Sample records for western gneiss belt

  1. P- T- t constraints on the development of the Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain and implications for the evolution of the western gneiss belt, northern Thailand (United States)

    Macdonald, A. S.; Barr, S. M.; Miller, B. V.; Reynolds, P. H.; Rhodes, B. P.; Yokart, B.


    The western gneiss belt in northern Thailand is exposed within two overlapping Cenozoic structural domains: the extensional Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain located west of the Chiang Mai basin, and the Mae Ping strike-slip fault domain located west of the Tak batholith. New P- T estimates and U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations from the Doi Inthanon domain show that the gneiss there records a complex multi-stage history that can be represented by a clockwise P- T- t path. U-Pb zircon and titanite dating of mylonitic calc-silicate gneiss from the Mae Wang area of the complex indicates that the paragneissic sequence experienced high-grade, medium-pressure metamorphism (M1) in the Late Triassic - Early Jurassic (ca. 210 Ma), in good agreement with previously determined zircon ages from the underlying core orthogneiss exposed on Doi Inthanon. Late Cretaceous monazite ages of 84 and 72 Ma reported previously from the core orthogneiss are attributed to a thermal overprint (M2) to upper-amphibolite facies in the sillimanite field. U-Pb zircon and monazite dating of granitic mylonite from the Doi Suthep area of the complex provides an upper age limit of 40 Ma (Late Eocene) for the early stage(s) of development of the actual core complex, by initially ductile, low-angle extensional shearing under lower amphibolite-facies conditions (M3), accompanied by near-isothermal diapiric rise and decompression melting. 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of muscovite from both Doi Suthep and Doi Inthanon provided Miocene ages of ca. 26-15 Ma, representing cooling through the ca. 350 °C isotherm and marking late-stage development of the core complex by detachment faulting of the cover rocks and isostatic uplift of the sheared core zone and mantling gneisses in the footwall. Similarities in the thermochronology of high-grade gneisses exposed in the core complex and shear zone domains in the western gneiss belt of northern Thailand (and also in northern Vietnam, Laos, Yunnan

  2. Scandian Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphism of Proterozoic Basement Rocks on Fjortoft and Otroy, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carswell, D.A.; van Roermund, H.L.M.; Wiggers de Vries, D.F.


    Electron microprobe mineral composition data are presented for samples of exsolved and recrystallized garnet websterites within the mantle-derived peridotite bodies and of external orthopyroxene eclogite lenses directly enclosed within the gneisses on the islands of Fjørtoft and Otrøy in the Western

  3. Nd-Sr Isotopic Geochemistry and U-Pb Geochronology of the Fé Granitic Gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: Implications for Paleoproterozoic Evolution of the Mineiro Belt, Southern São Francisco Craton, Brazil


    Wilson Teixeira; Ciro Alexandre Ávila; Luciana Cabral Nunes


    The Fé granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked toPaleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, central-easternBrazil. The Fé pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortesgreenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, andpyroxenite in the la...

  4. New models for Paleoproterozoic orogenesis in the Cheyenne belt region: Evidence from the geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming (United States)

    Jones, D.S.; Snoke, A.W.; Premo, W.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.


    The disputed age of the deep crust of the Colorado Province is central to hypotheses for Paleoproterozoic crustal growth in the region. We studied the high-grade Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming, as a potential exposure of pre-1780 Ma basement rocks. New geologic mapping and U-Pb geochronological data indicate that the Big Creek Gneiss exposes a deeper, but coeval, level of the Green Mountain arc relative to the predominantly supracrustal section to the west. The Big Creek Gneiss is composed of: supracrustal rocks; a ca. 1780 Ma Green Mountain arc-correlative, bimodal intrusive suite; a ca. 1763 Ma extensional(?) bimodal intrusive suite; and widespread ca. 1630 Ma pegmatitic leucogranite. The mafic member of the younger bimodal suite is documented here for the first time. U-Pb zircon ages from migmatite leucosomes indicate penetrative deformation of the Big Creek Gneiss at ca. 1750 Ma. We find that the postarc intrusive suite is mantle-involved, implying a second period of crustal growth. Shortening postdates arc magmatism by ~20 m.y., implying that termination of arc magmatism and accretion were separate events. Finally, criteria previously used to constrain the polarity of subduction for the Green Mountain arc are not reliable. We propose two competing models: (1) southward-dipping Green Mountain arc subduction (present coordinates), with slab breakoff-related magmatism following arc accretion; or (2) northward-dipping subduction, with extensional postarc magmatism. In both models, high-temperature deformation coincides with accretion along the Cheyenne belt, and extensional magmatism is an important component of crustal growth. We prefer the northward-dipping subduction model because it can be better integrated with regional tectonic events and published isotopic compositions of the igneous rocks. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  5. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

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    Verrall, P.


    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  6. Metamorphic evolution of the Maud Belt: P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in Gjelsvikfjella, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (United States)

    Bisnath, Avinash; Frimmel, Hartwig E.


    A metamorphic petrological study, in conjunction with recent precise geochronometric data, revealed a complex P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in a hitherto poorly understood sector of the Mesoproterozoic Maud Belt in East Antarctica. The Maud Belt is an extensive high-grade, polydeformed, metamorphic belt, which records two significant tectono-thermal episodes, once towards the end of the Mesoproterozoic and again towards the late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian. In contrast to previous models, most of the metamorphic mineral assemblages are related to a Pan-African tectono-thermal overprint, with only very few relics of late Mesoproterozoic granulite-facies mineral assemblages (M 1) left in strain-protected domains. Petrological and mineral chemical evidence indicates a clockwise P- T- t path for the Pan-African orogeny. Peak metamorphic (M 2b) conditions recorded by most rocks in the area ( T = 709-785 °C and P = 7.0-9.5 kbar) during the Pan-African orogeny were attained subsequent to decompression from probably eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (M 2a). The new data acquired in this study, together with recent geochronological and geochemical data, permit the development of a geodynamic model for the Maud Belt that involves volcanic arc formation during the late Mesoproterozoic followed by extension at 1100 Ma and subsequent high-grade tectono-thermal reworking once during continent-continent collision at the end of the Mesoproterozoic (M 1; 1090-1030 Ma) and again during the Pan-African orogeny (M 2a, M 2b) between 565 and 530 Ma. Post-peak metamorphic K-metasomatism under amphibolite-facies conditions (M 2c) followed and is ascribed to post-orogenic bimodal magmatism between 500 and 480 Ma.

  7. Nd-Sr isotopic geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of the Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: implications for paleoproterozoic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern Sao Francisco craton, Brazil

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    Teixeira, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas]. E-mail:; Avila, Ciro Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia]. E-mail:; Nunes, Luciana Cabral [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked to Paleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton, central-eastern Brazil. The Fe pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, and pyroxenite in the latter. The Lajedo granodiorite is located south of the Lenheiros shear zone and cuts the metamafic rocks of the Forro peridotite - pyroxenite and mafic and intermediate rocks of the Nazareno greenstone belt, as evidenced by xenoliths from the latter unit. The modal composition of the Fe granitic gneiss lies within the ranges of monzogranite and syenogranite. It is peraluminous and shows a large variation in K{sub 2}O content, which implies a middle-K calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline tendency. The Lajedo modal composition is consistent with granodioritic and tonalitic compositions. It indicates a predominantly peraluminous composition and calc-alkaline character. The U-Pb zircon crystallization age of the Fe granitic gneiss is 2191 {+-} 9 Ma, whereas the Lajedo granodiorite yields 2208 {+-} 26 Ma. The Nd/Sr characteristics of the Fe and Lajedo plutons are consistent with mixtures of enriched mantle (EMI-type), DMM and crustal components during magma genesis in a plutonic arc setting, while the low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sri ratios point to contribution of mafic rock protoliths during magma genesis. This is also in accordance with the characteristic xenoliths observed within the investigated plutons from the Nazareno and Rio das Mortes greenstone belts. The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite show tectonic characteristics which are comparable to those of nearby coeval plutons: Brito quartz-diorite (2221 +- 2 Ma), Brumado de Cima granodiorite (2219 {+-} 2 Ma), Brumado

  8. Dynamic recrystallization and metamorphic evolution of ca. 1.85 Ga quartzofeldspathic and cordierite-garnet gneisses, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea (United States)

    Cho, Moonsup; Yang, Soh-young; Kim, Taehwan; Yi, Keewook


    Quartzofeldspathic orthogneisses together with cordierite-garnet gneisses occur in the Mt. Cheonggye area, western Gyeonggi Massif, where the transition from weakly-deformed gneiss to mylonite is revealed. These gneisses consist primarily of biotite, garnet, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and quartz with or without sillimanite (or kyanite) and cordierite. Microstructures in mylonites and gneisses were investigated to delineate the relationship between dynamic recrystallization and pressure-temperature (P-T) path, based on field and petrologic studies. For constraining the timing of deformation and metamorphism, zircon and monazite were dated using a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) housed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. Recrystallization microstructures systematically vary in accordance with the degree of strain in weakly- to intensely-deformed gneisses or mylonites. Quartz shows the subgrain rotation (SGR) to grain boundary migration (GBM) recrystallization such as the ribbon structure, and K-feldspar is characterized by the core-and-mantle structure together with occasional development of myrmekite. Some isolated grains of K-feldspar appear to be the product of the solution-precipitation growth. Plagioclase was recrystallized by SGR and high-T GBM, forming fine-grained polygonal aggregates in weakly- and moderately-deformed gneisses. With increasing strain, plagioclase grains are connected with each other to form the interconnected weak layer. The microstructures described in the above suggest the deformation temperatures of ca. 490-650°C. Mineral assemblages and reaction textures in cordierite-garnet gneisses suggest a clockwise P-T path, evolving from the kyanite- to sillimanite-stable fields. The SHRIMP U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon and monazite in both cordierite-garnet gneisses and orthogneisses yielded the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of ca. 1.86-1.85 Ga. Some zircons are overgrown by low Th/U rims dated at ca. 240-220 Ma. Monazite

  9. A SHRIMP U Pb and LA-ICP-MS trace element study of the petrogenesis of garnet cordierite orthoamphibole gneisses from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa (United States)

    Buick, Ian S.; Hermann, Jörg; Williams, Ian S.; Gibson, Roger L.; Rubatto, Daniela


    The Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt (South Africa) underwent high-grade metamorphism at ˜2.7-2.5 and ˜2.03 Ga. Quartz-rich, garnet-, cordierite-, biotite- and orthoamphibole-bearing, feldspar-free gneisses from the western Central Zone reached granulite-facies conditions (˜800 °C at ˜8-10 kbar) followed by decompression. Garnet from one such sample shows significant zonation in trace elements but little zonation in major elements. Zoning patterns suggest that the early prograde breakdown of REE-rich accessory phases contributed to the garnet trace element budget. Monazite from the sample yields a SHRIMP weighted mean 207Pb- 206Pb age of 2028 ± 3 Ma, indistinguishable from a SHRIMP zircon age of 2022 ± 11 Ma previously measured on metamorphic overgrowths on ˜2.69 Ga igneous zircon cores. New zircon and monazite formed before, or at, the metamorphic peak, and occur as inclusions in garnet. Monazite appears to have formed through the breakdown of early allanite ± xenotime ± apatite. Trace element zoning patterns in garnet and the age of accessory phases are most consistent with a single tectonometamorphic event at ˜2.03 Ga. The plagioclase and K-feldspar-free composition of the garnet-cordierite-orthoamphibole gneisses requires open system processes such as intense hydrothermal alteration of protoliths or advanced chemical weathering. In the studied sample, the ˜2.69 Ga igneous zircons show a prominent negative Eu anomaly, suggesting equilibrium with plagioclase, or plagioclase fractionation in the precursor magma. In contrast, the other minerals either show small negative (˜2.03 Ga monazite), no (˜2.02 Ga zircon and garnet) or positive Eu anomalies (orthoamphibole). This suggests that the unusual bulk compositions of these rocks were set in after ˜2.69 Ga but before the peak of the ˜2.03 Ga event, most probably while the protoliths resided at shallow or surficial crustal levels.

  10. Metasomatism along fluid pathways in the ultra-high pressure Svartberget garnet-peridotite (Western Gneiss Region, Norway): Implications for the transport of slab-derived fluids within the mantle wedge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoed, J.C.; Austrheim, H.; John, T.; Hin, R.C.; Corfu, F.; Davies, G.R.


    Garnet-peridotites often contain veins or layers of pyroxenite and eclogite of uncertain origin. We investigate the Svartberget garnetperidotite from the northernmost ultrahigh-pressure domain in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) in Norway and show that the observed layering represents a sequence of

  11. Anasagar gneiss: A folded granitoid pluton in the Phanerozoic South ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Anasagar gneiss was emplaced as a concordant sheet like body along the contact of quartzite and pelitic/semipelitic schist horizons in the northern part of the South Delhi Fold Belt. It is typically a granite gneiss containing megacrysts of K-feldspar set in a recrystallised foliated matrix. The megacrysts are in general ...

  12. Soil carbon response to projected climate change in the U.S. western corn belt (United States)

    The U.S. Western Corn Belt is projected to experience changes in growing conditions due to climate change over the next 50 to 100 years. Projected changes include an increase in growing season length, an increase in the number of high temperature stress days and warm nights, and an increase in preci...

  13. Geochemical constraints on komatiite volcanism from Sargur Group Nagamangala greenstone belt, western Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for Mesoarchean mantle evolution and continental growth

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    Full Text Available We present field, petrographic, major and trace element data for komatiites and komatiite basalts from Sargur Group Nagamangala greenstone belt, western Dharwar craton. Field evidences such as crude pillow structure indicate their eruption in a marine environment whilst spinifex texture reveals their komatiite nature. Petrographic data suggest that the primary mineralogy has been completely altered during post-magmatic processes associated with metamorphism corresponding to greenschist to lower amphibolite facies conditions. The studied komatiites contain serpentine, talc, tremolite, actinolite and chlorite whilst tremolite, actinolite with minor plagioclase in komatiitic basalts. Based on the published Sm-Nd whole rock isochron ages of adjoining Banasandra komatiites (northern extension of Nagamangala belt and further northwest in Nuggihalli belt and Kalyadi belt we speculate ca. 3.2–3.15 Ga for komatiite eruption in Nagamangala belt. Trace element characteristics particularly HFSE and REE patterns suggest that most of the primary geochemical characteristics are preserved with minor influence of post-magmatic alteration and/or contamination. About 1/3 of studied komatiites show Al-depletion whilst remaining komatiites and komatiite basalts are Al-undepleted. Several samples despite high MgO, (Gd/YbN ratios show low CaO/Al2O3 ratios. Such anomalous values could be related to removal of CaO from komatiites during fluid-driven hydrothermal alteration, thus lowering CaO/Al2O3 ratios. The elemental characteristics of Al-depleted komatiites such as higher (Gd/YbN (>1.0, CaO/Al2O3 (>1.0, Al2O3/TiO2 (18 together with higher HREE, Y, Zr suggest their derivation from shallower upper mantle without garnet involvement in residue. The observed chemical characteristics (CaO/Al2O3, Al2O3/TiO2, MgO, Ni, Cr, Nb, Zr, Y, Hf, and REE indicate derivation of the komatiite and komatiite basalt magmas from heterogeneous mantle (depleted to primitive mantle at

  14. Geochemistry of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (central Western Carpathians – evidence for relics of the Variscan ophiolite complex

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    Ivan Peter


    Full Text Available Three small bodies of amphibolites and associated graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (Tatric Megaunit, central Western Carpathians have been studied by petrographic and geochemical methods. Isolated, fault-bounded bodies first hundreds of meters in size are located in the complex of the Early Paleozoic paragneisses and migmatites intruded by the Lower Carboniferous granitoid rocks. Amphibolites (locally actinolite schists were formed from effusive basalts, dolerites or isotropic gabbros hydrothermally altered and veined before the regional metamorphic transformation. Distribution of the trace elements relatively immobile during the metamorphic alteration (HFSE, REE, Cr, V, Sc is similar to E-MORB type in the Malá Magura Mountain or to N-MORB/E-MORB types in the Suchý Mountain. Graphitic gneisses to metacherts are rich in silica (up to 88 wt. % and Ctot, poor in other major element contents and display negative Ce-anomaly, enrichment in HREE, V, Cr and U. They were probably originally deposited as non-carbonate and silica-rich deep-sea sediments in anoxic conditions. The oceanic provenance of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses clearly indicates their oceanic crust affinity and identity with the uppermost part of the ophiolite sequence. Ophiolite bodies from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains are supposed to be relic fault blocks identical with the Upper Devonian Pernek Group which represents a Variscan ophiolite nappe preserved to large extent in the Malé Karpaty Mountains located in the Tatric Megaunit further to the southwest. All these ophiolite relics are vestiges of the original ophiolite suture created by oceanic closure in the Lower Carboniferous.

  15. Geochemistry of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (central Western Carpathians) - evidence for relics of the Variscan ophiolite complex (United States)

    Ivan, Peter; Méres, Štefan


    Three small bodies of amphibolites and associated graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (Tatric Megaunit, central Western Carpathians) have been studied by petrographic and geochemical methods. Isolated, fault-bounded bodies first hundreds of meters in size are located in the complex of the Early Paleozoic paragneisses and migmatites intruded by the Lower Carboniferous granitoid rocks. Amphibolites (locally actinolite schists) were formed from effusive basalts, dolerites or isotropic gabbros hydrothermally altered and veined before the regional metamorphic transformation. Distribution of the trace elements relatively immobile during the metamorphic alteration (HFSE, REE, Cr, V, Sc) is similar to E-MORB type in the Malá Magura Mountain or to N-MORB/E-MORB types in the Suchý Mountain. Graphitic gneisses to metacherts are rich in silica (up to 88 wt. %) and Ctot, poor in other major element contents and display negative Ce-anomaly, enrichment in HREE, V, Cr and U. They were probably originally deposited as non-carbonate and silica-rich deep-sea sediments in anoxic conditions. The oceanic provenance of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses clearly indicates their oceanic crust affinity and identity with the uppermost part of the ophiolite sequence. Ophiolite bodies from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains are supposed to be relic fault blocks identical with the Upper Devonian Pernek Group which represents a Variscan ophiolite nappe preserved to large extent in the Malé Karpaty Mountains located in the Tatric Megaunit further to the southwest. All these ophiolite relics are vestiges of the original ophiolite suture created by oceanic closure in the Lower Carboniferous.

  16. Study of movement of the western and central belts of Peninsular Malaysia using GPS data analysis

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    Ramli, Siti Hafizah; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim [Geology Programme, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Since the large earthquakes in Sumatera and Nias, there were some tremors incidents at Bukit Tinggi. Therefore, a study on the earth’s crust movement and the effects of the earthquake in Indonesia on the tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia have been carried out using GPS data analysis. GPS data from five MyRTKnet stations within Peninsular Malaysia have been analyzed to monitor the movement of two major tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia which are the western belt represented by the Behrang (BEHR) and UPM Serdang (UPMS) stations and the central belt represented by Bentong (BENT), Jerantut (JRNT) and Temerloh (TLOH) stations. GPS data recorded from 2005 to 2010 were analysed based on horizontal and vertical displacements of the respective stations by using Trimble Business Centre (TBC) software. Based on the results of accumulated displacements of recorded GPS data from January 2006 to December 2013, it shows that the western belt which represented by UPMS has shifted 0.096m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of +0.030m while the central belt which represented by TLOH has shifted 0.080m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of −0.015m. Meanwhile, BENT station which is located on the Bentong-Raub suture zone turns to its original position as well as JRNT station. However, BEHR station which are located in western belt do not show any movements. All of these movements may be due to the influence of reactive faults in the stations area stimulated by several large earthquakes that occurred in 2005 to 2010. Study on using the GPS data analysis and combine with integrated geophysical methods are necessary to understand in detail about the tectonic evolution of Peninsular Malaysia.

  17. Charnockites and UHT metamorphism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt, western Suriname : Evidence for two separate UHT events

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    Klaver, Martijn; de Roever, Emond W F; Nanne, Josefine A M; Mason, Paul R D; Davies, Gareth R.

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt in western Suriname is an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic terrain in the centre of the Paleoproterozoic (Transamazonian) Guiana Shield. Next to the UHT granulites, the belt contains a 30 by 30km body of orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids: the Kabalebo charnockites.

  18. A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; van Roermund, Herman; Zhang, Lifei; Spiers, Chris


    In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U-Th-Pb monazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the dominant rock association in the Xitieshan ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt, north Qaidam, western China. Results are consistent with the following complex polyphase tectono-metamorphic evolution. The kyanite/sillimanite bearing garnet biotite gneisses contain monazite ages of 938 ± 23 Ma and zircon SHRIMP ages of 945 ± 7 Ma, referring to a Neoproterozoic metamorphism, i.e. similar to the age of the Jinning orogeny in the Yangtze block of southern China. This correlation suggests that the paragneiss has affinities with the Yangtze block (South China block). The Neoproterozoic monazites were found inside coarse grained porphyroblastic garnets containing amphibolite facies mineral inclusion assemblages. The kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses also contain early Paleozoic monazite ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma, detected in amphibolite facies mineral assemblages associated with matrix minerals. Using phase equilibrium- and geothermobarometric calculations, PT conditions of 560-610 °C/5.8-7.0 kbar and 610-675 °C/4.6-6.5 kbar were calculated respectively for both amphibolite facies assemblages. The early Paleozoic ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma were detected in 8 monazite grains from the investigated paragneiss samples. Based on the Y and Eu contents variation of the early Paleozoic monazite domains (measured by EMP), the 422-425 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to have formed during an amphibolite facies tectono-metamorphic overprint that post-dates (U)HP metamorphism and can thus be related to exhumation of previously deeply subducted rocks. Alternatively, the 455-460 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to represent the age of the prograde subduction


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    A. V. Marinin


    Full Text Available Structural paragenetic and cataclastic analysis methods were applied to study tectonic fracturing within one of the folds of the southern wing of the North-Western Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt. The object of the study was the Semisamskaya anticline (Fig. 1 and 2 comprising the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogenic layered terrigenic-carbonate sediments that contain various well-developed geological indicators of palaeostresses (Fig. 3, 5, 7, and 9.In the folded structure under study, a paragenesis is revealed which is associated with the effect of sub-horizontal minimum compression (deviator extension stresses of the north-western orientation (NW 320° and traced by detached normal fault systems striking in the north-eastern direction (Fig. 6, 8, 10, 11, and 17. Upthrust-overthrust systems of the north-western strike (NW–SE, which are of importance for the whole folded structure of the North-Western Caucasus, are mainly manifested in the wings of the Semisamskaya anticline (Fig. 6, 12, and 13.The overall field of stresses related to formation of the folded structure is significantly variable as evidenced by the pattern of local parameters of the paleostress field, which are calculated by the cataclastic analysis method (Figure 15, 16, and 17.It is established that the geodynamic regime within the anticline is considerably variable by types (Fig. 18. Areas with horizontal extension in the axial part of the fold are replaced by areas of horizontal compression at its wings (Fig. 19.  

  20. Geochemical Analysis for Sedimentary Emerald Mineralization in Western Emerald belt, Colombia (United States)

    Nino Vasquez, Gabriel Felipe; Song, Sheng-Rong


    1Gabriel Felipe Nino Vasquez and 1Sheng-Rong Song 1Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University Colombia hosts a large quantity of mineral resources due to its complex tectonic arrangement, and emerald deposits are one of the most representatives for the country. Emeralds in Colombia occur mainly in black shale, and are located in eastern Andes Cordillera with two parallel belts separated by approximately 130 Km: the Western belt (WB) and the Eastern belt (EB). The geological, mineralogical and tectonic features from these belts are quite similar (Buenaventura 2002). Previous researchers concluded that emeralds in Colombia came from hydrothermal sedimentary processes without any magmatic influence, and suggested that the source of Cr, V and Be (which are important components of the beryl) was the host rock. According to their results, the process which allowed the shale to release these cations was the metasomatism (albitization and carbonization), which was resulted from the interaction between the rocks and the alkaline brines. Fractures and fault planes originated by these tectonic movements were fulfilled by enriched fluids, which they allowed emeralds and the other minerals precipitation with decreasing alkalinity and pressure (Giuliani et al. 1994). However, there were several pitfalls of conclusions drawn from previous researches. Firstly, Cr and V were widely distributed and come from mafic and ultramafic rocks, and Be was mostly found in pegmatites, finding these elements in sedimentary rocks suggest that probably the ultramafic rocks occurred not far from the deposits. Secondly, there was an inconsistency in the estimated temperatures of emeralds formation, i.e. temperature of hydrothermal sedimentary deposits was only 200° C, while laboratory analysis showed that the formation of emeralds was higher than 300° C. Therefore, there might still be an allocthonus influence on emerald formation that significantly increases the temperature. This

  1. Spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural land-use intensity across the Western Siberian grain belt. (United States)

    Kühling, Insa; Broll, Gabriele; Trautz, Dieter


    The Western Siberian grain belt covers 1millionkm² in Asiatic Russia and is of global importance for agriculture. Massive land-use changes took place in that region after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the state farm system. Decreasing land-use intensity (LUI) in post-Soviet Western Siberia was observed on grassland due to declining livestock whilst on cropland trends of land abandonment reversed in the early 2000s. Recultivation of abandoned cropland as well as increasing fertilizer inputs and narrowing crop rotations led to increasing LUI on cropland during the last two decades. Beyond that general trend, no information is available about spatial distribution and magnitude but a crucial precondition for the development of strategies for sustainable land management. To quantify changes and patterns in LUI, we developed an intensity index that reflects the impacts of land-based agricultural production. Based on subnational yearly statistical data, we calculated two separate input-orientated indices for cropland and grassland, respectively. The indices were applied on two spatial scale: at seven provinces covering the Western Siberian grain belt (Altay Kray, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Sverdlovsk and Tyumen) and at all districts of the central province Tyumen. The spatio-temporal analysis clearly showed opposite trends for the two land-use types: decreasing intensity on grassland (-0.015 LUI units per year) and intensification on cropland (+0.014 LUI units per year). Furthermore, a spatial concentration towards intensity centres occurred during transition from a planned to a market economy. A principal component analysis enabled the individual calculations of both land-use types to be combined and revealed a strong link between biophysical conditions and LUI. The findings clearly showed the need for having a different strategy for future sustainable land management for grassland (predominantly used by livestock of households

  2. The South-Western Branch of the Variscan Belt: Evidence from Morocco (United States)

    Michard, A.; Soulaimani, A.; Hoepffner, C.; Ouanaimi, H.; Baidder, L.; Rjimati, E. C.; Saddiqi, O.


    This work is based on the compilation and re-evaluation of the most significant data, either personal or from the literature, concerning the Moroccan Variscides. The latter constitute the only, moderately disturbed or even undisturbed part of the South-Western Branch of the Variscan Belt, facing directly NW Gondwana. They include two orogenic segments, namely the northern Mauritanides and the Meseta Domain exposed in the Saharan and Atlas-Meseta regions respectively, and a foreland belt cropping out essentially in the Anti-Atlas. The eastward thrust units of Saharan Morocco (Oulad Dlim) mostly originate from the West African Craton (WAC) border in an area of thin Palaeozoic sedimentation. Thin-skinned fold-thrust foreland arcs develop progressively northward (Zemmour) at the expense of the increasingly thick Palaeozoic series, whereas thick-skinned deformation characterizes the inverted proximal paleomargin in the Anti-Atlas Domain. As suggested by the Meseta and Anti-Atlas stratigraphic similarities, the Meseta Domain corresponds to a collage of moderately displaced, thinned crustal blocks from the distal Gondwana paleomargin. Variscan deformation is dominated by NW-verging thrusts, and metamorphism developed in the thickened tectonic prism in relation with crustal anatexis at depth. The Meseta-Anti-Atlas boundary is a major, ENE-trending transpressional dextral fault referred to as the South Meseta Fault (SMF). Discussing the correlations between the Variscan segments of Morocco and SW Iberia allows us to suggest that a latitudinal transform zone similar to the SMF separated these segments during the Late Palaeozoic. Subduction of the Rheic Ocean crust would have been directed SE-ward along both the Iberian and Moroccan Meseta, and NW-ward south of the SMF, i.e. along the WAC.

  3. Recent Seismic Activity at the Western end of the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Yamamoto, J.; Jimenez, Z.; Espindola, V. H.


    Beginning 31 July through 13 August 2006 a series of earthquakes (Mc 3.5-5.9) hit the western end of the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt. The most prominent earthquake (Mc 5.9) occurred on 11 August 2006 at 14:30 local time (19:30 UTC) approximately at 18.32° N, 101°W and 51 km depth. The epicenter was less than 40 km from Huetamo, Michoacan a 41,250 inhabitants city and 60 km from the Infiernillo dam the third largest hydroelectric plant in Mexico. This earthquake was widely felt trough out the region with minor to moderate reported damage. In Mexico City 240 km away from the epicenter the earthquake produced alarm among the population and several buildings were evacuated. First-motion data and regional and teleseismic waveform modeling indicate that the rupture occurred as normal faulting along a fault plane striking roughly east-west. In the present paper a global analysis of the earthquake series is made in an effort to correlate with the known geotectonic features of the region.

  4. The strain-dependent spatial evolution of garnet in a high- P ductile shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway): a synchrotron X-ray microtomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macente, A. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Fusseis, F. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Menegon, L. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Fitzroy Drake Circus Plymouth Devon PL4 8AA UK; Xianghui, X. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave Building 431-B003 Argonne IL USA; John, T. [Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100 12249 Berlin Germany


    Reaction and deformation microfabrics provide key information to understand the thermodynamic and kinetic controls of tectono-metamorphic processes, however they are usually analysed in two dimensions, omitting important information regarding the third spatial dimension. We applied synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography to document the evolution of a pristine olivine gabbro into a deformed omphacite-garnet eclogite in four dimensions, where the 4th dimension is represented by the degree of strain. In the investigated samples, which cover a strain gradient into a shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), we focused on the spatial transformation of garnet coronas into elongated clusters of garnets with increasing strain. Our microtomographic data allowed quantification of garnet volume, shape and spatial arrangement evolution with increasing strain. We combined microtomographic observations with light microscope- and backscatter electron images as well as electron microprobe- (EMPA) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis to correlate mineral composition and orientation data with the X-ray absorption signal of the same mineral grains. With increasing deformation, the garnet volume almost triples. In the low strain domain, garnets form a well interconnected large garnet aggregate that develops throughout the entire Page 1 of 52 sample. We also observed that garnet coronas in the gabbros never completely encapsulate olivine grains. In the most highly deformed eclogites, the oblate shapes of garnet clusters reflect a deformational origin of the microfabrics. We interpret the aligned garnet aggregates to direct synkinematic fluid flow and consequently influence the transport of dissolved chemical components. EBSD analyses reveal that garnet show a near-random crystal preferred orientation that testifies no evidence for crystal plasticity. There is, however evidence for minor fracturing, neo-nucleation and overgrowth. Microprobe chemical analysis

  5. Petrogenesis and geodynamic significance of silicic volcanism in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Petrone, C. M.; Ferrari, L.; Orozco, M. A.; Lopez Martinez, M.


    Silicic volcanism in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (WTMVB) was defined a Pliocene ignimbrite flare-up associated with the rifting of the Jalisco block from mainland Mexico (Frey et al., 2007; GSAB). With the integration of new and published geochronologic, geochemical, and isotope data we revise this interpretation and propose a new petrogenetic model. The oldest silicic volcanism consists of large silicic domes and minor pyroclastic flows (~370 km3) emplaced to the north of Guadalajara above a thick succession of ~11 to 8.7 Ma basaltic lavas, which yielded Ar-Ar and obsidian FT ages of ~7.5 to 5 Ma. Shortly after (4.9 to 2.9 Ma) large amount of rhyolitic lavas and ash flow tuffs (~500 km3) were emplaced in a WNW-ESE trending belt from Guadalajara to Compostela. Rhyolitic domes and flows (~430 km3) were emplaced also in the Pleistocene mostly between Tequila and Guadalajara with the late Pleistocene La Primavera caldera (~35 km3) as the sole explosive volcanic episodes. As a whole, silicic volcanism occurred from Late Miocene to the Pleistocene, and was dominated by dome and lava flows. Most rhyolites have high LILE/HFSE values and negative spikes at Nb, P and Ti. They also show the same Ba/Nb and K/Rb values and slightly higher Rb/Sr ratios as the 11-8 Ma basalts. Rhyolite Sr isotope data (87Sr/86Sr init = 0.70371 - 070598) are only slightly more radiogenic than the 11-8 basalts (87Sr/86Sr init = 0.70349-0.70410), whereas Nd isotope ratios are indistinguishable from them. Sr and Nd isotope ratios of the rhyolites are also similar to the crust nearby, indicating that they can be compatible either with fractional crystallization (FC) of basalts or with crust assimilation/melting. However REE contents are too low to be the result of basalt FC. Isotope and REE data can be successfully modelled with an initial crustal melt which subsequently undergone fractional crystallization of feldspar and quartz. Late Miocene slab detachment and subsequent slab rollback

  6. Tectonothermal evolution in the core of an arcuate fold and thrust belt: the south-eastern sector of the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt, north-western Spain) (United States)

    Valín, María Luz; García-López, Susana; Brime, Covadonga; Bastida, Fernando; Aller, Jesús


    The tectonothermal evolution of an area located in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (Variscan belt) has been determined by using the conodont colour alteration index (CAI), Kübler index of illite (KI), the Árkai index of chlorite (AI) and the analysis of clay minerals and rock cleavage. The area is part of the Cantabrian Zone (CZ), which represents the foreland fold and thrust belt of the orogen. It has been thrust by several large units of the CZ, what resulted in the generation of a large number of synorogenic Carboniferous sediments. CAI, KI and AI values show an irregular distribution of metamorphic grade, independent of stratigraphic position. Two tectonothermal events have been distinguished in the area. The first one, poorly defined, is mainly located in the northern part. It gave rise to very-low-grade metamorphism in some areas and it was associated with a deformation event that resulted in the emplacement of the last large thrust unit and development of upright folds and associated cleavage (S1). The second tectonothermal event gave rise to low-grade metamorphism and cleavage (S2) crosscutting earlier upright folds in the central, western and southern parts of the study area. The event continued with the intrusion of small igneous rock bodies, which gave rise to contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. This event was linked to an extensional episode due to a gravitational instability at the end of the Variscan deformation. This tectonothermal evolution occurred during the Gzhelian-Sakmarian. Subsequently, several hydrothermal episodes took place and local crenulation cleavage developed during the Alpine deformation.

  7. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baron


    Full Text Available Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM of continua (Flac 4.0. We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock in the three particular geological and geomorphic settings. Such situation could have been caused by heavy rainfalls in humid phases of the Holocene or permafrost melting in Late Glacial. The effects of faulting, very deep weathering of the bedrock, low geotechnical parameters of smectite-rich material and the local slope geometry have also been accounted for in numerical models, as well as the other triggering factors of slope instability. FDM modelled shear zones are in agreement with observations.

  8. Geochemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and geodynamic implications of Early Cretaceous basalts from the western Qinling orogenic belt, China (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Yuejun; Cawood, Peter A.; Dong, Yunpeng


    The Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt was formed by the collision of the North and South China Cratons during the Early Mesozoic and subsequently developed into an intracontinental tectonic process during late Mesozoic. Field investigations identified the presence of late Mesozoic basalts in the Duofutun and Hongqiang areas in the western Qinling orogenic belt. The petrogenesis of these basalts provides an important constraint on the late Mesozoic geodynamics of the orogen. The representative basaltic samples yield the 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of about 112 Ma. These samples belong to the alkaline series and have SiO2 ranging from 44.98 wt.% to 48.19 wt.%, Na2O + K2O from 3.44 wt% to 5.44 wt%, and MgO from 7.25 wt.% to 12.19 wt.%. They demonstrate the right-sloping chondrite-normalized REE patterns with negligible Eu anomalies (1.00-1.10) and PM-normalized patterns enriched in light rare earth element, large ion lithophile element and high field strength element, similar to those of OIB rocks. These samples additionally show an OIB-like Sr-Nd isotopic signature with εNd(t) values ranging from +6.13 to +10.15 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7028 to 0.7039, respectively. These samples are geochemically subdivided into two groups. Group 1 is characterized by low Al2O3 and high TiO2 and P2O5 contents, as well as high La/Yb ratios (>20), being the product of the high-pressure garnet fractionation from the OIB-derived magma. Group 2 shows higher Al2O3 but lower P2O5 contents and La/Yb ratios (<20) than Group 1, originating from asthenospheric mantle with input of delaminated lithospheric component. In combination with available data, it is proposed for the petrogenetic model of the Early Cretaceous thickened lithospheric delamination in response to the asthenospheric upwelling along the western Qinling orogenic belt.

  9. Pb–Pb zircon ages of Archaean metasediments and gneisses from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    207Pb–206Pb ages of zircons in samples of metasediments as well as ortho- and para-gneisses from both the western and ... discerned in the ages of overgrowths on older zircon cores in samples collected throughout the craton. Our data show that ... ton and also examine the prevalent concepts on the tectonic evolution of ...

  10. The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt, western China: Geology, geophysics, genesis, and hydrothermal system (United States)

    Tang, Xianchun; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhonghe; Hu, Shengbiao; Tian, Jiao; Bao, Shujing


    The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (ETGB), which is located in 98-102°E, 28-32°N, belongs to the eastern part of the Mediterranean-Himalayan geothermal belt. Recently, about 248 natural hot springs have been found in the ETGB. > 60% of these springs have temperatures of > 40 °C, and 11 springs have temperature above the local water boiling point. Using the helium isotopic data, gravity, magnetic and seismic data, we analyzed the thermal structure and the relationship between hydrothermal activity and geothermal dynamics of the ETGB. Results show that: (1) the 248 springs can be divided into three geothermal fields: Kangding-Luhuo geothermal field (KGF), Litang-Ganzi geothermal field (LGF) and Batang-Xiangcheng geothermal field (BGF). The BGF and LGF have hot crust and warm mantle, and are characterized by the higher heat flux (66.26 mW/m2), and higher ratios of crust-derived heat flux to total flux (47.46-60.62%). The KGF has cool crust and hot mantle, and is characterized by the higher heat flux and lower Qc/Qm; (2) there is a relatively 4-6 m higher gravimetric geoid anomaly dome which is corresponding with the ETGB. And in hydrothermal activity areas of the BGF and LGF, there is a northwest - southeast-trending tensile stress area and the upper-middle crust uplift area; (3) an abnormal layer exists in the middle-lower crust at a depth of 13-30 km beneath the ETGB, and this layer is 8-10 km thick and is characterized by lower velocity (Vp 2.5), high conductivity ( 10 Ω·m) and high temperature (850-1000 °C). Finally, based on the heat source and geological and geophysical background, we propose Kangding-type and Batang-type hydrothermal system models in the ETGB.

  11. Geochemistry of mylonitic tourmaline-bearing granite- gneiss pluton in the northeast of June mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Moradi


    character (Pearce et al., 1984. Acknowledgements The study was completed at the Shahrekord University and it was supported by the office of graduate studies. The authors are grateful to the office for their support. References Eby, G.N., 1992. Chemical subdivision of the A-type granitoids: petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Chemical Geology, 20(7: 641–644. Mohajjel, M. and Fergusson, C.L., 2000. Dextral transpression in Late Cretaceous continental collision, Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone, western Iran. Journal of Structural Geology, 22(8: 1125-1139. Nutman, A.P., Mohajjel, M., Bennett, V.C. and Fergusson, C.L., 2014. Gondwanan Eoarchean Neoproterozoic ancient crustal material in Iran and Turkey: zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopic evidence1. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 51(3: 272–285. Pearce, J.A., Harris, N.W. and Tindle, A.G., 1984. Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology, 25(4: 956–983. Shabanian, N., Davoudian, A.R., Khalili, M. and Khodami, M., 2010. Texture evidences imply on dynamic conditions in late-stage to post magmatic crystallization from dynamo-magmatic gnessies of Ghaleh-Dezh, Azna. Iranian Society of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 18(3: 463-472. (in Persian with English abstract Shabanian, N., Khalili, M., Davoudian, A.R. and Mohajjel, M., 2009. Petrography and geochemistry of mylonitic granite from Ghaleh-Dezh, NW Azna, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran. Neues Jahrbuch Fur Mineralogie-Abhandlungen, 185(3: 233-248. Shakerardakani, F., Neubauer, F., Masoudi, F., Mehrabi, B., Liu, X., Dong, Y., Mohajjel, M., Monfaredi, B. and Friedl, G., 2015. Panafrican basement and Mesozoic gabbro in the Zagros orogenic belt in the Dorud–Azna region (NWIran: Laser-ablation ICP–MS zircon ages and geochemistry. Tectonophysics, 647–648: 146–171. Sun, S.S. and McDonough, W.E., 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In: A.D. Saunders

  12. Exhumation of the Deylaman fault trend and its effects on the deformation style of the western Alborz belt in Iran (United States)

    Hakimi Asiabar, Saeid; Bagheriyan, Siyamak


    The Alborz range in northern Iran stretches along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Pamir mountains in Afghanistan. Alborz mountain belt is a doubly vergent orogen formed along the northern edge of the Iranian plateau in response to the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean and continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. The south Caspian depression—the Alborz basin of Mesozoic age (with W-E trend) in northern Iran—inverted in response to the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Pre-existing extensional faults of the south Caspian-Alborz system preferentially reactivated as contractional faults because of tectonic inversion. These contractional structures tend to run parallel to the trends of pre-existing extensional faults and acquire W and WNW-ESE orientations across the previous accommodation zones that were imposed by the reactivation of adjacent extensional faults with different directions. The NNE to N dipping faults show evidences of reactivation. The Deylaman fault is one of the important faults of western Alborz in Iran and is an example of inversion tectonic style of deformation in the western Alborz mountain range. The Deylaman fault, with an E-W trend, contains three discontinuous fault segments in the area under investigation. These fault segments have evidence of oblique right-lateral reverse motion and links eastward to the dextral Kandavan thrust. The importance of this fault is due to its effect on sedimentation of several rock units from the Jurassic to Neogene in western Alborz; the rock facies on each side of this fault are very different and illustrate different parts of tectonic history.

  13. Structural observations and U-Pb mineral ages from igneous rocks at the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Salahmi Schist Belt, central Finland: constraints on tectonic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietikäinen, K.


    Full Text Available The study area in Vieremä, central Finland, contains part of Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary. In the east, the area comprises Archaean gneiss and the Salahmi Schist Belt. The rocks of the schist belt are turbiditic metagreywackes, with well-preserved depositional structures, occurring as Proterozoic wedge-shaped blocks, and staurolite schists, the latter representing higher-strained and metamorphosed equivalents of the metagreywackes. In the west of the area there is an Archaean gneiss block, containing strongly elongated structures, and deformed Svecofennian supracrustal rocks, which are cut by deformed granitoids. These are juxtaposed with the schist belt. The boundaries of these tectonometamorphic blocks are narrow, highly strained mylonites and thrust zones. The metamorphic grade of the supracrustal rocks increases from east to west, the increase being stepwise across the mylonitic block boundaries. The rocks are more deformed from east to west with younger structures overprinting. In the staurolite schists of the Salahmi Schist Belt, the most prominent structure is a lineation (L2 that overprints the bedding and axial plane foliation. In Sorronmäki quarry, at the western boundary of the schist belt, this Palaeoproterozoic lineation dominates all the structures in tonalite gneiss, which gives a U-Pb age of 2731±6 Ma. Southeast of the quarry, at the same boundary, the Salahmi schists have been overturned towards the northeast, suggesting that the Archaean gneiss at Sorronmäki has been thrust towards the northeast over these rocks. In the western part of the study area, the Leppikangas granodiorite that intrudes the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks gives a U-Pb age of 1891+6 Ma. In the granodiorite, a strong lineation formed by the intersection of two foliations, which maybe L2 is associated with thrusting towards the northeast. The monazite age of the Archaean Sorronmäki gneiss is 1817+3 Ma, and the titanite age of the Svecofennian

  14. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir Kanti; Rosing, Minik Thorleif


    .01-0.38; Cr-ratio = 0.02-0.99) and in silicate-rich chromitite (Mg-ratio = 0.06-0.48; Cr-ratio = 0.60-0.99). In the massive chromitites, the sub-solidus re-equilibration for chromite is less or absent. However, the re-equilibration is prominent in the co-existing interstitial and included olivine (Fo(96...... has been used to compute the nature of the parental melt. The parental melt calculations indicate derivation from a high-Mg komatiitic basalt that is similar to the composition of the komatiitic rocks reported from the greenstone sequences of the Western Dharwar Craton. Tectonic discrimination...

  15. Andesite petrogenesis in a hybrid arc-rift setting: the Western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Gómez-Tuena, A.; Vázquez-Duarte, A.; Díaz-Bravo, B.; Mori, L.


    The western sector of the Mexican subduction zone is characterized by the steep subduction of one of the youngest slabs on the planet (Rivera plate), and by the existence of a continental rift at ~230 km to the north from the trench (the so-called Tepic-Zacoalco rift, TZR), under which the subducted slab is either extremely deep or even absent (>250 km). The volcanic front is located at ~170 km from the trench and contains abundant potassic-alkaline lamprophyres with strong subduction (Ba/Ta= 1600-6000) and garnet signatures (Gd/Yb= 2-8), that have been recently interpreted as influenced by deep K2O-rich slab melts or supercritical fluids (Gómez-Tuena et al., 2011, GCA). In contrast, the most mafic rocks within the TZR are high-Nb, intraplate-like basalts that appear to derive from low extents of melting of a dryer (Ba/Ta= 800-60) and shallower (Gd/Yb= 2-2.5) mantle source. Even though a simple transition from an arc environment to an extensional tectonic regime is apparent when only the most primitive volcanic rocks are taken into account, the scenario becomes more complicated since at least five stratovolcanoes have been erupting typical arc andesites within the TZR over the last million years (San Juan, Sanganguey, Tepetiltic, Ceboruco and Tequila). Surprisingly, true calc-alkaline basalts that could be parental to andesites have not been found, indicating that andesites may have a direct mantle origin. Indeed, mayor and trace element compositions of volcanic rocks from western Mexico arrange in discrete suites with linear trends that are indicative of mixing, but they form sub-parallel arrays that do not converge to a common primitive basaltic melt, and often follow diverging trends in trace element-ratio plots. Melt-crust interactions likely occurred during magma ascent, since the volcanic rocks frequently include xenoliths and disequilibrium textures, but correlations among isotopic compositions and indexes of fractionation are not clearly observed in the

  16. Geochemistry and tectonic significance of the Gongzhu peridotites in the northern branch of the western Yarlung Zangbo ophiolitic belt, western Tibet (United States)

    Lian, Dongyang; Yang, Jingsui; Liu, Fei; Wu, Weiwei; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Jian


    The Gongzhu ophiolite is situated in the northern branch of the western Yarlung Zangbo ophiolitic belt. This massif consists of a strongly dismembered ophiolitic sequence dominated by mantle peridotites. The peridotites comprise lherzolite with low- to moderately-depleted mineral and bulk rock compositions. The degree of partial melting deduced from Cr# values of the Gongzhu peridotites varies between 7% and 10%. The mineral and whole rock compositions of the Gongzhu peridotites are comparable to those of abyssal peridotites. The chondrite normalized REE compositions of the peridotites typically display U-shaped or spoon-shaped patterns, and primitive mantle-normalized PGEs patterns show Ir depletion relative to Os and Ru, and Pt enrichment relative to Rh and Pd. On the basis of the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data, we concluded that the Gongzhu peridotites either formed in the back-arc setting of an intra-oceanic subduction system or the Gongzhu and Dajiweng peridotites both formed in the in the same incipient forearc/proto-forearc environment of an intra-oceanic subduction zone.

  17. Geodynamics of the western part of the Mongolia Okhotsk collisional belt, Trans-Baikal region (Russia) and Mongolia (United States)

    Zorin, Yu. A.


    After the western edge of the Mongolian microcontinent joined the Siberian continent in the region of Central Mongolia in the earliest Permian, these two continental blocks remained turned at an angle of about 120° with respect to each other and separated (on greater extent of their present-day boundary) by an enormous gulf of the Paleopacific called the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean. Closure of this ocean at the Early/Middle Jurassic boundary led to the complete collision of Siberia and Mongolia, which by then had already become part of the Mongolia-North China continent. This main collisional episode, which lasted through the Middle and Late Jurassic, involved thrusting, folding and magmatism and produced the Mongolia-Okhotsk belt. The Onon island-arc, which was located in the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean, was squeezed between the two major continents. Inasmuch as the third element (the island arc) was involved in the collision it is reasonable to distinguish two branches of the Mongolia-Okhotsk suture. These branches control the spatial distribution of gold mineralization in the Trans-Baikal region. On the southeastern periphery of Siberia the crust thickened considerably after the collision and a plateau-like uplift formed. In the Early Cretaceous, when compression ceased, the collisional uplift collapsed and the thrusts were transformed into low-angle normal faults, the motions on which were responsible for the formation of rift basins and exhumation of metamorphic core complexes.

  18. Distribution of In and other rare metals in cassiterite and associated minerals in Sn ± W ore deposits of the western Variscan Belt


    Lerouge, Catherine; Gloaguen, Eric; Wille, Guillaume; Bailly, Laurent


    International audience; We present data available on rare metal and indium distributions in cassiterite and associated minerals from thirteen Sn ± W granite-related ore deposits in the western Variscan Belt (Massif Central and Armorican Massif, France; Galicia, Spain; and SW England). Cassiterite and associated minerals including sulfides and titanium oxides were analysed using an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Significant indium contents were only measured in cassiterite from hydrothe...

  19. Different stages of chemical alteration on metabasaltic rocks in the subduction channel : evidence from the Western Tianshan metamorphic belt, NW China.


    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Dong; Tan, Yulong; Wang, Guodong


    To understand the geochemistry of subduction zone metamorphism, especially the large-scale mass transfer at forearc to subarc depths, we carried out a detailed study of a ∼1.5 m size metabasaltic block with well-preserved pillow structures from the Chinese Western Tianshan high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. This metabasaltic block is characterized by omphacite-rich interiors gradually surrounded by abundant channelized (veins) glaucophane-rich patches toward the rims. The glaucopha...

  20. Tungsten isotope composition of the Acasta Gneiss Complex (United States)

    Willbold, M.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Chen, H.-W.; Elliott, T.


    High-precision tungsten (182W/184W) isotope measurements on well-characterised mafic and felsic samples of the ca. 3960 Ma Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC; Northwest Territories, Canada) show radiogenic ε182W values between +0.06 to +0.15. Two ca. 3600 Ma felsic samples from this terrane have ε182W ∼ 0 and are the oldest samples so far documented to have a W isotopic composition indistinguishable from that of the modern mantle. The ε182W data are correlated with ε142Nd (Roth et al., 2014) and we attribute this variability to incomplete metamorphic homogenisation of the 3960 Ma protolith with more recent material in a 3370 Ma tectono-thermal event. Notably, the value of the positive ε182W anomalies seen in the 3960 Ma AGC samples that are least affected by metamorphic homogenisation is comparable to that observed in other early Archean rocks (Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland; Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt, Canada) and the late Archean Kostomuksha komatiites (Karelia). This demonstrates a globally constant signature. We infer that the presence of a pre-late veneer mantle represents the most straightforward interpretation of a uniform distribution of ε182W ∼ + 0.15 value in Archean rocks of different ages. We show that such a notion is compatible with independent constraints from highly siderophile element abundances in mafic and ultra-mafic Archean mantle-derived rocks. The absence of anomalous ε182W and ε142Nd so far measured in samples younger than ca. 2800 Ma suggests progressive convective homogenisation of silicate reservoirs. The downward mixing of an upper mantle rich in late-delivered meteoritic material might account for these combined observations.

  1. Petrological and geochemical evolution of the Central Gneissic Belt, Rengali Province, eastern India: Implications for the Neoarchean growth and orogenesis (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arnab; Bose, Sankar; Das, Kaushik; Ghosh, Gautam


    This study focuses on the evolution of the Central Gneissic Belt of the Archean Rengali Province which evolved as a craton-margin orogenic belt. The Central Gneissic Belt is constituted of charnockite gneiss, migmatitic hornblende gneiss and granite gneiss often showing gradational contacts. While mafic granulite occurs as enclave within the charnockite gneiss, amphibolite and calc-silicate granofels enclaves are present within the granite gneiss. Mafic granulite shows peak metamorphic assemblage of garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz ± orthopyroxene which was stabilized at 10.6 ± 0.5 kbar and 860 ± 20 °C. Charnockite gneiss with the peak assemblage of orthopyroxene + quartz + plagioclase + K-feldspar was metamorphosed at 792 ± 48 °C and 7.6 ± 0.4 kbar. Amphibolite and migmatitic hornblende gneiss contain hornblende along with plagioclase and garnet and these rocks were metamorphosed at 800 ± 20 °C, 8.5 ± 0.2 kbar and 695 °C, 8 kbar respectively. Later meta-dolerite dikes exhibit relic igneous textures which are slightly modified by greenschist-facies metamorphism. Charnockite gneiss, migmatitic hornblende gneiss and granite gneiss show similar trace and REE characteristics (moderate fractionation in terms of La and Yb, LREE enrichment and flat HREE pattern) implying the same protolith composition for these rock groups. Based on the field, petrographic and geochemical data, we propose that the protoliths for the charnockite gneiss, the migmatitic hornblende gneiss and the granite gneiss crystallized as fractionated magma in within-plate syncollisional setting during the ca. 2860-2780 Ma orogeny at the Rengali Province.

  2. Magmatic and related mineral deposits of the Pan-African Saldania belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (United States)

    Rozendaal, A.; Scheepers, R.


    Mineral deposits and prospects of the Pan-African Saldania orogenic belt in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, are reviewed. The polyphase, deformed, low-grade metamorphosed, volcano-sedimentary Malmesbury Group constitutes a complex, poorly understood supracrustal sequence that has been loosely subdivided into the Tygerberg, Swartland and Boland tectono-stratigraphic terranes on the basis of NW-trending fault zones. Syn- and post-tectonic granitoids of the Cape Granite Suite selectively intruded these terranes. Early S-types preferred the Tygerberg terrane, whereas the later I-types dominate the remaining areas. Anorogenic A-type granites, however, occur in all three terranes. Despite the absence of operating base or precious metal mines in the area, this study has established at least four metal associations directly or indirectly related to the intrusions: i) Cassiterite-wolframite (±Au, Cu, Mo, Zn, As, Fe-sulphides) in quartz and quartz/aplite veins hosted by tour-malinized and locally greissenized S-type granite. Similar exo-granitic veins occur in proximal metamorphites; ii) Juxtaposed, disseminated, stockwork breccia and vein style CuMoFe(Au)-sulphide mineralization hosted by mafic- to intermediate-intrusions of high-K calc-alkaline, I-type affinity; iii) CuMoAu-sulphides hosted by hydraulic breccia pipes, stocks and veins occurring in anorogenic A-type alkali feldspar granites and amphibole quartz syenites; iv) Scheelite with minor CuMoAu-sulphides associated with endo- and exo-skams spatially related to I-type monzogranite, granite and alkali feldspar granite. The first three associations occur along the Yzerfontein-Helderberg-zone, a 180 km lineament in the Tygerberg terrane, exploited by syn-, late- and post-tectonic intrusions and their related mineralization. The fourth association is typical of the Boland terrane. The spatial and temporal relationships among the various metal associations are interpreted as the result of

  3. Lateral structural variations and drainage response along the Misikantage anticline in the western Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt, southern Tianshan, NW China (United States)

    Tang, Pengcheng; Rao, Gang; Li, Shiqin; Yu, Yangli; Pei, Yangwen; Wang, Xin; Shen, Zhongyue; Chen, Ninghua; Zhao, Bo


    The Cenozoic Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt (KFTB) along the southern piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains (NW China) provides excellent chances for investigating active deformation and its controls on landscape topography. In contrast to the well-imaged eastern KFTB, the structural deformation in the western part complicated by the development of early-stage salt structures still has not been well investigated. On the basis of seismic reflection profiles, well data and surface geology, combined with previously determined paleomagnetic ages, this study focuses on the deformation style, onset and average shortening rate of the Misikantage anticline in the western KFTB. Together with the morphometric analysis of satellite images and digital elevation models (DEMs), we have demonstrated that: 1) the Misikantage anticline is an asymmetric detachment fold, where the fold geometry, amounts of shortening, outcropping strata and channel network patterns vary along strike; 2) syntectonic growth strata recognized from seismic profiles combined with paleomagnetic ages indicate that the folding started at 2.4 Ma and resulted in 0.3-0.9 km of shortening, yielding an average shortening rate of 0.12-0.38 mm/yr; 3) the landscape topography and drainage networks markedly change in response to lateral structural variations. These findings would provide a basis for further comparisons of compressional structures between the eastern and western KFTB, which are also helpful in better understanding active folding in fold-and-thrust belts particularly where thick salt is involved in deformation.

  4. The Port Isabel Fold Belt: Salt enhanced Neogene Gravitational Spreading in the East Breaks, Western Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Lebit, Hermann; Clavaud, Marie; Whitehead, Sam; Opdyke, Scott; Luneburg, Catalina


    The Port Isabel fold belt is situated at the northwestern corner of the deep water Gulf of Mexico where the regional E-W trending Texas-Louisiana shelf bends into the NNE-SSW trend of the East Mexico Shelf. The fold belt forms an allochthonous wedge that ramps up from West to East with its front occupied by shallow salt complexes (local canopies). It is assumed that the belt predominantly comprises Oligocene siliciclastic sequences which reveal eastward facing folds and thrusts with a NE-SW regional trend. The structural architecture of the fold belt is very well imaged on recently processed 3D seismic volumes. Crystal III is a wide-azimuth survey acquired in 2011 and reprocessed in 2016 leveraging newly developed state-of-the-art technology. 3D deghosting, directional designature and multi-model 3D SRME resulted in broader frequency spectrum. The new image benefits from unique implementation of FWI, combined with classic tomographic updates. Seismically transparent zones indicating over-pressured shales are limited to the core of anticlines or to the footwall of internal thrust. Mobile shales associated with diapirs are absent in the study area. In contrast, salt is mobile and apparently forms the major decollement of the PIFB as indicated by remnant salt preferentially located in triangles along the major thrusts and fault intersections or at the core of anticlines. Shallow salt diapirs seam to root in the fold belt, while lacking evidence for salt feeders being connected to the deep salt underlying the Mesozoic to Paleogene substratum of the fold belt. Towards the WNW the fold belt is transient into a extensional regime, characterized by roll-over structures associated with deep reaching normal faults which form ultra-deep mini basins filled with Neogene deposits. Kinematic restorations confirm the simultaneous evolution of the deep mini basins and the outboard fold belt. This resembles a gravitational spreading system with the extensional tectonics of the deep

  5. Garnet-sillimanite bearing gneisses from Darjeeling, eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The P–T evolution of these garnetsillimanite gneiss has been constrained through the use of conventional geothermobarometry, internally consistent TWEEQU programme and Perple_X software in the KFMASH model system, the combination of these three approaches demonstrates that the Darjeeling gneisses ...

  6. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Shi


    Full Text Available The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (Kangding-Litang-Batang geothermal belt. Cluster analysis and factor analysis are employed to character the hydrochemical properties of hot springs in different fault zones and the possible hydrochemical evolution processes of these hot springs. Our study shows that the hot springs can be divided into three groups based on their locations. The hot springs in the first group mainly originate from the volcanic rock and the springs in the second group originate from the metamorphic rock while the springs in the third group originate from the result of mixture of shallow water. Water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and the water environment are the three dominant factors that control the hydrochemical evolution process in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. These results are also in well agreement with the isotopic and chemical analysis.

  7. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,


    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  8. Geology and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Eastern Ghat mobile belt and its comparison with the lower crust of the Southern Peninsular shield (United States)

    Rao, M. V. Subba


    Two prominent rock suites constitute the lithology of the Eastern Ghat mobile belt: (1) the khondalite suite - the metapelites, and (2) the charnockite suite. Later intrusives include ultramafic sequences, anorthosites and granitic gneisses. The chief structural element in the rocks of the Eastern Ghats is a planar fabric (gneissosity), defined by the alignment of platy minerals like flattened quartz, garnet, sillimanite, graphite, etc. The parallelism between the foliation and the lithological layering is related to isoclinal folding. The major structural trend (axial plane foliation trend) observed in the belt is NE-SW. Five major tectonic events have been delineated in the belt. A boundary fault along the western margin of the Eastern Ghats, bordering the low grade terrain has been substantiated by recent gravity and the deep seismic sounding studies. Field evidence shows that the pyroxene granulites (basic granulites) post-date the khondalite suite, but are older than the charnockites as well as the granitic gneisses. Polyphase metamorphism, probably correlatable with different periods of deformation is recorded. The field relations in the Eastern Ghats point to the intense deformation of the terrain, apparently both before, during and after metamorphism.

  9. Effect of slope failures on river-network pattern: A river piracy case study from the flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Bíl, Michal; Bábek, Ondřej; Smolková, Veronika; Pánek, Tomáš; Macur, Lukáš


    Landslides are important geomorphic agents in various mountainous settings. We document here a case of river piracy from the upper part of the Malá Brodská Valley in the Vsetínské Mts., Czech Republic (Rača Unit of the flysch Magura Group of Nappes, flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians) controlled by mass movement processes. Based on the field geological, geomorphological and geophysical data, we found out that the landslide accumulations pushed the more active river of out of two subparallel river channels with different erosion activity westwards and forced intensive lateral erosion towards the recently abandoned valley. Apart from the landslide processes, the presence of the N-striking fault, accentuated by higher flow rates of the eastern channel as a result of its larger catchment area, were the most critical factors of the river piracy. As a consequence of the river piracy, intensive retrograde erosion in the elbow of capture and also within the upper portion of the western catchment occurred. Deposits of two landslide dams document recent minimum erosion rates to be 18.8 1 in the western (captured) catchment, and 3.6 1 in the eastern catchment respectively. The maximum age of the river piracy is estimated to be of the late Glacial and/or the early Holocene.

  10. Omphacite-bearing calcite marble and associated coesite-bearing pelitic schist from the meta-ophiolitic belt of Chinese western Tianshan (United States)

    Lü, Zeng; Bucher, Kurt; Zhang, Lifei


    In the meta-ophiolitic belt of Chinese western Tianshan, marble (5-50 cm thick) is found interlayered with pelitic schist. The marble is mainly composed of calcite (>90% in volume) and accessory phases include omphacite, quartz, dolomite, albite, phengite, clinozoisite and titanite with or without rutile core. This is the first omphacite (Jd35-50) reported from marble of Chinese western Tianshan. It mainly occurs in the calcite matrix, rarely as inclusion in albite. The presence of omphacite suggests that the layered marble was subjected to eclogite-facies metamorphism, consistent with the occurrence of high-Si phengite (Si a.p.f.u. up to 3.7) and aragonite relic in albite. The associated pelitic schist consists of quartz, white mica (phengite + paragonite), garnet, albite, amphibole (barroisite ± glaucophane) and rutile/titanite, as well as minor amounts of dolomite, tourmaline and graphite. Coesite is optically recognized within porphyroblastic pelitic garnet and is further confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. Thermodynamic models support the UHP metamorphism of calcite marble, similar to the associated pelitic schist. Shared UHP-LT history of calcareous and pelitic rocks in Chinese western Tianshan suggests that the supracrustal carbon-rich sediments have been carried to depths of >90 km during fast subduction and thus are potential sources for carbon recycled into arc crust.

  11. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes from the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt, Western Shikoku, Japan: evidence for the prevalence for the Late Cretaceous protoliths (United States)

    Walia, Monika; Knittel, Ulrich; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Nishizaka, Naoki; Kimura, Kazunari; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Lee, Hao-Yang


    Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt lies to the south of Median Tectonic Line and is exposed on Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu Islands in Japan. This belt has been the focus of many studies in recent years since the discovery of young detrital zircon grains (80 - 95 Ma). Samples for this study come from a 2000 m bore hole from north-western Shikoku drilled in an area considered to be part of the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous part of the Sanbagawa Belt. Dating of single zircon grains using the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating method shows that all but one sample contain zircons younger than 100 Ma and thus the protoliths are younger than the previously accepted age of metamorphism of the Sanbagawa Belt at ca. 110 Ma. The single sample that contains only zircons dated at 136 ± 3 Ma, apparently is of volcanic origin and could be a clast representing the source of 130-140 Ma zircons of the sample taken about 120m above this sample. In addition, three surface samples were analyzed. Two of these also contain zircons younger than 100 Ma, whereas the third sample contains only zircons older than 159 Ma. Hf-isotope values for the younger age group 82-116 Ma, ɛHf(T) range from -2.4 to +9.6. Zircon grains of 127-146 Ma ages have more positive ɛHf(T) values of +11.5 to +19.0 indicating depleted mantle source. We envisage these zircons to have been derived from the ocean side of a magmatic arc. All grains in the range 215-250 Ma are characterized by negative ɛHf(T) ranging from -2.3 to -15.2, suggesting re-melting of already existent crust. Within the detrital zircon populations contained in the Sanbagawa meta-sediments age groups are recognized that are also known from SE China. However, compared to those from mainland China, zircons from the Sanbagawa meta-sediments are usually characterized by higher ɛHf(T) values suggesting higher input of material derived from the depleted mantle.

  12. The eastern Central Pamir Gneiss Domes: temporal and spatial geometry of burial and exhumation (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Stearns, Michael; Ratschbacher, Lothar


    We present a structural and thermochronologic study of the Gneiss Domes and their cover in the Central Pamir. Emphasis is laid on presentation and discussion of new 40Ar-39Ar dates embedded in two structural profiles through the central Muskol and western Shatput domes. The structure of the Central Pamir is dominated by Cenozoic deformation related to the India-Asia collision. Only few structures of the Phanerozoic amalgamation of the Pamir were not reactivated. The Cenozoic structural development of the Central Pamir can be simplified into three phases: 1) Between initial collision of India and Asia to 28-20 Ma (peak metamorphism, U-Pb monazite) the emplacement of large thrust sheets led to strong north-south shortening;" in the eastern Central Pamir the major thrust sheet has a minimum displacement of 35 km. The stratigraphic thickness of this nappe is ~7 km but its internal structure and thus its true thickness is weakly constrained by the available data. Klippen of Early Paleozoic strata of this thrust sheet south of the Central Pamir Muskol and Shatput domes cover Carboniferous to Triassic strata of the footwall; they can be linked to the Akbaital nappe previously mapped by Russian geologists north of the domes. In the Sasaksu valley of the Muskol dome, the thrust sheet is intruded by a ~36 Ma granodiorite (new U-Pb zircon dates). (2) This crustal imbricate stack is cut by east-trending normal faults and shear zones that define the Central Pamir Gneiss Domes. Normal shear is concentrated along the northern margin of the domes and was the main process associated with exhumation of the domes from ~30 km depth at 20-15 Ma (U-Th/Pb titanite and monazite, Ar-Ar, fission-track geo-thermochronology). One granite at ~35 Ma (U-Pb zircon) pre-dates exhumation while three leucocratic dykes (18-20 Ma U-Pb monazite and zircon) are dated to be coeval with the initial stages of exhumation. Detrital U-Pb zircon ages of the high-grade metasediments indicate that the protoliths

  13. Spatio-temporal evolution of the Satpura Mountain Belt of India: A comparison with the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia and implication for evolution of the supercontinent Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohanty


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia shows near neighbour positions of the South Indian Cratons and Western Australian Cratons. These cratonic areas are characterized by extensive Paleoproterozoic tectonism. Detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal data of the Satpura Mountains of India indicates presence of at least three episodes of Proterozoic orogeny at ∼2100–1900 Ma, ∼1850 Ma and ∼1650 Ma, and associated basin development and closing. A subdued imprint of the Grenville orogeny (∼950 Ma is also found in rock records of this Mountain Belt. The Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia also shows three episodes of orogeny: Opthalmian–Glenburgh Orogeny (2100–1950 Ma, Capricorn Orogeny (∼1800 Ma and Mangaroon Orogeny (∼1650 Ma, and basin opening and closing related to these tectonic movements. These broad similarities suggest their joint evolution possibly in a near neighbour position during Paleoproterozoic Era. In view of juxtaposition of the Western Australia along the east coast of India, at the position of the Eastern Ghats, during Archean, it is suggested that the breaking of this Archean megacraton at ∼2400 Ma led to northward movement of the broken components and formation of the Satpura–Capricorn Orogen (at ∼2100 and ∼1800 Ma due to the collision of cratonic blocks with the pre-existing northern cratonic nuclei of India and Western Australia. This is also the time of formation of the supercontinent Columbia. A phase of basin opening followed the ∼1800 Ma event, followed by another phase of collisional event at ∼1600 Ma at the site of the Satpura–Capricorn Orogen. Subsequent evolutions of the Satpura and the Capricorn Orogens differ slightly, indicating separate evolutional history.

  14. Source heterogeneity for the major components of ~3.7 Ga banded iron formations (Isua Greenstone Belt, Western Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Polat, Ali


    to those reported from the Paleoproterozoic Hamersley (Western Australia) BIF, but overall Ge concentrations are about one order of magnitude higher in the Archean BIF. This seems consistent with other lines of evidence that the ambient Archean seawater was enriched with iron relative to Proterozoic...

  15. Factors affecting self-reported use of seat belt among commercial vehicle drivers in Gusau metropolis Zamfara State north-western Nigeria. (United States)

    Idris, Suleman Hadejia; Nasir Sambo, Mohammed; Gambo, Hilda; Hassan, Amina


    Optimal and adequate prevention of road traffic injuries in developing countries has been hampered by limitations of knowledge and poor attitude towards use of cost effective safety and preventive measures like the seat belt. The objective of the study was to determine the level of self-reported use of seat belt and the factors affecting it among commercial motor vehicle drivers. The study was cross-sectional descriptive, data was obtained using interviewer-administered, structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Knowledge of seat belt was low, (11%), more than half (55.3%) admitted that use of seat belts prevents ejection of vehicle occupants. Less than half (47%) reported use of seat belt always. Age and educational level were significantly associated with use of seat belts (p seat belts coupled with low level of use. Innovative public health education approaches with enforcement could mitigate the low level of use.

  16. Structural framework of the Lufilian Fold Belt in the Domes region of North Western Province, Zambia from interpretation of geophysical data (United States)

    Williams, P. R.; Nisbet, B. W.


    The area around the Kabompo and Mwombezhi Domes in the North Western Province of Zambia is characterized by poor outcrop, and as is common with other areas in Zambia, correlation of units between isolated outcrops is complicated by the similarity of lithology in many sections of the stratigraphy. Aeromagnetic data, airborne radiometric and electromagnetic data were used to provide control on correlation between outcrops, and therefore allowed interpretation of a robust structural framework. The two domes are Paleoproterozoic basement-cored anticlines unconformably overlain by Neoproterozoic Roan Group rocks of the lower Katangan Supergroup. The Katangan Supergroup was deposited in an extensional basin formed as part of the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. From the geophysical interpretation several normal faults are identified that probably formed during this stage of basin formation, and there is good evidence for at least four regional transfer zones having formed at this time. The fault architecture initiated during the Katangan extensional tectonic event is shown in this interpretation to have strongly influenced the geometry of the Lufilian Fold Belt. Evidence in the domes area suggests that salt tectonics may explain the localization of the regional décollement at the top of the Lower Roan, and provide a structural mechanism for the formation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the area. Sinistral reverse faulting and associated folding dominates the Lufilian structural fabric in the east of area, and these faults appear to sole out on the regional décollement. Sigmoidal fold profiles have developed between adjacent fault zones, with east-west oriented fold axes in more distal areas rotating into parallelism adjacent to the faults, suggesting synchronous folding and faulting during north-directed compression. In the north-western part of the study area, fold hinge orientations and basement-cover interactions, indicate north north-westerly directed

  17. lateritic weathering of granite-gneiss in obudu plateau, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This paper reports the chemical, mineralogical and textural changes involved in the lateritization of granite-gneiss in. Obudu plateau and establishes that the susceptibility of constituent minerals to lateritic weathering is in the sequence; feldspar, Hornblende, Biotite, Quartz. Most of the chemical constituents of the basement ...

  18. Effects of Weathering on Mechanical Properties of Granite Gneiss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the geotechnical characteristics of granite gneiss and dolerite from Oban and Obuduregions in South-eastern Nigeria. The suitability of these rocks for civil construction purposes and the effects of weathering on their mechanical properties are examined. The results indicate that compressive strength ...

  19. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.


    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  20. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain


    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  1. Effect of anthropogenic aerosol emissions on precipitation in warm conveyor belts in the western North Pacific in winter - a model study with ECHAM6-HAM (United States)

    Joos, Hanna; Madonna, Erica; Witlox, Kasja; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Wernli, Heini; Lohmann, Ulrike


    While there is a clear impact of aerosol particles on the radiation balance, whether and how aerosol particles influence precipitation is controversial. Here we use the ECHAM6-HAM global climate model coupled to an aerosol module to analyse whether an impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on the timing and amount of precipitation can be detected in North Pacific warm conveyor belts. Warm conveyor belts are the strongest precipitation-producing airstreams in extratropical cyclones and are identified here with a Lagrangian technique, i.e. by objectively identifying the most strongly ascending trajectories in North Pacific cyclones. These conveyor belts have been identified separately in 10-year ECHAM6-HAM simulations with present-day and pre-industrial aerosol conditions. Then, the evolution of aerosols and cloud properties has been analysed in detail along the identified warm conveyor belt trajectories. The results show that, under present-day conditions, some warm conveyor belt trajectories are strongly polluted (i.e. high concentrations of black carbon and sulfur dioxide) due to horizontal transport from eastern Asia to the oceanic region where warm conveyor belts start their ascent. In these polluted trajectories a weak delay and reduction of precipitation formation occurs compared to clean warm conveyor belt trajectories. However, all warm conveyor belts consist of both polluted and clean trajectories at the time they start their ascent, and the typically more abundant clean trajectories strongly reduce the aerosol impact from the polluted trajectories. The main conclusion then is that the overall amount of precipitation is comparable in pre-industrial conditions, when all warm conveyor belt trajectories are clean, and in present-day conditions, when warm conveyor belts consist of a mixture of clean and polluted trajectories.

  2. Component geochronology in the polyphase ca. 3920 Ma Acasta Gneiss (United States)

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Cates, Nicole L.; Caro, Guillaume; Trail, Dustin; Abramov, Oleg; Guitreau, Martin; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Hopkins, Michelle D.; Bleeker, Wouter


    The oldest compiled U–Pb zircon ages for the Acasta Gneiss Complex in the Northwest Territories of Canada span about 4050–3850 Ma; yet older ca. 4200 Ma xenocrystic U–Pb zircon ages have also been reported for this terrane. The AGC expresses at least 25 km2 of outcrop exposure, but only a small subset of this has been documented in the detail required to investigate a complex history and resolve disputes over emplacement ages. To better understand this history, we combined new ion microprobe235,238U–207,206Pb zircon geochronology with whole-rock and zircon rare earth element compositions ([REE]zirc), Ti-in-zircon thermometry (Tixln) and 147Sm–143Nd geochronology for an individual subdivided ∼60 cm2 slab of Acasta banded gneiss comprising five separate lithologic components. Results were compared to other variably deformed granitoid-gneisses and plagioclase-hornblende rocks from elsewhere in the AGC. We show that different gneissic components carry distinct [Th/U]zirc vs. Tixln and [REE]zirc signatures correlative with different zircon U–Pb age populations and WR compositions, but not with 147Sm–143Nd isotope systematics. Modeled  [REE] from lattice-strain theory reconciles only the ca. 3920 Ma zircons with the oldest component that also preserves strong positive Eu∗ anomalies. Magmas which gave rise to the somewhat older (inherited) ca. 4020 Ma AGC zircon age population formed at ∼IW (iron–wüstite) to gneisses.

  3. Rare earth element mobility in the Roffna Gneiss, Switzerland (United States)

    Vocke, Robert D.; Hanson, Gilbert N.; Grünenfelder, Marc


    The Roffna Gneiss, a deformed Hercynian granite porphyry within the Penninic nappes of eastern Switzerland, underwent extreme cataclasis with the progressive development of phengite towards the margins of the nappe under conditions of the glaucophane schist to greenschist facies. This resulted in the selective mobilization of major and trace elements over distances of 10's to 100's of meters and the resetting of the Rb — Sr whole rock isotopic systems some 100 my ago. The component ratios and compositionvolume relationships of progressively deformed gneiss samples studied here suggest that this process was essentially isovolumetric. The mineralogy of the deformation sequence appears to have been controlled by a reaction involving the breakdown of microcline, albite and biotite and the formation of phengite and quartz. The fluids introduced Mg and H2O, promoting the development of phengite, and removed the Na being released by the breakdown of albite. The fluids were most probably derived from the surrounding Triassic carbonates and quartzites. These relatively high fO2 and carbonate rich fluids also introduced rare earth elements (REE) into the gneiss. The gneiss was progressively enriched in Eu up to 60%, Y up to 40%, and Yb up to 100%. These enrichments are associated with the development of epitaxial xenotime around zircon in the most phengite-rich sample. While the REE were mobile, uranium and thorium were essentially immobile. The formation of xenotime was suggested to explain the observed heavy REE enrichment when large differences in the REE contents were found for replicate analyses using HF and then lithium metaborate for dissolution. These differences arose because xenotime, like monazite, can be difficult (if not impossible) to dissolve in hydrofluoric acid. Due to the possibility of incomplete sample dissolution, we now recommend fusion with lithium metaborate for all REE, Lu — Hf or Sm — Nd studies.

  4. Geochemistry of mylonitic gneisses from the Cycladic Basement Unit (Paros and Serifos, Aegean Sea): implications for protoliths of the high-grade gneisses (United States)

    McGrath, Annette; Stouraiti, Christina; Windley, Brian


    The nature of the protolith(s) of high-grade gneisses from the Aegean Cycladic Basement Unit of the islands of Paros and Serifos is investigated using whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-O isotopes, in order to better understand their origin and to compare with possible equivalents from the southern Aegean region. On Paros, the basement unit consists of heterogeneous, mylonitized upper amphibolite-grade paragneisses and associated migmatitic rocks, whereas on Serifos, it consists of a mylonitized felsic gneiss, intercalated with layers and lenses of S-type leucogranites and minor mafic metavolcanics. New Nd, Sr and O isotope data suggest a predominantly crustal-derived source in the gneiss protolith from both islands: high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (≥7052 to 0.711, calculated at 300 Ma), negative initial ɛNd (-2.8 to -7.7) values for bulk-rock gneiss samples, and high δ18O values of quartz separates (+10 to +12.7 ‰). Major and trace-element variations corroborate that chemical differentiation within the NW Paros gneiss subunit results from progressive migmatitization. Peraluminous gneisses from eastern Paros share clear similarities with metapelitic gneisses from the Naxos gneiss dome, in terms of their trace-element patterns, ɛNd (300) and O isotope characteristics. The mineral assemblage, the fine grain size (due to intense mylonitization), and the metaluminous affinity of the South Serifos grey quartzofeldpathic gneiss do not allow for an unambiguous interpretation for these undated rocks; however, a combination of geochemical parameters and tectonic discrimination diagrams indicates an immature siliciclastic (greywacke) protolith from a continental island arc setting. Sr-Nd isotopic systematics indicates an increasing lower crustal component in gneisses from NW Paros, which is closer to the migmatitic core of the Paros dome. The overall isotopic trend of the gneissic Cycladic Basement Unit on Paros is spatially correlated with that of the Naxos gneiss dome.

  5. Continuous cratonic crust between the Congo and Tanzania blocks in western Uganda (United States)

    Link, Klemens; Koehn, Daniel; Barth, Matthias G.; Tiberindwa, John V.; Barifaijo, Erasmus; Aanyu, Kevin; Foley, Stephen F.


    Western Uganda is a key region for understanding the development of the western branch of the East African rift system and its interaction with pre-existing cratonic lithosphere. It is also the site of the topographically anomalous Rwenzori Mountains, which attain altitudes of >5000 m within the rift. New structural and geochronological data indicate that western Uganda south and east of the Rwenzori Mountains consists of a WSW to ENE trending fold and thrust belt emplaced by thick-skinned tectonics that thrust several slices of Proterozoic and Archaean units onto the craton from the south. The presence of Archaean units within the thrust stack is supported by new Laser-ICP-MS U-Pb age determinations (2637-2584 Ma) on zircons from the Rwenzori foothills. Repetition of the Paleoproterozoic units is confirmed by mapping the internal stratigraphy where a basal quartzite can be used as marker layer, and discrete thrust units show distinct metamorphic grades. The thrust belt is partially unconformably covered by a Neoproterozoic nappe correlated with the Kibaran orogenic belt. Even though conglomerates mark the bottom of the Kibaran unit, intensive brittle fault zones and pseudotachylites disprove an autochthonous position. The composition of volcanics in the Toro-Ankole field of western Uganda can be explained by the persistence of a cratonic lithosphere root beneath the northwardly thrusted Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rocks of westernmost Uganda. Volcanic geochemistry indicates thinning of the lithosphere from >140 km beneath Toro-Ankole to ca. 80 km beneath the Virunga volcanic field about 150 km to the south. We conclude that the western branch of the East African rift system was initiated in an area of thinner lithosphere with Palaeoproterozoic cover in the Virunga area and has propagated northwards where it now abuts against thick cratonic lithosphere covered by a thrust belt consisting of gneisses, metasediments and metavolcanics of Neoarchaean to Proterozoic

  6. Molecular belts. (United States)

    Evans, Paul J; Jasti, Ramesh


    Rigid hydrocarbon macrocycles with radially-oriented π-systems and continuous conjugation have attracted great interest in recent years. These molecular belts have novel optoelectronic properties and host-guest behavior. Certain belts may also ultimately lead to a rational synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The high strain associated with the nonplanar, conjugated backbones requires the development of new synthetic methods, and clever synthetic design. Herein we describe the synthetic history and properties of these structurally simple but synthetically challenging molecules.

  7. Different stages of chemical alteration on metabasaltic rocks in the subduction channel: Evidence from the Western Tianshan metamorphic belt, NW China (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Dong; Tan, Yulong; Wang, Guodong


    To understand the geochemistry of subduction zone metamorphism, especially the large-scale mass transfer at forearc to subarc depths, we carried out a detailed study of a ∼1.5 m size metabasaltic block with well-preserved pillow structures from the Chinese Western Tianshan high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. This metabasaltic block is characterized by omphacite-rich interiors gradually surrounded by abundant channelized (veins) glaucophane-rich patches toward the rims. The glaucophane-rich rims share the same peak metamorphic conditions with omphacite-rich interiors, but have experienced stronger blueschist-facies overprinting during exhumation. Representative samples from the glaucophane-rich rims and omphacite-rich interiors yield a well-defined Rb-Sr isochron age of 307 ± 23 Ma, likely representing this overprinting event. Both glaucophane-rich rims and omphacite-rich interiors show elevated K-Rb-Cs-Ba-Pb-Sr contents relative to their protolith, reflecting a large-scale enrichment of these elements and formation of abundant phengite during subduction. Compared with the omphacite-rich interiors, the glaucophane-rich rims have gained rare earth elements (REEs, >25%), U-Th (∼75%), Pb-Sr (>100%) and some transition metals like Co and Ni (25-50%), but lost P (∼75%), Na (>25%), Li and Be (∼50%); K-Rb-Cs-Ba show only 10% loss. These chemical changes would be caused by serpentinite-derived fluids during the exhumation in the subduction channel. Therefore, there are two stages of fluid action in the subduction channel. As the formation of phengite stabilizes K-Rb-Cs-Ba at the first stage, the residual fluids released from the phengite-rich metabasaltic rocks would be depleted in these elements, which are unlikely to contribute to elevated contents of these elements in arc magmas if phengite remains stable at subarc depths. In addition, the decrease of U/Pb ratios as the preferred enrichment of Pb over U in the eclogitic rocks during the first stage

  8. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min


    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  9. Petrographic study of the Miocene-Pleistocene sandstone in the Western Foothills, northern Taiwan: implication for the unroofing history of Taiwan orogenic belt (United States)

    Jia-Jhih, Yeh; Wen-Shan, Chen


    The Taiwan orogeny belt developed due to the arc-continental collision since about 6 Ma. Plio-Pleistocene foreland basin deposits are eroded from adjacent orogenic belt that provides much information about orogenic tectonics. In this study, sandstone petrography is enabled to trace orogenic exhumation history of the northern Taiwan. It indicates that late Miocene-early Pliocene strata were composed dominantly of monocrystalline quartz and feldspar deriving from the Eurasia continent. Late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sandstone (3.6-2Ma) contains lithic fragments which consist dominantly of sandstone fragments. It suggests that the sediments were derived from sedimentary province (Miocene strata) of the orogenic belt. The middle Pleistocene sandstone (1.5Ma) consists of argillite and metasandstone fragments (Oligocene strata) deriving from low-grade metamorphic province (the Hsuehshan Range). The late Pleistocene sandstone consists of quartzite fragments (Eocene strata) which were derived from metamorphic province (the Hsuehshan Range). The exhumation history of orogenic belt is revealed significant changes from sedimentary to metamorphic provinces during the middle Pleistocene. It suggests that the Hsuehshan Range exposed since middle Pleistocene. Lithic fragments derived from the Taiwan orogenic belt that corresponded with the unroofing history of the northern Hsuehshan Range by apatite and zircon fission track dating (1.2-2.6Ma and 4.6-6.4Ma).

  10. Petrology and provenance of the Neogene fluvial succession in Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin) western Pakistan: Implications for sedimentation in peripheral forelands basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Aktar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik


    Sandstones and conglomerates of the Neogene fluvial succession in Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin), Pakistan were studied for the first time to understand the composition, provenance and tectonic settings of the source areas. Sandstones of the Miocene Dasht Murgha Group and Pliocene Malthanai Formation...... Formation and Pleistocene Bostan formation reveal that the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation, within the Pishin Belt, were the main source terrains while the Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite and the Cretaceous and Jurassic succession of the Indian Plate were subordinate source terrains...

  11. Deconstructing the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan


    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  12. Great Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars


    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil...

  13. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite and associated potassic plutons as evidence for Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision in the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, Brazil (United States)

    Costa, Felipe G.; Oliveira, Elson P.; McNaughton, Neal J.


    Several granitic plutons have intruded the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, São Francisco craton, Brazil, in the time interval 2163-2080 Ma, but their tectonic significance is poorly understood. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite (FGG) is one of a set of plutons emplaced along the western boundary of the greenstone belt with Archaean migmatite-gneiss basement. The pluton is mostly composed of hornblende granodiorite, occasionally crosscut by syn-plutonic mafic dykes. The FGG is metaluminous, medium- to high-K calc-alkaline with relatively constant silica abundances (SiO2 ˜ 63-66 wt%), high Sr (900-800 ppm) and high Ba (1000-1500 ppm). The associated mafic dykes are ultrapotassic, with high abundances of Ba, Sr, MgO, Ni, Cr, and light rare earth elements, suggesting derivation from partial melts of an enriched mantle source. The FGG originated probably by fractional crystallization from a primitive K-rich mafic magma that interacted with crustal melts. Its zircon U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2106 ± 6 Ma indicates that the FGG is younger than the early (2163-2127 Ma) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and calc-alkaline arc plutons of the greenstone belt, and is closely related in time and space with potassic to ultrapotassic plutons (ca. 2110-2105 Ma). The negative ɛNd(t) of FGG and coeval K-rich plutons of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt contrasts markedly with the positive ɛNd(t) of the older arc plutons, indicating a major change of isotope signatures in granites of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt with time. This isotope shift may be related to magma contamination with older continental material and/or derivation of the parental potassic magma from enriched lithospheric mantle sources. We suggest that the K-rich plutons were emplaced during or shortly after Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision.

  14. Petrological outline of an area near Sparone (Orco Valley, Western Italian Alps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnigh, L.D.


    Several rocktypes and their metamorphic mineral growth are described from an area on the western border of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone in the Orco Valley (NW Italy). It is argued that in some rocks (garnet-rich gneisses and micaceous gneisses) pre-Alpine metamorphic minerals are present, in other rocks

  15. Zircon ages, geochemistry and Nd isotopic systematics for the Palaeoproterozoic 2.3-1.8 Ga Kuilyu Complex, East Kyrgyzstan - The oldest continental basement fragment in the Tianshan orogenic belt (United States)

    Kröner, A.; Alexeiev, D. V.; Kovach, V. P.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Mikolaichuk, A. V.; Xie, H.; Sobel, E. R.


    Precambrian microcontinents represent key tectonic units in the accretionary collages of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and their geological history is reasonably well established since the Mesoproterozoic but remains weakly constrained for older epochs due to a scarcity of exposed Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean rocks. Early Precambrian rocks were previously reported from several metamorphic complexes in the Kyrgyz Tianshan orogenic belt, mainly based on multigrain conventional zircon dating, but the present study only confirmed such rocks at one site, namely in the Kuilyu Complex of eastern Kyrgyzstan. New single grain SHRIMP II zircon ages, geochemical data, and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions for granitoid gneisses of the Kuilyu Complex elucidate the age, origin and tectonic settings of this oldest continental fragment in the Tianshan. The Kuilyu Complex is part of the basement in the Ishim - Middle Tianshan microcontinent. It consist of a strongly deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal assemblage of paragneisses and schists which are tectonically interlayered with amphibolites, migmatites and granitoid gneisses. Our zircon dating indicates that the Kuilyu Complex contains two suites of Palaeoproterozoic granitoid gneisses with magmatic protolith ages of ca. 2.32-2.33 Ga and 1.85 Ga. Granitoid magmatism at 1.85 Ga was almost immediately followed by amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ca 1.83 Ga, evidenced by growth of metamorphic zircon rims. The older, ca 2.3 Ga granitoid gneisses chemically correspond to calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type magnesian quartz diorite and granodiorite. The protolith of the younger, ca. 1.85 Ga granite-gneiss is an alkalic-calcic, metaluminous to peraluminous, ferroan medium-grained porphyric granite with chemical features resembling A-type granites. The 2.3 Ga and 1.85 Ga granitoid gneisses have slightly to distinctly negative initial εNd values of -1.2 and -6.6, and similar depleted mantle Nd model ages of 2

  16. Sediment provenance in contractional orogens: The detrital zircon record from modern rivers in the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin of western Argentina (United States)

    Capaldi, Tomas N.; Horton, Brian K.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Odlum, Margaret L.


    This study analyzes detrital zircon U-Pb age populations from Andean rivers to assess whether active synorogenic sedimentation accurately records proportional contributions from varied bedrock source units across different drainage areas. Samples of modern river sand were collected from west-central Argentina (28-33°S), where the Andes are characterized by active uplift and deposition in diverse contractional provinces, including (1) hinterland, (2) wedge-top, (3) proximal foreland, and (4) distal broken foreland basin settings. Potential controls on sediment provenance were evaluated by comparing river U-Pb age distributions with predicted age spectra generated by a sediment mixing model weighted by relative catchment exposure (outcrop) areas for different source units. Several statistical measures (similarity, likeness, and cross-correlation) are employed to compare how well the area-weighted model predicts modern river age populations. (1) Hinterland basin provenance is influenced by local relief generated along thrust-bounded ranges and high zircon fertility of exposed crystalline basement. (2) Wedge-top (piggyback) basin provenance is controlled by variable lithologic durability among thrust-belt bedrock sources and recycled basin sediments. (3) Proximal foreland (foredeep) basin provenance of rivers and fluvial megafans accurately reflect regional bedrock distributions, with limited effects of zircon fertility and lithologic durability in large (>20,000 km2) second-order drainage systems. (4) In distal broken segments of the foreland basin, regional provenance signatures from thrust-belt and hinterland areas are diluted by local contributions from foreland basement-cored uplifts.

  17. A Silurian-early Devonian slab window in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from high-Mg diorites, adakites and granitoids in the western Central Beishan region, NW China (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Li, Jinyi; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen


    The Beishan orogenic belt is a key region for deciphering the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Here in this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element, and zircon Hf isotopic data for the Baitoushan, and Bagelengtai plutons in the western Central Beishan region to address the accretionary processes. The Baitoushan pluton consists of quartz diorites, monzonites and K-feldspar granites, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 435 Ma, 421 Ma and 401 Ma, respectively. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites exhibit relatively high MgO contents and Mg# values (63-72), display enrichments in LILEs and LREEs, and exhibit high Ba (585-1415 ppm), Sr (416-570 ppm) and compatible element (such as Cr and Ni) abundances, which make them akin to typical high-Mg andesites. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites were probably generated by the interaction of subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. The Baitoushan K-feldspar granites are ascribed to fractionated I-type granites with peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics. They exhibit positive εHf(t) values (2.43-7.63) and Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (0.92-1.60 Ga). Those early Devonian granites, including Baitoushan K-feldspar granite and Gongpoquan leucogranites (402 Ma), are derived from melting of the mafic lower crust and/or sediments by upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle. The Bagelengtai granodiorites exhibit similar geochemical signatures with that of typical adakites, with a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 435 Ma. They exhibit relatively high Sr (502-628 ppm) and Al2O3 (16.40-17.40 wt.%) contents, and low MgO (1.02-1.29 wt.%), Y (3.37-6.94 ppm) and HREEs contents, with relatively high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. The Bagelengtai granodiorites were derived from partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust, with significant contributions of subducted sediments, subsequently

  18. A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Roermund, H.L.M. van; Zhang, L.; Spiers, C.


    In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U–Th–Pbmonazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the

  19. Laterally bendable belt conveyor (United States)

    Peterson, William J.


    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  20. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  1. Evaluation of magma mixing in the subvolcanic rocks of Ghansura Felsic Dome of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex, eastern India (United States)

    Gogoi, Bibhuti; Saikia, Ashima; Ahmad, Mansoor; Ahmad, Talat


    The subvolcanic rocks exposed in the Ghansura Felsic Dome (GFD) of the Bathani volcano-sedimentary sequence at the northern fringe of the Rajgir fold belt in the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex preserves evidence of magma mixing and mingling in mafic (dolerite), felsic (microgranite) and intermediate (hybrid) rocks. Structures like crenulated margins of mafic enclaves, felsic microgranular enclaves and ocelli with reaction surfaces in mafic rocks, hybrid zones at mafic-felsic contacts, back-veining and mafic flows in the granitic host imply magma mingling phenomena. Textural features like quartz and titanite ocelli, acicular apatite, rapakivi and anti-rapakivi feldspar intergrowths, oscillatory zoned plagioclase, plagioclase with resorbed core and intact rim, resorbed crystals, mafic clots and mineral transporting veins are interpreted as evidence of magma mixing. Three distinct hybridized rocks have formed due to varied interactions of the intruding mafic magma with the felsic host, which include porphyritic diorite, mingled rocks and intermediate rocks containing felsic ocelli. Geochemical signatures confirm that the hybrid rocks present in the study area are mixing products formed due to the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas. Physical parameters like temperature, viscosity, glass transition temperature and fragility calculated for different rock types have been used to model the relative contributions of mafic and felsic end-member magmas in forming the porphyritic diorite. From textural and geochemical investigations it appears that the GFD was a partly solidified magma chamber when mafic magma intruded it leading to the formation of a variety of hybrid rock types.

  2. Flying through an African Greenstone Belt by EMusic (United States)

    Menghini, Antonio; Pontani, Stefano


    This performance will simulate a flying over and across a "Greenstone Belt" area in Sierra Leone, that was investigated by means of Airborne EM method for detecting gold. VTEM (Versatile Time Domain Electromagnetic - Geotech Ltd) data were sonified according to the procedure (EMusic) defined by Menghini and Pontani (2016). The soundtrack of the video showing a journey through the survey area (also into the subsurface) describes the different geophysical responses, provided by the regolith aquifer, the granitic-gneiss basement and by the greenstone belt bedrock. It represents a funny way to disseminate the knowledge and the utility of the geophysical methods towards common audience. References Menghini, A., and Pontani, S., (2016): What is the Sound of the Earth? First Break, 34, 41-46.

  3. Neoproterozoic diamictite-bearing sedimentary rocks in the northern Yili Block and their constraints on the Precambrian evolution of microcontinents in the Western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    He, Jingwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Zheng, Bihai; Wu, Hailin; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Yuanzhi


    The origin and tectonic setting of Precambrian sequences in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have been debated due to a lack of high resolution geochronological data. Answering this question is essential for the understanding of the tectonic framework and Precambrian evolution of the blocks within the CAOB. Here we reported LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic data for Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block, an important component of the CAOB, in order to provide information on possible provenance and regional tectonic evolution. A total of 271 concordant U-Pb zircon ages from Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block define three major age populations of 1900-1400 Ma, 1300-1150 Ma and 700-580 Ma, which are quite different from cratons and microcontinents involved in the CAOB. Although it is not completely consistent with the local basement ages, an autochthonous provenance interpretation is more suitable. Some zircon grains show significant old Hf model ages (TDMC; 3.9-2.4 Ga) and reveal continental crust as old as Paleoarchean probably existed. Continuous Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations exhibit large variations in the εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the long-time involvement of both reworked ancient crust and juvenile material. Similar Mesoproterozoic evolution pattern is identified in many continental terranes involved in the CAOB that surround the Tarim Craton. Based on our analysis and published research, we postulate that the northern Yili Block, together with Chinese Central Tianshan, Kyrgyz North Tianshan and some other microcontinents surrounding the Tarim Craton, once constituted the continental margin of the Tarim Craton in the Mesoproterozoic, formed by long-lived accretionary processes. Most of the late Neoproterozoic zircons exhibit significant positive εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the addition of juvenile crust. It is consistent with the tectonic event related to the East Africa

  4. New radiometric ages on gneisses of the Oliverian domes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartman, R.E.; Leo, G.W.


    Gneissic plutons of the Oliverian domes, mantled by Ammonoosuc Volcanics, are located along the axis of the Bronson Hill anticlinorium from New Hampshire to Connecticut. The contacts between the plutonic and volcanic rocks appear to be concordant on a regional scale, but gneiss intrudes the volcanics in several domes. Available radiometric and fossil evidence suggests that the Ammonoosuc Volcanics have a Middle Ordovician age but are somewhat older than the Oliverian gneisses. New U-Pb zircon data from Oliverian gneisses of six domes plot on a concordia diagram as an almost colinear array that yields an upper intercept age of about 444 m.y. The plotted data vary from nearly concordant to moderately discordant, the degree of discordance, correlating with /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ages that range from 459 to 415 m.y. The pattern of discordance does not relate to the uranium contents of the zircons nor to the geographic distribution of the domes. If /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ages are considered individually without an assumed consanguinity of the units, however, they do not find particular support in geologic relationships. Thus, they prefer the concordia intercept age of 444 +/- 8 m.y. for the suite as the best estimate for the time of crystallization of the Oliverian gneisses. Possibly, the Whitefield, Gneiss in the Jefferson dome represents a 10 to 15 m.y. older unit, although they are cautious about claiming such resolution with the present data.

  5. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan; Mohamed A. Ali


    .... Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals...

  6. Amphibolites and other metamorphic mafic rocks of the blastomylonitic graben in Western Galicia, NW Spain: field relations and petrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arps, C.E.S.


    Within the strongly migmatized axial zone of the Hesperian massif in western Galicia a graben-like structure has been distinguished, characterized essentially by the presence of non-migmatic rocks that comprise orthogneisses with blastomylonitic textures, leucocratic gneisses,

  7. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  8. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt? (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P


    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  9. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes along the Arakan subduction belt recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma) (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Min, Soe; Aung, Lin Thu; Than, Oo; Tun, Soe Thura


    Upper-plate structures that splay out from the megathrusts are common features along major convergent plate boundaries. However, their earthquake and tsunami hazard potentials have not yet received significant attention. In this study, we identified at least one earthquake event that may have been produced by an upper-plate splay fault offshore western Myanmar, based on U-Th ages of uplifted coral microatolls. This event is likely an earthquake that was documented historically in C.E. 1848, with an estimated magnitude between 6.8 and 7.2 based on regional structural characteristics. Such magnitude is consistent with the observed co-seismic uplift amount of ∼0.5 m. Although these events are smaller in magnitude than events produced by megathrusts, they may produce higher earthquake and tsunami hazards for local coastal communities due to their proximity. Our results also indicate that earthquake events with co-seismic uplift along the coast may not necessarily produce a flight of marine terraces. Therefore, using only records of uplifted marine terraces as megathrust earthquake proxies may overlook the importance of upper-plate splay fault ruptures, and underestimate the overall earthquake frequency for future seismic and tsunami hazards along major subduction zones of the world.

  10. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim


    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  11. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites (United States)

    Uwe Friedel


    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  12. Belt Aligning Revisited (United States)

    Yurchenko, Vadim


    The misalignment causes the greatest damage to the conveyor belt. As a result of the interaction of the moving belt with the stationary parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  13. A Paleozoic fore-arc complex in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt : Petrology, geochemistry and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic composition of paragneisses from the Xilingol Complex in Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yilong; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zheng, Jianping


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is one of the largest and most complex accretionary collages and responsible for considerable Phanerozoic juvenile crustal growth. The Xilingol Complex is a key tectonic unit within the eastern CAOB and consists of strongly deformed quartz-feldspathic gneisses

  14. Influence de la structure des gneiss et des granites sur la resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a pattern of structure evaluation of gneiss and granite rocks from different areas of Togo and proposes a classification of these rocks based on their homogeneity and the regressions for the structures porphyroblastic, lepidoblastic and grainy. Finally the strength property, coefficient Los Angeles, ...

  15. 1.99 Ga mafic dykes of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland: An upper age limit for the Palaeoproterozoic Loch Maree Group (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Prave, Tony; Spencer, Christopher


    Mafic dyke swarms are often used as geochronological markers, as they are widespread and emplaced over short timespans. The ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke swarm is one such example that has played a key role in understanding the complex tectonic and metamorphic history of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland (LGC), part of the North Atlantic Craton (NAC). The LGC consists of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic terranes that experienced polyphase deformation prior to their assembly at ca. 1.8 Ga. Zircons separated from a doleritic dyke from the Gairloch terrane have yielded a concordant U-Th-Pb age (1,989 +4.3 / -0.99 Ma) using the ID-TIMS method. The doleritic dyke is emplaced in Lewisian gneiss that experienced both granulite and amphibolite-facies metamorphism. Partial recrystallisation and amphibolitisation of the dyke demonstrate that it pre-dates the most recent (Laxfordian) amphibolite-facies metamorphic event. The age obtained from the dyke overlaps the U-Pb age of a previously dated olivine gabbro dyke from the Assynt terrane (1,992 Ma). These combined ages provide strong corroborating evidence for a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm event, distinct from the older ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke event known from elsewhere in the LGC. The existence of a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm provides an upper age limit for the Loch Maree Group (LMG), a Palaeoproterozoic succession of metasediment and metavolcanic rocks that overlie the LGC and which are not cross-cut by the Scourie dykes. This study proposes that a period of crustal extension took place in the region at ca. 2.0 Ga. Later, subduction may have resulted in the accretion of the LMG and the adjacent Ard Gneiss, which has previously been regarded as a magmatic arc. The ca. 1.9 Ga age of the earliest stage of the Laxfordian metamorphic event, which affected the LMG, could therefore mark the onset of collision. This sequence of events can be correlated with other coeval areas of the NAC, including the Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt of

  16. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko


    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  17. A Neoarchean subduction recorded by the Eastern Hebei Precambrian basement, North China Craton: Geochemical fingerprints from metavolcanic rocks of the Saheqiao-Shangying-Qinglong supracrustal belt (United States)

    Guo, Rongrong; Liu, Shuwen; Bai, Xiang; Wang, Wei


    The Saheqiao-Shangying-Qinglong supracrustal belt (SSQB) in the northern Eastern Hebei Precambrian basement (EHPB) is located in the northern margin of the Eastern Block (EB) of the North China Craton (NCC). The Shangying terrane constitutes the middle segment of the SSQB and contains primarily metamorphic volcanics and plutonic tonalitic gneisses. The metamorphic volcanics mainly consist of pyroxene plagioclase amphibolites, garnet plagioclase amphibolites, biotite plagioclase amphibole gneisses, and amphibole plagioclase gneisses. Zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic analyses reveal that the metavolcanic rocks from the Shangying terrane crystallized at ∼2506-2613 Ma with TDM (Hf) values of ∼2541-2944 Ma. These metamorphic volcanic rocks are subdivided into four groups based on their lithological and chemical features. Group I consists chiefly of tholeiites that are characterized by slightly light rare earth element (LREE) depleted patterns and flat multi-element spider diagrams, which are similar to back-arc basin basalt (BABB)-like rocks and were derived from the partial melting of the depleted mantle. The tholeiites in Group II have slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns without Nb anomalies, exhibit an affinity to Nb-enriched basalt (NEB)-like rocks, and were produced by the partial melting of HFSE-enriched mantle peridotites. Group III is composed of slightly LREE-enriched tholeiites with negative Nb-Ta anomalies that resemble island arc tholeiites. Group IV comprises calc-alkaline basalts and andesites with highly enriched LREEs and evident Nb, Ta and Ti depletions that are geochemically similar to the products of island arcs. The island arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline basalt-andesites originated from the partial melting of sub-arc mantle peridotites that were previously metasomatized by slab-derived fluids/melts with the fractional crystallization of ferromagnesian minerals. Collectively, the BABB-like rocks, the NEBs, arc tholeiites and calc

  18. Late Cenozoic Strain Partitioning in Southwest Tibet and Western Nepal (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Yin, A.; Copeland, P.


    Southwest Tibet and western Nepal exhibits a complex deformation pattern characterized by interacting strike-slip, extensional faults, and thrust faults. We have used geologic mapping and analysis of Landsat and Corona images to characterize the geometry and kinematics of structures that occupy this region. From northwest to southeast, the structures analyzed include the Karakoram fault system, the Zada basin, the Gurla Mandhata detachment system, and a system of right-slip faults and normal faults in west Nepal. The southwest reach of the Karakoram fault is comprised of a system of NW-striking right-slip faults, N-striking normal faults, and minor NE-striking left-slip faults that accommodate dominantly right-lateral shear. Southwards along the Karakoram fault system the trend of the mean slip direction rotates to a more easterly direction (135\\deg~ in the north to 285\\deg~ in the south). The Zada basin lies due south of the Karakoram fault system and is represented by a >1km-thick sequence of relatively undeformed Pliocene through Pleistocene sandstones, siltstones, and conglomerates. Recent faulting is characterized by NNE-striking normal faults and NW-striking faults displaying right-lateral separations. However, no basin bounding faults have been recognized. In the Mt. Kailas area, structural data collected from the Gurla Mandhata detachment system indicates that the orientation of the mean slip direction is ~103\\deg . Detachment faults associated with the fault system are corrugated with axes oriented parallel to the slip direction. Deformation in the footwall is bulk-constrictional, as indicated by linear feldspar fabric within augen gneisses and tight to isoclinal, lineation parallel folds within layered gneisses. Landsat 7 color composite images and Corona photography were used to document recent faulting east of the Gurla Mandhata detachment system in western Nepal. Two sets of faults were recognized, WNW-striking faults and N-striking faults. WNW

  19. An Alternative Source for Ceramics and Glass Raw Materials: Augen-Gneiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Olgaç Kangal


    Full Text Available Due to the depletion of well-known feldspar reserves in the forms of granite, trachyte and pegmatite, many investigations are focused on new and economic alternatives to these resources. Of these, gneiss is a metamorphic rock type, which is characterized by dark and light colored minerals including feldspar and quartz. In this study, Augen-Gneiss rock was subjected to flotation tests to produce alkali (Na + Ca feldspar and quartz concentrates by adapting different flotation conditions with/without hydrofluoric acid (HF. During these tests, the effect of particle size and different reagent combinations were investigated. The results of these tests showed that, in the presence of HF, a saleable feldspar concentrate with 0.04% Fe2O3 content and a saleable quartz concentrate with 98.45% SiO2 content were obtained. Products with similar qualities to a feldspar concentrate with 0.13% Fe2O3 and a quartz concentrate with 92.53% SiO2 content were produced without HF. The results of these tests clearly showed that, compared to other types of origin, saleable quality feldspar and quartz could well be enriched with/without HF from Augen-Gneiss rock.

  20. Geochemistry of the Bayonplutonic Complex – Western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The BayonNeoproterozoic plutonic complex located in Western Cameroon intrudes gneisses of Paleo to Neo Proterozoic age. The complex is composed of gabbro, monzogabbro and monzonites frequently crosscut by trachytic and granitic veins. The primary mineral assemblages of the gabbro and monzogabbro is ...

  1. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern desert, Egypt:


    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan; ALI, MOHAMED A.


    The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite). Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of ...

  2. Kuiper Belt Objects (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    The region of the solar system immediately beyond Neptune's orbit is densely populated with small bodies. This region, known as the Kuiper Belt, consists of objects that may predate Neptune, the orbits of which provide a fossil record of processes operative in the young solar system. The Kuiper Belt contains some of the Solar System's most primitive, least thermally processed matter. It is probably the source of the short-period comets and Centaurs, and may also supply collisionally generated interplanetary dust. I discuss the properties of the Kuiper Belt and provide an overview of the outstanding scientific issues.

  3. Conveyor belt service machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... in. and thicker that could reduce the time, cost and injury potential inherent in extending and retracting mine wide section belt conveyors while eliminating the need to use additional machinery in accomplishing such moves...

  4. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    Distributions Recent analysis of Van Allen Probes observations has forced a reevaluation of models and our understanding of the inner electron radiation belt ...challenge” studies of four chosen recent events well-observed by the Van Allen Probes satellites, with participation by the radiation belt, recently augmented by observations made by the currently orbiting NASA Van Allen Probes satellites, has revealed unexpected behavior and

  5. Galactic Radiation Belts. (United States)


    was formulated by Ortwein et al. 13for analysis of the Jovian radio emission. These authors de- rived their results for an arbitrary dipole-axis...galactic radio sources with the Jovian radiation-belt source, 17suggests a=. intriguing similarity. The related questions of why galactic radiation belts...Space Sciences Laboratory: Atmospheric and ionospheric physics, radiation from the atmosphere, densfty and composition of the upper atmosphere, aurorae

  6. Petrogenesis of the mineralized granitoids from the Kounrad and Borly porphyry Cu deposits and the East Kounrad porphyry Mo deposit in Kazakhstan: Implication for tectonic evolution and mineralization of the western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Seitmuratova, Eleonora


    The Kounrad region, located in the western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, hosts the Kounrad porphyry Cu, the Borly porphyry Cu-Mo, and the East Kounrad porphyry Mo deposits. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the mineralized granitoids from the Kounrad, the Borly and the East Kounrad deposits emplaced at 331.7 ± 2.2 Ma, 311.6 ± 2.6 Ma, and 295.4 ± 2.9 Ma, respectively. The mineralized granodiorite porphyries at Kounrad show a geochemical affinity to adakitic rocks with high Sr (357-670 ppm), Sr/Y (40-68) and Mg numbers (Mg# = molar Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +)) from 0.43 to 0.51, low Yb (0.97-1.1 ppm) and Y (8.3-11.1 ppm). They have variable Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7046 to 0.7051, εNd(t) = - 0.1 to + 1.1, εHf(t) = + 5.2 to + 9.0, δ18O = + 5.7 to + 6.8). These features indicate that the Kounrad adakitic magmas derived from the MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, homogenization) zone at depth of 40 km with 5-15% ancient basement rocks contamination. The mineralized granodiorite porphyries at Borly have a normal arc magma geochemical signature (e.g., enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion of heavy REE, Nb and Ti) and experienced fractional crystallization. They also have variable Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7047 to 0.7053, εNd(t) = 0 to - 1.3, εHf(t) = - 0.6 to + 7.4, δ18O = + 5.5 to + 6.7) and Mg# (0.45 to 0.51), indicating that they were generated by melting of juvenile basaltic lower crust with normal thickness, followed by 10-30% ancient crustal contamination. The East Kounrad mineralized intrusions, consisting of granite and leucogranite, have experienced advanced degrees of fractional crystallization and have similar Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7048, ɛNd (t) = + 1.0 to + 2.8, εHf(t) = + 4.8 to + 8.9, δ18O = + 5.6 to + 6.4) and low Mg# (0.18-0.37), indicating a juvenile lower crust source at depths of < 27 km with 10

  7. Hydrous parental magmas of Early to Middle Permian gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia, North China: New constraints on deep-Earth fluid cycling in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Yi-Zhi


    The role of fluids in the formation of the Permian-aged Xigedan and Mandula gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia was significant to the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), and the active northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) U-Pb zircon geochronology establishes that the Xigedan gabbroic intrusion in the northern NCC was emplaced at 266 Ma, and is therefore slightly younger than the ca 280 Ma Mandula gabbroic intrusion in the XMOB. Along with their felsic counterparts, the mafic igneous intrusions record extensive bimodal magmatism along the northern NCC and in the XMOB during the Early to Middle Permian. The Mandula gabbroic rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7040-0.7043) and positive εNd(t) (+6.2 to +7.3) and εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +14.5), resembling to those of contemporaneous Mandula basalts. These features, together with the presence of amphibole and the enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE, e.g., Rb, Ba, U and Sr) and depletion of Nb-Ta suggest that the parental magmas of the Mandula mafic igneous rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by water-rich fluids. In contrast, the Xigedan gabbroic rocks are characterised by high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7078-0.7080) and zircon δ18O values (5.84-6.61‰), but low εNd(t) (-9.3 to -10.2) and εHf(t) values (-8.76 to -8.54), indicative of a long-term enriched subcontinental lithosphere mantle source that was metasomatized by recycled, high δ18O crustal materials prior to partial melting. The high water contents (4.6-6.9 wt%) and arc-like geochemical signature (enrichment of fluid-mobile elements and depletion of Nb-Ta) of the parental magmas of the Xigedan gabbroic rocks further establish the existence of a mantle hydration event caused by fluid/melts released from hydrated recycled oceanic crust. Incompatible element modelling shows that 5-10% partial melting of an enriched mantle source by

  8. Belt conveyor apparatus (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.


    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  9. The transformation of amphibolite facies gneiss to charnockite in southern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu, India (United States)

    Janardhan, A. S.; Newton, R. C.; Hansen, E. C.


    Amphibolite facies metamorphic grade gives way southward to the granulite grade in southern Karnataka, as acid gneisses develop charnockite patches and streaks and basic enclaves develop pyroxenes. Petrologic investigations in the transitional zone south of Mysore have established the following points: 1) The transition is prograde. Amphibole-bearing gneisses intimately associated with charnockite at Kabbal and several similar localities are not retrogressive after charnockite, as proved by patchy obliteration of their foliation by transgressive, very coarse-grained charnockite, high fluorine content of biotite and amphibole in gneisses, and high large-ion lithophile element contents in gneisses and charnockites. These features are in contrast to very low fluorine in retrogressive amphiboles and biotites, very low large-ion lithophile element contents, and zonal bleaching of charnockite, in clearly retrogressive areas, as at Bhavani Sagar, Tamil Nadu. 2) Metamorphic temperatures in the transitional areas were 700° 800° C, pressures were 5 7 kbar, and H2O pressures were 0.1 0.3 times total pressures, based on thermodynamic calculations using mineral analyses. Dense CO2-rich fluid inclusions in the Kabbal rocks confirm the low H2O pressures at the first appearance of orthopyroxene. Farther to the south, in the Nilgiri Hills and adjacent granulite massif areas, peak metamorphic temperatures were 800° 900° C, pressures were 7 9 kbar, and water pressures were very low, so that primary biotites and amphiboles (those with high F contents) are rare. 3) The incipient granulite-grade metamorphism of the transitional areas was introduced by a wave of anatexis and K-metasomatism. This process was arrested by drying out under heavy CO2 influx. Charnockites so formed are hybrids of anatectic granite and metabasite, of metabasite and immediately adjacent gneiss, or are virtually isochemical with pre-existing gneiss despite gross recrystallization to granulite mineralogy

  10. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering


    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  11. Deep drilling in the Dabie-Sulu Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphic Belt, China (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqin; Yang, Jingsui; Robinson, Paul T.

    One of the most exciting geologic discoveries in the last 20 years is the finding of the presence of a major ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt in the Dabie-Sulu region of eastern China. In this belt, high-grade continental crustal rocks contain both diamond and coesite [Xu, 1987;Xu et al., 1992; Yang et al., 1999], clear evidence of crustal subduction to depths >150 km.This belt formed by collision between the North China and Yangtze blocks in the Mesozoic between about 240 and 220 Ma. Recent work has identified an older, parallel belt on the north side of the Dabie-Qinling Mountains dated as Ordovician (˜500-440 Ma) [Yang et al., 2001, 2002]. This older belt extends northwestward for nearly 4000 km through the Qilian Mountains into northern Tibet, where it is offset by the left-lateral Altyn Tagh Fault (Figure l). In the Dabie-Sulu region, the rocks consist chiefly of granitic gneiss, paragneiss, eclogite, and garnet peridotite, whose protoliths are supracrustal rocks with a formation age of about 800-1800 Ma.

  12. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza


    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  13. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoarchean North Liaoning tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses of the North China Craton, North China (United States)

    Wang, Maojiang; Liu, Shuwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kang; Yan, Ming; Guo, Boran; Bai, Xiang; Guo, Rongrong


    Tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses are dominant lithological assemblages in Archean high grade metamorphic terranes in the world. These TTG gneisses preserve important information in formation and evolution of Archean continental crust. Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock in North Liaoning Province (NLP) is one of the major Neoarchean metamorphic basement terranes in the northeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock is composed mainly of Neoarchean tonalitic-trondhjemitic (TT) gneisses, subordinate granodioritic to monzogranitic association (GMA) and minor supracrustal rocks. The tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses are divided into high MgO Group (HMG) and low MgO Group (LMG) based on their chemical compositions. Detailed petrogenetic investigations suggest that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were derived from partial melting of subducted slabs and contaminated by the overlying mantle wedge during its ascent; whereas, magmatic precursors of the LMG samples were derived from the juvenile lower crust. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating analyses reveal that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were formed at 2553-2531 Ma. An older HMG tonalitic gneiss sample was discovered at Sandaoguan in the southmost of the studied area, with its magmatic precursor emplaced at 2680 Ma. The magmatic precursors of the LMG samples emplaced at 2595-2583 Ma. Combined with previous credible chronological data, our newly obtained zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that three episodes of magmatism at ∼2700-2680 Ma, ∼2600-2570 Ma and ∼2550-2510 Ma occurred in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock, and the TT gneisses in this microblock were subjected to generally amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ∼2520-2470 Ma. Based on the above Neoarchean crust-mantle thermal-dynamic processes, we propose that the Neoarchean magmatism and metamorphism in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock of North Liaoning Province occurred in

  14. Reaction softening in the Prospect Gneiss on the New York Promontory during Eastern North American Paleozoic Orogenies (United States)

    Helou, C. E.; Wathen, B.; Wintsch, R. P.; Yi, K.


    The Prospect Gneiss, a Late Ordovician diorite to granodiorite porphyry lying on the eastern margin of the New York promontory in south-central Connecticut, records repeated deformation events in multiple foliations. Its high feldspar content (>65%) made the Prospect Gneiss the strongest rock along this margin. Salinic and Acadian events, recorded by U-Pb ages of recrystallized titanites and zircons, produced a pervasive gneissosity. Transpressive strain during this time produced a gneissosity with a sub-horizontal SSW stretching lineation. Exhumation and cooling in the Neoacadian and Alleghenian, made the majority of the gneiss too strong for penetrative strain. Most continuing strain was partitioned into a ½ km wide greenschist facies shear zone along the eastern margin of the Prospect Gneiss. However, local ductile shear zones formed in the Prospect Gneiss in the Neoacadian and Alleghenian. These shear zones show reaction weakening through the dissolution of strong feldspars and precipitation of weak, foliation-forming muscovite. The reaction occurring: 3 K-feldspar + 2H+ = muscovite + 6 quartz + 2K+ has a ΔVreaction of -15 %. K-feldspar dissolved and muscovite precipitated along planes normal to sigma 1, which produced a Sn fabric, and SiO2, diffusing down its activity gradient, precipitated quartz as beards in strain shadows of feldspars. Textures also support the static replacement of feldspar, which indicate the introduction of H+ into the shear zones. An example of these textures are fingers of muscovite embaying K-feldspar and armored by quartz, consistent with the reaction above. The crystallization of weak muscovite constitutes reaction softening and its preferred orientation in Sn constitutes textural softening. This softening allowed localized strain in the Prospect Gneiss to continue into the greenschist facies during the later Paleozoic orogenies.

  15. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is ...

  16. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern. Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    negative anomalies of Nb and Ti relative to adjacent elements in multi-element spidergrams. ... that Fe-rich tholeiites associated with rare ..... metabasalts from the Southern Musoma –Mara greenstone belt … 78. *Zimbabwe. *Canada. Simba Sirori Mg-rich metabasalts. Komatiite. Kom. Basalt. Komatiite Kom Basalt. Pb. 7. 5.

  18. Pseudosection modeling of coesite-eclogite and felsic host gneiss from Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Manon, M. R.


    The coesite-bearing eclogite described by Baldwin et al. (2008) is the first evidence of ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism in an active tectonic environment, and the youngest yet discovered. Pseudosection modeling performed on bulk-rock data from this eclogite and a nearby felsic gneiss using THERMOCALC suggests that the presence/absence of sodic amphibole in eclogites can be very sensitive to the Al-content of the rock, and retrograde phases may reflect changing rock compositions. The peak assemblage in the mafic eclogite is almandine +omphacite +phengite +coesite +rutile +zircon +apatite, but pseudosection modeling in both NCKFMASH and NCKFMASHT yields a diagram in which sodic amphibole persists from the blueschist facies, throughout the eclogite facies. The observed paragenesis does not appear in the diagram unless the bulk composition of the rock used to calculate the pseudosection is altered. This assemblage is insensitive to changes in water or Fe/Mg, but in a T-XAl diagram the glaucophane out reaction is very steep and it is possible to obtain the natural eclogite assemblage by a slight addition of Al203 (1-2 mol %). UHP amphiboles were described by Zhang and Liou (1994), and these calculations suggest a stability field for them at low Al bulk compositions. No amphibole is stable at peak conditions in the coesite-eclogites implying that either the XRF analysis is not representative of the equilibration volume of the rock, or there is a problem with the thermodynamic models used to construct the pseudosection. Retrograde corona textures in this rock are composed of plagioclase and sodic-calcic amphibole, as well as interstitial quartz. Subtraction of these minerals from the total bulk composition would lead to a more aluminous overall bulk composition and stabilize the observed mineral assemblage. This implies that the overall chemical composition of the rock is changing during exhumation from UHP conditions and the observed retrograde minerals are a

  19. Particle Swarm Optimization for inverse modeling of solute transport in fractured gneiss aquifer. (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ramadan; Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio


    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has received considerable attention as a global optimization technique from scientists of different disciplines around the world. In this article, we illustrate how to use PSO for inverse modeling of a coupled flow and transport groundwater model (MODFLOW2005-MT3DMS) in a fractured gneiss aquifer. In particular, the hydroPSO R package is used as optimization engine, because it has been specifically designed to calibrate environmental, hydrological and hydrogeological models. In addition, hydroPSO implements the latest Standard Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (SPSO-2011), with an adaptive random topology and rotational invariance constituting the main advancements over previous PSO versions. A tracer test conducted in the experimental field at TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany) is used as case study. A double-porosity approach is used to simulate the solute transport in the fractured Gneiss aquifer. Tracer concentrations obtained with hydroPSO were in good agreement with its corresponding observations, as measured by a high value of the coefficient of determination and a low sum of squared residuals. Several graphical outputs automatically generated by hydroPSO provided useful insights to assess the quality of the calibration results. It was found that hydroPSO required a small number of model runs to reach the region of the global optimum, and it proved to be both an effective and efficient optimization technique to calibrate the movement of solute transport over time in a fractured aquifer. In addition, the parallel feature of hydroPSO allowed to reduce the total computation time used in the inverse modeling process up to an eighth of the total time required without using that feature. This work provides a first attempt to demonstrate the capability and versatility of hydroPSO to work as an optimizer of a coupled flow and transport model for contaminant migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The empty primordial asteroid belt. (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre


    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  1. An Early Proterozoic U-Pb zircon age from an Eskolabreen Formation gneiss in southern Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, Y.A.; Larionov, A.N.; Gannibal, L.F.; Sirotkin, A.N.; Tebenkov, A.M.; Ryungenen, G.I.; Ohta, Y. (Kola Science Centre, Russian Acadamy of Sciences, Apatity (Russian Federation))


    A preliminary U/Pb zircon age determination has been carried out on a grey gneiss of the Eskolabreen Formation, the lowest observable lithostratigraphic unit of Precambrian metamorphic rocks in southern Ny Friesland, NE Spitsbergen. The obtained age, appr. 2,400 Ma, is considered to be a metamorphic age and suggests and Early Proterozoic tectonothermal event. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    nearly flat (La/SmCN = 0.71 – 1.08) and light REE enriched (La/SmCN = 2.89). They also show negative anomalies of ..... Jahrb. B72: 109-229. Borg G and Krogh T 1999 Isotopic age data of single zircons from the Archaean. Sukumalnd Greenstone belt, Tanzania. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 29: 301-312. Borg G and Shackleton RM ...

  3. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics. (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa


    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  5. Gneiss domes of the Danba Metamorphic Complex, Songpan Ganze, eastern Tibet (United States)

    Billerot, Audrey; Duchene, Stéphanie; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; de Sigoyer, Julia


    In this paper we address the formation and exhumation of the Danba Metamorphic Complex (DMC) that represents the deepest structural level of the Songpan Ganze terrane situated along the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The DMC comprises a variety of gneiss domes and offers a unique opportunity to decipher their development during orogenic evolution. For that purpose, PTtD paths of metamorphic rocks sampled at different structural levels have been reconstructed. The DMC is composed of Triassic metaturbidites of the Xikang group, Paleozoic metasedimentary cover and basement of the Yangtze craton. The DMC is structurally marked by transposition of the upright S1 foliation of the Triassic metaturbidites into a NW-SE trending S2 composite foliation dipping to the NE. Transposition is associated with a localized top-to-the-northeast shear zone along the northeastern edge of the DMC and with pervasive top-to-the-southwest shearing from the core to the border of the complex. These structures are consistent with extrusion of the core of the DMC relative to the lower grade Triassic metaturbidites. The position of the biotite isograd overlapping the structural boundary of the DMC suggests that the Triassic metaturbidites have been affected by an increase in temperature as a result of extrusion. Within the DMC, the position of the metamorphic index minerals relative to the composite S2 foliation reveals that biotite, garnet, staurolite and kyanite grew before the transposition into S2, in contrast with sillimanite which crystallizes in the hinge of F2 folds and along the axial planar S2 schistosity. The sillimanite isograd delineates regional-scale overturned F2 folds and cross-cuts the staurolite and kyanite isograds consistent with an increase in temperature during D2. The melt-in isograd characterizes the deepest structural level of the DMC. PT conditions for these metamorphic rocks, determined using pseudosections and conventional thermometry, indicate a temperature

  6. Geochemical and zircon U-Pb dating analysis of metamagmatic rocks from the Yuli belt in Taiwan (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Chia


    The Tananao Schist Complex of the oldest rocks in Taiwan is exposed at the eastern limb of Backbone Range. Based on the lithologic and metamorphic characteristics, the complex can be divided into the Tailuko and Yuli belts. The Tailuko belt consists of marble, gneiss, and subordinate scattered metabasite; the Yuli belt is composed of greenschist, serpentinite, meta-tuff, meta-gabbro, metabasite, and glaucophane-schist blocks which enclosed by spotted schist of the host rocks. The metamorphic belts were inferred as a Mesozoic mélange. It's still controversial due to the difficulty of analyzing metamorphic rocks. In this study, we focus on the zircon U-Pb dating, geochemistry, and petrographic analysis of spotted schist, metabasite, meta-gabbro, and meta-tuff in order to constrain the formation and crystallization ages and interpret its tectonic setting. Based on zircon U-Pb dating, the host rocks of spotted schist and the exotic blocks of meta-tuff, meta-gabbro (the peak age of 14.4, 15.8, and 16.7 Ma), and metabasite occurred at Miocene. Geochemical characteristics for metabasite and meta-gabbro blocks show Ta-Nd-Ti depletion and LREE depletion in spidergram occurring volcanic arc and N-MORB type affinities, respectively. Results as above mentioned, we suggest that the metamagmatic rocks in the Yuli belt occur within a mélange during the Eurasia continental margin subduction at the Middle-Late Miocene.

  7. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are in...

  8. Long-range laser scanning and 3D imaging for the Gneiss quarries survey (United States)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Spataro, Alessio; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Ambrosi, Christian; Cannata, Massimiliano; Günther, Felix; Corboud, Federico


    In Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland), the exploitation of natural stone, mostly gneisses, is an important activity of valley's economies. Nowadays, these economic activities are menaced by (i) the exploitation costs related to geological phenomena such as fractures, faults and heterogeneous rocks that hinder the processing of the stone product, (ii) continuously changing demand because of the evolving natural stone fashion and (iii) increasing administrative limits and rules acting to protect the environment. Therefore, the sustainable development of the sector for the next decades needs new and effective strategies to regulate and plan the quarries. A fundamental step in this process is the building of a 3D geological model of the quarries to constrain the volume of commercial natural stone and the volume of waste. In this context, we conducted Terrestrial Laser Scanning surveys of the quarries in the Maggia Valley to obtain a detailed 3D topography onto which the geological units were mapped. The topographic 3D model was obtained with a long-range laser scanning Riegl VZ4000 that can measure from up to 4 km of distance with a speed of 147,000 points per second. It operates with the new V-line technology, which defines the surface relief by sensing differentiated signals (echoes), even in the presence of obstacles such as vegetation. Depending on the esthetics of the gneisses, we defined seven types of natural stones that, together with faults and joints, were mapped onto the 3D models of the exploitation sites. According to the orientation of the geological limits and structures, we projected the different rock units and fractures into the excavation front. This way, we obtained a 3D geological model from which we can quantitatively estimate the volume of the seven different natural stones (with different commercial value) and waste (with low commercial value). To verify the 3D geological models and to quantify exploited rock and waste volumes the same

  9. The Birth of a Cratonic Core: Petrologic Evolution of the Hadean-Eoarchean Acasta Gneiss Complex (United States)

    Reimink, J. R.; Chacko, T.; Davies, J.; Pearson, D. G.; Stern, R. A.; Heaman, L. M.; Carlson, R.; Shirey, S. B.


    Granitoid magmatism within the 4.02-3.6 Ga Acasta Gneiss Complex records distinct whole-rock compositional changes during the building the Slave Craton. Previously1,2 we suggested that these signatures implied petrologic changes from initiation of evolved crust formation in an Iceland-like setting to partial melting of hydrated mafic crust at increasing depth through time, culminating in relatively voluminous magmatism at 3.6 Ga. Increasing La/Yb in these rocks suggest increasing depth of melting (and increasing residual garnet content) with time, ending in emplacement of rocks comparable to other Archean TTG suites3, with both high pressure (high La/Yb) and low pressure (low La/Yb) rocks represented at 3.6 Ga. Data from rocks with variable La/Yb that crystallized 3.6 Ga allow us to evaluate potential mechanisms for formation of rocks of this age such as subduction/accretion or intracrustal melting/delamination. Despite major and trace element compositional and age variability, zircon oxygen isotope compositions from a wide variety of rocks are extremely consistent (+6.0-6.5 ‰ from 3.9-2.9 Ga), implying a similar source, one that had been altered by surface waters1. Potential source rocks include the upper portion of oceanic crust, which contains a large portion of mafic crust that had been altered at low temperatures (e.g., 4). Paired whole rock and zircon radiogenic isotopic data are especially sensitive to the extent of pre-existing felsic material in the region, as well as the longevity of primary, basaltic rocks prior to their reworking into more evolved crust. New paired zircon Hf and whole rock Nd isotope data collected from these samples show variably unradiogenic signatures and allow an exploration of similarities and disparities between crust formation in the Acasta Gneiss Complex and other Paleoarchean-Mesoarchean crustal blocks. [1] Reimink et al., 2016. Precambrian Research 281, 453-472. [2] Reimink et al., 2014 Nature Geoscience 7, 529-533. [3

  10. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  11. rights reserved Geophysical Identification of Hydrothermally Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Schist Belts comprise low grade, meta-sediment-dominated belts which are best developed in the western half of. Nigeria. These belts are considered to be Upper. Proterozoic supracrustal rocks which have been infolded into the migmatite-gneiss-quartzite complex. Most metallogenetic features of the Schist belts are.

  12. The significance of Late Devonian ophiolites in the Variscan orogen: a record from the Vosges Klippen Belt (United States)

    Skrzypek, E.; Tabaud, A.-S.; Edel, J.-B.; Schulmann, K.; Cocherie, A.; Guerrot, C.; Rossi, P.


    The present work examines the lithological, structural, geochemical and geochronological records from the Klippen Belt located in the southern Vosges Mountains (NE France). The Klippen Belt is represented by discontinuous exposures of serpentinized harzburgite, ophicalcite, gabbro, gneiss and polymictic conglomerate overlain by deep marine pelitic sediments. Structural data and Bouguer anomalies reveal that the Klippen Belt coincides with a significant discontinuity now occupied by a granitic ridge. Gabbro geochemistry indicates a MOR-type affinity similar to recent slow-spreading ridges, but positive Ba, Sr, Th or U anomalies do not exclude the influence of fluids expelled from a subduction zone. A Sm-Nd isochron age of 372 ± 18 Ma is thought to reflect gabbro emplacement from a highly depleted mantle source (ɛNd = +11.3), and U-Pb zircon ages from a gneiss sample indicate that the basement found in the Klippen has a Neoproterozoic origin. Combined data indicate the formation of a deep basin during Late Devonian rifting. The Klippen lithologies could testify for the presence of an ocean-continent transition environment subsequently inverted during the Early Carboniferous. Basin inversion during the Middle Visean was probably controlled by rift-related structures, and resulted in folding of the sedimentary successions as well as exhumation along thrust zones of deep parts of the basin represented by the Klippen Belt. Based on correlations with the neighbouring Variscan massifs, it is proposed that the southern Vosges sequences represent a back-arc basin related to the North-directed subduction of the southern Palaeotethys Ocean. This geodynamic reconstruction is tentatively correlated with similar ophiolitic remnants in the northern part of the French Massif Central (Brévenne) and with the evolution of the southern Black Forest. The Late Devonian ophiolites are interpreted as relicts of small back-arc marginal basins developed during general closure of the

  13. Factor value determination and applicability evaluation of universal soil loss equation in granite gneiss region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hai Zhang


    Full Text Available Six types of runoff plots were set up and an experimental study was carried out to examine natural rate of soil and water loss in the granite gneiss region of northern Jiangsu Province in China. Through correlation analysis of runoff and soil loss during 364 rainfall events, a simplified and convenient mathematical formula suitable for calculating the rainfall erosivity factor (R for the local region was established. Other factors of the universal soil loss equation (USLE model were also determined. Relative error analysis of the soil loss of various plots calculated by the USLE model on the basis of the observed values showed that the relative error ranged from -3.5% to 9.9% and the confidence level was more than 90%. In addition, the relative error was 5.64% for the terraced field and 12.36% for the sloping field in the practical application. Thus, the confidence level was above 87.64%. These results provide a scientific basis for forecasting and monitoring soil and water loss, for comprehensive management of small watersheds, and for soil and water conservation planning in the region.

  14. Zircon reconnaissance dating of Proterozoic gneisses along the Kunene River of northwestern Namibia (United States)

    Kröner, A.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Wong, J.; Wilde, S. A.


    The northern margin of the Epupa Metamorphic Complex (EMC) along the Kunene River in NW Namibia is one of the geologically least known terranes in Africa because of its remoteness and difficult accessibility. We report field relationships and reconnaissance zircon ages for granitoid gneisses from a 120 km foot-traverse along the Kunene River between the Ruacana Falls in the east and Marienfluss in the west. Most rocks are late Palaeoproterozoic in age and correlate well with similar rocks of the EMC farther south in Kaokoland (1757-1835 Ma, one sample 1861 Ma) and with granitoid rocks in the Kamanjab Inlier, some 400 km SE of the Kunene River (1801-1836 Ma). All these rocks constitute a large magmatic province on the southwestern margin of the Congo Craton, whose protoliths are possibly related to arc magmatism during the Africa-wide so-called Eburnian event (ca. 2000 ± 200 Ma). However, there are also Mesoproterozoic granitoids, 1520-1530 Ma in age, whose tectonic significance remains uncertain but which seem to document a thermal event also seen in high-grade metamorphism and isotopic resetting in this part of SW Africa.



    Krawiec, Piotr; Marlewski, Adam


    During design of the envelope of a noncircular belt pulley one should take into account several conditions resulting from kinematics and geometry of the uneven-running strand transmission. Design of proper values of pitches for a belt pulley, which enable good cooperation between the belt pulley and the belt, should be carefully done. In available Polish literature and catalogues offered by belt manufacturers, one can find only detailed dimensions of belts with a trapezoidal profile. Informat...

  16. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  17. Effect of Hydrograph Separation on Suspended Sediment Concentration Predictions in a Forested Headwater with Thick Soil and Weathered Gneiss Layers

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    Naoki Kabeya


    Full Text Available Two-component hydrograph separation using oxygen-18 concentrations was conducted at a sediment runoff observation weir installed in a small subcatchment of a forested gneiss catchment in Japan. The mean soil thickness of this catchment is 7.27 m, which comprises 3.29 m of brown forest soil (A and B layers and a 3.98-m layer of heavily weathered gneiss. Data were collected for a storm on 20–21 May 2003, and the percentage of event water separated by the stable isotope ratio in comparison with the total rainfall amount was about 1%. This value is within the ratio of a riparian zone in a drainage area. Temporal variation of suspended sediment concentration exhibited higher correlation with the event water component than with the total runoff or pre-event water component. This shows that the riparian zone causes rainwater to flow out quickly during a rain event, and that this is an important area of sediment production and transportation in a forested headwater with thick soil and weathered gneiss layers.

  18. Geochronology, geochemistry and Hf–Sr–Nd isotopes of the ore-bearing syenite from the Shapinggou porphyry Mo deposit, East Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt

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    Tao He


    Full Text Available The Shapinggou Mo deposit is located in the western Dabie mountains, the eastern part of the Qinling-Dabie molybdenum orogenic belt. Shapinggou Mo deposit is a concealed deposit with the ore body mainly hosted by explosive breccia of Gaijing and the granite porphyry as well as the syenite of Shapinggou. Geochemistry study show that the SiO2 contents of Shapinggou syenite range from 61.74 to 69.93%, and the A/CNK from 0.95 to 1.06, classified as metaluminous to weak peraluminous, belonging to alkalic to shoshonitic series. The Mo deposits in Qinling Mo belt formed in two main periods, i.e., the first period occurred in to the Early Cretaceous (145–130 Ma, the second period in the late Early Cretaceous (130–110 Ma. Most of the Mo deposits in Dabie region formed in the second period. The results of zircon U–Pb show that the age of the Shapinggou syenite is 111.3 ± 1.2 Ma, which belongs to the second period. Proterozoic-Archean inherited zircons suggest that it may include some more ancient crustal material like Kongling group. The ɛHf(t values of Shapinggou syenite range from −15.6 to −8.0, TDM2(Hf from 1.7 to 2.16 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t values of the Shapinggou syenite range from −12.29 to −11.76, TDM2(Nd from 1.85 to 1.89 Ga, the 87Sr/86Sr from 0.709 to 0.710, respectively. Results of zircon Hf isotope and whole rock Sr–Nd isotope of Shapinggou syenite indicate that the Mo ore-forming materials were mainly generated from old Yangtze craton, e.g., gneiss from Dabie orogeny, mixed with some juvenal mantle materials. The geodynamics of the Shapinggou Mo deposit corresponded to an extension period in Eastern China, which caused by large scale lithospheric thinning. The delamination caused asthenosphere upwelling and crust-mantle interaction, which provided the ore-forming material and heat.

  19. Gneisses of Brazil's cultural heritage buildings and its most frequent degradations (United States)

    Gilberto Costa, Antônio


    Macroscopic descriptions of cultural heritage buildings constructed using gneisses in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Ouro Preto, Brazil, allowed to identify alterations and degradations, in part conditioned by the mineralogical composition and the structures present in these stone materials. It is important to emphasize that: - some changes still begin in the environments where these materials were formed, experiencing an intensification from the processes of extraction, processing and application; - modifications occurring after the applications are understood herein as degradations. The studied gneisses present banding consisting of parts with different thicknesses and mineralogical contents. Due to these differentiated contents, clear bands were identified and constituted essentially by felsic minerals, such as feldspars and quartz, as well as dark bands formed by mafic minerals represented by: biotite, garnets, amphiboles, such as hornblende or pyroxene (hyperstene). In addition to these minerals, low contents of oxides and sulphides were found. Also under the influence of this distribution of minerals, planar structures or foliations, more or less developed, that can be very penetrative have been identified, mainly when these rocks were submitted to the performance of milonitization processes. From the set of changes and degradations observed stand out those related to the decomposition of minerals that make up these materials. In these cases, feldspars and other silicates, such as micas, amphiboles and pyroxenes, were decomposed due to the hydrolysis and products were generated which compromised the resistance of these stone materials, leading to their consequent disintegration. On the other hand, the presence of expansive clays in these products, caused volume increases which also contributed to the expansion of the weathered surface layer (blistering). This process may result detachments in the form of scales to cavities in cases of

  20. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  1. Chaos on the conveyor belt


    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a functio...


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    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  5. Chaos on the conveyor belt (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  6. Chaos on the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  7. Early lineations in a later shear zone: case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India (United States)

    Bose, S.; Gupta, S.


    In polydeformed gneissic terranes, ductile shear zones may cut across rocks with older penetrative fabrics. Earlier lineations in later ductile shear zones need to be identified to avoid incorrect kinematic interpretation. To investigate the fate of early lineations during later ductile shearing, the Mahanadi Shear Zone (MSZ) from the Eastern Ghats Belt (EGB) in India is taken as a case study. The EGB is a Proterozoic granulite terrane correlated with Indo-Antarctica collision. The MSZ lies within the EGB, but is oriented almost perpendicular to the trend of the belt. The penetrative structural fabric in the EGB is NE-SW trending and dipping SE. However, a broad swing in structural trend from NE-SW to WNW-ESE can be detected near the MSZ from satellite imagery. In mylonitised rocks of the shear zone, a discrepancy between the shear zone lineation and inferred shear sense leads to uncertainty in kinematic interpretation of the shear zone. The EGB rock types include charnockites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses and garnet-sillimanite-bearing metapelitic gneisses (khondalites). Outside the MSZ, gneisses preserve an earlier, dominantly down-dip intersection lineation. Sillimanite needles in khondalites are aligned parallel to this lineation, while quartz and garnet are also annealed into the granulite facies fabric. In the vicinity of the shear zone, evidence of dextral non-coaxial shearing progressively increases but the lineation distribution is scattered. Quartz grains show strong undulose extinction caused by strain at lower temperatures, and crystallographic c-axis fabric analyses using EBSD indicate deformation by basal c-slip mechanism. Preferred alignment of the sillimanite needles is disrupted in khondalites within the MSZ because of partial rotation of the needles towards the sub-horizontal movement direction, with the extent of rotation of the needles being apparently controlled by grain size. Some sillimanite needles also appear to have undergone

  8. Análise da erodibilidade de saprolitos de gnaisse Erodibility analysis of gneiss saprolite

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    F. Morais


    Full Text Available As voçorocas são freqüentes em áreas com rochas do embasamento cristalino. A evolução destas feições é sempre fortemente condicionada pelos processos de erosão hídrica subsuperficial, embora os processos superficiais também sejam importantes. Este trabalho objetivou investigar os processos erosivos subsuperficiais atuantes nas voçorocas e compreender que fatores mineralógicos e texturais poderiam influenciar a erodibilidade dos saprolitos. Para tanto, foram realizados ensaios de caracterização e de avaliação da erodibilidade em amostras representativas, sendo o principal destes o ensaio de furo de agulha. Os resultados indicam que a erosão por carreamento não ocorre e que os saprolitos apresentam susceptibilidade variável à erosão por piping, mesmo quando derivados de uma mesma unidade litológica, mas superior à do horizonte B latossólico. Dados preliminares indicam que os saprolitos mais susceptíveis à erosão por piping são os de textura siltosa (determinados em ensaios granulométricos sem defloculante e agitação e pobres em minerais agregadores, como os argilominerais.Gully erosion are very common in areas with gneiss basement rocks. Their development is strongly influenced by subsuperficial processes, although the surface ones are also important. This study aimed to investigate the subsuperficial erosion mechanisms of these gullies and to understand how mineralogy and texture could influence the saprolite erodibility. Some basic trials and erodibility tests were carried out in representative samples, with imphasis to especially the pin-hole test. The results showed that seepage erosion does not occur and that saprolite present variable susceptibility to piping erosion, even if they are in the same geologic unit. The data confirm that soils with Bw horizon (Oxisols are less erodible than any of the tested saprolites. Preliminary data suggest that saprolites with a silty texture (determined without dispersant

  9. A Permian pole from Paleoproterozoic Gneisses of the Lofoten Islands, Norway?? (United States)

    Brown, L. L.; McEnroe, S. A.


    Paleoproterozoic rocks including paragneisses and Anorthosite-Mangerite-Charnockite-Granite suite rocks dominate the landscape in the southern Lofoten islands of Norway, sandwiched between the Scandinavian Caledonides to the east and off-shore Mesozoic basins to the west. Published geochronology on the AMCG suite and the metamorphism of the gneisses they intrude range from 1.9 to 1.8 Ga, suggesting tectonic activity in this area was coincident with the formation of the supercontinent Columbia. Rare eclogites of Lower Devonian age ( 400 Ma) indicate Caledonian activity in the region, when theses rocks were at greater than 15 kbars and 680°C. Twenty-seven sites were drilled into rocks from Moskenesøy and Flakstadøy, the southernmost Lofoten islands, to investigate their paleomagnetic character and possibly determine a Paleoproterozoic pole for Baltica. Magnetic susceptibility for the 27 sites averages 6.95 x 10-2 SI and NRM values average 2.01 A/m. Hysteresis properties indicate MD magnetite is the dominant iron-oxide present, but optical investigations and demagnetization studies show that high coercivity phases (hemo-ilmenite and ilmeno-hematite) are commonly present and control the stable remanence. Both normal and reversed polarities, nearly antipodal, are observed, with a mean direction of I = -49° and D= 210° (N = 18 sites) with a corresponding paleopole at 48°N, 152°E. The paleolatitude from this study of -30° places the current northwestern side of Baltica at low latitudes at the time of magnetization. The derived pole position is unlike any pole for Baltica in the Paleoproterozic or the early to mid Paleozoic. The pole is most similar to Baltica poles from mid Permian time ( 270 Ma), suggesting the remanence was not gained until well after the Caledonian orogeny. As the uplifted basement rocks are now exposed at the surface due to Mesozoic normal faulting, alternative explanations for the observed pole could include vertical and/or horizontal

  10. Ductile Flow Accompanied by Vertical Thinning and Near-Isothermal Decompression in the Lhagoi Kangri Gneiss Dome, Southern Tibet (United States)

    Diedesch, T.; Jessup, M. J.; Cottle, J. M.; Zeng, L.


    The North Himalayan antiform marks the location of a series of gneiss-cored domes along the southern Tibetan Plateau that record a history of Eocene to Oligocene crustal thickening and ductile flow followed by Miocene exhumation as the locus of India-Asia convergence was transferred southward. Key features common to these North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD) include: (1) a core of Precambrian to Cambrian granitic gneiss (+/- Miocene granite/granitic gneiss), (2) a carapace of Paleozoic to Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks that record Barrovian metamorphism, (3) fabrics that record crustal thickening (D1) and ductile shear with a component of vertical thinning (D2), and (4) an Oligocene to Miocene period of crustal melting and leucogranite emplacement. Our structural, petrologic, and geochronologic data from the Lhagoi Kangri dome (LKD) provide new constraints on the NHGD evolution and the early development of Himalayan middle crust. The LKD is a 25 x 40 km elliptical dome located 100 km NNW of Mt. Everest. Lhagoi Kangri is cored by orthogneiss nonconformably overlain by Paleozoic to Triassic mixed siliciclastic and carbonate metasedimentary rocks. At the highest structural levels deformation is characterized by km-scale N- and S-vergent folds and slaty cleavage (collectively, D1). A later generation of ductile deformation (D2) resulted in tightening of F1 folds and transposition of S1 cleavage at intermediate structural levels, while at deeper structural positions, D2 resulted in the formation of mylonitic foliation characterized by a pervasive LS fabric as well as C and C' shear bands filled by biotite, muscovite, and/or silliamanite laths. Pelitic intervals within the metasedimentary strata record concentric chlorite to sillimanite Barrovian metamorphic isograds (M1), and garnet- to sillimanite-zone rocks record high-temperature, nearly isothermal decompression (M2). Electron probe microanalysis and in-situ laser ablation split stream petrochronology of monazite from

  11. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers. (United States)


    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  12. A new interpretation of seismic and magnetotelluric transect 2T across the Western Carpathians (United States)

    Bezak, Vladimir; Pek, Josef; Vozar, Jan; Bielik, Miroslav


    The deep seismic reflection profile 2T crossing the central part of Slovakia plays an important role in the understanding of the Western Carpathians tectonic development. The profile provides images of the European Platform overlaid by the Outer Carpathian flysch in the north. To the south, the profile is crossing the following main tectonic units: the Klippen Belt, main crustal units of the Inner Carpathians (Tatric, Veporic, and Gemeric units) with superficial nappes and sedimentary and volcanic post-tectonic Tertiary formations. In addition to the seismic profile a magnetotelluric (MT) interpretation and gravity modelling were carried out along the same profile. Joint modelling of different geophysical data brings a new perspective to the understanding of deep crustal structures and of the evolution of the Western Carpathians. Particularly the MT method adds a new property of the imaged units, the electrical conductivity, which is physically different from the features obtained from the seismic and gravity modelling. The original interpretation of the profile 2T, based on seismic data, exhibits mostly sub-horizontal interfaces of contrasting units. A combination of a relatively low resolution gravity data with MT models gives a possibility to identify units with new contrasting physical properties. The north-south 2D MT profile imaged three different conductivity segments of the Western Carpathian crust. Significant differences in physical properties observed in the segments allow us to classify them as due to a different tectonics. The northern part of the profile is dominated by resistive complexes overlain by conductive sedimentary formations. A possible geological interpretation of the northern segment suggests the resistive European platform below conductive flysch sediments and, more to the south a predominance of resistive granitoids and gneiss units. The middle part of the profile contains a complex superimposition of resistive and conductive structures

  13. Geochemistry of amphibolites from the Kolar Schist Belt (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S.; Hanson, G. N.; Rajamani, V.


    How the Nd isotope data suggest that the amphibolites from the schist belt were derived from long-term depleted mantle sources at about 2.7 Ga is described. Trace element and Pb isotope data from the amphibolites also suggest that the sources for the amphibolites on the western and eastern sides of the narrow schist belt were derived from different sources. The Pb data from one outcrop of the central tholeiitic amphibolites lies on a 2.7 Ga isochron with a low model. The other amphibolites (W komatiitic, E komatiitic, and E tholeiitic) do not define isochrons, but suggest that they were derived from sources with distinct histories of U/Pb. There is some suggestion that the E komatiitic amphibolites may have been contaminated by fluids carrying Pb from a long-term, high U/Pb source, such as the old granitic crust on the west side of the schist belt. This is consistent with published galena Pb isotope data from the ore lodes within the belt, which also show a history of long-term U/Pb enrichment.

  14. Palaeoproterozoic prograde metasomatic-metamorphic overprint zones in Archaean tonalitic gneisses, eastern Finland

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    Pajunen, M.


    Full Text Available Several occurrences of coarse-grained kyanite rocks are exposed in the Archaean area of eastern Finland in zones trending predominantly northwest-southeast that crosscut all the Archaean structures and, locally, the Palaeoproterozoic metadiabase dykes, too. Their metamorphic history illustrates vividly Palaeoproterozoic reactivation of the Archaean craton. The early-stage kyanite rocks were formed within the framework of ductile shearing or by penetrative metasomatism in zones of mobile brecciation. Static-state coarse-grained mineral growth during the ongoing fluid activity covered the early foliated fabrics, and metasomatic zoning developed. The early-stage metasomatism was characterized by Si, Ca and alkali leaching. The late-stage structures are dilatational semi-brittle faults and fractures with unstrained, coarse-grained fabrics often formed by metasomatic reactions displaying Mg enrichment along grain boundaries. Metamorphism proceeded from the low-T early-stage Chl-Ms-Qtz, Ky/And-St, eventually leading to the high-T late-stage Crd-Sil assemblages. The thermal peak, at 600-620°C/4-5 kbar, of the process is dated to 1852+2 Ma (U-Pb on xenotime. Al-silicate growth successions in different locations record small variations in the Palaeoproterozoic clockwise P-T paths. Pressure decreased by c. 1 kbar between the early and late stage, i.e. some exhumation had occurred. Fluid composition also changed during the progression, from saline H2O to CO2, rich. Weak retrograde features of high-T phases indicate a rapid cooling stage and termination of fluid activity. The early-stage Ky-St assemblages resemble those described from nearby Palaeoproterozoic metasediments in the Kainuu and North Karelia Schist Belts, where the metamorphic peak was achieved late with respect to Palaeoproterozoic structures. The static Ky-St metamorphism in kyanite rocks was generated by fluid-induced leaching processes at elevated T during the post-orogenic stage after

  15. Tectonic attribution of the Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia and implications for the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Western North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the Langshan basement (United States)

    Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Han, Bao-Fu; Feng, Li-Xia; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Bo; Kong, Ling-Jie


    The Langshan area in western Inner Mongolia, China, is situated on the conjunction of the Alxa Block in the west, the northern North China Craton (NCC) in the east, and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the north, but its tectonic attribution has long been in debate, because the Alxa Block may be an independent Precambrian block from the NCC and the boundary between the two blocks may lie along the Bayanwulashan, to the west of the Langshan, instead of around the Helanshan area, to the east of the Langshan. In this study, new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of four gneisses, one amphibolite, and three granites, combined with previously published age data from Langshan basement rocks, indicate that the Langshan area may be subdivided into the Main Langshan, to the north of a series of NNW-trending faults, and the Southern Langshan in the south. The Main Langshan basement rocks were mainly formed during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, with five major stages of 2.7 Ga (2686 Ma), 2.6 Ga (2619-2563 Ma), 2.5 Ga (2534-2491 Ma), 1.95 Ga (1969-1938 Ma), and 1.7 Ga (1672 Ma). These stages are largely consistent with the major tectonothermal events of the northern NCC during Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic but significantly different from the principal formation period (ca. 2.5-1.9 Ga) of Alxa basement rocks. The Southern Langshan is characterized by the presence of late Paleoproterozoic ( 1.9 Ga) and Neoproterozoic ( 0.9 Ga) rocks, and the latter is consistent with the Neoproterozoic magmatism in central Alxa Block, which might be formed in a orogenesis-related compressional environment, in contrast to contemporaneous rift-related extensional tectonic setting within the NCC. Therefore, the Main Langshan and the Southern Langshan are most likely closely related to the northern NCC and the Alxa Block, respectively.

  16. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.


    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  17. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... on or after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971, must be equipped with a Type 1 or Type 2 seat...

  18. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables

  19. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  20. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  1. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  4. Kuiper belts around nearby stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, R.; Liseau, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Risacher, C.; Rodmann, J.; Augereau, J-C.; Bergman, P.; Eiroa, C.; Fridlund, M.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.


    Context. The existence of dusty debris disks around a large fraction of solar type main-sequence stars, inferred from excess far-IR and submillimetre emission compared to that expected from stellar photospheres, suggests that leftover planetesimal belts analogous to the asteroid-and comet reservoirs

  5. Seat Belts: 1949-1956 (United States)


    The study assesses the impact of the consumer misconceptions, the lack of a seat belt standard, corporate attitudes towards safety, and the role of safety advocates. In addition, the study assesses the validity of the oft-stated hypothesis "safety do...

  6. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)


    The ultimate economic feasibility of biomass depends on its cost of production and on the cost of competing fuels. The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the production costs of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass for energy use in Iowa. Herbaceous biomass production systems have costs similar to other crop production systems, such as corn, soybean, and forages. Thus, the factors influencing the costs of producing dedicated biomass energy crops include technological factors such as the cultivation system, species, treatments, soil type, and site and economic factors such as input prices and use of fixed resources. In order to investigate how these production alternatives are influenced by soil resources, and climate conditions, two locations in Iowa, Ames and Chariton, with different soil types and slightly different weather patterns were selected for both the agronomic and economic analyses. Nine crops in thirteen cropping systems were grown at the two sites for five years, from 1988 to 1992. Some of the systems had multiple cropping or interplanting, using combinations of cool-season species and warm-season species, in order to meet multiple objectives of maximum biomass, minimal soil loss, reduced nitrogen fertilization or diminished pesticide inputs. Six of the systems use continuous monocropping of herbaceous crops with an emphasis on production. The seven other systems consist of similar crops, but with crop rotation and soil conservation considerations. While the erosion and other off-site effects of these systems is an important consideration in their overall evaluation, this report will concentrate on direct production costs only.

  7. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra


    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  8. Geodynamic evolution of the Pan-African lower crust in Sri Lanka : structural and petrological investigations into a high-grade gneiss terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegsman, L.


    Some main objectives of present-day geological research are to assess the role of the lower crust in collision and extensional tectonics and to unravel the mechanism and timing of crustal growth. Both objectives require input from the study of high-grade gneiss terrains, notably data concerning

  9. Notes on epilithic and epigeic lichens from granite and gneiss outcrops in mountains of Makedonia, Greece, with emphasis on northern species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen


    The epilithic and epigeic lichen flora of eight localities with granite and gneiss outcrops in the mountains of Makedonia, N Greece has been investigated. Of the 46 taxa reported, seven species are new to Greece, viz.: Brodoa oroarcti­ca, Candelariella coralliza, Cetraria ericetorum, Lecanora...

  10. Petrology of an aegirine-riebeckite gneiss-bearing part of the Hesperian massif: The Galiñeiro and surrounding areas, Vigo, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor, P.


    The investigated area forms part of the crystalline basement of the southwestern half of the Iberian peninsula (Hesperian Massif). In it, Precambrian paragneisses of predominantly greywacke composition surround granite-gneisses with whole-rock Rb-Sr ages of 486-500 m.y. Hercynian granites are

  11. Elastic anisotropy of layered rocks: Ultrasonic measurements of plagioclase-biotite-muscovite (sillimanite) gneiss versus texture-based theoretical predictions (effective media modeling)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivankina, T. I.; Zel, I. Yu.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Kern, H.; Lobanov, K. V.; Zharikov, A. V.

    712/713, 21 August (2017), s. 82-94 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13102 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : compositional layering * crystallographic texture * effective elastic properties calculation * neutron diffraction * plagioclase-biotite-muscovite (sillimanite) gneiss * velocity measurements Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stowell Harold H.


    Full Text Available The Nason Ridge Migmatitic Gneiss of the Cascades Core is a migmatitic unit comprising concordant pelitic schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and tonalite gneiss, and cross cutting tonalite, quartz-rich granitoid, and pegmatite. There are several generations of 'igneous' lithologies (leucosomes = tonalite, quartz-rich granitoid, and pegmatite some of which are concordant; others clearly crosscut the strongly deformed host rocks. The host rocks are interpreted to be Chiwaukum Schist with metasedimentary (pelitic schist and some gneiss and metavolcanic(amphibolites origins. Metamorphic fabric in the Nason Ridge Migmatitic Gneiss is characterized by preferred orientation of platy minerals (continuous schistosity, compositional layering, mineral lineations (elongate grains and grain aggregates, and non-coaxial deformational features (asymmetric augen, grain offsets,rotated porphyroblasts, etc.. Compositional layering is characterized by quartz-plagioclase lenses and patches (mm to cm scale and by large variations in biotite content. This composite fabric is faulted and folded by mesoscopic structures. The most strongly foliated leucosomes (gneissic tonalites are generally concordant with the regional trend of foliation, while weakly foliated leucosomes (tonalites and pegmatite veins crosscut host rock and tonalite gneisses. Thin melanosome layers (biotiteand amphibole schist are developed locally around quartz - plagioclase lenses and patches. Metamorphism in the Nason Ridge Migmatitic Gneiss and the nearby Chiwaukum Schist likely peaked after intrusion of the Mt. Stuart Batholith ca. 91-94 Ma. Peak temperatures and pressures for the Nason Ridge Migmatitic Gneiss in the Wenatchee Ridge and Pacific Crest areas were 650 - 720 °C and 6 - 9 kbar with a pressure increase of £ 2.0 kbar during metamorphism. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that hydrous partial melting would begin at ca. 660 °C and is relatively pressure independent. Field

  13. Electrical resistivity of quartzite obtained from the gold-belt of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variation of the electrical resistivity between room temperature (300 K) and elevated temperature (500 K) has been investigated for quartzite obtained from the Gold Belt of the Tarkwaian rock formation in the south-western part of Ghana. The resistivity was measured for the passage of current through the samples in two ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    There is a commonly perceived difference in the sound produced in the approximate range D4-D5 by female singers in the western opera and concert tradition, on the one hand, and certain other styles, including rock, pop, folk, and some Broadway musicals, on the other. The term ''belting'' is

  15. Ring current and radiation belts (United States)

    Williams, D. J.


    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  16. Rock strength measurements on Archaean basement granitoids recovered from scientific drilling in the active Koyna seismogenic zone, western India (United States)

    Goswami, Deepjyoti; Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Misra, Surajit; Roy, Sukanta; Singh, Santosh K.; Sinha, Amalendu; Gupta, Harsh; Bansal, B. K.; Nayak, Shailesh


    Reservoir triggered earthquakes have been occurring in the Koyna area, western India for the past five decades. Triaxial tests carried out on 181 core samples of Archaean granitoids underlying the Deccan Traps provide valuable constraints on rock strength properties in the Koyna seismogenic zone for the first time. The data include measurements on granite gneiss, granite, migmatitic gneiss and mylonitised granite gneiss obtained from boreholes KBH-3, KBH-4A, KBH-5 and KBH-7 located in the western and eastern margins of the seismic zone. Salient results are as follows. (i) Increase of rock strength with increasing confining pressure allow determination of the linearized failure envelopes from which the cohesive strength and angle of internal friction are calculated. (ii) Variable differential stresses at different depths are the manifestations of deformation partitioning in close association of fault zone(s) or localized fracture zones. (iii) Fractures controlled by naturally developed weak planes such as cleavage and fabric directly affect the rock strength properties, but the majority of failure planes developed during triaxial tests is not consistent with the orientations of pre-existing weak planes. The failure planes may, therefore, represent other planes of weakness induced by ongoing seismic activity. (iv) Stress-strain curves confirm that axial deformation is controlled by the varying intensity of pre-existing shear in the granitoids, viz., mylonite, granite gneiss and migmatitic gneiss. (v) Frequent occurrences of low magnitude earthquakes may be attributed to low and variable rock strength of the granitoids, which, in turn, is modified by successive seismic events.

  17. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E


    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  18. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts.


    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J


    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and esp...

  19. Timing of Deformation in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Thrust Zone (CMBbtz), southern Ontario, Canada, from Electron Microprobe Dating of Monazite (United States)

    Markley, M. J.; Dunn, S. R.; Peck, W. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.


    In the Grenville Province of Southern Ontario, the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary thrust zone (CMBbtz) is a crustal-scale tectonic boundary between the older, granulite-facies Central Gneiss Belt to the NW and the younger, amphibolite-facies Central Metasedimentary Belt to the SE. Although there are a range of tectonic models for the CMBbtz, most workers agree it is a major tectonic boundary that accommodated ductile thrusting and crustal shortening during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville Orogeny (~1080-1020 Ma). Some studies suggest that ductile thrusting in the CMBbtz was roughly synchronous with synorogenic extensional collapse below an orogenic lid. Previous geochronological studies also provide evidence of earlier deformation and/or metamorphic events in the CMBbtz, although the relation between deformation in the CMBbtz to the Elzeviran (~1230 Ma) and Shawinigan (~1180 Ma) orogenies is unclear. Our study is the first to report in situ electron microprobe monazite (mnz) dates from amphibolite-grade ortho- and para-gneisses of the CMBbtz. Our results are broadly consistent with other chronometers. We present dates from 132 age-domains within 83 mnz grains in 14 samples. Although our data provide strong evidence for deformation and metamorphism along the length of the CMBbtz during the Ottawan (1080-1020 Ma), we also report two other clusters of ages: 1140-1110 Ma and 1230-1170 Ma. The latter cluster falls between the widely accepted ranges for the Elzeviran and Shawinigan orogenies. In addition, some individual outcrops, particularly those in Killaloe and Minden, show mnz ages spanning over 200 m.y., and the setting and compositions of individual monazite domains allow us to link mnz growth to episodes of garnet growth during multiple events. Together these data indicate an unexpectedly continuous and long-lived period of deformation and metamorphism in the CMBbtz.

  20. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan


    Full Text Available The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite. Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of Nb-Ta multioxide minerals (ishikawaite, uranopyrochlore, and fergusonite, uraninite, thorite and cassiterite as numerous inclusions in the recorded Hf-zircon and ferrocolumbite minerals.Abu Rusheid pegmatites are found as small and large bodies that occur as simple and complex (zoned pegmatites.Abu Rusheid rare-metal pegmatites occur as steeply dipping bodies of variable size, ranging from 1 to 5 m in width and 10 to 50 m in length. The zoned pegmatites are composed of wall zone of coarser granitic gneisses, intermediated zone of K-feldspar and pocket of mica (muscovite and biotite, and core of quartz and pocket ofmica with lenses of rare metals.The zircon is of bipyramidal to typical octahedral form and short prisms. Because the zircon of the investigated Abu Rushied pegmatite frequently contains hafnium in amounts ranging between 2.31 and 11.11%, the studied zircon was designated as Hf-rich zircon. This zircon commonly exhibits a normal zoning with rims consistentlyhigher in Hf than cores. The bright areas in the crystal either in core or rim showed a remarkable enrichment in hafnium content (8.83–11.11% with respect to the dark zones (3.19%. The investigated ferroclumbite commonly exhibits zoning; the dark zone is low in the Ta and U but the light zone is enriched in Ta (13% and U (1%. EMPAanalyses indicate the chemical composition of ishikawaite with U ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 per formula unit.Uranopyrochlore species has dominant uranium in the A

  1. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  2. New data on the U-Pb (SHRIMP II) age of zircons from aluminous gneisses of the Archean Kola Group of the Baltic shield and the problem of their interpretation (United States)

    Myskova, T. A.; Mil'kevich, R. I.; Glebovitskii, V. A.; L'vov, P. A.; Berezhnaya, N. G.


    New data on the U-Pb (SHRIMP II) age are obtained for aluminous gneisses of the Kola Group of the Baltic shield. Gneisses are typically ascribed to metasedimentary rocks with detrital zircons. Our work interprets the isotopic data based on the magmatic (tonalite) origin of gneisses and zircon that was established from study of the morphology and geochemistry of zircons. The age of crystallization of the protolith is 2.9 Ga. The existence of two stages of Archean granulite metamorphism is confirmed: an early stage (2.9 Ga) and later granulite metamorphism (2707-2656 Ma).

  3. A model of the secondary radiation belt


    Selesnick, R. S.; Looper, M. D.; Mewaldt, R. A.


    Products of nuclear reactions between primary radiation belt protons and constituents of the tenuous upper atmosphere form a collocated secondary radiation belt. A calculation of the time-dependent secondary intensity provides a model specification of this environmental component for low- and medium-altitude satellite orbits. It is based on an earlier model of the radiation belt protons, the novel feature being a determination of the secondary source function from nuclear reaction cross secti...

  4. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil (United States)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.


    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping

  5. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  6. Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen


    Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

  7. New component of radiation belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV.

  8. Assessment of Blasting Performance Using Electronic Vis-à-Vis Shock Tube Detonators in Strong Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss Formations (United States)

    Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Rai, Piyush


    This paper presents a comparative investigation of the shock tube and electronic detonating systems practised in bench blasting. The blast trials were conducted on overburden rocks of Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss formations in one of the largest metalliferous mine of India. The study revealed that the choice of detonating system was crucial in deciding the fragment size and its distribution within the blasted muck-piles. The fragment size and its distribution affected the digging rate of excavators. Also, the shape of the blasted muck-pile was found to be related to the degree of fragmentation. From the present work, it may be inferred that in electronic detonation system, timely release of explosive energy resulted in better overall blasting performance. Hence, the precision in delay time must be considered in designing blast rounds in such overburden rock formations. State-of-art image analysis, GPS based muck-pile profile plotting techniques were rigorously used in the investigation. The study revealed that a mean fragment size (K50) value for shock tube detonated blasts (0.55-0.59 m) was higher than that of electronically detonated blasts (0.43-0.45 m). The digging rate of designated shovels (34 m3) with electronically detonated blasts was consistently more than 5000 t/h, which was almost 13 % higher in comparison to shock tube detonated blasts. Furthermore, favourable muck-pile shapes were witnessed in electronically detonated blasts from the observations made on the dozer performance.

  9. Achaean TTG and high alimunia gneisses on Baltic Shield: Precise U-Pb (ID-TIMS) and SHRIMP-II ages on single zircon (United States)

    Bayanova, Tamara; Morozova, Ludmila; Mitrofanov, Felix; Serov, Pavel; Nitkina, Elena; Fedotov, Dzorzh; Larionov, Alexander


    New U-Pb (ID-TIMS) data on single zircon from high alimunia gneisses near Murmansk in the Central-Kola domain gave 3.17 Ga. Core from these zircon population has the age 3695±5 Ma by SHRIMP-II. Time of amphibolites metamorphism was dated with 2753±3 Ma. Achaean gneisses in Monchegorsk ore region were firstly dated in the Central-Kola domain. Single zircon from gneisses in Monchegorsk region which are the basement for Paleoproterozoic PGE layered intrusions with U-Pb ages on zircon and baddeleyite from 2.4-to 2.5 Ga (Bayanova et all, 2009) has 3.16 Ga. Single zircon from gnneisses gave 2776±3 Ma and is considered as amphibolites metamorphism. Voche-Lambina international polygon lies on the boundary between Belomorian mobile block and Central -Kola domain (Morozova et al, 2011). New neoarhaean U-Pb data on single zircon from TTG of polygon yielded 3158.2±8.2. Zircon are characterized by low concentration U and Pb, low U/Th ratio with 0.2. REE diagrams of grey gneisses reflect high fractionation La/Yb>30,encriched by light REE and depleted by heavy Yb<0.6 ppm. Model Sm-Ng ages on the rocks have protolith from with the ages 3.4 to 3.2 Ga, positive ɛNd from +1.29 to +3.3, ISr equals 0.702. Precise (ID-TIMS) age of amphibolites metamorphism has been dated on single zircon with 2704.3±5.9 Ma. In the frame of the Central-Kola domain there is an Ingosersky TTG complex. Firstly U-Pb dating on single zircon from Bt-gneisses reflects 3149±49 Ma. Metamorphic alterations were in 2725.2±2.5 Ma and connected with origin of Amf-Bt gneisses and 2733.6±6.6 with Bt-Amf gneisses. (NItkina et al., 2012). Therefore based on the new data on single zircon from TTG and high alimunia gneisses from Central-Kola domain leads to the long history of continental crust origin in the Baltic or Fennoscandian Shield from 3.16 to 3.7 Ga. We thank to G. Wasserburg for 205 Pb artificial spike, J. Ludden for 91500 and Temora standards, F. Corfu, V. Todt and U. Poller for assistance in the

  10. Exotic slices derived from the Hidaka metamorphic belt in the Poroshiri ophiolite, Hokkaido, Japan; Poroshiri ophiolite chu ni trap sareta Hidaka henseitai kigen no ichisei gankon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, T.; Miyashita, S.; Shimura, T. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Science


    The boundary between the Hidaka metamorphic belt (HMB) and the Poroshiri ophiolite is a major thrust fault called the Hidaka Main Thrust. The westernmost part of the HMB consists of an intense mylonite zone along the Hidaka Main Thrust. The ophiolite is cut by several brittle shear zones which strike NW-SE and dip NE. Exotic slices consisting of tonalitic mylonite and broken hornblende amphibolite occur along the shear zones. The brown hornblende amphibolite is exposed as blocks in the tonalitic mylonite or intercalated with the mylonite. The bulk compositions of the hornblende-biotite gneiss and garnet-bearing biotite gneiss are comparable with the lower or basal totality of the HMB. Major and minor element chemistries of the brown hornblende amphibolite show MORB features K2O contents of these exotic rocks are different from those of amphibolites in the Poroshiri ophiolite, but are very similar to those of brown hornblende amphibolite of the HMB. Garnets in the tonalitic mylonite have the composition similar to those of basal tonalites of the HMB, and exhibit a reverse zoning at the margin. Hornblendes of the hornblende-biotite gneiss and the brown hornblende amphibolite have a brownish core enclosed by a greenish rim. Ti contents of the hornblende cores are similar with those of brown hornblende amphibolite in the HMB, and decrease in the green rims. Such compositional changes suggest that they underwent retrograde metamorphism. On the other hand, surrounding ophiolite rocks suffered from prograde metamorphism. The above facts indicate that these exotic slices are not originated in the ophiolite, but derived from the HMB. Studies of deformed structures in these slices and the surrounding rocks lead to the following conclusions : these rocks are `far-travelled horse` secreted to the footwall (the Poroshiri ophiolite) derived from the hangingwall (the lower sequence of the HMB) of the HMT.

  11. Use of seat belt and enforcement of seat belt laws in Pakistan. (United States)

    Klair, Ashfaq Ahmad; Arfan, Muhammad


    Traffic crashes are a leading cause of deaths and injuries in Pakistan. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 30,131 people die in road crashes annually on Pakistani roads (WHO 2013). The use of seat belts can be effective in reducing road crash fatalities in Pakistan but under existing seat belt laws, seat belt use is mandatory only for drivers and is limited to specific vehicles and roads. Primarily, this study was aimed to measure seat belt use rates among Pakistani vehicle occupants. It was meant to investigate the factors influencing the compliance behavior of seat belt use among vehicle drivers. The second objective was to gauge the enforcement of seat belt laws and their effectiveness in Pakistan. A first ever national survey was conducted for the systematic recording of seat belt use rates among Pakistani drivers and front passengers on 5 different kinds of roads. Factors influencing compliance with seat belt use were gauged through a questionnaire for 5 different kinds of roads. Commitment level of different traffic police organizations to enforce seat belt laws was also measured through their previous year's enforcement data. Average seat belt use rates were 20% with the highest on motorways (53%) and the lowest on rural roads (5%). Unawareness of the law/usefulness, seat belt not fitted, discomfort, forgetfulness, low speed, and careless attitude were major reasons for noncompliance with seat belt laws among Pakistani drivers. Seat belt use rates were directly proportional to law enforcement strength and the National Highways and Motorways Police (NH&MP) showed maximum enforcement on M-2. There is a dire need to revise existing seat belt laws in order to raise seat belt use rates in Pakistan.

  12. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech. (United States)


    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  13. Vertical displacement during late-collisional escape tectonics (Brasiliano Orogeny) in the Ribeira Belt, São Paulo State, Brazil (United States)

    Hackspacher, P. C.; Godoy, A. M.


    During the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny, West Gondwana formed by collisional processes around the São Francisco-Congo Craton. The Ribeira belt, in southeastern Brazil, resulted from northwestward collision (650-600 Ma), followed by large-scale northeast-southwest dextral strike-slip shear movements related to late-collisional escape tectonics ( ca 600 Ma). In São Paulo State, three groups, also interpreted as terranes, are recognised in the Ribeira Belt, the Embu, Itapira and São Roque Groups. The Embu and Itapira Groups are formed of sillimanite-gneisses, schists and migmatites intruded by Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids, all thrusted northwestward. The São Roque Group is composed of metasediments and metavolcanics in greenschist-facies. Its deformation indicates a transpressional regime associated with tectonic escape. Sub-alkaline granites were emplaced in shallow levels during this regime. Microstructural studies along the Itu, Moreiras and Taxaquara Shear Zones demonstrate the coexistence of horizontal and vertical displacement components during the transpressional regime. The vertical component is regarded as responsible for the lateral juxtaposition of different crustal levels.

  14. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt (United States)

    Anderson, Terry


    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  15. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick (United States)

    Staley, Mark


    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  16. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  17. Combined Radiation Belt - Plasma Sheet System Modeling (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Zhu, Hui


    Recent years have given rise to numerous mathematical models of the Earth's radiation belt dynamics. Driven by observations at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) where satellites (e.g. GOES and LANL) provide extensive in-situ measurements, radiation belt models usually take into account only diffusion processes in the energetic electron belts (100 keV and greater), leaving aside the dynamics of colder source population (tens of keV). Such models are able to reconstruct the radiation belt state, but they are not capable of predicting the electron dynamics at GEO, where many communication and navigation satellites currently operate. In this work we present combined four-dimensional electron radiation belt - plasma sheet model accounting for adiabatic advective transport, radial diffusion due to interaction with ULF waves, local acceleration of electrons, scattering into the atmosphere, magnetopause shadowing, and adiabatic effects due to contraction and expansion of the magnetic field. The developed model is applicable to energetic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons as well as to source electron population. The model provides spatial particle distribution allowing us to compare and validate the model with multiple satellite measurements at different MLT sectors (e.g. Van Allen Probes, GOES, LANL, THEMIS). The model can be helpful for the prediction of crucial for satellite operators geosynchronous electron fluxes and electron radiation belt dynamics including the heart of the outer belt, slot region and inner belt.

  18. Litho-structural analysis of eastern part of Ilesha schist belt, Southwestern Nigeria (United States)

    Fagbohun, Babatunde Joseph; Adeoti, Blessing; Aladejana, Olabanji Odunayo


    The Ilesha schist belt is an excellent example of high strain shear belt within basement complex of southwestern Nigeria which is part of the larger West African Shield. The Ilesha schist belt is characterised by metasediment-metavolcanic, migmatite-gneiss and older granite rocks and the occurrence of a Shear zone which has been traced to and correlated with the central Hoggar Neoproterozoic shear zone as part of the Trans-Saharan Belt. Although the area is interesting in terms of geologic-tectonic setting, however, detailed geological assessment and structural interpretation of features in this area is lacking due accessibility problem. For these reasons we applied principal component analysis (PCA) and band ratio (BR) techniques on Landsat 8 OLI data for lithological discrimination while for structural interpretation, filtering techniques of edge enhancement and edge detection was applied on digital elevation model (DEM) acquired by shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM) sensor. The PCA outperform BR for discrimination between quartzite and granite which are the most exposed rock units in the area. For structural interpretation, DEM was used to generate shaded relief model and edge maps which enable detailed structural interpretation. Geologic fieldwork was further conducted to validate structures and units identified from image processing. Based image interpretation, three deformation events were identified. The first event (D1) which is majorly a ductile deformation produced foliations and folds whose axial planes trend in NNE-SSW. The second event (D2) resulted in reactivation and rotation of the D1 structures particularly the folds in the NE-SW. The third event (D3) produced a transgressive deformation starting with the ductile deformation resulting in the development of sigmoidal structures oriented in NE-SW to E-W direction and the brittle deformation occurring at later stages producing fractures oriented in the E-W to NE-SW directions. These results have

  19. The Zimbabwe Craton in Mozambique: A brief review of its geochronological pattern and its relation to the Mozambique Belt (United States)

    Chaúque, F. R.; Cordani, U. G.; Jamal, D. L.; Onoe, A. T.


    The eastern margin of the Zimbabwe Craton, along the Mozambique-Zimbabwe border, includes the oldest rocks of west-central Mozambique constituting a large terrain of granite-greenstone type dated between 3000 and 2500 Ma. These rocks consist mainly of gneisses and granitoid rocks of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic composition belonging to the Mudzi Metamorphic Complex in the northern part and to the Mavonde Complex in the southern part. The latter is associated with a granite-greenstone terrain, which includes the eastern part of Mutare-Odzi-Manica greenstone belt. A volcano-sedimentary sequences cover, belonging to the apparently Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic Umkondo and Gairezi groups respectively was deposited along the eastern margin of the craton and is exposed in the territory of Mozambique. The Umkondo minimum age is marked by intrusive dolerite in Zimbabwe dated at 1100 Ma while for the Ghairezi it is still not well established. The Gairezi Group was subjected to progressive metamorphism of Pan-African age. At the margin of the Zimbabwe Craton, in its northern part, metasedimentary units occur representing a passive margin of Neoproterozoic age. They make up the Rushinga Group, which includes felsic metavolcanic rocks dated at ca.800 Ma. Granulites and medium- to high-grade paragneisses, and migmatites of the Chimoio, Macossa and Mungari Groups of Neoproterozoic metamorphic age, overly the ortho-metamorphic pre-existing rock of ca. 1100 Ma, which belongs to the Báruè Magmatic Arc. They characterize the N-S trend Mozambique Belt, which appears to the east of the craton tectonically juxtaposed on the Archean rocks. The maximum age of deposition of these rocks, indicated by U-Pb dating of detrital zircons, is ca. 700 Ma and their minimum age is limited by a few monzonitic Cambrian intrusions dated at ca. 500 Ma. The Neoproterozoic bimodal Guro Suite, dated at ca. 850 Ma and composed of felsic and mafic members characterizes the east

  20. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J


    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and especially cars with nondetachable motorized belts. Most of these automatic shoulder belts systems include manual lap belts. Use of lap belts was lower in cars with automatic two-point belt systems than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts; precisely how much lower could not be reliably estimated in this survey. Use of shoulder and lap belts was slightly higher in General Motors cars with detachable automatic three-point belts compared with the same model cars with manual three-point belts; in Hondas there was no difference in the rates of use of manual three-point belts and the rates of use of automatic three-point belts. PMID:1561301

  1. Thermobarometry in the Hadean: The Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (United States)

    Scher, S.; Minarik, W.


    The 4.28 Ga 142Nd model age of the faux-amphibolite formation makes it the oldest assemblage of the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (Northeastern Superior Province, Quebec, Canada) and the oldest rocks yet found on Earth. The protolith of the faux-amphibolite, however, is uncertain. The bulk chemistry suggests that it is most likely mafic and basaltic to basaltic-andesite in composition (samples have 36-63 wt% SiO2 and 3.5- 14 wt% MgO), although it has very low Ca-content compared to typical basalt. This low-Ca content is reflected in the crystallization of the amphibole cummingtonite, as opposed to hornblende, that is characteristic of the faux-amphibolite's adjacent gabbro sill. This suggests that Ca and other elements were mobile, perhaps during metamorphism. On the other hand, we do not see low-Ca in the adjacent gabbro sill suggesting either a more complex history for the faux-amphibolite, i.e. a metamorphic event before the emplacement of the gabbro sill, or Ca-depletion as the result of weathering processes. The faux-amphibolite is a heterogeneous gneiss with the mineral assemblage: cummingtonite + quartz + biotite + plagioclase ± anthophyllite ± garnet ± alkali-feldspar with the majority of the biotite replaced by retrograde chlorite. The garnets are heavily fractured, poikioblastic and, apart from the rims, are not zoned with respect to Fe and Mg. The garnets, as well as the groundmass, contain inclusions of zircon, rutile, ilmenite, monazite and other REE phosphates, and iron sulfides. Preliminary garnet-biotite geothermometry has been done that supports upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism. Unzoned garnets from different parts of the faux-amphibolite record distinct Fe-Mg exchange temperatures that range from 730 to 940 °C (assuming a constant pressure of 5 kbar) suggesting the preservation of a metamorphic field gradient. Further geothermobarometry with trace element and accessory phases will be used to further describe the PT path as the

  2. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of granite-gneiss complexes and implications for the evolution of the Central Brazil Archean Terrain (United States)

    Queiroz, Cláudia Lima; Jost, Hardy; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; McNaughton, Neal J.


    The paper is a first attempt to unravel the Archean multi-stage metaplutonic assemblage of the Meso/Neoarchean terrane of the State of Goiás, Central Brazil, by means of the U-Pb SHRIMP zircon and Sm-Nd techniques. Two stages of granitic plutonism, spanning ca. 140 m.y., were precisely established for the accretion of the gneiss protoliths. The earliest stage embraces tonalitic to granodioritic and minor granitic orthogneisses with Nd juvenile signature, emplaced from ca. 2845 to ca. 2785 Ma, interpreted as the roots of an early arc. Inherited zircon xenocrysts and Nd isotopic data indicate that the juvenile magmas underwent contamination from a sialic crust as old as 3.3 Ga, from which there are, so far, no recognizable exposures. The second stage comprises granodioritic to granitic gneisses and lasted from ca. 2711 to 2707 Ma. Based on their Nd isotopic signatures and on inherited zircon crystals, their protoliths are interpreted as dominantly crustal-derived. The SHRIMP data from zircon crystals did not depict a Paleoproterozoic overprinting on the Archean gneisses, which is due to geological processes with prevailing temperatures below the isotopic stability of the U/Pb/Th system in the mineral. These processes comprise crustal extension and intrusion of a mafic dike swarm at ca. 2.3 Ga, followed by low grade events mostly related to shear zones between ca. 2.15 and 2.0 Ga. The study also revealed the extent of the Pan- African tectono-thermal overprinting on the Archean orthogneisses. Most of the zircon populations show morphological evidence of metamorphic peripheral recrystallization dated between ca. 750 and 550 Ma. One of the banded gneisses with a crystallization age of ca. 2700 Ma (2 σ) has a more complex zircon population including magmatic new grains, which yielded a precise 206Pb/238U crystallization age of 590 ± 10 Ma (2 σ). These new grains are interpreted to have grown in anatectic veins injected within strongly sheared gneiss.The data

  3. Metamorphic evolution of the Frido Unit from the southern Apennines (Italy): consequences for the subduction processes in the western Mediterranean area (United States)

    Laurita, Salvatore; Prosser, Giacomo; Altenberger, Uwe; Bousquet, Romain; Oberhänsli, Roland; Cavalcante, Francesco


    The southern Apennine chain is a typical segment of the western Mediterranean orogenic belt. It consists of oceanic- and continent-derived complexes, representing the remnants of the Tethyan oceanic crust and as its eastern (Adriatic) margin. Oceanic subduction was active during the Eocene, followed by involvement of the Adriatic margin during the Oligocene-early Miocene. The Frido Unit represents the uppermost tectonic unit in the nappe pile of the southern Apennine chain. It is a typical ocean-derived unit, made up of metasediments, metabasites, serpentinites and fragments of continental crust rocks. Although HP/LT conditions for metabasites (0.6-0.8 GPa; 350±50°C or 0.8-1.0 GPa; 400-450°C) were already recognized, the extent of the HP-LT overprint and its widespread regional distribution in the sedimentary matrix has never been described in detail. In the present study we define the HP/LT metamorphism of the Frido Unit exposed in the Pollino area (Basilicata) by: i) mapping the occurrence of new and significant index minerals in all rock types (metasediments, gneisses and mafic rocks), to document the areal extent of HP-LT metamorphism in the Frido Unit; ii) constraining P-T evolution and the deformation of both mafic rocks and metasediments during the subduction process. Mapping of index minerals in metasediments (carpholite and aragonite), metabasites and fragments of continental crust rocks (glaucophane, riebeckite, lawsonite, and omphacite/jadeite) reveals widespread HP metamorphism, indicating that the whole Frido Unit underwent HP-LT conditions during subduction. Interestingly, carpholite occurs within a NW-oriented belt, where strongly deformed metabasalts and massive metadolerites show the most widespread HP overprint. By using thermodynamic modelling on a HP metadolerite and by considering the stability field of carpholite and aragonite in metasediments peak PT conditions of 0.9-1.2 GPa at less than 350 °C can be deduced. A very cold retrograde path

  4. Role of folded anisotropic fabric in the failure mode of gneiss: new insights from mechanical, microseismic and microstructural laboratory data (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Dobbs, Marcus R.; Zanchetta, Stefano


    Fabric anisotropy is a key control of the mechanical behaviour of rocks in a variety of geological settings and on different timescales. However, the effects of inherited, tectonically folded anisotropic fabrics on the brittle strength and failure mode of foliated metamorphic rocks is yet to be fully understood. Data from laboratory uniaxial compression tests on folded gneiss (Agliardi et al., 2014, Tectonophysics) recently showed that the brittle failure mode of this rock type depends on the arrangement of two distinct anisotropies (i.e. foliation and fold axial plane anisotropy), and that rock strength correlates with failure mode. Here we investigate the effects of confining pressure on this behaviour by performing triaxial compression experiments with acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, and analyse resulting fracture mechanisms and their microfabric controls using high resolution microanalysis techniques. We tested the Monte Canale Gneiss (Austroalpine Bernina nappe, Central Italian Alps), characterized by low phyllosilicate content, compositional layering folded at the cm-scale, and absence of a well-developed axial plane foliation. We used a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to test 19 air-dry cylindrical specimens (diameter: 54 mm) that were characterized both in terms of fold geometry and orientation of foliation and fold axial planes to the axial load direction. We instrumented the specimens with direct contact axial and circumferential strain gauges. We performed tests at confining pressures of 40 MPa and constant axial strain rates of 5*10-6 s-1, measuring acoustic emissions and P- and S-wave velocities by three wideband (350-1000 kHz) piezoelectric transceivers with 40 dB preamps, mounted in the compression platens. We carried out post-failure microscale observation of fracture mechanisms, microcrack patterns and related fabric controls on resin-impregnated samples, using X-ray MicroCT (resolution: 9 μm), optical microscopy and SEM. Samples

  5. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  6. Isotopic timing of the magmatic and metamorphic events at the turn of the Archean and Proterozoic within the Belomorian belt, Fenno-Scandinavian shield (United States)

    Glebovitskii, V. A.; Sedova, I. S.; Larionov, A. N.; Berezhnaya, N. G.


    It is proved that dating high-grade metamorphism events through dating of migmatites is quite efficient. Our investigation has made it possible to identify two events of 2500 and 2700 Ma and to estimate the age of an igneous protolith for both tonalite gneiss, the most ancient in the Belomorian belt, and related metagabbroid. Based on the upper crossing of the concordia and the discordia, the zircon core age is estimated at 2796 ± 63 Ma; this age is slightly different from that of a growth rim of rhythmically zoned prismatic zircon (2816 ± 110 Ma). A linear approximation of all measured points yields an upper crossing of 2803 ± 55 Ma. The error of these estimates is high for quite understandable reasons, and yet it should be taken into account when analyzing the geodynamic development regimes of Neo-Archaean endogenic processes.

  7. Orebody geometry, fluid and metal sources of the Omitiomire Cu deposit in the Ekuja Dome of the Damara Belt in Namibia (United States)

    Kitt, Shawn; Kisters, Alexander; Vennemann, Torsten; Steven, Nick


    The Omitiomire Cu deposit (resource of 137 Mt at 0.54% Cu) in the Ekuja Dome of the Damara Belt in Namibia is hosted by an anastomosing, low-angle Pan-African (ca. 520 Ma) shear zone system developed around an older (ca. 1100-1060 Ma), late Mesoproterozoic intrusive breccia between a suite of mafic rocks (originally lava flows) and later tonalitic gneisses. High-grade ore shoots preferentially formed along contacts between tectonically interleaved biotite-epidote-quartz-chalcocite schists and felsic gneisses, and are directly related to an increase in the number and cumulative thickness of thin, contact-parallel mineralized shear zones. Alteration and mineralization are associated with elevated concentrations of K2O, Cr, Rb, S, and Cu and a loss of Na2O, CaO, and MgO. Oxygen isotope fractionation for quartz-biotite, quartz-feldspar, and quartz-amphibole mineral pairs support equilibrium temperatures of between 500 and 650 °C during the fluid/rock interaction. Mineral separates from amphibole-biotite gneisses and mineralized schists have similar ranges in δ18O values of about 1.2 to 2 ‰ relative to VSMOW. Coexisting minerals are arranged in an order of increasing δ18O values from biotite, to epidote, amphibole, and quartz, suggesting that the Omitiomire Shear Zone was a rock-dominated system. Similarly, H-isotope results for mineral separates from biotite-epidote schists and amphibole gneisses do not show any reversals for D/H fractionations, with δD values of between -48 and -82 ‰, typical of metamorphic-magmatic rocks. The homogeneous and low δ34S values (-6.1 to -4.7 ‰ CDT) are compatible with a local redistribution of sulfur from magmatic rocks and interaction with sulfur derived from metamorphic fluids of metasedimentary origin. The relatively low fluid/rock ratios and elevated Cu values (>1500 ppm) from unaltered amphibolite point to a local redistribution of an earlier (late Mesoproterozoic) Keweenaw-type Cu mineralization into later Pan

  8. From transmission error measurement to Pulley-Belt slip determination in serpentine belt drives : influence of tensioner and belt characteristics


    Manin, Lionel; Michon, Guilhem; Rémond, Didier; Dufour, Regis


    Serpentine belt drives are often used in front end accessory drive of automotive engine. The accessories resistant torques are getting higher within new technological innovations as stater-alternator, and belt transmissions are always asked for higher capacity. Two kind of tensioners are used to maintain minimum tension that insure power transmission and minimize slip: dry friction or hydraulic tensioners. An experimental device and a specific transmission error measurement method have been u...

  9. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 24, 2011 ... and injuries can be reduced drastically because seat belts retain occupants in ... has been estimated that using seat belts can reduce the risk of fatalities in a ..... were about three times more likely to wear seatbelts than. Table 2: Availability of seat belts in the vehicles. Seat belt available. Car (%). Bus (%).

  10. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous to...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous to...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard actually...

  13. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in functional...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  17. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors


    Gao Yang


    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  18. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  19. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.


    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  20. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  1. Protoliths of enigmatic Archaean gneisses established from zircon inclusion studies: Case study of the Caozhuang quartzite, E. Hebei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen P. Nutman


    Full Text Available A diverse suite of Archaean gneisses at Huangbaiyu village in the North China Craton, includes rare fuchsite-bearing (Cr-muscovite siliceous rocks – known as the Caozhuang quartzite. The Caozhuang quartzite is strongly deformed and locally mylonitic, with silica penetration and pegmatite veining common. It contains abundant 3880–3600 Ma and some Palaeoarchaean zircons. Because of its siliceous nature, the presence of fuchsite and its complex zircon age distribution, it has until now been accepted as a (mature quartzite. However, the Caozhuang quartzite sample studied here is feldspathic. The shape and cathodoluminescence petrography of the Caozhuang quartzite zircons show they resemble those found in immature detrital sedimentary rocks of local provenance or in Eoarchaean polyphase orthogneisses, and not those in mature quartzites. The Caozhuang quartzite intra-zircon mineral inclusions are dominated by quartz, with lesser biotite, apatite (7% and alkali-feldspar, and most inclusions are morphologically simple. A Neoarchaean orthogneiss from near Huangbaiyu displays morphologically simple inclusions with much more apatite (73%, as is typical for fresh calc-alkaline granitoids elsewhere. Zircons were also examined from a mature conglomerate quartzite clast and an immature feldspathic sandstone of the overlying weakly metamorphosed Mesoproterozoic Changcheng System. These zircons have oscillatory zoning, showing they were sourced from igneous rocks. The quartzite clast zircons contain only rare apatite inclusions (<1%, with domains with apatite habit now occupied by intergrowths of muscovite + quartz ± Fe-oxides ± baddeleyite. We interpret that these were once voids after apatite inclusions that had dissolved during Mesoproterozoic weathering, which were then filled with clays ± silica and then weakly metamorphosed. Zircons in the immature feldspathic sandstone show a greater amount of preserved apatite (11%, but with petrographic

  2. Paragenesis and decomposition assemblage of a Mn-rich eudialyte from the Sushina peralkaline nepheline syenite gneiss, Paschim Banga, India (United States)

    Mitchell, Roger H.; Chakrabarty, Aniket


    Proterozoic peralkaline nepheline syenite gneiss occurring at Sushina Hill (Paschim Banga, India) consists of minor eudialyte together with potassium feldspar, albite, aegirine, and nepheline. Perthites are absent and the precursor syenite is considered to have been a two feldspar sub-solidus eudialyte aegirine nepheline syenite . The major minerals have near-endmember compositions and are not altered. In contrast, eudialyte is partially-to-completely altered to a decomposition assemblage consisting principally of hilairite and members of the pectolite-serandite solid solution series together with minor ceriothorianite, pyrochlore, and perraultite. Rinkite occurs as early-forming prismatic inclusions in eudialyte. The eudialyte occurs as an interstitial late-forming magmatic phase with hydrothermal eudialyte overgrowths. Eudialytes from Sushina are characterized by low-to-negligible Fe and high Mn and Nb contents relative to most eudialyte from other localities. Late magmatic eudialyte has relatively high CaO (12-14 wt.%) and low MnO (5.5-7 wt.%) relative to the hydrothermal variety (7-8.5 wt.% CaO; 9.5-10.5 wt.% MnO). The late magmatic Ca-Mn-Nb-rich eudialytes are principally solid solutions between Ce-zirsilite, Mn-taseqite, kentbrooksite, and possibly hydrated eudialyte or aqualite. The Mn-Sr-rich hydrothermal eudialyte is also a solid solution between these end members, although the presence of significant concentrations of Mn at the M(1) site and Sr at the N-site suggests that the mineral could be a new member of the eudialyte group; possibly a Mn analog of taseqite or a Sr analog of manganoeudialyte. The mineralogy of the decomposition assemblage of Sushina eudialyte is unlike those found for other eudialytes and in particular lacks zircon, fergusonite, fluorite and bastnaesite. The deuteric/hydrothermal fluids responsible for the alteration are considered as not buffered by the coexisting silicate assemblage and to be water-rich with very high Na/Cl and Na

  3. Polyphase growth of accessory minerals during continental collision: Geochemical evidence from ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic gneisses in the Sulu orogen (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Hu, Zhaochu


    An integrated study of petrology, geochronology and geochemistry was performed for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic gneisses in the Sulu orogen. The results are used to elucidate the polyphase growth of such metamorphic minerals as zircon, titanite and garnet in response to pressure-temperature changes and fluid/melt action during continental collision. This provides insights into the property of metamorphic fluid/melt and their effects on trace element mobility. A combined result from REE patterns, mineral inclusions and Ti-in-zircon temperatures indicates three stages of zircon growth. Prograde growth occurred at ~ 237 Ma primarily at eclogite-facies, retrograde growth at ~ 222 Ma mostly at eclogite-facies, and the last growth at ~ 205 Ma at granulite-facies. The three stages of zircon growth are deciphered by distinct REE patterns and trace element compositions, reflecting the differences in the property of metamorphic fluid/melt. The episodic growth of metamorphic zircon is primarily dictated by the episodic concentration of Zr and Si in metamorphic fluid/melt. Relict domains of magmatic titanite are distinguished from metamorphosed and metamorphic domains by their distinctive REE patterns and trace element compositions. The metamorphic titanite exhibit variably elevated Nb contents and Nb/Ta ratios, suggesting Nb/Ta fractionation due to breakdown of amphibole and/or biotite during metamorphism. Polyphase growth of garnet is suggested by an integrated analysis of mineral inclusions, and major and trace elements in large garnet grains. Trace element abundances vary in different zones of garnet, which is ascribed to changes in the paragenesis and composition of matrix minerals involved in garnet-forming reactions at different P-T conditions. Therefore, the metamorphic growth of zircon, titanite and garnet would have occurred not only during prograde subduction but also during retrograde exhumation in the continental collision zones. Both metamorphic dehydration and

  4. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  5. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA


    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  6. Basaltic dykes of the Eastern Belt of Peninsular Malaysia: The effects of the difference in crustal thickness of Sibumasu and Indochina (United States)

    Ghani, Azman A.; Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin


    Basaltic dykes of Peninsular Malaysia are confined to the Eastern Belt (Indochina/East Malaya block) as compared with the Western Belt (Sibumasu Block). The dyke intruded through a crustal fracture formed by stress developed from the evolution of two offshore basins (Malay and Penyu basins) east of Peninsular Malaysia. The Ar-Ar dating from the present study combined with the previous geochronological data indicate that the ages of dykes range from 79 ± 2 Ma to 179 ± 2 Ma. Thus it is difficult to correlate the dykes with the closure of Tethys during Permo-Triassic time because of the younger age of the dykes. The majority of the dykes exposed in the Eastern Belt may have been attributed to the difference of crustal thickness between the Eastern and Western belt of Peninsular Malaysia. A thicker Western Belt crust (13 km more than both Eastern and Central belts) is difficult to rupture with normal plate tectonic stress and therefore serves to contain the rise of a mantle derived melt. The chemistry indicates the basalts are olivine to quartz normative and are of the continental within-plate category.

  7. Petrological and geochemical features of the early Paleozoic granitic gneisses and iron ores in the Tianhu iron deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Implications for ore genesis (United States)

    Zheng, Jiahao; Mao, Jingwen; Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Shen, Ping


    This paper reports whole-rock geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for ore-hosted granitic gneisses, mineral compositions of oxides, and sulfur isotopic data for sulfides in iron ores from the Tianhu deposit, central part of the Eastern Tianshan. Our results can provide crucial constraints on the genesis of granitic gneisses and early Paleozoic tectonic setting of the Eastern Tianshan. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on magmatic zircons yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 463 to 438 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization ages of the granitic protoliths and the formation ages of the Tianhu Group. Zircon U-Pb age of ore-hosted granitic gneiss (ca. 459 Ma) can provide reliable constrains on upper limit for iron mineralization age in the Tianhu deposit. Geochemical characteristics suggest that the protoliths of the Tianhu granitic gneisses are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline granitic rocks, exhibiting typical subduction-related features such as strong enrichment in LREE and LILE and depletion in HFSE. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show a positive trend from 463 to 438 Ma, indicating that 460 Ma magmas came from both ancient and juvenile sources, whereas 438 Ma magmas involved more juvenile material. Some early Paleozoic granitoids were recently identified in the Eastern Tianshan with the ages between ca. 475 and ca. 425 Ma. The formation of these early Paleozoic granitoids was in response to subduction processes, suggesting that subduction of Junggar Ocean probably began in the Early Ordovician and lasted until Late Silurian. Pyrite and pyrrhotite in iron ores have δ34SCDT values from + 4.6 to + 15.7‰, which are consistent with the marine source, but inconsistent with the magmatic source or those involved evaporites in skarn iron deposit. Geological, geochemical, and isotopic data suggest that the Tianhu iron ores were formed by volcano-sedimentary processes in a subduction environment during the early Paleozoic time, and Tianhu is a

  8. Geology, geochemistry, and geochronology (U-Pb) of the Rio Fortuna Gneiss - Serra do Bau intrusive Suite - Paragua Terrane SW Amazonian Craton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Debora Almeida; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Joao Batista; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de; Lima, Gabrielle Aparecida de [Research Group on Crustal and Tectonic Evolution, Guapore, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Inst. Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia (GEOCIAM), Belem, PA (Brazil); Moacir Jose Buenano Macambira, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Research Group on Crustal and Tectonic Evolution, Guapore, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)


    The Rio Fortuna Gneiss crops out in the Serra Santa Barbara, near the Fortuna military headquarters, on the Brazil-Bolivia border. These orthogneisses are located in a portion of the Paragua terrain affected by the Sunsas Orogeny (1.0-0.9 Ga.). They are classified as monzo to granodiorite orthogneisses and underwent at least three episodes of deformation. The U-Pb zircon age of 1,711 ± 13 Ma obtained by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS is interpreted as the crystallization age of this orthogneiss. Geochemically, these rocks form a sequence comprising acidic subalkaline magmatism, calc-alkalic-type high-K, and metaluminous to peraluminous. (author)

  9. Decay rate of the second radiation belt (United States)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  10. Decay rate of the second radiation belt. (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  11. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  12. Two Variscan magmatic events in HT/LP g bt sil semipelitic gneisses (Guilleries massif, Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Iberia) (United States)

    Reche, Joan; Martinez, Francisco J.; Cirés, Jordi; Aleinikoff, John


    The Osor complex in the Guilleries massif (Catalan Coastal Ranges-CCR-,NE. Iberia) is a HT/LP Variscan metamorphic domain, where no evidences are found of previous high P episodes (Durán, H., 1985). Thus, the anomalous Variscan geotherm is thought to be generated during heating of a moderately thickened crust. Peak T of near 700±50°C occurs due to anomalous heat flow at 6±0.5 kbar and are recorded by an alternance of q-rich semi-pelitic gneisses. These rocks are Ca and alkali poor and Fe rich (FM ≈ 0.8) and contain the equilibrium assemblage g-bi-sil-crd-pl-q. Inclusions of st and hercinitic sp are found inside g, pl and bi. Garnets are big cm-sized porphyroblasts with a dominant sieve-like texture. In most samples g has a rotational/helicitic texture and is always found in the q-pl rich part of the matrix. A dominant foliation defined mainly by bi and fibrolitic sil (in places both reacted out to mimetic crd) wraps around the g porphyroblasts. Garnet shows cores that are inclusion rich (ilm, q) and subhedral rims almost devoid of inclusions. The q-pl rich domains are preferentially found located around g and on its pressure shadows but also homogeneously distributed as little matrix lenses or in bigger lenticular domains. In all cases the leucosomes are also wrapped by the dominant foliation (a previous foliation is deduced by opaque-q alignments inside g). The subhedral morphology of pl grains suggest that g-bearing, q-pl rich leucosomatic domains represent more or less modified pl-rich (trondhjemitic like)melt lenses having peritectic g generated during the main deformation episode. Relict st is found inside g at diverse crystal depth levels as well as inside pl and bi in the matrix. A Theriak-Domino (de Capitani & Petrakakis, 2010) model pseudosection suggest that a previous g st bi sil pl assemblage was de-stabilized during T increase (≈ 600 to 750 °C) at around 6 kbar to a g-pl-q-bi-liq giving the pl-rich (ksp-devoid) melts. In addition

  13. Petrogenesis of Oxidized Arfvedsonite Granite Gneiss from Dimra Pahar, Hazaribagh, Eastern India: Constraints from Mineral Chemistry and Trace Element Geochemistry (United States)

    Basak, Ankita; Goswami, Bapi


    The arfvedsonite granite gneiss of Dimra Pahar occurs along the North Purulia Shear Zone (NPSZ) which pivots the Proterozoic Chotannagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC), Eastern India. Although minerals like arfvedsonite and aegirine depict the peralkaline nature of the pluton, the geochemistry of the rock reflects its composition varying from peralkaline to mildly peraluminous. K-feldspar, quartz, arfvedsonite, albite with accessory aegirine, titaniferous iron oxides and zircon form the dominant mineralogy of this alkali feldspar granite (IUGS, 2000) gneiss. The zircon saturation temperature corresponds to 747oC-1066oC. The granitic magma contains low water content evidenced by the absence of any pegmatite associated with this pluton. Geochemically these granites are classified as ferroan and alkalic (cf. Frost et al., 2001). These highly evolved granites possess enrichment of SiO2, Na2O + K2O, FeO(t)/MgO, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, Ga, Y, Ce and rare earth elements (REE) with low abundance of CaO, MgO, Ba and Sr which characterize their A-type nature while standard discrimination diagrams ( cf. Eby, 1992; Grebennikov, 2014) help to further discriminate them as A1 type. Tectonic discriminations diagrams (Pearce et al., 1984; Maniar and Piccoli, 1989; Batchelor and Bowden, 1985) constrain the tectonic setting of the magma to be anorogenic, within plate, rift-related one. The REE compositions show moderately fractionated patterns with (La/Yb)N 2.57-10.5 and Eu/Eu* 0.16-0.70. Multielement spider diagram and various trace element ratio together with oxidized nature (ΔNNO: +2) of these granites further suggest that these have been derived from OIB-type parental magma. The peralkaline nature of the granite and its lack of subduction- related geochemical features are consistent with an origin in a zone of regional extension. The extremely high Rb/Sr ratios combined with the extreme Sr, Ba, P, Ti and Eu depletions clearly indicate that these A-type granites were highly evolved and require

  14. Two new species of Hesperiidae from Western Kenya (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.


    The belt of lowland forest that stretches from West Africa eastward ends in a number of isolated forests in East Uganda and West Kenya, the most eastern extremity being the Kakamega Forest in the Western Province of Kenya, about 50 km north of Kisumu. Although impoverished as compared with the

  15. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  16. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt. (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap


    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  17. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago: evidence at kolar, South India. (United States)

    Krogstad, E J; Balakrishnan, S; Mukhopadhyay, D K; Rajamani, V; Hanson, G N


    The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accrted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics sugesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from dint mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on Earth by 2500 Ma.

  18. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India (United States)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.


    The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

  19. Theoretical study of influence of belt tension of intermediate belt conveyor drive on value of zone of relative slip of traction and carrying belts (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Grishin, A. V.


    The issue of the influence of tension of the traction belt of intermediate drive of the multi-drive belt conveyor on the value of zones of relative rest and sliding of the traction and carrying belts is considered. A variety of values of proportional band of tractive effort regulation of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor while it is being controlled by the tensioning device was obtained in percentage terms. Recommendations on the control of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor by means of the tensioning device when starting and productivity changes are provided.

  20. Patchy charnockites from Jenapore, Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    inclusion in rocks from the amphibolite-facies gneiss to charnockite progression in southern Karnataka, India: Direct evidence concerning the fluids of granulite meta- morphism; J. Metamorphic Geol. 2 249–264. Harley S L and Santosh M 1995 Wollastonite at Nuliyam,. Kerala, South India: a reassessment of CO2 infiltration.

  1. Lubricants for Metal Belt Continuously Variable Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Narita


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the effects of lubricant additives and base stock used in metal belt continuously variable transmissions (CVT fluids on the CVT transmission torque capacity. Additive formulation composed of phosphorus anti-wear agent, calcium detergent, and dispersant improved the friction coefficient between the metals. The analysis on the post-test surface suggests that the friction behavior strongly depends on the local morphology of the tribofilms derived from lubricant additives. Examining the effect of base stock on the torque capacity in actual belt CVTs revealed that SN (synthetic naphthene exhibited 10% higher torque capacity than that of PAO (polyalphaolefin. It is believed that the difference in the torque capacity is due to the difference in the oil-film shearing force generated by the relative sliding between the belt and pulley.

  2. Structure of the Kuiper Belt Dust Disk (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Kaufmann, D. E.

    An overview of the Kuiper belt dust disk is provided in this chapter. Mutual collisions among Kuiper belt objects should produce a dust disk in the outer solar system similar to the observed circumstellar dust disks. As the Kuiper belt dust particles migrate toward the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag, they are perturbed by the giant planets. Mean-motion resonances with Neptune and gravitational scattering by Saturn and Jupiter alter their orbital evolution dramatically. Asa result, large-scale structures are created in the disk. Descriptions of the dynamics involved, and the numerical simulations required to unveil the disk features, are included. Implications for extrasolar planet detection from circumstellar dust disk modeling are also discussed.

  3. Evaluating the controls on Tourmaline Crystallization in the mylonitic granite-gneiss pluton in the Northeastern of Jan mine (Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Moradi


    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is a part of the Sanandaj- Sirjan zone that is located in the NW of Azna city and NE of the dimension stone mine of Jan between 49° 11' 41"and 49° 16' 07" E longitude and 33° 36'35" and 33° 38'12" N latitude., A pluton of mylonitic granite-gneiss is exposed in the area which contains abundant tourmalines as black and patchy or subgrain association. Geochemically, the studied granite-gneiss is A-type, peraluminous to slightly metaluminous and calc – alkaline to slightly alkaline (Moradi et al., 7. The electron microprobe analyses of the tourmalines display shorl-dravite in composition with more tendency to shorl (Moradi et al., 2015. In this paper we try to study the petrological sites of tourmaline formation with associated minerals, controller factors of crystallization using mineral chemistry of tourmaline, comprehensive behavior of trace elements in the tourmaline, synthetic phase diagrams and finally relationships between the associated minerals. Materials and methods The results of trace-element and major-element analyses were obtained from one polished thin section including 2 tourmaline grains. Major-element analyses of tourmaline were obtained at Oklahama City University of America using the JEOL 8200 electron microprobe with a spot size of 5 μm and trace-element analyses were performed on just a sample by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS a 193nm ArF excimer laser ablation system (MicroLas GeoLas 200Q in combination with a quadrupole ICP-MS (Micromass Platform ICP at Utrecht University of Netherland. Representative EMP and LA-ICP-MS analyses of tourmaline samples are presented in Tables1 and 2. Results The results of LA-ICP-MS on tourmalines of Jan mine in the North east of mylonitic granite-gneiss body show that distribution and diffusion of trace elements during the growth of tourmaline trend is positive on the plots of binary Mn versus Fetot / (Fetot +Mg and it

  4. Recurrent metalliferous fluid flow, Khetri Copper Belt, northern Rajasthan, NW India (United States)

    Stein, Holly J.; Pandit, Manoj K.; Hannah, Judith L.; Torsvik, Trond H.


    Proterozoic copper deposits in deformed sedimentary rocks present a challenging geologic environment for unraveling ore history. Typically, copper ores are broadly but not strictly stratabound and show deformed, less deformed and undeformed generations. A common observation is a late oxidation episode, unrelated to modern weathering, which affects primary sulfides. Thus, formation of Proterozoic copper deposits may span intervals of time within larger orogenic histories, with ores episodically upgraded or even downgraded by multiple generations of introduced fluids moving at regional scales. U-Pb dating of standard minerals (monazite, titanite, zircon) in Proterozoic copper belts is challenging as the isotope systematics may respond unfavorably to post-depositional ingress of fluids. Re-Os dating, on the other hand, can be used to target specific generations of sulfide minerals, thereby directly dating fluid-flow events that move metals. Application of Re-Os dating in multiply-deformed Proterozoic terranes is not without challenge, however, especially when a record of oxidation is clearly visible in the ore-forming history. Utmost care in sampling within a well-defined paragenesis and regional geologic setting is essential. Sulfide mineralization is well known from the Archean-Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi fold belt in NW India. The northern Delhi fold belt contains the rich Khetri Cu belt, which is hosted in the Ajabgarh Group (quartz-biotite schists, retrograde chlorite-garnet-magnetite-hematite schists, banded amphibolite-quartzites, graphitic schists, calc-silicate units) within the Middle Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup. Recent U-Pb dating of key units in the southern Aravalli-Delhi fold belt reveals a complex history of Neoproterozoic magmatism (1 Ga and 850-750 Ma) along the western side. The northern Delhi fold belt, in contrast, has far fewer radiometric ages other than 1.8 to 1.7 Ga ages for basement granitoids. We provide some of the first geochronology for



    Ismet Ibishi; Ahmet Latifi; Gzim Ibishi; Kadri Sejdiu; Melihate Shala-Galica; Bekim Latifi


    In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension ...

  6. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K


    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave‐derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp , which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models...

  7. Chain Versus Belt – System Comparison of Future Timing Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howlett, Michael; Ausserhofer, Norbert; Schoeffmann, Wolfgang; Truffinet, Caroline; Zurk, Andreas


    ... and the quality requirements of timing drives. In the paper the main timing drive concepts, chain drive, dry belt and wet belt were analyzed and rated based on the functional influencing factors as target parameters to allow a scientifically...

  8. Evaluation of safety belt education program for employees (United States)


    This research was designed to determine the effectiveness of a nine-month safety belt educational program, utilizing various informational materials developed by NHTSA, in increasing safety belt usage among corporate employees. The materials used inc...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  10. The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli chromite deposits, Western Dhawar craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; Frei, Robert


    The Nuggihalli greenstone belt is part of the older greenstone belts (3.4 - 3.0 Ga) in the Western Dharwar Craton, southern India. This greenstone sequence consists of conformable metavolcanic and metasedimentary supracrustal rock assemblages that belong to the Sargur Group. Sill-like ultramafic...... of aggregation and breakup of supercontinents. The 3.1 Ga chromite deposits of the Nuggihalli greenstone belt are part of the global komatiitic surge and are perhaps related to the amalgamation stage of the supercontinent 'Ur' in the southern hemisphere, which is believed to have been stable at ˜ 3.0 Ga....

  11. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energetic electrons are trapped in the Earth's radiation belts which occupy a toroidal region between 3 and 7 RE above the Earth's surface. Rapid loss of electrons from the radiation belts is known as dropouts. The source and loss mechanisms regulating the radiation belts population are not yet understood entirely, ...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums except...

  13. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where there...

  14. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt or...

  15. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver has...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  17. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn...

  18. Seat belts and shoulder harnesses : smart protection in small airplanes. (United States)


    Seat belts alone will protect you only in minor impacts. : Using shoulder belts in small aircraft would reduce major injuries by 88% and fatalities by 20%. Shoulder belt kits are now available for most airplanes. : Proper use and installation of chil...

  19. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b) Each...

  1. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from...

  2. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley. A person...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  6. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  7. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Takahashi, Kazue; Sibeck, David; Grebowsky, Joseph; Kessel, Ramona

    Understanding of radiation belt physics has matured to the extent that we have identified a set of processes which interplay to cause the creation and variation of radiation populations. These universal processes operate coherently across the planetary radiation belts of the solar system, and have far reaching impacts even beyond. Improvements in our understanding of these processes will substantially enhance our ability to predict radiation dynamics and mitigate the impacts on space assets. An important link in developing fully predictive understanding of such processes is the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission to be launched into Earth's radiation belts in 2012 as a part of NASA's Living with a Star program. RBSP comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 x 5.8 RE, 10 degrees). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal affects over spatial scales ranging from 0.1 to 5 RE. The unusually comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures the particle spectra (electrons, ions, ion compositions), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we describe the RBSP mission characteristics, review the most pressing science issues that need to be resolved to develop predictive understanding, and describe how RBSP will be used to resolve those issues.

  8. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS..., harness, or other restraining means for each occupant, unless the Administrator finds it unnecessary. If...

  9. Research on an Active Seat Belt System (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  10. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles, the ...

  11. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  12. Cratons and orogenic belts of the Brazilian Shield and their contained gold deposits (United States)

    Hartmann, Leó A.; Delgado, Inácio


    The Brazilian Shield extends over much of South America to the east of the Andean Chain, and is partly covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. The three major tectonic units (older than 900 Ma) of the shield are the Amazon, São Francisco, and Rio de la Plata Cratons, whereas rocks of the Neoproterozoic (900-550 Ma) Brasiliano Cycle belts surround the cratons in the eastern half of Brazil. Paleoarchean rocks occur as small cratonic nuclei in northeastern Brazil, but the cratons contain voluminous 3.0-2.6-Ga granitic and greenstone belts and a large volume of Paleoproterozoic rocks. Late Mesoproterozoic belts (~1.2 Ga) occur in the western and northwestern Amazon Craton and possibly in northeastern Brazil. There are voluminous Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic intrusive and volcanic rocks in the Amazon Craton. Belts of reworked crust are common, but the Amazon Craton grew to the north and west mainly during accretionary orogens. The Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle belts contain 5% of juvenile crust in central and southern Brazil, but are dominantly derived from reworking of older crust. It is possible that the cratons were continuous in a super-continent during the Mesoproterozoic prior to the Brasiliano Cycle. Gold deposits are concentrated in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes, including the Carajás and Quadrilátero Ferrífero gold provinces of the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons, respectively, but some also occur in younger terranes. Recent alluvial gold deposits and supergene deposits in the weathering zone are widespread in Brazil.

  13. Palaeomagnetic evidence and tectonic origin of clockwise rotations in the Yangtze fold belt, South China Block (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Kodama, Kenneth P.; Gilder, Stuart; Courtillot, Vincent; Cogné, Jean-Pascal


    Fold axis strikes in the Yangtze fold belt of the South China Block (SCB) undergo significant changes over distances of >1000 km. This large-scale variation provides an ideal opportunity to test the oroclinal-bending hypothesis using palaeomagnetic methods, which we have attempted by drilling the Lower Triassic Daye Formation limestones in western Hubei Province. Thermal demagnetization isolated two components in most samples. A low unblocking temperature component (temperature component (HTC), isolated at temperatures >400°C, unblocks univectorially towards the origin. The HTC passes the McFadden-fold test with an overall mean tilt-corrected direction of Dec = 255°, Inc = -24° (N = 7,α95 = 9°). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations suggest an early diagenetic, possible (bio)chemical origin for the magnetic extracts dominated by Ti-poor magnetite. Rock magnetic data show no evidence that the HTC has been affected by tectonic or compaction strain. Our data together with previously published results suggest a general clockwise rotation pattern in the Middle Yangtze fold belt, which is probably related to the collision between the North and SCBs. Comparison of palaeomagnetic rotations with fold axis trends in the fold belt suggests that about 30° clockwise rotation occurred in the Middle reaches of the Yangtze River, while a 15° difference in fold axis trends would be due to initial variation within the fold belt. However, since little is known about the timing of the clockwise rotation, whether the Middle Yangtze fold belt is an orocline awaits further studies.

  14. Tectonothermal evolution of a garnet-bearing quartzofeldspathic gneiss from the Moyar shear zone, south India and its bearing on the Neoarchean accretionary tectonics (United States)

    Bhadra, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Pritam


    We present mesoscale structural development across the Nilgiri Block and the flanking Moyar and Bhavani shear zones in south India, and detailed mineral-chemical and geothermobarometric studies of a garnet-bearing quartzofeldspathic gneiss from the easternmost part of the Moyar shear zone. Barring a narrow (ReER) equilibria. The ReNTR-equilibrium is recognized by prominent Mn kick-up in garnet, whereas the ReER-equilibrium is identified by divergence of Fe and Mg between garnet and biotite. Diffusion modelling, though qualitative, of the observed chemical zoning in garnet suggests an initial phase of rapid ( 150 °C/Ma) cooling, which may have been achieved by tectonic-extrusion-induced exhumation. Pressure-temperature conditions for peak, ReNTR and ReER are constrained, respectively, at 900 °C; 9-11 kbar, 735 °C; 8 kbar and 685 °C; 7.8 kbar. Analyses of structural fabrics establish oppositely verging nature of the Moyar and Bhavani shear zone and may suggest a doubly vergent orogenic development, with the former as prowedge and the latter as retrowedge. The presence of the Nilgiri Block as a topographically elevated region between these oppositely dipping thrust faults indeed corroborates a doubly vergent orogenic setup. The tectonic scenario is comparable with a continent-continent collision type accretionary tectonics. Peak high-P granulite facies metamorphism and post-peak long residence period of the studied quartzofeldspathic gneiss at deep crustal level suitably fit into the Neoarchean crustal dynamics resulting in crustal thickening, in the order of 41 km, within the Nilgiri Block.

  15. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  16. Development of damage detector for coal conveyor belt; Sekitan conveyor belt sonsho tanchiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)


    To realize the automatic detection of disconnection of conveyor belt steel cords used at a coal handling facility in thermal power plants, a damage detector for conveyor belt with a non-contact magnetic balance type highly sensitive sensor and a data processing system having real-time display function of detected signals has been developed in a cooperation with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). A detection method of steel cord disconnection has been designed, by which the disconnection can be detected using a detecting coil as a change of magnetic balance with equivalent magnetic fields in opposite direction generated by two magnetic coils. Detecting performance was confirmed by making dummy disconnection with width of 2 mm in the steel cords of conveyor belt at the Numazu large-capacity coal handling and storage demonstration plant of IHI. Joint observation performance using an actually working conveyor belt was also confirmed at the Hekinan Thermal Power Plant of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. Through the tests under four different velocities of conveyor belt, it was confirmed that disconnection and belt joints can be detected accurately. 9 figs.

  17. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang


    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  18. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.


    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  19. The Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district, central Brazil: structural and Sm-Nd data to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt (United States)

    D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Barros Neto, Leonel de Souza


    Structural analysis coupled with Sm-Nd isotope data and a detailed description of the geology of the Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district (Goiás State, Central Brazil) constrain the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt. The area is composed of tectonic slices of Archean-Paleoproterozoic gneiss, a Meso-Neoproterozoic metavolcanic sedimentary sequence called the Santa Terezinha sequence, and crustal-derived intrusive rocks such as mylonitic (ortho)gneiss and a syntectonic porphyry granite. It underwent a Neoproterozoic greenschist facies polyphase ductile deformation (D 1-D 3). Structures indicate an event of rotational deformation along a typical frontal ramp dipping gently to the west (i.e. an event of simple shear with top to ESE relative regional movement due to a subhorizontal WNW-ESE compression). A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 577±77 Ma for the intrusive rocks constrains the timing of at least part of the deformation/metamorphism in the area. Primary and metamorphic planar structures (mainly D 1-D 2) strike SW-NE and dip at low to moderate angles to the NW in the northern part of the area. However, they gradually rotate to SSE in the central SE part, where the Peixe River synclinorium is developed. This synclinorium is also the nest of the D 2 sheath folds that control emerald ore shoots. The Santa Cruz dome is a basement-cored, major elliptic structure in the SW of the area. The Santa Terezinha sequence represents a back-arc basin that received input from the Neoproterozoic Goiás magmatic arc to the west and the São Francisco ancient continental margin to the east. The basal and upper sections of this sequence correlate, respectively, with other passive margin and back-arc sequences of the Brası´lia belt.

  20. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  1. Detrital mode and whole-rock geochemistry of the fluvial succession, Pishin Belt, Pakistan: Implications on provenance and source area weathering in periferal foreland basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik


    Detrital mode and geochemical composition of sandstones and mudstones of the Miocene Dasht Murgha Group (DMG) and Pliocene Malthanai Formation (MF) of the Pishin Belt, north-western Pakistan have been examined to identify their provenance and source area weathering. Sandstones of the Dasht Murgha...

  2. Management of aguatic biodiversity and ecological status in transboundary surface waters along the Green Belt of Fennoscandia


    Luotonen, Hannu; Xokkanen, Timo; Xelsten, Seppo; Liljaniemi, Petri; Kolstrцm, Taneli; Filatov, Nikolai


    The Green Belt of Fennoscandia offers an interesting area for environmental research and monitoring activities. The aquatic ecosystems of the western edge of boreal coniferous zone enable assessment of the pristine characteristics of various water ecosystems and the relationship of catchment areas to lotic and lentic ecosystems. The differences of land use in catchment areas also make it possible to assess the human impacts on water ecosystems and to distinguish between natural and anthropoge...

  3. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  4. Geodetic measurement of tectonic deformation in the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt, California (United States)

    Feigl, Kurt L.; King, Robert W.; Jordan, Thomas H.


    Geodetic observations taken over the last 100 years were analyzed to quantify active tectonic deformations in the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt (SMFTB), California. Three different types of data were combined to estimate two-dimensioanl station positions and strain rate parameters simultaneously: (1) historical triangulation from the 1880s, 1920s, and 1950s; (2) electronic distance measurement trilateration from 1971 and 1985; and (3) GPS observations from 1986 and 1987. Results imply that the SMFTB is the primary active element in transforming motion from the Coast Ranges to the western Transverse Ranges and the Santa Barbara Channel.

  5. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions. (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T


    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  6. A binary main-belt comet (United States)

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Mutchler, Max; Weaver, Harold; Larson, Stephen


    Asteroids are primitive Solar System bodies that evolve both collisionally and through disruptions arising from rapid rotation. These processes can lead to the formation of binary asteroids and to the release of dust, both directly and, in some cases, through uncovering frozen volatiles. In a subset of the asteroids called main-belt comets, the sublimation of excavated volatiles causes transient comet-like activity. Torques exerted by sublimation measurably influence the spin rates of active comets and might lead to the splitting of bilobate comet nuclei. The kilometre-sized main-belt asteroid 288P (300163) showed activity for several months around its perihelion 2011 (ref. 11), suspected to be sustained by the sublimation of water ice and supported by rapid rotation, while at least one component rotates slowly with a period of 16 hours (ref. 14). The object 288P is part of a young family of at least 11 asteroids that formed from a precursor about 10 kilometres in diameter during a shattering collision 7.5 million years ago. Here we report that 288P is a binary main-belt comet. It is different from the known asteroid binaries in its combination of wide separation, near-equal component size, high eccentricity and comet-like activity. The observations also provide strong support for sublimation as the driver of activity in 288P and show that sublimation torques may play an important part in binary orbit evolution.

  7. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.


    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  8. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  9. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  10. Uranium (-nickel-cobalt-molybdenum) mineralization along the Singhbhum copper belt, India, and the problem of ore genesis (United States)

    Sarkar, S. C.


    Uranium mineralization is present at many places along the 200 km long Singhbhum copper belt, but the mineralization is relatively concentrated at the central part of it. The belt is characterized by many shear zone features, such as mylonites, phyllonites, and L-S type of structures and of course, copious metasomatism. Country rocks are basic schists, metapelites, quartzose rocks and albite schist/gneiss (‘Soda Granite’). Orebodies are sheet-like, conformable with the pervasive planar structures in the host rocks. No pronounced ‘wall rock alteration’ accompanied the mineralization. Grade of the ore is low (crystal structure. Additionally, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum are present at Jaduguda-Bhatin in the form of millerite, gersdorffite, melonite, nickel-bearing pyrite, molybdenite etc. Dominance of uraninite over pitchblende and the larger cell-edge of uraninite, development of hematite-bearing quartz and Na-oligoclase at places in the ore zone, association of uranium mineralization with Ni-Co-Mo(-S-As) mineralization at Jaduguda-Bhatin and continuation of the orebodies to considerable depths, suggest that the uranium mineralization along the Singhbhum belt belongs to moderate to high temperature ‘vein type’. The age obtained by Pb207/Pb206 ratio and the concordia method suggest that the uranium mineralization in Singhbhum took place 1500 1600 Ma ago and this age is not far different from the age of formation of uranium-vein deposits in many other Precambrian shields of the world. The following two mechanisms of the formation of the deposits are discussed: 1) uranium precipitated in the Dhanjori basal sediments was mobilized during deformation and metamorphism into ore deposits, 2) the hydrodynamic system that leached out copper from the metabasic rocks to form the copper deposits at an earlier stage, could, in one of the oxidised pulses leach out uranium from the basal sediments and precipitate it in the favourable situations. Subsequent small

  11. Gneisses (Serizzi and Beole) of the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola district (Piedmont, Northern Italy): possible candidates for the designation of "Global Heritage Stone province" (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Borghi, Alessandro; Cavallo, Alessandro; Primavori, Piero


    The Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarrying district (Piedmont, northern Italy) produces many different ornamental stones (granites, gneisses, marbles): two really important categories are represented by Serizzo and Beola gneisses. Several varieties of Serizzo and Beola crop out in the upper and middle Ossola Valley: Serizzo derives from the Antigorio, Monte Leone and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, whereas Beola from the Monte Leone, Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, as well from the Fobello-Rimella schists (Austroalpine). The Serizzo, represented by a group of foliated granitoid orthogneisses (Serizzo Antigorio, Serizzo Formazza, Serizzo Sempione and Serizzo Monte Rosa varieties), is probably the most important and extensively exploited ornamental stones from the VCO province (about 70% of the VCO stone production). The quarries are mostly concentrated in the Antigorio and Formazza valleys, where the Antigorio nappe has a sub-horizontal attitude and reaches its greatest thickness (up to 1000 m). This stone was largely used to produce columns since the end of XV century (e.g. the old Ospedale Maggiore in Milano, now University of Milano) and later on it was replaced with granites. It was also used in the building structure of the Duomo di Milano, for the plinth and the piers. Nowadays, thanks to its good wear resistance and low cost, it is mainly used in polished slabs for paving: a recent application is the Frankfurt airport floor. Beola is the name of a group of heterogeneous orthogneisses with mylonitic foliation and strong mineralogical lineation (Beola Grigia, Bianca, Ghiandonata, Striata varieties), easy to split into thin slabs with hammer and chisel, occurring in the middle Ossola Valley, between Vogogna and Montecrestese. The quarries of Beola are probably the oldest of the Ossola Valley, although the precise period in which the stone started to be exported is unknown. The Beola trade probably started at the end of the XIII century, with the

  12. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.


    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  13. Normative misperceptions of peer seat belt use among high school students and their relationship to personal seat belt use. (United States)

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lande, Gary; Neighbors, Clayton


    This research examined gender-specific perceptions of peer seat belt use norms among high school students and their relationship with one's own seat belt use. We expected that students would underestimate the seat belt use of their peers and that these perceptions would be positively associated with their own seat belt use. High school students from 4 schools (N = 3348; 52% male) completed measures assessing perceived seat belt use and personal seat belt use. Findings demonstrated that students perceived that others engaged in less seat belt use than they do and that perceived norms were positively associated with one's own seat belt use. Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents' behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seat belt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms-based interventions designed to increase seat belt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents.

  14. Random Deterioration Process of Conveyor Belt Evaluated by Statistical Analysis of Core Failures Detected Along Belt Axis and Elapsed Time (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek; Kirjanów, Agata; Kozlowski, Tomasz


    Magnetic diagnostic methods are used for steel cord belt condition evaluation since the beginning of 1970s. Initially they generated an analogue signal for several tens of centimetres of conveyor belts scanned sequentially with one measuring head in several cycles or the whole width of the belt at one time thanks to the installation of many measuring heads across the entire cross section. This did not allow identification of single centimetre failures, but rather an aggregate assessment of the state of quite wide waist. Modern diagnostic devices, thanks to miniaturization, allow up to 200 heads per belt width to identify damage of individual cords. Instead of analogue signals, they generate a zero-one digital signal corresponding to a change in the magnetic field sign, which can illustrate damage on 2D images. This makes it easier to identify the location and size of the damage in the belt image. Statistical analysis of digital signals summed up for consecutive sections along the belt axis allows to present both the source signal and its aggregation for band of a given width to form aggregate measures of belt damage such as the damage density per 1 meter of belt. Observation of changes in these measurements at different times allows on evaluation of its rate of change over time, which can be used to forecast future belt condition and to select the proper moment of preventive belt replacement to another one to avoid emergency downtimes (egg in underground mines) or to recondition of belts (egg. in lignite surface mines). The paper presents the results of investigations of the damage condition of a core of a single belt segment working in one of the copper ore underground mines. Scanning of the belt condition was performed few times at intervals of several months. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the changes in core condition, showing the random character of the damage process along the axis and its change over time.

  15. Petrology and geobarometry of Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt granitoids near Petersburg, southeastern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammarstrom, J.M. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Brew, D.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))


    The Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt (ARB) of southeastern Alaska is an approximately 400 mile long northwest-trending belt of Late Cretaceous ([approximately]95 Ma) calcalkalic plutons that extends from Juneau to Ketchikan. The ARB is bounded on the east by the younger Coast plutonic complex sill and on the west by the mid-Cretaceous Muir-Chichagof plutonic belt. Near Petersburg, the ARB consists of a variety of plutons that include equigranular and porphyritic quartz diorite, tonalite, quartz monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Minerals in these plutons are: hornblende, biotite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, apatite, zircon, titanite, and ilmenite [+-] epidote, minor allanite, magnetite, grossular-almandine garnet, clinopyroxene, and locally trace amounts of sulfide minerals. New geochemical data for six samples from three plutons near Petersburg overlap data for the rest of the ARB, which is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. The central ARB granitoids are moderately LREE-enriched with slightly negative to slightly positive europium anomalies. High strontium (700 to 800 ppm) and low rubidium contents in central ARB plutons overlap compositions of ARB plutons to the north and south, and magmatic epidote-bearing plutons elsewhere. Pressure estimates for pluton emplacement based on hornblende geobarometry (6 to 9 kbars) are compatible with pressure estimates for plutons to the south and for metamorphic aureole assemblages around ARB plutons elsewhere in the western metamorphic belt of southeastern Alaska. These data support the chemical consanguinity of plutons along the length of the magmatic arc now preserved as the ARB and suggest that the whole ARB has been uplifted and eroded to expose plutons emplaced at relatively deep crustal levels.

  16. Modeling Resonant Structure in the Kuiper Belt (United States)

    Holmes, E. K.; Dermott, S. F.; Grogan, K.


    There is a possible connection between structure in circumstellar disks and the presence of planets, our own zodiacal cloud being the prime example. Asymmetries in such a disk could be diagnostic of planets which would be otherwise undetectable. At least three different types of asymmetries can serve to indicate bodies orbiting a star in a disk: (1) a warp in the plane of symmetry of the disk, (2) an offset in the center of symmetry of the disk with respect to the central star, and (3) density anomalies in the plane of the disk due to resonant trapping of dust particles. In the asteroid belt, collisions between asteroids supply dust particles to the zodiacal cloud. By comparison, it has been postulated that collisions between KBOs could initiate a collisional cascade which would produce a Kuiper dust disk. In fact, the Kuiper Belt is the region of our solar system that is most analogous to the planetary debris disks we see around other stars such as Vega, β Pic, Fomalhaut, and ɛ Eridani (Backman and Paresce 1993). A Kuiper Disk would most likely have a resonant structure, with two concentrations in brightness along the ecliptic longitude. This large scale structure arises because many of the KBOs, the Plutinos, are in the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. By running numerical integrations of particles in Pluto-like orbits, the resonant structure of the Kuiper belt can be studied by determining the percentage of particles trapped in the resonance as a function of their initial velocity and beta, where β = Frad}/F{grav. The dynamical evolution of the particles is followed from source to sink with Poynting Robertson light drag, solar wind drag, radiation pressure, and the effects of planetary gravitational perturbations included. This research was funded in part by a NASA GSRP grant.

  17. Escape of asteroids from the main belt (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert


    Aims: We locate escape routes from the main asteroid belt, particularly into the near-Earth-object (NEO) region, and estimate the relative fluxes for different escape routes as a function of object size under the influence of the Yarkovsky semimajor-axis drift. Methods: We integrated the orbits of 78 355 known and 14 094 cloned main-belt objects and Cybele and Hilda asteroids (hereafter collectively called MBOs) for 100 Myr and recorded the characteristics of the escaping objects. The selected sample of MBOs with perihelion distance q > 1.3 au and semimajor axis a random spin obliquities (either 0 deg or 180 deg) for each test asteroid. Results: We find more than ten obvious escape routes from the asteroid belt to the NEO region, and they typically coincide with low-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and secular resonances. The locations of the escape routes are independent of the semimajor-axis drift rate and thus are also independent of the asteroid diameter. The locations of the escape routes are likewise unaffected when we added a model for Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) cycles coupled with secular evolution of the rotation pole as a result of the solar gravitational torque. A Yarkovsky-only model predicts a flux of asteroids entering the NEO region that is too high compared to the observationally constrained flux, and the discrepancy grows larger for smaller asteroids. A combined Yarkovsky and YORP model predicts a flux of small NEOs that is approximately a factor of 5 too low compared to an observationally constrained estimate. This suggests that the characteristic timescale of the YORP cycle is longer than our canonical YORP model predicts.

  18. An Evaluation Study of a CALL Application: With BELT or without BELT (United States)

    Genc, Humeyra


    The present study tried to evaluate the 6th grade students' attitudes towards the use of a CALL program which is called BELT Success used in English language learning course in a private school, the relationship to students' attitudes to their English language proficiency level, and finally teachers` experiences and opinions towards the use of…

  19. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry


    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  20. Linking zircon U-Pb and garnet Sm-Nd ages to date loading and metamorphism in the lower crust of a Cretaceous magmatic arc, Swakane Gneiss, WA, USA (United States)

    Gatewood, Matthew P.; Stowell, Harold H.


    Synorogenic basin development and subsequent collapse and loading provide important constraints on the Late Cretaceous crustal structure of the North America Cordillera. High grade metasedimentary rocks of the Swakane Gneiss in the North Cascades have been interpreted to include ca. 73 Ma detrital zircon that requires a protolith age considerably younger than metamorphic ages of adjacent terranes. This detrital interpretation requires rapid loading rates of 7-8 mm/yr, heating to 750 °C in dates for the Swakane Gneiss that directly date metamorphism and provide a basis for evaluating this model of Late Cretaceous deposition, loading, and crustal structure. Garnet preserves compositional evidence for growth during high pressure amphibolite-facies metamorphism and little subsequent modification. New garnet-rock Sm-Nd isochrons of 73.5 ± 1.2, 71.3 ± 2.8, and 65.8 ± 0.7 Ma, tightly constrain the timing of garnet growth. Swakane Gneiss zircons preserve complex magmatic, detrital, and metamorphic histories. Most zircons have distinct cores and homogeneous overgrowths. Detrital zircon cores include significant Proterozoic and Mesozoic components with low U/Th ratios. Homogeneous metamorphic zircon rims have high U/Th (> 5) and define an array of concordant U-Pb dates from 75 to 63 Ma. The new zircon U-Pb and garnet Sm-Nd ages establish that the youngest regional metamorphism was diachronous and occurred between 75 and 63 Ma. Our dataset precludes post 73 Ma deposition and instead suggests that sedimentation occurred after ca. 91 Ma and ended before ca. 75 Ma. Using these age constraints for deposition and metamorphism, we propose new loading rates of 1-3 mm/yr and conclude that the Swakane Gneiss protolith was likely deposited in a small, short-lived, intra-arc basin that subsided, filled in, and collapsed quickly due to overthrusting of arc crust.

  1. Evolution and Dynamics of a Fold-Thrust Belt: The Sulaiman Range of Pakistan (United States)

    Reynolds, K.; Copley, A.; Hussain, E.


    Plan-view curvature of geological structures and range-front topography has long been a recognized and debated feature of both ancient and active fold-thrust belts. As part of the largest active mountain range on Earth, much of the body of work surrounding this topic has focused on the Tibetan Plateau. A lack of published data, extremely limited geodetic coverage and difficulty of access mean there have been relatively few studies of the western part of the India-Asia collision zone, where the Himalaya curve to the southwest into the lobate fold-thrust belts of Pakistan. The widest of these, the Sulaiman Range, forms a strongly curved lobe with ~300km across-strike width. We present observations and models of the Sulaiman Range of western Pakistan that shed new light on the evolution and deformation of fold-thrust belts. Earthquake source inversions show that the seismic deformation in the range is concentrated in the thick pile of sediments overlying the underthrusting lithosphere of the Indian subcontinent. The slip vectors of the earthquakes vary in strike around the margin of the range, in tandem with the shape of the topography, suggesting that gravitational driving forces arising from the topography play an important role in governing the deformation of the region. Numerical models suggest that the active deformation, and extreme plan-view curvature of the range, are governed by the presence of weak sediments in a pre-existing basin on the underthrusting Indian plate. These sediments affect the stress-state in the over-riding mountain range and allow for the rapid propagation of the nose of the range and the development of extreme curvature and laterally-varying surface gradients.

  2. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea


    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  3. Urban networks among Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road": A case of web search activity in cyberspace. (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Du, Hongru; Zhao, Yannan; Wu, Rongwei; Zhang, Xiaolei


    "The Belt and Road" initiative has been expected to facilitate interactions among numerous city centers. This initiative would generate a number of centers, both economic and political, which would facilitate greater interaction. To explore how information flows are merged and the specific opportunities that may be offered, Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road" are selected for a case study. Furthermore, urban networks in cyberspace have been characterized by their infrastructure orientation, which implies that there is a relative dearth of studies focusing on the investigation of urban hierarchies by capturing information flows between Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road". This paper employs Baidu, the main web search engine in China, to examine urban hierarchies. The results show that urban networks become more balanced, shifting from a polycentric to a homogenized pattern. Furthermore, cities in networks tend to have both a hierarchical system and a spatial concentration primarily in regions such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta region. Urban hierarchy based on web search activity does not follow the existing hierarchical system based on geospatial and economic development in all cases. Moreover, urban networks, under the framework of "the Belt and Road", show several significant corridors and more opportunities for more cities, particularly western cities. Furthermore, factors that may influence web search activity are explored. The results show that web search activity is significantly influenced by the economic gap, geographical proximity and administrative rank of the city.

  4. Urban networks among Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road": A case of web search activity in cyberspace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    Full Text Available "The Belt and Road" initiative has been expected to facilitate interactions among numerous city centers. This initiative would generate a number of centers, both economic and political, which would facilitate greater interaction. To explore how information flows are merged and the specific opportunities that may be offered, Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road" are selected for a case study. Furthermore, urban networks in cyberspace have been characterized by their infrastructure orientation, which implies that there is a relative dearth of studies focusing on the investigation of urban hierarchies by capturing information flows between Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road". This paper employs Baidu, the main web search engine in China, to examine urban hierarchies. The results show that urban networks become more balanced, shifting from a polycentric to a homogenized pattern. Furthermore, cities in networks tend to have both a hierarchical system and a spatial concentration primarily in regions such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta region. Urban hierarchy based on web search activity does not follow the existing hierarchical system based on geospatial and economic development in all cases. Moreover, urban networks, under the framework of "the Belt and Road", show several significant corridors and more opportunities for more cities, particularly western cities. Furthermore, factors that may influence web search activity are explored. The results show that web search activity is significantly influenced by the economic gap, geographical proximity and administrative rank of the city.

  5. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts. (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels


    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  6. Geochronology of the Archaean Kolmozero-Voron'ya Greenstone Belt: U-Pb dating of zircon, titanite, tourmaline and tantalite (Kola Region, North-Eastern BAltic Shield) (United States)

    Kudryashov, N.; Gavrilenko, B.; Apanasevich, E.


    The Archaean Kolmozero-Voron’ya greenstone belt is one of the most ancient geological structures of the Kola Peninsula. It is located between Upper Archaean terrains: Murmansk, Central Kola and Keivy. Within the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt there are rare metal (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be), Cu, Mo, and Au deposits. All rocks were metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions and intruded by granodiorites, plagiomicrocline and tourmaline granites and pegmatite veins. Four suites are distinguished within the belt: lower terrigenous formation, komatiite-tholeite, basalt-andesite-dacite and upper terrigenous formation. The U-Pb age of 2925±6 Ma on magmatic zircon was obtained for leucogabbro of differentiated gabbro-anorthosite massif Patchemvarak, situated at the boundary between volcanic-sedimentary units and granitoids of the Murmansk block. This age is the oldest for gabbro-anorthosites of the Kola Peninsula. Sm-Nd age of komatiites is ca. 2.87 Ga (Vrevsky, 1996). U-Pb age of zircon from biotite schist, which belongs to acid volcanites is 2865+/-5 Ma. Quartz porphyries, which are considered to be an intrusive vein analogous of acid volcanites has an age of 2828+/-8 Ma, that marks the final stage of the belt development. Dating of titanite from ovoid plagioamphibolites yielded an U-Pb age of 2595+/-20 Ma that probably is connected with the closure of the U-Pb isotopic titanite system during the regional metamorphism. The Porosozero granodioritic complex with an age of 2733+/-6 Ma is located between granites of the Murmansk domain, migmatites and gneisses of the Central Kola terrain and the Keivy alkaline granites. Tourmaline granites are found all over the Kolmozero-Voron’ya belt occurring among volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the belt. Their Pb-Pb age of 2520+/-70 Ma appears to denote the tourmaline crystallization at a post-magmatic stage of the complex formation. U-Pb zircon age from rare metal pegmatites is 1.9-1.8 Ga. Zircons from

  7. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma


    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  8. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE. (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K


    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov


    -Baikal continent. The base of the Kazakhstan-Baikal continent was formed in the Vend-Cambrian due to subduction of the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, including the Precambrian microcontinents and terrains of the Gondvana group, underneath the south-eastern margin of the Siberian continent (in the current coordinates. Due to subduction followed by collision of the microcontinents with the Kazakhstan-Tuva-Mongolia island arc, the crust had consolidated, and a complex continent was formed. Another major plate is the plate of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by the long-term tectono-magmatic evolution without any involvement of the continental crust and by complex processes of the formation of the continental margins. Its evolution resulted in the formation of the Vend-Paleozoic continental margin complexes of the western segment of the Siberian continent which comprise the Vend-Cambrian Kuznetsk-Altai island arc and a complex of rocks of the Ordovic-Early Devonian passive margin and the Devon-Early Carbonic active margin. In the accretional wedges of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc, abundant are only fragments of the Vend-Early Cambrian oceanic crust including ophiolites and paleo-oceanic uplifts. The contemporary analogue of the Central Asian folded belt is the south-eastern margin of Asia, represented by the junction area of the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates.  


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov


    -Baikal continent. The base of the Kazakhstan-Baikal continent was formed in the Vend-Cambrian due to subduction of the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, including the Precambrian microcontinents and terrains of the Gondvana group, underneath the south-eastern margin of the Siberian continent (in the current coordinates. Due to subduction followed by collision of the microcontinents with the Kazakhstan-Tuva-Mongolia island arc, the crust had consolidated, and a complex continent was formed. Another major plate is the plate of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by the long-term tectono-magmatic evolution without any involvement of the continental crust and by complex processes of the formation of the continental margins. Its evolution resulted in the formation of the Vend-Paleozoic continental margin complexes of the western segment of the Siberian continent which comprise the Vend-Cambrian Kuznetsk-Altai island arc and a complex of rocks of the Ordovic-Early Devonian passive margin and the Devon-Early Carbonic active margin. In the accretional wedges of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc, abundant are only fragments of the Vend-Early Cambrian oceanic crust including ophiolites and paleo-oceanic uplifts. The contemporary analogue of the Central Asian folded belt is the south-eastern margin of Asia, represented by the junction area of the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates.  

  11. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte


    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  12. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  13. Energy Saving for Belt Conveyors by Speed Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.


    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  14. Estimates of effectiveness of safety belts under discussion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.


    The use of safety belts reduces the change to be injured or killed in an accident. It has been proven in laboratories by impact tests. To determine the effectivety of safety belts in real terms before- and- after comparisons are made with adjustments for other influences. It seems probable that

  15. Seat Belt Use During Pregnancy in a Nigerian Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine compliance with car seat belt amongst antenatal patients and also identify the reasons for poor compliance with seat belt use. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the hospital prior to carrying out this study. This study was conducted between October and ...

  16. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person wears...

  17. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.


    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  18. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor (United States)

    Tavares, Abraão; Faria, Allbens


    We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  19. Design and Selection of a Belt Conveyor System for Increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of the modifications could not be realised as any increase in plant capacity beyond 850 t/h resulted in increased spillage on belt conveyor CB among a series of conveyors in the plant flow sheet. In this paper, the causes of the spillage on conveyor CB were investigated and a belt conveyor system capable of

  20. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Abraão


    Full Text Available We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  1. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  2. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)


    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  3. P-T-t conditions, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions and detrital zircon geochronology of the Massabesic Gneiss Complex, New Hampshire: isotopic and metamorphic evidence for the identification of Gander basement, central New England (United States)

    Dorais, Michael J.; Wintsch, Robert P.; Kunk, Michael J.; Aleinikoff, John; Burton, William; Underdown, Christine; Kerwin, Charles M.


    We present new evidence for the assignment of the Neoproterozoic Massabesic Gneiss Complex of New Hampshire to the Gander terrane rather than the Avalon terrane. The majority of Avalonian (sensu stricto) igneous and meta-igneous rocks as defined in Maritime Canada have positive whole-rock ɛNd compared to more negative values for Gander rocks, although there is a region of overlap in ɛNd between the two terranes. Our samples from areas in Connecticut previously thought to be Avalonian and samples from the Willimantic dome have the same isotopic signatures as Maritime Canada Avalon. In contrast, samples from the Clinton dome of southern Connecticut plots exclusively in the Gander field. The majority of the orthogneiss samples from Lyme dome (coastal Connecticut), Pelham dome (central Massachusetts) and Massabesic Gneiss Complex also plot in the Gander field, with a few samples plotting in the overlap zone between Gander and Avalon. U-Pb age distributions of detrital zircon populations from quartzites from the Massabesic Gneiss Complex more closely approximate the data from the Lyme Dome rather than Avalon. Additionally, the similarity of the P-T-t path for the rocks of the Massabesic Gneiss Complex (established by thermobarometry and 40Ar/39Ar dating of amphibole, muscovite, biotite and K-feldspar) with that established in the Ganderian Lyme dome of southern Connecticut strengthens the assignment of these rocks to a single Gander block that docked to Laurentia during the Salinic Orogeny. The identification of Ganderian isotopic signatures for these rocks all of which show evidence for Alleghanian metamorphism, supports the hypothesis that Neoproterozoic Gander lower crustal rocks underlie southern New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, and that all rocks of the overlying Central Maine trough that largely escaped high-grade Alleghanian metamorphism are allochthonous. We suggest that during the Alleghanian, the docking of Gondwana caused Avalon to wedge into

  4. Neptune's Eccentricity and the Nature of the Kuiper Belt (United States)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.


    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units.

  5. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.


    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  6. Mineral equilibria and zircon, garnet and titanite U-Pb ages constraining the PTt path of granite-related hydrothermal systems at the Big Bell gold deposit, Western Australia (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; McNaughton, Neal J.


    The Big Bell deposit (75 t gold) is located in a narrow spur of the Meekatharra greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Two ore bodies are located in a calcic-potassic contact alteration zone overprinting lineated granodiorite dykes and amphibolite: almandine-cummingtonite-hornblende skarn (1-3 g/t Au, 1700 g/t As, 330 g/t W) and the muscovite-microcline gneiss (3-5 g/t Au, 580 g/t Sb, 620 g/t W) of the Main Lode. Genetic models vary from pre- to post-metamorphic replacement. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs in amphibolite constrain peak metamorphic temperature to 670 ± 50 °C. In contrast, garnet-biotite thermometry provides estimates of 578 ± 50 and 608 ± 50 °C for garnet-cordierite-biotite schist bordering the skarn and enveloping the Main Lode. Garnet-cordierite and garnet-hornblende pairs extend the range of fluid temperature to 540 ± 65 °C, well below peak metamorphic temperature. At 540-600 °C, the alteration assemblage andalusite + sillimanite constrains pressure to 300-400 MPa corresponding to 11-14 km crustal depth. Published U-Pb ages indicate that metamorphism took place in the aureole of the southeast granodiorite-tonalite batholith (2740-2700 Ma), followed by gold mineralization at 2662 ± 5 Ma and by the emplacement of biotite granite and Sn-Ta-Nb granite-pegmatite dykes at 2625-2610 Ma. Amphibolite xenoliths in granite northwest of the deposit record the lowest temperature (628 ± 50 °C), suggesting it lacks a metamorphic aureole. The rare metal dykes are spatially associated with epidote-albite and andradite-diopside skarns (≤1.5 g/t Au), mined where enriched in the weathered zone. We analysed hydrothermal zircon intergrown with andradite. Concordant U-Pb ages of 2612 ± 7 and 2609 ± 10 Ma confirm the presence of a second granite-related system. The zircons display oscillatory zoning and have low Th/U ratios (0.05-0.08). Low-Th titanite from an albite granite dyke has a concordant but reset U-Pb age of 2577 ± 7 Ma.

  7. Crustal composition in the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt estimated from seismic velocity by laboratory measurements (United States)

    Yamauchi, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Toyoshima, T.


    To understand the dynamics of the lithosphere in subduction systems, the knowledge of rock composition is significant. However, rock composition of the overriding plate is still poorly understood. To estimate rock composition of the lithosphere, it is an effective method to compare the elastic wave velocities measured under the high pressure and temperature condition with the seismic velocities obtained by active source experiment and earthquake observation. Due to an arc-arc collision in central Hokkaido, middle to lower crust is exposed along the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt (HMB), providing exceptional opportunities to study crust composition of an island arc. Across the HMB, P-wave velocity model has been constructed by refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic profiling (Iwasaki et al., 2004). Furthermore, because of the interpretation of the crustal structure (Ito, 2000), we can follow a continuous pass from the surface to the middle-lower crust. We corrected representative rock samples from HMB and measured ultrasonic P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocities (Vs) under the pressure up to 1.0 GPa in a temperature range from 25 to 400 °C. For example, the Vp values measured at 25 °C and 0.5 GPa are 5.88 km/s for the granite (74.29 wt.% SiO2), 6.02-6.34 km/s for the tonalites (66.31-68.92 wt.% SiO2), 6.34 km/s for the gneiss (64.69 wt.% SiO2), 6.41-7.05 km/s for the amphibolites (50.06-51.13 wt.% SiO2), and 7.42 km/s for the mafic granulite (50.94 wt.% SiO2). And, Vp of tonalites showed a correlation with SiO2 (wt.%). Comparing with the velocity profiles across the HMB (Iwasaki et al., 2004), we estimate that the lower to middle crust consists of amphibolite and tonalite, and the estimated acoustic impedance contrast between them suggests an existence of a clear reflective boundary, which accords well to the obtained seismic reflection profile (Iwasaki et al., 2014). And, we can obtain the same tendency from comparing measured Vp/Vs ratio and Vp/Vs ratio structure model

  8. Petrogenesis of Triassic granitoids in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt, northern Tibetan Plateau and their tectonic implications (United States)

    Shao, Fengli; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Yi; Chen, Shuo; Kong, Juanjuan; Duan, Meng


    The East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB), an important part of the Greater Tibetan Plateau, is an ideal region for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Anyemaqen Ocean. Here, we present zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element analyses and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions on representative samples of the syn-collisional Dulan batholith at the eastern end of the EKOB. The zircon U-Pb age data indicate that the bulk of the Dulan batholith was emplaced at 240-235 Ma. The granitoids have high- to medium-K and metaluminous characteristics. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in some high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb and Ta), while having a flat heavy REE (HREEs) pattern. The mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) share the same age, mineralogy and indistinguishable Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes with their granitoid hosts except for the higher HREE abundances. We show that the MMEs represent cumulate formed at earlier stages of the same magmatic system. The trace element data (e.g., Nb/Th, Ta/U) and inherited mantle isotopic characteristics of the Dulan batholith are also consistent with an origin via partial melting of the last fragments of underthrusting ocean crust. Simple mass balance calculations using the Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data show that 85% Paleo-Tethys MORB and 15% mature crustal material (the Proterozoic gneiss of the study area) contribute to the source of the granitoids. The Dulan batholith shows compositional similarities to the bulk continental curst with inherited mantle isotopic signatures. The syn-collisional felsic magmatism must have contributed to the net continental crust growth in the EKOB. We infer that the Kunlun and Qinling orogens may actually be one single orogen offset later by the Wenquan fault system.

  9. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers : traffic tech. (United States)


    Wearing a seat belt has been shown effective in avoiding : or reducing serious injury due to traffic crashes. While : belt use rates in the United States increased from under : 60% in 1994 to 83% in 2008, a substantial number of drivers : still drive...

  10. Wampum Belts with Initials and/or Dates as Design Elements: A Preliminary Review of One Subcategory of Political Belts (United States)

    Becker, Marshall Joseph; Lainey, Jonathan


    Data on seventeen relatively well-documented examples as a preliminary review to an ongoing study of all that is known about belts that are a subcategory of the secular-political category is discussed. Evidence indicates that Wampum belts with initials and/or dates as design elements can clearly be demonstrated as but one subcategory of…

  11. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  12. The Evolution of the Perdido Fold Belt, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico - Insights from Numerical Modeling (United States)

    Gradmann, S.; Beaumont, C.


    The Perdido Fold Belt (PFB) in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico is a large deep-water salt-tectonic structure. It is located above the seaward limit of the Jurassic Louann salt and lies within the compressional domain of a salt tectonic continental margin system. The PFB is well documented in several geophysical surveys and deep-water hydrocarbon discoveries associated with this structure have recently been made. The region consists of up to 8 symmetric, ~15 km wide and 60 km long folds in exceptionally thick (4.6 km) overburden sediments. Folding is estimated to have occurred synchronously within only ~6 Ma and the entire fold belt is tilted seawards. The conditions that led to the given geometry, timing and extent of the fold belt including the role of the landward located Sigsbee salt canopy are poorly understood. This work investigates the formation of the PFB using 2D finite-element models in which frictional-plastic sediments overly a viscous salt layer. The models comprise the sediments of a passive margin from shelf to deep water to account for the dynamical interaction of gravity gliding and spreading caused by shelf progradation. The model experiments also include flexural isostasy, loading by the overlying water column and sediment compaction. Effects of pore fluid pressures are included by parametric calculations of an effective internal angle of friction. An analytical stability analysis and numerical experiments reveal that gravity spreading alone can fold a 4.6 km thick layer of frictional-plastic sediments in a setting like the western Gulf of Mexico. To obtain failure along the margin, the overburden is required to have a strength of only moderately overpressured, wet sand. Sediment compaction, which increases density, increases the translational velocity of the unstable overburden and results in earlier and faster formation of the fold belt. It also enhances the evolution of buoyancy driven structures. Additional numerical model results show the

  13. Morphotectonics of the central Muertos thrust belt and Muertos Trough (northeastern Caribbean) (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Gomez, Ballesteros M.


    Multibeam bathymetry data acquired during the 2005 Spanish R/V Hesp??rides cruise and reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis for the analysis of the morphology and deformation in the central Muertos Trough and Muertos thrust belt. The Muertos Trough is an elongated basin developed where the Venezuelan Basin crust is thrusted under the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Structural variations along the Muertos Trough are suggested to be a consequence of the overburden of the asymmetrical thrust belt and by the variable nature of the Venezuelan Basin crust along the margin. The insular slope can be divided into three east-west trending slope provinces with high lateral variability which correspond to different accretion stages: 1) The lower slope is composed of an active sequence of imbricate thrust slices and closed fold axes, which form short and narrow accretionary ridges and elongated slope basins; 2) The middle slope shows a less active imbricate structure resulting in lower superficial deformation and bigger slope basins; 3) The upper slope comprises the talus region and extended terraces burying an island arc basement and an inactive imbricate structure. The talus region is characterized by a dense drainage network that transports turbidite flows from the islands and their surrounding carbonate platform areas to the slope basins and sometimes to the trough. In the survey area the accommodation of the ongoing east-west differential motion between the Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands blocks takes place by means of diffuse deformation. The asymmetrical development of the thrust belt is not related to the geological conditions in the foreland, but rather may be caused by variations in the geometry and movement of the backstop. The map-view curves of the thrust belt and the symmetry of the recesses suggest a main north-south convergence along the Muertos margin. The western end of the Investigator Fault Zone comprises a broad band of

  14. Main-belt comets: sublimation-driven activity in the asteroid belt (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.


    Our knowledge of main-belt comets (MBCs), which exhibit comet-like activity likely due to the sublimation of volatile ices, yet orbit in the main asteroid belt, has increased greatly since the discovery of the first known MBC, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, in 1996, and their recognition as a new class of solar system objects after the discovery of two more MBCs in 2005. I review work that has been done over the last 10 years to improve our understanding of these enigmatic objects, including the development of systematic discovery methods and diagnostics for distinguishing MBCs from disrupted asteroids (which exhibit comet-like activity due to physical disruptions such as impacts or rotational destabilization). I also discuss efforts to understand the dynamical and thermal properties of these objects.

  15. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds (United States)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.


    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos MIKA


    Full Text Available Geographical zonality and continentality are presented. The global climate models (GCM and the ERA-40 adjusted observations are called to answer three questions: (i. How do these peculiarities appear in the observed climate of single meridional and zonal belts around the Globe? (ii. Can the models properly simulate the present zonal and continental order in seasonal and annual means of temperature, precipitation and sea-level pressure? (iii. Can these features also be recognised in patterns of CO2-forced climate changes? The questions are answered by using the MAGICC/SCENGEN 5.3v2 diagnostic model (Wigley, 2008. The third answer is based on the A1B emission scenario with no changes in the aerosol content. The simulated present climate patterns are compared to those from the ERA-40 reanalyses. The future time horizon is 2030-2049 compared to 1980-1999 for baseline climate. Zonality and continentality are presented in two narrow belts around the Globe. The pair of zonally oriented belts with 2.5 degree width, taken along both sides of the 47,5 N latitude, is selected to demonstrate the effects of continentality. These two neighbouring belts spread from the Pacific Ocean along North-America, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe and Asia. The other 2.5 degree wide belt starts at the North Pole, spreads along the 18.75th eastern longitude in its centre towards the South Pole, continuing along the 161.25th western longitude towards the North Pole, again. The first 180 degree long part of this belt crosses parts of Europe, Africa and Antarctica, whereas the rest spreads along the Pacific Ocean, is slightly disturbed in its purely oceanic character by Alaska. This belt is chosen to demonstrate zonality. The results indicate that various aspects of zonaliy and continentality occur in the simulation biases and projected changes, as well.

  17. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.


    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  18. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.


    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  19. Measuring and modeling twilight's Belt of Venus. (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L


    The Belt of Venus (or antitwilight arch) is a reddish band often seen above the antisolar horizon during clear civil twilights, and immediately beneath it is the bluish-gray earth's shadow (or dark segment) cast on the atmosphere. Although both skylight phenomena have prompted decades of scientific research, surprisingly few measurements exist of their spectral, colorimetric, and photometric structure. Hyperspectral imaging of several clear twilights supplies these missing radiometric details and reveals some common spectral features of the antisolar sky at twilight: (1) color differences between the dark segment and the sunlit sky above the antitwilight arch are small or nil; (2) antisolar color and luminance extremes usually occur at different elevation angles; and (3) the two twilight phenomena are most vivid for modest aerosol optical depths. A second-order scattering model that includes extinction by aerosols and ozone provides some preliminary radiative transfer explanations of these twilight features' color and brightness.

  20. Evidence for spreading in the lower Kam Group of the Yellowknife greenstone belt: Implications for Archaean basin evolution in the Slave Province (United States)

    Helmstaedt, H.; Padgham, W. A.


    The Yellowknife greenstone belt is the western margin of an Archean turbidite-filled basin bordered on the east by the Cameron River and Beaulieu River volcanic belts (Henderson, 1981; Lambert, 1982). This model implies that rifting was entirely ensialic and did not proceed beyond the graben stage. Volcanism is assumed to have been restricted to the boundary faults, and the basin was floored by a downfaulted granitic basement. On the other hand, the enormous thickness of submarine volcanic rocks and the presence of a spreading complex at the base of the Kam Group suggest that volcanic rocks were much more widespread than indicated by their present distribution. Rather than resembling volcanic sequences in intracratonic graben structures, the Kam Group and its tectonic setting within the Yellowknife greenstone belt have greater affinities to the Rocas Verdes of southern Chile, Mesozoic ophiolites, that were formed in an arc-related marginal basin setting. The similarities of these ophiolites with some Archean volcanic sequences was previously recognized, and served as basis for their marginal-basin model of greenstone belts. The discovery of a multiple and sheeted dike complex in the Kam Group confirms that features typical of Phanerozoic ophiolites are indeed preserved in some greenstone belts and provides further field evidence in support of such a model.

  1. Evidence for spreading in the lower Kam Group of the Yellowknife greenstone belt: Implications for Archaean basin evolution in the Slave Province (United States)

    Helmstaedt, H.; Padgham, W. A.

    The Yellowknife greenstone belt is the western margin of an Archean turbidite-filled basin bordered on the east by the Cameron River and Beaulieu River volcanic belts (Henderson, 1981; Lambert, 1982). This model implies that rifting was entirely ensialic and did not proceed beyond the graben stage. Volcanism is assumed to have been restricted to the boundary faults, and the basin was floored by a downfaulted granitic basement. On the other hand, the enormous thickness of submarine volcanic rocks and the presence of a spreading complex at the base of the Kam Group suggest that volcanic rocks were much more widespread than indicated by their present distribution. Rather than resembling volcanic sequences in intracratonic graben structures, the Kam Group and its tectonic setting within the Yellowknife greenstone belt have greater affinities to the Rocas Verdes of southern Chile, Mesozoic ophiolites, that were formed in an arc-related marginal basin setting. The similarities of these ophiolites with some Archean volcanic sequences was previously recognized, and served as basis for their marginal-basin model of greenstone belts. The discovery of a multiple and sheeted dike complex in the Kam Group confirms that features typical of Phanerozoic ophiolites are indeed preserved in some greenstone belts and provides further field evidence in support of such a model.

  2. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.


    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  3. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay


    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  4. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech


    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  5. Seat belt and mobile phone use among vehicle drivers in the city of Doha, Qatar: an observational study. (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Cheema, Sohaila; Alrouh, Hekmat; Al-Thani, Mohammed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Mamtani, Ravinder


    In Qatar traffic injuries and fatalities are of serious concern. Mobile phone use whilst driving has been associated with increased risk of vehicular collisions and injuries. Seat belt use has been demonstrated to save lives and reduce the severity of road traffic injuries. Whereas previously published studies may have looked at all front passengers, this study aims to obtain reliable estimates of the prevalence of seat belt and mobile phone use among vehicle drivers in the city of Doha, Qatar. Additionally, we aim to investigate the association of these behaviors with other variables namely gender, time of the day and type of vehicle. An observational study on 2,011 vehicles was conducted in 2013. Data were collected at ten sites within Doha city over a two-week period. Two trained observers surveyed each car and recorded observations on a data collection form adapted from a form used in a 2012 Oklahoma observational study. Associations were assessed using the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. A p-value of .05 or less was considered statistically significant. Overall, 1,463 (72.7 %) drivers were found using a seat belt (95 % CI: 70.8-74.7 %) and 150 (7.5 %) their mobile phones (95 % CI: 6.3-8.6 %) during the observation period. Mobile phone use was significantly associated with not using a seat belt and driving a sport utility vehicle. Significantly lower rates of seat belt use were observed in the early morning and late afternoon. No gender differences were observed. Seatbelt use in Doha was found to be similar to countries in the region but lower than those in western countries. Also, studies from other high-income locations, reported lower rates of mobile phone use while driving than in Doha. Despite road traffic crashes being one of the leading causes of death in Qatar, three out of 10 drivers in Doha, Qatar, do not use a seat belt and about one in 12 use a mobile phone while driving. More efforts, in the form of awareness campaigns and increased law

  6. Power Transmission Through Timing Belt In Two Wheeler Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Veerapathiran


    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of noise and friction on performance of the chain drive system for motor bikes. Experiment shows that chain transmission in chain drive system leads to poor overall performance, due to its noise and chain gets loose due to aging and sprockets wear due to chain friction etc., the proposed system consists of drive and driven pulley with timing belt transmission. Compared to conventional method, proposed method give improved tension in pulleys and belt by the additional arrangement called belt tensioner. This gives good overall performance of the system, and reduces noise, vibration and gives high transmission speed.

  7. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.


    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  8. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt (United States)


    Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts , Nature, 437, 227–230, doi:10.1038/nature03939. Kessel, R. L., N. J. mission of the Van Allen Probes Key Points: • Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt • Actual MeV electron intensity likely...have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even

  9. Metamorphic evolution and geochronology of the Dunhuang orogenic belt in the Hongliuxia area, northwestern China (United States)

    Wang, Hao Y. C.; Wang, Juan; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lu, Jun-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Xu; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Hui C. G.; Zhang, Qian W. L.; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Hou, Quan-Lin; Yan, Quan-Ren; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Chun-Ming


    hornblende rimming clinopyroxene in the matrix, and were inferred to have formed at ∼620 °C and ∼4.2 kbar. For the metapelitic gneiss, the metamorphic peak assemblages are the garnet porphyroblasts plus the matrix minerals (biotite + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite + zircon), which were estimated to have formed at ∼630 °C and ∼8.9 kbar. The mafic granulites and amphibolites record fairly similar clockwise P-T paths that include nearly isothermal decompression processes, which suggest that they experienced subduction and subsequent rapid tectonic exhumation. SIMS and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons and 40Ar/39Ar dating of hornblende suggest that the metamorphism occurred at ∼430-390 Ma. Field occurrences, different protolith ages of the mafic granulites and amphibolites, and the considerable gap in peak P-T conditions between the amphibolite and mafic granulite boudinages and their country rock may suggest a mélange accumulation process during the Paleozoic caused by the Silurian-Devonian orogeny, which is possibly associated with the closure of the Liuyuan ocean, a branch of the Paleo-Asian ocean near the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  10. Cenozoic evolution of the central Walker Lane Belt, west-central Nevada (United States)

    Petronis, Michael S.

    This dissertation is a collection of four papers that investigate deformation along the North America/Pacific plate boundary, geomagnetic field behavior, and aspects of volcanism in the western part of the Basin and Range Province. Active deformation along the America/Pacific plate boundary is distributed eastward across a wide zone of the western margin of the North American plate, from the San Andreas Fault eastward into the western Basin and Range province an area referred to as the Walker Lane Belt. Chapter three and four investigate aspects of deformation that has been transferred inboard of the continental plate boundary since the mid-Cenozoic inception of the system by investigating a key areas of the central Walker Lane Belt, west-central Nevada (Mina Deflection and southwest Silver Peak Range), where a significant component of the residual strain is being distributed. Deformation in these two areas is being accommodated along a system of late Cenozoic faults with strain partitioned into components of extension, strike slip faulting, and rotation of crustal blocks between the fault systems in the region. The results of this study allow for an assessment of late Tertiary deformation, which leads to a better understanding of the kinematics of deformation in this important part of the Walker Lane Belt. Chapter two investigates the transport direction of the Candelaria pyroclastic sequence by the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) technique. The AMS data are spatially variable across the region and indicate variable transport directions of the three regionally extensive ignimbrite deposits. The AMS fabric data indicate that the Candelaria pyroclastic sequence was erupted from distinct source areas likely separated by several kilometers. Chapter one investigates unusual geomagnetic field behavior at 25.7 Ma and 23.8 Ma preserved in volcanic rocks in the Mina Deflection. Paleomagnetic data indicate that parts of two transitional field records or reversal

  11. Gravity anomalies and the structure of western Tibet and the southern Tarim Basin (United States)

    Lyon-Caen, H.; Molnar, P.


    Gravity anomalies across the western part of the Tarim Basin and the Kunlun mountain belt show that this area is not in local isostatic equilibrium. These data can be explained if a strong plate underlying the Tarim Basin extends southwestward beneath the belt at least 80 km and supports part of the topography of northwest Tibet. This corroborates Norin's inference that late Tertiary crustal shortening has occurred in this area by southward underthrusting of the Tarim Basin beneath the Kunlun. This study places a lower bound on the amount of underthrusting.

  12. Feasibility of electro-osmotic belt filter dewatering technology at pilot scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, HG


    Full Text Available -effective dewatering technologies, electro-osmotic belt filtering was developed by Smollen and Kafaar in 1995. The mechanical equipment resembles a belt filter press but the belts are stainless steel, woven belts, which act as the electrodes. In this study...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ


    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  14. Practical and medical aspects of the use of car seat belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, A. & Kampen, L.T.B. van


    An analysis is made of the influence of use and non-use of seat belts on type and severity of injuries to drivers and of the influence of seat belt type on type and severity of injuries to drivers. Users of lap belts and users of 3-point belts enjoy a comparable and considerable reduction of injury

  15. Geodetic measurement of tectonic deformation in the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigl, K.L.; King, R.W.; Jordan, T.H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States))


    The authors have analyzed geodetic observations to resolve tectonic deformation across the Belt, northwest of Santa Barbara, California. The data include (1) historical triangulation from the 1880s, 1920s and 1950s; (2) electronic distance measurement trilateration from 1971 and 1985; and (3) Global Positioning System observations from 1986 and 1987. They combine the three different types of data to estimate two-dimensional station positions and strain rate parameters simultaneously. Using a model which constrains the relative velocity field to be linear in space and constant in time, they find significant strain rates. The maximum compressive strain is oriented N17{degree}E {plus minus} 5{degree}E, and the compressive strain rate in this direction is 0.13 {plus minus} 0.03 {mu}strain/yr. Under the assumption that the unresolved rotational component of the velocity field is zero, they estimate that the integrated rate of deformation across the basin is 7 {plus minus} 1 mm/yr oriented at N 03{degree}E {plus minus} 13{degree}. This vector can be decomposed into 6 {plus minus} 2 mm/yr of crustal shortening on the general structural trend of N 30{degree}E and 3 {plus minus} 1 mm/yr of right-lateral shear across this axis. On the basis of these values and earthquake focal mechanisms in the area, they infer that the deformation occurs on northwest trending folds and thrusts within the belt. These results are consistent with the rate and direction of deformation across the central California Coast Ranges inferred by balancing Pacific-North America plate motion against San Andreas slip and Basin and Range extension. They imply that the Santa Maria Fold and Thrust Belt is the primary active element in transforming motion from the Coast Ranges to the western Transverse Ranges and the Santa Barbara Channel.

  16. Geochronology of granulite, charnockite and gneiss in the poly-metamorphosed Gaozhou Complex (Yunkai massif), South China: Emphasis on the in-situ EMP monazite dating (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Yung-Hsin; Lee, Chi-Yu; Xiang, Hua; Zhou, Han-Wen


    The in-situ EMP (electron microprobe) monazite age dating performed directly in the polished sections, in addition to the conventional U-Pb zircon and EMP monazite age dating on grains from heavy mineral concentrates, has been applied to the granulite, charnockite and gneiss in the Gaozhou Complex of the Yunkai massif in South China. While the conventional dating systems all give Caledonian ages, the in-situ EMP monazite ages provide more information to reveal not only detailed age groups pertaining to the Caledonian orogeny but also traces of later thermal events overprinting these rocks. For granulites, although some monazites present zoning (concentric, patchy and complex) in the BSE images, no discernable age differences are observed. Resetting of the Th-U-Pb monazite dating system under the high temperature condition could be the reason. Ages of homogeneous monazite in garnet porphyroblast (ca. 440 Ma) of the garnet-cordierite granulite that match nicely with the U-Pb zircon ages are systematically older than those in the matrix (ca. 430 Ma). The same case of two age groups is also present in the orthopyroxene-biotite granulite as revealed by monazite inclusions in plagioclase and orthopyroxene and those in quartz, respectively. For charnockites, despite similar ages of ca. 430 Ma are given by monazite in biotite and zircon in the rock, significant younger ages are obtained from monazites with particular features. Relict monazites with a breakdown texture to form successive layers of apatite and allanite in the rim as well as those which are close to the biotite-chlorite microvein always show a similar age of ca. 230 Ma. Moreover, tiny monazites in close association with the garnetiferous corona mainly surrounding orthopyroxene give rise to another age group around 370 Ma. For gneissic rocks, monazites enclosed by quartz give 434 Ma and those setting in the chlorite-epidote microvein of a paragneiss yield 237 Ma, consistent with the U-Pb zircon core-rim age

  17. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock ages of Kataragama and Pottuvil charnockites and East Vijayan gneiss: Indication of a 2 Ga metamorphism in the highlands of southeast Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maesschalck, A.A.; Oen, I.S. (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Hebeda, E.H.; Verschure, R.H. (NWO Laboratorium voor Isotopen Geologie, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Arps, C.E.S. (RGM, Leiden (Netherlands))


    Highland Group granulite-facies rocks of the Kataragama klippe in southeast Sri Lanka yield a Rb-Sr whole-rock apparent age of 1,930 {plus minus} 130 Ma, MSWD = 39, and a {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr intercept of 0.715 {plus minus} 0.005, indicating a Highlandian metamorphism about 2.0 Ga ago. A charnockitic gneiss at Komari near Pottuvil, east Sri Lanka, gives a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 820 {plus minus} 70 Ma, MSWD = 0.78, initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.725 {plus minus} 0.007, suggesting a metamorphic resetting at about 0.8 Ga. The Rb-Sr whole-rock data of an East Vijayan biotite-hornblende gneiss fit a reference isochron of 800 Ma with a {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr intercept of 0.705; the low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr intercept may be explained by a juvenile addition to the older crust. A review of available data from various isotopic dating methods suggests that the Highland Group supracrustals were deposited 2.5-2.0 Ga ago, metamorphosed in the granulite-facies about 2.0 Ga (M1) ago, and disturbed by resetting events about 1.1 Ga (M2), 0.8 Ga (M3), and 0.55 Ga (M4) ago. The East Vijayan supracrustals were deposited 2.0-1.1 Ga ago, invaded by granites and metamorphosed in the amphibolite-facies about 1.1 Ga (M2) ago, and disturbed by resetting events about 0.8 (M3) and 0.55 Ga (M4) ago. Overthrusting of the Kataragama granulites over the East Vijayan gneisses occurred post-M3.

  18. Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets: BELT Study Comparing Trouser Supporters Used as Medical Devices in a Manikin Model of Wound Bleeding. (United States)

    Bequette, Blake W; Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A


    The purpose of the present study is to compare several models of commercially designed belts as used as a tourniquet. In the Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets (BELT) study, an experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of pants belts as nonimprovised medical devices to control hemorrhage in a manikin. Models of belts included Tourni-belt, Tourniquet Belt, ParaBelt, and Battle Buddy. Data collected included effectiveness, time to stop bleeding, total time of application, pressure, blood loss, and composite results (score count of good results; composite outcome good if every component was good). Differences in effectiveness percentages among models were not statistically significant. The difference in mean between users was statistically significant for stop time, total time, pressure, blood loss, composite score, and composite outcome. Mean time to stop bleeding differed for only 1 pair of models after the Tukey-Kramer adjustment; ParaBelt was faster than Tourniquet Belt. Mean total time of application differed between ParaBelt-Tourniquet Belt and Tourni-belt-Tourniquet Belt; the former model in both pairs was faster. No significant difference in mean blood loss measured by model was found. For composite outcome score, no pairwise difference between models was significant. For composite outcome (good-bad), ParaBelt had good results in 75% of tests; the other 3 models had significantly worse results. In a preliminary laboratory analysis of belt tourniquet models using a manikin, performance differed by model. ParaBelt performed better than other models for the composite outcome. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  20. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay. (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette


    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Laysan 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the Northwest...

  2. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maug, 2003 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Maug in the...

  3. May 2006 Click It or Ticket seat belt mobilization evaluation (United States)


    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement programs. The 2006 national mobilization involved approximately $27 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the nation report...

  4. Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) (United States)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Kim, C. K.; Stokes, M.; Ho, G.; Cooper, S.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Manweiler, J. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Haggerty, D. K.; Brandt, P.; Sitnov, M.; Keika, K.; Hayes, J. R.; Brown, L. E.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Nelson, K. S.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Kerem, S.


    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft is the magnetosphere ring current instrument that will provide data for answering the three over-arching questions for the Van Allen Probes Program: RBSPICE will determine "how space weather creates the storm-time ring current around Earth, how that ring current supplies and supports the creation of the radiation belt populations," and how the ring current is involved in radiation belt losses. RBSPICE is a time-of-flight versus total energy instrument that measures ions over the energy range from ˜20 keV to ˜1 MeV. RBSPICE will also measure electrons over the energy range ˜25 keV to ˜1 MeV in order to provide instrument background information in the radiation belts. A description of the instrument and its data products are provided in this chapter.

  5. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    100. Huin A K, Chattopadhyay A and Khan A S 1998 A reappraisal of stratigraphy and structure of the Sausar mobile belt around Deolapar-Pauni-Manegaon area,. Nagpur district, Maharashtra, India; In: International. Seminar on Precambrian ...

  6. Jupiter's radiation belt ions - A comparison of theory and observation (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Thorne, Richard M.; Mei, YI


    Radial profiles are constructed for the Jovian radiation belt flux-tube content Y-asterisk from the reported phase-space density of energetic particles obtained from Voyager 1 data over the range L = 6 to L = 9. These experimental profiles are compared with theoretical solutions for Y-asterisk from an interchange-diffusion model of the coupled radiation belt and Iogenic ion populations. Subject to certain limitations of the Voyager 1 data, the model solutions are found to be consistent with the data for a variety of input parameters. Model solutions are also found corresponding to radiation belt ions that are expected to be mainly responsible for the auroral energy input. Comparison of the present theoretical profiles with the data implies that the energetic radiation belt ions should have a peak loss rate within a factor of three of that for strong diffusion scattering.

  7. Calculated limits for particle fluxes in Jupiter's Van Allen belts (United States)

    Haffner, J.


    Electron and proton fluxes in Jupiter's radiation belts are calculated, along with the envelopes of dose rates. The following assumptions are made: the particles in the Jupiter belts are influenced only by the magnetic field of the planet; the particles act correspondingly to the particles in the Earth's belts and the Earth's belts can be used as a model; the magnetic field of Jupiter is essentially a dipole; the radiation of a decimetric nature received from Jupiter is synchrotron radiation due to the electrons, and to a first approximation it is emitted isotropically; and the strength of the emission in the decimetric wavelength range gives an upper bound considering how strong the field can be and how many electrons there are. The point dose rates for tissue and 0.1 gram/cm aluminum shielding at about 3 Jupiter radii are 10000 rads/hr for electrons and 1000 rads/hr for protons.

  8. Restraint use (seat belt and child passenger seat) survey (United States)


    In Arizona, lack of restraint usage (seat belts and child passenger seats) was a contributing factor to an average of 687 fatalities per year which is nearly 60% of total fatalities. These tragic statistics could be dramatically decreased if effectiv...

  9. Observer-based fault diagnosis for trucks belt tensioner


    Dubuc, Donatien; Sename, Olivier; Bresch-Pietri, Delphine; Gauthier, Christophe


    International audience; This paper deals with the monitoring of a serpentine belt tensioner performance, a critical automotive engine component guaranteeing the cooling system efficiency. A belt tensioner fault will affect the transmission, deteriorate the water pump efficiency, and eventually, lead the engine to stall. Monitoring this component is thus a key to design predictive or corrective maintenance. In this paper, we propose to estimate a parameter which is shown to be characteristic o...

  10. The 2010-2011 revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Giles, R. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Orton, G. S.; Rogers, J. H.


    In 2009-2010, Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (SEB) faded to a very pale colour before the 2010-2011 revival restored the belt to its ordinary dark appearance. Mid-infrared images of the revival were taken using VISIR (VLT) across a range of wavelengths from 7 to 25 μm. These were used to retrieve changes in temperature and aerosol optical depth as the revival proceeded between November 2010 and September 2011.

  11. Preparation and characterization of highly planar flexible silver crystal belts. (United States)

    Varade, Dharmesh; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi


    We report a novel simple one-pot strategy for fabricating pure and highly planar silver (Ag) crystal belts. Unique single-crystal Ag belts (high width-to-thickness ratio ~50) were successfully synthesized in high yield (80 wt%) by reducing AgNO3 using N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) as a reducing and a structure-determining agent in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) under mild conditions.

  12. Identifying representative crop rotation patterns and grassland loss in the US Western Corn Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Gelfand, Ilya; Hurtt, George C.


    Crop rotations (the practice of growing crops on the same land in sequential seasons) reside at the core of agronomic management as they can influence key ecosystem services such as crop yields, carbon and nutrient cycling, soil erosion, water quality, pest and disease control. Despite the availability of the Cropland Data Layer (CDL) which provides remotely sensed data on crop type in the US on an annual basis, crop rotation patterns remain poorly mapped due to the lack of tools that allow for consistent and efficient analysis of multi-year CDLs. This study presents the Representative Crop Rotations Using Edit Distance (RECRUIT) algorithm, implemented as a Python software package, to select representative crop rotations by combining and analyzing multi-year CDLs. Using CDLs from 2010 to 2012 for 5 states in the US Midwest, we demonstrate the performance and parameter sensitivity of RECRUIT in selecting representative crop rotations that preserve crop area and capture land-use changes. Selecting only 82 representative crop rotations accounted for over 90% of the spatio-temporal variability of the more than 13,000 rotations obtained from combining the multi-year CDLs. Furthermore, the accuracy of the crop rotation product compared favorably with total state-wide planted crop area available from agricultural census data. The RECRUIT derived crop rotation product was used to detect land-use conversion from grassland to crop cultivation in a wetland dominated part of the US Midwest. Monoculture corn and monoculture soybean cropping were found to comprise the dominant land-use on the newly cultivated lands.

  13. Denouement of Jovian radiation belt theory (United States)

    Coroniti, F. V.


    Predictions of theoretical models of Jupiter's radiation belts are compared with Pioneer 10 measurements. A brief quasi-historical review is given of the evolution of the basic theoretical ideas with emphasis on the three physical processes that were believed to be dominant in the Jovian electron fluxes: radial-diffusion transport, limitation of particle fluxes by plasma wave turbulence, and particle losses from collisional sweep-up by the Galilean satellites. Pioneer 10 data on the inner zone are discussed which yield the clearest evidence for radial diffusion being the dominant transport process, the synchrotron flux density is estimated using Pioneer 10 measurements, and the observed outer-zone electron fluxes are favorably compared with the qualitative and quantitative predictions of the whistler-mode stable-trapping model. The outer-zone electron-precipitation flux is estimated, and it is suggested that precipitation could affect the structure of the Jovian ionosphere. Satellite sweep-up is shown to be less severe than had been anticipated.

  14. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.


    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  15. Trapped radiation belts of Saturn - First look (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W. H.; Mcilwain, C. E.


    Data on the magnetosphere of Saturn obtained with the trapped radiation detector package on board the Pioneer 11 spacecraft is reported. Radiation belt profiles determined by the trapped radiation detectors on Pioneer 10 and 11 indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between those of the earth and Jupiter, with particle intensities similar to those of the earth. The outer region of the Saturn magnetosphere is found to contain particles of lower energy than the outer region, being strongly influenced by the time-varying solar wind. The moons and rings of Saturn are observed to be effective absorbers of trapped particles, confirming the discoveries of the F ring, the Pioneer ring division and the moon 1979 S 2. Particle diffusion rates are used to estimate a cross-sectional area of greater than 7 x 10 to the 13th sq cm and an opacity greater than 0.00001 for the F ring. It is suggested that cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay be studied as a possible source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  16. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony


    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  17. Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt: U-Pb zircon geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and tectonic implications (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Liu, Junlai; Qi, Yinchuan; Fan, Wenkui; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    The Neoproterozoic tectonic characteristics of the high grade metamorphic massifs along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt are debated. Controversies are on 1) whether the massifs were parts of the Yangtze block to the northeast or 2) parts of the Indochina block to the southwest and 3) the magmatic rocks represent arc magmatism or rifting linked to break-up of the Rodinia supercontinent. This study presents new and precise LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age dating and geochemical and Hf isotopic analyses of granitic intrusions along the Ailao Shan-Red River belt in an attempt to elucidate the Neoproterozoic magmatic evolution of this belt. In general, zircon U-Pb ages of the studied granitic rocks are between 804 and 724Ma, with a weighted mean of ca. 770 Ma, thus confirming Neoproterozoic magmatism. All samples plot into the peraluminous domain, indicating a major crustal resource. In consistency with these conclusions, most of the Neoproterozoic granitoids show negative ɛHf (t) values near the chondrite line. A few samples possess low positiveɛ Hf (t) values, being signatures of mantle sources. It is therefore concluded that the Neoproterozoic magmatism along the ASRR belt originated from mantle sources with important contributions through anatexis of ancient lower crust. Discrimination diagrams of tectonic settings suggest continental arc magmatism. Neoproterozoic magmatism is widely reported along the margins of the Yangtze block, especially in the northern margin. However, there are fewer reports about Neoproterozoic magmatic activity along the southern and southwestern margins. The geochronology spectrum and geochemisty of the studied Neoproterozoic granitic rocks are similar to those along the western margin of the Yangtze block. The present study, combined with previous results, suggests that oceanic subduction contributed to the generation of the arc magmatisms along the western and southwestern margin of the Yangtze plate and along the ASRR belt (as part of the

  18. Connecting seas : western Palaearctic continental flyway for water birds in the perspective of changing land use and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerden, MR; Drent, RH; Stahl, J; Bakker, JP

    The western Palaearctic continental flyway that connects the tundra and taiga belts of Russia with north-west Europe is the major migratory avenue for an estimated 9.3 million herbivorous water birds ( swans, geese and ducks). Agricultural practices together with protection measures subsidize the

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck (United States)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  20. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.


    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  1. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana


    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  2. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.


    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D value may seem strange, considering the solar system is only 4.56 Gy old. One way to interpret it is that the main belt once had more mass that was eliminated by early dynamical processes between 4--4.56 Ga. This would allow for more early grinding, and it would suggest the main belt's wavy-shaped SFD is a ''fossil'' from a more violent early epoch. Simulations suggest that most D > 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V

  3. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.


    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  4. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include

  5. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura


    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  6. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)


    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  7. The Great Belt coherence experiment. [Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Kristensen, L.; Courtney, M.S.


    We have studied theoretically and experimentally lateral spectral coherences of turbulent velocity components over water at the height of 70 m. Simple theoretical considerations show that if these coherences are known it is possible with just the knowledge of the spectra to calculate the power spectrum of the lift forces on the bridge deck. These considerations also show that the force spectrum at a particular frequency {omega} = {omega}{sub 0} grows with the mean wind speed U raised to a power which can be as large as 17/3, i.e. the r.m.s. amplitude of the force at that frequency is proportional to U{sup 17/6}. We have shown quantitatively that only if the displacement D between the measured wind speed components is small compared to the scale of the turbulence do we know for certain that the coherences are parameterless functions of the dimensionless variable {omega}D/U with the implication that the coherence of identical velocity components goes to one as {omega} goes to zero. The experimental data were obtained from three sonic anemometers mounted at the top of two 70 m masts on the island Sprogoe in the middle of the Great Belt between Zealand and Fyn. The displacements were 15.0, 32.5 and 47.5 m. The data shows that the coherences only for the smallest displacement approach one as the frequency goes to zero. The larger the displacement the smaller the coherence at zero frequency. A dynamic ''shear distortion'' model explains the behavior of the coherence quite well and makes it possible to predict the coherence on basis of velocity spectra measured at one point. Simple exponential fit to the actual data have been obtained. (author) 23 refs.

  8. Electrospun nanofiber belts made from high performance copolyimide. (United States)

    Chen, Shuiliang; Hu, Ping; Greiner, Andreas; Cheng, Chuyun; Cheng, Haofang; Chen, Fangfang; Hou, Haoqing


    Electrospun nanofibers based on copolyimides were made, aiming at finding a promising method for improving the mechanical properties of electrospun polyimide nanofibers. The copolyimide had a backbone consisting of 3,3',4,4'-biphenyl-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), biphenylamide (BPA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) residues. The structure and composition of the copolyimide was controlled by the ratio of rigid BPA and flexible ODA moieties. The electrospun copolyimide nanofibers were collected in the form of a belt using a rotating disc with a rim of 8 mm width. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, x-ray scattering and tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the nanofiber belts. The nanofibers had a diameter range from 80 to 300 nm and were well aligned in the belts. The thermal stability of the nanofiber belts was over 460 °C. The tensile test showed that the copolyimide nanofiber belts had much better mechanical properties than either of the flexible and rigid homo-polyimide (homo-PI) nanofiber belts. The tensile strength, modulus and elongation to break of the copolyimide nanofiber belt with BPA/ODA ratio of 40/60 are respectively 1.1 ± 0.1 GPa, 6.2 ± 0.7 GPa and 20.8 ± 1.2%, compared to 459 ± 36 MPa, 2.1 ± 0.3 GPa and 41.3 ± 2.2% for BPDA/ODA homo-PI as well as 384 ± 18 MPa, 11.5 ± 0.6 GPa and 3.9 ± 0.1% for BPDA/BPA homo-PI. The important feature is that the electrospun polymer nanofibers can be made very strong by using copolyimides as spinning materials.

  9. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt (United States)


    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  10. The pre-Devonian tectonic framework of Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt (XMOB) in north China (United States)

    Xu, Bei; Zhao, Pan; Wang, Yanyang; Liao, Wen; Luo, Zhiwen; Bao, Qingzhong; Zhou, Yongheng


    A new tectonic division of the Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt (XMOB) in north China has been presented according to our research and a lot of new data of tectonics, geochronology and geochemistry. Four blocks and four sutures have been recognized in the XMOB, including the Erguna (EB), Xing'an-Airgin Sum (XAB), Songliao-Hunshandake (SHB), and Jiamusi (JB), and Xinlin-Xiguitu (XXS), Xilinhot-Heihe (XHS), Mudanjiang (MS) and Ondor Sum-Yongji sutures (OYS). The framework of the XMOB is characterized by a tectonic collage of the blocks and orogenic belts between them. Different Precambrian basements have been found in the blocks, including the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks and plutons in the EB, the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in western and eastern of segments of the XAB, Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in middle segments of the XAB, respectively, the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks and plutons in the SHB, and Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in the JB. The XXS resulted from a northwestward subduction of the XAB beneath the EB during the Cambrian, which was followed by the forming of the XHS and OYS in the northwest and south margins of the SHB in the Silurian, respectively. The MS was caused by a westward subduction of the JB beneath the east margin of the SHB during the middle Devonian. The three Cambrian, Silurian and middle Devonian events indicate that the XMOB belongs to a pre-middle Devonian multiple orogenic belt in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Forming of the XMOB suggests that the southeast part of the Paleo Asian Ocean closed before the middle Devonian.

  11. High-Pressure/Low-Temperature Melanges in the Cycladic Blueschist Belt, Greece: Results of an Ionprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb Study (United States)

    Bröcker, M.; Keasling, A.; Pidgeon, R. T.


    The Cycladic blueschist belt (CBB) in the central Aegean Sea has experienced epidote blueschist to eclogite facies metamorphism in the Eocene (c. 50-40 Ma) during collisional processes between the Apulian microplate and Eurasia. The general geological framework is well established, but many details of the tectonometamorphic history still are not fully understood. Unresolved issues concern the importance of pre-Eocene HP metamorphism [1, 2] and the geochronological record that is preserved in melange sequences. These aspects are addressed in an ionprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon study focusing on block-matrix associations from the islands of Syros and Andros. Melanges comprise in variable mixtures eclogites, glaucophanites, meta-gabbros, ultrabasic rocks, meta-acidic gneisses and jadeitites in a serpentinitic and/or metasedimentary matrix. The origin of the block-matrix associations is controversial and in many cases it remains unclear whether these melanges record sedimentary or tectonic processes. A tectonic slab from Syros, consisting of an interlayered meta-acidic gneiss - glaucophanite sequence, yielded 206Pb/238U ages of c. 237-245 Ma, similar to ages determined for rocks collected from structurally coherent sequences on other Cycladic islands. On Syros, we have also studied zircons from a metasomatic alteration profile, which developed around a compound eclogite-jadeitite net-veined block enclosed in a serpentinite matrix. From the outside in, distinct blackwall alteration zones (c. 5-30 cm in thickness) can be distinguished, which predominantly consist either of actinolite- chlorite, glaucophane or omphacite. Zircon from the unaltered jadeitite and all reaction zones yielded 206Pb/238U ages of c. 80 Ma. Across this profile, systematic changes are observed in zircon morphology and CL patterns. U- and Th-concentrations in zircon decrease towards the peripheral rinds. These observations are difficult to reconcile with a magmatic origin of the zircons and instead we

  12. Spatiotemporal Patterns and its Instability of Land Use Change in Five Chinese Node Cities of the Belt and Road (United States)

    Quan, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, P. L.; Ren, H. G.


    It has long recognized that there exists three different terrain belt in China, i.e. east, central, and west can have very different impacts on the land use changes. It is therefore better understand how spatiotemporal patterns linked with processes and instability of land use change are evolving in China across different regions. This paper compares trends of the similarities and differences to understand the spatiotemporal characteristics and the linked processes i.e. states, incidents and instability of land use change of 5 Chinese cities which are located in the nodes of The Silk Road in China. The results show that on the whole, the more land transfer times and the more land categories involved changes happens in Quanzhou City, one of eastern China than those in central and western China. Basically, cities in central and western China such as Changsha, Kunming and Urumuqi City become instable while eastern city like Quanzhou City turns to be stable over time.

  13. Geometry and Kinematic evolution of the Sikkim Himalaya, India: Implications for the Evolution of the Himalayan Fold-Thrust Belt (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, K.; Mitra, G.


    In the Darjeeling - Sikkim Himalaya the Main Central thrust (MCT) system has translated the Greater Himalayan hanging wall rocks over large distances so that Greater Himalayan rocks are exposed within 7 km of the mountain front. The sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan duplex is composed of two duplex systems and has a more complex geometry than in other parts of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. Within the duplex, a foreland-dipping component and reactivation of the roof thrust resulted in large southward translation of the overlying MCT sheets in this region. The growth of the duplex resulted in a plunge culmination that manifests itself as a broad N-S trending structural high in this region; this is not a "river anticline" as its trace lies west of the Teesta river. A transport parallel balanced cross section constructed across this region suggests a total minimum shortening of ~502 km (~82%) south of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS). The Lesser Himalayan duplex accommodates nearly half of this total shortening. In this region, the average long-term shortening rate is estimated to be ~22 mm/yr. Comparison of available shortening estimates from different parts of the Himalayan arc show regional variations in shortening, but it is difficult to evaluate the primary cause for this variation; however, shortening in the Himalayan fold - thrust belt (FTB) is highest in the middle of the Himalayan arc (western Nepal) and progressively decreases towards the two syntaxes. Although, the width of the Lesser Himalayan belt decreases in the eastern Himalaya, the Lesser Himalayan shortening percentage remains approximately similar to that in both eastern and western Nepal Himalaya, where the belt is widest. In addition, the shortening accommodated within the Lesser Himalayan duplex progressively increases from the western to the eastern Himalaya. Thus, the width of the original Lesser Himalayan basin may have played an important role in partitioning the shortening in the Himalayan

  14. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance. (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt1), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness2, 3), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  15. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt. (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H


    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  17. On static contact of belt and different pulleys (United States)

    Belyaev, A. K.; Eliseev, V. V.; Irschik, H.; Oborin, E. A.


    The fitting of a looped belt on two pulleys with different radii is considered. A geometrically nonlinear model with account for tension and transverse shear is applied for modeling the belt. The pulleys are considered rigid bodies, and the belt-pulley contact is assumed frictionless. The problem has an axis of symmetry, therefore the boundary value problem is formulated and solved for a half of the belt. The considered part consists of three segments, two contact segments and a free span segment between them. The introduction of a dimensionless material coordinate at all segments leads to a system of ordinary differential equations of fifteenth order. The nonlinear boundary value problem for this system and boundary conditions is solved numerically with the shooting method and the finite difference method. As a result, the belt shape including the rotation angle, the forces, moments and contact pressure are determined. The contact pressure increases near the end point of contact areas, however no concentrated contact forces occur.

  18. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts (United States)

    Steel, Alan


    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  19. Fall protection characteristics of safety belts and human impact tolerance. (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt, which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness, which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  20. Inertial compensation for belt acceleration in an instrumented treadmill. (United States)

    Hnat, Sandra K; van den Bogert, Antonie J


    Instrumented treadmills provide a convenient means for applying horizontal perturbations during gait or standing. However, varying the treadmill belt speed introduces inertial artifacts in the sagittal plane moment component of the ground reaction force. Here we present a compensation method based on a second-order dynamic model that predicts inertial pitch moment from belt acceleration. The method was tested experimentally on an unloaded treadmill at a slow belt speed with small random variations (1.20±0.10m/s) and at a faster belt speed with large random variations (2.00±0.50m/s). Inertial artifacts of up to 12Nm (root-mean-square, RMS) and 30Nm (peak) were observed. Coefficients of the model were calibrated on one trial and then used to predict and compensate the pitch moment of another trial with different random variations. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) were 72.08% and 96.75% for the slow and fast conditions, respectively. After compensation, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the inertial artifact was reduced by 47.37% for the slow speed and 81.98% for fast speed, leaving only 1.5Nm and 2.1Nm of artifact uncorrected, respectively. It was concluded that the compensation technique reduced inertial errors substantially, thereby improving the accuracy in joint moment calculations on an instrumented treadmill with varying belt speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Central and Eastern European countries between the 16+1 platform and Chinese OBOR - One Belt, One Road - Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cornel Dumitrescu


    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the projects and the initiatives of the Central and Eastern European countries that have been finalised, are in progress or will be developed in the near future with the help of the existing or future financial instruments specific to the 16+1 platform and the One Belt, One Road complex program. For our research we selected four countries, namely: Poland, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, the group being relevant from the perspective of the transportation corridors connected to the ”One Belt, One Road” initiative: (1 - Piraeus, Skopje, Belgrade, Budapest, Western Europe; (2 - Suez Canal, Constanta and then Danube, Western Europe, or through Moldova towards Ukraine and Poland; (3 – Constanta, through the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and then the corridors mentioned at the previous point. We based our analysis on the data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China-CEEC think-tank network and the literature in the field.

  2. Foreign body giant cells and osteoclasts are TRAP positive, have podosome-belts and both require OC-STAMP for cell fusion. (United States)

    Khan, Usman A; Hashimi, Saeed M; Bakr, Mahmoud M; Forwood, Mark R; Morrison, Nigel A


    Macrophages have the ability to fuse and form multinucleated giant cells such as Osteoclast (OCs) and FBGCs. Osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP) is an important cell surface protein involved in the formation of OCs. This study sought to determine if OC-STAMP also regulates formation of FBGCs using expression analysis and subsequent inhibition studies. qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that OC-STAMP expression is significantly higher in FBGCs compared to control monocytes (P belts comprised of F-actin on Day 8. FBGCs were subsequently plated onto dentine, but despite presenting some morphologic features of OCs (OC-STAMP expression, TRAP reactivity, and podosome belts) they failed to resorb bone. To evaluate a role for OC-STAMP in FBGCs, we inhibited this cell surface protein with anti-OC-STAMP antibody and observed that cell fusion and podosome belt formation was inhibited in both OCs and FBGCs. Our data support the hypothesis that OC-STAMP is a regulatory molecule for FBGCs; and that they are functionally distinct from OCs, despite similarities in gene expression profile, podosome belt formation, and TRAP expression. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The structure of western Sicily, central Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, R.; Sulli, A. [Universita di Palermo, Dip. di Geologia e Geodesia, Palermo (Italy); Merlini, S. [ENI-Divisione AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)


    Western Sicily is part of the Sicilian chain, a sector of the SE-verging Alpine orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, boreholes and recent inland geological data, have enabled us to assess the deep structural grain. A wedge of flat-lying Mesozoic-Miocene carbonate and terrigenous rocks (pre-Panormide nappes) is superimposed on NW-trending, 7-8 km thick, Mesozoic-Paleogene carbonate thrust ramps (Trapanese units), arranged in two structural levels extending from the Tyrrhenian coast to western offshore Sicily. Upper Miocene to Pleistocene terrigenous strata, often deformed, fill syntectonic basins above the thrust pile. The main tectonic transport of the thrust pile, developing from Early Miocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene times, was towards the east and southeast. Initial stacking and deformation of the pre-Panormide allochthon is bracketed between Early and Late Miocene. The Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene underthrusting of the Trapanese-Saccense units, that acted through more recent deep-seated thrusts in the carbonate platform layer, induced late stage refolding and further shortening in the early emplaced pre-Panormide nappe. Previously formed structures appear to have been dissected or reactivated by a right oblique transpression during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. The geometry of the carbonate bodies opens new potential perspectives on the existence of structural traps, but the uncertainties of source rock occurrence remain. (Author)

  4. Lamellar assembly of cadmium selenide nanoclusters into quantum belts. (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gibbons, Patrick C; Buhro, William E


    Here, we elucidate a double-lamellar-template pathway for the formation of CdSe quantum belts. The lamellar templates form initially by dissolution of the CdX(2) precursors in the n-octylamine solvent. Exposure of the precursor templates to selenourea at room temperature ultimately affords (CdSe)(13) nanoclusters entrained within the double-lamellar templates. Upon heating, the nanoclusters are transformed to CdSe quantum belts having widths, lengths, and thicknesses that are predetermined by the dimensions within the templates. This template synthesis is responsible for the excellent optical properties exhibited by the quantum belts. We propose that the templated-growth pathway is responsible for the formation of the various flat, colloidal nanocrystals recently discovered, including nanoribbons, nanoplatelets, nanosheets, and nanodisks.

  5. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.


    is given both as a total percentage of time and as a mean distribution of restrictions over the year. We perform the same analysis for the Øresund and the Great Belt bridge and compare the result with the actualfractions. Only during the last year of operation of the Øresund bridge the criteria......This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... are the same as used in this report and here the comparison is satisfactory. We estimate that the prospective Fehmarn Belt bridge will be closed roughly 2% of the timefor light roadway vehicles (unloaded trucks and caravans), corresponding to 7 days per year. This is slightly less than for the Fehmarnsund...

  6. Recent Developments in the Radiation Belt Environment Model (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Zheng, Q.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Albert, J. M.; Nagai, T.


    The fluxes of energetic particles in the radiation belts are found to be strongly controlled by the solar wind conditions. In order to understand and predict the radiation particle intensities, we have developed a physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model that considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. Recently, an improved calculation of wave-particle interactions has been incorporated. In particular, the model now includes cross diffusion in energy and pitch-angle. We find that the exclusion of cross diffusion could cause significant overestimation of electron flux enhancement during storm recovery. The RBE model is also connected to MHD fields so that the response of the radiation belts to fast variations in the global magnetosphere can be studied.Weare able to reproduce the rapid flux increase during a substorm dipolarization on 4 September 2008. The timing is much shorter than the time scale of wave associated acceleration.

  7. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Mauk, B. H.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Fox, N. J.


    The goal of NASA's Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to the variable inputs of energy from the Sun. The investigations selected for this 2-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in early 2012 address this task by making extensive observations of the plasma waves, thermal, ring current, and relativistic particle populations, and DC electric and magnetic fields within the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. We first describe the current mission concept within the scope of NASA's strategic plan and the Vision for Exploration, and then consider how its observations will be used to define and quantify the processes that accelerate, transport, and remove particles in the Earth's radiation belts.

  8. Radiation Belt Environment Model: Application to Space Weather and Beyond (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.


    Understanding the dynamics and variability of the radiation belts are of great scientific and space weather significance. A physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model has been developed to simulate and predict the radiation particle intensities. The RBE model considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. It takes into account the particle drift in realistic, time-varying magnetic and electric field, and includes diffusive effects of wave-particle interactions with various wave modes in the magnetosphere. The RBE model has been used to perform event studies and real-time prediction of energetic electron fluxes. In this talk, we will describe the RBE model equation, inputs and capabilities. Recent advancement in space weather application and artificial radiation belt study will be discussed as well.

  9. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms. (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn


    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  11. Piezoelectric belts as a method for measuring chest and abdominal movement for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis. (United States)

    Vaughn, Courtney M; Clemmons, Pamela


    Distinguishing obstructive sleep apnea from central apnea depends upon accurate measure of chest and abdominal movement. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) polysomnography guidelines recommend the use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) belts but not piezoelectrode (PE) belts for measuring chest and abdominal movements. To compare these two sensors, we measured the signal amplitude for 10 RIP belts and 10 PE belts stretched by mechanical distraction across six distances (2.5 to 15.0 centimeters) and replicated 10 times for each belt. Amplitudes were measured using the Stellate Harmonie (Stellate Systems, Inc., Natus Medical, Inc., San Carlos, California, USA) recording system. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was calculated. All RIP belts performed well at all distraction lengths and demonstrated linear performance. Eight of 10 PE belts performed well through all measures whereas, two showed nonlinear increase in signal on stretch of greater than 12.5 centimeters. Signals from PE belts highly correlated with the distance of distraction (r = 0.96 to 0.99) and the RIP belts (r = 0.98 to 0.99). These results suggest that PE belts perform similarly to RIP belts at distraction distances up to 10.0 centimeters. Further testing on biological models is needed to determine if PE belts are a suitable alternative for RIP belts in polysomnography.

  12. Predictors of rear seat belt use among U.S. adults, 2012. (United States)

    Bhat, Geeta; Beck, Laurie; Bergen, Gwen; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo


    Seat belt use reduces the risk of injuries and fatalities among motor vehicle occupants in a crash, but belt use in rear seating positions is consistently lower than front seating positions. Knowledge is limited concerning factors associated with seat belt use among adult rear seat passengers. Data from the 2012 ConsumerStyles survey were used to calculate weighted percentages of self-reported rear seat belt use by demographic characteristics and type of rear seat belt use enforcement. Multivariable regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for rear seat belt use, adjusting for person-, household- and geographic-level demographic variables as well as for type of seat belt law in place in the state. Rear seat belt use varied by age, race, geographic region, metropolitan status, and type of enforcement. Multivariable regression showed that respondents living in states with primary (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR): 1.23) and secondary (APR: 1.11) rear seat belt use enforcement laws were significantly more likely to report always wearing a seat belt in the rear seat compared with those living in a state with no rear seat belt use enforcement law. Several factors were associated with self-reported seat belt use in rear seating positions. Evidence suggests that primary enforcement covering all seating positions is an effective intervention that can be employed to increase seat belt use and in turn prevent motor vehicle injuries to rear-seated occupants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Structural framework of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehr, M.; Cosgrove, J.W. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Royal School of Mines


    Data gleaned from the literature on the Zagros have been compiled and used in conjunction with new interpretations to provide a better picture of the structures, sedimentation history and deformation of this hydrocarbon rich Mountain Belt. The belt parallel Mountain Front, the N-S trending Kazerun, lzeh and E-W trending Bala Rud Fault Zones are defined as the master structural elements of the Belt. These fault zones divide the Zagros basin into zones with different stratigraphic successions and different rheological profiles. This resulted in different structural styles developing along the belt during the subsequent collision. The Kazerun and lzeh Fault Zones acted as the depositional system transition zone between the Lurestan and Fars regions in Jurassic-Cretaceous time and partly controlled the distribution of the Kazhdumi Formation (one of the major source rocks). By the end of the Cretaceous the NW-SE trending Mountain Front Fault divided the present Folded Belt of the Zagros into a major foreland basin to the southwest, and a piggyback basin to the northeast. Activity along other major (transfer) fault zones including the lzeh, Kazerun and Bala Rud Fault zones occurred at this time and controlled the sedimentation and subsidence of the Dezful Embayment the main target region for hydrocarbon exploration. These fault zones controlled the thickness of the Asmari Formation (one of the main reservoirs) and also the considerable thickness and facies changes of the Gachsaran Formation (the major seal to the Asmari Formation). The present morphology of the mountain belt is interpreted as being mainly related to the pinning of the Mountain Front Fault to the northwest of the Dezful Embayment and to the north of the Strait of Hormuz. (author)

  14. Does warm debris dust stem from asteroid belts? (United States)

    Geiler, Fabian; Krivov, Alexander V.


    Many debris discs reveal a two-component structure, with a cold outer and a warm inner component. While the former are likely massive analogues of the Kuiper belt, the origin of the latter is still a matter of debate. In this work, we investigate whether the warm dust may be a signature of asteroid belt analogues. In the scenario tested here, the current two-belt architecture stems from an originally extended protoplanetary disc, in which planets have opened a gap separating it into the outer and inner discs which, after the gas dispersal, experience a steady-state collisional decay. This idea is explored with an analytic collisional evolution model for a sample of 225 debris discs from a Spitzer/IRS catalogue that are likely to possess a two-component structure. We find that the vast majority of systems (220 out of 225, or 98 per cent) are compatible with this scenario. For their progenitors, original protoplanetary discs, we find an average surface density slope of -0.93 ± 0.06 and an average initial mass of (3.3^{+0.4}_{-0.3})× 10^{-3} solar masses, both of which are in agreement with the values inferred from submillimetre surveys. However, dust production by short-period comets and - more rarely - inward transport from the outer belts may be viable, and not mutually excluding, alternatives to the asteroid belt scenario. The remaining five discs (2 per cent of the sample: HIP 11486, HIP 23497, HIP 57971, HIP 85790, HIP 89770) harbour inner components that appear inconsistent with dust production in an 'asteroid belt.' Warm dust in these systems must either be replenished from cometary sources or represent an aftermath of a recent rare event, such as a major collision or planetary system instability.

  15. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  16. Global storm time depletion of the outer electron belt. (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Barnes, R J


    The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity, electron intensities in the belt can vary by orders of magnitude at different spatial and temporal scales. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the main-phase depletions: adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused by the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere, and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the adiabatic effect and magnetopause loss to the rapid depletion of the outer belt observed at the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during the main phase of 17 March 2013 storm. The intensities of >1 MeV electrons were depleted by more than an order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the belt in less than 6 h after the sudden storm commencement. For the analysis we used three-dimensional test particle simulations of global evolution of the outer belt in the Tsyganenko-Sitnov (TS07D) magnetic field model with an inductive electric field. Comparison of the simulation results with electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer experiment shows that magnetopause loss accounts for most of the observed depletion at L >5, while at lower L shells the depletion is adiabatic. Both magnetopause loss and the adiabatic effect are controlled by the change in global configuration of the magnetic field due to storm time development of the ring current; a simulation of electron evolution without a ring current produces a much weaker depletion.

  17. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley


    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  18. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar


    Thomas, Robert James; De Waele, Bert; Schofield, David; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Horstwood, Matthew; Tucker, Robert; Bauer, Wilfried; Annells, Richard; Howard, Keith; Walsh, Greg; Rabarimanana, Mamy; Rafahatelo, Jean-Marie; Ralison, Vonimanitre; Randriamananjara, Theogene


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1: 100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of fourteen U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the ...

  19. The Main Belt Comets and ice in the Solar System (United States)

    Snodgrass, Colin; Agarwal, Jessica; Combi, Michael; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Hsieh, Henry H.; Hui, Man-To; Jehin, Emmanuel; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Knight, Matthew M.; Opitom, Cyrielle; Orosei, Roberto; de Val-Borro, Miguel; Yang, Bin


    We review the evidence for buried ice in the asteroid belt; specifically the questions around the so-called Main Belt Comets (MBCs). We summarise the evidence for water throughout the Solar System, and describe the various methods for detecting it, including remote sensing from ultraviolet to radio wavelengths. We review progress in the first decade of study of MBCs, including observations, modelling of ice survival, and discussion on their origins. We then look at which methods will likely be most effective for further progress, including the key challenge of direct detection of (escaping) water in these bodies.

  20. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance


    HINO, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Abstract: Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt1 ), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness2, 3 ), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for ...

  1. Proterozoic Eastern Sayan ophiolites (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) record subduction initiation in vicinity of continental block (United States)

    Belyaev, Vasilii; Gornova, Marina; Medvedev, Alexander; Dril, Sergey; Karimov, Anas


    Geochemical study of cumulate and volcanic rocks from ˜ 1020 Ma Eastern Sayan ophiolites1 (Siberia, Russia) is used to provide a correlation between two ophiolitic belts and link them to subduction initiation setting. Studied areas include Ospin and Ilchir massifs to the East and Dunzhugur to the West of Early Precambrian Gargan block. Ophiolitic cumulates represent peridotite-pyroxenite-gabbro-norite suite with crystallization orders of Cr-Sp - Ol - Cpx - Opx - Plag, and Cr-Sp - Ol - Opx - Amph - (Cpx) - Plag. Clinopyroxene is augite-diopside with Mg# 85-95, low Al2O3 (1-2.5%) and TiO2 (0.05-0.2%). Amph is Mg-hornblende to edenite (Mg# 84-86, 5-8% Al2O3, 0.3-0.6% TiO2). Cr-Sp has Cr# 65-83 and 0.05-0.3% TiO2 in cumulates with high Opx proportion, while in Cpx-dominating pyroxenites chemistry of Cr-Sp is variable (Cr# 40-75, 0.05-0.5% TiO2). Due to alteration, Ol and Opx chemistry is available only for some samples (Ol: Mg# 88, 0.2-0.3% NiO; Opx: Mg# 89, 1.6% Al2O3). Whole-rock MgO ranges 9 to 38%. Amph-free pyroxenites and gabbro-norites show flat to slightly depleted REE pattern with negative HFSE anomalies. Amph-pyroxenites have fractionated trace-element pattern with LREE enrichment, Nb-Ti minima at slightly higher HFSE abundances. In-situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of Cpx in Amph-free pyroxenites and gabbro-norites revealed moderately depleted to flat REE and Nb-Zr-Hf-Ti depletion, with low trace element abundances (La/SmPM = 0.14-0.9, Zr 0.6-2.3, Nd = 0.2-1.1, Yb = 0.2-0.7 ppm). Melts calculated to be in equilibrium with Cpx using distribution coefficients2 are REE-flat to slightly LREE-enriched (La/SmPM = 1-4) at low HREE abundances (0.5-1.5 ppm Yb). Overall, crystallization orders, mineral and whole-rock chemistry suggest origin of ophiolitic cumulates from low-Ca boninites or primitive andesites (higher Opx or Amph proportion) to high-Ca boninites or primitive island arc tholeiites (Cpx-dominating, Amph-free associations with subordinate Opx). Ophiolitic

  2. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad


    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  3. Fine Belt-Buckles of Walrus Ivory – also Made in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else


    On the production of decorative artefacts in Norse Greenland - and new finds of walrus ivory belt buckles......On the production of decorative artefacts in Norse Greenland - and new finds of walrus ivory belt buckles...

  4. Analysis on the Bending Stiffness and the Form Force of the Pipe Conveyor Belt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun Xiaoxia; Meng Wenjun; Zhao Hui; Yuan Yuan; Yang Zhengmao


      The bending stiffness and the form force of the pipe conveyor have a grate influence on the performance of conveyor belt into tube, the wear and tear of conveyor belt, running resistance and stability for pipe conveyor...

  5. Anatomy of an escape tectonic zone: Western Irian Jaya (Indonesia) (United States)

    Pubellier, Manuel; Ego, Frédéric


    The western fold-and-thrust belt of New Guinea in Irian Jaya is presently a complex boundary, dominated by the Bird's Head block escape from the collision between the Australian plate and the remnants of volcanic belts carried by the Pacific plate. The escape rate given by geodetic measurements is of the order of 7 cm/yr, and movement is accommodated by a broad shear zone. We analyze this shear pattern using fault slip analyses performed in the field from 1992 to 1996, combined with focal mechanism inversions, moment tensors summations, and surface trace of structures inferred from radar and multispectral satellite images. Time control of the deformation is attained by isotope dating of the recent syntectonic intrusives. The geometry of the macro and microstructures occurred in two stages from the early Pliocene to the Present. The first stage (5 to 2 Ma) is marked by flat-and-ramps structures guided by N60°E lateral ramps associated with a N60°E cleavage, affecting the whole of western Irian Jaya. The second stage (2 Ma to Present) shows the collapse of the western fold-and-thrust belt and the escape of the Bird's Head and the Lengguru belts along N60°E transtensile faults. In the latter stage, the strike-slip offset is distributed on the N60°E schistosity zone along which some fracture planes are reactivated as left-lateral transtensile faults. Shallow earthquakes moment tensors have been inverted for stress and summed to get strain rates to define contrasting structural provinces. The spatial variations in both stress and strain fields from earthquakes and microtectonics show that (1) they are consistent and are assumed to be coeval, (2) they reveal that oblique convergence is partitioned, and (3) they are influenced by the existence of a free boundary. We see no significant rotation of stress axes laterally along the escape zone. Instead, stresses change according to the different orientations of basement structures and thus undergo rapid spatial variations


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich


    Full Text Available Impact of technological process parameters (pressing pressure, duration and vulcanization temperature on drive toothed belt longevity has been investigated. Optimum parameters of the technological process that permit to improve a belt resource have been determined. Methodology for determination of a number of cycles intended for loading of belt teeth according to a test duration and transmission parameters has been developed. The paper presents results of industrial resource tests of drive toothed belts manufactured in accordance with an optimized technology

  7. Electron acceleration and loss caused by wave-particle interactions in the Van Allen radiation belts


    Kersten, Tobias


    Modern society relies substantially on satellite technology as it is involved in vital services like telecommunication services, Earth observation, navigation, and many more. There are more than 1000 operational satellites in Earth orbit and most of these spend at least some of their time in the harsh environment of the Van Allen radiation belts. The radiation belts are usually split into two regions, the inner and the outer radiation belt. While the inner belt is considered stable, the flux ...

  8. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt


    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.


    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave-particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss,...

  9. Experimental and petrological constraints on local-scale interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at middle-crustal conditions: Example from the Limpopo Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov


    Full Text Available Reaction textures and fluid inclusions in the ∼2.0 Ga pyroxene-bearing dehydration zones within the Sand River biotite-hornblende orthogneisses (Central Zone of the Limpopo Complex suggest that the formation of these zones is a result of close interplay between dehydration process along ductile shear zones triggered by H2O-CO2-salt fluids at 750–800 °C and 5.5–6.2 kbar, partial melting, and later exsolution of residual brine and H2O-CO2 fluids during melt crystallization at 650–700 °C. These processes caused local variations of water and alkali activity in the fluids, resulting in various mineral assemblages within the dehydration zone. The petrological observations are substantiated by experiments on the interaction of the Sand River gneiss with the H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at 750 and 800 °C and 5.5 kbar. It follows that the interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids is accompanied by partial melting at 750–800 °C. Orthopyroxene-bearing assemblages are characteristic for temperature 800 °C and are stable in equilibrium with fluids with low salt concentrations, while salt-rich fluids produce clinopyroxene-bearing assemblages. These observations are in good agreement with the petrological data on the dehydration zones within the Sand River orthogneisses.

  10. Long-Term Benefits of Prompts to Use Safety Belts among Drivers Exiting Senior Communities (United States)

    Cox, Cory D.; Cox, Brian S.; Cox, Daniel J.


    Senior drivers are vulnerable to automobile crashes and subsequent injury and death. Safety belts reduce health risks associated with auto crashes. Therefore, it is important to encourage senior drivers to wear safety belts while driving. Using a repeated baseline design (AAB), we previously reported that motivating signs boosted safety belt usage…

  11. A shared 336 kb haplotype associated with the belt pattern in three divergent cattle breeds. (United States)

    Drögemüller, C; Demmel, S; Engensteiner, M; Rieder, S; Leeb, T


    We recently mapped the belt mutation in Brown Swiss cattle to a 922 kb interval on BTA3. In this study, we analysed two additional cattle breeds with the belted phenotype: Galloway and Dutch Belted (Lakenvelder). By genotyping microsatellites in solid-coloured and belted Galloways, we confirmed that the belt mutation in Galloways is strongly associated with the same chromosomal locus as in Brown Swiss cattle. Subsequently, we analysed 36 SNPs in the belt interval in three breeds. We identified a single belt-associated haplotype for each of the analysed breeds. The three breed-specific belt haplotypes share alleles in four blocks. Three of these blocks comprise only one single or two consecutive markers, while the largest shared haplotype block encompasses nine consecutive SNPs in a 336 kb interval. The large shared haplotype across divergent breeds suggests a common mutation for the belt phenotype in all three breeds. We identified a potential candidate gene within this interval coding for the developmental transcription factor HES6. We re-sequenced the complete HES6 coding sequence in belted and solid-coloured cattle but did not find belt-associated polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence in favour of a common founder for the belt phenotype in different cattle breeds and have resulted in an improved fine-mapping of the causative mutation.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.959 - Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. 1926.959... and Distribution § 1926.959 Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. (a) General...'s body belts, safety straps and lanyards acquired for use after the effective date of this subpart...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (United States)


    ... belts. 56.14130 Section 56.14130 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel...

  14. Evaluation of Maine's seat belt law change from secondary to primary enforcement. (United States)


    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77% to 84%; night 69% to 81%). Although daytime belt use ...

  15. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... implementation date for use of the revised uniform criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use.'' 76 FR 18042. That final rule amended the regulation establishing...

  16. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order 13043...

  17. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national average...

  18. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National Average...

  19. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and is...

  20. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.


    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  1. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131 Section 57.14131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained...

  2. 30 CFR 14.22 - Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. 14..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS Technical Requirements § 14.22 Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (a) Test procedures. The test...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT


    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  4. [Effectiveness of seat belts in automobiles]. (United States)

    Peñuelas, J E; Leo-Amador, G E; Ferniza-Mattar, E


    Studies in other countries have demonstrated that properly worn seatbelts dramatically reduce the likelihood and seriousness of injuries in motor vehicle accidents. However, in the western region of Mexico, they are very rarely worn, due to the erroneous belief that its use does not protect, and may even harm its wearer. In order to ascertain its benefit or lack of it, we undertook a survey, comparing the degree of severity of lesions sustained, as well as the mortality, between a group of 15 patients who wore seatbelts and another of 35 patients who did not wear them; all patients were treated at the Emergency Room of the Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico de Occidente, after suffering car accidents. Among the first group, only one patient required hospitalization and there were no deaths. In the second group, all 35 patients had to be hospitalized, eight had sequelae and nine died. We conclude that seatbelts effectively protect the wearer against death and limit the severity of the injuries suffered during car accidents. We propose that educational campaigns to convince the public as to the benefits of its use should be carried out, and after a reasonable interval its use should be mandated by law.

  5. WISE Albedos for Tens of Thousands of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Delbo, M.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Mueller, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; WISE Science Team, [No Value


    Using thermal IR data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission we have calculated diameters for tens of thousands of previously known Main Belt asteroids. Using archival optical observations we have also determined albedos for each object. We present our results from this

  6. ALMA Discovery of Dust Belts around Proxima Centauri (United States)

    Anglada, Guillem; Amado, Pedro J.; Ortiz, Jose L.; Gómez, José F.; Macías, Enrique; Alberdi, Antxon; Osorio, Mayra; Gómez, José L.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Pérez-Torres, Miguel A.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Berdiñas, Zaira M.; Jenkins, James S.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Lara, Luisa M.; López-González, Maria J.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Morales, Nicolas; Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Anita M. S.; Rodríguez-López, Cristina; Rodriguez, Eloy


    Proxima Centauri, the star closest to our Sun, is known to host at least one terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit. Here we report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) detection of the star at 1.3 mm wavelength and the discovery of a belt of dust orbiting around it at distances ranging between 1 and 4 au, approximately. Given the low luminosity of the Proxima Centauri star, we estimate a characteristic temperature of about 40 K for this dust, which might constitute the dust component of a small-scale analog to our solar system’s Kuiper Belt. The estimated total mass, including dust and bodies up to 50 km in size, is of the order of 0.01 Earth masses, which is similar to that of the solar Kuiper Belt. Our data also show a hint of warmer dust closer to the star. We also find signs of two additional features that might be associated with the Proxima Centauri system that still require further observations to be confirmed: an outer extremely cold (about 10 K) belt around the star at about 30 au, with an orbital plane that is tilted about 45° with respect to the plane of the sky; additionally, we marginally detect a compact 1.3 mm emission source at a projected distance of about 1.2 arcsec from the star, the nature of which is still unknown.

  7. Some control problems of continuously variable belt transmission (United States)

    Radzymiński, B.


    Control problems of continuously variable belt transmission used in passenger cars have been discussed. Pulley adjustment solutions and choice of control and feedback signals are the main topics. Intention to use such a transmission as part of a complex system containing mechanical energy storage caused that the adjustment transition time become crucial problem.

  8. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.


    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tes...... for automating the process of extracting aerodynamic derivatives from recorded time histories of coupled vertical and torsional motion....

  9. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamer, W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.


    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in

  10. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)


    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of

  11. The Chemical Composition of an Extrasolar Kuiper-Belt-Object (United States)

    Xu, S.; Zuckerman, B.; Dufour, P.; Young, E. D.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.


    The Kuiper Belt of our solar system is a source of short-period comets that may have delivered water and other volatiles to Earth and the other terrestrial planets. However, the distribution of water and other volatiles in extrasolar planetary systems is largely unknown. We report the discovery of an accretion of a Kuiper-Belt-Object analog onto the atmosphere of the white dwarf WD 1425+540. The heavy elements C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, and Ni are detected, with nitrogen observed for the first time in extrasolar planetary debris. The nitrogen mass fraction is ˜2%, comparable to that in comet Halley and higher than in any other known solar system object. The lower limit to the accreted mass is ˜1022 g, which is about one hundred thousand times the typical mass of a short-period comet. In addition, WD 1425+540 has a wide binary companion, which could facilitate perturbing a Kuiper-Belt-Object analog into the white dwarf’s tidal radius. This finding shows that analogs to objects in our Kuiper Belt exist around other stars and could be responsible for the delivery of volatiles to terrestrial planets beyond the solar system. Part of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Sleeping sickness (ss) in the Abraka Belt: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness (SS) in the Abraka belt: a preliminary geographical description of the disease focus.Annals Biomedical Sciences 2002;1:111-117.This retrospective study provides an analysis of the epidemiological data on Sleeping Sickness (SS) cases between January 1999 and December 2001 at the Baptist Medical ...

  13. Reconnaissance geochemical study of a part of Igarra Schist Belt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical exploration of Orle district within the Igarra schist belt in southwestern Nigeria was carried out using reconnaissance stream-sediment survey. A total of 56 samples were collected and chemically analysed for 22 trace elements including Au, Ag, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Mo, Hg, Sb, Tl, Sc, Cr, Ni, La, W, V, U, Th, ...

  14. Elastic deformation behaviour of Palaeogene clay from Fehmarn Belt area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Palaeogene clay samples were obtained by high quality boring and sampling techniques (Geobore S-system), during the extensive site investigations for building a bridge in the Fehmarn Belt area to link between Rødbyhavn in Denmark and Puttgarden in Germany. The Palaeogene clay is rich in smectite...

  15. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection. (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W


    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone.

  16. What kinds of people do not use seat belts? (United States)

    Helsing, K J; Comstock, G W


    In the course of a Community Mental Health Epidemiology study conducted in Washington County, Maryland between December, 1971 and July, 1974, interviews were conducted with randomly selected adults in a weekly systematic sampling of households. In a subsequent re-interview of 1009 respondents who had family cars with seat belts, nearly 47 per cent said they did not use them. Non-use of seat belts was significantly higher among females and among persons with less than high school education or low income. Non-use of seat belts was also higher among those who felt that their station in life as measured by the Cantril ladder was unsatisfactory, who felt powerless to change at least some aspects of their lives, and who were infrequent church attenders. Significant associations were also found with infrequency of two other preventive health behaviors, dental checkups and Pap tests. Among young adults the tendency seemed to be for marriage to increase the non-use of seat belts among females but to decrease non-use among males. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:911016

  17. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    : the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep ...

  18. Impact Tests of HBU-X Automatic Lap Belt Prototypes. (United States)


    technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER HENNINGE. VON GIERKE, Dr Ing Director Biodynamics and...SYSTEM loed cells will be wine <i to provide a positive output Mhen the belt 1s pulled. +Z -z AMRL BBP COORDINATE SYSTEM ( Left Hand Rule ) FIGURE

  19. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child...

  20. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the most important gold-mining and production regions in the circum-Pacific metallogenic zone. Research has been conducted in this area since the 1960s, however, the timing of the gold mineralisation is still unresolved, and ...

  1. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the features that ...

  2. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing (United States)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi


    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  3. Rapid Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by EMIC Waves (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.


    How relativistic electrons are lost is an important question surrounding the complex dynamics of the Earth's outer radiation belt. Radial loss to the magnetopause and local loss to the atmosphere are two main competing paradigms. Here on the basis of the analysis of a radiation belt storm event on 27 February 2014, we present new evidence for the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave-driven local precipitation loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. During the main phase of this storm, the radial profile of relativistic electron phase space density was quasi-monotonic, qualitatively inconsistent with the prediction of radial loss theory. The local loss at low L shells was required to prevent the development of phase space density peak resulting from the radial loss process at high L shells. The rapid loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of outer radiation belt was observed as a dip structure of the electron flux temporal profile closely related to intense EMIC waves. Our simulations further confirm that the observed EMIC waves within a quite limited longitudinal region were able to reduce the off-equatorially mirroring relativistic electron fluxes by up to 2 orders of magnitude within about 1.5 h.

  4. On the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Camporeale (Enrico); Shprits, Y. (Yuri); M.H. Chandorkar (Mandar); Drozdov, A. (Alexander); S.P. Wing (Simon)


    textabstractWe present the first study of the uncertainties associated with radiation belt simulations, performed in the standard quasi-linear diffusion framework. In particular, we estimate how uncertainties of some input parameters propagate through the nonlinear simulation, producing a

  5. Dynamics of the low altitude secondary proton radiation belt. (United States)

    Gusev, A A; Kohno, T; Spjeldvik, W N; Martin, I M; Pugacheva, G I; Turtelli, A


    At the interface between the upper atmosphere and the radiation belt region, there exists a secondary radiation belt consisting mainly of energetic ions that have become neutralized in the ring current and the main radiation belt and then re-ionized by collisions in the inner exosphere. The time history of the proton fluxes in the 0.64-35 MeV energy range was traced in the equatorial region beneath the main radiation belts during the three year period from 21 February 1984 to 26 March 1987 using data obtained with the HEP experiment on board the Japanese OHZORA satellite. During most of this period a fairly small proton flux of -1.2 cm-2 S-1 sr-1 was detected on geomagnetic field lines in the range 1.05 < L < 1.15. We report a few surprisingly deep and rapid flux decreases (flux reduction by typically two orders of magnitude). These flux decreases were also long in duration (lasting up to three months). We also registered abrupt flux increases where the magnitude of the proton flux enhancements could reach three orders of magnitude with an enhancement duration of 1-3 days. Possible reasons for these unexpected phenomena are discussed.

  6. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 6. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: Constrains from rare earth element, fluid inclusion geochemistry and geochronology. Zhixin Huang Wanming Yuan Changming Wang Xiangwei Liu Xiaotong Xu Liya Yang. Volume ...

  7. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. ... Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was ...

  8. Stone Quarries and Sourcing in the Carolina Slate Belt (United States)


    collaborative project involving both geologists and archaeologists. The archaeological impetus for this project was provided by Jeff Irwin and Chris Moore...transported material. The senior author has observed six caches (all but one collected by amateurs ) of metavolcanic material. Cached material includes...analysis) are not without precedent. Although rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt have interested geologists for many years, a geoarchaeological

  9. A photometric search for active Main Belt asteroids (United States)

    Cikota, S.; Ortiz, J. L.; Cikota, A.; Morales, N.; Tancredi, G.


    It is well known that some Main Belt asteroids show comet-like features. A representative example is the first known Main Belt comet 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. If the mechanisms causing this activity are too weak to develop visually evident comae or tails, the objects stay unnoticed. We are presenting a novel way to search for active asteroids, based on looking for objects with deviations from their expected brightnesses in a database. Just by using the MPCAT-OBS Observation Archive we have found five new candidate objects that possibly show a type of comet-like activity, and the already known Main Belt comet 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. Four of the new candidates, (315) Constantia, (1026) Ingrid, (3646) Aduatiques, and (24 684) 1990 EU4, show brightness deviations independent of the object's heliocentric distance, while (35 101) 1991 PL16 shows deviations dependent on its heliocentric distance, which could be an indication of a thermal triggered mechanism. The method could be implemented in future sky survey programmes to detect outbursts on Main Belt objects almost simultaneously with their occurrence.

  10. Characterization of Main Belt Comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro (United States)

    Kaluna, H. M.; Meech, K. J.; Pittichova, J.; Zenn, T.; Sonnett, S.; Riesen, T.; Hsieh, H. H.


    We are using an extensive data set collected on the main belt comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro to gain insight into nucleus properties. The new information provided by this data set has provided us with constraints on the surface properties and activity in 133P.

  11. Formation and decay of the inner electron radiation belt (United States)

    Su, Y. J.; Selesnick, R.


    The inner electron radiation belt was found, early in the space age, to be highly variable with rapid injections followed by slower decay. Highly structured energy spectra were also observed (now known in energy-time spectrograms as "zebra stripes"). Inner belt formation was explained by inward diffusion. However, even the fastest diffusion is expected to require a period of many days, while observations show frequent rapid injections across the entire inner belt (as low as L=1.2) during periods of belt. In this presentation, we will explain the rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra, as observed from Van Allen Probes for electrons with energies of 100-400 keV, by the action of large-scale electric fields. In addition, a case study of a non-diffusive fast injection event that occurred on March 17, 2013, is simulated by a test particle code which demonstrates the sensitivity of electron intensity to the selected electric field model.

  12. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. (United States)

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E


    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  13. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Ogunjobi


    Jun 6, 2017 ... study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... (Plasmapause); indicating a combination of electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode waves as the contributing ... density known as the slot (Van-Allen 1959). Elec-.

  14. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the.

  15. Continuous high-resolution midlatitude-belt simulations for July-August 2013 with WRF (United States)

    Schwitalla, Thomas; Bauer, Hans-Stefan; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten


    Increasing computational resources and the demands of impact modelers, stake holders, and society envision seasonal and climate simulations with the convection-permitting resolution. So far such a resolution is only achieved with a limited-area model whose results are impacted by zonal and meridional boundaries. Here, we present the setup of a latitude-belt domain that reduces disturbances originating from the western and eastern boundaries and therefore allows for studying the impact of model resolution and physical parameterization. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to the NOAH land-surface model was operated during July and August 2013 at two different horizontal resolutions, namely 0.03 (HIRES) and 0.12° (LOWRES). Both simulations were forced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis data at the northern and southern domain boundaries, and the high-resolution Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) data at the sea surface.The simulations are compared to the operational ECMWF analysis for the representation of large-scale features. To analyze the simulated precipitation, the operational ECMWF forecast, the CPC MORPHing (CMORPH), and the ENSEMBLES gridded observation precipitation data set (E-OBS) were used as references.Analyzing pressure, geopotential height, wind, and temperature fields as well as precipitation revealed (1) a benefit from the higher resolution concerning the reduction of monthly biases, root mean square error, and an improved Pearson skill score, and (2) deficiencies in the physical parameterizations leading to notable biases in distinct regions like the polar Atlantic for the LOWRES simulation, the North Pacific, and Inner Mongolia for both resolutions.In summary, the application of a latitude belt on a convection-permitting resolution shows promising results that are beneficial for future seasonal forecasting.

  16. Jupiter's belts and zones: Contradictory evidence for upwelling and downwelling (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Juno Science Team


    Early authors (Hess and Panofsky 1951, Ingersoll and Cuzzi 1969, Barcilon and Gierasch 1970) noted that the zonal winds are cyclonic in the belts and anticyclonic in the zones. From the thermal wind equation they concluded that the air below the clouds is colder at the belts and warmer at the zones. Hot air rising and cold air sinking led to the notion of downwelling in the belts and upwelling in the zones, which agreed with observations of clear air and low ammonia vapor in the belts and cloudy air and high ammonia vapor in the zones (Gierasch et al. 1986). However, lightning in the belts seemed to contradict that idea, based on the assumption that lightning and convection require upwelling of moist air from below (Little et al. 1999, Ingersoll et al. 2000). Convergence of the eddy momentum flux on the poleward sides of the zones (Salyk et al. 2006) supports the inference based on lightning by implying convergence of the meridional flow in the zones. Here we argue that lightning in the belts does not require upwelling. Instead, there is a threshold for moist convection that is triggered when the thickness of the weather layer drops below a critical value (Li and Ingersoll 2006, Thomson and McIntyre 2016). We also argue that the convergence of the eddy momentum flux does not require equatorward flow. Instead, the meridional flow is controlled by the sign of the potential vorticity (PV) gradient, which is southward on the equatorward sides of the zones (Ingersoll et al. 2017), implying divergence of the meridional flow in the zones. This is a new idea and is based on the observation that the predicted flat parts of the PV staircase (Dritschel and McIntyre 2008), might actually be sloping inward, since the curvature of the zonal velocity profile U_yy exceeds beta at the centers of the westward jets (Ingersoll and Cuzzi 1969, Ingersoll et al. 1981, Limaye et al. 1986, Li et al. 2004, Read et al. 2006). These arguments agree with observations of upwelling in the zones

  17. The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Aqishan-Yamansu belt, Eastern Tianshan: Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes of igneous rocks (United States)

    Zhao, Liandang; Chen, Huayong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Weifeng; Yang, Juntao; Yan, Xuelu


    The Aqishan-Yamansu belt in the Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang, NW China) is an important mineralization belt. The belt mainly comprises Carboniferous volcanic, volcaniclastic and clastic rocks, and hosts many intermediate-felsic intrusions and Fe (-Cu) deposits. The biotite diorite, felsic brecciated tuff, granodiorite and syenite from the western Aqishan-Yamansu belt are newly zircon U-Pb dated to be 316.7 ± 1.4 Ma, 315.6 ± 2.6 Ma, 305.8 ± 1.9 Ma and 252.5 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The mafic rocks (mafic brecciated tuff and diabase porphyry) are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline series, LILE-rich (e.g., Rb, Ba and Pb), HFSE-depleted (e.g., Nb and Ta), and have high Mg#(44-60), Nb/Ta (15.0-20.0), Ba/La (>30) and Ba/Nb (>57) values/ratios, and low Th/Yb ratios (2.10) and positive εNd(t) (>5.7), combined with variable Nb/Ta ratios (9.52-21.4), Y/Nb ratios (1.47-39.7) and Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 16.225-17.640, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.454-15.520, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.097-38.025) suggest that these rocks were magma mixing products between juvenile crustal-derived magmas and minor mantle-derived magmas. Combined published works with our new ages, geochemical and isotopic data, we propose that the Aqishan-Yamansu belt was an Early Carboniferous fore-arc basin during the southward subduction of the Kangguer oceanic slab beneath the Yili-Central Tianshan block. With the continuing southward subduction, the Aqishan-Yamansu fore-arc basin initiated to close, which generated the mafic and intensive intermediate-felsic magmatism associated with regional Fe (-Cu) mineralization.

  18. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue? (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher


    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  19. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt (United States)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János


    Africa-Europe convergence vector. Pliocene-Quaternary was characterised by 1-5 km left lateral wrenching along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. Based on high resolution seismic measurements on the Danube river Toth (2003) supposed an even more recent activity along the Paks-Szolnok wrench fault zone. The supposed late Quaternary activity of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations. According to Mádl-Szőnyi et al (2005) and Simon et al (in press) from the Pre-Neogene basement originates an ascending overpressured highly saline water flow regime. Deep ascending water rises near to the surface, intercepting the aquifer and aquitard layers along conductive strike slipe faults of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt and mixing with shallower groundwater. Acknowledgements The research work was supported by the Hungarian National Research Fund (OTKA 035168, T 047159). References Detzky Lőrinc K. (1997) Detailed tectonic study of the Western edge of the Szolnok flysch zone using seismic and well data. Thesis Candidate of Science. Hungarian Academy of Science. p. 121. Grow J. A., R. E. Mattick, A. Bérczi-Makk, Cs. Péró, D. Hajdú, Gy. Pogácsás, P. Várnai, E. Varga, (1994) Structure of the Békés basin inferred from seismic reflection, well and gravity data. in Teleki P., J. Kókai, R.E. Mattick eds. Basin analysis in petroleum exploration, a case study from the Békés basin, Hungary. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 1-38. Juhász, Gy., Pogácsás Gy., Magyar I. (2007) A giant canyon system incised into the Late-Neogene (pannonian s.l.) sediments? (in Hungarian Óriáskanyon-rendszer szeli át a pannóniai üledékeket? Földtani Közlöny (Bulletin of the Geological Society of Hungary)137/3. 307-326. Mádlné Szőnyi J. Simon Sz. Tóth J. Pogácsás Gy. (2005) Interrelationship between surface and subsurface waters at the Kelemen-szék and Kolon lakes, Duna-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary (in Hungarian Felszíni és felsz

  20. Contact binaries in the Trans-neptunian Belt (United States)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Sheppard, Scott S.


    A contact binary is made up of two objects that are almost touching or in contact with each other. These systems have been found in the Near-Earth Object population, the main belt of asteroids, the Jupiter Trojans, the comet population and even in the Trans-neptunian belt.Several studies suggest that up to 30% of the Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) could be contact binaries (Sheppard & Jewitt 2004, Lacerda 2011). Contact binaries are not resolvable with the Hubble Space Telescope because of the small separation between the system's components (Noll et al. 2008). Only lightcurves with a characteristic V-/U-shape at the minimum/maximum of brightness and a large amplitude can identify these contact binaries. Despite an expected high fraction of contact binaries, 2001 QG298 is the only confirmed contact binary in the Trans-Neptunian belt, and 2003 SQ317 is a candidate to this class of systems (Sheppard & Jewitt 2004, Lacerda et al. 2014).Recently, using the Lowell’s 4.3m Discovery Channel Telescope and the 6.5m Magellan Telescope, we started a search for contact binaries at the edge of our Solar System. So far, our survey focused on about 40 objects in different dynamical groups of the Trans-Neptunian belt for sparse or complete lightcurves. We report the discovery of 5 new potential contact binaries converting the current estimate of potential/confirmed contact binaries to 7 objects. With one epoch of observations per object, we are not able to model in detail the systems, but we derive estimate for basic information such as shape, size, density of both objects as well as the separation between the system’s components. In this work, we will present these new systems, their basic characteristics, and we will discuss the potential main reservoir of contact binaries in the Trans-neptunian belt.

  1. Early Cretaceous overprinting of the Mesozoic Daqing Shan fold-and-thrust belt by the Hohhot metamorphic core complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Davis


    Full Text Available The Early Cretaceous Hohhot metamorphic core complex (mcc of the Daqing Shan (Mtns. of central Inner Mongolia is among the best exposed and most spectacular of the spatially isolated mcc’s that developed within the northern edge of the North China “craton”. All of these mcc’s were formed within the basement of a Late Paleozoic Andean-style arc and across older Mesozoic fold-and-thrust belts of variable age and tectonic vergence. The master Hohhot detachment fault roots southwards within the southern margin of the Daqing Shan for an along-strike distance of at least 120 km. Its geometry in the range to the north is complicated by interference patterns between (1 primary, large-scale NW-SE-trending convex and concave fault corrugations and (2 secondary ENE-WSW-trending antiforms and synforms that folded the detachment in its late kinematic history. As in the Whipple Mtns. of California, the Hohhot master detachment is not of the Wernicke (1981 simple rooted type; instead, it was spawned from a mid-crustal shear zone, the top of which is preserved as a mylonitic front within Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks in its exhumed lower plate. 40Ar–39Ar dating of siliceous volcanic rocks in basal sections of now isolated supradetachment basins suggest that crustal extension began at ca. 127 Ma, although lower-plate mylonitic rocks were not exposed to erosion until after ca. 119 Ma. Essentially synchronous cooling of hornblende, biotite, and muscovite in footwall mylonitic gneisses indicates very rapid exhumation and at ca. 122–120 Ma. Contrary to several recent reports, the master detachment clearly cuts across and dismembers older, north-directed thrust sheets of the Daqing Shan foreland fold-and-thrust belt. Folded and thrust-faulted basalts within its foredeep strata are as young as 132.6 ± 2.4 Ma, thus defining within 5–6 Ma the regional tectonic transition between crustal contraction and profound crustal extension.

  2. Silvics of western redcedar (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd


    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  3. Constraints on the gas content of the Fomalhaut debris belt. Can gas-dust interactions explain the belt's morphology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cataldi, G.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Chen, C. H.; Dent, W. R. F.; Kamp, I.; Roberge, A.; Vandenbussche, B.

    Context. The 440 Myr old main-sequence A-star Fomalhaut is surrounded by an eccentric debris belt with sharp edges. This sort of a morphology is usually attributed to planetary perturbations, but the orbit of the only planetary candidate detected so far, Fomalhaut b, is too eccentric to efficiently

  4. Laboratory testing of conveyor textile belt joints used in underground mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hardygóra


    Full Text Available In order to achieve the high standards of safety and operational reliability required of belt conveyors, there is a requirement for systematic testing of conveyor belts and their joints. This article describes joint testing methods and presents an analysis of the causes of reduced strength of multi-ply belt joints. Testing was carried out at the Belt Conveying Laboratory (LTT of Wroclaw University of Technology. Presented here is a proprietary method for the measurement of stress distribution in conveyor belt adhesive joints.

  5. A Fold Province in the Hinterland of the Sevier Orogenic Belt in Eastern Nevada: A Valley and Ridge in the Basin and Range (United States)

    Long, S. P.


    The overprinting effects of Cenozoic extensional tectonism hinder analysis of the style, geometry, and timing of Cordilleran contractional deformation in the hinterland of the Sevier fold-thrust belt in Nevada. To address this problem, a 1:250,000-scale paleogeologic map of eastern Nevada, showing spatial distributions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks exposed beneath a Paleogene unconformity, divided out at the formation scale, is integrated with maps of dip magnitude for Paleozoic-Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, published sedimentary thickness records, and a published reconstruction of Basin and Range extension, in order to define and regionally-correlate thrust faults and folds, and estimate the pre-extensional amplitude, wavelength, and limb dips of folds. A new structural province, the Eastern Nevada fold belt (ENFB) is defined, and consists of a 100-150 km-wide region containing as many as five 1st-order, N-trending folds that can be traced for map distances between 100-250 km, have amplitudes between 2-4 km, wavelengths between 20-40 km, pre-extensional limb dips typically between 10-30˚, and deform rocks as young as Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. No regional-scale thrust faults or decollemont horizons breach modern exposure levels in the ENFB. ENFB folds are interpreted to have formed above a deep (≥10 km below the Paleogene unconformity), blind decollemont or shear zone, perhaps the westward projection of the master decollemont of the Sevier fold-thrust belt. Two additional structural provinces of the Sevier hinterland, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) and Western Utah thrust belt (WUTB), represent zones of N-striking, E-vergent thrust faults and folds that each accommodated ca. 10 km of shortening. Both thrust belts branch northward off of the Sevier thrust belt, and are interpreted to represent contemporary, interior components of the Sevier thrust system. The CNTB, WUTB, and the intervening ENFB collectively record low-magnitude (a few 10's of km) upper

  6. Geodynamical model of development the gold ore deposit Muruntau in Central Kyzylkums /Western Uzbekistan/ (United States)

    Sidorova, I. P.


    Recent advances in geology and sciences dealing with planets resulted in ever-growing information on the internal structure and composition of upper and lower mantle and its role in the development of mineral deposits. Thus, the analysis of geologic-geophysical velocity sections on DSS-MOVZ profiles, that cross Central Kyzylkum, has revealed a number of features, which are characteristic of the upper mantle rocks, related to morphology of bodies, their physical properties, consisting mainly in their contrasting values for contiquous blocks, and general increased velocity and density of the rocks they contain. Petrologic-geophysical analysis of the same profiles proved the previous conclusions, and besides it allowed us to create the geodinamical model of development of a complicated continental lithosphere within Central Kyzylkum Ore Magmatic Concenter (CKOMC). CKOMC is a part of Western Uzbekistan's territory, that has maximum concentration of gold ore deposits of different scale, including the gigantic one- Muruntau. There are two main factors, that condition the area of the concenter: 1.Obduction of crust of the ocean to continental one during the Upper Paleozoic collision of Kyrgiz-Kazakh and Karakum-Tadjik microcontinents; 2.Geochemical gold specialization of Turkestan paleo-ocean's lithosphere. As a result of obduction of doubled, and sometimes even trebled crust of the ocean to continental, the front of rock granitization shifted to the sphere of ocean sediments development, and granite-gneiss layer of the continental crust went down to granulite zone. The latter factor provoked mass penetration of fluids from the former granite-gneiss and sedimentary-metamorphic layers, which due to their uprush to the surface, formed fluid-hydrothermal system , enriched with gold, in the new upper crust. This, in its turn, conditioned the formation of numerous gold ore deposits of different facies and formations observed in Central Kyzylkums. Abrupt increase in the crust


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN


    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  8. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server


    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  9. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel. (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C


    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  10. The Madong Early Paleozoic fold-thrust belt in southern Tarim Basin (United States)

    Li, Yue-Jun; Wen, Lei; Li, Hui-Li; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Zheng, Duo-Ming; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Tie-Gan


    The Madong fold-thrust belt, which strikes NE-SW and thrusts southeastward, locates in the southern Tarim Basin. It is a part of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt, and so is the Tangnan fold-thrust belt on the southeast of Madong. The Madong and Tangnan fold-thrust belts developed in Cambrian-Ordovician strata, and the Middle Cambrian gypsum-salt layer serves as the main décollement surface. The Middle Silurian and above strata unconformably overlie Madong while the upper Lower Silurian unconformably overlie Tangnan. On the basis of the facts that: (1) the Upper Ordovician is the youngest strata involved in the fold-thrust deformation, (2) the upper-Lower to Middle Silurian is the oldest strata unconformably overlying the foreland fold-thrust belt (including Madong and Tangnan), and growth strata exist in the upper part of the Upper Ordovician, we infer that the deformation time of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt (including Madong and Tangnan) was during the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian. Tangnan is the residual of the major part of the foreland fold-thrust belt. Its northwestward thrust direction represents the main thrust direction of the foreland fold-thrust belt. Madong is the front belt of the foreland fold-thrust belt. It mainly thrusts southeastward and serves as the back-thrust belt of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt. It is a triangle zone between Madong and Tangnan. The Madong fold-thrust belt is the best-preserved section of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic collisional orogenic belt, and thus is an important geological record of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic orogeny.

  11. Self-reported safety belt use among emergency department patients in Boston, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety belt use is 80% nationally, yet only 63% in Massachusetts. Safety belt use among potentially at-risk groups in Boston is unknown. We sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of belt non-use among emergency department (ED patients in Boston. Methods A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted on non-urgent ED patients age ≥18. A closed-ended survey was administered by interview. Safety belt use was defined via two methods: a single-item and a multiple-item measure of safety belt use. Each was scored using a 5-point frequency scale. Responses were used to categorize safety belt use as 'always' or less than 'always'. Outcome for multivariate logistic regression analysis was safety belt use less than 'always'. Results Of 478 patients approached, 381 (80% participated. Participants were 48% female, 48% African-American, 40% White, median age 39. Among participants, 250 (66% had been in a car crash; 234 (61% had a valid driver's license, and 42 (11% had been ticketed for belt non-use. Using two different survey measures, a single-item and a multiple-item measure, safety belt use 'always' was 51% and 36% respectively. According to separate regression models, factors associated with belt non-use included male gender, alcohol consumption >5 drinks in one episode, riding with others that drink and drive, ever receiving a citation for belt non-use, believing that safety belt use is 'uncomfortable', and that 'I just forget', while 'It's my usual habit' was protective. Conclusion ED patients at an urban hospital in Boston have considerably lower self-reported safety belt use than state or national estimates. An ED-based intervention to increase safety belt use among this hard-to-reach population warrants consideration.

  12. Isotopic data for Late Cretaceous intrusions and associated altered and mineralized rocks in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Unruh, Daniel M.; Hofstra, Albert H.


    The quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith and the concentrically zoned intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy constitute the principal Late Cretaceous igneous intrusions hosted by Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Newland Formation in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana. These calc-alkaline plutonic masses are manifestations of subduction-related magmatism that prevailed along the western edge of North America during the Cretaceous. Radiogenic isotope data for neodymium, strontium, and lead indicate that the petrogenesis of the associated magmas involved a combination of (1) sources that were compositionally heterogeneous at the scale of the geographically restricted intrusive rocks in the Big Belt Mountains and (2) variable contamination by crustal assimilants also having diverse isotopic compositions. Altered and mineralized rocks temporally, spatially, and genetically related to these intrusions manifest at least two isotopically distinct mineralizing events, both of which involve major inputs from spatially associated Late Cretaceous igneous rocks. Alteration and mineralization of rock associated with the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy requires a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium than that characteristic of the associated igneous rocks. However, the source of such a component was not identified in the Big Belt Mountains. Similarly, altered and mineralized rocks associated with the quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith include a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium and lead, particularly as defined by 207Pb/204Pb values. The source of this component appears to be fluids that equilibrated with proximal Newland Formation rocks. Oxygen isotope data for rocks of the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy are similar to those of subduction-related magmatism that include mantle-derived components; oxygen isotope data for altered and mineralized equivalents are slightly lighter.

  13. The principles for creation of fire-prevention forest belts with barriers of deciduous species for protection from crown fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov


    Full Text Available The article discuss one of the priority security problems in Russia, which is elaboration of the strategic system of the forest and society safeguards from catastrophic forest crown fires in connection with rapid climate warming. It is postulated, that a most effective and reliable barrier for the dispersal of the intensive crown fire in a coniferous forest massive can be a sufficiently wide strip of deciduous tree species – «deciduous forest barrier», which has phytomass capable of absorbing crown fire energy and transforming them to surface fire, which may be extinguished by technical means. The actuality of the natural study of the transition parameters from the crown fire to surface fire has been noted, depending on climate, fire intensity and the deciduous barrier structure. The results of the quantitative natural investigation of the consequences of catastrophic crown fires of 2004 in the island pine forests of forest-steppe zone in Kurgan Oblast, which passed through the belt of 50–70 year-old birch stands of middle density, has been cited and formalized mathematically. It has been shown, that 150 m width of deciduous forest barrier is necessary as a minimum for the reliable transition of the high intensive front crown fire to surface fire in the forest-steppe conditions of the Western Siberia, but this width reduces with a decreasing heating effect. It has been proposed to create the complex fire-prevention forest belts of different construction for the protection of forests, industrial objects and settlements. Besides a basic deciduous barrier, their structure should include technologically necessary buffer zones and zones for the localization and extinguishing surface fire, which stop a crown fire. It has been recommended to use natural regeneration of deciduous tree species, as a most effective and non-deficient method for the creation of deciduous forest barriers in the predominant forest types, except the lichen pine forests

  14. Cenozoic to active deformation in Western Yunnan (Myanmar China border) (United States)

    Socquet, A.; Pubellier, M.


    The northward movement of India induces a right-lateral shear band from the Sunda trench to the easternmost Himalaya, where wrenching between India and Sunda plates, interfere with a clockwise flow of material around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. We describe brittle and ductile deformation styles in Western Yunnan and Northern Myanmar, using field data and Landsat 7 imagery for Cenozoic structures as well as GPS and seismicity for active structures to unravel the Neogene to Present evolution. Western Yunnan is crossed by three continental-size ductile shear zones characterized by high mountain belts mainly composed of high-grade metamorphics and mylonitic rocks, and affected by active faulting. The easternmost metamorphic range, the Gaoligong Shan composed of verticalized foliated granites and mylonites is flattened westward and joins the Mogok metamorphic belt in Myanmar. East of the Gaoligong Shan, lie the Chong Shan and the Ailao / Diangcan Shan metamorphic ranges, which presents a vertical shistosity and a left-lateral motion. These three shear zones are separated by sedimentary fold-and-thrust-belts in the East, and , West of the Gaoligong, by Quaternary basins and volcanics. Preliminary results indicate that the Shan Scarp constituted the major strike-slip boundary between Indochina and India during Eocene to Miocene time, and accommodated deformation in right-lateral wrench. At the same time, the Ailao / Diangcan Shan and the Chong Shan zones were sheared left-laterally allowing the displacement toward the SE of Indochina block relative to south China. In the Miocene, ductile deformation migrated north along the Shan Scarp to the Mogok / Ruili metamorphic belt and the Gaoligong belt, dragging the Chong Shan right-laterally and superimposing a late right-lateral ductile deformation on its metamorphic rocks. The present-day relative motion between India and Sundaland, inferred from GPS processing, reaches 35 mm / yr in the Myanmar area. It is classically

  15. Experimental study of local dehydration and partial melting of biotite-amphibole gneiss with participation of the H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids at the middle-crustal conditions (United States)

    Safonov, O.; Kozhukhantseva, S.


    Activity of aqueous chloride-rich brines coexisting with CO2-rich fluids is identified in many amphibolite and granulite terrains suggesting that this type of fluid is an important agent of high-grade metamorphism in the lower to middle crust (see reviews in Touret, 2009; Newton, Manning, 2010). Although thermodynamic and transport properties of these fluids is well constrained both theoretically and experimentally, their affect on complex natural assemblages is poorly understood and demands systematic experimental study. We report here results of the experiments on interaction of the biotite-amphibole gneiss from the Sand River formation (Limpopo Complex, South Africa) with the fluids H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl at 5.5 kbar, 750 and 800 C, the chloride/(H2O+CO2) varying from 0 0.1, and molar CO2/(CO2+H2O) = 0.5. No any reaction textures were identified in the sample interacted with the chloride-free CO2-H2O fluid at 750 C. At this temperature, addition of KCl into the fluid resulted in formation of spectacular reaction textures around biotite (Bt), amphibole (Amp), plagioclase (Pl) and quartz (Qtz) in the starting gneiss. These textures are intergrowths of low-Al clinopyroxene (Cpx) and K-feldspar (Kfs) (sporadically accompanied by ilmenite, sphene and Ti-bearing low-Al mica) corresponding to a progress of the following reactions: Phl + 3An + 18Qtz + 3(K2O in fluid) = 3Di + 7Kfs + (H2O in fluid) and Prg + Ed + 7(K2O in fluid) + 37Qtz + 5An = 9Di + 14Kfs + (2H2O + Na2O in fluid). Local partial melting of the gneiss interacted with KCl-bearing fluids at 750OC was observed only in the run at KCl/(CO2+H2O) = 1/30 and could be caused by local variation of water activity in the sample. Nevertheless, at 800 OC, granitic (>70 wt. % of SiO2) K2O-rich and Cl-bearing melt appears along the grain boundaries in all run samples. This melt produces K-feldspar and clinopyroxene, which are found as euhedral crystals in the glass. Melt films are usually accompanied by K-feldspar microveins

  16. The extreme Kuiper Belt binary 2001 QW322. (United States)

    Petit, J-M; Kavelaars, J J; Gladman, B J; Margot, J L; Nicholson, P D; Jones, R L; Parker, J Wm; Ashby, M L N; Bagatin, A Campo; Benavidez, P; Coffey, J; Rousselot, P; Mousis, O; Taylor, P A


    The study of binary Kuiper Belt objects helps to probe the dynamic conditions present during planet formation in the solar system. We report on the mutual-orbit determination of 2001 QW322, a Kuiper Belt binary with a very large separation whose properties challenge binary-formation and -evolution theories. Six years of tracking indicate that the binary's mutual-orbit period is approximately 25 to 30 years, that the orbit pole is retrograde and inclined 50 degrees to 62 degrees from the ecliptic plane, and, most surprisingly, that the mutual orbital eccentricity is <0.4. The semimajor axis of 105,000 to 135,000 kilometers is 10 times that of other near-equal-mass binaries. Because this weakly bound binary is prone to orbital disruption by interlopers, its lifetime in its present state is probably less than 1 billion years.

  17. Calculations of synchrotron emission from the terrestrial radiation belts (United States)

    Johnson, R.


    A theoretical model was developed to allow for the calculation of the synchrotron emission arising from high energy electrons trapped in the Van Allen belts of a planet with a dipole magnetic field. The model is general enough to allow for the calculation of the intensity of radiation received by an observer at any distance from and any latitude about the planet. The model is used to compute the emission from the earth's Van Allen belts that one should expect at various latitudes at a distance of 1.92 earth radii, the position of the Radio Astronomy Explorer satellite that was launched in 1968, for the frequencies 1.3 MHz and 2.2 MHz.

  18. Upper hybrid waves and energetic electrons in the radiation belt (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Hwang, Junga; Shin, Dae-Kyu


    Van Allen radiation belt is characterized by energetic electrons and ions trapped in the Earth's dipolar magnetic field lines and persisting for long periods. It is also permeated by high-frequency electrostatic fluctuations whose peak intensity occurs near the upper hybrid frequency. Such a phenomenon can be understood in terms of spontaneous emission of electrostatic multiple harmonic electron cyclotron waves by thermal plasmas. In the literature, the upper hybrid fluctuations are used as a proxy for determining the electron number density, but they also contain important information concerning the energetic electrons in the radiation belt and possibly the ring current electrons. The companion paper analyzes sample quiet time events and demonstrates that the upper hybrid fluctuations are predominantly emitted by tenuous population of energetic electrons. The present paper supplements detailed formalism of spontaneous thermal emission of multiple-harmonic cyclotron waves that include upper hybrid fluctuations.

  19. Chorus Wave Energy Budget Analysis in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Blancarte, J.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.


    Whistler-mode chorus emissions are important electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously scatter and accelerate electrons of the outer radiation belt, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts. Here, we present an analysis of Van Allen Probes electric and magnetic field VLF waveform data, evaluating the wave energy budget, and show that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to very oblique waves. Such waves, with a generally much smaller (up to 10 times) magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have comparable or even larger total energy. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts and also provide nonlinear effects due to wave-particle interaction through the Landau resonance due to the significant electric field component parallel to the background magnetic field.

  20. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt. (United States)

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu


    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.