This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...
Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU
Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.
Pridmore, Saxby; McArthur, Milford
The aim of this paper is to examine the cultural roots and transmission of Western suicide and suicidal behaviour. We explored a period of antiquity (mythical Greece-61 CE) and selected accounts of 10 prominent suicides. The precipitating circumstances were tabulated and an assessment made of the most likely attendant emotions. The same process was followed for a recent period (1994-2008), from which 10 suicides were identified. The precipitating circumstances and the attendant emotions were compared. These circumstances and emotions were then compared to statements commonly encountered in clinical practice from people demonstrating suicidal behaviour. Finally, we looked for evidence that these stories (and the response models) had entered Western culture. Precipitating circumstances, loss of a loved one, actual or imminent execution or imprisonment, other losses and public disgrace, and the negative emotions of shame, guilt, fear, anger, grief and sorrow were common to both historical periods. These circumstances and emotions are similar to those commonly expressed by people who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour. There was a clear record (literature, visual arts) of these stories forming part of our cultural heritage. Models of maladaptive responses to certain adverse circumstances are part of Western culture. Suicide as a response to certain circumstances and negative emotions can be traced back more than 2000 years. Cultural change will be necessary to minimize suicide.
with a threat both abroad and within their homeland societies. Civilians fulfil a ..... we have now with the use of force and forces is their persistent structuring ... advanced equipment remains the main feature of Western military culture. Western.
Vinding, Niels Valdemar
This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...
Lyudmila V. Butko
Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.
Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen
Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798
Krug, H.E.P. Jr.
While contemplating the similarities between the law of torts and concepts of safety, the author realized that there was a close correspondence between the law of negligence and the way safety ought to be generally defined. This definition of safety is provided herein. A safety culture must have an adequate definition of safety in order to function most effectively. This paper provides a practical definition of safety that answers the question 'How safe is safe enough? The development rests on two bases: the subjectivistic-Bayesian definition of probability and certain legal definitions primarily from the tort law of negligence. The development also leads to the conclusion that one cannot generally expect greater specificity in determining how safe is safe enough than one finds in the legal definition of liability under the tort of negligence. It then follows that some of the public's aversion to complex technical undertakings is rooted in its typically intuitive and vague notions concerning safety
M M Akulich
Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.
Full Text Available In the context of the EU integration, it is certainly insufficient to harmonize only the positive law and the institutional regulatory framework. In order to provide for the implementation and application of the positive law, the political and legal culture must be congruent with the legal tradition of the European Union. The 'implantation' of legal institutes is a fashionable trend common to all transition countries, which fail to recognize a significant and inevitable fact that law is created and applied in the country-specific traditional, cultural and social context. Legal norms achieve their intended purpose only when they are reinforced by a number of other traditional, cultural, political, economic, and social circumstances. Hence, there is a specific functional and structural relation between law and social culture: on the one hand, law is the product of society; on the other hand, law is also the creator of social norms. Consequently, instead of 'copying' the legal norms of the European Union, it is necessary to create a social framework for the implementation of applicable, effective and equitable EU law. In addition to nomotechnics, scientific research on the 'harmonization of Serbian law with the EU law shall include the analysis of other factors, which are only apparently outside the legal framework but which are important for the general outcome of this process. Our legal culture is largely authoritarian, which is evident in the prevalence of power in the process of making and applying the law and in the dependence of the judicial system from the executive branch of government. Law is an instrument of political power of the legally unaccountable executive branch of government. The authoritarian legal rules are not an expression of reason, prudence, wisdom and general public interest but a temporary constellation of interests of power-holders while the normative activity is a short-term tactics for accomplishing these interests. As
Hooker, Claire; Noonan, Estelle
In this paper we articulate a growing awareness within the field of the ways in which medical humanities could be deemed expressive of Western cultural values. The authors suggest that medical humanities is culturally limited by a pedagogical and scholarly emphasis on Western cultural artefacts, as well as a tendency to enact an uncritical reliance upon foundational concepts (such as 'patient' and 'experience') within Western medicine. Both these tendencies within the field, we suggest, are underpinned by a humanistic emphasis on appreciative or receptive encounters with 'difference' among patients that may unwittingly contribute to the marginalisation of some patients and healthcare workers. While cultural difference should be acknowledged as a central preoccupation of medical humanities, we argue that the discipline must continue to expand its scholarly and critical engagements with processes of Othering in biomedicine. We suggest that such improvements are necessary in order to reflect the cultural diversification of medical humanities students, and the geographical expansion of the discipline within non-Western and/or non-Anglophone locations.
Fernández Villanueva, Concepción
Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses
Full Text Available There is a rich body of work in critical race and feminist theories that have criticised as Euro/Anglo-centric, and hence exclusionary, the liberal foundations of Western democratic legal systems. The basis of such critiques is that legal personhood is premised on an atomistic individual agent that purports to be neutral but in actuality reflects and maintains the hegemonic gendered and raced status quo privileging the white, middle to upper-class man to the exclusion of women and all racial and cultural Others. Some approaches, such as cultural defences in criminal law, have sought to address this via a recognition and incorporation of the difference of Other groups and their different moral norms, proclivities and circumstances. To illustrate, this discussion will draw on a cultural defence that was advanced in a series of group sexual violence cases that involved four Pakistani, Muslim brothers. While concluding that culture permeates the actions of all individuals, this article seeks to show how cultural recognition approaches in law often overlook the individual agency of those differentiated through their racial, ethnic and religious visibility. Instead of asserting the primacy of individual free will and a rational agent as the main driver of criminal behaviour cultural defences, in particular, appear to attribute criminal action to the morally aberrant traditions and practices of non-Western cultures. At the same time, such approaches to cultural recognition fail to acknowledge that culture, and not just the culture of Others, is necessarily the backdrop for all (group sexual violence. With these points in mind, the paper ends with some suggestions for accommodating alternative narratives that seek to avoid the reductive scripts that currently appear to characterise legal and judicial musings on culture
The main problem of Indonesia as a nation is a multidimensional crisis. This problem emerges because of misleading management of this state. The misleading manage ment drives many cases, for instance corruption culture. The corruption denotes main problem in this nation building. Meanwhile when Indonesia towards reformation era since 1996, paying attention to law action and law enforcement is more than that ofjurisprudence. Instead, it is still rarely the investigation of jurisprudence regard...
The main problem of Indonesia as a nation is a multidimensional crisis. This problem emerges because of misleading management of this state. The misleading manage ment drives many cases, for instance corruption culture. The corruption denotes main problem in this nation building. Meanwhile when Indonesia towards reformation era since 1996, paying attention to law action and law enforcement is more than that ofjurisprudence. Instead, it is still rarely the investigation of jurisprudence regard...
New postscript to: Hesselink, M.W. & Wei, L. (2010). --- Xin de ouzhou falü wenhua. --- Beijing: Zhongguo falü chubanshe. This is the Chinese translation of: Hesselink, M.W. (2001). --- The new European legal culture. --- Deventer : Kluwer. That essay argued that Europe was facing a shift from a
van Eijk, N.; Poort, J.P.; Rutten, P.
This contribution seeks to identify the short and long-term economic and cultural effects of file sharing on music, films and games, while taking into account the legal context and policy developments. The short-term implications examined concern direct costs and benefits to society, whereas the
G R Absattarov
Full Text Available The article considers the legal culture as an ‘ideal phenomenon’ providing value meanings for the outlook of the Kazakhs and the basis for the development of the population legal consciousness. The author focuses on the national significance of the legal, civil society and the development of new legal social ideals, norms and rules, examines key problems and contradictions in the legal culture of today’s Kazakhstan.
Ângelo Nardi Pretto
Full Text Available Introduction: Serrano cheese is an artisanal product, from the region of Campos de Cima da Serra in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and from the Planalto Sul in the state of Santa Catarina. Objective: The objective of the present work is to discuss some cultural, legal and food safety aspects related to the quality of serrano cheese, a product made of raw milk. Method: This manuscript carries out a bibliographical review of the serrano cheese, using updated scientific and legal documents, to analyze the production, quality and cultural aspects of this product. Results: Results presented in the literature and current legislation indicate that the production of these cheeses can be safe for commercialization, having as main requirements: adoption of good manufacturing practices, care of the dairy herd and due maturation of the product. Current national legislation indicates that the minimum maturation time should be 60 days. The publication of a law that regulates the production of serrano cheese in Rio Grande do Sul allows it to be matured for a shorter time, if its microbiological safety is assured. Conclusions: Additionally to revisions in the laws for the production and marketing of cheeses such as serrano, legal reviews are essential in the area of science, technology and health surveillance to provide a scientific basis to the improvement of the production of those who live on the commercialization of these products.
Language and culture are interacting. Learning a language must understand the culture. The lack of cultural knowledge will lead to students’mistakes in daily English,therefore,in English teaching,the cultural differences between Chinese and Western as an important question is put forward. Then,from the cultural differences between Chinese and western,I discuss the reasons for mistakes in daily English and then how to teaching.
Amina Sh. Rudi
Full Text Available The article presents an approach to the sustainability of the social system as a phenomenon of the preservation of society via the changes. The notion of “legitimacy” is actualized, expressing the correspondence of the existing law and order and acting authority to the universal principles of human and social life. Legitimacy is interesting as a social consensus, achieved in the dynamics of social life. It means the adoption of legal and political norms by the subjects of interactions and the lack of demand for power resources to maintain the legal order. Cultural identity is considered as a factor of social stability. The cultural identity of the people is connected, on one hand, with ethno-national and regional identity, and on the other hand, with the self-determination of people as citizens of an integral state and carriers of the historical values of a particular country. Legislative opportunities for ensuring the complex sustainability of multicultural social education are indicated.
O. V. Krasnokutskyi
Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.
Full Text Available This article critically considers the legal regulation of Indigenous people's cultural heritage in Western Australia and its operation within the framework of Australia's federal system of government. The article also sets out the different ways in which Indigenous cultural heritage is conceptualised, including as a public good analogous to property of the crown, an incidental right arising from group native title and as the subject of private contract. The article explores the various notions of 'Indigenous cultural heritage' that exist under Western Australian public law and the significant role of private contractual arrangements. Particular attention is devoted to the uneasy nexus between the laws of native title and heritage in Western Australia.
青岛大学音乐学院，山东 青岛 266000
Because of the differences in environment and products, different cultures may be formed in east and west, the social characteristics of material and spiritual life integrated embodiment through Chinese and west food cultures. The author focuses on analysis and comparison in cross-cultural differences of diet idea, diet object and way of eating in China and western countries, the deep-seated causation which induces the differences in food cultures is revealed. Under the background of western economic and cultural integration, communication in food cultures increased, which will certain accelerate Chinese food cultures developed and spread al over the world.
While more and more teachers from Western culture teach in China, research on the different cultures of learning in China's teaching context and Western teachers’views on the Chinese culture of learning and teaching have been rarely conduct-ed. This essay discusses the implications of cultural differences of learning between China and the West, particularly Western teachers’viewpoint on Chinese culture of learning. The conclusion suggests that it is of great importance to be aware that culture is just one of many factors that determine individual learning, and teachers are supposed to avoid stereotyping and simplistic views with regard to culture of learning, though general trends and patterns may exist among a certain type of culture.
This article compares core texts - the Bible and The Confucian Analects - and concepts from Western and Chinese normative cultures and further discusses inspirations from Buddhist norms in Western policy.......This article compares core texts - the Bible and The Confucian Analects - and concepts from Western and Chinese normative cultures and further discusses inspirations from Buddhist norms in Western policy....
<正>Foods cultures are so deeply rooted in Chinese culture that almost everything of Chinese people’s lives is more or less related to them. In the west, foods also have a very important role in people s lives. However, foods in Chinese culture and western culture are different in a few aspects. This paper aims to look into the similarities and differences of the foods in two cultures and tries to give a brief discussion on their differences.
Numeral not only has the numerical symbol, but also is the important constituent of language, and it also expresses the rich cultural connotation besides the literal meaning.This article emphatically will carry on the analysis to the mystique and the metaphor between Chinese and Western numeral culture in order to help the people to understand some special numeral culture phenomenon thoroughly in the Trans-Culture exchange process which will make the cultural exchange smoother.
When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc.A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture.Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.
When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc. A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture. Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.
Ya V Zubova
Full Text Available The article focuses on the civil society and its development in Russia in connection with the notion of legal culture. The legal culture is integral to people's social activities and it is inextricably intertwined into the system of social relations as a result of the regulatory control of the activity, the ranking and regulation of the public intercourse based on the law. The legal culture is uniquely positioned for exercising strong influence upon an individual since it involves competence, adherence and respect for the legal standards expressing the accumulated moral and political requirements of the society.
Western business expatriates in China. Three sociocultural adjustment variables were examined; general, interaction and work adjustment. Although a negative relationship was hypothesized between cultural novelty and the three adjustment variables, results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis...
Much of the literature on post-feminism concerns the “Western” world and variously conceptualizes post-feminism as “Western culture.” This article argues that, as a result, feminist cultural scholars have not sufficiently imagined, theorized or empirically researched the possibility of post-feminism in non-Western cultural contexts. By briefly reviewing what has been said in the literature about post-feminism and the non-West, and by putting this in dialogue with transnational feminist cultur...
The differences of food culture play an important role in cross-cultural communication. Learn the cultural rooted causes of food culture between Chinese and Western countries, will promote mutual understanding between people and enjoy different feelings different foods brings, enhance cultural exchange, complement and integration.
Western medicine is intrinsically tied with modern Western culture, and as such is foreign to many African cultures. Relying on personal observations from working in Angola as a physiotherapist as well as secondary research, the author explores the divide between Angolan culture and medical practices which are deeply rooted in scientific research. Most strikingly, the author finds that concepts of evidence-based medicine as well as individual human or patients' rights contain aspects foreign to Angolan culture. Illustrative examples are given of differences in attitudes towards finances and religion in relation to medicine. Finally, the author proposes that factors such as poverty and illiteracy can play an important role in differences in practices and customs commonly seen as being strictly tied to culture. Although medicine does carry with it components of Western culture, there may be positive components of medicine that non-Westerners would like to adopt. This article suggests that Westerners and Angolans can combine beneficial aspects of Angolan culture with medicine to improve health care for the people of Angola.
Cross-cultural communication refers to the communication between peoples of different cultural backgrounds. To solve and avoid the cultural conflicts and blocks, it is high time to enhance the actual skills of cross-cultural communication. This paper gives a comparative analysis of the concrete representations of differences between Chinese and western culture in cross-cultural communication. And it gives some communication principles on the cross-cultural communication.
Food, an essential prerequisite for existence, plays an irreplaceable role in the development of society and in the progress of human beings. Chinese food culture has a long and bril iant history, but under the huge impacts of the western civilization, it has been greatly influenced. From these study, the positive influences of the western food culture on the contemporary Chinese food culture can be clearly seen, which also have promoted the diverse developments of Chinese dietary culture.
to another. It means also overcoming the typical blindness to one’s own culture. The Spanish-Danish Legal Language course introduces Danish language students to a new world of cultural knowledge, as they generally have insignificant knowledge of Danish law and the Danish legal system. Furthermore, they have......KONFERENCE SINGAPORE Culture-related competence Courses in comparative Spanish -Danish legal language: A cultural Kinder egg? Learning comparative legal language is not only a question of linguistic competence, but it is also cultural training in which the students achieve culture......-related competences as culture is implicitly embedded in many legal terms in the shape of historical, societal and legal knowledge from two different worlds. Students need to understand these legal terms, fixed expressions, metaphors, collocations, etc. in order to be able to translate from one legal language/culture...
Ventura, Paulo; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Fernandes, Tânia; Klein, Olivier; Morais, José; Kolinsky, Régine
Culture has been shown to influence the way people apprehend their physical environment. Cognitive orientation is more holistic in East Asian cultures, which emphasize relationships and connectedness among objects in the field, than in Western cultures, which are more prone to focus exclusively on the object and its attributes. We investigated whether, beyond, or in conjunction with culture, literacy and/or schooling may also have an influence on this cognitive orientation. Using the Framed-Line Test both in Portugal and in Thailand, we compared literate schooled adults with two groups of unschooled adults: one of illiterates and one of ex-illiterates. As in former studies on Western people, Portuguese-schooled literates were more accurate in the absolute task than in the relative task. In contrast, Portuguese illiterates and ex-illiterates were more accurate in the relative task than in the absolute task. Such an effect of schooling was not observed in the Thai groups, all of whom performed better on the relative task. Thus, the capacity to abstract from contextual information does not stem only from passive exposure to the culture or the physical environment of Western countries. Western schooling, as part of or in addition to culture, is a crucial factor.
... and sub-regionally to depict how issues of culture have been infiltrating the sustainable development discourse and to distil some of the substantive benchmarks for good cultural governance. Keywords: sustainable development; role of culture in sustainable development; culture; definition of culture; environmental law; ...
Alisa Yu. Kolomiets
When rendering help to dysfunctional families it is necessary that children gain skills to know modern life realities, understand laws and regularities of changes in Russia’s social, political and legal spheres and many other skills, necessary for successful socialization into surrounding society.
Alisa Yu. Kolomiets
Full Text Available When rendering help to dysfunctional families it is necessary that children gain skills to know modern life realities, understand laws and regularities of changes in Russia’s social, political and legal spheres and many other skills, necessary for successful socialization into surrounding society.
West Chester School District, PA.
This curriculum guide presents nine units for the study of western cultures in the tenth grade. The units contain up to 13 lessons each and comprise a two-semester course. Content includes ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Reformation, Great Britain, France as a case study of revolution, Russia, and nationalism and the…
Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson
The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...
Mathematics Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Mathematics consists of essays dealing with the mathematical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Inca, Egyptian, and African mathematics, among others, the book includes essays on Rationality, Logic and Mathematics, and the transfer of knowledge from East to West. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate the mathematical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.
Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.
Aguirre Zozaya, F; Iglesias, M; Reyes, R M; Iturralde, G; Martínez, M; Pineda Hernández, C
The history of abortion is a very long one. Every people and nation used different and widely varied methods during the centuries to get rid of unwanted pregnancies. Unfortunately, in most instances, the great majority of these methods was equivalent to zero effectiveness, or, too often, to suicide. Legal aspects of induced abortion have changed considerably with the passing of time and according to countries; these days 36% of the world countries admit abortion on request, 24% for specific reasons only, 16% for medical reasons only, and 8% still consider it an illegal practice. In Mexico abortion is legal only when pregnancy would imply death of the mother, when it is the result of rape of minors, or when it is done on women with very serious mental pathology. Obviously abortion is not the solution to unwanted pregnancies; an improvement in the socioeconomic condition and in the quality of life of many people would be a much better, and more difficult, approach to the solution. Psychosocial factors of abortion involve concepts which are difficult to define, such as those of the wanted or of the unwanted child, and can cause problems which are very difficult to handle. Health education, and sex education in particular, should not only teach the fundamentals of reproduction, but respect and consideration for the phenomenon of procreation, and a strong sense of personal and social responsibility toward family planning.
Why are there such large differences in living arrangements across Western European countries? Conventional economic analyses have not been successful in explaining differences in living arrangements and particularly the dramatic increase in the fraction of young adults living with their parents in Mediterranean Europe. This paper presents a cultural interpretation. I argue that the sexual revolution of the 1970s - by liberalizing parental attitudes - had a differential impact on living arran...
Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries.
Г. В. Скрипчук
Full Text Available The author investigates the formation of the legal framework of contemporary Ukrainian culture, original official documents, which ensure the formation of the sphere of culture in Ukraine are analyzed in this article. The state budget of Ukraine by years has been researched in more detail, the analysis of the laws of Ukraine «On Libraries and Librarianship», «On Museums and Museology», «On Cinematography» and so on has been performed.
Kulzhanova, Zhuldizay T.; Kulzhanova, Gulbaram T.
This research is devoted to the philosophical analysis of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in the transition period society. The purpose of the study is to discover the essence and specificity of legal culture as a determinant of value orientations in a transition society from the philosophical perspective. In accordance with…
Full Text Available South Africa has not escaped the rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women. From an economic and social vantage point, the HIV/AIDS epidemic effects women the hardest, with underprivileged black women the most susceptible to the virus. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the intersection between HIV/AIDS, gender inequality and gender violence, and more specifically on certain cultural practices and customs that contribute towards and exacerbate women’s subordination and inequality, which in turn increase women’s exposure to HIV infection. Relevant to this focus is inevitably an analysis of the perceived threats to specific fundamental human rights as a result of some of the entrenched practices that continue to reinforce women’s subordinate position in society, aggravated by the high incidence of gender violence.
Gross, Peter W.
Design and content of a legal writing program are outlined: premises on which the curriculum is based, program overview, first semester skill elements, law office memorandum preparation, appellate advocacy, grading, legal skills notebook, student instructors. Available from Union University, 80 Scotland Ave., Albany, NY 12208; $2.50, entire issue.…
Dr Sarah Dromgoole (Reader in Law, University of Leicester) charts the history of the legal protection of the underwater cultural heritage and considers some of the lessons that can be learnt from developments in respect of the remains of RMS Titanic. One or two issues of an ethical nature are also explored. Article based on a lecture delivered at the IALS in June 2005 and published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society fo...
Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.
In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between…
Chung, Mona; Ingleby, Richard
Theoretical frameworks for the examination of negotiation generated by Western academics do not easily translate to Chinese society because of fundamental differences between Western and Chinese society. Attempts to study negotiation in Chinese society and to improve negotiation between Chinese and Western business people are themselves…
Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana
The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal
Aznar, Mariano J.
In situ preservation is not necessarily the best underwater archaeological solution, nor is it legally required in all circumstances. Rather, it is the first and, perhaps, the most technically desirable option, when archaeological, legal, and political circumstances—in that order—so advise. Otherwise, the removal of the historical object or objects found under the sea and their conservation outside the marine environment is another plausible option, provided the archaeological standards accepted by the international scientific community are met. This paper aims to clarify the legal contours of this rule, as codified by the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. To this end, it proposes the following basic hypothesis: in situ preservation, as a current legal principle in underwater archaeological activities, is the first option for the protection of that heritage; because it is an option, this preservation may take a different form depending on the circumstances; nothing legally prevents the removal of remains from the seabed, provided it is done properly and they are appropriately preserved; and, finally, if necessary, this should be done as soon as possible, given the circumstances.
Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo
There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…
Kousathana, L; Kousathana, F; Karamanou, M; Kousoulis, A A
To discuss the current official legal position of the Greek Council and the official international statement on the subject, as well as the emerging cultural and moral aspects on the issue of informing the cancer patient. Perusal of national and international legal and ethics sources, under a multidisciplinary perspective. According to the Council of State of Greece the violation of informing the patient by the physician constitutes urban liability and disciplinary offence. The Greek Code of Medical Ethics declares that the physician is obliged to inform his patient about his health and respect the desire of the patient who decides not to be informed. The UNESCO declaration does not seem to clarify the subject. In Greece, physicians have the tendency to tell the truth more often today than in the past, reflecting the global tendency, although the majority still discloses the truth to the next of kin. The difference in the tactics of informing in several nations reflects huge cultural, social, economic and religious differences in each society. Well informed and knowledgeable health-care and legal professionals, alongside with patients and ethical directors, should sit at the same table in order to productively discuss the most sensitive matters of the contemporary medical practice.
Blakeman, Rachel; Haseley, Dennis
As psychoanalytic institutes evolve, adapting to the contemporary financial and social environment, the integration of new technologies into psychoanalytic education presents opportunities for expansion to candidates residing beyond the usual geographic boundaries. While the teaching of analytic content through distance learning programs appears to be relatively straightforward, factors including legalities, traditional mind-sets, and cross-cultural issues need to be considered as complicating the situation, as illustrated by one U.S. institute's distance learning initiative with a group in South Korea. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.
Full Text Available This article provides an overview of certain ideologemes of Western (European and Russian legal consciousness – prominent works of Ivan Ilyin and Duncan Kennedy are taken as examples. The article analyzes the tabula rasa principle and its place in legal consciousness. We use legal scholarship, judicial practice and opinion polls to examine the relationship between legal consciousness and the lack of trust in Russian courts, as well as their inefficiency from the point of view of public opinion. There are a number of shocking cases of torture of innocent people by the Russian police. Why is this so? The answer lies in the legal consciousness of police officers and of judges. This is something that has been inherited from the Soviet period. It is completely different from the Western legal consciousness, one of the key features of which is denial of authority. The critical legal studies branch of American legal realism almost denies the very existence of law, and, perhaps for this reason, American culture is less open to abuses like torture. At the same time, there is no possibility to shift legal consciousness immediately, the tabula rasa principle does not work. The final objective of the article is to provide a perspective on the reform of higher legal education and its relation to legal consciousness and legal anthropology. We propose that a greater part of the university curriculum is devoted to legal anthropology.
Li, Q.; Wang, B.; Yu, C.; Deng, H.; Cai, W.; Wang, C.
Anthropogenic carbon emissions has been believed to trigger more than half of the global warming over the past half a century. Climate change analysis based on human activities should not neglect the driving force of human society. Different countries or regions have different legal culture traditions and legal systems that can greatly influence regional carbon emissions. This will lead to differences in implementation way and implementation intensity of the law and policies. Without understanding the social and legal background, it is not enough to understand how the climate change rules work and what the effects enforce. Using the panel data of 71 countries from 1996-2010, this study analyzes the effects of macro channels influencing mitigation policies, which contains rules and regulations including value, religion, genealogy of law, public participation, regulatory, government effectiveness, corruption, rule of law, etc. The results show that the interaction between legal variables and economic variables is very important for carbon emissions reduction. The law affects the carbon emissions by adjusting the economic and other related variables, and vice verse, economic and other variables will also impact the level of the rule of law. The study also reveals that developing national economy is most countries' urgent current task, and there are not sound strategies or strong enforcement to guarantee the achievement of the emissions reduction commitment. It is not enough to make justice dominant by cultivating a fair attitude. Practical measures and institutional means for social justice must be promoted. These results will give insight to policy makers in creating feasible and practical climate polices.
Gloria M. Morán García
Abstract: Most of juridical systems are historically developed from the interaction of two main legal principles: the principle of personality and the principle of territoriality. Roman Law is one of the best examples of it; its legacy channeled the growth and coexistence of religious and secular jurisdictions in the Germanic kingdoms of Western Europe. Under the principle of personality of laws, bonding individuals to their cultural or religious communities, legal pluralism was the common grounds from the Antiquity to the pre-Modern era. However, as a result of the religious wars in the Holy Roman Empire between Catholics and Protestants in the 16th and the 17th centuries, the Westphalian state model reinforced a territorial religious jurisdiction under the principle cuius regio eius religio, allowing the ruler to impose his religion on his subjects. The Muslim legal tradition developed, as well, plural juridical systems from the Dhimma System. One of them was the Ottoman Millet system that was adapted from the colonial era to the most of Middle East nation-states as a bonding personal religious law applied to non-Muslim communities. The secular paradigm of the Rule of Law, centralizing and reinforcing state and federal legislative powers, is implemented in Europe and her former colonies in the 19th century under the nation-state constitutional model, expanding worldwide the principles of territoriality and citizenship. As a result, religious legal systems are progressively confined to the private sphere. However, the secular paradigm is confronted gradually by a new development of legal pluralism, mainly as an effect of an extensive increment of global migrations; Halakha or Jewish Law, Canon Law or Catholic Law, Sharia or Islamic Law, are gaining strength as formal or informal religious ADR under the principle of Religious Freedom. Religious legal systems are becoming an innovative tool of mediation, conciliation, and arbitration accepted by some secular
D.R. Gasper (Des)
markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and
Cherawaty Thalib, Mutia
This study was conducted with an empirical juridical approach. The juridical approach was done by identifying community norms and legal policy related to the domestic workers existence, while the empirical approach was done by observing social phenomenon of housemaid and local culture that underlies the working relationship between employer and domestic workers (housemaid). In-depth interviews and group discussions were done to obtain the data. The result shows that the domestic workers existence in Gorontalo cannot be relied upon the domestic service market because it is increasingly eroded by socio-cultural changes that evolve in the rapid rise society awareness of human rights and technological development. Huyula’s culture values, timoa, ambu, bilohe, and tolianga remain as survival strategies for some domestic workers who last longer with their work. For new domestic workers, the bargaining position is increasingly high with the poor quality of work. Some of the rural workers who still hold the principle of “dila biasa” (uncustomary principle), moomu (unwilling), moolito / moqolito (shame), affect their resilience in working as domestic workers. On the other hand, domestic work relations as a social institution is not supported by strong instruments like the government. Consequently, it needs an integrated thinking and step by step designing of the form of protection for domestic workers based on the local culture values of Gorontalo people.
Keller, Heidi; And Others
Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)
Giampaolo Maria Cogo
Full Text Available Moved by Pope Frances’ urgent call to protect our common home by dealing with the environmental challenge and its human roots to achieve sustainable and integral development, the historical-legislative and institutional recognition act was drawn up on the protection and valorization of cultural-landscape-environmental heritage, matrix of the progress of civilization outlined in the fundamental principles of the Italian Constitution in the “cultural programme” focused on the relationship between cultureperson and environment-person. It recalls the action of the institutions to protect nature and the ecological-environmental balance and the activities of international organizations to safeguard nature from human actions. They are a sign of the critical issues of codification in the field of cultural, landscape and environmental heritage (2006-2009 due to a departure from natural legal right (jus envisaged as a moral law for enjoyment, compatible with a loving, responsible and prudent use, aimed at guaranteeing an integral sustainable development for future generations. In losing the natural moral law, one encounters the decisive factor in the fall of legality, with serious consequences for heritage protection and people’s growth, based on shared standards. A glimmer of hope can be discerned in the community/EU legislation to harmonize the protection and valorization of the environment according to criteria of substantive law, where the primary aims for the guarantee of future generations lead to regulatory processes anchored to the ethics of natural moral law, under the bulwark of true cooperation and good faith, in a strict justicial and sanctioning system, tempered by the use of fairness when the general interest of the common good prevails.
Parsippany - Troy Hills Board of Education, Parsippany, NJ.
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Social Studies--You and Man in the Western World. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide contains five units: 1) cultural orientation; 2) social studies dimensions in Western Europe; 3) social studies dimensions in Eastern Europe and Soviet Union; 4) social studies dimensions in Latin America; and…
Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic
Halila Rama Purnama
Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays efforts to eradicate corruption become a global problem and not only as a national or regional issues. For a developing country like Indonesia has almost become a condition sine qua non. This research reviews the role of legal culture in formulating the legal awareness of the public in an effort to prevent corruption. This research is a sociolegal research leading to search ontologically. The type of research combines the empirical and normative studies. The outcomes of the research indicate that as an extraordinary crime corruption cases should be carried out in an extraordinary way. The consequence it is not only the financial loss of state but a crime that violates the rights of social and economic at large and systemic. Observing the criminal sanctions applicable in the law of corruption linked to the purpose of criminalization against perpetrators of corruption corruptor it can be seen that the essence of criminalization is intended as an attempt to eradicate corruption. But these efforts to date cannot be said to achieve its goals because that looks just taking measure have not been effective to minimize corruption. Criminalization efforts have not actually created the states role in protecting people against the corruption.
This article is the first exploration of the Chinese notion of apology from a comparative legal perspective. By reviewing the significance of apology in the context of Chinese culture, the article presents a three-dimensional structure of apology that, in contrast to the understanding the research community now has, defines acknowledgement of fault, admission of responsibility, and offer of reparation as three essential elements of an apology. It is the combination of these three elements that enables apology to serve as a form of reparation. The article further places the three-dimensional apology in the context of the Chinese concept of "the relations of humanity," arguing that an apology accompanying admission of fault and responsibility may help to restore the harmony of relations and, by so doing, resolve medical disputes positively.
Full Text Available Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members’ landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008, and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014. However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1 17th to 20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2 cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial cultural drifts (Herskovits, 1948 where at certain time periods in history and in development, people’s expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed.
Nand, Kristina; Masuda, Takahiko; Senzaki, Sawa; Ishii, Keiko
Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members' landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008c), and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014b). However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1) 17–20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2) cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial “cultural drifts” (Herskovits, 1948) where at certain time periods in history and in development, people's expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed. PMID:25285085
in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.
Full Text Available The essay is designed to present the phenomena of popular culture, its difference from pop culture, both products of modern West, and their impact on film and advertisement media in India. First, the discussion focuses on the Critical School which proposed the initial thesis of commodification of culture with a resultant “lowering” of standards to appeal to “the masses”, and an appeal to the “average” tastes. In the essay an argument is presented that pop culture is a “critique” of popular culture and is an elitist position attempting to shock popular mores and media content. Given this setting, it is argued that while India has followed both the globalizing popular and pop cultures, neither are adequate to encompass Indian media, specifically their film content.
Full Text Available Hijab is a sign, a sign of cultural differences which has various emergences in different communities. In this article the Islamic veil among Muslims in the West is discussed as an “Islamic Identity” and as a phenomenon of “Cultural Difference” with the Western societies. This sign has represented the Muslim not only as a religious group, a minority which belongs to the East, and a group of people that their culture is different with the dominant culture of the West, but also is different from Westerners how does not accept the culture of veil for women in general. Furthermore, it is emerging different cultural and religious discourses in the Western societies which could be assumed as a challenge to the dominant culture of freedom, liberalism and feminism discourse. This paper aims to clarify the approaches of cultural semiotics, especially, the cultural policy of difference as a new approach to strengthen the neo-orientalism and neo-colonialism approaches and how the discourse of the veil and the otherness is developed in the Western societies. Discourse analysis of various news and reports in Western Media demonstrate the emergence of new methods of discourse on issues related to Islam and Muslims in general and the “Islamic veil” as a special way of life to put the “Islamic Identity” in opposition to the “Western Identity” which is affected by the orientalism discourse on its old and new approaches. This new way of discourse is trying to institutionalize the idea of “I and the other” based on the new understanding of “otherness” and “the cultural policies of difference”.
Robottom, Ian; Norhaidah, Sharifah
This article reports on two research projects (one in Malaysia and one in Australia) that studied the experiences of Islamic background learners studying western science. Conceptually, this research program is conducted within a socially constructivist discourse and employs both quantitative and qualitative forms of data collection. The article…
Mahmoud M. Galander
Full Text Available Abstract: Global communication is widely perceived as an instrument to disseminate Western values in the developing world. The “Wheel of Fortune” and “Who Wants to be a Millionnaire” licensed to Malaysian Television stations, though the language and the word puzzles were localised, carried the same format of the original (American show. They promote consumerism, gambling and the images of usury, the style of wealth accumulation forbidden in Islam. For the Malaysian audience whose priorities are those of contentment, modesty and humility, such emphasis on material desires breeds internal contradictions that may lead the audience to succumb to the new Western values.
Koda, Tomoko; Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth
The goal of the study is to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological study in human facial expression recognition. Our previous study using Japanese designed avatars showed there are cultural differences in interpreting avatar facial...... expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions. This paper summarizes the early results of the successive experiment that uses western designed avatars. We observed tendencies of cultural...
Cláudia Pereira Antunes
Full Text Available The education in the indigenous schools, even though it is build within the legal framework of the State and a modern concept of education, demands new comprehensions from the western society not only in its relation with the indigenous education, but also in its relation with the indigenous people. Because of its condition as a mediator between two different forms of thinking, the indigenous school also represents a fertile ground to think about the western conceptions of education. This article is dedicated to a deeper reflection about some aspects of the relation between the western society, based on rationality and science, and the indian people in the construction of the indigenous schools.
The aim of our contribution is that of analysing the possible linguistic and cross-cultural contexts where the hendiadys true and fair was born, and exploring the meaning implications of the same ‘formula’ during the centuries. We start from the hypothesis that true and fair is a hendiadys, to show that the two terms take strength and completeness one from the other, so as to generate an only complex meaning, whose original usage was, last but not least, a literary and poetical one. The analysis of the hendiadys moves from the non-legal to the legal context, following steps of the etymological and lexical research methodology.
Dudink, S.P.; Hagemann, K.; Clark, A.
The idea that citizenship was the right of all humanity emerged during the French Revolution. However, this right was limited by gender, class and race. Studying Europe and its colonies and the United States, this book analyzes images of masculine citizenship in political rhetoric, culture, and
Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...
James Michael Olivero
Full Text Available This paper reviews death penalty perspectives from the United States, Mexico and international law. The United States practices the death penalty on not only its citizens, but those of other nations who commit capital crimes. Mexico is a death penalty abolitionist state that takes significant issue with the United States over executing Mexican nationals. The paper analyzes the cultural, legal and political conflict between the two countries surrounding the application of the death penalty on Mexican nationals.
Tseng, Yun-Shan; Verklan, M Terese
The purpose of this synthesis was to compare the difference between Asian and Western fathers' perceptions of their roles when confronted with situational crises involving their children. Twenty-two studies were reviewed and assigned to one of two categories: the father experiencing a situational crisis related to his child's illness or cultural influences on the paternal role. The results indicated that Asian and Western fathers' perceptions of crises do not differ greatly. It was concluded that there exists a gap in the literature with respect to the knowledge of Asian fathers' situational crisis surrounding their child's illness, their coping strategies when faced with their child's illness, as well as their emotional reactions toward family health. Future research should investigate the single or same-gender father's perceptions and emotional reactions in both Asian and Western cultures.
Anthony S. Davis; Robert F. Keefe
Nursery cultural practices are used to help growers achieve pre-determined size and physiological targets for seedlings. In that regard, irrigation is used to accelerate or slow growth and as a trigger for changing growth phase. In a case study highlighting the effects of irrigation on seedling development, western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings were grown...
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…
Thorsen, Mats Skjervheim
This thesis is based on six months of fieldwork conducted in Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay. The country legalized cannabis in 2013, but during my fieldwork only two of three aspects of the law were implemented. It was legal to cultivate privately or join a cannabis club, but there are no places to legally buy the product. In the thesis, I aim to explore different aspects of the cannabis movement in the country. In the first empirical chapter I look at how my informants perceive cannabis,...
Examines the origins of law, compares the British and French legal systems, discusses implications of this dual heritage for Canadian law, and discusses the relationship between the lawyer and the translator. (AM)
Ho, Ming-Jung; Yao, Grace; Lee, Keng-Lin; Beach, Mary Catherine; Green, Alexander R
No evidence addresses the effectiveness of patient-centered cultural competence training in non-Western settings. To examine whether a patient-centered cultural competency curriculum improves medical students' skills in eliciting the patients' perspective and exploring illness-related social factors. Fifty-seven medical students in Taiwan were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 27) or one of two intervention groups: basic (n = 15) and extensive (n = 15). Both intervention groups received two 2-hour patient-centered cultural competency workshops. In addition, the extensive intervention group received a 2-hour practice session. The control group received no training. At the end of the clerkship, all students were evaluated with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students in the extensive intervention group scored significantly higher than the basic intervention and control groups in eliciting the patient's perspective (F = 18.38, p social factors (F = 6.66, p = 0.003, eta(2) = 0.20). Patient-centered cultural competency training can produce improvement in medical students' cross-cultural communication skills in non-Western settings, especially when adequate practice is provided.
The purpose of this article, inspired by the works of Martin Buber, is to propose an alternative to the inherent dichotomy of Western culture. It may allow Western culture to transcend its fixed nature towards new directions and to suggest challenging solutions for reshaping the questions--what is the role of man in the world, and what is the…
Kokkoris, Michail D; Kühnen, Ulrich
Prior research demonstrates that members of collectivistic cultures are less likely to reduce cognitive dissonance after making a choice, compared to members of individualistic cultures. This difference has been attributed to different conceptualizations of choice that derive from different self-construals across cultures. In individualistic cultures, choice leads to stronger commitment to the chosen option compared to collectivistic cultures, because it implicates core aspects of the independent self, such as personal preferences. However, this cultural variation in postchoice dissonance has thus far been studied exclusively by comparing East Asians and North Americans. Building on the assumption that this difference is due to different construals of the self, we conducted an experiment with movie choices using the classic free-choice paradigm to examine differences in dissonance reduction between Western and Eastern Europeans, two populations known to differ with respect to interdependence. The results show that Eastern Europeans are less likely than Western Europeans to reduce postchoice dissonance by spreading their alternatives. Our findings speak to the generalizability of the hypothesis that in cultures differing in independence or interdependence people also differ in the way they construe choice, as well as in the way the act of choosing affects their self-concept.
Full Text Available The question of what the law is may preoccupy some legal theorists. Answering it is definitely the legal professionals’ nightmare. Constitutional and statutory requirements now require Taiwan’s officials and lawyers to confront the problem of ascertaining and applying indigenous customs in the exercise of all state powers. Yet, the most widely accepted juridical concept of custom results in a choice between two evils, to wit, breaching either the general duty to uphold law or the concrete obligation to respect indigenous values. So far, efforts have only been made to document the customs, but the documentation thus produced is too ethnographic to be legally useful. The challenge, therefore, is one of translation. Values are to be carried from an indigenous world into the modern one, and the little-known form of custom is to be expressed in the language of the science of law. This paper argues for the translation of indigenous customs with conceptions available in an array of examples from European legal history. This paper explains that, in cases like Taiwan, the solutions known to the English-speaking literature all end in the dilemma I call »modern state centralism« (MSC. The solutions are divided into two types: legal pluralism and Francisco Suárez’s conception of custom. The former defeats itself in that its criticism against the state’s monopoly of law amounts to suggesting that the state tolerate all kinds of non-state normativity. The latter reduces to MSC because recent literature ignores Suárez’s legal historical references and important studies written in German. The rest of the section shows how »non-modern« legal techniques may help. This paper concludes by suggesting that the concept pair of law and custom be dissociated from four others, to wit, written and unwritten law, state and society, law in books and law in action, and, finally, alien and native law.
The vast majority of experts participating in the study positively assessed the cultural conditions of technological innovativeness in Polish enterprises. Experts also provided negative cultural characteristics of Poles.
Full Text Available There are frequent manifestations of Western cultural intolerance that prevent a scientific neutral approach to the intellectual achievements of other cultures, and also to appreciate them in their actual value. The authors of this article first refer to examples of this kind of intolerance in the field of Philosophy (which has been the principal object of their last investigations, Religion (Buddhist Atheism, and Linguistics (the «discovery» of Sanskrit language by Western scholars. In the present paper they specifically deal with the hermeneutical approach by Western scholars to the Mah–abh–arata that the authors consider the most important work in World Literature: Intolerance in this matter makes scholars find in the Mah–abh–arata a real «chaos» or conduces them to the obsessive search for the «Ur-Text», giving rise to theories that eliminate large portions of the epic poem considering them interpolations, or negating it all creativity, originality, and even its Indian essence. The last part of the article is dedicated to Krsna, an avatara, i.e. a reincarnation or manifestation, of the Supreme God Visnu. Krsna is seen as «a bizarre figure», «a cynic», «an opportunist», «a charlatan, who declares himself to be the God of Gods». These Western scholars leave completely aside the Indian tradition of almost three thousand centuries that proclaims that Krsna is not a God, but the God of the Hindu people, being adored by many devoted hearts. A simple but important hermeneutical norm has been forgotten: To accept the cultural products created by another culture as they are conceived by it, and without interpreting them according to one’s one cultural criteria based on the own values and beliefs.
Д. В. Лук’янов
Full Text Available The influence of world globalization processes on the development of the religious legal systems has been analyzed in the paper. Globalization processes in the XXI century are regarding individuals, nations, and civilizations. Global transformations lead to qualitative changes in the socio-cultural relations and actualize a wide range of issues which are related to the formation of a new world culture. Modern globalization takes diverse range of public relations in its own orbit. The relationship between the legal systems in the twentieth century is some of the most important aspects of this process. However, the interaction of legal systems has significant differences from the interaction of economies of different countries. There are actual economic relations domination of Western financial and economic institutions and standardization of relevant rules. But the attempts to apply this approach to law lead to resistance to Western standards and the spread of major civilizational conflicts in different parts of the world. Globalization should be based on respect for cultural, religious and legal diversity. It has to ensure preservation of forced “Westernisation”. Significant differences in the impact of globalization on the convergence of legal systems of Western law (Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American and their impact on religious legal systems of Muslim, Hindu and Jewish law must be emphasized. The religious legal systems are not exposed to other systems and the related changes. This is due to such features as the divine nature, increased stability, specific sources of law etc. An important issue that requires further study is the reverse influence which religious law exercises to secularized modern legal system.
Bradney, Professor Anthony
As Fiss has put it, academics are in law schools, ‘to study law and teach their students what they happen to discover’ (‘‘Of Law and the River,’ and Nihilism and Academic Freedom’ (1985) 35 Journal of Legal Education 1 at p 26). The idea that all questions about legal phenomena that can be asked should be asked, that nothing should remain unexplored, is slowly being accepted in modern university law schools. Institutions that were once the repositories of ephemeral case-notes and palimpsest t...
Randall L. Robbins; Thomas J. Matthews
The issue of diversity is certainly not a new concept. This topic has been the focus of many corporate retreats and board room discussions. However, one of the most reputable and esteemed professions is falling short of the bar in maintaining a diverse profile. Research indicates that minority groups experience significant underrepresentation in law schools and the legal profession in general. To address this issue, this research will focus on examining the value of diversity to the legal...
Maryam Sadat Ghiasian
Full Text Available This study attempts to introduce two main currents in orientalism, the classic and the modern. The Western attitude toward the Orient, and especially Islam, is analyzed in both currents and the operative factors that lead to modern orientalism are surveyed. The 9th September 2001 event is here considered one of the most important points in modern orientalism. Media are here assumed to play a crucial role in representation of the orientalist and racist attitudes which nowadays focus on cultural differences. Accordingly, the present study surveys reflections of western cultural attitudes toward Iran in the linguistic construction of two British journals, the Guardian and the Daily Telegraph and two American ones, Time and Newsweek, after the occurrence of the 9/11 event.
... alcoholic beverage business is seeking to be licensed. (e) No such license shall be transferred without the..., Chairman, Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone ATTEST: /s/ Vera Johnny, Acting Recording Secretary Te-Moak...
Full Text Available This article explores the intersection between digital technologies and cultural planning. New information technologies ought to enable more powerful planning strategies. Yet a common seductive vision of planning is mirrored by utopian claims for cyberculture, which often fall short of the hoped-for reality. We suggest that one problem is the linear thinking common to mainstream planning and digital thinking, which leads to a cumulative lack of fit with the non-linear (chaotic world of social action. We draw on chaos and complexity theory to reframe planning problems and develop more creative digital strategies in a specific location, Western Sydney, using and adapting Geographic Information Systems.
Many epistemological terms, such as investigation, inquiry, argument, evidence, and fact were established in law well before being associated with science. However, while legal proof remained qualified by standards of 'moral certainty', scientific proof attained a reputation for objectivity. Although most forms of legal evidence (including expert evidence) continue to be treated as fallible 'opinions' rather than objective 'facts', forensic DNA evidence increasingly is being granted an exceptional factual status. It did not always enjoy such status. Two decades ago, the scientific status of forensic DNA evidence was challenged in the scientific literature and in courts of law, but by the late 1990s it was being granted exceptional legal status. This paper reviews the ascendancy of DNA profiling, and argues that its widely-heralded objective status is bound up with systems of administrative accountability. The 'administrative objectivity' of DNA evidence rests upon observable and reportable bureaucratic rules, records, recording devices, protocols, and architectural arrangements. By highlighting administrative sources of objectivity, this paper suggests that DNA evidence remains bound within the context of ordinary organisational and practical routines, and is not a transcendent source of 'truth' in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Throughout the 550 year Ottoman rule over the Balkan lands, where even today internal dynamics threaten peace and justice, how and through what means the Ottoman Empire achieved consistency, security and peace is a question to which a number of political scientists, sociologists, communication scientists and history researchers have sought an answer. The most interesting point of the question is that the peoples of the Balkans, a living museum comprising a number of different ethnic groups and religious beliefs, have reached the point where the culture of coexistence has been internalised and dynamics have moved from the conflict of identities to cultural integration. The Balkans are a bridge to the East from Europe and indeed to the West from Turkey, incorporating a patchwork political and cultural geography, the geopolitical location and a richness of culture and civilization, being one of the areas attracting the attention of researchers from different disciplines and capturing the imagination of the peoples of the world throughout history. Balkan studies are almost as difficult as climbing the peaks in the areas and meaningful answers cannot be reached by defining the area on a single parameter such as language, culture or traditions, while the phenomenon of the other can also be observed within the culture of coexistence in this intricate and significant location. Different ethnic groups with different cultures, such as the Southern Slavs (Bosniaks, Montenegrans, Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as well as Turks, Albanians, Bulgarians, Balkan Jews, Balkan Romany and Wallachians (Romanians and Greeks. Although these peoples may have different religious beliefs, in the ethnically rich Balkan region, religion, language, political and cultural differences are vital in the formation of a mosaic, making the discourse of coexistence possible and creating common values and loyalties, breaking down differences. The Serbian and Montenegrin peoples
Full Text Available Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.
Hoshino-Browne, Etsuko; Zanna, Adam S; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P; Kitayama, Shinobu; Lackenbauer, Sandra
Cognitive dissonance and effects of self-affirmation on dissonance arousal were examined cross-culturally. In Studies 1 and 2, European Canadians justified their choices more when they made them for themselves, whereas Asian Canadians (Study 1) or Japanese (Study 2) justified their choices more when they made them for a friend. In Study 3, an interdependent self-affirmation reduced dissonance for Asian Canadians but not for European Canadians. In Study 4, when Asian Canadians made choices for a friend, an independent self-affirmation reduced dissonance for bicultural Asian Canadians but not for monocultural Asian Canadians. These studies demonstrate that both Easterners and Westerners can experience dissonance, but culture shapes the situations in which dissonance is aroused and reduced. Implications of these cultural differences for theories of cognitive dissonance and self-affirmation are discussed.
Full Text Available The article presents a collective monograph “The History and Culture of the Western Siberian Tatars” published in 2015 by Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. This book is the first academic work, which integrated and multidimensionally accumulated almost all materials (of demography, genetics, linguistics, history, ethnography and ethnosociology available in modern science related to the formation and development of the Turkic-Tatar population of Western Siberia from ancient times to the early 21st century. The monograph is distinguished by the ethnoterritorial approach: the authors focus on the entire Turkic-Tatar population of Western Siberia, which was formed in different historical periods and includes two main components – population called in ethnographic science the “Siberian Tatars” and the group of Tatars who migrated (mainly from the Volga region to the Siberian region during the 16th–20th centuries. The book contains a large number of illustrations, which were collected during the expeditions of the authors in the rural settlements of the Tatars of Western Siberia, during archaeological excavations, in numerous archives and museums in Russia. Many photos are presented for the first time.
Full Text Available This article reports on the findings of a study of foreign children accommodated in the care system in the Western Cape, based on fieldwork conducted in child and youth care centres. The objectives of the study were firstly to map and quantify the number and demographics of foreign children placed in all CYCCs across the Western Cape. Secondly, the study aimed to analyse the reasons for children's migration and the circumstances around their placement in residential care institutions in order to establish whether family reunification was possible or desirable. Thirdly, the study explores the sufficiency of efforts made to trace and reunify the children with their families, whether in South Africa or across borders, as the institutional placement of children should not only be a last resort but it should preferably be temporary whilst family-based solutions are sought. Lastly, the documentation status of the children in the study was examined. Recommendations emanating from the research conclude the study.
In his seminal book on the historical periods of Western attitudes toward death, Philippe Aries describes four consecutive periods through which these attitudes evolved and transformed. According to him, the historical attitudes of Western cultures have passed through four major parts described above: "Tamed Death," One's Own Death," "Thy Death," and "Forbidden Death." This paper, after exploring this concept through the lens of Persian Poetic Wisdom, concludes that he historical attitudes of Persian-speaking people toward death have generally passed through two major periods. The first period is an amalgamation of Aries' "Tamed Death" and "One's Own Death" periods, and the second period is an amalgamation of Aries' "Thy Death" and "Forbidden Death" periods. This paper explores the main differences and similarities of these two historical trends through a comparative review of the consecutive historical periods of attitudes toward death between the Western and Persian civilizations/cultures. Although both civilizations moved through broadly similar stages, some influential contextual factors have been very influential in shaping noteworthy differences between them. The concepts of after-death judgment and redemption/downfall dichotomy and practices like deathbed rituals and their evolution after enlightenment and modernity are almost common between the above two broad traditions. The chronology of events and some aspects of conceptual evolutions (such as the lack of the account of permanent death of nonbelievers in the Persian tradition) and ritualistic practices (such as the status of the tombs of Shiite Imams and the absolute lack of embalming and wake in the Persian/Shiite culture) are among the differences.
Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston
Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.
Giampaolo Maria Cogo; Giovanni Cogo
Moved by Pope Frances’ urgent call to protect our common home by dealing with the environmental challenge and its human roots to achieve sustainable and integral development, the historical-legislative and institutional recognition act was drawn up on the protection and valorization of cultural-landscape-environmental heritage, matrix of the progress of civilization outlined in the fundamental principles of the Italian Constitution in the “cultural programme” focused on the relationship betwe...
SUNDARAM, N.; SCHAETTI, C.; CHAIGNAT, C.-L.; HUTUBESSY, R.; NYAMBEDHA, E. O.; MBONGA, L. A.; WEISS, M. G.
SUMMARY Determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) were studied in urban and rural communities of Western Kenya. An explanatory model interview administered to 379 community residents assessed anticipated vaccine acceptance at various prices from no cost to full-cost recovery, socio-cultural features of cholera and social characteristics. Nearly all (99%) residents indicated willingness to accept a no-cost OCV, 95% at a price of US$ 0?8, 73% at US$ 4?2 and 59% at ...
Whitt, Laurie Anne
Using capitalist market assumptions and legal theories, the Western legal system is extending practices of cultural imperialism to include commodification and marketing of indigenous cultural resources (medicinal and spiritual knowledge, ceremonies, and artistic expressions) and genetic resources (human DNA). Recognizing that law has never been…
The cultural invasion of Yuin Country in Australia not only colonized the Yuin people and Yuin Country itself, but also contributed to non-Aboriginal people's continual colonized journey of disconnecting self from Mother Earth. Cultural awareness is a process driven by Western theories informed by the colonial dualism that functions on separation…
Albertson, Nicole K.
This paper is a review of literature regarding internalization of Western culture's thin-ideal. The media's portrayal of a thin-ideal associates success and beauty with being thin. Research has shown that exposure to the culture's thin-ideal does not necessarily lead to eating pathology, but those who internalize the standard are more likely to…
Full Text Available Indonesia positioned copyright art and culture based on its strength as a nation or community rights over an Alliance grouping of the society which can give the effect of distortions in its protection. Which institution can be megurus and oversee the interests between countriesCultivate ideas/ideas in the fields of art, literature and science in the context of intellectual property rights (HKI categorized into areas of HKI named Copyright (Copyright. The scope of the rights provided for the protection of copyright in the context of this very broad following elements known in several countries. There is a different understanding about the copyright status of culture from both the substance of the right nor of the appreciation of the case which threatens foreign claims copyright over the culture of Indonesia
Towner, Mary C; Grote, Mark N; Venti, Jay; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique
What are the driving forces of cultural macroevolution, the evolution of cultural traits that characterize societies or populations? This question has engaged anthropologists for more than a century, with little consensus regarding the answer. We develop and fit autologistic models, built upon both spatial and linguistic neighbor graphs, for 44 cultural traits of 172 societies in the Western North American Indian (WNAI) database. For each trait, we compare models including or excluding one or both neighbor graphs, and for the majority of traits we find strong evidence in favor of a model which uses both spatial and linguistic neighbors to predict a trait's distribution. Our results run counter to the assertion that cultural trait distributions can be explained largely by the transmission of traits from parent to daughter populations and are thus best analyzed with phylogenies. In contrast, we show that vertical and horizontal transmission pathways can be incorporated in a single model, that both transmission modes may indeed operate on the same trait, and that for most traits in the WNAI database, accounting for only one mode of transmission would result in a loss of information.
Donders, Y.; Vleugel, V.; Kanetake, M.; Nollkaemper, A.
It is broadly accepted that the universal value and application of international human rights norms does not imply a uniform implementation of these rights, thereby leaving room for local and culture specific implementation at the national level. The question remains, however, what the precise scope
Masanganise, Kaurai E; Matope, Gift; Pfukenyi, Davies M
The purpose of this study was to explore the audits, quality assurance (QA) programmes and legal frameworks used in selected abattoirs in Zimbabwe and slaughterhouse workers' perceptions on their effectiveness. Data on slaughterhouse workers was gathered through a self-completed questionnaire and additional information was obtained from slaughterhouse and government records. External auditing was conducted mainly by the Department of Veterinary Public Health with little contribution from third parties. Internal auditing was restricted to export abattoirs. The checklist used on auditing lacked objective assessment criteria and respondents cited several faults in the current audit system. Most respondents (> 50.0%) knew the purposes and benefits of audit and QA inspections. All export abattoirs had QA programmes such as hazard analysis critical control point and ISO 9001 (a standard used to certify businesses' quality management systems) but their implementation varied from minimal to nil. The main regulatory defect observed was lack of requirements for a QA programme. Audit and quality assurance communications to the selected abattoirs revealed a variety of non-compliances with most respondents revealing that corrective actions to audit (84.3%) and quality assurance (92.3%) shortfalls were not done. A high percentage of respondents indicated that training on quality (76.8%) and regulations (69.8%) was critical. Thus, it is imperative that these abattoirs develop a food safety management system comprising of QA programmes, a microbial assessment scheme, regulatory compliance, standard operating procedures, internal and external auditing and training of workers.
Kaurai E. Masanganise
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the audits, quality assurance (QA programmes and legal frameworks used in selected abattoirs in Zimbabwe and slaughterhouse workers’ perceptions on their effectiveness. Data on slaughterhouse workers was gathered through a self-completed questionnaire and additional information was obtained from slaughterhouse and government records. External auditing was conducted mainly by the Department of Veterinary Public Health with little contribution from third parties. Internal auditing was restricted to export abattoirs. The checklist used on auditing lacked objective assessment criteria and respondents cited several faults in the current audit system. Most respondents (>50.0% knew the purposes and benefits of audit and QA inspections. All export abattoirs had QA programmes such as hazard analysis critical control point and ISO 9001 (a standard used to certify businesses’ quality management systems but their implementation varied from minimal to nil. The main regulatory defect observed was lack of requirements for a QA programme. Audit and quality assurance communications to the selected abattoirs revealed a variety of non-compliances with most respondents revealing that corrective actions to audit (84.3% and quality assurance (92.3% shortfalls were not done. A high percentage of respondents indicated that training on quality (76.8% and regulations (69.8% was critical. Thus, it is imperative that these abattoirs develop a food safety management system comprising of QA programmes, a microbial assessment scheme, regulatory compliance, standard operating procedures, internal and external auditing and training of workers.
Heru Arif Pianto
Full Text Available Beach is one of the most famous tourism areas in Pacitan. Beaches in Pacitan have special features compared to other beaches. The beautiful nature is able to attract tourists to come, visit and enjoy it. Therefore, the beaches in Pacitan have a lot of possibilities to be a tourism area of marine culture. This article is a historical research. The method used in this study was a historical research method, consisting of four steps, heuristics, criticism, interpretation and historiography. The results of this study indicate that the beaches in the Pacitan region have special attraction for tourists to visit. Thus, to be a tourism area of marine culture, Pacitan requires a better management. Based on research conducted so far, the beaches in Pacitan have not been managed optimally, due to a lack of facilities, and low human resources as managers. In short, it is the responsibility of communities, private parties and local governments to maximize the quality of management of coastal tourism around Pacitan, and their cooperation is need. Therefore, the beaches can be a tourist area of marine culture that can grow rapidly in Pacitan region.
Penner, Tara J.; Foght, Julia M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Budwill, Karen [Carbon and Energy Management, Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures, 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)
Coalbed methane is an unconventional fuel source associated with certain coal seams. Biogenic methane can comprise a significant portion of the gas found in coal seams, yet the role of microbes in methanogenesis in situ is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to detect and identify major bacterial and archaeal species associated with coal sampled from sub-bituminous methane-producing coal beds in western Canada, and to examine the potential for methane biogenesis from coal. Enrichment cultures of coal samples were established to determine how nutrient amendment influenced the microbial community and methane production in the laboratory. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed using DNA extracted and amplified from uncultured coal samples and from methanogenic coal enrichment cultures. Libraries were screened using restriction fragment length polymorphism, and representative clones were sequenced. Most (> 50%) of the bacterial sequences amplified from uncultured coal samples were affiliated with Proteobacteria that exhibit nitrate reduction, nitrogen fixation and/or hydrogen utilization activities, including Pseudomonas, Thauera and Acidovorax spp., whereas enrichment cultures were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and/or Lactobacillales. Archaeal 16S rRNA genes could not be amplified from uncultured coal, suggesting that methanogens are present in coal below the detection levels of our methods. However, enrichment cultures established with coal inocula produced significant volumes of methane and the archaeal clone libraries were dominated by sequences closely affiliated with Methanosarcina spp. Enrichment cultures incubated with coal plus organic nutrients produced more methane than either nutrient or coal supplements alone, implying that competent methanogenic consortia exist in coal beds but that nutrient limitations restrict their activity in situ. This report adds to the scant literature on coal bed microbiology and suggests how microbes may be
En esta comunicación se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la Ley 6649 de la Provincia de Salta. Esta ley se relaciona con la protección del patrimonio arqueológico e incluye artículos sobre los bienes arqueológicos. In this paper are presented the results obtained in the study of the Salta´s Province Law 6649. At present, this law is the business of cultural patrimony protection and inclose articles about archaeological goods.
Sundaram, N; Schaetti, C; Chaignat, C-L; Hutubessy, R; Nyambedha, E O; Mbonga, L A; Weiss, M G
Determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) were studied in urban and rural communities of Western Kenya. An explanatory model interview administered to 379 community residents assessed anticipated vaccine acceptance at various prices from no cost to full-cost recovery, socio-cultural features of cholera and social characteristics. Nearly all (99%) residents indicated willingness to accept a no-cost OCV, 95% at a price of US$ 0·8, 73% at US$ 4·2 and 59% at US$ 8·4. Logistic regression models analysed socio-cultural determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance. Prominence of non-specific symptoms for cholera was negatively associated with acceptance. A cholera-specific symptom (thirst), self-help referring to prayer, income and education were positively associated. In the high-cost model, education was no longer significant and reliance on herbal treatment was a significant determinant of vaccine non-acceptance. Findings suggest high motivation for OCVs, if affordable. Socio-cultural determinants are better predictors of anticipated acceptance than socio-demographic factors alone.
Full Text Available In this paper we estimate changes of Russian higher education, aimed to incorporate In this paper we estimate changes of Russian higher education, aimed to incorporate the latter in the Bologna process. The analysis of the reforms is given in terms of need in training specialists of the construction industry. The article analyzes the conclusions reached on the issue by some teachers of Russian universities of civil engineering. Among the reasons for concern from the part of the Russian education community, it is called the low level of knowledge about the tasks of re-forms and lack of information regarding measures to improve the educa-tion system. The investigation, in particular, points out that today the main issue of reforming is seen in creation of a single European intellectual space. At the same time, the questionnaire showed that the achievement of the stated purpose is prevented by the following factors: low level of stu-dent-builders in foreign languages and insufficient income. These circums-tances make education abroad almost impossible for most students from Russia and reduce the competitiveness of graduates from Russian universi-ties in labor market of the countries that joined to the Bologna system. The authors of the article pay special attention to the needs of executives of construction firms in qualified specialists. Most of the experts note the iso-lation of universities from solving problems of building practice, a notice-able lag of the national educational system from the western ones in train-ing specialists in construction logistics and organization of construction sites.
Herody, Caroline; Soyeux, Y; Hansen, Egon Bech
The production of fermented foods is one of the oldest food processing technologies known to man. Since the dawn of civilisation, methods for the fermentation of milks, meats, fish and vegetables have been used to produce safe foods with distinctive organoleptic properties. Microbial food cultures...... (MFC) with a technological impact on food are called “starter cultures”. They may be present as natural microflora in the food, or as a result of the intentional addition of the microorganisms in an industrial food fermentation process. MFC that are used for their beneficial effect on consumers’ health...... are called probiotics. Probiotics are always intentionally added to the food as they have been carefully selected and studied to guarantee that they provide a proven beneficial effect to consumers. They may be used in both fermented and non-fermented foods such as food supplements. This paper aims to provide...
Full Text Available The West's perception of China as a historical entity has evolved over the centuries. China has gone from a country of miracles and marvels in the medieval world and a refined and erudite culture in early modern Europe, to become a nation without history or progress since the Enlightenment of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The first historians of China were, in fact, representatives of the great Western empires at the end of the 19th century and their work perceives China from epistemological positions that clearly form part of the Orientalist and colonial thought that was characteristic of the period. History written throughout the 20th century, despite the efforts made to overcome the prejudices of the past, was unable to distance itself completely from some of the resources used in representation or the stereotypes that the Western world had come to accept about China and East Asia since the Enlightenment. Only in recent decades has a critical historiography appeared to denounce the problems inherent in the discourse produced on China, and even this has failed to address them fully.
Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta
This paper reviews the current knowledge on cultural change after migration in the practice of female circumcision, also named genital cutting or mutilation. Explorative studies show trends of radical change of this practice, especially the most extensive form of its kind (type III or the 'Pharaonic' type). The widespread interpretation that Islam would require circumcision of girls is questioned when, for example, Somalis meet other Muslim migrants, such as Arab Muslims, who do not circumcise their daughters. The few criminal court cases for circumcision of girls that have taken place in Western countries corroborate the conclusion that substantial change in the practice has occurred among migrants. In this literature review, an absence of reports is identified from healthcare providers who have witnessed circumcision after migration. Concurrently, a substantial knowledge exists on how to take care of already circumcised women and girls, and there is a system of recommendations in place regarding best practices for prevention. There is a great potential for healthcare providers to encourage this development towards general abandonment of circumcision of girls. The challenge for the future is how to incorporate culturally sensitive efforts of prevention on the one hand, and the examination of suspicious cases of illegal circumcision on the other. We recommend using--in a cautious way--the existing routines for identifying child abuse in general. Experiences from African contexts show that failure to generate significant change of the harmful practices/tradition may be due to the lack of multidisciplinary collaboration in different sectors of the society. In Western societies, the tendency toward abandonment of the practice could be reinforced by professionals who work toward better inclusion of men and women originally from countries where circumcision is practised. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Farrell, M M; Levin, D L
transplanted liver, a reversed coagulation system, a blocked immune system, and a paralyzed musculoskeletal system. A human being is a man, woman, or child who is a composite of two intricately related but conceptually distinguishable components: the biological entity and the person. Therefore, human beings can suffer more than one death: a biological death and decay, and another death. Biological death is a cessation of processes of biological synthesis and replication, and is an irreversible loss of integration of the biological units. The reasons for having criteria for death are to diagnose death and pronounce a person dead. Society can then begin to engage in grief, religious rites, funerals, and burials, and accept biological death. Wills can be read, property distributed, insurance claimed, individuals can remarry, succession can take place, and legal proceedings can begin. Also, organ donation can take place, which entails difficult ethical decisions. The Harvard criteria of 1968 were devised to set forth brain-death criteria with whole brain death in mind. Currently, there are several controversies regarding these criteria: a) whether they apply to infants and children; b) whether ancillary tests are necessary; c) what the intervals of observation and testing are; and d) are there exceptions to the whole brain death criteria. Concerning the use of the adult criteria for infants and children, most researchers now agree that the adult criteria apply to infants and children who are full term and > 7 days of age. Concerning ancillary tests, there has been, in our machine- and technology-oriented profession, a great deal of emphasis on the different tests and their ability to fulfill the criteria of whole brain death. However, clinical examination and the apnea test are usually sufficient to fulfill the criteria. Ancillary tests may be desired in some cases, and a variety of these tests is available. (ABSTRACT TR
Full Text Available Johan Turi (1854–1936, Nils Nilsson Skum (1872–1951 and John Savio (1902–1938 were among the first Sámi visual artists. The production of their art work occurred between the 1910s and the early 1950s. Sámi aesthetics had its basis in folklore, i.e., handicraft or duodji, which did not follow the principle of art for art’s sake but combined beauty and practicality. Art was part of community life. Not until the 1970s was the word daidda, which is Finnish in origin and which means “art”, adopted into the Sámi language. Turi and Skum became famous through their books. They drew and wrote in order to pass the traditional knowledge of their people on to succeeding generations. They also wanted to introduce Sámi life and culture to non-Sámi people. One typical feature of their work is that they depicted Sáminess in a realistic way and sought to strengthen and preserve the Sámi identity through their art. In Turi and Skum’s work, both the documentation of community life and their own personal expression were strongly present and equally important; for this reason their pictures and texts have both practical and aesthetic dimensions. They did not attend school and were self-taught artists. The third pioneer of Sámi visual arts was John Savio, who, unlike the other two, attended secondary school and studied visual arts both independently and under the guidance of a mentor. He expressively combined Western ways of depiction with Sámi subjects. My article examines what made these early Sámi artists change over from Sámi handicraft, duodji, to Western visual arts, how they used Western pictorial conventions in dealing with their Sámi subjects, and the significance of their art for Sámi identity and culture. They lived and worked under cross pressure: the first few decades of the 20th century were characterized by racial theories that denigrated Sámi people, and the period following World War II was marked by demands for
Margolis Stephen A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9 and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7 There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third
Full Text Available Khat (Catha edulis is a plant of uncertain and highly controversial status grown in the countries around the Red Sea and on the eastern coast of Africa. The chewing of khat leaves has a deep-rooted religious and socio-cultural tradition. Khat is considered a cash crop and its cultivation is a source of economic value to the societies and nations involved. There have, however, been reports of negative economic effects on the individuals engaging in the habit of khat chewing.
The increasing use of khat worldwide, along with the negative international attention that this has garnered, has led to the present status of uncertainty of the once indigenous practice of khat chewing. Scientists, mostly western Europeans, have tended to focus on problems related to khat with little attention to the positive role of khat chewing in society and the world at large. In addition, no report has directly associated khat with any organised crime, violence or antisocial activity, particularly in countries where khat is legalised.
This paper reviewed the various areas of uncertainty and controversy relating to khat. Based on the findings of the review, further qualitative and quantitative research is required and a positive international approach to khat use at economic, religious and socio-cultural levels is advocated.
Presents a framework used at Western State College to teach an interdisciplinary general education course. The framework helps students organize a large volume of material about Contemporary World Cultures according to a taxonomy of human experience, including artistic/literary expression; thought and belief; relationships/associations with…
Full Text Available An abridged version of this article (reported by Prof. Nicola Colaianni, University of Bari “Aldo Moro” was presented at the Seminar on “Secularism and Liberal Constitutionalism”, held at the University of LUISS “Guido Carli” (Rome on 6th July 2010.This article is due to be published in the International Review of Sociology, in 2011. SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. Relation-Collaboration between the State and Churches in Constitutional Democracies – 3. The laicité à la française Tested by a Deprivatised Religious Process – 3.1. The French Rigid Secularism. Freedom (of Religion through the State – 4. Canada’s Open Secularism. The question of Religious-Based Family Law Disputes – 4.1 Reasonable Accommodation and “New” Religious Nomoi Groups – 5. Collaboration-Relation between the State and Churches in Italy – 5.1. The Italian Secularism Tested by the New “Religious Geography” – 6. Conclusion. Abstract Under the pressing process of immigration and globalisation many Western constitutional democracies have moved from a number of religions, sharing a common culture, to today's age of diversity. As opposed to the past, the current democracies are facing the lack of overlapping consensus over the basic constitutional laws: namely, the meaning and the scope of freedom of religion, secularism, the separation Church-State, equal treatment and the rule of law. This is because individuals often come to adopt their basic values by very different ways. The nature, scope and force of such values are likely to be affected by competing and, sometimes, contested fundamental values and worldviews. From here stems the pressing tension – or dilemma – between “unity” and “diversity”. This essay starts with general considerations about the freedom of religion principle, strictly related with the “separation” as well as “collaboration” between secular States and Churches; then the author analyses three case
Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of the Second National Research Conference “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turko-Tatar States of Western Siberia”, which was held in Kurgan on 17th–18th April 2014. 38 researchers from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine participated at the Conference. The Conference was focused on several topics. On the first day, the Conference started with the issues of the Shiban’s ulus history and a role of the Shibanids in the history of the Golden Horde, including the issue of the borders of these lands, the ulus of Jochi’s place in its administrative structure, the participation of representatives of the dynasty in the events of the Great Zamyatnya (i.e, the Great Distemper and strives of the 1420’s. There were also discussed the ethnic and political processes in the Tyumen and Siberian Yurt. Considerable attention was paid to the Turkization of the Western Siberian population and formation of various groups of the Siberian Tatars. Researchers have noted the limitations of the source base of the late-medieval history of the region and the need for a comprehensive approach to the research involving experts in the fields of history, archaeology, ethnography, anthropology, linguistics. A separate debate was held on the role of the Nogai and Bukhara factor in the history of the Kuchum Siberian khanate. On the second day, there were discussed various aspects of the Turkic-Tatar peoples’ occurrence from the Ural-Irtysh interfluve to the Russian State. There were presented reports both on the policy and destiny of the Kuchum descendants and legal and military aspects of the Tatar yurtes’ subordination. There was held a discussion about two versions of the Ichkinski Tatar ethnogenesis as a special group of the Tatar population of the region. Thereupon, the conference participants called for a cautious stance on the use of ethnic reconstructions in Turkic history and their use in the construction of
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we have investigated the cultural transmission of two types of traditional plant knowledge in two communities of North-western Patagonia, Argentina. In the Pilcaniyeu community, we studied the transmission of traditional knowledge related to horticultural practices in home-gardens, greenhouses and gardens; while in the community of Cuyin Manzano, we studied wild plant gathering customs. Methods Ethnobotanical fieldwork was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, in which we investigated which plants are used, at what life history phase was learned, modes of transmission and who the principal transmitters were in childhood and adulthood. In both communities, each of this three aspects related to cultural transmission were categorized and the frequencies of each category were obtained. The total number of species recorded in each community was also calculated. Frequencies were analyzed with the Chi-square test of independence. Results and discussion In both communities, transmission of traditional plant knowledge begins at an early age, as a family custom, in which women play a predominant role. Wild plant use and horticultural knowledge continue to be learned during adulthood. This was particularly registered associated with horticultural learning, which receives greater influence from extension agents who are introducing new practices and technology. This outside influence, which implies novelty, could imply syncretism but also traditional knowledge loss. Conclusion Given the remarkable acculturation processes occurring at present in rural communities of Northwestern Patagonia, it might be of vital importance to document traditional knowledge of ancient practices. Moreover, it could be interesting to share our results with both populations in order to encourage participatory activities within the communities which could enhance traditional knowledge horizontal transmission, particularly among
Born in Basra in 965, but doing most of his work in Cairo's Al-Azhar Mosque, Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen or Alhacen) wrote nearly one hundred works on topics as diverse as optics, poetry and politics. For nearly four hundred years his treatment of a particular geometry of reflection from flat and curved surfaces has been known as ''Alhazen's problem,'' and today al-Haytham is primarily known for his writings on geometrical optics, astronomy, and mathematics. However, as I will discuss, with his landmark seven-volume Kitāb al-Manāzir [Book of Optics], published sometime between 1028 and 1038, al-Haytham made intellectual contributions that subsequently were incorporated throughout the core of post-Medieval Western culture. His seminal work on the human vision system initiated what remains an unbroken chain of development that connects 21st century optical scientists with the 11th century Ibn al-Haytham. The noted science historian, David Lindberg, wrote that ''Alhazen was undoubtedly the most significant figure in the history of optics between antiquity and the seventeenth century.'' Impressive and accurate as that characterization is, our recent discoveries show that it significantly understates the impact that al-Haytham had on areas as wide-ranging as the theology, literature, art, and science of Europe. Portions of this work was done in collaboration with David Hockney.
Yen, Jeffery; Wilbraham, Lindy
This discourse analytic study explores constructions of culture and illness in the talk of psychiatrists, psychologists and indigenous healers as they discuss possibilities for collaboration in South African mental health care. Versions of 'culture', and disputes over what constitutes 'disorder', are an important site for the negotiation of power relations between mental health practitioners and indigenous healers. The results of this study are presented in two parts. Part I explores discourses about western psychiatric/psychological professionalism, tensions in diagnosis between cultural relativism and psychiatric universalism, and how assertion of 'cultural differences' may be used to resist psychiatric power. Part II explores how discursive constructions of 'African culture' and 'African madness' work to marginalize indigenous healing in South African mental health care, despite repeated calls for collaboration.
Pike, Kathleen M; Borovoy, Amy
As the first non-Western nation in contemporary history to become a major industrialized economic power, Japan is central to the debate on cultural relativism in psychiatric nosologies, and the study of eating disorders in Japan contributes to the complex discussion of the impact of culture and history on the experience, diagnosis and treatment of such disorders (R. Gordon 2001; Palmer 2001). Without question, the rise in eating disorders in Japan correlated with increasing industrialization, urbanization, and the fraying of traditional family forms following World War II. While the case of Japan confirms that the existence of eating disorders appears to be linked with these broader social transformations, it also points to the importance of specific cultural and historical factors in shaping the experience of eating disorders. In this article, we explore two particular dimensions of culture in contemporary Japan: (1) gender development and gender role expectations for females coming of age; and (2) beauty ideals and the role of weight and shape concerns in the etiology of eating disorders. Our analysis of these dimensions of culture, and the data accruing from empirical and qualitative research, reveal limitations to the model of "Westernization" and call for a more culturally sensitive search for meaning in both describing and explaining eating disorders in Japan today.
activities of Ever-Victorious Army and nominal superior to Ward and Gordon. The discussions between Li and his superiors and other members of the...and Mandarins, 52–54. 99 Jonathan D. Spence, To Change China: Western Advisers in China, 1620-1960 (Boston: Little Brown, 1969), 69–70. 100 Ibid...self-regulation, and intercultural interaction) and avoid future disruptions in the relationship (cultural reasoning). Toward this, Li was advised by
Caperchione, Cristina M; Kolt, Gregory S; Mummery, W Kerry
A close examination of epidemiological data reveals burdens of disease particular to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrants, as these individuals adjust to both culture and modernization gaps. Despite the increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight/obesity and cardiovascular disease, individuals from CALD groups are less likely to be proactive in accessing healthcare or undertaking preventative measures to ensure optimal health outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review literature that outlines the barriers, challenges and enablers of physical activity in CALD groups who have recently migrated to Western society, and to identify key strategies to increase physical activity participation for these individuals. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 57 publications that met the inclusion criteria. Findings from the review indicate that migration to Western societies has a detrimental effect on the health status and health behaviours of CALD groups as they assimilate to their new surroundings, explore different cultures and customs, and embrace a new way of life. In particular, there is evidence that physical inactivity is common in migrant CALD groups, and is a key contributing risk factor to chronic disease for these individuals. Challenges and barriers that limit physical activity participation in CALD groups include: cultural and religious beliefs, issues with social relationships, socioeconomic challenges, environmental barriers, and perceptions of health and injury. Strategies that may assist with overcoming these challenges and barriers consist of the need for cultural sensitivity, the provision of education sessions addressing health behaviours, encouraging participation of individuals from the same culture, exploration of employment situational variables, and the implementation of 'Health Action Zones' in CALD communities. This information will inform and support the development of culturally
Emmanuel Bankole Oladumiye
Full Text Available Printmaking is a visual documentary media of art which was used as a medium of expression in analyzing myth and mythology monarchical activities of the Yorubas in South Western Nigeria in this study. The monarchical activities of the Yoruba Kings, is the cultural heritage and legacy that people do guide jealously and considered to be of high cultural value. The Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria are traditional entity which passed through the rites of installing kings for the throne fore fathers as a leader with symbol of authority between the people and the spirit world. The kings in Yoruba kingdom is so much respected that they are seen as divine and representative of God on earth and they are exalted into the position of deity because of his monarchical duties to his subjects at large. The funfairs that accompany the monarch roles are worth documenting using printmaking as vehicle of visual and historical expression of myths and mythologies demonstrating African culture which stands out as sacred. The discourse also relies on oral testimonies written and archival documents. The materials used for the execution of the prints are rubber, wood, plate, offset printing inks and glass which records the events as an alternative to the use of photographic documentation. The research examine the philosophy behind the monarchical roles of the Yoruba Kings in print visuals based on the cultural heritage of the Yoruba people it employs an exploratory qualitative methods rely on literature review.
Full Text Available This book is a study at the intersection of such academic disciplines as general history, history of state and law and source study. The subcect of R.Yu. Pochevalev’s book appears very relevant since the interest of the scientific community and readership toward the Golden Horde and its role in the history of the Russian state remains traditionally high for several centuries. However, the author is trying to take a fresh look at this state and refute the stereotype of the Golden Horde as a some kind of bunch of nomads who lived only by plundering neighboring sedentary peoples. He succeeds in this by studying such an important part of the Golden Horde history as its law and legal culture. The book examines a number of questions on the history of state and law of the Golden Horde, which have not previously been the subject of a special study (for example, possessions of the Golden Horde in other uluses, dualism of power in different states, relations between authorities and traders, etc.. On some other issues that have already been studied by experts, he proposes new interpretations in the framework of historical and legal approach (for example, the causes of intestine strife in the Golden Horde in the mid-14th century, yarliks of the Golden Horde khans granted to the Russian Chruch, relations of the Golden Horde rulers and Italian colonies in the Northern Black Sea region. The author examines to a great extent the themes of state and legal regulation of economic relations: status of merchants in the Golden Horde and post-Golden Horde states, role of economic sanctions in the resolution of political conflicts. In other essays contained in the book, the author also emphasizes the role of the economic component of the political and legal relations. For example, R.Yu. Pochekaev convincingly shows that relations of the Golden Horde with other states of the Mongol Empire was based on the principle of mutual provision of possessions to the rulers of
Cultural difference can be found in many aspects, this paper deals with the differences between Chinese culture and English culture in the perspective of advertisements. Advertising is an important part of people's life. Advertisements in a certain country attract certain consumers, so they reflect the unique culture in the given country. This paper will focus on four aspects to illustrate the cultural difference between China and Western countries found in advertising creation and advertising language aimed to help people understand cultural difference in the trend of globalization and accelerate the cross-cultural communication.
Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn
During the 19th and 20th centuries, Indian culture was represented in Australia as part of celebrations of the British Empire. Children were presented with stereotypic representations of Indian culture, which provide a snapshot of contemporary perceptions. Such representations were rarely authentic. By removing music from one culture and…
Bham, Zaheerah; Ross, Eleanor
To investigate the beliefs of caregivers and traditional healers within the South African Indian Muslim community regarding the etiology and treatment of stroke and the persons likely to be consulted in this regard. A descriptive case study design was employed which incorporated two groups and was located within a qualitative paradigm. Data were collected within the homes of caregivers and the consulting rooms of traditional healers. Ten caregivers of persons who had sustained strokes and 10 traditional healers were interviewed. Individual interviews were held with participants. Responses to semi-structured interview schedules were analyzed using thematic content analysis and descriptive statistics. For both groups, religion and faith in God played a pertinent role in beliefs regarding etiology of illnesses such as stroke. Caregivers used a combination of traditional and Western medicine approaches. For traditional healers, treatment was based on the premise of restoring the balance between hot and cold in the body, which had been placed in disequilibrium by the stroke. Participants expressed disillusionment with referrals to Western healthcare professionals whose treatment was often regarded as culturally inappropriate. They also emphasized the integral role played by family members in the treatment of illness and disease. Results have implications for: culturally sensitive management of stroke patients in the South African Indian Muslim community; collaboration between Western and traditional healers; involvement of families in the remediation process; and further research.
Hu, Q.; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Taris, Toon; Hessen, Dave; Hakanen, J.J.; Salanova, M.; Shimazu, Akihito
This article compares the mean levels of work engagement and workaholism across two cultures (East Asia and Western Europe) by using a latent variable approach. Data were collected in Western Europe in the Netherlands (N = 10,162), Spain (N = 3,481), and Finland (N = 3,472) and in East Asia in China
Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng
Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the Food Related...... for the conceptual meaningfulness and applicability of FRL in non-Western food culture environments, when appropriately adapted....
Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue
Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the 'thin ideal' that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed.
Roets, Arne; Soetens, Barbara; Au, Evelyn W M; Yanjun, Guan
The present study investigates the role of dispositional need for closure (NFC) in how individuals within a particular culture perceive and appreciate choice. Data sets from the US (283 adults), Europe (263 adults and 427 students), China (218 adults and 309 students) and Singapore (258 students) were collected. The results showed that in Western cultures, people perceived choice in a linear way as either a burden or a blessing, whereas in Chinese culture, such opposition between perspectives did not appear, and individuals generally saw choice as both burden and blessing simultaneously. In Western cultures, high dispositional NFC was strongly associated with viewing choice-as-a-burden, whereas Chinese respondents with a high NFC perceived choice as a blessing and a burden simultaneously. The Singaporean results were similar to the Western pattern. These findings are discussed in terms of the NFC literature and cultural differences in dialectic versus differentiation thinking styles. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin
With the global economy becoming more integrated, the issues of cross-cultural relevance and transferability of leadership theories and practices have become increasingly urgent. Drawing upon the concept of parallel leadership in schools proposed by Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, and Hann as an example, the purpose of this paper is to examine the…
Rebecca S. Toupal
Full Text Available Multicultural demands on public lands in the United States continue to challenge federal land managers to address social and cultural concerns in their planning efforts. Specifically, they lack adequate knowledge of cultural concerns, as well as a consistent strategy for acquiring that knowledge for use in decision-making. Current federal approaches to understanding such issues as access, use, and control of resources include public participation, conservation partnerships, government-to-government consultations with American Indian tribes, cultural resource inventories, and landscape analysis. Given that cultural knowledge arises from human-nature relationships and shared perceptions of natural environments, and that landscapes are the ultimate expression of such knowledge, an exploratory methodology was developed to provide a different approach to understanding cultural concerns through landscape perceptions. Using cultural landscape theories and applications from the natural and social sciences, this study examines the landscape perceptions of four groups concerned with management planning of the Baboquivari Wilderness Area in southern Arizona: the Bureau of Land Management, the landowners of the Altar Valley, recreationists, and members of the Tohono O'odham Nation. The methodology is based on a human-nature relationship rather than cultural aspects or features. It takes a holistic approach that differs from other perception studies in that it includes: emic aspects of data collection and analysis; a spatial component (triangulation of data collection through narrative and graphic descriptions; ethnographic, on-site interviews; and cultural consensus analysis and small-sample theory. The results include: verification of four cultural groups; two levels of consensus (in the population of concern, and in each group that overlap in some aspects of landscape perception; descriptions of four cultural landscapes that illustrate similarities and
Herfst, Selma L.; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Timmerman, Marieke E.
The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of material for a new intercultural training instrument. More specifically, we examine the validity of 21 critical incidents used in the training. The training programme is targeted at natives in Western immigrant countries dealing - mostly
Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…
The educational field is seeing an increased growth in English-language teaching opportunities abroad. This situation gives rise to a number of interesting research inquiries. For example, can teaching experience in one cultural context translate well into another? What do studies tell us about cross-cultural awareness and effectiveness of those…
Pellegrino, Edmund D
... What emerges from the intersection of systems of medical ethics across cultural lines is a recognition of the need for and the possibility of some form of metacultural ethic that can ameliorate cultural relativism. In medical ethics, all ethical positions are not of equal moral status -- regardless of how tightly bound they may be to a particular culture; for example, consider the nearly universal approbation for cooperative efforts of physicians who oppose the use of nuclear weapons and the condemnation of physicians who torture or experiment with prisoners of war. Even if violations of patient rights are tolerated in certain social and cultural settings, they are not tolerable in any common ethic of medicine. Growing recognition of the moral rights of patients, their special vulnerability as sick persons, and their dependency on the physician's knowledge constitute the empirical foundation of a morally defensible ethic of medicine. Those cultural systems that violate such norms cannot be given equal moral standing with systems that respect these norms, not because the cultural systems that support human and patients' rights are per se superior but because the protection of human rights is grounded in something more fundamental than culture -- the deference owed to all human beings qua human beings. This is a norm by which every culture may be judged....
The mainland Chinese learning culture has evolved due to the rapid changes in the economic, political, cultural and demographic demands. The changing characteristics of the Chinese students' learning behavioral styles and preferences, as well as the challenges faced in pursuit of Western-based education, are discussed with suggested…
Full Text Available SUMMARY: 1. The value of religious law in modern (and secular states - 2. Religious rules and individual choices in Europe - 3. Religious law and the fields in which it can operate effectively - 4. The rules of religious courts in civil legal systems - 4.1 ..The direct referral to religious laws - 4.2. The pronounces of religious courts and its importance for faithful - 5. The development of Religious Arbitration Courts in Italy - 6. Does religious jurisdiction another side of religious freedom?
L. R. Rivera-Rangel
Full Text Available Two different extraction processes, Soxhlet and ultrasound, were used to obtain the oil extracts of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native pecan nuts cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico. The aspects evaluated in this study were the extraction yield of the processes and fatty acids’ profile of the resulting extracts. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used to identify and determine the composition percentage of fatty acids present in pecan nuts oils extracted. The results obtained show that higher oil extraction yields were obtained by Soxhlet method with hexane (69.90% in Wichita varieties. Wichita, Western Schley, and Native pecan nuts from Chihuahua are rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids and MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids and have low levels of SFA (saturated fatty acids. The predominant fatty acid present in all pecan nuts oils was linoleic acid followed by oleic acid. Myristic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid were also identified in representative quantities. The results from this study suggest that there are statistically significant differences in the chemical composition of the pecan nuts oils extracted from the varieties cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico, and those cultivated in other regions of the world.
Rivera-Rangel, L. R.; Aguilera-Campos, K. I.; García-Triana, A.; Ayala-Soto, J. G.; Chavez-Flores, D.
Two different extraction processes, Soxhlet and ultrasound, were used to obtain the oil extracts of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native pecan nuts cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico. The aspects evaluated in this study were the extraction yield of the processes and fatty acids' profile of the resulting extracts. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and determine the composition percentage of fatty acids present in pecan nuts oils extracted. The results obtained show that higher oil extraction yields were obtained by Soxhlet method with hexane (69.90%) in Wichita varieties. Wichita, Western Schley, and Native pecan nuts from Chihuahua are rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) and have low levels of SFA (saturated fatty acids). The predominant fatty acid present in all pecan nuts oils was linoleic acid followed by oleic acid. Myristic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid were also identified in representative quantities. The results from this study suggest that there are statistically significant differences in the chemical composition of the pecan nuts oils extracted from the varieties cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico, and those cultivated in other regions of the world. PMID:29610686
Rivera-Rangel, L R; Aguilera-Campos, K I; García-Triana, A; Ayala-Soto, J G; Chavez-Flores, D; Hernández-Ochoa, L
Two different extraction processes, Soxhlet and ultrasound, were used to obtain the oil extracts of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native pecan nuts cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico. The aspects evaluated in this study were the extraction yield of the processes and fatty acids' profile of the resulting extracts. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and determine the composition percentage of fatty acids present in pecan nuts oils extracted. The results obtained show that higher oil extraction yields were obtained by Soxhlet method with hexane (69.90%) in Wichita varieties. Wichita, Western Schley, and Native pecan nuts from Chihuahua are rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) and have low levels of SFA (saturated fatty acids). The predominant fatty acid present in all pecan nuts oils was linoleic acid followed by oleic acid. Myristic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid were also identified in representative quantities. The results from this study suggest that there are statistically significant differences in the chemical composition of the pecan nuts oils extracted from the varieties cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico, and those cultivated in other regions of the world.
Maryam Sadat Ghiasian
This study attempts to introduce two main currents in orientalism, the classic and the modern. The Western attitude toward the Orient, and especially Islam, is analyzed in both currents and the operative factors that lead to modern orientalism are surveyed. The 9th September 2001 event is here considered one of the most important points in modern orientalism. Media are here assumed to play a crucial role in representation of the orientalist and racist attitudes which nowadays focus on cultura...
Binsbergen, van W.M.J.
This paper explores the cultural dynamics of ethnicity in the context of a postcolonial African State, Zambia. The opening sections define ethnicity and pinpoint its central dilemma: while unmistakably constructed and thus selectively empowering the brokers coordinating the construction process,
Full Text Available The past four decades witnessed a tremendous and wide-ranging change in family patterns in Western societies. Amongst these changes are phenomena such as growing number of divorces, births out-of-wedlock, and the absence of fathers because of globalisation, same-sex marriages and cohabitation of people without a marriage contract. Western societies are typified as “highdivorce societies”. Furthermore, in the United States the number of couples cohabiting has increased eightfold since 1970 and it is fair to conclude that the situation is similar in other Western societies. The purpose of the article is to deal with these patterns from a Reformed perspective. The central theoretical argument is that these developments can be perceived as a crisis in view of the Biblical perspectives on marriage and family life. However, the Biblical perspectives not only offer a clear indication of healthy marriage and family life entail, but also indicate that a Christian attitude in marriage and family life can serve as a remedy for the damage caused by the new trends.
Rates of aviation accident differ in different regions; and national culture has been implicated as a factor. This invites a discussion about the role of national culture in aviation accidents. This study makes a cross-cultural comparison between Oman, Taiwan and the USA. A cross-cultural comparison was acquired using data from three studies, including this study, by applying the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework. The Taiwan study presented 523 mishaps with 1762 occurrences of human error obtained from the Republic of China Air Force. The study from the USA carried out for commercial aviation had 119 accidents with 245 instances of human error. This study carried out in Oman had a total of 40 aircraft accidents with 129 incidences. Variations were found between Oman, Taiwan and the USA at the levels of organisational influence and unsafe supervision. Seven HFACS categories showed significant differences between the three countries (p culture can have an impact on aviation safety. This study revealed that national culture plays a role in aircraft accidents related to human factors that cannot be disregarded.
Tella, José L.; Hiraldo, Fernando
Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981–2005) on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals), using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech), and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws) were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries. PMID:25225808
Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J
Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alexey Silva Trujillo
Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda una problemática de vital importancia para la pedagogía cubana, en el proceso de educación para la salud del docente en formación inicial, relacionada con la prevención del consumo de drogas legales. Se fundamenta en una tendencia de orientación marxista que permite el desarrollo de una concepción científica del mundo, y la formación y crecimiento de la personalidad, con sustento teórico en el enfoque histórico-cultural. Contiene los fundamentos filosóficos, sociológicos, pedagógicos y psicológicos sobre la prevención del consumo de drogas legales que revelan la carencia teórica como necesidad de profundizar en esta temática. Su abordaje desde la educación para la salud resulta novedoso y constituye una prioridad para la educación cubana actual, es además, una de las estrategias curriculares declaras para las carreras pedagógicas.
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...
Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent
Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.
Full Text Available Throughout the ages, menstruation and menopause have posed unique challenges in the life of women. In Biblical times, much was said about the impurity of a menstruating woman. In the past century, however, the focus gradually shifted to menopause and the effect thereof on a woman�s body, both aesthetically and physiologically. Freud went so far as to argue that menopausal women are neurotic and that an oophorectomy (the surgical removal of the female ovaries should be a standard procedure for a menopausal woman. Unfortunately, this Freudian theory has not yet been completely demolished in our contemporary society. Hysterectomies (the surgical removal of the uterus are still frequently performed on menopausal women, and all too often, antidepressants are included in menopausal women� medical regimes. The question remains: Can hysterectomy, hormone replacement therapy and antidepressants �erase� the challenges that Western menopausal women face?Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Western menopausal women are under tremendous social pressure to preserve their youthfulness. Many middle-aged women live with the fear that their declining sexual appeal may result in rejection, both personally and professionally. Unfortunately, the intellectual value of these women is seldom acknowledged.�
... Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, OH, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects'' and ``objects... consultation that the objects are considered to be both sacred and objects of cultural patrimony. Officials of... American religious leaders for the practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day...
Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.
Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Bredahl, Lone
), and the UK (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000) are examined for intra-cultural stability using the same statistical models. Results indicate that the factorial structure is completely invariant over time in three of five FRL domains, and only subject to minor variations in the other two domains. In the third part...
Марина Андреевна Курбакова
Full Text Available There is no any unique approach to the understanding of the notion “culture-specific vocabulary”. The main techniques used for its translation include transcription, transliteration, loan-translation and mixed methods. The article contains a lot of examples.
Full Text Available Despite geographical proximity and comparable historical development since the fall of the Soviet Union, Lviv and Chernivtsi betray different approaches to commemorating the past. This might point to the existence of different cultures of memory that sustain a narrative about acceptance or rejection of ethnic diversity. But the cultures of memory in the cities also have common characteristic, namely, contemporary urbanites form their attitudes towards the past not through personal experience and family transmission of past memories but through prosthetic memory, which relies on hearsay, media, literature, popular culture and the arts. When deliberate choice comes to the fore in building various identity projects, the work of stitching together contradictory historical representations is guided not so much by path-dependent logic of collective memory as by present-day expediency and power games of different mnemonic actors. Therefore, this paper argues that the most observable trend in the cultures of memory in Lviv and Chernivtsi is pillarization, i.e., an agreement among external and internal memory entrepreneurs and marketeers that each population group is the custodian of its “own” heritage. Nevertheless, ultimately the condition of heritage envisioned in the two cities seems to be an assimilationist “incorporation-to-the-core” model, where the core consists of various versions of the Ukrainian national heritage.
Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses. Developing in the second half of the 20th century, the television, as one of the most effective mass communication media of the modern age, has combined sound and images to create a technical medium where culture is produced, transmitted, circulated and consumed and subsequently recycled to reach the target audiences, while in terms of the transmission of messages, the television has become the flagship of the media economy in comparison with other mass communication media and channels. As the influences of globalisation have been felt upon the creative processes of film and serial instruments and in the adoption and dissemination of strategic objectives, global cultural transmission is more varied, wider in scope and with more intense content than ever before. Furthermore, as a result of the constant development, regeneration and transformation of communication technology, we can postulate that television serial and film scenarios are a new form of marketing communication, as they are deeply intertwined with daily life and culture in the modern world. However, mass communication media gather groups of people with a common language and interest, causing groups to become communities. The role
In the psychological sciences, mindfulness practices are increasingly being used, studied, and theorized, but their indigenous theoretical foundations in Buddhist accounts of the dynamics and psychology of personal identity tend to be overlooked. This situation is mirrored in the discipline of philosophy: here, Buddhist views on personal identity are beginning to draw attention, but almost invariably in a way which entirely blanks out the role of mindfulness practices in cultivating Buddhist insights on selfhood. The aggregate result is a failure, in the West, to reflect upon and seriously consider Buddhist theory and Buddhist practice in an integrated, holistic fashion. In its effort to overcome the compartmentalization of Buddhist theory (in philosophy) versus Buddhist practice (in psychology) and to embrace the challenges this might pose to fundamental Western beliefs about the self, this paper is intended both as a plea for and an exercise in greater, more venturesome cosmopolitanism. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses.
Full Text Available The World Heritage City of Vigan. Philippines was inscribed in the list of World Heritage Sites in 1999 under criteria (ii and (iv of the Operational Guidelines, after its first submission in 1989 was rejected by the World Heritage Committee. The heritage of the city is now sufficiently protected by eight legal instruments, four enacted at national level and an other four at local level. However, these instruments have limited scope and limitation and, if not rectified, will not be able to safeguard the heritage of the City against rapid development. Presidential Decree No. 374/1974, which has not been revised, has several weaknesses, such as in system of incentives, penalties, the broad terminology and scope of heritage as well as overlapping of tasks and responsibilities between national agencies. The main Local Ordinance No. 04/2000: An Ordinance Enacting the Preservation and Conservation Guidelines for Vigan Ancestral Houses provides solid guidance on the protection of heritage but requires revision related to Section 2 on Definition of Ancestral Houses, Sections 3-16 on Technical Guidelines, Sections 17-22 on Vigan Conservation Council and Section 24 on Penalties.
While generic programmes have been created to raise sexual health awareness, these cannot always be applied to communities whose cultures and circumstances make them especially vulnerable to infection. Taking a phenomenological approach, this paper examines the circumstances of the Gusii people of Kisii, Kenya, and examines the specific challenges of providing sexual health education to the community as experienced by an ethnic Gusii woman, Joyce Ombasa. Joyce's story reveals that the Gusii living in and around rural villages have several cultural characteristics that make them susceptible to HIV/AIDS and that render community health education problematic, especially if offered by a female educator of the same ethnicity. Women cannot teach men. Discussions of sex and condom use, and viewing the naked bodies of the opposite sex are taboo. Promiscuity is commonplace and there is a reluctance to use condoms and to undergo HIV testing. Female circumcision persists and there is a high rate of sexual violence, incest and intergenerational sexual intercourse. In addition, government policies and legislation threaten to exacerbate some of the sexually risky behaviours. Bringing HIV education and female empowerment to the rural Gusii requires a culturally sensitive approach, discarding sexual abstinence messages in favour of harm minimisation, including the promotion of condom use, regular HIV testing and the rejection of female circumcision and intergenerational sex. Trust needs to be built through tactics such as adopting a complex and fluid outsider identity and replacing formal sex education with training in income generating skills and casual discussions regarding condoms and sexual health.
Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova
Full Text Available The paper suggests studying conceptual models and mechanisms of linguistic consciousness of East Slavic and Western cultures with the application of the theoretical methodological approach of Linguistic & Rhetorical (L&R Paradigm as an integrative philological trend of an innovative type. The L&R Paradigm rests on the intersection of three categorical dimensions: ideological aspects of a speech event (ethos, logos, pathos; stages of universal cycle of idea-into-speech transformation (invention, disposition, elocution as a technology of discursive processes; levels of the structure of a linguistic personality as a discourse producer and ideology bearer (associative verbal network, thesaurus, pragmatic field. Hence, the article proposes three groups of L&R parameters of studying speech and thinking phenomena: ethos-motivational-dispositional; logos-thesaurus-inventional; pathos-verbal-elocutionary.
Tong, W W; Wang, W; Xu, W D
The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with meniscal pathology. Our study aims to culturally adapt and validate the WOMET into a Chinese version. We translated the WOMET into Chinese. Then, a total of 121 patients with meniscal pathology were invited to participate in this study. To assess the test-retest reliability, the Chinese version WOMET was completed twice at 7-day intervals by the participants. The construct validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient or Spearman's correlation to test for correlations among the Chinese version WOMET and the eight domains of Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Responsiveness was tested by comparison of the preoperative and postoperative scores of the Chinese version WOMET. The test-retest reliability of the overall scale and different domains were all found to be excellent. The Cronbach's α was 0.90. The Chinese version WOMET correlated well with other questionnaires which suggested good construct validity. We observed no ceiling and floor effects of the Chinese version WOMET. We also found good responsiveness for the effect size, and the standardized response mean values were 0.86 and 1.11. The Chinese version of the WOMET appears to be reliable and valid in evaluating patients with meniscal pathology.
Barna Konkolÿ Thege
Full Text Available Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales (MHLC-C was designed to investigate health-related control beliefs of persons with an existing medical condition. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this instrument in a culture characterized by external control beliefs and learned helplessness-contrary to the societal context of original test development. Altogether, 374 Hungarian patients with cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders were enrolled in the study. Besides the MHLC-C, instruments measuring general control beliefs, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and health behaviors were also administered to evaluate the validity of the scale. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to investigate the factor structure of the scale. Our results showed that the Hungarian adaptation of the instrument had a slightly different structure than the one originally hypothesized: in the present sample, a three-factor structure emerged where the items of the Doctors and the Others subscales loaded onto a single common component. Internal reliability of all three subscales was adequate (alphas between .71 and .79. Data concerning the instrument's validity were comparable with previous results from Western countries. These findings may suggest that health locus of control can be construed very similarly to Western countries even in a post-communist society-regardless of the potential differences in general control beliefs.
Márcia Pereira da Silva
Full Text Available This article proposes to analyse the period of brazilian military governments (1964-1985 under the view of lawfulness culture. We intend to show how the take of political power in 1964, far of being considered just the invest of the force and of the will, it was based into a juridical effort engagement, made upon a determined theory of constitutional right with emphasis in the thought of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen.
Hu, Q; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Taris, T.W; Hessen, D.J; Hakanen, J; Salanova, M; Shimazu, A
This article compares the mean levels of work engagement and workaholism across two cultures (East Asia and Western Europe) by using a latent variable approach. Data were collected in Western Europe in the Netherlands (N = 10,162), Spain (N = 3,481), and Finland (N = 3,472) and in East Asia in China (N = 2,977) and in Japan (N =2,520). It was assumed that, based on cultural differences, in individualistic and Christian Europe work is associated with self-enhancement and personal development, ...
Agnes S. Schick-Chen
Full Text Available In the first decade of the 21st century, the author of the book entitled “Wither Chinese Jurisprudence“ stepped forward to offer a critique of the unquestioned and undertheorized orientation of the Chinese legal science towards modernity. Widely and critically discussed, Deng Zhenglai's appeal for a new ideal picture of Chinese law based on a reinterpretation and new understanding of China herself can be seen both as a seizure in and outcome of the many discussions on law and culture that had started off in the first decade of reform and opening and were continued in the times of a “Socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics”. The following text shows that the issue of identity of Chinese legal scholars was an inherent part of the discourse on Chinese legal culture, and that Dengs book has to be understood in this context.
Almutawif, Yahya; Hartmann, Benjamin; Lloyd, Megan; Erber, Wendy; Geddes, Donna
The bacterial content of donated human milk is either endogenous or introduced via contamination. Defining milk bank bacterial content will allow researchers to devise appropriate tests for significant and commonly encountered organisms. A retrospective audit was conducted on data recorded from the Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Subiaco, Western Australia. This aimed to describe the incidence of bacterial species detected in donated human milk and to identify potentially pathogenic bacteria. The data comprised of 2890 batches donated by 448 women between 2007 and 2011. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) represented the highest prevalence of bacteria in donated milk, isolated from 85.5% of batches (range: 20 to 650,000CFU/mL) followed by Acinetobacter species in 8.1% of batches (range: 100 to 180,000CFU/mL). Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent potentially pathogenic bacteria in 5% of batches (range: 40 to 100,000CFU/mL). Further investigation is warranted to better define the risks posed by the presence of toxin-producing S. aureus in raw and pasteurized human milk which may allow minimization of risk to the preterm infants. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
For several decades, the protection of traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) has caused debate. The core of protection claims touches upon control and a say over the material as to its use, preservation, maintenance and development. Central concerns that arise from the absence of protection
Roberson, Debi D.; Davidoff, Jules; Davies, Ian R. L.
Evidence presented supports the linguistic relativity of color categories in three different paradigms. Firstly, a series of cross-cultural investigations, which had set out to replicate the seminal work of Rosch Heider with the Dani of New Guinea, failed to find evidence of a set of universal color categories. Instead, we found evidence of linguistic relativity in both populations tested. Neither participants from a Melanesian hunter-gatherer culture, nor those from an African pastoral tribe, whose languages both contain five color terms, showed a cognitive organization of color resembling that of English speakers. Further, Melanesian participants showed evidence of Categorical Perception, but only at their linguistic category boundaries. Secondly, in native English speakers verbal interference was found to selectively remove the defining features of Categorical Perception. Under verbal interference, the greater accuracy normally observed for cross-category judgements compared to within-category judgements disappeared. While both visual and verbal codes may be employed in the recognition memory of colors, participants only make use of verbal coding when demonstrating Categorical Perception. Thirdly, in a brain- damaged patient suffering from a naming disorder, the loss of labels radically impaired his ability to categorize colors. We conclude that language affects both the perception of and memory for colors.
Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A
Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis.
This paper is a strategic intervention in the debate over the value of globalised gay identity for emerging sexual minority communities in the South. Focusing on self-identifying gay men in Botswana using semi-structured interviews, it explores their views of what characterises 'modern gay culture' and relates these to international media clichés of a glamorous, stylish, hedonistic gayness. I argue that identifying with what is so visibly a Western image of gayness exposes sexual minority communities to the most dangerous of the justifications for homophobia in Africa, the argument that sexual dissidence is a neo-colonial conspiracy to subvert 'African values'. The 'unAfrican' argument has to be taken very seriously, not only because it taps into the intense, conflicted emotions at the heart of the post-colonial condition, but also because it contains an undeniable germ of truth. This poses a dilemma, since global gay discourses, including the media clichés, are an important source of inspiration for African sexual minorities. A communication activism strategy is proposed to undermine the unAfrican argument by cultivating and asserting the 'tswanarisation' of gay culture in Botswana that is already taking place. A similar strategy may also be effective in other African societies.
Claudia Elena TUDORACHE
Full Text Available The municipality of Târgu Jiu, as an ensemble of urban space organization, is strictly dependent on the physical environment in which it is located, starting with relief, hydrography and so on. The peri-central part of the city hada developed the urban tissue poorly at the start of the 19th century, with a deficient historical, cultural and architectural load. Landscape improvement owes heavily to the central axis of the city, represented by the "Calea Eroilor" Cultural Ensemble, which brings a touch of uniqueness to the urban context. The article hopes to emphasize the discrepancies between the two banks of the River Jiu, which are extremely contrasting from both an architectural and a functional points of view. The left bank has administrative and architectural roles, while the right side is a former industrial area. In its entirety, the project aims to combine the two components, economic and social. The existing patrimony will help bring a harmonization and anew dynamic to the western part of the city, in terms of profits as well as in terms of the social course. The urban structure of the city as a whole must correspond to a territorial harmony and operational status so that a revitalization of the analysed area can transform the entire city. The specific objectives are the increase in real-estate action in the implementation area and developing the infrastructure, which will eventually lead to more entrepreneurial activities for a sustainable development.
Michaels, Patrick J.
Multivariate analyses of acreage abandonment patterns in the U.S. Great Plains winter wheat region indicate that the major mode of variation is an in-phase oscillation confined to the western half of the overall area, which is also the area with lowest average yields. This is one of the more agroclimatically marginal environments in the United States, with wide interannual fluctuations in both climate and profitability.We developed a multiple regression model to determine the relative roles of weather and expected price in the decision not to harvest. The overall model explained 77% of the spatial and temporal variation in abandonment. The 36.5% of the non-spatial variation was explained by two simple transformations of climatic data from three monthly aggregates-September-October, November-February and March-April. Price factors, expressed as indexed future delivery quotations,were barely significant, with only between 3 and 5% of the non-spatial variation explained, depending upon the model.The model was based upon weather, climate and price data from 1932 through 1975. It was tested by sequentially withholding three-year blocks of data, and using the respecified regression coefficients, along with observed weather and price, to estimate abandonment in the withheld years. Error analyses indicate no loss of model fidelity in the test mode. Also, prediction errors in the 1970-75 period, characterized by widely fluctuating prices, were not different from those in the rest of the model.The overall results suggest that the perceived quality of the crop, as influenced by weather, is a much more important determinant of the abandonment decision than are expected returns based upon price considerations.
Full Text Available In order to plan for the future management of some of the most biodiverse forests of Europe, it is essential that we understand under which condition they arose and the time and processes responsible for their variability. Here, I highlight the main findings from the palaeoecological (pollen and charcoal, archaeological and historical investigation comprising the last 6000 years, in the Apuseni Natural Park, NW Romania and discuss the effect of the past land use and forest management on these forests. I then ask what does it mean in term of conservation values if these forests are not natural but a human product and bring up the relevance of cultural landscape for conservation.
Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo
While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.
texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...
Grunert, Klaus; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng
Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related...
Jensen, Niels Holm; Lieberoth, Andreas
Insects are a highly sustainable and nutritional source of protein, and, thus, incorporating insects in to Western food culture would address major global challenges such as global warming, deforestation, and obesity. Consumer studies show, however, that Westerners’ willingness to eat insect...
Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith
Background: Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. Aims: The goal of the project was to identify differences in the…
Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.
This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 , xxv + 303 pp.
Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan
The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.
Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.
Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)
Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Martino, Steve; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Songole, Rogers; Omolo, Otieno E; Gakinya, Benson N; Mwaniki, Michael M; Adina, Japheth O; Nafula, Tobista; Owino-Ong'or, Willis D; Bryant, Kendall J; Carroll, Kathleen M; Goulet, Joseph L; Justice, Amy C; Maisto, Stephen A
Two-thirds of those with HIV worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa. Alcohol use is associated with the HIV epidemic through risky sex and suboptimal ARV adherence. In western Kenya, hazardous drinking was reported by HIV (53%) and general medicine (68%) outpatients. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated strong efficacy to reduce alcohol use. This article reports on a systematic cultural adaptation and pilot feasibility study of group paraprofessional-delivered CBT to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. Following adaptation and counselor training, five pilot groups were run (n = 27). Overall attendance was 77%. Percent days abstinent from alcohol (PDA) before session 1 was 52-100% (women) and 21-36% (men), and by session 6 was 96-100% (women) and 89-100% (men). PDA effect sizes (Cohen's d) between first and last CBT session were 2.32 (women) and 2.64 (men). Participants reported treatment satisfaction. Results indicate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy for CBT in Kenya.
see bilateral legal transaction whose subject is the future legacy or exactly specified legal issue from legacy, which aims to voluntarily change the law and customs of the established circuit of heirs, who partially performed legal effects among the living, and partly in case of death, the one that differs from the legacy through its irreversibility, we will then find its roots with the Franks and the Langobards, while its first clear shapes and forms we will find as early as XIII century. If we start from this initial premise, bearing in mind that different nations in different historical epochs attained a certain level of cultural, economic and legal emancipation, it is possible to draw another conclusion. It is the fact that disposal of assets in case of death, which meant some form of approval of the one in whose favour assets were disposed (what we would call today a bilateral legal transaction, has always preceded legacy as a unilateral legal transaction. Further on, it means that affatomia and thinx, as well as Morgengabe, can be considered roots in Germanic contractual inheritance law. But if we follow the development of an idea, abstracting the inevitable differences, Babylonian nudunu, Islamic vassijet, donatio mortis causa (from Babylon, through the Spartan and Roman law, to the Mirror of the Saxons, Vergabungen of the Schwabenspiegel, especially the Roman mancipatio familiae last will, can all equally be regarded as the roots of the contractual inheritance.
Kim, Sun-Ho; Petard, Nina; Hong, Jae-Hee
Cross-cultural communication of "nuttiness" can be problematic because the underlying conceptual elements and words used to describe its features may be largely culture-dependent. The present study was conducted to understand similarities and dissimilarities in the concept of nuttiness and its actual perception in our model food system, soymilk, among similar (Korean and Chinese) and dissimilar (Western) food cultures. In total, 110 Koreans, 103 Chinese, and 93 English-speaking, Western consumers were recruited. Subjects were asked to provide a definition of nuttiness and generate examples of nutty and non-nutty foods. They also rated the intensity of the nuttiness of 8 soymilk samples. Sensory profiles of 8 soymilk samples were obtained using 9 trained panelists. Data from the definition task were processed through textual analysis. To identify sensory drivers, consumer ratings of perceived nuttiness intensity in soymilk were projected onto a sensory space constructed from the descriptive profiles of nuttiness. We found significant association between culture and usage of specific words (χ 2 70, 0.05 =155.8, pcultures. We found that although the abstract definition of nuttiness clearly demonstrated cross-cultural differences, sensory perception of nuttiness was almost identical across all groups. This suggests that cultural background influences verbalization of one's perception, but not the actual perception itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
that afford the opportunity to obtain high (5 cm resolution data now required for rangeland monitoring. The Jornada team is now a leader in civil UAV applications in the USA. The scientific advances at the Jornada in fields such as remote sensing can be traced to the original Western America ranching culture that established the Jornada in 1912 and which persists as an important influence in shaping research directions today.
Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah
This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK, and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind. PMID:20186642
Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah
This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind.
Lai Ming Lam
Full Text Available Recent debates on human displacement caused by conservation have increasingly questioned: firstly, its justification in the name of biodiversity conservation; and secondly, the effectiveness of compensation in preventing impoverishment. Land compensation is widely practiced and it is a crucial part of contemporary people-centred conservation resettlement strategies. In this article, using the case of the Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in Nepal, I argue that policy-makers′ belief that the social impacts of dislocation can be properly mitigated by economic-focused resettlement programmes alone is a myth. They have ignored the close relationships between place, social networks and livelihoods. A study of a displaced indigenous community known as Rana Tharus in far-western Nepal shows that a strong sense of nostalgia and homesickness is evident in this community. Displaced Ranas continue to idealise their old abode as ′paradise on Earth′ while experiencing their new home as only promoting poverty, helplessness and danger. Their anger is due to the fact that they no longer have the mutual help or support from their neighbours as they once did in their old abode. From the Ranas′ point of view, the old land had both high economic and social value. The study demonstrates that the act of displacement is a violent disruption of a community′s daily social contacts. The destruction of the Ranas′ social networks has not only led to their dispossession and threatened their livelihoods, but has also made them vulnerable, because these traditional social webs provided important alternative livelihoods in a rural economy. As a consequence, it has further reinforced their sense of nostalgia. The cultural and social meanings of land must be obtained prior to implementing any resettlement policies. The study indicates that if displacement is truly unavoidable for conserving biodiversity, more comprehensive rehabilitation resettlement policies than those
This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...
Mahmood, Syed Imran; Daim, Syed Abdul; Borleffs, Jan C C; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna
The importance of medical education research in Saudi Arabia has been acknowledged increasingly and a lot of concepts used have been derived from the Western world. The question arises, however, whether Western concepts and questionnaires are transferable to societies with different cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate the instrument structure and the reliability of the Arabic version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-medium (ZKPQ-m). Three statistical methods with decreased amount of strictness were used to analyse our data: Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Procrustes rotation and Principal Component Analysis. Our outcomes did not confirm the original instrument structure. Instead, we found four interpretable components: Emotional Instability, Impulse-seeking, Activeness and Self-Control. However, the amount of explained variance was not very high and the internal consistencies ranged from unsatisfactory to only moderate. The data showed a high percentage of respondents agreeing with more than three items of the Infrequency scale, which may be attributable to the collectivistic culture in Saudi Arabia. We did not succeed in replicating the ZKPQ structure in the Arabic context. Social desirability, a common characteristic in collectivistic cultures, may have reduced the replicability of the internal structure of the ZKPQ-m. Different methods to measure concepts in collectivistic cultures may help to get round social desirability.
Bruneau , Laurianne; Bellezza , John V.
International audience; This paper examines common thematic and esthetic features discernable in the rock art of the western portion of the Tibetan plateau. This rock art is international in scope; it includes Ladakh (La-dwags) (under Indian jurisdiction), Tö (Stod) and the Changthang (Byang-thang) (under Chinese administration) hereinafter called Upper Tibet. This work sets out the relationship of this art to other regions of Inner Asia and defines what we call the 'Western Tibetan Plateau S...
Full Text Available The application of marketing strategies to the law firm represents a breakthrough in Italy which has struggled to establish itself as a result of a culture based on a strict code of ethics. However, in recent years there has been a turnaround and the benefits arising from the application to legal profession of the typical principles of enterprises are increasingly evident. Il marketing legale e la comunicazione dell’avvocato L’applicazione delle strategie di marketing allo studio legale rappresenta un’innovazione che in Italia ha stentato a imporsi a causa di una cultura basata su una rigida deontologia. Tuttavia, negli ultimi anni vi è stata un’inversione di tendenza e i benefici derivanti dall’applicazione alla professione forense dei princìpi tipici delle imprese sono sempre più evidenti. Parole chiave: marketing, studio legale, comunicazione
Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue
Summary Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the ‘thin ideal’ that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed. PMID:24991176
Full Text Available Dealing with the legal culture of the clergymen in the late Middle Ages, this study aims to comprehend the coincidence between the spread of a particular type of intellectual training and the consciousness that a social group could have to build its own identity. Three topics are successively discussed. The first part considers the legal studies, especially at the University of Angers where law schools were organized from the 13th century. The second section focuses on the careers of the clergy (university teaching, service of Church and States. The last part is devoted to the study of the private and institutional libraries (abbeys and cathedrals.
Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov
Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...
Culture is becoming increasingly important in determining the competitiveness of firms in international business. Perlmutter first presented variables that focused on the primary attitudes among international executives, allowing an understanding of how cultural aspects affect the success and failure of a multinational corporation. Other scholars proposed various models of fundamental dimensions of culture. Among them, the Hofstede model is the most popular one. Almost all of studies on cultu...
Macdonald, R. St. J.
Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)
Sloat, Robert S.
Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)
Lilah de Morais Barrêto
Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of femicide, emphasizing its bond with the cycle of domestic violence against women. The denial and underuse of the institutes stated in the Law Maria da Penha is the consequence of a traditional legal culture that deals this problem as a private issue and faces this kind of violence with a consensual paradigm of justice. In this essay, we will analyze the judgments by the Brazilian Supreme Court in ADC nº 19/DF and ADI nº 4424/DF, and the resistances of courts in following this settled jurisprudence.
Superstitious ideas are always in people's life in spite of scientific and technological advancement. Hungry Ghost Festival in China, Halloween in some western countries and Day of the Dead in Mexico are three religious festivals which are observed every year. They reveal people's idea about ghosts and spirits after death. They also include…
Coetzee, Azille; Halsema, Annemie
In this paper we aim at showing the potential of cross-continental dialogues for a decolonizing feminism. We relate the work of one of the major criticasters of the Western metaphysical patriarchal order, Luce Irigaray, to the critique of the colonial/modern gender system by the Nigerian feminist
Andrade Lima, L. de
The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)
Chinn, P. W. U.
Context/Purpose: The Hawaiian Islands span 1500 miles. Age, size, altitude and isolation produced diverse topographies, weather patterns, and unique ecosystems. Around 500 C.E. Polynesians arrived and developed sustainable social ecosystems, ahupua`a, extending from mountain-top to reef. Place-based ecological knowledge was key to personal identity and resource management that sustained 700,000 people at western contact. But Native Hawaiian students are persistently underrepresented in science. This two-year mixed methods study asks if professional development (PD) can transform teaching in ways that support K12 Native Hawaiian students' engagement and learning in STEM. Methods: Place-based PD informed by theories of structure and agency (Sewell, 1992) and cultural funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992) explicitly intersected Hawaiian and western STEM knowledge and practices. NGSS and Nā Hopena A`o, general learner outcomes that reflect Hawaiian culture and values provided teachers with new schemas for designing curriculum and assessment through the lens of culture and place. Data sources include surveys, teacher and student documents, photographs. Results: Teachers' lessons on invasive species, water, soils, Hawaiian STEM, and sustainability and student work showed they learned key Hawaiian terms, understood the impact of invasive species on native plants and animals, felt stronger senses of responsibility, belonging, and place, and preferred outdoor learning. Survey results of 21 4th graders showed Native Hawaiian students (n=6) were more interested in taking STEM and Hawaiian culture/language courses, more concerned about invasive species and culturally important plant and animals, but less able to connect school and family activities than non-Hawaiian peers (n=15). Teacher agency is seen in their interest in collaborating across schools to develop ahupua`a based K12 STEM curricula. Interpretation and Conclusion: Findings suggest PD
Abstract There has been an increasing interest in determinants of public health at societal level. These factors have often been of a socio-economic nature, whereas culture has attracted less attention. The aim of this dissertation is to analyze, operationalize, and empirically explore the potentials of the concept of culture in macro- level injury research. The dissertation is built upon five different papers. The empirical papers investigate the scope available for emp...
encounter through a comparison of the Iranian experience with other Muslim experiences, but in particular with the very different Japanese approach. Individuals in all three of these cultural spheres sought to capture what made the West so powerful and transpose that essence at home. They all identified...... the Western legal tradition as a particularly important component of modernity and an enduring source of strength. The relative hostility in the Islamic world to transposed legal norms is often explained with reference to the peculiar characteristics of its religious dogma and continues to define and hinder...
Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo
This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....
Kuwahara, Jennifer Leslie Hoof
Place-based education is a multidisciplinary and experiential approach to learning that utilizes a local environment or community. This study examined the influences of place attachment and cultural affiliation in the school on student experience and learning in a place-based science course, as well as the course's potential influence on environmentally responsible behaviors. The participants attended an urban high school on O'ahu, Hawai'i. By understanding student reaction to experience in both Western- and Hawaiian-centered classes, this study contributes to the literature on place-based education in relation to how differences in cultural affiliation in a school setting can have varying impacts on place attachment, science literacy, and environmental responsibility. A comparative case study was conducted with students enrolled in the Hawaiian Academy and non-academy students. Analysis of a pre- and post-survey and science content assessments, student documents, field notes, and interview transcripts suggested place-based science has both similar and different impacts on students depending on cultural affiliation within the school. Students in the Hawaiian Academy, as a whole, showed stronger science literacy and environmental responsibility than students in the non-Hawaiian Academy class. However, non-Hawaiian Academy students showed increased place attachment in a spiritual sense. Reactions from both groups suggest a need for smaller learning communities that promote a unity of knowledge rather than distinct courses and disciplines.
Blackford, Jeanine; Street, Annette
Much research has been conducted for understanding the health needs of people of different cultural backgrounds and the problems they experience in seeking health care. In Australia, despite such research, it is argued that there remains an exclusionary health care culture that continues to affect equity and access for people of non-English speaking background. There was a need for research in which health professionals examined their own Anglo-Australian culture and its impact on other ethnic communities. Such concerns provided the impetus for a feminist praxis study to engage nurses in understanding and improving care for migrant women. This study was conducted with 26 nurses in a paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Five collaborative research groups were formed, each consisting of four to six nurses who were co-researchers. Together, the nurses and researchers explored the health care experiences of migrant women, using a variety of quantitative and qualitative data collection strategies. This paper explores a major finding of the study, which was the impact of liberal feminist approaches on the practices of Australian nurses who cared for women of different ethnicity and race. The study found that the efforts of liberal feminist nurses to "treat all people the same" meant that women from different cultural backgrounds did not always receive equity in care. Through the feminist praxis process the nurses were able to explore contradictions in their practice and focus on equity in care to meet the specific gendered and racially constructed needs of women of different cultural backgrounds. A number of strategies were adopted that included regular use of female health interpreters and provision of privacy for migrant women when caring for their children.
Lenihan, John H.
Discusses the content of a course on the genre of western films that was utilized as a film study and a U.S. cultural history credit. Describes in detail the film, "Winchester '73," and addresses other films utilized in the course. States that the course also focuses on the development of the western genre. (CMK)
Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....
The information network movement system frequency suffers the destruction, has the value information to steal repeatedly, is main threat which the current network security faces. Under the network security culture frame, through legislation, establishes the stan perfect network security legal li government by law function and be an urgent matter. the enhancement networking legislation and the safety control administration dard network security service industry development the legal framework, the ability system, raises the network user safety idea, the display morals in the so on, the establishment should to the threat network security safeguard system%信息网络运行系统频遭破坏导致有价值信息屡被窃取，是当前网络安全面临的主要威胁。在网络安全文化框架下，通过加强网络技术立法与安全管理行政立法，建立规范网络安全服务业发展的法律体系，完善网络安全法律责任制度，培养网络用户安全理念，发挥道德在法治中的作用，建立应对威胁的网络安全保障体系是当务之急。
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.
Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7
Giraud, Georges; Amblard, Corinne; Thiel, Elise; Zaouche-Laniau, Martine; Stojanović, Zaklina; Pohar, Jure; Butigan, Ružica; Cvetković, Miljan; Mugosa, Boban; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Mora, Cristina; Barjolle, Dominique
Western Balkan countries (WBCs) have a long-standing culinary tradition. The promotion of traditional foods may be a tool for coping with modernisation trends in such transition economies. This paper explores consumer preferences toward food in this region, focusing on a traditional fresh cow cheese locally called 'Mladi Sir'. This product was quoted in all the preliminary focus groups as a common traditional product present in the six WBCs studied: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. After a literature review investigating the concept of traditional food in WBCs and the implementation of focus groups, a survey including a conjoint analysis on preferences for fresh cow cheese was carried out in 2011 to collect data from 1200 respondents. Four clusters of consumers were identified: one focused more on the local origin; one oriented more toward the scale of production (on-farm and small dairy); the third favouring low prices and the fourth preferring high prices and industrial products. Policy makers and the supply chain could take these differences in consumer preferences regarding traditional food products into account in order to develop specific strategies. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E
The development of an unrealistic ideal body image and body size dissatisfaction among children is common in Western countries, including the USA and many European nations. However, little is known about children's body image perceptions in post-communist countries. This pilot study evaluated body image perceptions in a sample of Czech school-aged children and their parents and compared them with the perceptions of American children and parents. Ninety-seven Czech and 45 American 4th-6th graders and their parents from eight urban schools participated in this study. A previously developed silhouette body image instrument was utilized in a parent questionnaire and during child interviews to measure perceived and ideal body image perceptions of children and parents. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and paired t-tests were used to compare differences between children's and parents' perceived and ideal body image perceptions. Associations between body image perceptions and other variables were explored using bivariate correlations. American children had a thinner ideal body image compared with Czech children (P Parent's ideal body image for their children did not differ by nationality (P = 0.858). While the pressure on children to look thinner was apparent among both American and Czech children, Czech children considered a larger body size as more ideal. A future study should evaluate body image perceptions and factors influencing these perceptions in a representative sample of Czech children and parents.
Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S; Okumu, Thomas O; Bryant, Kendall L; Goulet, Joseph L; Maisto, Stephen A; Braithwaite, R Scott; Justice, Amy C
Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang'aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang'aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang'aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang'aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard.
S. Gloppen (Siri)
textabstractThis article commends the concise and useful analysis of courts and the legal enforcement of economic, social and cultural rights given in Christian Courtis’ book, Courts and the Legal Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Comparative Experiences of Justiciability. Yet, in
Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith
Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. The goal of the project was to identify differences in the beliefs and practices of Indian and Euro-Canadian mothers that would affect patterns of talk to children. A total of 47 Indian mothers and 51 Euro-Canadian mothers of preschool age children completed a written survey concerning child-rearing practices and beliefs, especially those about talk to children. Discriminant analyses indicated clear cross-cultural differences and produced functions that could predict group membership with a 96% accuracy rate. Items contributing most to these functions concerned the importance of family, perceptions of language learning, children's use of language in family and society, and interactions surrounding text. Speech-language pathologists who wish to adapt their services for families of Indian heritage should remember the centrality of the family, the likelihood that there will be less emphasis on early independence and achievement, and the preference for direct instruction.
This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.
Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...
Sartor, Giovanni; Contissa, Giuseppe; Schebesta, H.; Laukyte, Migle; Lanzi, Paola; Marti, Patrizia; Paola, Tomasello
This paper presents the first release of the Legal Case, recently developed by the ALIAS Project and still under refinement. The Legal Case is a methodological tool intended to address liability issues of automated ATM systems: it provides for a legal risk management process that can be applied
By effectively engaging in government-to-government consultation the Tonto National Forest is able to consider oral histories and tribal cultural knowledge in decision making. These conversations often have the potential to lead to the protection and preservation of public lands. Discussed here is one example of successful tribal consultation and how it let to the protection of Traditional Cultural Properties (TCPs). One hour east of Phoenix, Arizona on the Tonto National Forest, Resolution Copper Mine, is working to access a rich copper vein more than 7,000 feet deep. As part of the mining plan of operation they are investigating viable locations to store the earth removed from the mine site. One proposed storage location required hydrologic and geotechnical studies to determine viability. This constituted a significant amount of ground disturbance in an area that is of known importance to local Indian tribes. To ensure proper consideration of tribal concerns, the Forest engaged nine local tribes in government-government consultation. Consultation resulted in the identification of five springs in the project area considered (TCPs) by the Western Apache tribes. Due to the presence of identified TCPs, the Forest asked tribes to assist in the development of mitigation measures to minimize effects of this project on the TCPs identified. The goal of this partnership was to find a way for the Mine to still be able to gather data, while protecting TCPs. During field visits and consultations, a wide range of concerns were shared which were recorded and considered by Tonto National Forest. The Forest developed a proposed mitigation approach to protect springs, which would prevent (not permit) the installation of water monitoring wells, geotechnical borings or trench excavations within 1,200 feet of perennial springs in the project area. As an added mitigation measure, a cultural resources specialist would be on-site during all ground-disturbing activities. Diligent work on
Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task
Full Text Available This article provides a historical perspective in a European context on the phenomenon that has become known as honour killings. A cause of outrage and disdain in today’s (Western societies, the notion of restoring honour through a violent act is, in fact, deeply rooted in European legal and cultural history. By examining French, Anglo-Saxon, German and Italian examples, it is revealed that to varying degrees emotions, and, in some cases honour in particular, were accommodated in legislation as granting the perpetrator extenuating circumstances. Adultery in particular was thought to compromise the honour of husbands, thus entrenching an inherently gendered conception of honour. However, leniency of the law was mostly dependent on ›heat of the moment‹ arguments, attempts to avenge the violation of one’s honour, rather than premeditated, cold-blooded revenge killings restoring the collective honour of the family. By discriminating between notions of individual and collective (family honour, examples from European history exhibit a qualitative difference compared to modern day honour killings. The full extent of hypocrisy in judging modern day (Muslim honour killings, however, becomes apparent when considering that gendered concepts of emotions and honour only disappeared from European legal thought after the 1970s, partly following feminist criticism.
Ігор Олексійович Поліщук
Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of the interpretation of «legal mentality ‘category in different scientific concepts. The most authoritative study of the mentality directions: social psychology, which is based on the sociological theory of E. Durkheim; general psychology, theory of archetypes as the basis of the «collective unconscious,» K. Jung, the concept of «social character», V. Rayh. Legal mentality – a deep, well-established system of views and opinions of a particular social group, class, stratum, people, nation or community to another institute of law, peculiarities of its application and role in society. The specifics of the legal mentality lies in its visual Depending on historical traditions and culture of a particular nation. This necessitates mandatory accounting features of the legal mentality of the people in the legislative process. Formation of legal culture of the people is impossible without its primer on its historical traditions, culture and language. Revival Ukrainian legal culture consistent with modern legal policy polyarchy. Despite the trend of integration of their own political, economic and legal systems in the European community of the European Union member states to carefully refer to the national legal traditions. National mentality and its features are reflected in the legal submissions which are contained in proverbs, sayings, myths, thoughts, tales, is the oral form of manifestation of the people's legal culture, as well as reflected in the customs, traditions, ways of working, which were made in the legal daily on throughout the history of the people. In addition, the features appear in the national legal notions and reactions in relation to such objects of political and legal reality as a state, local government, law, crime, punishment, the court, the trial, the political leaders, customs reform, civil servants, family, inheritance, labor, property, and so on. It is noted that in legal science
Blume, Peter Erik
and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...
Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.
Mackenzie, Geraldine; Carter, Hugh
This chapter gives an educational overview of: * An awareness of the legal issues involved in health informatics * The need for the privacy and security of the patient record * The legal consequences of a breach of the security of the patient record * The concept of privacy law and what precautions ought to be taken to minimize legal liability for a breach of privacy and/or confidentiality.
Roth, B E
Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.
Muhammad Helmy Hakim
Full Text Available Considering the important role of historical, cultural, social, and attitudinal aspects in the study of law, there has been a shift from instrumental law to constitutive law. While instrumental law considers law beyond the social and cultural spheres, constitutive law integrally embraces law, politics, ideology, and action. Legal consciousness is an important asset for marginalised people who are at high risk of discriminative treatments in occupational and social life. Not only will they are legally aware of their rights and obligations at works, they will have adequate knowledge of where and how to name, blame, and claim in case mistreatment do occur. Legally proficient will allow them build legal protection which is not adequately provided by the authorized bodies.
Dmitriy E. Nekrasov
Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
Alicia M. Campo
of them built along the railway trail. The phrase "Comarca Serrana" refers to a popular touristic destination in the Sistema de Ventania located at the south of the Province of Buenos Aires - between 38° 4´ and 38° 8´ south latitude, and 61° 47´ and 61°56´ west longitude - that comprises the small villages of Sierra de la Ventana and Villa Ventana, both within the City Hall of Tornquist. This research is intended to recover the original railway trail to organize a thematic tour. For this, the identification and analysis of the graphic and analytical background was organized, along with the survey of the area. The specific goal of this study is the analysis of the property rights of the lands through which the original railway trail runs. This research project aims at assisting people living in this area in understanding the importance of this cultural heritage and identifying the need to preserve it for promoting tourism in this region.
Tom R. Tyler
Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.
Bremner, Andrew J.; Caparos, Serge; Davidoff, Jules; de Fockert, Jan; Linnell, Karina J.; Spence, Charles
Western participants consistently match certain shapes with particular speech sounds, tastes, and flavours. Here we demonstrate that the "Bouba-Kiki effect", a well-known shape-sound symbolism effect commonly observed in Western participants, is also observable in the Himba of Northern Namibia, a remote population with little exposure to…
Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...
Orts Llopis, María Ángeles
Starting from Edward T. Hall's assumptions regarding the cultural dimension as the 'hidden dimension' of communication, this study tries to highlight the fact that legal culture vastly influences legal interaction and, hence, varies from system to system. The translation of Company Law from American Legal English into Spanish consists of an exercise in inter-legal communication, as the translator must be aware of the culturally different way s in which the corporate world is contemplated, fro...
Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU
Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of legal communication within natural law. Law has an important role, in relation to civilization and legal culture and one of the means through which law influences both culture and civilization is legal communication. The patterns of legal communication should be analyzed from the perspective of all important schools of legal thought: natural law, legal positivism, historical school of law etc. In this paper, the perception of law, through legal communication, within natural law is discussed and analyzed, from the principles and statements of Aristotle to the writings of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, St. Thomas Aquinas and later to the theories of Hugo Grotius. This study also aims to prove that the difference between legal communication within the major schools of legal thought does not regard the essence of communication or the various principles of law, but merely the perception of law, which varies from one school of thought to another.
Singh, M; Jha, R
To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.
This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.
Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Alsanawi, Hisham Abdulaziz
We adapted the reduced Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index for the Arabic language and tested its metric properties in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and twenty-one consecutive patients who were referred for physiotherapy to the outpatient department were asked to answer the Arabic version of the reduced WOMAC index (ArWOMAC). After the completion of the ArWOMAC, the intensity of knee pain and general health status were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the 12-item short form health survey (SF-12), respectively. A second assessment was performed at least 48 h after the first session to assess test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was quantified using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of the Arabic questionnaire. The construct validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. The total ArWOMAC scale and pain and function subscales were internally consistent with Cronbach's coefficient alpha of 0.91, 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. Test-retest reliability was good to excellent with ICC of 0.91, 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. SF-12 and VAS score significantly correlated with ArWOMAC index (p < 0.01), which support the construct validity. The standard error of measurement (SEM) of the total scale was 2.94, based on repeated measurements for test-retest. The minimum detectable change based on the SEM for test-retest was 8.15. The ArWOMAC index is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating the severity of knee OA, with metric properties in agreement with the original version. Although, the reduced WOMAC index has been clinically utilized within the Saudi population, the Arabic version of this instrument is not validated for an Arab population to measure lower limb functional disability caused by OA. The Arabic version of reduced WOMAC (ArWOMAC) index is a reliable and valid scale
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so
extinction of indigenous languages and cultures of many societies in ... Ogirisi: a new journal of African studies vol 9 2012. 109 ... Odinye & Odinye: Western Influence on Chinese & Nigerian Cultures. 110 .... The Ibo People and the Europeans.
Report of the FAO/Government of Australia Expert Consultation on Good Management Practices and Good Legal and Institutional Arrangements for Sustainable Shrimp Culture: Brisbane, Australia, 4-7 December 2000
... practices as well as of related institutional and legal instruments and to identify/determine avenues, as well as specific benefits and limitations, for the development and implementation of good management...
Romantsev, Gennadij M.; Efanov, Andrei V.; Bychkova, Ekaterina Yu.; Moiseev, Andrei V.
Formation of the law-governed state institutions in Russia, development of civil society, need for neutralizing the legal nihilism and generation of public legal culture, state demand for legally competent specialists, representing the public and social value, justify the relevancy of the investigated issue, on the one hand. On the other hand, it…
Roč. 152, č. 5 (2013), s. 425-446 ISSN 0231-6625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP408/12/2579 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legal origins * law and economics * legal culture Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences
Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.
Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Kulpa, Piotr; Sawicki, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin
In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the eff ect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.
de Pentheny O'Kelly, Clarissa; Urch, Catherine; Brown, Edwina A
Truth telling, a cardinal rule in Western medicine, is not a globally shared moral stance. Honest disclosure of terminal prognosis and diagnosis are regarded as imperative in preparing for the end of life. Yet in many cultures, truth concealment is common practice. In collectivist Asian and Muslim cultures, illness is a shared family affair. Consequently, decision making is family centred and beneficence and non-malfeasance play a dominant role in their ethical model, in contrast to patient autonomy in Western cultures. The 'four principles' are prevalent throughout Eastern and Western cultures, however, the weight with which they are considered and their understanding differ. The belief that a grave diagnosis or prognosis will extinguish hope in patients leads families to protect ill members from the truth. This denial of the truth, however, is linked with not losing faith in a cure. Thus, aggressive futile treatment can be expected. The challenge is to provide a health care service that is equable for all individuals in a given country. The British National Health Service provides care to all cultures but is bound by the legal principles and framework of the UK and aims for equity of provision by working within the UK ethical framework with legal and ethical norms being explained to all patients and relatives. This requires truth telling about prognosis and efficacy of potential treatments so that unrealistic expectations are not raised.
‘Cultural encounters: Western scholarship and Fang statuary from Equatorial Africa’ [Inaugural address, delivered on the acceptance of an extraordinary professorship at Tilburg University, Netherlands, in 2011
Wilfried van Damme
Full Text Available In this inaugural address, delivered on the acceptance of an extraordinary professorship at Tilburg University, Netherlands, in 2011, Wilfried van Damme examines three approaches that have been characteristically applied within the Western anthropology of art during the last half century. Illustrating these approaches with reference to the study of Fang statuary from equatorial Africa, he discusses a stylistic approach, focusing on anatomical details and proportions of Fang anthropomorphic sculptures; a culturalist approach, highlighting the local meaning and values these sculptures express; and a postcolonial approach, dealing with the Western appropriation and commodification of Fang statues.
Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.
Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold
Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....
Vossen, T.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Andel, van T.
Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the
What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)
I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
Екатерина Владимировна Кулевская
Full Text Available The article examines the semantic structure of the legal term. Nowadays, with the rapid development of cross-cultural communication, people, while pursuing their professional career, learn specific languages, including the language of law, with terms being its important component. Terms can often impede the process of successful cross-cultural communication so teaching cross-cultural communication, according to many researchers, including P. Cranmer and K. Koskinen, is immensely important. The article aims to demonstrate that a legal term, a word or phrase used in legislation, is a generalized name for a legal concept that may lack a precise meaning in practice as it is polysemous. To proof this statement, the semantic structure of the legal term is studied from the cognitive point of view. The key terms (term, frame, lexico-semantic variant of a word, microframe (reference category are defined at the beginning of the article. The article also describes the classification of various semantic structures of terms developed by Prof. Belyayevskaya, based on an analysis of the cognitive foundations of the typology of semantic structures as well as on the classification of meanings. They are homogeneous semantic structures, with different lexico-semantic variants of a polysemous word representing different aspects of one microframe; these structures include monosemous terms, polysemous terms with a homogeneous semantic structure, and terms with the intermediate type of lexemes. Heterogeneous semantic structures are semantic structures, with a lexico-semantic variant of a word representing two or more reference categories rather than one category; these structures are considered to be “classical” polysemy. Two types of such structures are introduced in the article, with examples of the actualization of their lexical meaning in speech being analysed (there were used examples from the British and Russian National corpora; official legal documents and
Altered cropping pattern and cultural continuation with declined prosperity following abrupt and extreme arid event at ~4,200 yrs BP: Evidence from an Indus archaeological site Khirsara, Gujarat, western India.
Anil K Pokharia
Full Text Available Archaeological sites hold important clues to complex climate-human relationships of the past. Human settlements in the peripheral zone of Indus culture (Gujarat, western India are of considerable importance in the assessment of past monsoon-human-subsistence-culture relationships and their survival thresholds against climatic stress exerted by abrupt changes. During the mature phase of Harappan culture between ~4,600-3,900yrsBP, the ~4,100±100yrsBP time slice is widely recognized as one of the major, abrupt arid-events imprinted innumerous well-dated palaeo records. However, the veracity of this dry event has not been established from any archaeological site representing the Indus (Harappan culture, and issues concerning timing, changes in subsistence pattern, and the likely causes of eventual abandonment (collapse continue to be debated. Here we show a significant change in crop-pattern (from barley-wheat based agriculture to 'drought-resistant' millet-based crops at ~4,200 yrs BP, based on abundant macrobotanical remains and C isotopes of soil organic matter (δ13CSOM in an archaeological site at Khirsara, in the Gujarat state of western India. The crop-change appears to be intentional and was likely used as an adaptation measure in response to deteriorated monsoonal conditions. The ceramic and architectural remains of the site indicate that habitation survived and continued after the ~4,200yrsBP dry climatic phase, but with declined economic prosperity. Switching to millet-based crops initially helped inhabitants to avoid immediate collapse due to climatic stresses, but continued aridity and altered cropping pattern led to a decline in prosperity levels of inhabitants and eventual abandonment of the site at the end of the mature Harappan phase.
Jan 24, 2012 ... The issue of children living with HIV is a serious problem in Nigeria. This .... The pregnant woman must not be exposed to work or environment which ..... cultural, legal and other barrier to HIV and AIDS . socio-cultural barriers.
Full Text Available Normative pluralism refers to a social fact: the co-existence of different bodies of norms within the same social space. State legal pluralism indicates a single overarching national legal system but plural laws, the state recognising different rules for specific categories of persons. However, the equating of multiculturalism and legal pluralism with state law is challenged. In the modern unitary nation state of the Western type only a weak version of legal pluralism in which state centralism still prevails is acceptable. Below it is advanced that in this state the accommodation of cultural diversity and multiple normative orders can only be brought about by the judge, the tuner or the navigator and steersman of the law, by using discretion and creative interpretation and not by the legislators, whose main demarcation lines are clearly drawn within domestic law by the Constitution, and within Europe and within the EU by the demands of human rights and 'ever closer integration'. In both of the critical illustrations below - the equality of the spouses in Turkish family law and the General Principles of the CEFL on divorce and maintenance - more scope should be given to judges to cope with and to create the necessary 'fit' between law and culture that do not coincide.
Juma, Milka; Askew, Ian; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; van den Borne, Bart
Background This study explored community perceptions of cultural beliefs and practices that may increase sexual risk behaviour of adolescents, to understand more about meaning they hold within the culture and how they expose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to higher risks in a high HIV and teenage pregnancy prevalence context. Methods Using a qualitative descriptive cross-sectional design 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 78 adolescents and 68 parents/guardians purposively sel...
Badke, Lara K.
A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.
International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.
McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E
Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also
Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first
Yeni Salma Barlinti
Full Text Available This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into force, Islamic law must be written into constitution or legislation. It is needed to have legal basis when performing Islamic law, the existence of religious court is very important in dispute settlement related to Islamic law. The Influence of western legal system is very strong in national legal system. Nevertheless, the western legal system differ substantially from Islamic legal system, and Islamic law was implemented limitedly based upon western legislation. It was limited to family law. While the differentiation are: the way of implementation of western legal system into national legal system and the form of legislation Indonesia has one legislation, which is in effect to all of Indonesian people. On the contrary, Malaysia has many enactments, which are different from one to another in each negeri.
Juma, Milka; Askew, Ian; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; van den Borne, Bart
This study explored community perceptions of cultural beliefs and practices that may increase sexual risk behaviour of adolescents, to understand more about meaning they hold within the culture and how they expose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to higher risks in a high HIV and teenage pregnancy prevalence context. Using a qualitative descriptive cross-sectional design 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 78 adolescents and 68 parents/guardians purposively selected to represent their communities. Thirteen key informant interviews were also conducted with community leaders, health care and child welfare workers, and adolescents who were also selected purposively. The two methods were used to explore how cultural beliefs and practices predispose adolescent orphans and non- orphans to risky sexual behaviours. Data were analysed through line-by-line coding, grouped into families and retrieved as themes and sub-themes. Identified cultural practices that predisposed adolescents orphans and non-orphans to risky sexual behaviours included: adolescent sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, replacing a deceased married daughter with her younger sister in marriage, widow inheritance among boys, early marriage among girls, and preference for boys/sons. Cultural risks perceived to equally affect both orphans and non-orphans were sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, and sister replacement. Factors associated more with orphans than non-orphans were widow inheritance among boys and a preference for boy over girl children. Adolescent sexual risk reduction programs should be developed considering the specific cultural context, using strategies that empower communities to challenge the widely accepted cultural norms that may predispose young people in general to sexual risks while targeting those that unequally influence orphans.
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in
Beran, Roy G
Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.
Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)
Is Giving Up Traditional Religious Culture Part of the Price to be Paid for Acquiring Higher Education? Adaptation of Academic Western Culture by Jewish Israeli University Students of Middle Eastern Origin.
Kedem, Peri; Bar-Lev, Mordechai
A study of whether the Middle Eastern student feels that attaining the status of "Western modern man" is incompatible with maintaining a traditional, religious way of life is reported. Some loosening of extreme religious practices was found among college students, but there was no evident revolt against home or tradition. (MSE)
Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won
Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.
Devaluing an academic domain is a potential means of alleviating the psychological discomfort that results from the inconsistency of a low domain-specific self-concept of ability and great value attached to the domain. Such motivated devaluation of a domain is expected to be stronger in cultural contexts that promote a relatively greater focus on…
Kuwahara, Jennifer L. H.
This study investigates how students' participation in a place-based science curriculum may influence their place attachment (dependence and identity). Participants attend an urban high school in Hawai'i and are members of different cultural institutions within the school. Students are either enrolled in an environmental science class within the…
Sánchez-García, Neus; Raga, Juan Antonio; Montero, Francisco E
The sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo is of interest in Mediterranean fish farming. Disease is an important problem because parasites can spread quickly in culture conditions and fish often develop high parasite burdens. Here we assess the risk that documented parasites pose to the sustainability of D. puntazzo farming. This study specifically considers metazoan and protist parasites recorded from wild and farmed D. puntazzo in scientific literature. Risk assessment studies involve the identification, characterization and qualitative quantification of the risk in question (parasitoses in this case) and the probability of establishment. We considered the parasite species which may be difficult to manage as a priority for research into potential management strategies. Those parasites which could be transmitted from cultures of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were also included in this study. Four groups of parasites represented a risk to D. puntazzo farming, ranging from moderate to high: Ciliophora, Myxozoa, Monogenea and Copepoda. Three parasite species were considered high risk to D. puntazzo cultures: Amyloodinium sp., Cryptocaryon sp. and Enteromyxum leei. These species were responsible for high mortalities in cultures of these and other fish species. In addition Sparicotyle chrysophrii, Caligus ligusticus and Gnathia vorax entail a moderate risk to D. puntazzo Mediterranean farms. No important episodes have been related to caligids and isopods in Mediterranean sparids, nevertheless they should be properly managed to prevent future problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the Andes, water rights are enforced in processes of social struggle. This paper explains how water struggles by Andean user collectives cannot be understood aside from their rootedness in dynamic ‘undertows’: the multi-layered, often concealed water-rights foundations. They entwine plural legal sources and livelihood strategies; there, water rights are shaped materially and discursively. Undertows also constitute the socio-territorial home bases for communities’ efforts to upscale their water rights battlegrounds into broader political-legal networks. In practice, this often happens in disguised political forms: through ‘mimicry’ shields and strategies, which also enable them to shop around in rulers’ power factory. Dynamic sub-surface creation and proliferation of water rights repertoires constitute a strong source of defense against encroachment and disciplinary policies.
En los Andes, los derechos de agua se materializan en procesos de lucha social. El artículo examina cómo la lucha por el agua de los colectivos locales no puede comprenderse sin su enraizamiento en subcorrientes dinámicas: los cimientos multicapas, a menudo ocultos, de los derechos de agua. Aquí se entrelazan estrategias comunitarias y fuentes socio-legales plurales. Las subcorrientes alimentan los socio-territorios y las culturas hidráulicas, estableciendo las bases para la defensa de los derechos locales hacia redes político-legales multi-escala. En la práctica, los arreglos y derechos propios a menudo están disfrazados por medio de escudos y estrategias de mimetismo (o imitación, que también permiten hacer uso de los medios de poder dominantes. La creación y la proliferación subsuperficiales de los repertorios sociolegales locales constituyen una importante fuente de defensa contra la usurpación de los derechos de agua y las políticas disciplinarias.
Antoon De Baets
Full Text Available The This Ph.D. study tries to answer the question "Do history textbooks have an impact on people's ideas about other cultures?", by comparing the contents of a large sample of in- fluential history textbooks and curricula (covering 1945- 1984 with the results of a wide array of public opinion surveys about the Third World and immigrants (covering 1949- 1987. The theoretical part reviews ethnocentrism, cultural relativism and racism as dimensions of cultural images, focuses attention on the phenomenon and mechanism of influence, and assesses the place of the textbook in the complex network of factors acting upon youngsters and adults, inside and outside the school. The methodological part discusses the value of the two sources (relevance, validity and reliability of surveys; availability and use of history textbooks; comparability of both. Univer- ses of both sources are constructed and samples drawn from them. These samples are analysed with mutually attuned question batteries. The double empirical analysis leads to two series of conclusions and trends that are compared with each other. Five parallel trends are found in textbooks and surveys (dominant but decreasing ethnocentrism; decreasing nationalism; absence of racism; poor awareness of other cultures; social-evolutionist thinking. They coincide in time, while, for textbooks to have influence, trends there should precede these in the public. Four other trends only partially coincide, or diverge. In the case of still two other trends, mutual influence could be plausibly postulated. In globo, no firm evidence was found for the thesis that history textbooks autonomously influence the public. It rather is the general climate of opinion that, with years of delay, acts upon the textbook authors. The role of these authors, the immediate influences upon them (editors, curricula planners, academics, inspectors, teachers, parents and pupils, their biographies and their degree of representativeness
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.
Ulsenheimer, K.; Heinemann, N.
It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.) [de
presente testamento de mi puno y letra para hacer constar mi ultima y firme voluntad para que sea cumplida fielmente conforme a las siguientes clausulas...ruego se le de fiel cumplimiento. Y para que asi conste, a todos los f ines legales pertinentes otorgo el presente testamrento bajo mi firma en el lugar...Transiers to ,- -Al" t’ het (4., m4 Us %put Ortronew. It 1111. tOOlise -ur" se me. thens 1 61%0 all rmv 14oo Act at anv &late ..t ..... i, le. ~~rt n the
Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
Kjær, Poul F.
. The dual (trans-)national re-constitution of Western Europe in the years immediately after the Second World War, which the European integration process was an integrated part of, successfully remedied this development. However, over the last decades, Europe has experienced a ‘turn to governance’, which......The ‘turn to corporatism’ in the interwar period implied an erosion of the fragile institutionalisation of legally-constituted public power due to its suspension of the legal infrastructure of society and the concomitant breakdown of the distinction between the public and private realms of society...
Full Text Available Situated in the study conducted in this paper, using the method of analysis of contents, induction and deduction, historical and legal dogmatic indicated that ecology as their object of legal protection has three global natural values: air, water, land, and atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as constituent elements of the biosphere. Land as a special natural product comprises a solid layer of the Earth that is specific to the biosphere. The importance of land from the perspective of sustainable development is multifaceted, especially when seen through its environmental, industrial, manufacturing, socio-economic, educational, scientific, cultural, historical and any other useful functions. Its most important function is to fertility and the ability to flora supplying water, oxygen and mineral substances. Natural processes that led to the creation of land argue the view that it belongs to the so-called renewable resources, but only if it's a man rational use and encourages their natural reproduction. In accordance with current legislation and categorization of land, this survey includes agricultural land. In this paper, we have opted for ecological and legal land protection as one of the most important natural resources whose quality and extent of a very significant impact on the environment as a whole. The introductory part of the paper included a terminological demarcation and specificity of the case study of environmental law, as well as the possible forms of soil pollution. Methodological framework of research, using the method of content analysis of existing domestic and international legal legislation, method comparison and synthesis were studied legal documents that protect the land from pollution.
Z. Gonul BALKIR
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Victor Imanuel W. Nalle
Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.
Victor Imanuel W. Nalle
Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.
A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni
A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.
A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.
Burcu Umut Zan
Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.
Even though I maintain that it is a misconception to state that states are “no longer” the only actors, since they never were, indeed it makes sense to “shed light on the impact of (…) new tendencies on legal regulatory mechanisms (…)” One regulatory tendency is obviously the automation of (legal......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...... a substantial part of the components of the decisions are prefabricated. With a risk of misplacing the responsibility, this may be called the “google syndrome”. The hidden algorithms may also constitute the basis for decisions concerning individuals (the passive aspect), the “profiling syndrome”. Based on big...
Full Text Available Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS, ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.
Vossen, Tessa; Towns, Alexandra; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Quiroz, Diana; van Andel, Tinde
Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels) and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA) and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.
This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...
Full Text Available The article summarises the work of the Third all-Russian research conference (with international participation “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turkic-Tatar States of the Western Siberia”, which was held in the city of Kurgan on April 21–22, 2014. In total, 32 researchers from Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan took part in the conference. The first roundtable was dedicated to the topic “Western Siberia and the Shibanids during the period of the Golden Horde (13th–14th centuries”. Special attention was given to the problems of source studies of the history of this dynasty, the localisation of the territory and borders of the Shibanids’ possessions, the possibility of other Chingisid dynasties’ claims to the territory of southwestern Siberia, and the Shibanids’ engagement in the events of Great Zamyatnya and the steppe feuds of the 1420s. The second roundtable was linked to the history of “The Tyumen and Siberian Khanates and Their Neighbours (15th–16th centuries”. The greater part of the talks was dedicated to international relations in the post-Horde era and in its former territories, including Russian-Siberian and Siberian-Bukharian interactions. The possibility of the investigation of Kuchum Khan’s imagology and its relationship with historical realities, the issues of interaction between the central government and regional elites during Kuchum Khan’s reign, and some problems of historiography were considered at the conference. The researchers again noted the need for an interdisciplinary approach combining the involvement of specialists in history, archaeology, ethnography, anthropology, and linguistics. Special attention was drawn to the phase-down of archaeological research of the late medieval sites of western Siberia. In the framework of the third roundtable, the issues of the history of “Turkic Population of the southwestern Siberia in the end of the 16th–17th centuries” were
Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.
Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.
Wassili, J H; Baradaeus, Cyril
Egypt, whose soil germinated the first civilization, monotheism, refined ethics and culture of sharing the abundance of extracted natural resources among its populace became the crucible proliferating de-novo genotypes of organic and moral maladies. The enigma is these mutations are synchronized by several factors, namely; failing medical health, if there is any, abundant filth, cultural bankruptcy, over population, dogmatic militarism, societal deprivation and characterization, etc. These domineering ingredients fossilized Egypt as of 1952 coup in an irrevocable national apoptosis, together with the crippled social justice and imbalanced distribution of wealth among Egyptians, rates of bacterial and viral evolution to second generation resistant to known medical interventions are expected to exponentially accelerate. Therefore, it deemed essential to elaborate on pollution and psychosis-induced inflammations and grievous crimes evoked by dogmatic cults at the breeding source, e.g., ghettos and sporadic locations of the homeless in Cairo, Alexandria and Upper Egyptian villages. While this second generation of viral and bacterial diseases could labor plagues threatening the precariously maintained so-called social fabric of Middle Eastern countries, that are uniquely segregating its populace according to their dogmatic affiliations and soaked into intolerance, it would definitely compromise the integrity of the expensively managed medical care system of developed countries.
Peresani, Marco; Cristiani, Emanuela; Romandini, Matteo
From the intricate ensemble of evidence related to the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the presumed first spread of anatomically modern humans in Europe, the Uluzzian has attracted major attention in the past few years. Although the Uluzzian has been viewed as a supposed product of modern humans settling in Mediterranean Europe, the techno-cultural complex has been the subject of few investigations aiming to clarify its chronology, bone industry, and settlement dynamics. Further, little is known of its technological structure. This article presents the results of an extensive study of the lithic and bone technologies from assemblages recovered at Fumane Cave in the north of Italy. Results confirm that the Uluzzian is a flake-dominated industry that brings together a set of technological innovations. The Levallois is the most used method in the initial phase, which is replaced by more varied flaking procedures and an increase in bladelets and flake-blades. Sidescrapers and points also represent a Mousterian feature in the initial phase, while splintered pieces, backed knives and other Upper Palaeolithic tools increase in the later phase. Our results suggest that the Uluzzian is rooted in the Mousterian lithic technological context and cannot be viewed as a proxy for anatomically modern humans, the carriers of the abrupt cultural changes related to the Aurignacian. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study is concerned with the influence of western educational approaches upon non-western societies and cultural groups. In applying western educational approaches, often a detailed consideration of its consequences to the culture and heritage of a non-western civilization is neglected. This is both the case of a multicultural classroom where students come from different backgrounds and the case of homogeneous classroom in non-western countries where the western teaching and learning appro...
Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.
Feeney, Kynan T.; Whittle, Amanda J.; Altman, Shelley A.; Speers, David J.
A cluster of sporotrichosis cases occurred in the Busselton-Margaret River region of Western Australia from 2000 to 2003. Epidemiologic investigation and mycologic culture for Sporothrix schenckii implicated hay initially distributed through a commercial hay supplier as the source of the outbreak. Declining infection rates have occurred after various community measures were instigated. PMID:17953099
Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far
The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…
Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.
This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered
Ovidiu – Horia Maican
Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.
Denkbilder des kulturellen Gedächtnisses Tschechische Lesebuchtexte aus Remarques Im Westen nichts Neues // Denkbilder of Cultural Memory: Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front as Anthologized in Czech School Textbooks
Full Text Available This article presents a research project on the history of mentalities in Czech culture of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The project analyses textbooks for the teaching of Czech literature for secondary schools. It focuses in particular on the excerpts from the literary works and analyses their potential for the learners to acquire cultural and historical knowledge as well as personal skills. These excerpts are conceptualized here as Denkbilder, a term that has been used repeatedly in German literature studies recently to define short prose texts that stimulate imagination as well as reflection. Responding to the high number of literary works from world literature in the Czech textbooks analysed for the project, this article addresses the contrasting presentations of one classic of German literature, Erich Maria Remarque’s 1929 novel All Quiet on the Western Front (Im Westen nichts Neues. It illustrates how a single literary work can be presented in different ways in literature textbooks, offering the learners different approaches for relating to the text and activating their cognitive and imaginative resources.
Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang
The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.
The study is concerned with the influence of western educational approaches upon non-western societies and cultural groups. In applying western educational approaches, often a detailed consideration of its consequences to the culture and heritage of a non-western civilization is neglected. This is
Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias
and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2......Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...
Triandis, Harry C; Suh, Eunkook M
Ecologies shape cultures; cultures influence the development of personalities. There are both universal and culture-specific aspects of variation in personality. Some culture-specific aspects correspond to cultural syndromes such as complexity, tightness, individualism, and collectivism. A large body of literature suggests that the Big Five personality factors emerge in various cultures. However, caution is required in arguing for such universality, because most studies have not included emic (culture-specific) traits and have not studied samples that are extremely different in culture from Western samples.
Full Text Available Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inadequate use of English regarding the special nature of legal language, or. on the other hand, they may be simply transferred from the source language into the target language without even noticing the potential ambiguous situation, i.e. culture-bound ambiguities. Hence, the paper proposes a contrastive analysis in order to localize the occurrence of lexical, structural, and socio-cultural ambiguities triggered by the use of the term performance and its Romanian equivalents in a number of sales contracts.
Although Native American communities may lose their ancestral language or other aspects of their traditional culture, music seems to be more resistant to the continual onslaught of the dominant Euro-American culture. Even today, traditional music remains a vital part of Native American communities throughout the United States. In this article I examine one aspect of the musical traditions of the Western Mono, specifically the different types of songs, and their functions within Western Mono s...
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles
Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…
Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.
Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,
The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...
Sheer, D.; Sheer, A.; Lebherz, S.
Lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti are two sizeable, culturally and economically important lakes on the North Island of New Zealand. Rotorua outflows traverse the short Ohau Channel before entering Lake Rotoiti. Ohau channel flows are partially controlled by a stoplog structure. Rotoiti outflows to the Kaituna River are fully controlled by the Okere Gate structure. The structures are managed by Environment Bay of Plenty (EBOP), a government agency. Management objectives include maintaining minimum lake levels to support recreational boating, restricting maximum lake levels to avoid residential flooding, minimum instream flows below the lower lake to maintain aquatic ecosystems, limits on maximum releases to control erosion and prevent flooding. In addition, management seeks to provide for a minimum annual variation in lake levels to control the growth of aquatic plants in the littoral zone and to periodically expose beaches with important cultural value to the indigenous Maori population. The levels necessary to expose beaches may be lower than the minimum levels desired to support boating. Records of beach exposure are scant; the existence of beaches may depend on climate cycles. There is flow dependent recreational rafting below Okere Gates. This rafting is economically valuable, but is also contentious because the reach of Kaituna River flows through important Maori cultural areas, including grave sites. The Maoris have expressed a preference for replacing the Okere Gates with a fixed stepped weir, although the existing gates can be relatively easily operated to reproduce the flows over any of the fixed weir designs so far proposed. HydroLogics created a model of the two-lake system using its OASIS software system. The inflows to the lakes were estimated based on available historical flow and lake level data and on flow estimates derived from Mike-11 modeling of historical lake outlet configurations. A custom genetic algorithm (GA) was created to “wrap” the
Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Cronin, Katie
Health disparities among low-income individuals remain a significant problem. A number of social determinants are associated with adverse health outcomes. Medical-legal partnerships address legal concerns of low-income individuals to improve health and wellness in adults and children. The Medical-Legal Partnership at Legal Aid of Western Missouri provides free direct legal services for patients with legal concerns affecting health. There is limited evidence regarding the association between advocacy-related efforts and changes within both the medical-legal partnership structure and in health-care facilities. Three health-care organizations in Kansas City, MO participated in implementing the medical-legal partnership model between 2007 and 2010. Advocacy efforts conducted by key medical-legal partnership personnel were strongly associated with changes in health-care organizations and within the medical-legal partnership structure. This study extends the current evidence base by examining the types of advocacy efforts required to bring about community and organizational changes.
Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal
Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance for legal thought of recent developments in evolutionary theory which are associated with the notion of 'memetics'. 'Memetics' aims to account for processes of cultural transmission and change using a version of the 'genetic metaphor'. This is the idea that patterns of cultural evolution are closely analogous to those which occur in the natural world as a result of the interaction between genes, organisms and environments. At a further,...
Aug 11, 2012 ... KEYWORDS: Ethical, Islamic perspective, legal, Nigeria, .... preservation solution and then placed in two plastic bags and stored at 0-4°C. Samples of donor spleen and ..... transplants: Ethical, social and religious issues in a multi cultural society. Asia Pac J .... Submit good quality color images. Each image ...
CR cultural resource CRM cultural resource management CRPM Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling DoD Department of Defense ESTCP Environmental...resource management ( CRM ) legal obligations under NEPA and the NHPA, military installations need to demonstrate that CRM decisions are based on objective...maxim “one size does not fit all,” and demonstrate that DoD installations have many different CRM needs that can and should be met through a variety
Brown, Richard L.; Matousek, Therese A.; Radue, Mary B.
Objective: The authors investigated the magnitude and cultural context of legal-age university students' provision of alcohol to underage students and how such alcohol provision might be deterred. Participants: 130 legal-age students at a midwestern university in the United States were randomly selected. Methods: The authors assessed 16 focus…
Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle
The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice
Hart, T M
The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.
This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)
This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
Full Text Available The recently adopted amendments to the Labour Code was accompanied by an extremely high resistance. While opponents consider amendments to the Law a big step back and point out that it is completely contrary to the standards of the International Labor Organization, advocates of the changes have emphasized the progressiveness. The most important argument to them was that the Code represents a substantial harmonization of our legislation with the advanced standards of EU law. Much of what have excelled both advocates and opponents of legal change is not actually correct. The main reason for the erroneous views was lack of knowledge of comparative and international labor standards. The law on the one hand is a step backwards when it comes to the protection of workers. On the other hand, it is a step forward it is a reform of the system of labor relations that was necessary and was forced by the international environment, from which our country in the era of globalization can not be excluded. Amendments to the Labour Code we see as a tendency to be in Serbia finally to establish a similar legal environment in the domain of work, as in the advanced countries of Western Europe.
Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M
Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Baturan Luka O.
Full Text Available In this paper, authors tried to find efficient legal frame for home births. The main problem is the risk of life and health of a mother and a baby. If a mother wants a home labor, there are no legal obstacles ^for her to take the risk of her own life, after consultation with health-care professionals. However, society is obligated to protect unborn child from irrational behavior of the mother, if she acts against child's best interests. Legal rules were analyzed by methods of neo-institutional economic theory, while the risks of life and health of a mother and a baby were analyzed by medical science methods.
in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...
Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen
This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.
A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...
Віта Олександрівна Сліпенчук
Full Text Available Problem setting. In the process of transformation of Ukrainian society towards the assimilation and implementation of basic European values such as human rights, democracy and the rule of law the role of personality that respects the dignity of others and their right to free expression in its multifaceted manifestations becomes more important. Such definitions of it assume the character of the ideal to be pursued, but that has not received adequate expression in people's minds and in practice yet. Since this ideal inextricably links right and personality, enabling the operation of law due to the special qualities of the individual, it can be defined as the ideal of legal personality. It is the formation and realization of such ideal that becomes urgent practical task of our society, which in turn requires a comprehensive theoretical understanding. Recent research and publications analysis. It should be noted that some philosophical aspects of the meaning of legal personality and its formation are revealed in the works of Ukrainian researcher in the field of philosophy of law S.I. Maksimov. However, all actual researches are based on a certain cultural and ideological tradition. The research of a Polish-American scholar in the history of philosophical and legal thought Andrzej Walicki pays attention to the ideological and methodological potential liberal legal philosophy of the late 19th - early 20th century in the Russian Empire, realization of which, unfortunately, failed because of the violent interruption of this tradition by Bolsheviks. Researches of philosophers of law of that period are of particular significance in this issue: Ukrainian by origin and outlook Bohdan Kistyakivskiy and one of the authors of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 Serhiy Gessen. It is reconstruction of the concept of "legal personality" in the views of philosophers of law of that period, which is really made for the first time, which will give, as
Globalisation, internationalisation, multiculturalism, immigration, and growing number of cross-cultural encounters are colorising the everyday life both in Western and Eastern parts of the world. However, in most cases, lifelong learning is normally studied in and around a certain condensed culture or from the dominant Western perspective. Thus it is important to ask how we should rebuild our conceptions of 'culture' or 'learning' in the context of these global cross-cultural trends, or how ...
Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to
Fung, Helene H
This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.
Dean SPGS NAU
understanding of Nigerian Cultural heritages, the approach adopted in this chapter is ... among the Yoruba of western Nigeria and other facets of their individual ..... establishment and maintenance of museums and for discovery of heritage ...
As stated in the Nuclear Safety Review 1996, three components characterize the global nuclear safety culture infrastructure: (i) legally binding international agreements; (ii) non-binding common safety standards; and (iii) the application of safety standards. The IAEA has continued to foster the global nuclear safety culture by supporting intergovernmental collaborative efforts; it has facilitated extensive information exchange, promoted the drafting of international legal agreements and the development of common safety standards, and provided for the application of safety standards by organizing a wide variety of expert services
Fabio Assis Pinho
Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.
Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...
Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.
João Maurício Adeodato
Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.
Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl
This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.
This article explores the place of formal legal arrangements in the politics surrounding the hybrid, enmeshed public-in-the-private forms of authority this special issue focuses on. It does so by analyzing the significance of one specific legal arrangement, the Duty of Care, for the politics...... and divisions currently organizing debates about the regulation of commercial security as well as about managerialism in international law more generally....
Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regul...
The most important goal of the Environmental Law is to maximize the prevention approach. As so far, a scheme has been initiated since a few years to reach this objective: a legal environmental process with a lot of mechanisms whose the objective is to estimate the environmental impact of a project in order to control it. This legal environmental process including for example the Environmental Impact Assessment is more and more integrated in the environmental policies of the industrialized countries. It began in North America, first in the U.S.A. but also in Canada. A few years after, the countries of the Western Europe, particularly the European Unions, have introduced a similar legal process taking into account the specificities of these European countries. So if the goals of this legal environmental preventive approach are similar in North America and in Western Europe, the implementation is often different according to the legal, economic but also sociological structures of these two major regions. This Phd Thesis try to study the two major impacts of this legal evaluating process: it is implemented by the public authorities to reach with a best result a Sustainable Development. But also, it tries to combine the protection of the Environment and the utilisation of legal, economic and financial mechanisms of the Market to obtain a fair trade competition. (authors)
Earlier African novels, addressed to a Western audience, defend the traditional culture of the authors and attack the hypocrisy of the West. Later novels, written after 1960, are addressed to an African audience, and present balanced appraisals of Western culture and religion. Discusses rhetorical devices and other aspects of African novels. (BJV)
Hu, J.; Bartneck, C.; Salem, B.I.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.
In the paradigm of cultural computing, different cultures need different approaches to address the cultural determinants that strongly influences our way of thinking, feeling and worldview in general. For the western culture, our answer to this need is an artistic and interactive installation
Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.
Rodica Diana APAN
Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.
The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivatio...
Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches
Armstrong, J A
Today physicians use urine to diagnose selective conditions but from ancient times until the Victorian era, urine was used as the primary diagnostic tool. Laboratory medicine began with the analysis of human urine, which was called uroscopy and today is termed urinalysis. Uroscopy was the mirror of medicine for thousands of years. From a liquid window through which physicians felt they could view the body's inner workings. Numerous, somewhat accurate, physiologic theories arose from uroscopy. Then the importance of urinary diagnosis became exaggerated, and increasingly complex, until physicians required only the presence of urine, not patients, to diagnose disease. Uroscopy then escaped medical control, becoming first a home health aid and then a tool of uneducated practitioners. Thomas Brian led a medical rebellion against all uses of uroscopy and published the Pisse Prophet, a book that devastated uroscopy.
Frans L. Leeuw
Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.
Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral
Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor of law schools; The educational legislation Questions of legal education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences about the teaching of law, the methodological approach and the didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.
The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)
'n Aantal struikelblokke op die weg om hierdie doel te bereik, word geïdentifiseer en voor- stelle gemaak oor ... or evidence of the co-existence of legal, social, cultural, religious, economic and other systems ..... The electronic media also tend to use Zulu ... Umlomo ongathethi manga (the King, i.e. one whose mouth utters no.
An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)
Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...
... of eating disorders. This review is used to highlight the problematic areas in cross-cultural methodologies and to suggest directions for future research. The author also relates the feminist theories that have been put forward to explain the phenomenon of eating disorders in the West to the condition of modern women in many non-western cultures...
In recent days, with more and more frequent exchanges and communications between China and western countries, their different culture, including different rites is involved in each other. Some people think that western things are definitely much better than Chinese things, so they imitate them from every aspect. It is not good for them to do so because some western things fit for westerners more than for Chinese people. This paper endeavors to illustrate that Chinese people should properly ab-sorb western culture through briefly introducing food and cloth culture in China and Western countries.
Melania Navas Graterol
Full Text Available It is a fact that the social dynamic of human life, in its constant evolution promotes special and particular circumstances that the law must regulate, such as tourism. The latter, as multifaceted activity, develops into different scopes of human activities: economic, social, cultural, environmental, political and obviously, in the judicial, and requires to be regulated, supervised, encouraged and coordinated by the law. This compendium of rules integrates what is known as the Legal System Structure of the Tourism in Venezuela and they are organized in a hierarchical way, into a legal level that gives a determinate rank, which can be the same or different, and could be seen in the pyramidal model created by Hans Kelsen. The understanding of this legal system that regulates tourism through the compressive hermeneutics of its rules, allowed to find out that the legal structure is well defined within the Venezuelan touristic context. The analysis of results allowed to conclude that the norm that regulates the tourism activity in Venezuela responds to the Kelsen pyramidal model and there is a diverse number of legal instruments which contain rules that regulates it in direct way and others indirectly.
As part of the international presence in the Western Balkans, the European Union has adopted sanctions, brokered political agreements, launched its first-ever police and military missions and directed economic, legal and administrative reforms to eradicate the root causes of instability. Yet,
Boom, van den, Marien; Andriessen, Daan
The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept of knowledge and IC is used to identify common Western conceptualizations of knowledge in IC literature. A review of philosophical and religious literature was done to identify knowledge conceptuali...
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and su...
The Right to Education in the International Regulations on Protection of Human Rights and its regulation in the National Legal System : Preliminary Analysis from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Maria Creusa de Araújo Borges
Full Text Available We examine, in this article, the question of the right to education, from the Univer- sal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966. In the Brazilian national law, they are analyzed the Federal Constitution of 1988 and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Educa- tion, 1996, regarding the regulation of education matter, in coordination with the inter- national instruments in question. It is noteworthy that the regulation of the matter at the national level, is influenced by the recognition of this right in international norms, but advances in the recognition of the right to higher education of marginalized social groups, expanding the mandatory gratuity and beyond elementary school because in the Brazilian case, basic education is compulsory and the principle of free governs the entire education system in official establishments. Set up in this way, the existence of an essential core regarding the right to education, which is fully chargeable.
Background: Mob-justice poses a medico-legal, social and public health problem in most developing countries including Tanzania and has shown to have negative effects on social and health of the country, communities, and families. This study was conducted to analyze the mob-justice situation in north-western Tanzania ...
Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.
Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery
Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"
Abat Ninet, Antoni
The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...
of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...
Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)
Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.
In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,
Tsegaye Regassa is currently a PhD Candidate at Melbourne University. Law School and can be reached at ... worthy commentator of our laws for our times, a defender of the civilization embodied in the laws of the ... As a legal academic, I note that I am part of the corps of intellectuals who, as society's paid thinkers, seek to ...
Andrus, Kay L.
Describes activities by the American Bar Association and other groups aimed at educating the public about their legal rights and responsibilities, including informational pamphlets and brochures issued by state bar associations. These public service information pamphlets are listed by state and the address of each state's bar association is…
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law
Bárbara Dias Cabral
This article presents the legislation on ecotourism in the Amazon, which stands as polo Brazilian and global ecotourism. An answer search the following questioning: analyzing the social, environmental and cultural aspects, we can say that the Brazilian legal system and legislation promote Amazon Ecotourism? The methodology is deductive, with doctrinal, legislative and interdisciplinary research, as it quotes the thought of some tourismologists, agronomists and environmentalists. There in the ...
Lisett D. Páez Cuba
Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os principais dispositivos de discurso que estabelecem fronteiras e hierarquias entre práticas sexuais. Pretende-se analisar em que medida a utilização de alguns conceitos da Psicanálise, da Antropologia e do Direito são evocados para definir fronteiras entre sexualidades normais e desviantes. Para isto, serão destacadas: a construção, por aqueles discursos, do dispositivo "diferença sexual" (de hierarquia entre os sexos e de exclusão da homossexualidade e a noção de "ordem procriativa" (atualizadora de um modelo biológico de filiação. A partir dessas premissas, nota-se que a tríade heterossexualidade-casamento-filiação permanece como a única referência possível para pensar a cultura ou a sociedade, sendo que a visibilidade ou o reconhecimento civil do laço afetivo e sexual homossexual se transforma numa ameaça de apagamento de fronteiras ou de transgressões de limites.This study aims to analyze the main discursive devices that establish borders and hierarchies among sexual practices. The objective is to analyze to what extent the utilization of certain concepts from psychoanalysis, anthropology, and law are invoked to define borders between normal and deviant sexualities. The following points are highlighted: the construction, by these discourses, of the "sexual difference" device (hierarchy between the sexes and exclusion of homosexuality and the notion of "procreative order" (updating a biological model of filiation. Based on these premises, one notes that the heterosexuality-marriage-filiation triad remains as the only possible reference to conceive of culture or society, while the visibility or civil recognition of homosexual affective and sexual ties threatens to erase borders or transgress limits.
Western pedagogy and its preconceived notions of the non-Western world can limit scholars from developing accurate understandings of culturally different societies. Western academics teaching at foreign and Western institutions abroad must be mindful of how ingrained and subconscious Orientalist thinking can distort and hinder their interactions…
Odlerová, Eva; Ďurišová, Jaroslava; Šramel, Bystrík
The entry of foreign investors and simultaneous expansion of different national cultures, religions, rules, moral and ethical standards is bringing up problems of cooperation and coexistence of different nationalities, ethnicities and cultures. Working in an international environment therefore requires adaptation to a variety of economic, political, legal, technical, social, cultural and historical conditions. One possible solution is to define a code of ethics, guidelines which find enough common moral principles, which can become the basis for the adoption of general ethical standards, while respecting national, cultural differences and practices. In this article, the authors pay attention not only to the analysis of the common ethical rules in a multicultural company, but also to the legal aspects of codes of ethics. Each code of ethics is a set of standards, which, like the legal norms, regulate the behaviour of individuals. These standards, however, must simultaneously meet certain statutory criteria that define the boundaries of regulation of employee’s behaviour.
Caroline Lydia Hart
Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld) has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP') or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. ...
Pena de muerte, peso de la ley, justicia simbólica y cultura jurídica escocesa en “El Weir de Hermiston” de Robert Louis Stevenson (Death Penalty, Force of the Law, Symbolic Justice and Scottish Legal Culture in Robert L. Stevenson's ‘Weir of Hermiston'
Full Text Available La novela El Weir de Hermiston del autor escocés Robert Louis Stevenson es una valiosa fuente para el análisis del campo del Derecho y Literatura (Law and Literature. En la obra del autor escocés se retratan personajes basados en importantes juristas de la historia de Escocia y se plasma una cultura jurídica con fuertes influencias de la Escuela de la Ilustración Escocesa, proyectando sobre la novela un sentido de la justicia particular, ambiguo y sutil característicos tanto de Escocia como del genial escritor y moralista.Robert Louis Stevenson´s novel Weir of Hermiston is an interesting source for the analysis from the Law and Literature approach. Stevenson shows characters based on important jurists in the Scottish history and a legal culture rooted in the Scottish enlightenment tradition, projecting on the novel a particular, ambiguous and subtle sense of justice, characteristic of Scotland and the great writer and moralist.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=3067289
Full Text Available Background. It is undeniable that coaches play a major role in the development of athletes. Coaches and athletes have a close relationship and share various experiences that lead to a strong bond between them, and this is of great responsibility for the coach. Therefore, the coach should maintain this bond with mutual respect and trust. Various responsibilities are progressively placed on coaches by law to prevent or minimize injuries to athletes. In other words, since a coach is placed in a position of power and trust, the duty of care will always be placed on him. If certain requirements are not met, the coach may be held financially, or even criminally, liable. In this study, the author explains and discusses coaches’ legal duties, legal liabilities, and the elements required for liability of coaches toward athletes.
Mohamed Mohamed Tolba Said
Full Text Available The nature of scientific verification of knowledge distinguishes it from mystical knowledge in empirical sciences. Islam is a religion and a civilization, historically connecting various stages of human history for more than fourteen centuries. The Islamic ethics and law “Sharia’h” are coherent legal system to protect private property within a comprehensive and rational system. Capitalism and the industrial revolution of western world dramatically transformed resulting in a socio-economic schism consequently emerged as a domineer for existence and affected the Islamic world. The secular and rationalized legal framework needed capitalism, which is incompatible with the nature of Islamic law. The western science in this civilization is also separated from morality and noble values because it has adopted materialistic philosophies and ideologies, such as Pragmatism, Darwinism, Existentialism and any other philosophy that is against the Islamic religion. keywords: Islamic civilization, western world, empirical sciences, Islamic ethics, Islamic law “Shari’ah”, materialistic, human History.
A computerized legal information management system. ... process through the filling system using the survey research methodology. ... A framework for the design and implementation of a legal information management system was presented.
Advises on a range of current legal and business issues impacting IDRC by ... legal and risk management practices, and recommending courses of action to ... in conducting its overseas operations;; advising on new legislation, such as the ...
This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.
І. Д. Шутак
Full Text Available Legal technique is a branch of knowledge about the rules of doing legal work and creating in the process a variety of legal documents, which had previously been part of the theory of law. In modern conditions of the legal technique are isolated in a separate branch of legal science, focused on solving practical problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of legal techniques, in particular, on the basis of theoretical propositions about legal technique to allocate substantial characteristics and types of legal technique. O. Malko and M. Matuzov consider legal technique as a set of rules, techniques, methods of preparation, creation, registration of legal documents, their classification and accounting for their excellence, efficient use. A similar meaning is investing in this concept Alekseev, determining that the legal technique is a set of tools and techniques used in accordance with accepted rules in the formulation and systematization of legal acts to ensure their perfection. So, legal technique – theoretical and applied legal science, which studies the regularities of rational legal practice in the creation, interpretation and implementation of law. In relation to the type of legal techniques in the literature proposed different classifications. For example, G. Muromtsev technique, which is used only in the field of law, divide on the technique of law-making (legislative technique, technique of law enforcement, interpretation, technique of judicial speech, interrogation, notarial activities. V. Kartashov shared legal technique on law making and enforcement (prorealtime, interpretive yourself and prevacidrebatezw, judicial or investigative, prosecutorial, and the like. Some authors clearly indicate that the criterion by which to distinguish types of legal techniques. So, S. Alekseev notes that legal technique is classified from the point of view of the legal nature of the act made on: a techniques of legal acts; b the
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.
Rivera Izabal, L M
In Mexico, the nongovernmental organization Sevisio, Desarrollo y Paz, A.C. (SEDEPAC) is helping poor women acquire legal knowledge in an economic climate characterized by the increased feminization of poverty brought about by the Structural Adjustment Program. The Mexican legal system is grounded in a patriarchal tradition, and the codified laws continue to favor men. Women were not granted full citizenship until 1953, and discrimination against women was not addressed in Mexican law until 1974 as the country prepared to host the First UN International Women's Conference. However, legal advances are not being applied in the family or in larger society where men remain in power. Mexico also distinguishes between private law and public law. Because domestic violence falls in the realm of private law, authorities are loathe to follow-up on women's complaints in this area. Since its founding in 1983, SEDEPAC has applied a gender perspective to its activities and programs. SEDEPAC held its first women's legal workshop in 1987 and realized that most poor women have no knowledge of existing laws or their rights, that alternative legal services for women are scarce, that existing laws must be changed, and that the authoritarian and conservative legal system helps maintain cultural stereotypes. Since then, SEDEPAC has held annual workshops, follow-up meetings, and training sessions and has provided counseling. The main topics addressed are women's social conditions; violence and the penal code; civil rights, power, and dependency; women's bodies and reproductive rights; and women's organization and leadership. The workshops use techniques of popular education such as group participation and use of gossip as a communication tool. The workshops have changed participants' lives and led to the formation of an independent Popular Defenders' Coordination.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
The this article learning is discussed in relation to different understanding of culture. In particular the dialectics of 'Enlightenment' inthe Western culture are reflected , as well aslow- and high-context communication and learningin different types of culture. Finaaly the Weberian methodology...
Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Stephens, Melvin, Jr
We assess whether in utero exposure to legalized abortion in the early 1970's affected individuals' propensities to use controlled substances as adolescents. We exploit the fact that some states legalized abortion before national legalization in 1973 to compare differences in substance use for adolescents across birth cohorts in different states. We find that persons exposed to early legalization were, on average, much less likely to use controlled substances. We also assess how substance use...
This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...
Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren
We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...
Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren
We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences’ helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users’ cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...
The development of socialist market economy needs the power support provided by western business ethics. To build the culture ofmodern business ethics in our country, we need absorb the useful spirit of business ethics from western business culture and use for reference. Basedon the analysis of the main spirit of Western business ethics, this paper puts forward that we must stress the role of business, establish an appropriateattitude towards profits, and mold a 'rational spirit of modem business in the process of building modem business culture in our country.
Meyer, John W.
Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…
Richard C. Smardon
This paper is an overview of development of legal/policy factors affecting visual resource management. Review of major legal issues, court cases, laws and administrative decisionmaking reveals that the "action" regarding legal and aesthetic issues is currently in the public arena as managed by administrative agencies. Analysis of key court cases reveals that...
Develops systems and procedures for administering and tracking legal undertakings, coordinates and consolidates the legal information in order to meet deadlines. • Collaborates with the Secretary and General Counsel to ensure that all legal issues are handled efficiently, while respecting the highly confidential nature of ...
Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina
This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…
J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)
textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since
opportunities for research into constitutional issues, constitutional development and the relationship ... Legal research is a fundamental skill in the legal profession.9 Although all areas of law do not require ..... 1999 Legal RSQ 78. 56 In the print information environment lawyers use standard citation formats, e.g. X v Z 1999.
The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.
To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...
Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A
To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.
Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.
Full Text Available This paper questions the resort to systems theory as the foundation of an evolutionary legal history. In particular, the theoretical legacy of Niklas Luhmann upon which Marie Theres Fögen proposes to draw seems to have limited application outside a context in which advanced system differentiation is present. Although (like Marx, Durkheim and Weber before him Luhmann drew in a broad evolutionary trajectory, he was concerned principally with “functionally differentiated society”. Earlier phases – covering precisely those formations that historians will presumably focus upon – are very hazily sketched in and relatively poorly theorised. In general, we should not too readily acknowledge “the exhaustion of the paradigm of modernity” (Santos, 1995 or rush to proclaim the obsolescence of multi-dimensional approaches such as those of Bourdieu (1977 and Giddens (1984. Any legal history that marginalises both human actors and the conditional environment has a considerable task in making up the ensuing deficit.
In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise
Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)
In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.
The author is doubtful about the judgement of the Superior Administrative Court Lueneburg of October 28, 1986 relating to the nuclear power plant of Brokdorf. Fundamental rights of citizens who live in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant are not guaranteed. The protection of life according to article 2 of the German Constitution should have priority over legal protection of atomic power plants pursuant to art. 14 of the Constitution. (CW) [de
Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.
Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia
Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432
Smith, Lesley Jane; Hörl, Kay-Uwe
The commercial concept of space tourism raises important legal issues not specifically addressed by first generation rules of international spacelaw. The principles established in the nineteen sixties and seventies were inspired by the philosophy that exploration of space was undertaken by and for the benefit of mankind. Technical developments since then haveincreased the potential for new space applications, with a corresponding increase in commercial interest in space. If space tourism is t...
Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia
Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.
N. O. Tkachenko
of the conceptual-categorical apparatus of social standards and guarantees; contradiction between normative legal acts; unfavorable conditions for small business, created by the Tax Code of Ukraine; the neglect of legal norms, the determination of a priority exclusively by receiving a profit, ignoring the PhO and pharmacists moral and ethical principles; inadequate level of political and legal culture in the society; the rejection of the law rule by the political elite and the interpretation of legal norms in their favor; passive behavior of public organizations in the pharmaceutical sector; weak control of the public authorities compliance with standards of current legislature. All specified problems stipulate difficulties in the effective SR implementation.
This book is an updated and revised edition of Fundamentals of Legal Argumentation published in 1999. It discusses new developments that have taken place in the past 15 years in research of legal argumentation, legal justification and legal interpretation, as well as the implications of these new
Beran, Roy G
Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.
Manufacturers' Association (PMA) and most of its members took government to court. ... Since 2 May 2004, it has been unlawful to supply medicines. 'according ... This article focuses on some of the key issues that are of ... chain for some time.
Y. S. Kravtsov
Full Text Available The modern social and cultural situation of modern man requires mobility and adequate response to the requirements of modern society, and put it in front of the need to revise the traditional goals and targets. The authors show that it is not a system of knowledge and skills in itself, but a set of core competencies in modern intellectual, social, legal, communication, information sphere should be the main result of the process of formation of legal consciousness of modern man. In identifying the identification own life trajectory, gaining experience of independent activity and personal responsibility law today a special place. The authors emphasize that the position of acting, its identity is defined situation in the legal space. From its goals, values, personal preferences affect the choice of a particular mode of action. Familiarity with the legal situation as a choice situation, analysis of the position and actions of the person who is the subject of them, it is the spiritual content of justice, and creates conditions for personal selfdetermination to find an answer to the question «Who am I, what do I want?»
Yetty Komalasari Dewi
Full Text Available One of the factors that affect Indonesia's economic growth is the existence of business firms. It cannot be ignored that most business firms in Indonesia is family owned firms, and which are considered to constitute as the backbone of the economic development. Family firms represent the most enduring business model in the world. The continuing success of family firms through the generations relies on ensuring the next generation. However, the issue of family firms is rarely discussed in particular from the perspective of corporate law. In fact, from legal perspectives, there is some issues deal with this type of firms, amongst other, the lack of an overall definition of the term “family business”. It is because family businesses and small medium enterprises (SMEs are widely understood synonymously in spite of the fact that they exist in every size class. Other issue is the questions of its legal basis or legal framework in terms of its corporate governance. Many Indonesian business players lack the basic understanding of corporation’s law. It is partly because these obligations are incompatible with the values and cultures in Indonesia where “kinship principle” is deeply rooted. This article aims to describe the characteristics and the legal frameworks for the family firms in Indonesia. It also recommends the government to take progressive measure by providing clear regulations on the family firms in Indonesia. This will reinforce family firms contribution in economic development of Indonesia in the future.
Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze the legal nature of nonhuman animals in the doctrine of Animal Law, legal order and position of the Federal Supreme Court based on judgments that deal with conflict between cultural manifestation and cruelty to animals. Brazilian legislation calls for a multiplicity of positions on the legal nature of animals, which may influence positively or negatively the treatment accorded to them. It can be seen that in the STF the predominance of two understandings: anthropocentric, equivalent to good, while of another biocentric, moral consideration as to the animals and possibility of change of the legal nature.
智慧創作專用權之性質與使用倫理─給原創條例的幾點建議 The Legal Character and Culturally Appropriate Practices of Traditional Indigenous Intellectual Creations—Suggestions for the Protection Act for the Traditional Intellectual Creations of Indigenous Peoples
林孟玲 Meng-Ling Lin
Full Text Available 原住民族智慧創作保護條例的制定，對於保護原住民族的傳統智慧創作、文化成果之表達有顯著的貢獻。原創條例雖然立法意旨甚佳，是專門為保護原住民族傳統智慧創作所量身定作之立法，也注意到了原住民族智慧創作有別於著作權之概念，而做出調整。但是條例所用的權利保護概念，卻仍沿用著作權之規定，是美中不足之處。例如：「智慧創作專用權」的內涵仍沿用著作權的權利概念「智慧創作財產權」與「智慧創作人格權」；如果對於智慧創作專用權造成侵害，智慧創作專用權人的救濟管道與著作權受侵害的救濟方式並無二致，包括：排除侵害請求權、請求防止侵害請求權、損害賠償請求權、請求銷毀侵害智慧創作之物。此外，原創條例並未提及使用原住民族之傳統智慧創作時，不能違反原住民族傳統價值等觀念，有如進行關於原住民族的學術研究時，有特別應遵守的研究倫理。本文從智慧創作專用權性質之討論出發，繼而探討智慧創作財產權與智慧創作人格權之內涵。舉例說明基於部落習慣法而來的，智慧創作之使用所應注意之使用倫理後，最後亦根據部落習慣法，闡述現行智慧創作專用權之權利救濟管道妥適性。本文之建議期使原創條例能真正落實其立法目的：保護原住民族傳統智慧創作以及促進原住民族文化發展。 The enactment of the Protection Act for the Traditional Intellectual Creations of Indigenous Peoples makes great contributions to the development and protection of indigenous traditional intellectual creations by adopting indigenous legal concepts suitable to tribal culture. For example, it recognizes collective rights to indigenous creations. Also, it recognizes that the period for legal protection of indigenous traditional intellectual creations as an
Full Text Available The law and the economy are deeply influenced by the legal tradition or origin, which is the bundle of institutions shaping lawmaking and dispute adjudication. The two principal legal traditions, common law and civil law, have been transplanted through colonization and occupation to the vast majority of the jurisdictions in the world by a group of European countries. Here, I illustrate a novel dataset recording the lawmaking institution employed by 155 of these jurisdictions at independence and in 2000 and four discretion-curbing adjudication institutions adopted by 99 of these “transplants” at the same two points in time. Contrary to the “legal origins” scholars׳ assumption, 25 transplants changed the transplanted lawmaking institution and 95 modified at least one of the transplanted lawmaking and adjudication rules. In “Endogenous Legal Traditions” (Guerriero, 2016a , I document that these reforms are consistent with a model of the design of legal institutions by societies heterogeneous in their endowment of both the extent of cultural heterogeneity and the quality of the political process. In “Endogenous Legal Traditions and Economic Outcomes” (Guerriero, 2016b  moreover, I show the relevance of considering legal evolution and the endogeneity between legal traditions and economics outcomes. The data illustrated here also include the proxies for the determinants of legal evolution I use in “Endogenous Legal Traditions” (Guerriero, 2016a  and the novel measure of economic outcomes I employ in “Endogenous Legal Traditions and Economic Outcomes” (Guerriero, 2016b .
Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.
О. О. Шинкарьов
ability to perform environmental responsibility, clearly defined in the legislation; b establishing eco-legal status for the citizens as they are bearers of the environmental obligations and establishing the specific of juridical personality; c attaching their actual composition of ecological relationship with clear fixation conditions onset environmental responsibilities of citizens; d filling gaps in environmental legislation governing these obligations; e the implementation of the interpretation of the law establishing environmental responsibilities; e creating the arrangement of application of general and special guarantees for implementation of the environmental responsibilities. Conclusions. Thus, in the present circumstances it is necessary to overcome imperfect and insufficient arrangement for regulation of environmental responsibilities. It is necessary to raise the level of legal culture and consciousness, to eliminate differences between environmental rights and obligations, to deduce clear boundaries for implementing environmental responsibilities, which will contribute to solve the abuse of the environmental rights as well as responsibilities.
Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.
Marien van den Boom; Dr. Daan Andriessen
The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept
The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) provides an avenue for ... Effects of blood meal as a substitute for fish meal in the culture of juvenile Silver ... area of eastern Africa: the case of Quirimbas National Park, Mozambique ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Full Text Available The article traces the cultural heritage of inter-cultural contexts, which have had profound impact over long time. It takes its departure in antique and culturally complex environments in the eastern Mediterranean. One millennium later corresponding inter-cultural conditions are explored in the western part of the Mediterranean. Both cases demonstrated their wide and long lasting influences on posterity. The cultural heritage implied the deep effects of cross-fertilization and ensuing cultural enrichment as the conflation of several well-endowed cultures took place. A similar, more powerful outcome followed the Radical Enlightenment in Leiden around 1650s and in Vienna some centuries later.
Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differen...
shift in two semi-urban Western Cape Coloured communities; in particular, ... as the workplace and in the church), with Afrikaans being used almost ... language use, on the one hand, and ongoing psychological, social or cultural processes, ...
often projected onto non-Western cultures resulting in the problem of ethnocentrism. ..... were most susceptible to the evil eye, as were children, work places and animals .... The priest then holds the candidate upright, looks to the east and.
Jarvad, Ib Martin
Presentation and analysis of the particular Danish tradition of interpretation of statute law by motives from the legislative process and the background in the particular Danish doctrine of democracy af expounded by Alf Ross and Hal Koch.......Presentation and analysis of the particular Danish tradition of interpretation of statute law by motives from the legislative process and the background in the particular Danish doctrine of democracy af expounded by Alf Ross and Hal Koch....
Hoffman, Richard J.
The author examines the influences of classical Greek and Roman literature and law upon court decisions in the United States during the first decade following the adoption of the Constitution. References to Greek and Roman literature, history, and mythology by Virginia's High Court Chancellor George Wythe and by several Justices of the Supreme…
Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D
Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best...
Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...
Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...
Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.
Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.
The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt
Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.
of the European Union, and how its cultural policy responds to the changes that the digital paradigm has brought upon the field. The self-publishing features of various Web 2.0 platforms, along with the interactive and distributional potentials that the Internet offers, have given rise to what is referred to here...... in cultural production and consumption. The first part of this works looks at how these changes respond to the field of cultural policy, as well as suggesting a possible culturepolitical reaction in a model which I refer to as access culture. In terms of theoretical approach, the notion of digital cultural...... of YouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Flickr, along with lesser known platforms such as the animated short film Elephants Dream, the BBC's Creative Archive, various Internet artworks and the Internet Archive. I furthermore introduce the copyright system Creative Commons in order to suggest legal, widely...
Olga N. Naumenko
Full Text Available One of the main tasks of the Russian state and the European countries is a formation of the uniform multinational people which are capable to resist to internal and external threats. Multiculturalism solves this problem, but migratory crisis in Europe has forced politicians to recognize impossibility of his realization in conditions when Christian and Arab-Muslim cultures are forced to coexist nearby. The article considers opposite experience – combination of orthodox and Islamic components in culture of the Siberian Christian Tatars in XVIII – the beginning of the 20th centuries is considered. Interpenetration of cultures has happened without loss of national identity of the Siberian Tatars; their culture has gained new unique lines. Authors consider that this combination has created a certain ethnic and national psychology of the Siberian baptized Tatars which allows them to coexist harmoniously with other people – Christian and Muslim. In article is considered multiculturalism of the Siberian Tatars in life, legal customs and religious art. Authors analyze the reasons of this phenomenon and emphasize that his major prerequisite – readiness of the Siberian people for interaction. It was based on uniform system of moral values, was formed throughout long evolution of ethnic and confessional development under the influence of a state policy. Authors come to the conclusion that the idea of multiculturalism is real and feasible in a combination "Christianity/Islam", but other conditions, than those developed in Western Europe now.
The thesis focused differences in intercultural communication from Western and Asian perspective. The goal of this thesis was to find the differences and similarities in business communication between Western and Asian culture. The theoretical part of this thesis was titled as intercultural communication. Definition of intercultural communication, culture’s influence on perception, obstacles in intercultural communication and inter-cultural communication competences were covered in this...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivation meta-theory as it corresponds to the East Asian concept of face and that the East Asian self-concept originates with the Eastern concept of happiness.
SALISBURY, LEE H.
THE AUTHOR'S PROGRAM, COLLEGE ORIENTATION PROGRAM FOR ALASKAN NATIVES (COPAN), WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE A SMOOTH TRANSITION FOR NATIVE ALASKAN STUDENTS INTO THE AREA OF WESTERN CULTURE, IN COLLEGE. THE FINE ARTS WERE UTILIZED AS A COMMUNICATION BRIDGE BETWEEN THE ESKIMO AND WESTERN CULTURES. THE MEDIA OF THE DANCE AND DRAMA WERE THE BASES FOR…
Killen, Melanie; Wainryb, Cecilia
Argues that the individualistic-collectivistic dichotomy results in mislabeling both cultures and individuals. Discusses ways in which individualistic concerns with independence and collectivistic concerns with interdependence coexist in Western and non-Western cultures. Outlines a theoretical framework explaining the coexistence of diverse social…
Nigeria is a multi-cultural society, but the visual image of women can be said to be the same among these various cultures. In Africa, women are not seen as they are in the Western world. Globalisation has however brought the modern Nigerian woman closer to Western ideologies and exposed her to a new perception of ...
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H
In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.
Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.
Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.
Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.
Donders, Y.M.; Kono, T.; Van Uytsel, S.
In 2001, the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity was adopted by the Member States of UNESCO. In this Declaration, cultural human rights were commended as an enabling environment for cultural diversity. After the Declaration, the Member States wished to adopt a legally binding instrument on
Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…
Full Text Available Marriage is not just a bond between men and women, but the inner bond between a man and a woman based on the One and Only God. This research was a philosophical normative, thus the approaches used were philosophical, normative, and historical. Besides, a qualitative-descriptive strategy was used in finding a depth description of the law politics of interfaith marriage regulation in Indonesia based on the the 1974 Marriage Law. The results show that the interfaith marriage is not regulated in the 1974 Marriage Law, because: First, the rejection of the majority of Muslims and the faction in Parliament because the interfaith marriage is against the aqidah (matters of faith of Islam; Second, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the marriage culture in Indonesia, because marriage contains legal, sociology and religious aspects; Third, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the theological teachings of religions in Indonesia that do not want interfaith marriages, such as Islam, Christianity, Protestantism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Furthermore, the interfaith marriage is inconsistent with the philosophical purposes of marriage in Indonesia where the purpose of marriage forms a happy and eternal family based on the One Supreme God.
Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.
research work reveals that despite the alarming influences of the western technology on Igbo culture, dance music performance has remained the climax of every cultural .... grade, title groups, palm wine tappers, hunters, carvers, women, men, ...
John Donohue; Steven Levitt
We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...
The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer
This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...
Sergei V. Iarkovoi
Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.
One law professor takes a stab at imagining an ideal law school of the future and describing how to get there. The Essay spells out a specific possible vision, taking into account changes to the demand for legal services and changes to the economics and composition of the legal profession. That thought experiment leads to a series of observations about values and vision in legal education in general and about what it might take to move any vision forward.
The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...