall is also manifest as a seesaw pattern in convective anomalies between the Yangtze Basin and the SCS-Philippine Sea. A considerable zonal

  12. The Evolution of the DARWIN System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joan D.; Filman, Robert E.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    DARWIN is a web-based system for presenting the results of wind-tunnel testing and computational model analyses to aerospace designers. DARWIN captures the data, maintains the information, and manages derived knowledge (e.g. visualizations, etc.) of large quantities of aerospace data. In addition, it provides tools and an environment for distributed collaborative engineering. We are currently constructing the third version of the DARWIN software system. DARWN's development history has, in some sense, tracked the development of web applications. The 1995 DARWIN reflected the latest web technologies--CGI scripts, Java applets and a three-layer architecture--available at that time. The 1997 version of DARWIN expanded on this base, making extensive use of a plethora of web technologies, including Java/JavaScript and Dynamic HTML. While more powerful, this multiplicity has proven to be a maintenance and development headache. The year 2000 version of DARWIN will provide a more stable and uniform foundation environment, composed primarily of Java mechanisms. In this paper, we discuss this evolution, comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the various architectural approaches and describing the lessons learned about building complex web applications.

  13. Darwin's Galapagos finches in modern biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2010-04-12

    One of the classic examples of adaptive radiation under natural selection is the evolution of 15 closely related species of Darwin's finches (Passeriformes), whose primary diversity lies in the size and shape of their beaks. Since Charles Darwin and other members of the Beagle expedition collected these birds on the Galápagos Islands in 1835 and introduced them to science, they have been the subjects of intense research. Many biology textbooks use Darwin's finches to illustrate a variety of topics of evolutionary theory, such as speciation, natural selection and niche partitioning. Today, as this Theme Issue illustrates, Darwin's finches continue to be a very valuable source of biological discovery. Certain advantages of studying this group allow further breakthroughs in our understanding of changes in recent island biodiversity, mechanisms of speciation and hybridization, evolution of cognitive behaviours, principles of beak/jaw biomechanics as well as the underlying developmental genetic mechanisms in generating morphological diversity. Our objective was to bring together some of the key workers in the field of ecology and evolutionary biology who study Darwin's finches or whose studies were inspired by research on Darwin's finches. Insights provided by papers collected in this Theme Issue will be of interest to a wide audience.

  14. Search for extraterrestrial planets: the DARWIN mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcio, Luigi; Karlsson, Anders; Bavdaz, Marcos; Jagemann, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The ESA Darwin mission is primarily devoted to the detection of earth-like exoplanets and the spectroscopic characterization of their atmospheres for key tracers of life. Darwin is implemented as a free-flying stellar interferometer operating in the 6.5-20 micron wavelength range, and passively cooled to 40 K. The stellar flux is suppressed by destructive interference (nulling) over the full optical bandwidth. The planetary signal is extracted from the zodiacal background signature by modulating the optical response of the interferometer. The Darwin mission concept has evolved considerably in the past years. The original concept, based on six 1.5 m telescopes, has been replaced by more efficient designs using three to four three-meter class apertures. A novel 3D architecture is being evaluated, together with the conventional planar one, bearing the potential for significant volume and mass savings and enhanced straylight rejection. A number of technology development activities have been successfully completed, including optical metrology, optical delay lines, and single-mode infrared optical fibers. A second iteration of the Darwin System Assessment Study has been kicked off end 2005, aiming to consolidate the overall mission architecture and the preliminary design of the Darwin mission concept. This paper illustrates the current status of the Darwin mission, with special emphasis on the optical configuration and the technology development programme in the area of optics.

  15. Analysis of Spatial Distribution And Statistical Characteristics of Typhoon In The Western Pacific Based On Spatial Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingmei; Gong, Adu; Li, Jing; Chen, Yanling

    2017-04-01

    Typhoon is a kind of strong weather system formed in tropical or subtropical oceans. China, located on the west side of the Pacific Ocean, is the country affected by the typhoon most frequently and seriously. To provide theoretical support for effectively reducing the damage caused by typhoon, the variation law of typhoon frequency is explored by analyzing the distribution of typhoon path and landing sites, sphere of influence, and the statistical characteristics of typhoon for every 5 years. In this study, the typhoon point data set was formed using the Best Path Data Set (0.1 ° × 0.1 °) compiled by China Meteorological Administration from 1950 to 2014. By using the tool of Point to Line in software ArgGIS, the typhoon paths are produced from the point data set. The influence sphere of typhoon is calculated from Euclidean distance of typhoon, whose threshold is set to 1°.The typhoon landing site was extracted by using the Chinese vector layer provided by the research group. By counting the frequency of typhoons, the landing sites, and the sphere of influence, some conclusions can be drawn as follows. In recent years, the number of typhoons generated has been reduced, typhoon intensity is relatively stable, but the impact of typhoon area has increased. Specific performance can be seen from the typhoon statistical and spatial distribution characteristics in China. In terms of frequency of typhoon landing, the number of typhoons landing in China has increased while the total number of typhoons is reduced. In terms of distribution of landing sites, the range of typhoon landing fluctuates. However, during the process of fluctuation, the range is gradually expanding. For example, in south of China, Hainan Island is affected by typhoon more frequently meanwhile China's northeast region is also gradually affected, which is extremely unusual before. Key words: spatial point model, distribution of typhoon, frequency of typhoon

  16. Algal class abundances in the western equatorial Pacific: Estimation from HPLC measurements of chloroplast pigments using CHEMTAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, D. J.; Higgins, H. W.; Mackey, M. D.; Holdsworth, D.

    1998-09-01

    Samplels for the analysis of phytoplankton photosynthesis pigments were collected from the equatorial Pacific (5°N to 15°S along 155°E) in October 1990 as part of the Australian contribution to the JGOFS program. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments were measured by HPLC using a diode-array detector. A PC-based computer program was used to optimise the pigment ratios and to estimate the contributions of 10 algal classes to the total chlorophyll a concentration at each location and in 7 separate depth bands. For the pigments that occur in more than one algal class, the pigment: chlorophyll a ratios for 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin and 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (chrysophytes and haptophytes), neoxanthin (prasinophytes, euglenophytes and chlorophytes) and chlorophyll b (prasinophytes, euglenophytes, prochlorophytes and chlorophytes) increase with depth, while those of violaxanthin (prasinophytes and chlorophytes), diadinoxanthin (dinoflagellates, chrysophytes, haptophytes, euglenophytes and diatoms), lutein (prasinophytes and chlorophytes) and, zeaxanthin (prasinophytes, cyanobacteria, prochlorophytes and chlorophytes) decrease with depth. Peridinin: chlorophyll a increases with depth in dinoflagellates, while alloxanthin: chlorophyll a decreases with depth in cryptomonads. The only pigment ratio that does not change consistently with depth is that of fucoxanthin, which increases with depth in chrysophytes and haptophytes but decreases in diatoms. Based on their contribution to the total chlorophyll a, cyanobacteria ( Synechococcus) were dominant in the nutrient depleted surface waters, haptophytes were dominant at mid depth (70 m), and prochlorophytes were dominant at depths of 100-125 m. These three algal classes were by far the most important, and each contributed up to 30-40% of the total chloro-phyll a at some depth within the water column. Chlorophytes and chrysophytes contributed up to a maximum of about 12% of the total chlorophyll a, while cryptophytes

  17. The Influence of Darwin on Evolutionary Algorithms from "Dinner with Darwin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbye, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The "Dinner with Darwin" event held at the National Association of Biology Teachers Conference over several successive years represented an innovative forum for exploring the ways that the work of Charles Darwin has had an impact in fields quite far removed from biology. Through a wide-ranging discussion by panel participants, drawn from a number…

  18. Darwin without borders? Looking at 'generalised Darwinism' through the prism of the 'hourglass model'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2011-12-01

    This article critically analyzes the arguments of the 'generalized Darwinism' recently proposed for the analysis of social-economical systems. We argue that 'generalized Darwinism' is both restrictive and empty. It is restrictive because it excludes alternative (non-selectionist) evolutionary mechanisms such as orthogenesis, saltationism and mutationism without any examination of their suitability for modeling socio-economic processes and ignoring their important roles in the development of contemporary evolutionary theory. It is empty, because it reduces Darwinism to an abstract triple-principle scheme (variation, selection and inheritance) thus ignoring the actual structure of Darwinism as a complex and dynamic theoretical structure inseparable from a very detailed system of theoretical constraints. Arguing against 'generalised Darwinism' we present our vision of the history of evolutionary biology with the help of the 'hourglass model' reflecting the internal dynamic of competing theories of evolution.

  19. The large-scale deployment of fish aggregation devices alters environmentally-based migratory behavior of skipjack tuna in the Western Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Wang

    Full Text Available Fish aggregation devices (FADs have been used extensively in the tuna purse seine fishery since the 1980s. This long-term modification of natural habitat has generated discussions as to whether FADs impact movement patterns of tuna species. We examined this question using data collected from the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis fishery. We used the longitudinal gravitational center of catch (G to examine temporal variability in skipjack movement in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, and related this to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO events. We found that in most cases G for free-swimming school sets changed with the onset of ENSO events, while G for floating-object-associated school sets remained relatively constant. This suggests that skipjack exhibit distinguishable behavioral strategies in response to ENSO events: they either react by moving long distances or they associate with floating objects. There has been no previous attempt to evaluate the interaction between FADs and the environmentally-determined movement of skipjack; this study shows evidence of an interaction, which should be considered when managing skipjack populations.

  20. A Milestone in Codifying the Wisdom of Traditional Oriental Medicine: TCM, Kampo, TKM, TVM—WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO published a dictionary-type book entitled ‘WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region’ which has a total of 3259 technical terms which have been commonly used in traditional Chinese (TCM, Japanese (Kampo, Korean (TKM and Vietnamese (TVM medicines. In this comprehensive guide, each term has the English expression, the original Chinese character and a concise English definition. The book covers 3106 terms from basic theories, diagnostics, diseases, various therapeutics including acupuncture and moxibustion and even the English wording of 153 titles which are considered the most important traditional medical classics published in these four countries. A prominent feature of the compilation is the codification format that assigns numbers in hundred decimal units for each category of the section. This type of coding system provides the flexibility for adding more terminologies in the future and is useful for constructing a database for the retrieval of various published scientific articles. Overall, the usage of these standard terminologies is highly desirable to deliver accurate meanings, and ultimately to avoid a variety of expressions for a single term in different scientific manuscripts on Oriental medicine.

  1. Reconstruction of historical changes in northern fur seal prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific through individual-based analysis of dietary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyota, Masashi; Yonezaki, Shiroh

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed long-term dietary records of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to reconstruct historical changes in prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific off northeastern Japan. The nominal relationships between the occurrence frequencies of fishes or squids in fur seal stomachs and the sampling locations reflected the spatial heterogeneity of fish and squid distributions along the shelf-slope-offshore continuum off northeastern Japan, whereas changes in the temporal occurrence frequencies reflected mainly the migration and foraging patterns of the fur seals. The occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs were standardized by using generalized linear models to compensate for sampling biases in space and time. The reconstructed historical trends revealed decadal shifts in relatively high prey abundance-from mackerels in the 1970s to Japanese sardine in the 1980s and myctophids/sparkling enope squids in the 1990s-that were related to decadal shifts in the oceanographic regime. The sequential increase in mackerel and Japanese sardine abundances coincided with the annual catch trends of commercial fisheries. The index of overall prey availability calculated from the standardized occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs was fairly stable over the decades.

  2. Temporal changes in community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during in situ iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Takafumi; Suzuki, Koji; Hayakawa, Maki; Kudo, Isao; Higashi, Seigo; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of iron enrichment in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters on the community composition of heterotrophic bacteria, which are crucial to nutrient recycling and microbial food webs. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA fragments, we investigated the heterotrophic eubacterial community composition in surface waters during an in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SEEDS-II) in the western subarctic Pacific in the summer of 2004. DGGE fingerprints representing the community composition of eubacteria differed inside and outside the iron-enriched patch. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that at least five phylotypes of α-proteobacteria including Roseobacter, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria- Bacteroides (CFB), γ-proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria occurred in almost all samples from the iron-enriched patch. Diatoms did not bloom during SEEDS-II, but the eubacterial composition in the iron-enriched patch was similar to that in diatom blooms observed previously. Although dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation was not detected in surface waters during SEEDS-II, growth of the Roseobacter clade might have been particularly stimulated after iron additions. Two identified phylotypes of CFB were closely related to the genus Saprospira, whose algicidal activity might degrade the phytoplankton assemblages increased by iron enrichment. These results suggest that the responses of heterotrophic bacteria to iron enrichment could differ among phylotypes during SEEDS-II.

  3. A New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Species of Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Western Pacific: Implications for Adaptation, Endemism, and Dispersal of Ostracodes in Chemosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hayato; Yasuhara, Moriaki

    2016-10-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are among the most extreme habitats on Earth. Major research interests in these ecosystems have focused on the anomalous macrofauna, which are nourished by chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts. In contrast, the meiofauna is largely overlooked in this chemosynthetic environment. The present study describes a new species, Thomontocypris shimanagai sp. nov. (Crustacea: Ostracoda), which was collected from the surface of colonies of neoverrucid barnacles and paralvinellid worms on the chimneys at the Myojin-sho submarine caldera. This is the first discovery of an ostracode from deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments in the western Pacific region. In addition to the species description, we discuss three aspects: 1) adaptation, 2) endemism, and 3) dispersal strategy of the hydrothermal vent ostracodes. Regarding these aspects, we conclude the following: 1) the new species may feed on sloughed-off tissues, mucus secretions, or fecal pellets of sessile organisms, rather than depend on chemoautotrophic bacteria as symbionts for energy; 2) as has been pointed out by other studies, Thomontocypris does not likely represent a vent-specific genus; however, this new species is considered to be endemic at the species level, as it has not been found outside of the type locality; and 3) this new species may have migrated from adjacent deep-sea chemosynthesis-based habitats, such as hydrothermal vents, with wood falls potentially having acted as stepping stones.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, S; Corriero, A; Cirillo, F; Deflorio, M; Brill, R; Griffiths, M; Lopata, A L; de la Serna, J M; Bridges, C R; Kime, D E; De Metrio, G

    2005-01-18

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans.

  5. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32 and Roebuck Bays (n = 25, and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19 and the North West Cape (n = 18. All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins and 13 (for humpback dolphins microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001 and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001. The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06 to 0.13 (0.03-0.24. These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for

  6. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from moored buoy casts in the Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Western U.S., East Coast - US/Canada, and Great lakes from 01 November 2000 to 30 November 2000 (NODC Accession 0000351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Western U.S., East Coast -...

  7. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific by various Soviet Union institutions from 1925-11-16 to 1989-05-18 (NODC Accession 0075099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific...

  8. Physical, wind wave spectra, and other data from meteorological sensors, moored buoy casts, thermistors, and accelerometers in fixed locations in the Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Western U.S., Great Lakes, North American Coastline-North, and North American Coastline-South from 01 January 2001 to 31 January 2001 (NODC Accession 0000408)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected from fixed platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Western U.S., Great...

  9. Darwin-industrien i højt gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Darwin-industrien i højt gear. Næste år bliver et 'Darwin-år' - både tilhængere og kritikere gør sig klar. Udgivelsesdato: 12. december......Darwin-industrien i højt gear. Næste år bliver et 'Darwin-år' - både tilhængere og kritikere gør sig klar. Udgivelsesdato: 12. december...

  10. Giuseppe Sergi, "champion" of Darwinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpone, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The Italian anthropologist, psychologist and evolutionist Giuseppe Sergi (1841-1936) may be regarded in some respects today as an "atypical" Darwinist, but, almost paradoxically, he was considered a "champion" of Darwinism by colleagues and commentators of his own time. Probably, two aspects of his work are responsible for this apparent anomaly: his faith in the so-called soft inheritance and his claims regarding a theory concerning the polyphyletic origin of human races. The soft inheritance theory, however, was needed by Sergi to support ideas regarding the complexity of inheritance in man, a fact that, in his opinion, could not completely be put down to mechanical laws, and polygeny was useful when trying to rectify the problem concerning the incompleteness of the fossil record. In both cases, it is possible to show that he was involved in supporting Darwinian theory during the most severe crisis of its consensus in Italy and at International level, between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Finally, the apparent unorthodox features which can be found in Sergi's ideas appear to be, in Kuhnian terms, ad hoc hypotheses put forward by Sergi himself in order to support the paradigm.

  11. Production and air-sea flux of halomethanes in the western subarctic Pacific in relation to phytoplankton pigment concentrations during the iron fertilization experiment (SEEDS II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Toda, Shuji; Suzuki, Koji; Kato, Shungo; Narita, Yasusi; Kurihara, Michiko K.; Akatsuka, Yoko; Oda, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takahiro; Nagao, Ippei; Kudo, Isao; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    Iron could play a key role in controlling phytoplankton biomass and productivity in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions. As a part of the iron fertilization experiment carried out in the western subarctic Pacific from July to August 2004 (Subarctic Pacific iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study II—SEEDS II), we analysed the concentrations of trace gases in the seawater for 12 d following iron fertilization. The mean concentrations of chlorophyll a in the mixed layer (5-30 m depth) increased from 0.94 to 2.81 μg L -1 for 8 d in the iron patch. The mean concentrations of methyl bromide (CH 3Br; 5-30 m depth) increased from 6.4 to 13.4 pmol L -1 for 11 d; the in-patch concentration increased relative to the out-patch concentration. A linear correlation was observed between the concentrations of 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, which is a biomarker of several prymnesiophytes, and CH 3Br in the seawater. After fertilization, the air-sea flux of CH 3Br inside the patch changed from influx to efflux from the ocean. There was no clear evidence for the increase in saturation anomaly of methyl chloride (CH 3Cl) due to iron fertilization. Furthermore, CH 3Cl fluxes did not show a tendency to increase after fertilization of the patch. In contrast to CH 3Br, no change was observed in the concentrations of bromoform (in-patch day 11 and out-patch day 11: 1.7 and 1.7 pmol L -1), dibromomethane (2.1 and 2.2 pmol L -1), and dibromochloromethane (1.0 and 1.2 pmol L -1, respectively). The concentration of isoprene, which is known to have a relationship with chlorophyll a, did not change in this study. The responses of trace gases during SEEDS II differed from the previous findings ( in situ iron enrichment experiment—EisenEx, Southern Ocean iron experiment—SOFeX, and Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study—SERIES). Thus, in order to estimate the concomitant effect of iron fertilization on the climate, it is important to assess the induction of biological

  12. ENSO variability in the western tropical Pacific during the 20th and 14th centuries: preliminary results from a ~700 year coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, M. K.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C.; Maupin, C. R.; Wu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability prior to anthropogenic influence is crucial to understanding natural climate variability and to informing predictions of future climate change. Coral-based climate records from ENSO-sensitive regions provide unique high-resolution archives of past ENSO variability. However, the massive coral most commonly used in climate studies, Porites spp., rarely provide climate record lengths in excess of 200 years. This presents a challenge because recent work suggests that proxy records of ENSO variability need to exceed 500 years in length in order to capture the full range of natural variability of the ENSO system. Here we present preliminary oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from a slower growing, ~700 year long Diploastrea heliopora coral from Lambumbu Bay, Vanuatu (LBV; 16.19°S, 167.39°E), located at the southern edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Coral-based climate records from this region have been shown to be reliable recorders of ENSO-related variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The LBV coral was drilled live in 2010 and the bottom of the coral has a U-Th date of 1228 ± 10 CE. Our initial focus is to characterize and compare the geochemical variability recorded in the oldest (14th century) and youngest (20th century) sections of the coral. We observe a δ18O anomaly during the 14th century similar in magnitude to the δ18O anomaly associated with the 1997-1998 ENSO warm-phase event. We also observe that coral δ18O values in the 14th century are enriched by ~ 0.9‰, relative to modern coral δ18O values, which likely reflects salinity differences. Finally, 20th century coral δ18O variability agrees well with a previously published δ18O record from a Porites lutea coral (Sabine Bank, Vanuatu, ~130 km away) providing us with confidence in using Diploastrea heliopora corals for multicentury, continuous coral-based paleoclimate reconstructions.

  13. Chemical characteristics of continental outflow from Asia to the troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean during February-March 1994: Results from PEM-West B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Lefer, B. L.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E.; Heikes, B. G.; Merrill, J. T.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Singh, H. B.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Pueschel, R. F.

    1997-12-01

    We present here the chemical composition of outflow from the Asian continent to the atmosphere over the western Pacific basin during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) in February-March 1994. Comprehensive measurements of important tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particulate matter were performed from the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory. Backward 5 day isentropic trajectories were used to partition the outflow from two major source regions: continental north (>20°N) and continental south (industrial solvent vapors such as C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, and C6H6, intermixed with the combustion emission products C2H2, C2H6, CO, and NO. The mixing ratios of all species were up to tenfold greater in outflow from the continental north compared to the continental south source region, with 210Pb concentrations reaching 38 fCi (10-15 curies) per standard cubic meter. In the upper troposphere we again observed significant enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-10 km altitude range, but water-soluble trace gases and aerosol species were depleted. These observations suggest that ground level emissions were lofted to the upper troposphere by wet convective systems which stripped water-soluble components from these air parcels. There were good correlations between C2H2 and CO and C2H6 (r2=0.70-0.97) in these air parcels and much weaker ones between C2H2 and H2O2 or CH3OOH (r2 ≈0.50). These correlations were the strongest in the continental north outflow where combustion inputs appeared to be recent (1-2 days old). Ozone and PAN showed general correlation in these same air parcels but not with the combustion products. It thus appears that several source inputs were intermixed in these upper tropospheric air masses, with possible contributions from European or Middle Eastern source regions. In aged marine air mixing ratios of O3 (≈20 parts per billion by volume) and PAN (≤10 parts per trillion by volume) were nearly identical at H2O2 during PEM-West A

  14. Darwin teleologist? Design in The orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    Focusing on "The Orchids," this article aims at disentangling the concepts of teleology, design and natural theology. It refers to several contemporary critics of Darwin (Kölliker, Argyll, Royer, Candolle, Delpino) to challenge Huxley's interpretation that Darwin's system was "a deathblow" to teleology. "The Orchids" seems rather to be a "flank-movement" (Gray): it departs from the Romantic theories of transmutation and the "imaginary examples" of the Origin; it focuses on empirical data and on teleological structures. Although Darwin refers to natural selection, his readers mock him for his fascination for delicate morphological contrivances and co-adaptations - a sign that he was inescapably lured to finality. Some even suggested that his system was a "theodicy". In the history of Darwinism, "The Orchids" reveals "another" quite unexpected and heterodox Darwin: freed from the hypothetical fancies of the Origin, and even suggesting a new kind of physico-theology. 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term palaeomagnetic secular variation and excursions from the western Equatorial Pacific Ocean (MIS2-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steve; Schwartz, Martha; Stott, Lowell

    2017-05-01

    New palaeomagnetic results are presented for the Pleistocene (MIS2-4) portion of deep-sea core MD98-2181 (MD81; Devao Gulf, Philippine Islands). MD81 is the highest resolution (∼50 cm ky-1) palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) record for ∼12-70 ka ever recovered from equatorial latitudes (±15°). Magnetic studies indicate that MD81 has a stable natural remanence with directional uncertainties (MAD angles) typically less than 3°. We have also recovered a relative palaeointensity estimate from these sediments based on normalization to isothermal remanence. We have correlated our relative palaeointensity record with high-resolution relative palaeointensity records from the North Atlantic Ocean. The MD81 ages are always within ±500 yr of the North Atlantic records over the entire core. We also correlate our PSV record with another published PSV record from Indonesia (MD34). We are able to correlate 25 inclination features, 25 declination features and 24 relative palaeointensity features between MD81 and MD34. We identify three intervals of 'anomalous' directions in the cores (based on >2σ deviation from mean directions). One of these intervals contains true excursional directions and is dated to ∼40.5 ka. We associate this interval with the Laschamp Excursion. We also note two other intervals that have anomalous directions, but no true excursional directions. These intervals occur around ∼34.5 and ∼61.5 ka and we associate them with the Mono Lake Excursion (∼33.5-34.5 ka) in western USA and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea Excursion (∼61 ± 2 ka) in the North Atlantic Ocean. We view our 'anomalous' PSV in the three intervals to be truly anomalous even though most directions are not truly excursional. We think that it is time to reconsider the definition of what is 'anomalous' PSV or excursions. To do that we need good-quality PSV records from several regions that have reproducible records of normal PSV, excursional waveforms and relative palaeointensity

  16. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  17. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  18. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  19. Darwin and Darwinism: the (alleged) social implications of the origin of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, H Allen

    2009-11-01

    Most scientific theories, even revolutionary ones, change the practice of a particular science but have few consequences for culture or society at large. But Darwinism, it has often been said, is different in this respect. Since the publication of The Origin of Species, many have claimed that Darwinism has a number of profound social implications. Here, I briefly consider three of these: the economic, the political, and the religious. I suggest that, for the most part, these supposed implications have been misconstrued or exaggerated. Indeed, it is reasonably clear that the chain of implication sometimes primarily ran in the opposite direction-from, for instance, economics and political theory to Darwinism.

  20. Darwin and Darwinism: The (Alleged) Social Implications of The Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, H. Allen

    2009-01-01

    Most scientific theories, even revolutionary ones, change the practice of a particular science but have few consequences for culture or society at large. But Darwinism, it has often been said, is different in this respect. Since the publication of The Origin of Species, many have claimed that Darwinism has a number of profound social implications. Here, I briefly consider three of these: the economic, the political, and the religious. I suggest that, for the most part, these supposed implications have been misconstrued or exaggerated. Indeed, it is reasonably clear that the chain of implication sometimes primarily ran in the opposite direction—from, for instance, economics and political theory to Darwinism. PMID:19933232

  1. Ferdinand von Mueller's interactions with Charles Darwin and his response to Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A M

    2010-01-01

    Although Ferdinand Mueller (later von Mueller), Government Botanist of Victoria, opposed Darwin's theories when "On the origin of species" was published, there has been little detailed study of the nature of Mueller's opposition from 1860, when he received a presentation copy of "Origin," to his death in 1896. Analysis of Mueller's correspondence and publications shows that he remained a theist and misunderstood key aspects of Darwin's theory. However, Mueller did come to accept that natural selection could operate within a species, although never accepting it could produce speciation. Despite these differences he retained a cordial relationship with Darwin.

  2. Darwin as a student of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    In The Expression of the Emotions, Charles Darwin documents evolutionary continuity between animals and humans, emphasizing the universality of expressions in man. Most of the book addresses human behavior, and its influence on the study of animal behavior has been weak. The issue of natural selection is remarkably absent from this book, which relies on the inheritance of acquired characters rather than on a genuine Darwinian logic. Yet Konrad Lorenz considered Darwin to be a forerunner of behavioral biology. The reason was to be found in The Descent of Man and chapter VIII of The Origin of Species, where Darwin provides an explanation of behavior through selection, stating that the same mechanisms explaining morphological changes also account for gradual improvements in instincts. He assessed the accuracy of his evolutionary theory by directly studying animal behavior, hence laying the foundations of behavioral research for the next century. 2009 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. DARWIN mission and configuration trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Oswald; Ergenzinger, Klaus; Flatscher, Reinhold; Johann, Ulrich

    2006-06-01

    The European DARWIN mission aims at detection and characterization of Earth-like exo-planets as well as at aperture synthesis imaging. The method to be applied is nulling interferometry in the mid-infrared wavelength regime. The DARWIN instrument consists of a flotilla of free-flying spacecraft, one spacecraft carrying the optics for beam recombination and three or more spacecraft carrying the large collector telescopes. We provide a trade-off of different configuration, payload, and mission concepts. We discuss various two and three-dimensional aperture configurations with three or four telescopes, beam routing schemes, phase modulation methods, and beam recombination and detection schemes as well as different launch vehicle configurations, launch scenarios, and orbits. We trade the different DARWIN concepts by assessing the performance in terms of science return, development risk, and planning.

  4. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-06-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric focus. The center of activity then switched to Latin America where a group of scholars coalesced in the mid 1990s, seemingly related to the maturation of the history of science as a discrete discipline there somewhat earlier. When interest in Europe revived during the last decade, the center of gravity had moved both eastward, to the former Society bloc countries (a reflection of the institutionalization of the history of science there), and north to Scandinavia. Recently, interest in the topic has emerged in the Islamic World. The subtext of the expansion of this topic is modernization.

  5. Shipboard determination of radiocesium in seawater after the Fukushima accident: results from the 2011-2012 Russian expeditions to the Sea of Japan and western North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzaev, V; Nikitin, A; Sevastyanov, A; Artemiev, G; Bruk, G; Ivanov, S

    2014-09-01

    A total of 88 seawater samples were collected during two Russian research expeditions (April-May 2011 and August-September 2012) to the Sea of Japan, the Oyashio Current region near Kuril Islands and the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition area in the western North Pacific Ocean. The observations were made aboard the R/V Pavel Gordienko and Akademik Shokalsky in order to study the impact of the Fukushima accident on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. On the board of a ship, the water samples were passed through filters to retain particles with the size of >1 micron. Cesium was extracted from the large volumes (100-3000 L) of the filtrated water using a selective fiber chemisorbent impregnated with copper ferrocyanide. Measurements of (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities in 83 samples of sorbents and 21 samples of filters were performed in the ship-based laboratory with a semiconductor HP-Ge detector. The quantified activity concentrations of dissolved radiocesium ranged from 1 Bq m(-3) to 34 Bq m(-3) for (137)Cs and from 0.2 Bq m(-3) to 29 Bq m(-3) for (134)Cs. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.993, n = 59). The (137)Cs/(134)Cs activities ratio in the Fukushima-derived radiocesium inventory for the study areas was deduced to be 0.99 ± 0.03 (on 15 March 2011) and the pre-Fukushima background level of (137)Cs in seawater was estimated as 1.3 ± 0.3 Bq m(-3). The lowest activities of both isotopes were determined in the western part of the Sea of Japan near the Russian coast, while the maximal levels were observed in the open Pacific Ocean, some 500-800 km offshore the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Contamination with (134)Cs at a level of 0.3-2.6 Bq m(-3) was registered in seawater samples collected in 2011 near the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka in the Oyashio Current region. During the period from April-May 2011 to August-September 2012, activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs in surface

  6. Long-term (2001-2012) observation of the modeled hygroscopic growth factor of remote marine TSP aerosols over the western North Pacific: impact of long-range transport of pollutants and their mixing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Haque, Md Mozammel

    2015-11-21

    In order to assess the seasonal and annual variability of long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia and their effect on the hygroscopicity and precipitation process over the western North Pacific, we conducted long-term calculations of bulk hygroscopicity, g(90%)ZSR, based on the ZSR model using chemical composition data from 2001-2012 at Chichijima Island. We found that sea-salts (Na(+) and Cl(-)) are the major mass fraction (65%) of the total water-soluble matter followed by SO4(2-) (20%) and WSOM (6%). The seasonal variation of g(90%)ZSR was high in summer to autumn and low in winter to spring months, probably due to the influence of the long-range transport of anthropogenic SO4(2-), dust, and organics from East Asia and their interaction with sea-salts through heterogeneous reactions. On the other hand, annual variations of g(90%)ZSR showed a decrease from 2001 to 2006 and then an increase from 2007 to 2012. Interestingly, the annual variations in SO4(2-) mass fractions showed an increase from 2001 to 2006 and then a decrease from 2007 to 2012, demonstrating that SO4(2-) seriously suppresses the hygroscopic growth of sea-salt particles over the western North Pacific. This is further supported by the strong negative correlation between SO4(2-) and g(90%)ZSR. Based on the MODIS satellite data, the present study demonstrates that long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia to the North Pacific can act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei but significantly suppress the precipitation by reducing the size of cloud droplets over the western North Pacific.

  7. Fire activity as a function of fire–weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquin; Gutierrez, Jose M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire–weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating

  8. Temporal changes in radiocesium contamination derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in oceanic zooplankton in the western North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Minoru; Honda, Makio C; Hamajima, Yasunori; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Kawakami, Hajime; Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Mino, Yoshihisa

    2017-06-01

    We investigated temporal changes of the contamination of oceanic zooplankton with radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident one month to three years after the accident at subarctic and subtropical stations (1900 and 900-1000 km from the plant, respectively) in the western North Pacific. The maximum activity concentrations of 137Cs in zooplankton were two orders of magnitude higher than the pre-accident level. In the first four months after the accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium in subtropical zooplankton decreased rapidly, but no similar change was observed at the subarctic station. The radiocesium derived from atmospheric deposition rapidly decreased as a result of seawater mixing. Thus, most of the subtropical zooplankton (with short lifespans) that had taken up radiocesium just after the accident were probably replaced by newly hatched zooplankton within four months of the accident, whereas subarctic zooplankton (with long lifespans) that were highly contaminated with radiocesium were still alive four months after the accident. By the end of the study, 137Cs activity concentrations in subtropical zooplankton were still high, whereas the activity concentrations in subarctic zooplankton had decreased to nearly the pre-accident level. The former concentrations were probably influenced by a secondary supply of radiocesium via advection of subtropical mode water that was highly contaminated with Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Unexpectedly, at the subarctic station, the radiocesium activity concentrations in surface zooplankton were lower than those in subsurface zooplankton, whereas the opposite relationship was observed in surface and subsurface seawater. Because carnivores predominated in the subsurface zooplankton community, we hypothesize that the higher radiocesium activity concentrations in subsurface zooplankton were influenced by bioaccumulation. We conclude that radiocesium activity

  9. Formaldehyde in the Tropical Western Pacific: Chemical Sources and Sinks, Convective Transport, and Representation in CAM-Chem and the CCMI Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel C.; Nicely, Julie M.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Apel, Eric C.; Baidar, Sunil; Bannan, Thomas J.; Blake, Nicola J.; Chen, Dexian; Dix, Barbara; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Hall, Samuel R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Gregory Huey, L.; Josse, Beatrice; Jöckel, Patrick; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Koenig, Theodore K.; Le Breton, Michael; Marécal, Virginie; Morgenstern, Olaf; Oman, Luke D.; Pan, Laura L.; Percival, Carl; Plummer, David; Revell, Laura E.; Rozanov, Eugene; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Stenke, Andrea; Sudo, Kengo; Tilmes, Simone; Ullmann, Kirk; Volkamer, Rainer; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Zeng, Guang

    2017-10-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) directly affects the atmospheric oxidative capacity through its effects on HOx. In remote marine environments, such as the tropical western Pacific (TWP), it is particularly important to understand the processes controlling the abundance of HCHO because model output from these regions is used to correct satellite retrievals of HCHO. Here we have used observations from the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) field campaign, conducted during January and February 2014, to evaluate our understanding of the processes controlling the distribution of HCHO in the TWP as well as its representation in chemical transport/climate models. Observed HCHO mixing ratios varied from 500 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) near the surface to 75 pptv in the upper troposphere. Recent convective transport of near surface HCHO and its precursors, acetaldehyde and possibly methyl hydroperoxide, increased upper tropospheric HCHO mixing ratios by 33% (22 pptv); this air contained roughly 60% less NO than more aged air. Output from the CAM-Chem chemistry transport model (2014 meteorology) as well as nine chemistry climate models from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (free-running meteorology) are found to uniformly underestimate HCHO columns derived from in situ observations by between 4 and 50%. This underestimate of HCHO likely results from a near factor of two underestimate of NO in most models, which strongly suggests errors in NOx emissions inventories and/or in the model chemical mechanisms. Likewise, the lack of oceanic acetaldehyde emissions and potential errors in the model acetaldehyde chemistry lead to additional underestimates in modeled HCHO of up to 75 pptv ( 15%) in the lower troposphere.

  10. Fire activity as a function of fire-weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, José M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, José M.

    2015-11-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire-weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating fire

  11. Validating a hospital medicines formulary survey in the Western Pacific Region--a global hospital pharmacy initiative based on the Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Basel Statements were developed to reflect the future of hospital pharmacy worldwide. Included were a key set of statements regarding the expanding role of hospital pharmacists' influence on prescribing from the management of medicines formularies to being an active member of the therapeutic decision-making process. This study aimed to validate a survey to measure Basel Statement 26 regarding the role of medicines formularies and the factors that affect its use in the Western Pacific Region (WPR). The survey was developed in consultation with a WPR advisory group and current literature. The survey was translated using the forward-backward method into Chinese (simplified) and Vietnamese. The instrument was pilot tested in a stratified random sample of 260 hospital pharmacy directors in the WPR. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to assess construct validity of the Medicines Formulary Scale that assessed responders' perceptions of their formulary and impact on utilization. The Medicines Formulary Survey was completed by 107 hospital pharmacy directors or equivalent. The survey contained the Medicines Formulary Scale in addition to questions regarding the content and review process of the hospital's formulary as well as demographic questions. Application of the PCA procedures resulted in a parsimonious 2-factor solution in which 33.8% of the variance was explained. The Cronbach alpha for the 17-item scale was found to be 0.70. The Cronbach alpha values for the first and second factor/subscales were 0.76 and 0.68, respectively. The Medicines Formulary Survey appears reliable and valid for assessing hospital pharmacy directors' perceptions of hospital medicine formularies in the WPR. Further development of validated instruments to assess other areas of hospital pharmacy practice will help track the progression of hospital pharmacy and aid in globalization of the profession. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Projection of tropical cyclone-generated extreme wave climate based on CMIP5 multi-model ensemble in the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tomoya; Mori, Nobuhito; Hemer, Mark A.

    2017-08-01

    Climate change impacts on future ocean wave climate have been studied using a suite of Global Climate Models (GCM). We investigated the representation of extreme (annual maximum) wave climate in the Atmosphere-Ocean GCM (AOGCM) driven wave climate projections, specifically looking at tropical cyclone (TC)-generated extreme waves in the Western North Pacific. The representation of the extreme wave climate by AOGCM driven wave climate projections was evaluated by comparing with higher-resolution AGCM driven wave climate projections, reanalysis and observations. We find better performance of AOGCM's to simulate TCs leads to significantly improved representation of the extreme wave climate. The better performing models can produce more than 30 ms^{-1} wind speed in TCs and the frequency of occurrence of TCs is 80 % of the observed frequency of occurrence. The projected changes in the extreme wave climate are dominated by changes in TC-generated waves. Although the projected changes in TC-generated wave heights show the coherent decreases in some models with greater TC skill, there is a large variation in the projected changes among models. The other models which are less able to resolve the TC characteristics display projected changes dominated by non-TC generated waves systems, which is the decrease in wave heights around latitudes 30°N. Although there is a large variation in the projected changes in TC-generated waves, the change ratio is 2 times larger than those of non-TC waves. Therefore, appropriate interpretation of the TC-generated wave changes and its variation is important for risk assessment.

  13. Record of Permian-Early Triassic continental arc magmatism in the western margin of the Jiamusi Block, NE China: petrogenesis and implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wenchun; Dong, Yu; Bi, Junhui; Wang, Zhihui; Ji, Zheng; Yang, H.; Ge, W. C.; Dong, Y.; Bi, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Ji, Z.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemical data for the Permian to Early Triassic granitoids from the western margin of the Jiamusi Block (WJB), NE China. The intermediate to felsic (SiO2 = 59.67-74.04 wt%) granitoids belong to calc-alkaline series and are characterized by enrichments in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements with pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, revealing typical continental magmatic arc geochemical signatures. The zircon U-Pb determinations on the granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite and quartz diorite samples yielded ages between ca. 275-245 Ma, which, together with the published coeval intrusive rocks, indicates that Permian to Early Triassic continental arc magmatism occurred extensively in the WJB. The low and mainly negative zircon ɛ Hf( t) values between -7.6 and +1.6 and the zircon Hf model ages of 1.2-1.8 Ga, which are significantly older than their crystallization ages, suggest that they were mainly derived from reworking of ancient crustal materials with a limited input of juvenile components. The geochemical systematics and petrogenetic considerations indicate that the studied granitoids were generated from a zone of melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization, i.e., a MASHed zone at the base of Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic continental crust, where large portions of igneous rocks and minor clay-poor sediments involved in the source region. In combination with regional geological data, we argue that the Jiamusi Block was unlikely the rifted segment of the Songliao Block and two possible geodynamical models were proposed to interpret the formation of the ca. 275-245 Ma granitoids in the WJB. In the context of Permian global plate reconstruction, we suggest that Paleo-Pacific plate subduction was initiated in the Permian to Early Triassic beneath the Jiamusi Block, and even whole eastern NE China.

  14. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Holger W; Cates, Jordan E; Gutman, Julie; Briand, Valerie; Fievet, Nadine; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Landis, Sarah H; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Dellicour, Stephanie; Ouma, Peter; Slutsker, Laurence; Terlouw, Dianne J; Kariuki, Simon; Ayisi, John; Nahlen, Bernard; Desai, Meghna; Madanitsa, Mwayi; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Kenneth; Mueller, Ivo; Stanisic, Danielle; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Lusingu, John; Westreich, Daniel; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Meshnick, Steven; Rogerson, Stephen

    2016-12-21

    The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. Data were pooled on 14 635 singleton, live birth pregnancies from women who had participated in 1 of 13 pregnancy studies. The 13 studies cover 8 countries in Africa and Papua New Guinea in the Western Pacific conducted from 1996 to 2015. Data are available at the time of antenatal enrolment of women into their respective parent study and at delivery. The data set comprises essential data such as malaria infection status, anthropometric assessments of maternal nutritional status, presence of anaemia and birth weight, as well as additional variables such gestational age at delivery for a subset of women. Participating studies are described in detail with regard to setting and primary outcome measures, and summarised data are available from each contributing cohort. This pooled birth cohort is the largest pregnancy data set to date to permit a more definite evaluation of the impact of plausible interactions between poor nutritional status and malaria infection in pregnant women on fetal growth and gestational length. Given the current comparative lack of large pregnancy cohorts in malaria-endemic settings, compilation of suitable pregnancy cohorts is likely to provide adequate statistical power to assess malaria-nutrition interactions, and could point towards settings where such interactions are most relevant. The M3 cohort may thus help to identify pregnant women at high risk of adverse outcomes who may benefit from tailored intensive antenatal care including nutritional supplements and alternative or intensified malaria prevention regimens, and the settings in which these interventions would be most effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  15. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Proteinaceous Coral Skeletal Amino Acids Records Change in Source Nitrate to the Euphotic Zone in the Western Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.; Thibodeau, B.; Chikaraishi, Y.; Ohkouchi, N.; Grottoli, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    Instrumental and proxy data and global climate model experiments indicate a multi-decadal shoaling of the western tropical Pacific (WTP) thermocline potentially related to a shift in ENSO frequency. In the WTP, the nutricline coincides with the thermocline, and a shoaling of the nutricline brings more nitrate-rich seawater higher in the water column and within the sunlit euphotic zone. In the nutrient-poor WTP, this incursion of nitrate-rich water at the bottom of the euphotic zone may stimulate productivity in the water column. However, there is a general paucity of measurements below the surface with which to investigate recent changes in seawater chemistry. Nitrogen isotope (δ15N) measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) can elucidate the source of nitrogen to the WTP and related trophic dynamics. This POM is the food source to the long-lived proteinaceous corals, and drives the nitrogen isotopic composition of their skeleton. Here, we report time series δ15N values from the banded skeletons of proteinaceous corals from offshore Palau in the WTP that provide proxy information about past changes in euphotic zone nitrogen dynamics. Bulk skeletal δ15N values declined between 1977 and 2010 suggesting a progressively increasing contribution of deep water with isotopically-light nitrate to the euphotic zone and/or a shortening of the planktonic food web. Since only some amino acids are enriched in δ15N with each trophic transfer in a food web, we measured the δ15N composition of seven individual amino acids in the same coral skeleton. The δ15N time series of the individual amino acids also declined over time, mirroring the bulk values. These new data indicate that the changes in the source nitrogen to the base of the euphotic zone drives a decline in coral skeletal δ15N values, consistent with the shoaling nutricline, with no coinciding alteration of the trophic structure in the WTP.

  16. [Does Darwinism really contribute to ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, B M

    2003-01-01

    The author questions Ghilarov's (2003) claim that Darwinism has high explanatory power in ecology. He is agree with S.V. Meyen who believed that beside synthetic theory of evolution (the popular variant on Darwinism) other explanations of evolution are possible. It is emphasized that several processes (e.g., diversification and unification of species at one trophic level, as well as individual and diffusive coadaptations of species of different levels) can contribute to community evolution. Communities cannot be considered as units of natural selection.

  17. PDO Modulation of ENSO Effect on Tropical Cyclone Rapid Intensification in the Western North Pacific: a View from the Perspective of Atmospheric Dynamic Conditions and its Implication in the Future Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, X.

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates how the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) modulates the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropical cyclone rapid intensification (RI) in the western North Pacific. The analysis shows that the interannual relationship between ENSO and annual RI number in warm PDO phases is strong and statistically significant. In cold PDO phases, however, there is no significant correlation between ENSO and RI on the interannual timescale. The enhancement of the interannual ENSO-RI relationship in warm PDO phases is mainly attributable to the change of the atmospheric dynamic condition: vertical wind shear. The PDO in warm (cold) phases can strengthen (weaken) an El Nino event to increase (reduce) the effects of the warm pool of water over the equatorial Pacific in typhoon season by local diabatic heating. El Nino events are accompanied by the stronger Walker circulation in the equatorial Pacific in the warm PDO phase than in the cold PDO phase. In contrast, the Walker circulation pattern and amplitude associated with La Nina events is less affected by the alternate PDO phase. This tends to make the atmospheric response to ENSO stronger (weaker) in warm (cold) PDO phase, and so is the atmospheric teleconnection of ENSO. The role of atmospheric conditions on tropical cylone intensification in the future projection is further discussed.

  18. More than a Mentor: Leonard Darwin's Contribution to the Assimilation of Mendelism into Eugenics and Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution to evolutionary theory of Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), the eighth child of Charles Darwin. By analysing the correspondence Leonard Darwin maintained with Ronald Aylmer Fisher in conjunction with an assessment of his books and other written works between the 1910s and 1930s, this article argues for a more prominent role played by him than the previously recognised in the literature as an informal mentor of Fisher. The paper discusses Leonard's efforts to amalgamate Mendelism with both Eugenics and Darwinism in order for the first to base their policies on new scientific developments and to help the second in finding a target for natural selection. Without a formal qualification in biological sciences and as such mistrusted by some "formal" scientists, Leonard Darwin engaged with key themes of Darwinism such as mimicry, the role of mutations on speciation and the process of genetic variability, arriving at important conclusions concerning the usefulness of Mendelian genetics for his father's theory.

  19. Congressional Social Darwinism and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing a congressional report on civil and military treatment of American Indians, this article asserts that the social Darwinism of the day prevailed among all congressional committee members ("Even friends of the Indian... knew American expansionism, technology, and racial ideology would reduce the Indian to a pitiful remnant...) (JC)

  20. Revolutions in Evolutionary Thought: Darwin and After

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 2. Revolutions in Evolutionary Thought: Darwin and After. Renee M Borges. General Article Volume 14 Issue 2 February 2009 pp 102-123. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  2. Understanding phototropism: from Darwin to today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jennifer J; Roberts, Diana; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Few individuals have had the lasting impact on such a breadth of science as Charles Darwin. While his writings about time aboard the HMS Beagle, his study of the Galapagos islands (geology, fauna, and flora), and his theories on evolution are well known, less appreciated are his studies on plant growth responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. In fact, Darwin, together with the help of his botanist son Francis, left us an entire book, 'The power of movements in plants', describing his many, varied, and insightful observations on this topic. Darwin's findings have provided an impetus for an entire field of study, the study of plant tropic responses, or differential growth (curvature) of plant organs in response to directional stimuli. One tropic response that has received a great deal of attention is the phototropic response, or curvature response to directional light. This review summarizes many of the most significant advancements that have been made in our understanding of this response and place these recent findings in the context of Darwin's initial observations.

  3. Meiotic polyploidization in Darwin hybrid tulips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R.; Xie, S.L.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In our study, 2n gamete producing F1 hybrids of Darwin hybrids (T. gesneriana × T. fosteriana) have been selected and used as pollen donor with the aim of producing of polyploid tulips. In total, 308 one-year-old BC1 seedlings resulting from crosses between diploid and triploid T. gesneriana

  4. Darwinism – A Sesqui-Centennial Celebration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    2009-03-31

    Mar 31, 2009 ... The year 2009 marks the 200th year of the birth of Charles Darwin (born 12th. February, 1809), and the 150th year of the publication of his landmark book, 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection' (1859). This year, the Indian. National Science Academy (INSA) also celebrates its platinum ...

  5. Creative Work: The Case of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Howard E.; Wallace, Doris B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the evolving systems approach (ESA) to creative work, which emerged from a case study of Charles Darwin. Explains how the ESA differs from other approaches and describes various facets of creative work (networks of enterprise, uniqueness, insight, pluralism, and evolving belief systems and ensembles of metaphor). Emphasizes the…

  6. Darwin's Final Message: We Have No Honour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, James

    2000-01-01

    Examines current views in Great Britain on the genetic basis of violence and crime. Argues that evolutionary heretics have a flawed understanding of genetics and defend an anti-scientific concept of free will. Maintains that arguments within Darwinism have allowed evolutionary heretics to promote their own agenda and to continue to abuse the most…

  7. Combating plant diseases--the Darwin connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomon, Derek W; Brent, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    Although Darwin knew of plant diseases, he did not study them as part of his analysis of natural selection. Effective plant disease control has only been developed after his death. This article explores the relevance of Darwin's ideas to three problem areas with respect to diseases caused by fungi: emergence of new diseases, loss of disease resistance bred into plants and development of fungicide resistance. Darwin's concept of change through natural or artificial selection relied on selection of many small changes, but subsequent genetic research has shown that change can also occur through large steps. Appearance of new diseases can involve gene duplication, transfer or recombination, but all evidence points to both host plant resistance and fungicide susceptibility being overcome through point mutations. Because the population size of diseases such as rusts and powdery and downy mildews is so large, all possible point mutations are likely to occur daily, even during moderate epidemics. Overcoming control measures therefore reflects the overall fitness of these mutants, and much resource effort is being directed towards assessment of their fitness, both in the presence and in the absence of selection. While recent developments in comparative genomics have caused some revision of Darwin's ideas, experience in managing plant disease control measures clearly demonstrates the relevance of concepts he introduced 150 years ago. It also reveals the remarkable speed and the practical impact of adaptation in wild microorganism populations to changes in their environment, and the difficulty of stopping or delaying such adaptation. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Long-distance transport of particulate iron from the Amur River to the western subarctic Pacific reinforced by the combination of Fe and Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, T.; Asahara, Y.; Ichikawa, R.; Nakatsuka, T.; Nishioka, J.; Minami, H.; Nagao, S.; Tanimizu, M.; Shin, K.; Kono, M.

    2013-12-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient and limits primary productivity in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. The western subarctic Pacific (WSP) is one of HNLC regions, and the most important source of iron in the WSP has been thought to be the dust from East Asia such as Gobi dessert. In recent years, however, some studies suggest that the northwestern continental shelf region of the Sea of Okhotsk (OS) where the Amur River discharges large amounts of dissolved iron is one of the most important source area of iron in the WSP (e.g. Nishioka et al., 2007). The Amur has high concentration of dissolved iron, and more than 90% of the dissolved iron precipitates in the estuary mixing zone by coagulation. In the Amur estuary on the northwestern continental shelf of the OS, the strong tidal mixing causes the iron precipitates to be resuspended. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) is carried out to the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW) by the Dense Shelf Water (DSW) (Nakatsuka et al., 2004). The OSIW flows out to the WSP through the Bussol strait, and adds to the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). The SPM is possibly transported to the WSP in the above processes, and re-dissolved iron from the SPM (Sugie et al., 2013) contributes to the biological productivity in the WSP. In this study, we analyzed stable isotopes of iron (Fe) and radiogenic isotopes of neodymium (Nd) in particulate iron chemically extracted from the continental shelf sediments and SPM of the OS and those in dissolved Fe and Nd of the Amur River water in order to clarify the transport process of the particulate iron from the Amur River in the OS. Iron isotopes have been recently applied to trace origin of marine iron because δ56Fe value varies depending on source, such as river, eolian dust and hydrothermal input. In addition, we used neodymium isotopes to draw information where the particulate iron in the OSIW precipitates because the particulate iron takes up large amounts of REEs from

  9. The Impact of the Diurnal Cycle of Clouds and Precipitation over the Maritime Continent on the Propagation of the MJO into the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleyson, C. D.; Hagos, S. M.; Feng, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The processes that determine the interaction between the islands of the maritime continent (MC) and the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are poorly understood. We are undertaking a series of observational and modeling analyses aimed at understanding how clouds and precipitation over the islands of the MC lead to changes in the intensity of the MJO (inferred by the amplitude of the Real-time Multivariate MJO index [RMM] and other metrics) as it crosses the MC. One component of our analysis uses the long-term measurements from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) to examine cloud radiative effects as the MJO crosses the MC. Using the multi-year ARM dataset and a cloud resolving model (CRM), we show that the MJO interacts with the diurnal cycle of surface heating, clouds, and precipitation over the islands of the MC in a way that weakens it. Additionally, using a satellite climatology based on the TRMM 3B42 dataset we found that MJO episodes that weaken as they cross the MC are characterized by more frequent precipitation and warmer sea surface temperatures (SSTs) south of the equator and less frequent precipitation north of the equator compared to cases where the MJO intensifies. The north-south polarity in SSTs suggests a seasonal dependence in the ability of the MJO to cross the MC. This seasonality was confirmed by looking the seasonal distribution of changes in MJO amplitude as it crosses the MC. Consistent with the SST result, we found that MJO episodes that intensify as they cross the MC are more likely to occur during the northern hemisphere summer and less likely to occur during the northern hemisphere winter (Fig. 1). A regional CRM and satellite observations are used jointly to explore the processes responsible for this seasonality and to examine the impact of interannual oscillations such as ENSO and monsoons on the ability of the MJO to cross the MC. Fig. 1. The annual

  10. Nature of the Jurassic Magnetic Quiet Zone revealed by the sea-surface, mid-water, and near-source magnetic sensor data in the western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ) has been a long-standing debate in understanding Earth's geomagnetic field history and behavior. We present a coherent and likely globally significant marine magnetic reversal record for the JQZ by constructing a correlation of new and previously acquired magnetic anomaly profiles in the western Pacific. We obtained a high-resolution marine magnetic anomaly record using sea surface, mid-water (3-km level deep-towed), and near-bottom (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)) profiles that targeted a spreading corridor in the Hawaiian lineation in 2011 (TN272 on R/V Thompson) and 2014 (SKQ2014S2 on R/V Sikuliaq). To extract crustal magnetic signals, the sea surface and mid-water magnetic data were corrected for ship-to-sensor offset, the diurnal effect, and the present-day ambient geomagnetic field. Mid-water data were upward continued to a constant 3 km level plane and to the sea surface. Near-bottom data were calibrated to remove the induced magnetic field by AUV Sentry, then corrected for IGRF and diurnal variations. We used these near-source data as an anchor for correlations with the sea surface and mid-water level data because of the AUV's superb inertial navigation and hydrodynamically stable, quiet platform environment. Our sea surface anomaly correlation with the previously established Japanese lineation sequence shows (i) an excellent correlation of anomaly shapes from M29 to M42; (ii) a remarkable similarity in anomaly amplitude envelope, which decreases back in time from M19 to M38, with a minimum at M41, then increases back in time from M42; and (iii) refined locations of pre-M25 lineations in the Hawaiian lineation set. Moreover, short-wavelength anomalies from the mid-water and near-bottom profiles show a strong similarity in the M37/M38 polarity attributes found both in the magnetostratigraphic and marine magnetic records, implying that rapid magnetic reversals were occurring at that time. The average reversal

  11. Biological profile and meteorological data collected by bottle and net in the Western Pacific Ocean from 6/5/1973 - 11/7/1973 (NODC Accession 0000151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological profile and meteorological data were collected using bottle and net casts from the RYOFU MARU in the Northwest / Southwest Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  12. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  13. Geology and geochemistry of epithermal precious metal vein systems in the intra-oceanic arcs of Palau and Yap, western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J.J.; Miller, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Palau and Yap arcs are part of an intra-oceanic island-arc-trench system which separates the Pacific and Philippine plates in the western Pacific Ocean. The 350-km-long Palau arc consists of over 200 islands while the 400-km-long Yap arc located to the north has only four major islands exposed. Four of the largest islands in Palau are composed primarily of early Eocene to mid-Miocene volcanic rocks and the four islands comprising Yap contain only Miocene volcanic rocks. Basalt and basaltic andesites of the Babelthuap Formation are the oldest volcanic rocks in Palau and are characterized by high MgO, Ni and Cr and low TiO2 and have a boninitic affinity. They form the central and southeastern parts of Babelthuap Island. Oligocene arc tholeiite flows having an age of 34-35.5 Ma comprise most of the three smaller volcanic islands in Palau and the western part of Babelthuap. The youngest volcanic rocks are dacitic intrusions having an age of 22.7-23.2 Ma. The Yap arc is unusual in that metamorphic rocks up to amphibolite grade form most of the islands. These are underlain by a melange composed of igneous and volcanic clasts as well as clasts from a dismembered copper-gold skarn deposit. Miocene volcanic rocks consisting of flows and volcaniclastic deposits overlie the melange and metamorphic complex. An epithermal precious-metal vein system hosted by flows and flow breccias of the Babelthuap Formation occurs in an area 1.5 km by 1 km on the southeast side of Babelthuap Island. Over 50 veins and mineralized breccias ranging up to 2 m in width and having a strike length up to 500 m contain from trace to 13.0 ppm gold. The veins consist of quartz with varying amounts of sulfides and iron oxides after sulfides and the mineralized breccias consist of brecciated country rock cemented by quartz and iron oxides after sulfides. The veins and mineralized breccias generally dip within 15?? of vertical and have two preferred orientations, north-northwest and north

  14. Then & Now: Research Pays Off for All Americans Darwin, DNA, and The Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. 2009 marks the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication ... in our understanding of evolution and genetics. 1809: Charles Darwin, the Father of Evolution, is born. 1859: Darwin ...

  15. A perspective on (neo-Darwinism (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A perspective on (neo-Darwinism first of all has to account for those assumptions derived from the humanities, causing neo-Darwinism not to be a purely special scientific or natural scientific theory. A discussion of the many-sidedness of living entities highlights the difficulties surrounding a definition of biology. Attention is briefly given to the physicalism of Darwin’s 1859 work before the quest for origins is discussed. These considerations pave the way for an assessment of striking shortcomings in the thought of Darwin and his followers. In particular, modern nominalism is identified as an important source for neo-Darwinism, especially manifest in the idea that organisms are not types and do not have types (Simpson. Darwin’s idea of incremental (continuous change both in respect of the genesis of a complex organ (or the origination of the first living entity and of successive fossil forms contradict the current state of affairs – and the same applies to his own radical idea that “injurious” variations will be eliminated immediately by natural selection, for it cannot be reconciled to the role of mutations in neo-Darwinian theory. In addition neo-Darwinian paleontologists pointed out that evolution requires intermediate forms and paleontology does not provide them (Kitts and explicitly confessed that they have paid lip-service to the idea of change while they knew all the time that it was not true (Eldredge: the dominant theme of the paleontological record is stasis, constancy – a type appears and remains constant for millions of years before it disappears (Gould. The supposition of incremental continuity received a further blow from the “Cambrian explosion”, the “nasty fact” that most “major animal groups appeared simultaneously” about 530 million years ago. A few aspects of the uniqueness of humankind are treated as well as the confused picture found in an attempt to synthesise neo-Darwinism and Christianity. In

  16. Darwin as a plant scientist: a Southern Hemisphere perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Stephen D; Lambers, Hans

    2009-08-01

    Events around the world this year celebrate the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the sesquicentenary of publication of his most important work, The Origin of Species (Darwin 1859). The associated plethora of books and papers now appearing to commemorate Darwin's work continue the traditional emphasis on his zoological and geological contributions. There has been some recent attention directed towards Darwin's relatively unsung but significant accomplishments as a botanist. Here, we bring together a review of Darwin's botanical discoveries and experiments and relevant aspects of his geological investigations, with a focus on the Southern Hemisphere. This is a relatively unexplored aspect of Darwin's contributions that yields some new insights meriting future research.

  17. Charles Darwin's Reception in Germany and What Followed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Meyer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available 150 years ago, Heinrich Bronn provided in the first German translation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species a rather liberal interpretation, even adding his own view of Darwin's ideas in an additional 15th chapter. Ernst Haeckel widely popularized his view of Darwinian evolution based on his reading of this translation. This was long seen - probably incorrectly - as the intellectual root of social Darwinism in Germany.

  18. Darwin's Galápagos finches in modern biology

    OpenAIRE

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2010-01-01

    One of the classic examples of adaptive radiation under natural selection is the evolution of 15 closely related species of Darwin's finches (Passeriformes), whose primary diversity lies in the size and shape of their beaks. Since Charles Darwin and other members of the Beagle expedition collected these birds on the Galápagos Islands in 1835 and introduced them to science, they have been the subjects of intense research. Many biology textbooks use Darwin's finches to illustrate a variety of t...

  19. Focus: Darwin as a cultural icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secord, James A

    2009-09-01

    Since his death in 1882, if not before, Charles Darwin has been a key icon of the modern era. The bearded sage of Down House has been invoked in a wide range of contexts in the English-speaking world, from eugenics and social policy to debates about the implications of science for religious belief. The essays in this Focus section explore the Darwinian image in an unusual diversity of media, examining portrait photographs, portable sculptures,newspaper caricatures, cartoons, after-dinner drinking songs, and long-playing records. They suggest that Darwin's celebrity needs to be understood not as the outcome of the unique qualities of his life and work, but as an aspect of the emergence of the idea of the scientist, a process closely tied to the developing communication and entertainment industries of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

  20. Some of the Best Online Darwin Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Velle, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Ask most men or women in the street who Charles Darwin was and the chances are that they will know something of the work he did: the work that has revolutionised our understanding of the living world and our place in it. The 200th centenary of his birth was in February 2009. Over the 150 years since the publication of his seminal work On the…

  1. Quantum Darwinism for mixed-state environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Haitao; Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech

    2009-03-01

    We exam quantum darwinism when a system is in the presence of a mixed environment, and we find a general relation between the mutual information for the mixed-state environment and the change of the entropy of the fraction of the environment. We then look at a particular solvable model, and we numerically exam the time evolution of the ``mutual information" for large environment. Finally we discuss about the exact expressions for all entropies and the mutual information at special time.

  2. Indication for quantum Darwinism in electron billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, R.; Akis, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Ferry, D. K.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics in electron billiards by using classical and quantum mechanical calculations. We report on the existence of pointer states in single-dot and double-dot electron billiards. Additionally, we show that the two types of pointer states have the propensity to create offspring, i.e. they can be observed in the individual modes propagating between the external reservoirs. This can be understood as an indication that quantum Darwinism is present in the electron billiards.

  3. News Note: Herschel-Darwin commemoration dinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coning, Chris

    2016-08-01

    On the evening of 15 June 1836 Charles Darwin had dinner with John Herschel in Cape Town. The year 2016 makes it 180 years since this event took place. Auke Slotegraaf and Chris de Coning decided that the event should be commemorated. A total of 15 people attended the dinner, which was held on 15 June at a restaurant in the house occupied by the astronomer Fearon Fallows in 1821. It was a very informal evening and there were three speakers.

  4. Darwin 101 (Enhanced): From Earth to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Charles Darwin was a modest man, yet one of the great revolutionaries of intellectual history. Born into a culture wedded to Genesis, he brought biology into the realm of natural world. The implications range from of the "why" questions of biology, to our view societies to our ability to combat AIDS. In our era of genomics and space exploration, these insights are being applied to the age-old question: are we alone?

  5. Charles Darwin: um observador do desenvolvimento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler Celeri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores traduzem, pela primeira vez para o português, o artigo de Charles Darwin "A Biographical Sketch of an Infant", publicado no periódico Mind em julho de 1877. Utilizando anotações de observações do desenvolvimento de seus filhos, especialmente de seu filho mais velho William Erasmus (Doddy, Darwin descreve e estuda, a partir de seu enfoque naturalista, o filhote humano, narrando os primeiros indicativos comportamentais de emoções tais como raiva e medo, curiosidade e senso moral, o brincar e o prazer envolvido nesta atividade, a capacidade de imitação e os primeiros indícios daquilo que hoje conhecemos como "teoria da mente". Colocando-se questões sobre as capacidades do bebê, como eles aprendem e como se comunicam e levantando hipóteses sobre possíveis significados de certos comportamentos, questões ainda hoje fundamentais para o estudo do desenvolvimento humano, Darwin mostra-se também um pioneiro no estudo do bebê e da criança pequena, numa época na qual as capacidades dos bebês eram extremamente subestimadas e desconsideradas.

  6. The first Charles Darwin (1758-78).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stuart

    2009-11-01

    The paper places the first Charles Darwin in his family context: the eldest son of Dr Erasmus Darwin and Mary Howard. Mention is made of Charles's upbringing and education, with illustrative material taken from his father's writings and from Anna Seward's Memoirs of the Life of Dr Darwin (1804). The part played by Dr Andrew Duncan of the Edinburgh Medical School is established. The award to Charles in March 1778 of the first medal by the Aesculapian Society of Edinburgh is described. The involvement of Dr William Cullen and Dr Joseph Black in the treatment of Charles's fatal infection is evidenced from Erasmus' letters. Attention is given to 'An Elegy on the much-lamented death of a most ingenious young gentleman who lately died in the College at Edinburgh where he was a student' which was written jointly by Duncan and Erasmus in 1778. The Elegy's curious publishing history will be glanced at. The paper concludes with a statement of Charles's great promise as a medical student and of Erasmus' efforts to ensure that his son's achievements were memorialised.

  7. BrO and inferred Bry profiles over the western Pacific: relevance of inorganic bromine sources and a Bry minimum in the aged tropical tropopause layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Theodore K.; Volkamer, Rainer; Baidar, Sunil; Dix, Barbara; Wang, Siyuan; Anderson, Daniel C.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Wales, Pamela A.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Evans, Mathew J.; Sherwen, Tomás; Jacob, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Johan; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-François; Apel, Eric C.; Bresch, James C.; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M.; Hall, Samuel R.; Honomichl, Shawn B.; Hornbrook, Rebecca; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Lueb, Richard; Montzka, Denise D.; Pan, Laura L.; Reeves, J. Michael; Schauffler, Sue M.; Ullmann, Kirk; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Donets, Valeria; Navarro, Maria A.; Riemer, Daniel; Blake, Nicola J.; Chen, Dexian; Huey, L. Gregory; Tanner, David J.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Wolfe, Glenn M.

    2017-12-01

    We report measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO) and use an observationally constrained chemical box model to infer total gas-phase inorganic bromine (Bry) over the tropical western Pacific Ocean (tWPO) during the CONTRAST field campaign (January-February 2014). The observed BrO and inferred Bry profiles peak in the marine boundary layer (MBL), suggesting the need for a bromine source from sea-salt aerosol (SSA), in addition to organic bromine (CBry). Both profiles are found to be C-shaped with local maxima in the upper free troposphere (FT). The median tropospheric BrO vertical column density (VCD) was measured as 1.6×1013 molec cm-2, compared to model predictions of 0.9×1013 molec cm-2 in GEOS-Chem (CBry but no SSA source), 0.4×1013 molec cm-2 in CAM-Chem (CBry and SSA), and 2.1×1013 molec cm-2 in GEOS-Chem (CBry and SSA). Neither global model fully captures the C-shape of the Bry profile. A local Bry maximum of 3.6 ppt (2.9-4.4 ppt; 95 % confidence interval, CI) is inferred between 9.5 and 13.5 km in air masses influenced by recent convective outflow. Unlike BrO, which increases from the convective tropical tropopause layer (TTL) to the aged TTL, gas-phase Bry decreases from the convective TTL to the aged TTL. Analysis of gas-phase Bry against multiple tracers (CFC-11, H2O / O3 ratio, and potential temperature) reveals a Bry minimum of 2.7 ppt (2.3-3.1 ppt; 95 % CI) in the aged TTL, which agrees closely with a stratospheric injection of 2.6 ± 0.6 ppt of inorganic Bry (estimated from CFC-11 correlations), and is remarkably insensitive to assumptions about heterogeneous chemistry. Bry increases to 6.3 ppt (5.6-7.0 ppt; 95 % CI) in the stratospheric "middleworld" and 6.9 ppt (6.5-7.3 ppt; 95 % CI) in the stratospheric "overworld". The local Bry minimum in the aged TTL is qualitatively (but not quantitatively) captured by CAM-Chem, and suggests a more complex partitioning of gas-phase and aerosol Bry species than previously recognized. Our data provide

  8. Diurnal and seasonal variations of pH for a year in the western subarctic North Pacific observed by using a hybrid pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Fujiki, Tetsuichi; Kimoto, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification has many far reaching impacts on plankton community in the ocean. There is great need of quality instrumentation to assess and monitor the changing seawater pH. To meet the need, we have developed the in situ high accurate pH sensor (Hybrid pH sensor: HpHS) for the long-term seawater pH monitoring to participate the Wendy Schmidt Ocean health XPRIZE. The HpHS has two types of pH sensors (i.e. potentiometric pH sensor and spectrophotometric pH sensor). The spectrophotometric pH sensor can measure pH correctly and stably, however it needs large power consumption and a lot of reagents in a long period of observation. The pH sensor used m-cresol purple (mCP) as an indicator of pH. On the other hand, although the potentiometric pH sensor is low power consumption and high-speed response (within 10 seconds), drifts in the pH of the potentiometric measurements may possibly occur for a long-term observation. The HpHS can measure in situ pH correctly and stably combining advantage of both pH sensors. The HpHS is correcting the value of the potentiometric pH (measuring frequently) by the value of the spectrophotometric pH (measuring less frequently). It is possible to calibrate in situ with Tris buffer or CRM on the spectrophotometric pH sensor. Therefore, the drifts in the value of potentiometric pH measurements can be compensated using the pH value obtained from the spectrophotometric pH measurements. Thereby, the HpHS can measure accurately the value of pH over a long period of time with low power consumption. In order to understand the seasonal and inter-annual variabilities of biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems, ship-based studies have been carried out since 1997 at time-series station K2 (47oN, 160oE) in the subarctic western North Pacific, which is a region with progression of ocean acidification. However, the ship-based studies of the open ocean have been limited in their ability to conduct high-frequency observations for understanding the

  9. More on Darwin's illness: comment on the final diagnosis of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William; Meller, William H; Thurber, Steven

    2008-06-20

    Without the possibility of confirmatory exhumation, diagnostic inferences about Darwin's illness must remain speculative. A diagnosis of Darwin's aggregate symptoms must account for not only gastrointestinal distress but also his predominant and excessive retching and the conglomerate of other heterogeneous symptoms. We opine that Crohn's disease, posited as the 'final diagnosis', is not sufficient for subsuming his pleiomorphic symptomatology. An additional proposal is outlined that may help to explain his presentation with heterogeneous symptoms. It incorporates constitutional vulnerabilities, psychosomatic influences and Pavlovian conditioning as explanatory variables.

  10. Provenance and supply of Fe-enriched terrigenous sediments in the western equatorial Pacific and their relation to precipitation variations during the late Quaternary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.W.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, nn.

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deposition in the equatorial Pacific has important implications for the global carbon cycle, while the provenance of Fe supply and its change remain highly debated. Here, we geochemically characterize the provenance of terrigenous sediments deposited on the pathways of the Equatorial

  11. Notes on some Indo-Pacific Pontoniinae III-IX descriptions of some new genera and species from the Western Indian Ocean and the South China Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruce, A.J.

    1967-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 1 III. Anapontonia denticauda Bruce, 1966, from the western Indian Ocean . . 2 IV. Mesopontonia gorgoniophila gen. nov., sp. nov., from the South China Sea 13 V. Metapontonia fungiacola gen. nov., sp. nov., from the western Indian Ocean 23 VI. The genus

  12. Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.

  13. Developing of the future: scaffolded Darwinism in societal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes; Törnberg, Anton; Törnberg, Petter

    2014-08-01

    We sympathize with the project of a synthetic approach for devising a "theory of intentional change" and agree that Darwinism should be central in such a theory. But Darwinism is not the only process of evolution that needs to be included. Evolutionary biology itself has taken such a turn recently, with the emergence of developmental evolutionary approaches.

  14. The explanatory logic and ontological commitments of generalized Darwinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The recent debate about the value of Darwinism as a source of ontological foundations for evolutionary economics reduces to a disagreement about whether or not the causal logic of Darwinism applies to economic evolution. However, this logic has not yet been fully specified. While the explanantia of

  15. Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin's theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that…

  16. Darwin's Book: "On the Origin of Species"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's "Origin of Species". It focuses on the contents of the "Origin" as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  17. Scientific Cousins: The Relationship between Charles Darwin and Francis Galton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Raymond E.

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the personal as well as the intellectual and scientific relationship between Charles Darwin and his younger half-cousin Francis Galton. Although they had been on friendly terms as young men, and Darwin had in some ways been a role model for Galton, the two did not share major scientific interests until after the publication of…

  18. John Tweedie and Charles Darwin in Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Chancellor, Gordon; van Wyhe, John

    2012-06-20

    The journey of exploration undertaken by Charles Darwin FRS during the voyage of HMS Beagle has a central place within the historical development of evolutionary theory and has been intensively studied. Despite this, new facts continue to emerge about some of the details of Darwin's activities. Drawing on recently published Darwin material and unpublished letters in the archives of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, we document a hitherto unexamined link between Darwin and John Tweedie (1775-1862), a relatively obscure Scottish gardener turned South American plant collector. All of the available evidence points to a meeting between the two men in Buenos Aires in 1832. Tweedie provided Darwin with information about the geography of the Rio Paraná, including the locality of fossilized wood eroding from the river bank. It also seems likely that Tweedie supplied Darwin with seeds that he later shipped back to John Stevens Henslow in Cambridge. Although this brief meeting was at the time relatively unimportant to either man, echoes of that encounter have resonated with Tweedie's descendants to the present day and have formed the basis for a family story about a written correspondence between Darwin and Tweedie. Local information supplied to Darwin by residents such as Tweedie was clearly important and deserves further attention.

  19. What is 'Natural' in Natural Selection? To understand Darwin's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    is to understand the structure of this explanation. Darwin explains organic evolution by characterizing it as adaptive change by selection. To understand Darwin's explanation is to understand how selection leads to evolutionary adaptive change. Change by selection is best understood in contrast with, what I term as, change ...

  20. The Creativity of Natural Selection? Part I: Darwin, Darwinism, and the Mutationists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, John

    2016-12-01

    This is the first of a two-part essay on the history of debates concerning the creativity of natural selection, from Darwin through the evolutionary synthesis and up to the present. Here I focus on the mid-late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, with special emphasis on early Darwinism and its critics, the self-styled "mutationists." The second part focuses on the evolutionary synthesis and some of its critics, especially the "neutralists" and "neo-mutationists." Like Stephen Gould, I consider the creativity of natural selection to be a key component of what has traditionally counted as "Darwinism." I argue that the creativity of natural selection is best understood in terms of (1) selection initiating evolutionary change, and (2) selection being responsible for the presence of the variation it acts upon, for example by directing the course of variation. I consider the respects in which both of these claims sound non-Darwinian, even though they have long been understood by supporters and critics alike to be virtually constitutive of Darwinism.