WorldWideScience

Sample records for western culture ancient

  1. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-10-07

    The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  2. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementi Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  3. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  4. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: among Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  5. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  6. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  7. The Influence of Greco-Roman and the Judeo-Christian On Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华

    2010-01-01

    western culture itself is a part of world culture. It is made up of many elements, which has gone through changes over the centuries. The more enduring are: the Greco-Roman element, and the Judeo-Christian element. This paper briefly analyzes the origin and foundation of western culture: ancient Greek culture, ancient Roman culture and Christianity which have decisive influence on the shape of western culture. It is expected that this paper helps us better understand western culture.

  8. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  9. Human Nature Evil in Ancient Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜

    2015-01-01

    Whether man is good or evil by nature is a constant topic tophilosophers and writers. Is a man born virtuous or evil? What onearth is human nature? Is the origin of human nature kind or wicked?People have been debating over this topic for centuries. Theseseemingly simple questions have perplexed those Great Minds forthousands of years in European countries and are the constant themesof literary works as well. The problem of human nature is the deepestof the issues regarding human beings which have long been underdiscussion since ancient time.

  10. A Comparison between Chinese and Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ting-ting

    2015-01-01

    Different countries have different cultures. Understanding the differences between Chinese and western culture will help us to communicate with each other better. From three aspects, this paper mainly compares the differences between Chinese and western culture.

  11. 从中西神话人物区别看中西文化差异的根源--以希腊神话和中国上古神话为例%On the Root of Chinese-Western Cultural Differences Based on the Differences between Chinese and Western Mythological Figures:A Case Study on Greek Mythology and Chinese Ancient Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟

    2014-01-01

    中国古代神话和古希腊神话是中西神话的重要代表。通过比较可以发现,中希神话中的人物在外形和性格方面表现出种种不同。而从这种不同,我们可以看出中西文化所体现的差异,并进一步研究造成这种差异的根源是什么。%Chinese ancient mythology and Greek mythology are respectively the important representative of Chinese and Western mythology. Through comparing them, it can be found that there are a variety of differences in the appearances and characters of mythological figures between Chinese and Greek mythology. From the differences, we can find the differences between Chi-nese and Western culture, and further study the root of the differ-ences.

  12. Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2007-01-01

    Festivals are precious cultural heritage of different countries,so differentfestivals can reflect different cultures. This article discusses cultural differences in Chinese and western festivals, aiming to promote cross-culture communication.

  13. Communication and Culture in Ancient India and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Robert T.

    The rhetorical theories and practices of ancient India and China provide the themes of this book. An examination of the relationship between culture and rhetoric, East and West, opens the book. The rhetorical milieu of India, its philosophy, social system, and uses of speech, leads to a probing of the caste system and speech of the Brahmins.…

  14. Comparison of love in Chinese culture and in western culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻远洋

    2009-01-01

    In this passage, love in Chinese culture and in western culture is compared. It briefly introduces the difference love view in western culture and in Chinese culture on a specific matter. Then it discusses the origin of this phenomenon. At last it tries to conclude the characters of these two different love views.

  15. [The analysis of the eugenic culture in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gong-Cheng; Zong, Hong

    2010-09-01

    There was a centuries-old culture of eugenics in ancient China. We should have comprehensive and objective cognition of this tradition. The ancient people did not generally advocate marrying at a mature age as do people of modern times. They not only considered the prepotency, but also were influenced by other complicated social factors on the problem of mate selection. Although advocates of coition techniques claimed the purpose of prepotency, the eugenic effect of coition techniques deserved to be suspect. Regarding the aspect of embryo conservation and care, the most significant thing was not so-called "prenatal education", but various antenatal care methods which were proposed by TCM scholars. By making a comparison with modern eugenics, the ancient eugenics had the characteristics of valuing the male child only, commiserating with deformity and being based on familial values.

  16. Phytolith assemblages along a gradient of ancient human disturbance in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eMcmichael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of prehistoric Amazonian forests remains widely debated. The concept of ancient Amazonia as a pristine wilderness is largely discredited, but the alternative hypothesis of extensive anthropogenic landscape remains untested in many regions. We assessed the degree of ancient human impacts across western Amazonia based on archaeological and paleoecological data using methodologies that would allow inter-regional comparisons. We also aimed to establish baselines for estimating the legacies of ancient disturbances on modern vegetation. We analyzed charcoal and phytolith assemblages from soil samples from an archaeological site, sites in close proximity to archaeological sites, sites from riverine and interfluvial forests, and a biological research station believed to contain some of the least disturbed forests within Amazonia. We then quantitatively compared phytolith assemblages within and between the surveyed regions. Palm enrichment was evident at the archaeological site, and the biological station survey contained little to no evidence of ancient human activity. The other sites exhibited a gradient of ancient disturbance across the landscape. The phytolith assemblages showed statistically significant between-region variations that indicated our metrics were sufficiently sensitive to detecting ancient disturbance. Our data highlight the spatial heterogeneity of ancient human disturbances in Amazonian forests. The quantification of these disturbances provides empirical data and a more concrete link between the composition of the modern forest and ancient disturbance regimes. Accounting for ancient disturbances will allow a deeper understanding of the landscape heterogeneity observed in the modern forests.

  17. On Chinese and Western Wine Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-han

    2015-01-01

    Wine plays a big role in people’s social life both in China and in the West. Based on the perspective of cross culture, the paper gives a detailed analysis of the disparities of Chinese and western wine culture, and points out the factors for the forming of Chinese and western wine culture. It can be concluded that culture is the key to the understanding of wine phenomenon.

  18. 76 FR 23642 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Marajo: Ancient Ceramics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Marajo: Ancient Ceramics at the... ``Marajo: Ancient Ceramics at the Mouth of the Amazon'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  19. 75 FR 57825 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Chinese Bronzes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Chinese Bronzes From the... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ancient Chinese Bronzes from the Shouyang Studio: The...

  20. Ancient Cultural Center Building and Materials Research Numismatic Collection Museum--Ancient COINS by Tibetan cultural center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠利

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Chinese cultural center is located in the ancient COINS hidden city, the city center in Jinan, convenient transportation, beautiful scenery, poured enough, the surrounding environment culture atmosphere, be helpful for cultural centers in the long run. The building area is about 3500 square meters, the whole building is divided into two layer, a layer of main distribution the exhibition hall, second floor mainly by the studio to form. The designer of the coin reference model, through the deepening, evolution techniques such as the characteristics of Chinese coin will, connotation unity emerges into design, show to buildings. Very good carry the historical culture, also captures the pulse of the times lived.

  1. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    large-scale battles using massive force.4 According to well-known military ... a conflict, he could therefore take advantage of all elements of Western military .... development of industrial total warfare had led to a rigid attitude towards conflicts.

  2. Eastern and Western Culture Gets Closer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Never before has China been more prominent on the international scene or had such close interaction with the Western world than now. But neither has it experienced such an onslaught of Western culture, particularly its younger generation, who unreservedly espouse the exotic hairstyles, anarchistic pop music and diverse leisure pursuits that are to them the West's most influential exports.

  3. The Architecture of Physical Culture in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Debevec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the interaction between the culture of the body and architectural creativity in Ancient Greece. This interaction is rooted in a concern for personal and group security, the basis of which was physical fitness, as well as in the immersion of Greek reality in religion, which depicted gods and goddesses in perfect human bodies. Together with a developed feeling for the community, these two aspects stimulated the design of a special architecture devoted to physical culture. Baths, gymnasiums, palaestras, stadiums, hippodromes and theatres are original flashes of Greek architectural genius. They are golden ‘vessels’ devoted to the admiration of beauty, agility and the expressive power of the body – virtues which paved the way to a godlike semblance for every Greek.

  4. A Comparison of Taboos between Chinese Culture and Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹艳飞

    2013-01-01

    Taboo is a common phenomenon in Chinese and Western Culture. The different cultural backgrounds lead to the differences of taboos. This paper focuses on the differences of taboos from several aspects, such as name title, religion, numbers, privacy topics, etc. According to the analyses, we’l decrease and avoid the cultural shock in intercultural communication. If we know something about taboos in other cultures, we’l succeed in communicating with other people. Otherwise we’l fail to communicate.

  5. Japan: The Modernization of an Ancient Culture. Series on Public Issues No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Lawrence C.

    This booklet, one of a series of booklets intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, traces the modernization of the ancient culture of Japan. Four major areas are covered: (1) "An Ancient Culture" covers the period from the first settling of Japan through the Heian period, the medieval ages, the Meiji…

  6. 78 FR 20372 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to...

  7. 卡夫卡与古希腊文化%Kafka and Ancient Greek Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳兵

    2012-01-01

    Kafka' s thoughts and writings might come from three cultural sources: Western culture, Jewish culture and Chinese culture. The relationship between Kafka and the latter two has been much studied before, but the relationship between Kafka and Western culture, especially ancient Greek culture, has been neglected. Kafka referred to Greek culture broadly and profoundly: borrowing, applying, deconstructing and even rewriting Greek myths. He took in the ideas of absurdity and labyrinth, and the image of Sisyphus, to deduce and develop them into images and structures of paradox and conundrum, as well as a series of characters like "K", who have a fate similar to that Sisyphus.%卡夫卡思想与创作的文化渊源应该包括三个方面:西方文化、犹太文化和中国文化,但以往我们对卡夫卡与后二者的关系的研究往往较多,反而忽略了卡夫卡与西方文化,尤其是与古希腊文化的关系的研究。卡夫卡广泛而深入地涉猎希腊文化,借用、利用、消解,甚至改写希腊神话。他从古希腊文化中吸纳了有关荒诞、迷宫的观念,以及西西弗斯的形象,然后演绎、发展成了他笔下的悖谬、谜语意象和结构,以及一系列的与西西弗斯同命运的"K们"形象。

  8. Orientatio ad Sidera (OAS): a comprehensive project for cultural astronomy research in ancient Mediterranean cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio; César González-García, A.; Rodríguez-Antón, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    During the last decade (starting in 2005), the OAS Project has been run, with the support of the Spanish research agencies. Within its framework, research on cultural astronomy has been developed for a series of ancient cultures from the Atlantic Islands to the Arabian Peninsula with the Meditterranean Sea as the pricipal axis of the project. A catalogue of studies has been performed in a set of cultures such as the Megalithic Phenomenon, ancient Egypt, Middle East Bronze and Iron Age civilizations and the Roman World, among many others. In this essay a general scope of the project and a series of most interesting outcomes will be presented. The evolutionary ties of the megalithic monuments of the Iberian Peninsula and elsewhere, the pattern of orientation of Egyptian temples and skyscaping practices within the Hittite, Commagenian or Nabataean cultures, among others, will be shown; finishing in a comprehensive, statistical and comparative study of the orientation patterns of thousands of ancient monuments of the Mediterranean region. Finally, a sketch of our most recent, still ongoing, research on the astronomical and non-astronomical practices used in the planning of cities in the Roman World will be a compelling and promising closing remark of our analysis.

  9. Indian-Iranian Cultural Relations in the Ancient Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep ÖZMAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available India-Persia relations go back to prehistoric age. Finds found in archaeological excavations have revealed not only these relations but also the long-distance trade. Indian Iranian cultural relations have increased moreafter the Aryan migrations dated in the middles of second thousand BC. Because the people who migrated to both India and Persia named themselves as Aryan. That two geography have the similarities of language, religion, mythology and social life reveal this relation most clearly with this era. Together with 5th century BC, with the beginning of the historical period in India, relations between these geography have become more concrete, relations in cultural are assuch as writing, literature, coins, architecture, burial customs and art have soared. These relations will contribute to the recognition of India in the Western World

  10. 从两周军事铭文用词看中国古代早期的军事文化%Military Culture of Early Ancient China Reflected in Military Inscriptions of Eastern and Western Zhou Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓飞

    2012-01-01

    War is the continuation of politics. The military inscriptions of Eastern and Western Zhou Dynasty represented by "the most important state affairs are sacrifice and warfare" indicate the process of sprout and development of original "humanity" values. From the wording of inscriptions then, one thing is clear that there is inheritance as well as obvious changes about warfare concept from Yin Dynasty and Shang Dynasty, namely sacrifice in wars became much more convenient, which aims at consolidating the souls of soldiers. The detailed psychological description paid more attention to the existence and performance of warfare subject as well as the standardization and rationalization of military organization, the specific matters of military management, the warfare efficiency and safeguard, which exemplifies the safety of rights and lives have been strengthened. All those demonstrate along with the escalation of warfare intension in Eastern and Western Zhou Dynasty, the original "humanity" values and the ideology of "cautious resorts to arms" have been further developed and featured.%战争是政治的延续。“国之大事在祀在戎”时代的两周军事铭文揭示了原始“人本”观念的萌芽、发展历程。从其铭文用词可以看出从殷商到两周时期,战争观念有继承,也有较大的改变:祭祀在战争中显得更加简便,意在安慰参与者的心灵世界。具体的心理描写更关注战争主体的存在及其表现,也更重视军队组织的规范化和合理化、军队管理的细节、战争有效性和战争维护,这说明权利安全和生命安全意识得到加强。这些方面都表明两周时期随着战争强度的升级,原始“人本”观念、“慎兵”理念得到了进一步的发展和凸现。

  11. 78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY... pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The referenced notice is corrected here to include... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the additional objects to be included in the exhibition...

  12. On the Embodiment of Cultural Specification of Western Cartoon Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2015-01-01

    This study focus on the western culture embodied in cartoon movies.The main object is to help readers to know the characteristics of western culture through cartoon movies.With the enjoyment to the western cartoon movies,I discuss the definition of western culture.American culture is a representation of western culture,and there are many western culture elements in American culture,so I will mainly talk about American culture.And then,this thesis discusses some good cartoon movies,the incarnation of the western culture through them.The language,activities,and architectural style in cartoon movies show the American cultures well.People could have a better understand about their characteristics while enjoying the interesting,colorful,winning cartoons.

  13. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Di; Wang Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries, so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  14. The Nile floodplain, hydroclimatic variability, and its relation with cultural dynamics in ancient Thebes (Luxor, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Graham, Angus; Pennington, Ben; Hunter, Morag; Strutt, Kris; Barker, Dominic; Masson, Aurelia; Emery, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The western bank of the river Nile in the Luxor region (Egypt) separates New Kingdom divine temple complexes in the central axis of the river valley from contemporaneous sites on the desert edge and limestone plateau. The intermediate Nile floodplain features relatively few known archaeological sites, but played an important role in the ancient ritual landscape by connecting the focal region of the living (floodplain) with that of the dead (desert). All Royal Funerary Temple Complexes of the New Kingdom period (1539-1077 BCE), which played a central role in the cosmogonical landscape, are positioned within a confined 3.5 km long strip of land on the western edge of the present floodplain. This preferential location, together with contemporary textual sources and tomb scenes suggesting the nearby presence of canals, have led to the hypothesis that natural and human-made waterways may have once connected the main channel of the Nile with the desert edge. Until the present research took place, no detailed study of pre-existing channel networks existed in the region, leaving a gap in current knowledge on the configuration and use of the ancient floodplain. This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at mapping and dating ancient waterways in the Theban region and aims to find evidence for the natural or human origin of such channels. Boreholes and Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were carried out along a transect that connects the edge of the Holocene floodplain with the current position of the river Nile. Satellite imagery and textual sources were also used to augment the fieldwork. The data indicate the presence of an infilled abandoned channel of the Nile in the western distal part of the current floodplain, adjoining the Funerary Temple complexes. Over 2100 ceramic fragments were analysed from the sedimentary infilling of the silted-up river course, dating it to the end of the New Kingdom, and indicating that the channel and temples

  15. An investigation into the ancient Egyptian cultural influences on the Yorubas of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many cultural practices that connect ancient Egyptians to the Yorubas and the new interpretation of the Oduduwa legend suggests that the Yorubas have originated or are influenced mainly by the Egyptians. The attestation of Egypt as the main influencer of the Yoruba culture made Egypt significant in the study of the history of the Yoruba people. Some writers are beginning to think that the ancient Egyptians were responsible for introducing and spreading many cultures amongst the Yorubas. As more Yorubas are tracing their origins and the origins of their culture to ancient Egypt, this research investigates whether the Egyptians were the originators and the main spreaders of the afterlife culture in Yorubaland.

  16. Differences in Privacy Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶爽

    2015-01-01

    Privacy means different in both cultures.In modern information society,it deverses more attention from us.Privacy in oriental culture is quite distinctive from that in western culture. And the reasons are also not the same.

  17. Differences in Privacy Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶爽

    2015-01-01

    Privacy means different in both cultures.In modern information society,it deverses more attention from us.Privacy in oriental culture is quite distinctive from that in western culture.And the reasons are also not the same.

  18. 灿烂的出云古代文化%Splendid Ancient Izumo Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲殊

    2003-01-01

    The territory of Shimane Prefecture, Japan, was called Izumo in ancient times. In1984~1985, 358 swords, six small bells and 16 spearheads, all bronzes, were unearthed from the Ko-jindani site in this prefecture, which constituted an unprecedented discovery in Japanese archaeology. In1996, the Kamoiwakura site not far away from Kojindani yielded 39 small bronze bells, offering furtherevidence of the splendor of the ancient Izumo culture represented by bronzes and dated to about 2000BP.

  19. From an Ancient Tradition to the Present. Chinese Cultural Heritage Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching Fang; Lee, Amy

    This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help promote better understanding of Chinese students in the New York City public schools. China has an ancient history and a rich cultural tradition, and people all over the world have recognized China as one of the world's greatest civilizations. The earliest…

  20. On Differences Between Chinese and Western Dietary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李本涛

    2013-01-01

    Diet is absolutely necessary in the life of mankind, and even in the existence or development It is also the one of the basic form of social life. However under the difference cultural background, having different diet idea and diet custom, then finally form the different dietary culture, Certainly, the Chinese and western dietary have a large number of difference, This paper analyzed the specific characteristic on the difference between Chinese and western dietary culture. From this paper the Chinese and western dietary culture is difference in concepts, contents, patterns, dining eti-quette, and tableware. It is still significant to study the dietary cultures of Chinese and western dietary. By the analysis of the difference between Chi-nese and western dietary cultures, we can comprehend the respective cultural tradition of Chinese and west. And we can also improve and create the culture of china.

  1. Analysis of the Differences between Chinese and Western Culture from Love Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Meng

    2016-01-01

    Love is an eternal theme of world literature. Both the ancient and the modern literature tend to take marriage and love as their paramount theme;however, there is rarely any research sorting out these themes from the perspective of cultural differ-ence. Being engaged in exploring the love literature, this paper intends to make a comparison with Chinese and western perspec-tives of love and analyzes the embodied culture essences and differences from the comparative researches on their literary status, attitudes towards love, and the choice of themes.

  2. Panic and Culture: Hysterike Pnix in the Ancient Greek World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Susan P

    2015-10-01

    Starting perhaps in the second century BCE, and with Hippocratic precedent, ancient medical writers described a condition they called hysterike pnix or "uterine suffocation." This paper argues that uterine suffocation was, in modern terms, a functional somatic syndrome characterized by chronic anxiety and panic attacks. Transcultural psychiatrists have identified and described a number of similar panic-type syndromes in modern populations, and a plausible theory of how they work has been advanced. These insights, applied to the ancient disease of hysterike pnix, demystify the condition and illuminate the experience of the women who suffered from it. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The cultural differences in teaching between Chinese and western

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖

    2013-01-01

    Language and culture are interacting. Learning a language must understand the culture. The lack of cultural knowledge will lead to students’mistakes in daily English,therefore,in English teaching,the cultural differences between Chinese and Western as an important question is put forward. Then,from the cultural differences between Chinese and western,I discuss the reasons for mistakes in daily English and then how to teaching.

  4. Survey on Farming Culture of Ancient Villages and Tourism Development: A Case Study of Hongjiang City in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; FANG

    2014-01-01

    The origin of human civilization is based on agriculture and settlement,and the ancient villages preserved up to now can be rated as " museum and historical library of rural lifestyle and rural culture",which are of important historical and cultural value. Through the field survey of farming culture resources of ancient villages in Hongjiang City of Hunan Province,this article classifies and evaluates the farming culture and ancient village resources,and sets forth the following recommendations for the development of ancient village tourism: strengthening the product differentiation development; focusing on the cultivation and integration of resources; enhancing the village environmental remediation.

  5. Analysis of Western Film' influence on Chinese Film Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2015-01-01

    Western countries are the place where the international film culture originated. The western film has a far-reaching influence on the development of film and television industry all over the world. As China's film and television industry is in the era of reform, it is an essential part to use the experience in development of western films which can provide Chinese film culture with guidance in various fields. The present thesis firstly gives an analysis into characteristics of the western film culture and summarizes its influences on Chinese film culture, and then provides film art reform with some feasible suggestions.

  6. How Do Theories of Cognition and Consciousness in Ancient Indian Thought Systems Relate to Current Western Theorizing and Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eSedlmeier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unknown to most Western psychologists, ancient Indian scriptures contain very rich, empirically derived psychological theories that are, however, intertwined with religious and philosophical content. This article represents our attempt to extract the psychological theory of cognition and consciousness from a prominent ancient Indian thought system: Samkhya-Yoga. We derive rather broad hypotheses from this approach that may complement and extend Western mainstream theorizing. These hypotheses address an ancient personality theory, the effects of practicing the applied part of Samkhya-Yoga on normal and extraordinary cognition, as well as different ways of perceiving reality. We summarize empirical evidence collected (mostly without reference to the Indian thought system in diverse fields of research that allows for making judgments about the hypotheses, and suggest more specific hypotheses to be examined in future research. We conclude that the existing evidence for the (broad hypotheses is substantial but that there are still considerable gaps in theory and research to be filled. Theories of cognition contained in the ancient Indian systems have the potential to modify and complement existing Western mainstream accounts of cognition. In particular, they might serve as a basis for arriving at more comprehensive theories for several research areas that, so far, lack strong theoretical grounding, such as meditation research or research on aspects of consciousness.

  7. Brief Probein to Differences Between Chinese and Western Food Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青岛大学音乐学院,山东 青岛 266000

    2016-01-01

    Because of the differences in environment and products, different cultures may be formed in east and west, the social characteristics of material and spiritual life integrated embodiment through Chinese and west food cultures. The author focuses on analysis and comparison in cross-cultural differences of diet idea, diet object and way of eating in China and western countries, the deep-seated causation which induces the differences in food cultures is revealed. Under the background of western economic and cultural integration, communication in food cultures increased, which will certain accelerate Chinese food cultures developed and spread al over the world.

  8. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Di; Wang; Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries,so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  9. Chinese Culture of Learning from Western Teachers’Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹旭

    2014-01-01

    While more and more teachers from Western culture teach in China, research on the different cultures of learning in China's teaching context and Western teachers’views on the Chinese culture of learning and teaching have been rarely conduct-ed. This essay discusses the implications of cultural differences of learning between China and the West, particularly Western teachers’viewpoint on Chinese culture of learning. The conclusion suggests that it is of great importance to be aware that culture is just one of many factors that determine individual learning, and teachers are supposed to avoid stereotyping and simplistic views with regard to culture of learning, though general trends and patterns may exist among a certain type of culture.

  10. Food and Counter-cultural Identity in Ancient Cynicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Notario

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cynics’ attitudes towards food, cookery, and eating were important in signaling their socio-cultural identity, a specific ‘Cynic menu’ serving to distinguish them from high society and its culinary norms.

  11. Beginnings-The Kidney and Nephrology in Ancient Mesopotamian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-05-01

    A defining period in the history of civilization occurred in ancient Mesopotamia. While some of Mesopotamian contributions to knowledge (writing, mathematics, astronomy) have been recognized, those made to medicine are just beginning to be studied and appreciated. The medicine of the time developed in a theocratic society where local gods controlled all aspects of life and their healers were learned scribes who established the priestly medicine of old. For their use of prayers and incantations as a component of therapy Mesopotamian medicine has been belittled and relegated to magic. In fact, the Mesopotamian healers established the basic medical skills of observation, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment and, over time, systematically produced an expanding corpus of medical knowledge that had not existed theretofore. The kidney as an organ, the components of the urogenital tract, some signs and symptoms of renal diseases, and the art of urinalysis were first conceptualized, studied, and codified in Mesopotamia. In doing so, the Mesopotamians set the foundations of rational medicine that would follow after the introduction of the phonetic alphabet and the Socratic method of questioning and debate to stimulate critical analysis.

  12. A Comparison of Food in the Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮贵芳

    2005-01-01

    <正>Foods cultures are so deeply rooted in Chinese culture that almost everything of Chinese people’s lives is more or less related to them. In the west, foods also have a very important role in people s lives. However, foods in Chinese culture and western culture are different in a few aspects. This paper aims to look into the similarities and differences of the foods in two cultures and tries to give a brief discussion on their differences.

  13. The Influence of Number in Chinese and Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Numeral not only has the numerical symbol, but also is the important constituent of language, and it also expresses the rich cultural connotation besides the literal meaning.This article emphatically will carry on the analysis to the mystique and the metaphor between Chinese and Western numeral culture in order to help the people to understand some special numeral culture phenomenon thoroughly in the Trans-Culture exchange process which will make the cultural exchange smoother.

  14. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc. A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture. Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  15. On the Eastern and Western Cultures as Reflected in Differences in Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卓; 张海南

    2015-01-01

    When talking about differences between Eastern and Western culture,we should first think of the eating cultural differences.There are many differences in Eastern and Western food cultures,in this paper it will introduce the different food concepts,the different eating goals,the different eating habits,etc.A comparison study of Chinese and Western food culture still makes sense through the analysis of cultural differences between Chinese and Western food,we can understand their own cultural traditions in China and the West.At the same time it is able to carry out improvement and innovation of Chinese culture.Throughout the comparisons,coupled with the differences of the concept of Western food culture,objects,methods,ownership and nature,it studies these differences,identifies areas for mastery of the place,promotes cultural exchange.Thus it enables China to the world,and to make the world know China better.

  16. Leprosy and its socio-cultural perception in Indian religions and ancient texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A K; Banerjee, B G; Singh, S

    2010-01-01

    Leprosy is one of the oldest ailments known to the mankind. Many of the ancient texts and scriptures reveal that leprosy was not categorised as a specified disease but was grouped along with other skin diseases. However, in certain texts categorical mention of this disease does exist. The prime objective of this article is to highlight the age old traditional line of perception about this disease. A literature review was done to up-date the socio-cultural perception of leprosy in Indian religions and ancient texts. References were obtained through examining relevant bibliographies and the views/suggestions of eminent scholars engaged in this field were also included. An analysis of the secondary sources of data, particularly the ancient texts reveals that in good old days, leprosy had been considered to be an infliction of wrong-doings and sins. This viewpoint has been significantly reflected in these texts.

  17. 古诗教学与文化教育%Ancient Poetry Teaching and Cultural Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    在世界文学史上古诗堪称一绝。古诗以意境清新,含义深刻,语言生动,韵律优美而著称,是中华文化传统教育的一座宝库。古诗自然成为语文教学内容的重要组成部分。%In the history of world literature, ancient poetry is a must. Ancient poetry with a fresh artistic conception, profound meaning, language, vivid, beautiful and famous, is the treasure of Chinese culture and traditional education. Ancient poetry has become an important part of Chinese teaching content.

  18. Artifacts Attest to the Glorious Ancient Culture of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE; SHAW

    1995-01-01

    HUNAN is located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and to the south of Dongting Lake. In Chinese, hu means lake and nan, south. The Xiangjiang River valley, which flows through the province from south to north, is the most developed region in the areas of politics, the economy and culture. Thus, Hunan is also called Xiang for short.

  19. Phytolith assemblages along a gradient of ancient human disturbance in western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMichael, C.N.H.; Piperno, D.R.; Neves, E.G.; Bush, M.B.; Almeida, F.O.; Mongelo, G.; Eyjolfsdottir, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological status of prehistoric Amazonian forests remains widely debated. The concept of ancient Amazonia as a pristine wilderness is largely discredited, but the alternative hypothesis of extensive anthropogenic landscapes remains untested in many regions. We assessed the degree of ancient hum

  20. Stairways to the Stars: Skywatching in Three Great Ancient Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, Anthony

    1999-02-01

    "Tony Aveni has written a marvelous book about how the celestial rhythms influenced the cultures of the past. . . . It makes fascinating reading for any layperson."--Science Books and Films "Clearly, if we can know more about these people, their religion, their culture, their hopes and dreams, according to Dr. Aveni, it will make our understanding of their astronomy more meaningful."--Planetarian "A thoughtful analysis . . . highly recommended."--Library Journal What was the meaning of Stonehenge? What was the Mayan Code? Why was the elaborate Incan city of Cuzco built? Groundbreaking archaeoastronomer Anthony Aveni offers a host of startling new insights and conclusions in this acclaimed study of three of life's most mesmerizing mysteries.

  1. To Know the beauty of Xishi Culture Hometown of Ancient Beauty Xishi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The scenic area of Beauty Xishi’s hometown relies on the Xishi culture as the theme, and it shows the ancient Yue State Culture. It hasnatural landscape, abundant culture sediment, complete tourism establishment and modern energy. There are more than 150 scenicspots, its representative scenic spot is Huanjiang. Wuxie, the national key scenic spot in Xishi’s hometown, including Wuxie, Douyan andTangjiangyan, where have unique value to appreciate and taste, enjoys great popularity in china and abroad, and becomes the state-levelscenic spot of landscape.

  2. The western Aleutians: Cultural isolation and environmental change

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent research in the western Aleutians addresses two primary issues: the nature and extent of cultural exchange along the Aleutian chain, and Holocene...

  3. For Western girls only? Postfeminism as transnational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dosekun, Simidele

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature on post-feminism concerns the “Western” world and variously conceptualizes post-feminism as “Western culture.” This article argues that, as a result, feminist cultural scholars have not sufficiently imagined, theorized or empirically researched the possibility of post-feminism in non-Western cultural contexts. By briefly reviewing what has been said in the literature about post-feminism and the non-West, and by putting this in dialogue with transnational feminist cultur...

  4. The Exploration of Differences on Politeness Between Western and Western and Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper discisses the cultural diffefences on politeness between western and Chinese by means of contrast.in-dicating that due to different culmral background,historic background,traditional customs and so on.there are many differ-ences on politeness in daily communication Today.etiquette becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's poll-tics,economy,culture in people's social contact.And it includes the principal and moral that people should obey in daily life.So it is important for us to legrn western culture.This paper also will discuss how to leam wcsrtem culture.There are many ways for learning western culture.Therefore.It is practically useful to know and study the differences.thus promoting the cultural communication.

  5. 75 FR 41274 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Art of Ancient Greek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Art of Ancient Greek Theater... Ancient Greek Theater,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of...

  6. 76 FR 73759 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Egypt-Art and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures From the Foundation Gandur pour L'Art, Geneva, Switzerland'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures from the Foundation Gandur pour...

  7. A Comparative Study between Chinese and Western Food Culture in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦体霞

    2014-01-01

    The differences of food culture play an important role in cross-cultural communication. Learn the cultural rooted causes of food culture between Chinese and Western countries, will promote mutual understanding between people and enjoy different feelings different foods brings, enhance cultural exchange, complement and integration.

  8. Chaaj (Mesoamerican Ballgame: An ancient game between cultural emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairzinho Francisco Panqueba-Cifuentes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Meso-American ball games are corporal manifestations that have come being explored mainly from archaeological and historical perspectives. They have also been recaptured from different initiatives to put them into practice.However to say that the chaaj in mesoamérica is today a recreational and sport alternative, is to keep in little its demonstrated potential. The sacralidad manifested through the corporal movements is offering innovation options of the current societies. There they put at stake the codexes, the archaeological interpretations and the territorial knowledge. In their ludica dimension, the game gathers cultural, sport and pedagogic elements. In the last years it comes registering an unusual promotion. It amid the current times of change that were announced from immemorial times by the mayan knowing: men and women.

  9. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  10. [Ophthalmology in the ancient river cultures. Was cataract surgery performed during the time of King Hammurabi?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieganowski, Lech

    2003-01-01

    The article presents the state of ophthalmological knowledge in the Ancient River Cultures. Medical and ophthalmological information included in King Hammurabi Code is discussed. The author presents a critical analysis of the views related to the hypothesis of possible performance of cataract operation in Babylon during the Hammurabi period. Terminological and medical matters related to this issue are discussed. The original opinion about surgical treatment of symblepharon or pannus trachomatosus is presented.

  11. Different Symbolic Meaning of Color in Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟维维; 裘瑜; 陈佳颖

    2013-01-01

    Colors are embodied with different meanings and symbols in different countries. Not only should we understand their basic and literal meanings, but also we should focus on their deep contents in symbolic meanings, because their symbolic meanings vary from culture to culture. The differences in the symbol of colors are due to different cultures and history back-grounds as well as aesthetic psychology. This paper, mainly based on the Chinese and western culture, approaches the symbols of colors represented in the two different cultures through analyzing the different understanding of colors, which can help us under-stand culture difference in colors better during intercultural com-munication.

  12. Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, R. Lynn

    Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

  13. Cultural Differences in School Education between China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦娟

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural communication has become a necessary phenomenon,we should introduce some cultural background knowledge in English teaching. This essay is aimed at discussing the cultural differences in school education between China and Western countries in three aspects-the different forms of school education,the different roles of teachers in school education,the different goals of school education.

  14. Importance of the Mass Media Education: Western Cultural Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littunen, Yrjo

    1978-01-01

    Discusses features in the Western cultural background which may be relevant to changes in international opinion. Notes problems of freedom of information and cultural processes caused by mass communication among nations, including the high violence content of United States television programs compared with those of Canada and Europe. (MF)

  15. Cultural Novelty and Adjustment: Western Business Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Western business expatriates in China. Three sociocultural adjustment variables were examined; general, interaction and work adjustment. Although a negative relationship was hypothesized between cultural novelty and the three adjustment variables, results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis...... showed that there was no significant association between them. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that it is as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a very similar culture as to a very dissimilar culture, is fundamental. Implications of this potentially crucial finding are discussed...

  16. Comparison of Wine Culture between China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷婷

    2014-01-01

    With the accelerating pace of globalization, the cultural differences have more impacts and restrictions on the intercom-munication than before. They exist in the total international communication. Therefore, the critical factors whether we can suc-ceed in intercommunication are whether we can eliminate cultural differences or avoid their conflicts. There is no exception for wine culture. As we know, drinking wine plays an important role in public relations as a communicating tool. This essay is to compare Chinese wine culture with the Western one, and try to analyze the factors aroused by the cultural differences, and then provide the solution how to face it.

  17. An Analysis of the Relationship of Confucian Thoughts to Chinese Traditional Culture with Western Culture Concerned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝

    2008-01-01

    By drawing support from the kernel theories of Confucian thoughts and the dominant characteristic of Chinese traditional culture,this article was to introduce how Confucian thoughts play a chief role in Chinese traditional culture.The study first analyzed the kernel theories of Confucian thoughts and the chief characteristic of Chinese traditional culture in two parallel lines.Then Chinese traditional culture was deliberated in culture patterns with Confucian thoughts and Western Culture concerned.

  18. Cultural Differences in the Traditional Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娟

    2012-01-01

    The culture of world is colorful.On the soil of colorful culture,there grows different traditional festivals.They are distinctly different in their origins.Chinese festivals mainly stem from seasons and solar periods,while western festivals are mostly influenced with religious features.Another aspect is apparent different in their customs.When celebrating the festivals,the Chinese tend to focus more attention on eating and drinking,while the westerners tend to the seeking of pleasure.In the era of globaliza...

  19. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  20. Lipid biomarkers for bacterial ecosystems: studies of cultured organisms, hydrothermal environments and ancient sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper forms part of our long-term goal of using molecular structure and carbon isotopic signals preserved as hydrocarbons in ancient sediments to improve understanding of the early evolution of Earth's surface environment. We are particularly concerned with biomarkers which are informative about aerobiosis. Here, we combine bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems to construct models for the nature, behaviour and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. We use a combined molecular and isotopic approach to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria and test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. This information is then compared with lipid mixtures isolated from contemporary hot springs and evaluated for the kinds of chemical change that would accompany burial and incorporation into the sedimentary record. In this study we have shown that growth temperature does not appear to alter isotopic fractionation within the lipid classes produced by a methanotropic bacterium. We also found that cultured cyanobacteria biosynthesize diagnostic methylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with the latter only made when growing under low pCO2. In an examination of a microbial mat sample from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (USA), we could readily identify chemical structures with 13C contents which were diagnostic for the phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus. We could not, however, find molecular evidence for operation of a methane cycle in the particular mat samples we studied.

  1. Does Size Matter? Dominant Discourses about Penises in Western Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan McKee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fact that a large penis is important for giving women sexual pleasure is a dominant discourse—even though it must never be spoken—in Western cultures. And this is an interesting fact, for many reasons. It is interesting for making us think about how discourses work, and how we may know them to be dominant. It suggests that a discourse that is almost never spoken publicly may still be a dominant one. It suggests that there is at least one dominant discourse in Western culture that is in the hands of women, and that can be extremely powerful against men when used correctly. And it suggests—to me, at least—that in cultural studies we should pay more attention to the discursive resources in the cultures that surround us, and the ways in which they might be used, rather than insistently looking only to academic writing for ways to progress particular political ends.

  2. “The History and Culture of the Western Siberian Tatars”: Some Notes about the Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Tychinskikh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a collective monograph “The History and Culture of the Western Siberian Tatars” published in 2015 by Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. This book is the first academic work, which integrated and multidimensionally accumulated almost all materials (of demography, genetics, linguistics, history, ethnography and ethnosociology available in modern science related to the formation and development of the Turkic-Tatar population of Western Siberia from ancient times to the early 21st century. The monograph is distinguished by the ethnoterritorial approach: the authors focus on the entire Turkic-Tatar population of Western Siberia, which was formed in different historical periods and includes two main components – population called in ethnographic science the “Siberian Tatars” and the group of Tatars who migrated (mainly from the Volga region to the Siberian region during the 16th–20th centuries. The book contains a large number of illustrations, which were collected during the expeditions of the authors in the rural settlements of the Tatars of Western Siberia, during archaeological excavations, in numerous archives and museums in Russia. Many photos are presented for the first time.

  3. A Brief Description of the Historical Relations Between Ancient Tibetan Culture and the Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gelek

    2004-01-01

    All the ethnic groups of China together have created Chinese culture as a whole over its long historical development. This rich and colourful culture now spread before our eyes is the result of the distinctive cultures of various ethnic groups gradually merging.Without cultural exchange and cross influence between

  4. How to Face the Gap between Eastern and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In many aspects of our life,we often divide the world into two parts:the eastern one and the western one.The former usually refers to Asia and the latter includes mainly Europe,North Africa and America.We divide like this not only because of the geographical location differences,but also due to the cultural

  5. Different Connotations of "Modesty" Lying in Western and Eastern Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2015-01-01

    as a common morality,politeness is the symbol of human civilization and a primary principle abided by people in interpersonal communication.However,the standard and the way of expression of politeness are fluctuated with different culture.This essay takes analysis on different connotations of"modesty" lying in the western culture and eastern culture deeply and explains the cause for that,for the purpose of helping people avoid pragmatic mistake in intercultural communication at the best to achieve considerable communicative effect.

  6. New age estimations for the western outer city wall of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia) based on OSL and radiocarbon data and geomorphologic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial

  7. Complex Ancient Genetic Structure and Cultural Transitions in Southern African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montinaro, Francesco; Busby, George B. J.; Gonzalez-Santos, Miguel; Oosthuitzen, Ockie; Oosthuitzen, Erika; Anagnostou, Paolo; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Pascali, Vincenzo L.; Capelli, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of the structure of southern African populations has been the subject of numerous genetic, medical, linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological investigations. Current diversity in the subcontinent is the result of complex events of genetic admixture and cultural contact between early inhabitants and migrants that arrived in the region over the last 2000 years. Here, we analyze 1856 individuals from 91 populations, comprising novel and published genotype data, to characterize the genetic ancestry profiles of 631 individuals from 51 southern African populations. Combining both local ancestry and allele frequency based analyses, we identify a tripartite, ancient, Khoesan-related genetic structure. This structure correlates neither with linguistic affiliation nor subsistence strategy, but with geography, revealing the importance of isolation-by-distance dynamics in the area. Fine-mapping of these components in southern African populations reveals admixture and cultural reversion involving several Khoesan groups, and highlights that Bantu speakers and Coloured individuals have different mixtures of these ancient ancestries. PMID:27838627

  8. Complex Ancient Genetic Structure and Cultural Transitions in Southern African Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montinaro, Francesco; Busby, George B J; Gonzalez-Santos, Miguel; Oosthuitzen, Ockie; Oosthuitzen, Erika; Anagnostou, Paolo; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Capelli, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of the structure of southern African populations has been the subject of numerous genetic, medical, linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological investigations. Current diversity in the subcontinent is the result of complex events of genetic admixture and cultural contact between early inhabitants and migrants that arrived in the region over the last 2000 years. Here, we analyze 1856 individuals from 91 populations, comprising novel and published genotype data, to characterize the genetic ancestry profiles of 631 individuals from 51 southern African populations. Combining both local ancestry and allele frequency based analyses, we identify a tripartite, ancient, Khoesan-related genetic structure. This structure correlates neither with linguistic affiliation nor subsistence strategy, but with geography, revealing the importance of isolation-by-distance dynamics in the area. Fine-mapping of these components in southern African populations reveals admixture and cultural reversion involving several Khoesan groups, and highlights that Bantu speakers and Coloured individuals have different mixtures of these ancient ancestries. Copyright © 2017 Montinaro et al.

  9. Comparison on Wedding Culture between China and Westem Countries%Comparison on Wedding Culture between China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶

    2009-01-01

    @@ Marriage is the first human relation since ancient times;we can get a clearer understanding of the human history,and explore the development of human society's basic law throngh the intricate and beautiful wedding.Chinese Wedding Culture

  10. Mathematics across cultures the history of non-Western mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Mathematics Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Mathematics consists of essays dealing with the mathematical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Inca, Egyptian, and African mathematics, among others, the book includes essays on Rationality, Logic and Mathematics, and the transfer of knowledge from East to West. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate the mathematical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  11. Astronomy across cultures the history of non-Western astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaochun, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  12. Pig domestication and human-mediated dispersal in western Eurasia revealed through ancient DNA and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Flink, Linus Girdland; Evin, Allowen; Geörg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, László; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Cakirlar, Canan; Cevik, Ozlem; Hoelzel, A Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb; Seno, Shiva Sheikhi; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-04-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ~8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages.

  13. Pig Domestication and Human-Mediated Dispersal in Western Eurasia Revealed through Ancient DNA and Geometric Morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Girdland Flink, Linus; Evin, Allowen; Geörg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, László; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Çakırlar, Canan; Çevik, Özlem; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Mohaseb Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh; Sheikhi Seno, Shiva; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Strand Vidarsdottir, Una; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-01-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ∼8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages. PMID:23180578

  14. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  15. Cultural Novelty and Adjustment: Western Business Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Western business expatriates in China. Three sociocultural adjustment variables were examined; general, interaction and work adjustment. Although a negative relationship was hypothesized between cultural novelty and the three adjustment variables, results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis...... showed that there was no significant association between them. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that it is as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a very similar culture as to a very dissimilar culture, is fundamental. Implications of this potentially crucial finding are discussed......Although seldom formally tested, the traditional assumption in the literature on expatriate management is that the greater the cultural novelty of the host country, the more difficult it would be for the expatriate to adjust. To be able to test this proposition, a mail survey was directed towards...

  16. Investment Projects in Western China Culture and Tourism Sector (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Project Name Western Culture Town Project Ⅱ. Project Implementation Agency Shaanxi Opera Research Institute Ⅲ. Project Description The project, located at the gold section of Wenyi road of Xi'an city, has a covered area of 23300 m2 and the total construction area of 110,000 m2 including 2 comprehensive buildings of 24 floors and a comprehensive building of 9 floors, a multifunctional theater integrating performance, cultural entertain-ment, shopping, commercial-residence, food and beverage, conference and exhibition.

  17. Cultural Identity and Regional Security in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    in the culture, and a means of spiritual survival and resistance to assimilation.”39 This epic poetry “ensured the continuation of collective memory ...historical traditions and epic poetry became the only integrating factor for the Serbian people, the most important elements of the communication system...Outcomes of the Second World War in the Western Balkans were spoiled ethnic relations, hatred, and fear that would remain in national memory until

  18. The performance of the ancient culture elements in the modern advertisement language%古文化元素在现代广告语中的体现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝林; 陈楷元; 武冉斐; 何帅

    2015-01-01

    Today,a good advertisement can promote the product own taste,but also can promote the product visibility and sales, and excellent advertisement is derived from its creative. Many advertisements for new has added many ancient cultural elements, obtained very good result,this paper will be on the ancient cultural elements,ancient poetry,traditional famous idiom for elements with absorption for having heard it many times,the allusion embodied in the modern advertisement language situation do one overview.

  19. Mössbauer studies on ancient chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengfang; Zheng, Qi; Zheng, Yufang

    1988-12-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100°C in steps of 100°C for 2h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Mössbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900 1000°C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  20. Intensity of the geomagnetic field in western Europe over the past 2000 years: New data from ancient French pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevey, AgnèS.; Gallet, Yves

    2002-11-01

    We studied 14 groups of French pottery fragments dated between the 4th and 16th centuries. The potsherds were analyzed using the [1959] method, revised by [1967]. Intensity values were corrected for thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy and cooling rate dependence of TRM acquisition. We first analyzed modern ceramics produced following ancient techniques and fired in a wood-burning kiln inside of which field intensity was measured. The recovered mean intensity is within ˜3% of the expected value, which proves the reliability of our experimental procedure. Thermal experiments carried out at rapid and slow cooling rates clearly indicate that the cooling rate correction is critical in archeointensity studies. Our data indicate that large variations in intensity occurred in France over the last 2000 years. Two relative maxima in intensity are observed, one between the 8th and 10th centuries and the second between the 14th and 15th centuries. Similarities are observed between the archeointensity data from France and Ukraine, yielding some evidence for eastward drift of geomagnetic sources between western and eastern Europe from A.D. 800 to A.D. 1700. We also show that the dipole moment evolution proposed by [1982] and [2000] for the last two millennia is likely biased toward higher values, mainly because of the absence of correction for the cooling rate dependence of TRM acquisition in most published archeointensity studies. We finally underline a possible relationship, valid at least in western Europe, between changes in direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field.

  1. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Lundberg, John; Birindelli, Jose; Sabaj Pérez, Mark; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  2. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orangel Aguilera

    Full Text Available Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  3. Looks of Love and Loathing: Cultural Models of Vision and Emotion in Ancient Greek Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Cairns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the intersection of cultural models of emotion, specifically love and envy, with folk and scientific models of vision in Greek antiquity. Though the role of the eyes in the expression of these emotions can intersect with widespread beliefs in vision as a 'haptic', material process, analogous to touch, none the less the emotional concepts resist absorption into a single over-arching theory of the physical effects of seeing and being seen. The specific cultural models of vision ('active', 'passive', and 'interactive' are enlisted in support of cultural models of emotion where they fit, modified where they fit less well, and ignored when they do not fit at all.

  4. A Mössbauer study of an ancient pottery figure (Western-Han dynasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Dai, Kaimei; Liu, Rongchuan; Hsia, Yuanfu; Jiang, Zanchu

    1992-04-01

    The grey pottery figure manufactured in the Western-Han Dynasty (175-118 B.C.) and the clay gathered from the same site of Beidongshan in Xuzhou have been studied by X-ray Diffraction(XRD). X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. They were simultaneously fired under the same conditions in different atmospheres at various temperature up to 1100°C. This study deals with the original firing atmosphere, original firing temperature and its provenance. The information mentioned above can be inferred from the method of the refiring pottery and the firing clay. The results of the original firing temperature deduced from both of them are in goodself agreement. It is found that the values of the Mössbauer parameters for the unrefired pottery figure are approximately the same as those for the clay fired at 950°C for five hours in a reduced atmosphere. The XRF analysis confirmed the locality of this pottery figure.

  5. The Study of Women in Ancient Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovich, M. James

    1982-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

  6. [The black rat (Rattus rattus) and the plague in ancient and medieval western Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoin-Rouzeau, F

    1999-12-01

    The first time plague affected Western Europe was in the early Middle Ages: rom 541 to 767, there were no fewer than 15 outbreaks in southern parts of the continent. Plague then disappeared from Europe for some seven centuries but came back with a vengeance in 1347, this time by way of the Mediterranean, and ravaged the entire continent for five years, resulting in a serious demographic depression. From then on until 1722 (and 1771 in Moscow), the disease remained endemic to Europe, periodically undermining its economy. These epidemics were major determinants of medieval history, but their study has not been completed to this day. It was not until the 1970s that archeo-zoologists finally discovered that the black rat had indeed been present in Europe since Roman times. Further extensive research revealed that the rat population had gradually grown from a fairly restricted one in the early Middle Ages to a significant one in the 11th and 13th centuries. The rodents spread along the major highways explaining the very different geographical impact of the various plague epidemics of the early and late medieval periods. However, the mystery of the exact mechanisms by which plague spread has still not been entirely elucidated, since the Asian rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, whose role as vector was demonstrated by P. L. Simond, could not have survived in the temperate European climate. Thus, the question of the European vector is still left hanging: was it a human or a rat flea? Was the rat a propagator or simply an initiator? This article considers these unresolved questions by re-examining P. L. Simond's very precise observations.

  7. Taiwanese Medical Students' Narratives of Intercultural Professionalism Dilemmas: Exploring Tensions between Western Medicine and Taiwanese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between…

  8. Broadcasting and Culture. Cultural Channels and its impact in Western Europe digital TV platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Carles Llorens Maluquer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the two classical definitions of culture - popular and elitist-, the reality of cultural channels is analysed through the five most important television markets in Western Europe, - Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy and Spain-, and their free-to-air TV offer and main multichannel digital television platforms. The fifty channels found are classified according to the scope of the content (generalist or thematic and their ownership (public or private. These classifications show that content-broad cultural channels are operated by Public Broadcasters Services, whereas private operators prefer thematic cultural channels. Finally, except for the case of ARTE channel, the only pan-European cultural channels are the United States subsidiaries, like Discovery Channel or National Geographic.

  9. The romantic drive and human sciences in western culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Western culture is based upon the tension between a basic universalism and its permanent romantic counterpoint. Science is one of the main expressions of the universalistic attitude and the romantic genius dealt actively with it, criticizing and transforming it in many different ways. The emergence of modern 'human sciences' (originally conceived of as the Geisteswissenschaften, or 'moral sciences' is due to this tension, in the sense that they came to provide a sense of reality and knowledge very different from that prevailing in the pristine universalistic ideology. The themes of 'difference', 'totality', 'uniqueness', 'flow', 'drive', 'experience', and 'understanding' inspired or challenged the great founding fathers of the human sciences - eventually in contradictory directions. They remain nowadays as powerful as ever, either as the necessary rationalization for any anthropological research or as the channel for the so-called 'post-modern' speculations. To make them explicit and understandable is the task of this article.

  10. A Comparative Study of Face and Politeness in Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng-fang

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes a comparative study of the Chinese and western attitudes towards“face”and“politeness”. When concerning the standards of politeness, western cultures focus more on the creation of individual ’s private space; while Chinese culture, as a typical collectivist culture, shows more stress on harmony and group identity. But some euphemisms and cultural rit-uals show the generosity of being polite in both cultures. After this comparative study of face and politeness in two cultures, there will be a better understanding of politeness between Chinese and western communication.

  11. The Technologies of Lie in Local Cultures of Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Naumenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the political phenomenon – "technology of lie" that emerged of Jesuit and quasi-Catholic culture of Europe at the Middle Ages. The article also considers penetration of this phenomenon into Western Siberia through representatives of exile. According to author, the technologies of lie were created as a result of distortion of Catholicism, departure from a true spiritual component. This policy was considered by its carriers as a competition form. The author considers that misstatement of Orthodoxy was possible to a lesser extent because of its traditional dogmatism; the Russian imperial power did not use technologies of lie at the wide nation-wide and geopolitical level. The phenomenon existed only in local cultures. In article the social and economic and political reasons of forming of these technologies in the Russian Empire and Western Siberia, their manifestations and a consequence are analyzed. As examples cases of anti-Semitic "bloody slanders" are given in the European Russia and a defiant line item of the Jesuit organization in a Siberian exile. The author notes that the considered tactics has been directed to some religious groups and to certain representatives of society and the government. As a rule, none of the victims were ready to "information attacks" and lost them, losing not only property and positions, but also life sometimes. The author emphasizes that this practice has been adopted by part of the Russian revolutionary atheists. There is approved action of these technologies in terms of the Siberian penal servitude and the exile. Later the experience gained by them has formed the basis of fabricated political processes in case of the Stalin the regime.

  12. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  13. Examining Culture's Impact on the Learning Behaviors of International Students from Confucius Culture Studying in Western Online Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…

  14. A General Study of the Wine Culture in China and the Western World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Na

    2016-01-01

    Wine culture is considered as an indispensible part of the culture in different countries. Distinctive differences exist be-tween Chinese wine culture and the wine culture in western countries due to their historical backgrounds, different values, cul-tures and customs, etc. A general study of the comparison between Chinese wine culture and western wine culture is given in this paper in order to help us have a better understanding of the wine culture and make us be aware of showing mutual respect for each other.

  15. Cultural and western influences on the nutrition transition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Katherine L; Hawks, Steven R

    2006-01-01

    The impact of economic development and urbanisation on nutrition and dietary changes in transitional countries has been well researched. It generally has been found that there is a positive correlation between economic development, urbanization, and negative nutrition transitions with the result of growing levels of obesity and diet related non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of Western influences and culture on specific eating styles associated with the nutrition transition has been less studied. There is limited information about cultural and Western influences on eating styles in Thailand. Recent findings suggest that Thailand may have progressed further along the nutrition transition model, in terms of unhealthy eating styles, than would be expected based on economic development. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of current eating styles and eating motivations among Thai university students. University students were chosen for evaluation as they are thought to represent the forefront of dietary trends and nutrition changes in a population. Convenience samples from four different universities in south-central and northern Thailand were selected. The following scales were used to assess eating and dieting styles and attitudes among 662 Thai undergraduate and graduate students: Motivation For Eating Scale (MFES), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Cognitive Dieting Behavior Scale (CBDS). All scales have been shown to be reliable and valid in previous research. For this study, scales were translated into Thai, reverse translated, and pilot tested to ensure cultural relevancy and the conveyance of intended meanings. Basic demographic information was also obtained, including age, gender, year in school, marital status, height and weight, and income. Results indicated that Thai students exhibit significant levels of dieting behaviour and extrinsic eating based on CBDS and MFES scores (with the exception of environmental eating). For

  16. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  17. Successful Sino-Western Business Negotiation: Participants' Accounts of National and Professional Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, Vivian C.; Chen, Ling

    2003-01-01

    Explores the role of national and professional cultures in Sino-Western negotiations. Considers the way participants accounted for their experiences in an effort to gain more insight into Sino-Western negotiations. Discusses three successful strategies for both Chinese and Western groups: Adequate preparation, image work, and good relationship.…

  18. Cultural Transmission of Traditional Knowledge in two populations of North-western Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Mariana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we have investigated the cultural transmission of two types of traditional plant knowledge in two communities of North-western Patagonia, Argentina. In the Pilcaniyeu community, we studied the transmission of traditional knowledge related to horticultural practices in home-gardens, greenhouses and gardens; while in the community of Cuyin Manzano, we studied wild plant gathering customs. Methods Ethnobotanical fieldwork was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, in which we investigated which plants are used, at what life history phase was learned, modes of transmission and who the principal transmitters were in childhood and adulthood. In both communities, each of this three aspects related to cultural transmission were categorized and the frequencies of each category were obtained. The total number of species recorded in each community was also calculated. Frequencies were analyzed with the Chi-square test of independence. Results and discussion In both communities, transmission of traditional plant knowledge begins at an early age, as a family custom, in which women play a predominant role. Wild plant use and horticultural knowledge continue to be learned during adulthood. This was particularly registered associated with horticultural learning, which receives greater influence from extension agents who are introducing new practices and technology. This outside influence, which implies novelty, could imply syncretism but also traditional knowledge loss. Conclusion Given the remarkable acculturation processes occurring at present in rural communities of Northwestern Patagonia, it might be of vital importance to document traditional knowledge of ancient practices. Moreover, it could be interesting to share our results with both populations in order to encourage participatory activities within the communities which could enhance traditional knowledge horizontal transmission, particularly among

  19. Restructuring Hong Kong's Schools: The Applicability of Western Theories, Policies, and Practices to an Asian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    1998-01-01

    Explores the appropriateness and synchrony between educational policy reforms imported into Hong Kong and central features of the host culture. Draws upon Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions to provide a framework for identifying and matching Hong Kong's culture in juxtaposition with other cultures. Despite powerful Western influences, Hong Kong…

  20. The Comparative Study betwee n the Ancient Chinese Academy and the Universities in the Middle Ages of Western Europe%中国古代书院与欧洲中世纪大学的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2012-01-01

    The essay mainly introduced us the similar and difference between the ancient Chinese academy and the Western Middle Ages university,two famous higher education system in the history of eastern and western culture.The arguments concern some basic issues such as the background,characteristic of system,the aim of running schools,teaching method and the administrative model between the eastern academy and the western university,which enlighten us on the modern reform of higher education further according to our domestic reality.%本文从历史与比较的角度考察了在世界文史上颇有影响的中国早期书院与西方中世纪大学,并分析了形成背景、制度特点、办学观念、社会作用和影响的异同,以期对现代的高教改革提供有益的借鉴。

  1. For a Consciuos Fruition of the Cultural Heritage of Ancient Noto (sicily). Efian Project as Opportunity for Valorisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Z.; Nuccio, G.

    2017-05-01

    The archaeological site of Ancient Noto is all that remains of one of the most interesting and important cities in the Est part of Sicily. Architecture and political life made Noto a point of reference for the island, expecially in XVI and XVII century, before it was destroyed by a devastating earthquake in 1963. A general project of safeguard, together with archaeological excavations, could hand a great amount of information, archaeological finds, pieces of architecture, that are useful to understand the site, known as a "Sicilian Pompei". Our intervention has the aim to describe the importance of EFIAN (Experimental Fruition Ingenious Ancient Noto). The project is carried out as a collaboration between Palermo University, Catania University, SIQUILLIYA s.r.l. and Service & Advice s.r.l.. The project answers to the need of improving the valorisation of the site, according to the principles of Italian Code for Cultural Heritage and Landscape. EFIAN's purpose is that of improving public's sensibilisation, to open lines of research and restauration of monuments. The working method is based on the strong relationship established between History, Architectonic Relief, Restauration, and Study of ancient technics of construction linked to the territory. The research is supported by new generation technologies. Datas are used to build digital reconstructions of ruins in the shape of virtual anastylosis and digital reconstruction of whole buildings. Four different sites have been studied during the project development.

  2. Ancient Greek mythology mediated by Latin culture: On Vlastimir Trajković’s arion and Zephyrus returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vlastimir Trajković (b. 1947 is a prominent Serbian composer with a strong inclination towards subjects from ancient Greek mythology. Among his most important achievements may be counted Arion - le nuove musiche per chitarra ed archi (1979 and Zephyrus returns for flute, viola and piano (2003. Two important aspects of those works are discussed in the present article: 1. the line that connects them to ancient Greek culture via French Modernism (Debussy, Ravel, Messiaen and Renaissance poetry and music (Petrarch, Caccini, Monteverdi; 2. modality, which has proved its vitality through long periods of the history of European music, beginning with ancient Greek modes, reaching its high point in the 16th century, and re-emerging at the beginning of the 20th century in different hybrid forms. Trajković is seen as a composer who has shaped his creative identity by exploring the rich musical heritage of the Latin European nations, especially the contributions of Debussy and Ravel.

  3. Genetic and Cultural Reconstruction of the Migration of an Ancient Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Desmond D; Raina, Anupuma; Aston, Christopher E; Sanghera, Dharambir K

    2015-01-01

    A rare R1a1 Y-haplogroup (Y-HG) L657 clade subtype designated as LPKSTR is found in most male members of a clan of "founder" families within the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community in Lotli town in Western India. TMRCA calculations using pairwise comparisons to control cohorts suggested a probable migration history distinct from the canonical narrative for medieval migration of orthodox Brahmin families to South India. Using Y-HG centroid analysis, chi-square analysis of TMRCA distributions and archeological find-spots, and discriminant function analysis we show that the parental Z93 L342.2 subclade in which LPKSTR occurs originated in West Asia and that LPKSTR individuals migrated toward the southeast by a Bolan Pass route distinct from the traditionally presumed route of Brahmin ingress into the Indian subcontinent. The proposed migration route is supported by archeological, toponymic, numismatic, linguistic, iconographic, and literary data. Lastly, we present cultural metrics demonstrating that these LPKSTR lineages retained distinct family practices with respect to literacy, religious practice, and emigration not shared with orthodox Brahmins of canonical geographic origin within the same community, despite centuries of intermarriage. Long-term transmission of differentiated family practices within a patrilineal endogamous community has rarely been documented.

  4. Genetic and Cultural Reconstruction of the Migration of an Ancient Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond D. Mascarenhas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare R1a1 Y-haplogroup (Y-HG L657 clade subtype designated as LPKSTR is found in most male members of a clan of “founder” families within the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community in Lotli town in Western India. TMRCA calculations using pairwise comparisons to control cohorts suggested a probable migration history distinct from the canonical narrative for medieval migration of orthodox Brahmin families to South India. Using Y-HG centroid analysis, chi-square analysis of TMRCA distributions and archeological find-spots, and discriminant function analysis we show that the parental Z93 L342.2 subclade in which LPKSTR occurs originated in West Asia and that LPKSTR individuals migrated toward the southeast by a Bolan Pass route distinct from the traditionally presumed route of Brahmin ingress into the Indian subcontinent. The proposed migration route is supported by archeological, toponymic, numismatic, linguistic, iconographic, and literary data. Lastly, we present cultural metrics demonstrating that these LPKSTR lineages retained distinct family practices with respect to literacy, religious practice, and emigration not shared with orthodox Brahmins of canonical geographic origin within the same community, despite centuries of intermarriage. Long-term transmission of differentiated family practices within a patrilineal endogamous community has rarely been documented.

  5. Genetic and Cultural Reconstruction of the Migration of an Ancient Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Desmond D.; Raina, Anupuma; Aston, Christopher E.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.

    2015-01-01

    A rare R1a1 Y-haplogroup (Y-HG) L657 clade subtype designated as LPKSTR is found in most male members of a clan of “founder” families within the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community in Lotli town in Western India. TMRCA calculations using pairwise comparisons to control cohorts suggested a probable migration history distinct from the canonical narrative for medieval migration of orthodox Brahmin families to South India. Using Y-HG centroid analysis, chi-square analysis of TMRCA distributions and archeological find-spots, and discriminant function analysis we show that the parental Z93 L342.2 subclade in which LPKSTR occurs originated in West Asia and that LPKSTR individuals migrated toward the southeast by a Bolan Pass route distinct from the traditionally presumed route of Brahmin ingress into the Indian subcontinent. The proposed migration route is supported by archeological, toponymic, numismatic, linguistic, iconographic, and literary data. Lastly, we present cultural metrics demonstrating that these LPKSTR lineages retained distinct family practices with respect to literacy, religious practice, and emigration not shared with orthodox Brahmins of canonical geographic origin within the same community, despite centuries of intermarriage. Long-term transmission of differentiated family practices within a patrilineal endogamous community has rarely been documented. PMID:26491681

  6. 我国古代语文教育的文化返观%The cultural meditation on ancient Chinese language education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Chinese education mainly is to spread the Confucian culture, and promote the Confucian cultural values to humanize become main body culture dissemination in Chinese ancient Chinese education has been are hidden behind the MingXian evangelize write wiring. Based on cultural point of view, meditation in ancient China culture dissemination and education, Chinese ancient Chinese language education in the cultural dissemination means, social value orientation and personal value orientation, dynamic form - static cultural content, language education and cultural aspects of the relationship between shows unique characteristics.%我国古代教育主要是传播儒家文化、弘扬儒家的文化价值观,以人文化成为主体的文化传播在我国古代语文教育中一直是隐藏并处在教化明线后面的暗线。立足文化的视角,返观我国古代的文化传播和语文教育,我国古代语文教育在文化传播方式、社会价值取向和个人价值取向、动态形式和静态的文化内容、语文教育和文化的关系等方面呈现出独具的特点。

  7. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and

  8. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and

  9. Foreign aromatic products in the cultural and religious identity of ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Incordino, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Brief analysis of the different values of some aromatic products, which Egypt imported from African countries and became a fundamental part of the belief system of ancient Egyptian religion. Scented trees and plants were particularly important since they were used to evoke the Gods and recreate a sacred space for them on Earth. Beautiful gardens, sensual pleasures and the divine birth of pharaohs were all linked to the use of those foreign products, thereby justifying their ...

  10. On the Differences between Chinese and Western Culture--From Fighting Against the Flood of King Yu to Noah's Ark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长江

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing cross-culture communication, more and more linguists come to realize that the cultural gap is a large obstacle in cultural transition and social intercourse.This paper discusses the differences between Chinese and Western culture from King Yu combating the flood to Noah's Ark to help Chinese communicate with westerners and develop Cross-Cultural Communication smoothly.

  11. introduction of cultural differences between western countries and japan in new horizon college english

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由迪思

    2011-01-01

    foreign languages teaching aims at cultivating students with both communication abilities and knowledge about different cultures.thus the introduction of differences between cultures plays a fairly significant role in english teaching.the paper has a review on the texts from new horizon college english that introduce cultural differences between western countries and japan and further analyzes the causes.

  12. Square Culture and the Origin of Ancient Chinese Mathe-matics%方形文化与上古中国数学的起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于星兰

    2014-01-01

    从形与数概念的产生过程入手,研究了方形文化对中国上古数学文化的起源产生的影响。中国上古数学文化是中华古文化的重要组成部分;对抽象的形概念的认识以及对抽象的数概念的认识是抽象思维的产物;上古人类对方形的崇拜促进了方形文化的产生和发展;方形文化促进了形与数的概念的形成和发展;方形文化还通过对《周易》的影响,间接地促进了包括数学文化在内的中国古文化的产生与发展。%Starting with the creation process of the concept of shape and number, this paper has studied the effect of square culture to the origin of Chinese ancient mathematics culture. Chinese ancient mathematics culture is the important component of Chinese ancient culture, and the cognition to the abstract con-cepts of shape and number is the outcome of abstract thinking. The ancients' worship to square culture has promoted square cul-ture creation and development. And the square culture has pro-moted the creation and development of shape and number con-cept. Square culture has affected"the Book of Change"and pro-moted Chinese ancient culture development including mathemat-ics culture indirectly.

  13. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  14. Communication Patterns in Adult-Infant Interactions in Western and Non-Western Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)

  15. Geomorphic Evidence of Ancient Catastrophic Flow Type Landslides in the Mid-mountain Ridges of the Western Flysch Carpathian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.P(A)NEK; J.HRADECK(Y); K.(S)ILH(A)N

    2009-01-01

    Ancient flow type landslides are relatively frequent fossil forms of the relief in mid-mountain conditions of the Czech Carpathian Mountains.Sixty rather distinctive displays of debris flows,rock avalanches,and debris avalanches have been mapped in the uppermost part of the territory.Unlike contemporary sporadic and low volume debris flows,ancient (Pleistocene and Lower Holocene) accumulations are a few orders of magnitude more extensive and were of considerable geomorphologic significance in forming the steep sections of mountain valleys and slopes.This geomorphic pattern does not hold for flow type slides,the source of which is material released as a consequence of numerous deep-seated landslides.Due to deep disruption of slopes,a few high-magnitude flow type landslides (e.g.,rock avalanches),quite rare in flysch mid-mountain conditions,also occurred in the Late Holocene.

  16. Interpersonal Communication in High Tech Culture: Eastern or Western?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenhart, Myra W.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates interpersonal communication in a high tech organization to test the association between high tech organizations and Western styles of symbolic interaction. Takes a diagnostic, rather than prescriptive, approach to organizational change. (MM)

  17. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and identity it has often been hindered by conceptual limitations when faced with the ambiguities, variety, conflict and change within societies. This paper queries a communitarian belief that morality c...

  18. Preface Interflow and Integration of Eastern and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaGuoxin

    2005-01-01

    The topic of cultures and civilizations has always been surrounded by great interest both domestically and internationally. In recent years, with increased debates on economic globalization,and deepened interflow and integration of different cultures and civilizations, economic globalization and cultural diversity have also become a “hotspot”, and a “major discipline” for research and study.

  19. The analysis of the eugenic culture in ancient China%中国古代优生文化辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋功成; 宗红

    2010-01-01

    There was a centuries-old culture of eugenics in ancient China. We should have comprehensive and objective cognition of this tradition. The ancient people did not generally advocate marrying at a mature age as do people of modern times. They not only considered the prepotency, but also were influenced by other complicated social factors on the problem of mate selection. Although advocates of coition techniques claimed the purpose of prepotency, the eugenic effect of coition techniques deserved to be suspect. Regarding the aspect of embryo conservation and care, the most significant thing was not so-called"prenatal education", but various antenatal care methods which were proposed by TCM scholars. By making a comparison with modern eugenics, the ancient eugenics had the characteristics of valuing the male child only, commiserating with deformity and being based on familial values.%中国古代具有非常悠久的优生传统,对这种传统应有全面客观的认识.古人并非如今人所认为的那样普遍提倡晚婚;在择偶问题上古人既有优生的考虑,更受到其他复杂社会因素的影响;房中术的提倡者虽声称以优生为目的,但房中术的优生效果是值得怀疑的;在胚胎保育方面,真正有意义的不是所谓的"胎教",而是中医学者们所建议的各种"胎养"方法.与近现代优生学相比较,中国古代优生学还体现出重男轻女、同情残疾者、一切以家族繁衍为本位的特点.

  20. Contrastive analysis of politeness between Chinese and western in cross-cultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪荟瑾

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a contrastive study on politeness principles and politeness strategies between western and Chinese which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining social harmony. This thesis aims to discuss the cultural differences between western and Chinese which will enhance our intercultural awareness and communicative competence.

  1. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differe

  2. Collegiality and Culture: General Education Curriculum Reform at Western Protestant University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrow, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of general education curriculum reform at Western Protestant University (WPU), a pseudonym for a religiously affiliated liberal arts college in the western United States. The theoretical framework for describing the process comes from two areas: institutional culture and a typology of academic change developed by…

  3. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic

  4. How to Deal with Sino-western Cultural Differences in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕莉

    2008-01-01

    The Sino-western cuhural differences in translation are very important. Paying no regard to culture background in translating, we'llnot realize the real communication between to languages.In a word, cultural difference has abundant and complicated content. If translators want to translate excellently, they must have adept basic skillsof the two cultures, and understand differences between two kinds of culture deeply, as well as understand thoroughly the spoken and writtenlanguages of two countries.Based on this consideration, this paper is intended to analyze Sino-western ctdtural differences in four aspects: history, region, custom, religionand thus put forth several translation techniques and methods.

  5. The differences between Chinese and western diet cultures when east meets west

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强琦

    2013-01-01

    Along with economical development, the diets on people’s dinning tables are so diversified that people have free choices. China and western countries have their own distinct diet cultures respectively, including dif erent diet ideas, diet objects, diet ways etc. We can find out the inner relationship in the dif erences of the two kinds of diet culture and the promoting influences on Chinese cultures, and overcome the barriers in cross-cultural communications.

  6. Examining cultural drifts in artworks through history and development: cultural comparisons between Japanese and western landscape paintings and drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Kristina; Masuda, Takahiko; Senzaki, Sawa; Ishii, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members' landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008c), and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014b). However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1) 17-20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2) cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial "cultural drifts" (Herskovits, 1948) where at certain time periods in history and in development, people's expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed.

  7. Examining cultural drifts in artworks through history and development: cultural comparisons between Japanese and western landscape paintings and drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Kristina; Masuda, Takahiko; Senzaki, Sawa; Ishii, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members' landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008c), and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014b). However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1) 17–20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2) cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial “cultural drifts” (Herskovits, 1948) where at certain time periods in history and in development, people's expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed. PMID:25285085

  8. Examining Cultural Drifts in Artworks through History and Development: Cultural Comparisons between Japanese and Western Landscape Paintings and Drawings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eNand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members’ landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008, and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014. However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1 17th to 20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2 cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial cultural drifts (Herskovits, 1948 where at certain time periods in history and in development, people’s expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed.

  9. Olive Tree in Emilia Romagna Region: an Ancient Crop, a New Environmental and Cultural Economic Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Licausi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Research Council Institute of Biometeorology of Bologna (IBIMET-CNR carried out a study aimed to the safeguard of autochthonous cultivars, through the census of secular olive tree plants, belonging to varieties at extinction risk or located in sites with historical or landscape add value in the Province of Bologna (North Italy with particular attention to phytometric characters, sanitary status of the plants and the relation with their location characteristics. The presence of ancient plants in a specific site may indicate the absence of limiting factors for olive trees development. Considering the environmental factor values of these locations, a classification of the territory in classes of suitability for the cultivation was defined, with the support of a Geographic Information System (GIS. Ancient olive trees data were also collected and catalogued in an internet site (http://olivisecolari.ibimet.cnr.it where it is possible to reach a virtual journey through studied olive trees. All plants are supplied with a phytometric card and a visualization on a map providing the exact location. The GIS elaboration of the environmental factors considered for the definition of the suitable lands for olive trees cultivation, identified 3556 ha as suitable, of which 972 ha highly suitable belonging to class I, where olive trees cultivation could be profitable because of suitable land morphology and the possibility of a good mechanization due to low field slopes.

  10. 新书籍史对古文献学研究的启示%Reflection and Prospective Symposium of the Centennial Studies of Ancient Chinese Philology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张升

    2013-01-01

    Editor's note:It is both an important task and optimal subject of the 21st century philology to summarize the achievements of centen-nial ancient philology, reflect the current issues, grasp the development trend of ancient literature studies, expand research space, enrich the research contents, and put forward farsighted countermeasures for inhering and innovating Chinese culture, establishing ancient philology, and promoting academic development. To solve these problems, we organized a symposium of three articles. Professor Zhou Shaochuan's article clarifies the significance of centennial Chinese ancient books and ancient philology, pointing out two aspects of China's ancient books in the 20th century and the ancient literature studies: diachronic investigation following two main lines of collection of ancient books and establishment of ancient philology, and synchronic analysis from four aspects, that is, basic historical facts, methodology, basic principles, and scientific theorizing, in order to explore the development law of collection of ancient books and ancient philology, and specify the direction of ancient philology. Professor Wang Jilu's article discusses five urgent issues in ancient philology of the 21st century: theoretical system and research paradigm, philological heritages, the position of philology of ethnic minorities, comparative study of Chinese and Western philology, theories and methods in digitalization of ancient books, etc. Professor Zhang Sheng's article discusses the implication of Western new history of books for ancient philology, and argues that new history of books expands the horizon and scope of ancient philology. The introduction of methodology of social history and cultural history makes it clear that philology has social and cultural significance. Ancient philology should become solid and draw on interdisciplinary methods to enrich the content of its own research.

  11. The Western Cultural Infiltration of Hollywood Movies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, Hol ywood movies become more and more popular among Chinese audience; it is undoubted that movie has become a cultural carrier that spreads different culture in the world. This paper aims at analyzing some typical features of Hol ywood Movies in China, and then focuses on discussing the positive effect and the negative influence embodied in Hol ywood Movies; final y, the author puts forward corresponding suggestions and countermeasures when we are faced with the cultural infiltration.

  12. Western and Eastern culture differences in commercial field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳萍

    2008-01-01

    The communication of people partially is the communication of cultures. Culture has a direct effect on international commercial activities in all aspects. Different conceptions about time, space, equality, law and the like, lead people to deal with things in different ways. So to know cultures of the counterpart is to facil-itate our enterprises so as to have a smooth and successful communication in commercial activity.

  13. The Culture of Western alcoholic drink——French wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔丽冬

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction The wine,which plays an important role in the daily life,is familiar to human beings.There are varied types of wine with different raw materials,such as Gin,Whisky,Vodka,Rum,and Brandy.All the alcoholic drink is divided into three categories by western people.They are liquor,beer and wine.Liquor includes brandy,whiskey,vodka,tequila and so on.The followings are the introduction of the French wine and the German beer,they both play a key role in the western countries.

  14. 西周金文构形特征探析%Structural Features of Inscriptions on Ancient Bronze Objects in Western Zhou Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞英

    2012-01-01

    西周金文处于汉字体系的形成和发展时期。西周铜器铭文中图形文字向方块字体转变,偏旁部首增加并趋于成熟,汉字形体结构日益完善,形声结构迅速增长。对西周金文构形特征的考察能够深入了解文字发展变化的过程,从而有助于探求汉字的发展变化规律。%The inscriptions on ancient bronze objects in the Western Zhou Dynasty appeared in the times when Chinese character system formed and developed. In the inscriptions on bronze, the pictographic scripts changed to be square -shaped characters, character components increased and perfected, the form and structure were further perfect and the number of inscriptions rapidly increased. To investigate the structural features of inscriptions on ancient bronze objects will help deepen the understanding of the evolution of Chinese characters.

  15. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Matern

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Only very few cases have documented that an increase in connectivity after a period of fragmentation in ecological time has had an effect on the distribution, genetic structure and morphology of stenotopic species. In this study we present an example of clinal variability in a woodland ground beetle as a result of changes in the connectivity of a landscape during the last two centuries. The study area hosts both the nominate form C. violaceus s. str. and the subspecies C. v. purpurascens, which is ranked as a distinct species by some authors. We studied 12 Carabus violaceus populations from a 30 km transect of ancient and recent forests in north-western Germany. We analyzed three polymorphic enzyme loci, classified the elytron sculpture and measured the shape of the aedeagus tip of the specimens. C. violaceus showed secondary gradients both in allozyme markers and morphometric characters in our study area. A genetic differentiation of 16% between the populations is high but lies within the range of intraspecific variability in habitat specialists of the genus Carabus. Populations had no significant deficit of heterozygotes. We found many hybrid populations in terms of morphological properties. This study highlights the conservation value of ancient woodland and the consequences of landscape connectivity and defragmentation on the genetic setting of a ground beetle. Moreover, it shows that differences in the external shape of male genitalia do not prevent gene flow within the genus Carabus. Thus, the establishment of species status should not exclusively be based on this property.

  16. The Differences of Etiquette in Chinese and Western Culture and Oral English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹妮

    2014-01-01

    The relation of language to culture is a relation of part to whole. Language is the primary means by which a culture transmits its beliefs, values and norms. There exists great difference between Western culture and Chinese culture indeed. For ex-ample, the etiquette is one of the most conspicuous differences between them. In a general sense, there is different etiquette due to the factors like geographical position, human race difference, religion. This paper demonstrates the different etiquette culture be-tween Western countries and China from greeting, gratitude, compliments and farewell to guide oral English teaching so that stu-dents could cross the barrier on etiquette culture when they communicate with English speakers. The aim of this paper is to arise the attention on etiquette of different cultures for English teachers and combine it with oral English teaching.

  17. Western Science and Islamic Learners: When Disciplines and Culture Intersect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robottom, Ian; Norhaidah, Sharifah

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two research projects (one in Malaysia and one in Australia) that studied the experiences of Islamic background learners studying western science. Conceptually, this research program is conducted within a socially constructivist discourse and employs both quantitative and qualitative forms of data collection. The article…

  18. Taiwanese medical students' narratives of intercultural professionalism dilemmas: exploring tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-05-01

    In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture. A narrative interview method was employed with 64 Taiwanese medical students to collect narratives of professionalism dilemmas. Noting the prominence of culture in students' narratives, we explored this theme further using secondary analysis, identifying tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture and categorizing students' intercultural professionalism dilemmas according to Friedman and Berthoin Antal's 'intercultural competence' framework: involving combinations of advocacy (i.e., championing one's own culture) and inquiry (i.e., exploring one's own and others' cultures). One or more intercultural dilemmas were identified in nearly half of students' professionalism dilemma narratives. Qualitative themes included: family relations, local policy, end-of-life care, traditional medicine, gender relations and Taiwanese language. Of the 62 narratives with sufficient detail for further analysis, the majority demonstrated the 'suboptimal' low advocacy/low inquiry approach (i.e., withdrawal or inaction), while very few demonstrated the 'ideal' high advocacy/high inquiry approach (i.e., generating mutual understanding, so 'intercultural competence'). Though nearly half of students' professionalism narratives concerned intercultural dilemmas, most narratives represented disengagement from intercultural dilemmas, highlighting a possible need for more attention on intercultural competence training in Taiwan. The advocacy/inquiry framework may help educators to address similar disconnects between Western medicine and non-Western cultures in other contexts.

  19. Narrative and Cultural History in the Hippocratic Treatise On Ancient Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Romani Mistretta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ‘history of medicine’ outlined by the author of the Hippocratic treatise On Ancient Medicine, in order to reflect on the relationship between medicine and narrative in Classical Greece. At the outset of the work, the author provides an account of the beginnings of his discipline, conceiving of medicine’s history as a continuum of research and findings that unravel the nature of the human body and the cause of diseases. As this paper shows, the physician-narrator assigns to his craft a crucial role in fostering the birth and progress of human civilization. The rhetorical goals of the historical account are, as I argue, attained through a subtle narrative strategy. In fact, the narrator locates the origins of medicine within a teleological framework, marked by strong emphasis on the heuristic method that characterizes the past, the present, and the future of medical knowledge at once.

  20. Global Communication and Cultural Desensitisation: Repackaging Western Values for Non-Western Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Galander

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Global communication is widely perceived as an instrument to disseminate Western values in the developing world. The “Wheel of Fortune” and “Who Wants to be a Millionnaire” licensed to Malaysian Television stations, though the language and the word puzzles were localised, carried the same format of the original (American show. They promote consumerism, gambling and the images of usury, the style of wealth accumulation forbidden in Islam. For the Malaysian audience whose priorities are those of contentment, modesty and humility, such emphasis on material desires breeds internal contradictions that may lead the audience to succumb to the new Western values.

  1. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  2. The Input of Western Culture in English Reading Teaching in Junior High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yang

    2013-01-01

    Cultural background knowledge is the important foundation in reading quality training, English reading as a language skill as well as an important part of language input is one of the main links in English teaching, which occupies an important posi-tion. Teachers should help students develop the field of vision, to improve their reading ability through expanding the scope of western culture.

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study on Consumption of Luxury Goods in China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economy, China has become the world’s second largest consumer of luxury goods surpass⁃ing U.S. .This research is an attempt to examine the cultural factors that lie behind this phenomenon, and based on distinctions between Chinese and Western societies, explores how the people’s practice of luxury consumption differs in these two different cultures.

  4. Alienation (Entfremdung and Strangeness (Fremdheit: two Western cultural paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Vasconcelos de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alienation and strangeness could be understood as markers of cultural paradigms. The first term is related to modernity as the second is to postmodernity. One stands for identity, the other for alterity. While the existence of the phenomenon of alienation becomes disputable, the discourse of strangeness becomes intensified in the European academic sphere. In a way, the discourse of strangeness is labeled by a cultural critic, which tries to justify "strange" for centuries dispelled by the European culture. Meanwhile, a phenomenology of alienation is developed to re-structure the term. Both phenomena are connected insofar as alienation can be understood as a temporary moment of strangeness. Both theories turned out to be productive in literary analysis.

  5. Western and Eastern Advertising Culture in Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Business is at a crossroads. Advertising culture is facing crisis and opportunity. All of us who believe in business must recognize that we have contributed to this status. The problem is simple, yet profound: we all are captives of ideology that shape the way we think about advertising and the way we do it. We have to discuss it and correct some errors.

  6. Representing masculinity: Male citizenship in modern Western culture [second edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudink, S.P.; Hagemann, K.; Clark, A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that citizenship was the right of all humanity emerged during the French Revolution. However, this right was limited by gender, class and race. Studying Europe and its colonies and the United States, this book analyzes images of masculine citizenship in political rhetoric, culture, and var

  7. Cultural Differences and User Instructions: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Manual Structure on Western and Chinese Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Qian; Jong, de Menno D.T.; Karreman, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Research shows that Western and Chinese technical communicators structure their documents in different ways. The research reported in this article is a first attempt to systematically explore the effects cultural adaptations of user instructions have on users. Specifically, we investigate w

  8. On the Superstitious Taboo between Chinese Culture and Western Culture%浅谈中西迷信禁忌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙丽芳

    2014-01-01

    不同国家和民族有不同的迷信禁忌。迷信禁忌与一国的文化背景和宗教信仰密不可分。了解中西文化中的迷信禁忌意义重大,是了解中西文化和汉英语言差异的需要,也是跨文化交际成功的需要。%Different countries and nations have their different superstitious taboo. Superstitious taboo, culture and religion are in⁃extricably linked. Learning the cultural differences between western culture and Chinese culture from the perspective of supersti⁃tious taboo is not only in need of learning their cultures and languages, but also cross-cultural communication.

  9. [Analysis and comparison of theories of circulation of blood and qi in both eastern and western ancient medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai

    2014-09-01

    In ancient Egypt, the theory of circulation of blood and qi was preliminarily established on the basis of cadaver dissection, gradually revised and improved following the progress of anatomy and physiology. However, the "Meridian Theory" of circulation of blood and qi in Chinese medicine had never been established on the basis of anatomical and physiological studies. Thus a suspicion was aroused, "whether the meridians really exist, or artificially assumed by imagination"? Therefore, in recent one half of a century, numerous scholars at home and abroad spent countless financial capacities and human power to study the essence of Meridians in order to find their material or substantial evidence, but with no breakthrough obtained. Nevertheless, in the 70th of the last century, studies on mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia won an undoubtedly good result. Hence, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on pain control was admitted by the "Consensus Statement on Acupuncture" at an international meeting held by NIH in Dec. 1997. Then the old Chinese acupuncture won an international acceptance and application. Therefore, the investigation of mechanism of acupuncture analgesia set up a positive model for future scientific researches on acupuncture mechanisms and essence of Meridians, as well as on other Chinese medical theories.

  10. Attachment in cultural context: Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...

  11. Evolutionary responses to a constructed niche: ancient Mesoamericans as a model of gene-culture coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábita Hünemeier

    Full Text Available Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a gene-culture coevolution model. For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n = 1905 to the analysis. In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in 230Cys evolutionary history. The estimated age of 230Cys is compatible with its origin occurring in the American continent. The correlation of its frequencies with the archeological data on Zea pollen in Mesoamerica/Central America, the neutral coalescent simulations, and the F(ST-based natural selection analysis suggest that maize domestication was the driving force in the increase in the frequencies of 230Cys in this region. These results may represent the first example of a gene-culture coevolution involving an autochthonous American allele.

  12. Evolutionary Responses to a Constructed Niche: Ancient Mesoamericans as a Model of Gene-Culture Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünemeier, Tábita; Amorim, Carlos Eduardo Guerra; Azevedo, Soledad; Contini, Veronica; Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Mazières, Stephane; Barrantes, Ramiro; Villarreal-Molina, María Teresa; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Salzano, Francisco M.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2012-01-01

    Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a gene-culture coevolution model. For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n = 1905) to the analysis. In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in 230Cys evolutionary history. The estimated age of 230Cys is compatible with its origin occurring in the American continent. The correlation of its frequencies with the archeological data on Zea pollen in Mesoamerica/Central America, the neutral coalescent simulations, and the FST-based natural selection analysis suggest that maize domestication was the driving force in the increase in the frequencies of 230Cys in this region. These results may represent the first example of a gene-culture coevolution involving an autochthonous American allele. PMID:22768049

  13. Many Bottles for Many Flies: Managing Conflict over Indigenous Peoples’ Cultural Heritage in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ritter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article critically considers the legal regulation of Indigenous people's cultural heritage in Western Australia and its operation within the framework of Australia's federal system of government. The article also sets out the different ways in which Indigenous cultural heritage is conceptualised, including as a public good analogous to property of the crown, an incidental right arising from group native title and as the subject of private contract. The article explores the various notions of 'Indigenous cultural heritage' that exist under Western Australian public law and the significant role of private contractual arrangements. Particular attention is devoted to the uneasy nexus between the laws of native title and heritage in Western Australia.

  14. Globalization,Global English, and the Spread of Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东蔚

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the role of English in the context of globalization is discussed.Firstly,the cayses and manifestations of globalizatinn are briefly reviewed.Secondly,the role of English as a medium of intercultural communication is discussed,and the major types of English in the world that have evolved along with globalization are elaborated.Thirdly,the drawbacks of cul-tural galobaization are also summarized.

  15. Rare earth element geochemistry of Late Devonian reefal carbonates, Canning Basin, Western Australia: confirmation of a seawater REE proxy in ancient limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, Luke D.; Webb, Gregory E.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth element and yttrium (REE+Y) concentrations were determined in 49 Late Devonian reefal carbonates from the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Shale-normalized (SN) REE+Y patterns of the Late Devonian samples display features consistent with the geochemistry of well-oxygenated, shallow seawater. A variety of different ancient limestone components, including microbialites, some skeletal carbonates (stromatoporoids), and cements, record seawater-like REE+Y signatures. Contamination associated with phosphate, Fe-oxides and shale was tested quantitatively, and can be discounted as the source of the REE+Y patterns. Co-occurring carbonate components that presumably precipitated from the same seawater have different relative REE concentrations, but consistent REE+Y patterns. Clean Devonian early marine cements ( n = 3) display REE+Y signatures most like that of modern open ocean seawater and the highest Y/Ho ratios (e.g., 59) and greatest light REE (LREE) depletion (average Nd SN/Yb SN = 0.413, SD = 0.076). However, synsedimentary cements have the lowest REE concentrations (e.g., 405 ppb). Non-contaminated Devonian microbialite samples containing a mixture of the calcimicrobe Renalcis and micritic thrombolite aggregates in early marine cement ( n = 11) have the highest relative REE concentrations of tested carbonates (average total REE = 11.3 ppm). Stromatoporoid skeletons, unlike modern corals, algae and molluscs, also contain well-developed, seawater-like REE patterns. Samples from an estuarine fringing reef have very different REE+Y patterns with LREE enrichment (Nd SN/Yb SN > 1), possibly reflecting inclusion of estuarine colloidal material that contained preferentially scavenged LREE from a nearby riverine input source. Hence, Devonian limestones provide a proxy for marine REE geochemistry and allow the differentiation of co-occurring water masses on the ancient Lennard Shelf. Although appropriate partition coefficients for quantification of

  16. "Western discourse" and contemporary Chinese culture%"西方话语"与中国现当代文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富仁

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the differentiation between the basic terms such as discourse and discourse hegemony,and Western culture and Western discourse,this paper gives a survey of the relationship between contemporary Chinese culture and Westem culture.It holds that we should be opposed to the hegemony of the Western discourse while affirming the general tendency that Chinese culture is shifting from being closed to being open.However,this tendency should not be entirely attributed to China's submission to the hegemony of Westem discourse when China accepts the influence from the Westem culture in the process of renovating Chinese contemporary culture.

  17. Contrasting environmental memories by ancient soils on different parent rocks in the South-western Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Michele; Catoni, Marcella; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Zanini, Ermanno

    2014-05-01

    Ancient soils (pre-Holocenic paleosols and vetusols) are uncommon on the Alps, because of the extensive Pleistocenic glaciations which erased most of the previously existing soils, the slope steepness and climatic conditions favoring soil erosion. However, in few sites, particularly in the outermost sections of the Alpine range, Pleistocene glaciers covered only small and scattered surfaces because of the low altitude reached in the basins, and ancient soils could be preserved for long periods of time on particularly stable surfaces. We described and sampled soils on 11 stable surfaces in the Upper Tanaro valley, Ligurian Alps (Southwestern Piemonte, Italy). The sampling sites were characterized by low steepness and elevation between 600 to 1600 m, under present day lower montane Castanea sativa/Ostrya carpinifolia forests, montane Fagus sylvatica and Pinus uncinata forests or montane heath/grazed grassland, on different substrata. In particular, we sampled soils developed on dolomite, limestone, quartzite, gneiss and shales. The soils were always well representative of the pedogenic trends active on the respective parent materials, i.e. the skeletal fraction in each soil was always composed of just one rock type, despite the proximity of lithological boundaries and the small dimensions of the different outcrops, often coexisting on the same stable surface. All the considered profiles showed signs of extremely long pedogenesis and/or different phases of intense pedogenesis interrupted by the deposition of periglacial cover beds in the steepest sites. Up to four phases of intense pedogenesis were recognized where cover beds were developed, presumably during cold Pleistocene phases, as present-day climate is not cold enough to create such periglacial morphologies. In such cases, each cover bed underwent similar pedogenesis, strongly dependent on the parent material: on quartzite, podzols with thick E horizons and well developed placic ones were formed in all phases

  18. The Yearning Words-A Mirror of Culture between Chinese and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Rui

    2013-01-01

    During the long-term human development, the formation of the language has its own national characteristics. Lan-guage is a human specific symbol system, cultural ruby and one of the most important carriers of culture. The production, eco-nomic life, geography, religion, and so on are reflected in the language. Love is eternal topic and love words have very deep rich cultural implication. For thousands of years, people praise beautiful love and affection . This paper will take love words for exam-ple to look into Chinese and Western cultural characteristics.

  19. Digital imaging for cultural heritage preservation analysis, restoration, and reconstruction of ancient artworks

    CERN Document Server

    Stanco, Filippo; Gallo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Experiencing the Past: Computer Graphics in Archaeology, F. Stanco and D. TanasiThe Past and the Future: Archaeology and Computer ScienceFrom the Field to the Screen: 3D computer graphics and the Archaeological HeritageThe Archeomatica ProjectArchaeological 3D ModelingHaghia Triada, CretePolizzello Mountain, SicilyDigital RestorationDealing with Image Data in Archaeology: New PerspectivesUsing Digital 3D Models for Study and Restoration of Cultural Heritage Artifacts, M.

  20. 中西蛇文化的神话解读%Mythological Interpretation of Serpent in Western and Eastern Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 黄瑛

    2013-01-01

    There have been similar mythological stories with simi-lar mythological symbols about serpent in Western and Eastern myth despite the great differences in geographical features, in productive and economic pattern existing in the two different cul-ture .This similarity may reflect the consistency in human think-ing in specific condition: the ancient people were anxious to achieve some impossible aim of human being through imagination about animal, and serpent is a case in point.%  虽然中西方具有两种不同地域特征、不同生产方式与经济方式,中西方对蛇仍具有相似的神话表达,这是因为特定条件下人类思维方式的一致性:寄希望透过动物实现对自身力量的提升,而对这种动物品行的解读,则是当时人们为当时自身认识和环境条件所限,对自身无法实现的愿望的神话表达。

  1. 我国古代诗歌节日文化探微%The exploration on Chinese ancient poetry festival culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀娟

    2012-01-01

    中华民族的传统节日有春节、元宵、清明、端午、七夕、中秋、重阳等等,在这些有特色的传统节日里,蕴含着民族生活中的风土人情、伦理道德、愿望信仰等文化因素。因为诗歌是现实的反映,透过古代优美的节日诗歌,可以大致了解到古时的一些风俗以及古人的社会生活,体会到古代诗歌中的节日文化内蕴。%The Chinese traditional festival are the Spring Festival, Lantern Festival, Tomb Sweeping Day, Dragon Boat Festival, Tanabata, the Mid-Autumn Festival, Double Ninth Festival. These festival reflect the customs, ethics, aspirations, beliefs and cultural factors in national life. Because poetry is a reflection of reality, Through the ancient and beautiful holiday poetry, we can roughly understand the ancient customs and social life of the ancients and appreciate the cultural connotation of ancient poetry festival.

  2. Pre-Columbian Population Dynamics and Cultural Development in South Coast Perú as Revealed by Analysis of Ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I report on a study whose principal aim is to understand the development and decline of the southern Peruvian Nasca culture in the upper Río Grande de Nasca drainage, and its cultural and biological affinities to the preceding Paracas culture. Ancient DNA analyses were conducted on over 300 pre-Columbian individuals from various cemeteries in southern Perú, from periods ranging from the Formative Period to the Middle Horizon. Our results show that the Nasca populations are close...

  3. HOW ANCIENT AND MODERN CULTURES INFLUENCED THE WRITING OF THE NOVEL NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUROVA YULIA IVANOVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to find out the origin of names used in the Harry Potter series by Joanne Rowling, to learn historical, cultural, linguistic aspects of it. The ways of the research are the studying of the dictionaries (linguistic, non-linguistic, general and specific ones, articles and the Internet sources that are connected to the theme of the paper, Joanne Rowling’s interviews; juxtaposition between this data and characters’ lots and natures, the purpose of the objects in the novel; social survey.

  4. Book Review: Reinventing Eden: the fate of nature in Western culture

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    courses on economy-culture relationships. At the research level, it will be equally invaluable. I dare you not to buy it. Manchester University NOEL CASTREE Reinventing Eden: the fate of nature in Western culture. By Carolyn Merchant. New York: Routledge. 2003. 308 pp. $25.00 paper. ISBN: 0 41593 l64 9. Was Eve of the Bible the first scientist? After all, as Carolyn Merchant remarks in Reinventing Eden, Eve's consumption of the forbidden ...

  5. 传承与超越——中西方原始生态文明观的差异及对现代生态城的启示%INHERITANCE AND SURPASS: THE DIFFERENCES OF ORIGINAL ECOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN CULTURE AND INSPIRATION TO MODERN ECO-CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇保兴

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the differences of original ecological civilization between eastern and western culture from aspects of ancient cultural and natural concept, ancient architectural aesthetics, ancient town site selection, ancient urban space structure, landscape culture. Based on the analysis, the paper concludes that China's eco-city planning and development must abandon negative influence of western modernization, absorb original ecological civilization concept from Chinese traditional culture, rebuild symbiotic relationship among human, city and nature, and symbiotic relationship among human, city and history and culture.%从古文化自然观、古建筑美学、城镇选址模式、城市空间结构、园林文化等五方面分析了中西方原始生态文明的差异,在此基础上,指出中国的生态城市规划建设必须扬弃西方现代主义的不良影响,汲取中国传统文化中的原始生态文明理念,重建"人类--城市--自然"的共生关系,重建"人类--城市--历史文化"的共生关系.

  6. A Study on Attitude to Western Culture of English Majors and Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉

    2013-01-01

    With different learning purposes and environment, the attitude to western culture of English majors and non-English majors is hypothetically different. But after the study conducted with the method of questionnaire, the hypothesis is proved to be wrong. Thus, the writer analyses the reasons for the problem and suggests the pedagogic practice.

  7. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  8. Nursery cultural practices to achieve targets: A case study in western larch irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Robert F. Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Nursery cultural practices are used to help growers achieve pre-determined size and physiological targets for seedlings. In that regard, irrigation is used to accelerate or slow growth and as a trigger for changing growth phase. In a case study highlighting the effects of irrigation on seedling development, western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings were grown...

  9. Transmission of biology and culture among post-contact Native Americans on the western Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2016-08-12

    The transmission of genes and culture between human populations has major implications for understanding potential correlations between history, biological, and cultural variation. Understanding such dynamics in 19th century, post-contact Native Americans on the western Great Plains is especially challenging given passage of time, complexity of known dynamics, and difficulties of determining genetic patterns in historical populations for whom, even today, genetic data for their descendants are rare. Here, biometric data collected under the direction of Franz Boas from communities penecontemporaneous with the classic bison-hunting societies, were used as a proxy for genetic variation and analyzed together with cultural data. We show that both gene flow and "culture flow" among populations on the High Plains were mediated by geography, fitting a model of isolation-by-distance. Moreover, demographic and cultural exchange among these communities largely overrode the visible signal of the prior millennia of cultural and genetic histories of these populations.

  10. Changes of ancient costume culture of She Nationality%畲族古代服饰文化变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晶; 范雪荣; 吴微微

    2011-01-01

    以历史文献为依据,以畲族服饰发展和演变的历程为经、不同时期畲族的生活文化背景为纬,梳理了汉唐、宋元、明、清时期的畲族服饰文化变迁轨迹.将古代畲族服饰发展和演变的整个历程大致分为原始时期、多源融合时期、流徙从简时期和涵化成型时期.分析了不同历史时期的畲族服饰在色彩、款式、装饰等方面所体现出的不同特色,以及畲族文化生活背景对服饰发展变化的影响.在此基础上分析畲族服饰变迁的规律,以引申社会对民族服饰与文化的关注与探讨.%Based on historical documents, this paper discusses the change trace of ancient costume culture of She Nationality from Han and Tang dynasties right through to Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties, including the development process of She costume, and the life and culture background of She. Its entire development and evolution process can be divided into four historical periods: the original time, multi-source integration time, simplicity time in the period of moving from one place to another,and harmonious maturity time. The art features of She costumes in different historical periods are addressed in respect of color, style, decoration and so on, along with the effect of She culture and life on the development and changes of She costumes. The change rule of She clothing is investigated in order to attract the attention of people on national costume and culture.

  11. [Phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacteria in the ancient salt deposits of the Yipinglang Salt Mine, P. R. China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-guang; Li, Hui-ming; Li, Qin-yuan; Chen, Wei; Cui, Xiao-long

    2007-08-01

    The microbial diversity of cultivable bacteria, isolated from the ancient salt deposits from the Yipinglang Salt Mine (YPL) in the Yunnan Province, P. R. China,was investigated by using conventional culture-dependent method and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. 38 bacteria strains were isolated from the brine, halite and saline soil samples on MBA (marine broth agar 2216, Difco) and ISP 2 (International Streotomyces Project medium 2) media supplemented with 0.5-3.5 mol/L NaCl. The genomic DNAs of the isolates were extracted and their 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR using bacterial universal primers. The resulting 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared with sequences obtained from public databases to find the most closely related species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the software packages MEGA after multiple alignment of sequence data by CLUSTAL X. The evolutional instances (corrected by Kimura's 2-parameter model) were calculated and clustering was performed with the neighbor-joining method. The results showed that the isolates are members of twenty-four genera (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Chromohalobacter, Dietzia, Erythrobacter, Exiguobacterium, Halomonas, Idiomarina, Kocuria, Marinobacter, Micrococcus, Paracoccus, Planomicrbium, Porphyrobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, Roseivivax, Saccharospirillum, Salegentibactor, Salinicoccus, Streptomyces) of seventeen families (Alteromonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Idiomarinaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Micrococcaceae, Moraxellaceae, Planococcaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Dietziaceae, Saccharospirillaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Streptomycetaceae) in four major phylogenetic groups (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria). The most abundant and diverse isolates were within the phyla of Proteobacteria (47.3%; Gamma-Proteobacteria, 31.5%; Alpha

  12. Sustainable valorization of cultural heritage via tour guides: Turkish case of Ephesus ancient city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yavuz Çetinkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de sostenibilidad se ha convertido en uno de los temas más populares entre los estu - dios de turismo. El turismo sostenible surgió como una fuerte corriente de investigación basada en la postura de la industria del turismo en relación a su responsabilidad en la degradación de los ambientes naturales y culturales. Además, la industria del turismo consume recursos locales y tiene que prestar atenciónal tema de la conservación. Los guías turísticos hacen parte de la experiencia turística en los destinos y tienen una fuerte influencia en el comportamiento de los turistas. En este estudio es cuestionado el potencial apoyo de los guías turísticos que realizan excursiones a Éfeso, antigua ciudad ubicada en Anatolia occidental cerca de la ciudad metropolitana de Esmirna, en el proceso de valorización del patrimonio sostenible. Éfeso es considerado como uno de los grandes museos al aire libre de Turquía, uno de los centros de comercio del mundo antiguo, un centro religioso del cristianismo primitivo, y en la actualidad, un centro turístico importante que merece ser estudiado a través del concepto de valorización del patrimonio cultural. El papel de los guías turísticos en la minimización de los impactos negativos del tráfico de turistas rara vez es percibido y aplicado como un apoyo para los gestores de lugares con patrimonio. Esta investigación procura reflejar datos primarios obtenidos a través de técnicas de recolección de datos cualitativos (entrevista semiestructurada de guías turísticos turcos encuestados en la Ciudad Antigua de Éfeso. Tras la evaluación de los resultados, se elaborarán recomendaciones para la indu - stria del turismo y para los gestores de lugares con patrimonio cultural.

  13. Different Connotations of “Modesty” Lying in Western and Eastern Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2015-01-01

    as a common morality,politeness is the symbol of human civilization and a primary principle abided by people in interpersonal communication.However,the standard and the way of expression of politeness are fluctuated with different culture.This essay takes analysis on different connotations of "modesty" lying in the western culture and eastern culture deeply and explains the cause for that,for the purpose of helping people avoid pragmatic mistake in intercultural communication at the best to achieve considerable communicative effect.

  14. 西方文化中的“游戏”理论演变%The"Game"Theory in Western Cultural Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 李舒

    2016-01-01

    该文将主要以历史的发展为线索,对西方文化中有代表性的游戏理论进行简单的梳理和分类。从古代原始的游戏观,到近代基本的游戏理论,再到现代系统的游戏学说,“游戏”理论经历了漫长的发展过程。%This article make simple carding and classification for representative game theory in western culture mainly in the form of the history development, The game theory has experienced a long developing process from original game view in an-cient time to the basic game theory in recent time, and then to the systematic game theory in modern time.

  15. How Can We Overcome the Dichotomy That Western Culture Has Created between the Concepts of Independence and Dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article, inspired by the works of Martin Buber, is to propose an alternative to the inherent dichotomy of Western culture. It may allow Western culture to transcend its fixed nature towards new directions and to suggest challenging solutions for reshaping the questions--what is the role of man in the world, and what is the…

  16. The effect of weathering on U-Th-Pb and oxygen isotope systems of ancient zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    We report the result of a SIMS U-Th-Pb and O-OH study of 44 ancient zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia with ages ranging from 4.3 Ga to 3.3 Ga. We have investigated the behaviour of oxygen isotopes and water in the grains by determining δ18O and OH values at a number of locations on the polished surfaces of each grain. We have divided the zircons into five groups on the basis of their U-Th-Pb and OH-oxygen isotopic behaviour. The first group has concordant U-Th-Pb ages, minimal common Pb, δ18O values consistent with zircons derived from mantle source rocks and no detectable OH content. U-Th-Pb systems in zircons from Groups 2, 3 and 4 vary from concordant to extremely discordant where influenced by cracks. Discordia intercepts with concordia at approximately zero Ma age are interpreted as disturbance of the zircon U-Th-Pb systems by weathering solutions during the extensive, deep weathering that has affected the Archean Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia since at least the Permian. Weathering solutions entering cracks have resulted in an influx of Th and U. δ18O values of Group 2 grains fall approximately within the "mantle" range and OH is within background levels or slightly elevated. δ18O values of Group 3 grains are characterised by an initial trend of decreasing δ18O with increasing OH content. With further increase in OH this trend reverses and δ18O becomes heavier with increasing OH. Group 4 grains have a distinct trend of increasing δ18O with increasing OH. These trends are explained in terms of the reaction of percolating water with the metamict zircon structure and appear to be independent of analytical overlap with cracks. Group five zircons are characterised by U-Pb systems that appear to consist of more than one age but show only minor U-Pb discordance. Nevertheless trends in δ18O versus OH in this group of grains resemble trends seen in the other groups. The observed trends of δ18O with OH in the Jack Hills zircons are similar

  17. Will the French Riviera disappear? Ancient and present day submarine landslides along the north-western Ligurian Margin (NW Mediterranean) under the microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, V.; Migeon, S.; Larroque, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    The integration between seismic-reflection and bathymetric data highlighted more than one thousand and three hundred ancient and recent scars and Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) related to submarine failures along the whole northern margin of the Ligurian Basin. Several types of failures are pointed out along the margin according to their morphology, distribution and origin: (1) Numerous superficial landslides affected largely the inner walls of canyons and the upper continental slope at the vicinity of the main mountain-supplied rivers where the sedimentation rates are the strongest and thus contribute to the progressive stressing of the slope. This type of scars is mainly observed in the western margin where the thickness of plio-quaternary sediment is the lowest. (2) Large-scale scars and successive MTDs affecting the upper part of interfluves in the Gulf of Genova (Finale Slide and Portofino Slide) could have been triggered by earthquakes as well as by indirect effects of the last sea level drop. (3) At the north-eastern margin, offshore of Imperia, there is a large promontory bounded by a network of N60°E faults on its southern side and characterized by the presence of many landslides of variable sizes associated to unconformities could correspond to the different phases of recent, and perhaps present-day, uplift of the Imperia Promontory. (4) Deep scars along the base of the continental slope and possibly related to the seismic activity of a neighbouring fault, as the Cirque Marcel located near the Marcel Fault which appears on the seafloor as a 10-km long scarp trending N60°E. (5) In the western basin, near of the foot of the continental slope, the bathymetry is mark by a convexity which corresponds on the seismic data to the superposition of several thick MTDs. (6) In the deep basin and the eastern part of the Ligurian Basin, the thick plio-quaternary deposits are constitute by an alternation between continuous reflectors corresponding to hemipelagic

  18. Choice and dissonance in a European cultural context: the case of Western and Eastern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkoris, Michail D; Kühnen, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that members of collectivistic cultures are less likely to reduce cognitive dissonance after making a choice, compared to members of individualistic cultures. This difference has been attributed to different conceptualizations of choice that derive from different self-construals across cultures. In individualistic cultures, choice leads to stronger commitment to the chosen option compared to collectivistic cultures, because it implicates core aspects of the independent self, such as personal preferences. However, this cultural variation in postchoice dissonance has thus far been studied exclusively by comparing East Asians and North Americans. Building on the assumption that this difference is due to different construals of the self, we conducted an experiment with movie choices using the classic free-choice paradigm to examine differences in dissonance reduction between Western and Eastern Europeans, two populations known to differ with respect to interdependence. The results show that Eastern Europeans are less likely than Western Europeans to reduce postchoice dissonance by spreading their alternatives. Our findings speak to the generalizability of the hypothesis that in cultures differing in independence or interdependence people also differ in the way they construe choice, as well as in the way the act of choosing affects their self-concept.

  19. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  20. 中韩古代文化交流史特点浅析%Features of Cultural Exchange between Ancient China and Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭

    2013-01-01

    The cultural exchange between China and Korea occupies an important position in the cultural ex -change of ancient China .Compared with the Sino-Japanese and Sino-Vietnamese cultural exchange , the cultural exchange between China and Korea has longer history and wider scope .Features of cultural exchange between ancient China and Korea are summarized in this paper .%在古代中国的对外文化交流中,中韩文化交流占有重要地位。与中日、中越之间的文化交流相比,中韩古代文化交流有着起源早而时间长、范围广的显著特点。本文试图通过比较中国与韩国、日本、越南之间的文化交流史,分析和概括中韩古代文化交流的特征。

  1. Ancient Jing De Zhen Dong He River Basin Kiln and Farmland Land-use Change Based on Cellular Automata and Cultural Algorithm Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand how farmland has transformed kiln in ancient Jing De Zhen Dong He River Basin; we created ancient virtual maps of study area and conducted a series of spatial analyses of the land-use pattern from the Yuan Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty. The results of the spatial analysis show that kiln can evolve from farmland, shrub, idle land etc. To simulate land-use change we developed a novel cellular automata model. Model parameters and neighborhood rules were obtained with the cellular automata model melt modified cultural algorithm. Virtual land-use maps from the Yuan Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty were used to implement the model with a time step of one year. Model performance was evaluated using Moran’s I index estimation for selected landscape pattern indices. The optimized parameter set using Particle Swarm Optimization poorly simulated land-use change as compared to the optimized parameter set using Cultural Algorithm. In summary, our results proved that the model is also effective and feasible in simulating farmland and kiln land-use evolution in ancient times when Geographic Information and System information were lacking.

  2. 西方古典家具的渊源和研究它的理由%The Source of Ancient Western Furniture and the Reason to Study It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许美琪

    2013-01-01

    Western classical furniture has experienced from ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, ancient Rome to Byzantine, Gothic, and then to the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. Among them, it has been affected by the significant influence of Islam, then followed by Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassical later. Western classical furniture seems to have reached its end. But explore the way before the end of the western classical furniture. We have to see, it is a deep-seated accumulation of civilization which makes the way of the development of western furniture become smooth and have a ifne future. Perhaps it is the reason why we study western classical furniture.%西方古典家具的发展经历了从古埃及、古希腊、古罗马到拜占庭、哥特式,然后到中世纪至文艺复兴时期,其中受到伊斯兰的重大影响,接着是巴罗克、洛可可及以后的新古典主义风格,西方古典家具似乎走到了它的终点。但是探究西方古典家具终结后的前路,我们不能不看到,正是深厚的文明积淀,使现代西方家具的发展道路显得较为平坦和前程远大。这也许正是我们研究西方古典家具的理由。

  3. Activation of the Nrf2 Cell Defense Pathway by Ancient Foods: Disease Prevention by Important Molecules and Microbes Lost from the Modern Western Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Senger

    Full Text Available The Nrf2 (NFE2L2 cell defense pathway protects against oxidative stress and disorders including cancer and neurodegeneration. Although activated modestly by oxidative stress alone, robust activation of the Nrf2 defense mechanism requires the additional presence of co-factors that facilitate electron exchange. Various molecules exhibit this co-factor function, including sulforaphane from cruciferous vegetables. However, natural co-factors that are potent and widely available from dietary sources have not been identified previously. The objectives of this study were to investigate support of the Nrf2 cell defense pathway by the alkyl catechols: 4-methylcatechol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-ethylcatechol. These small electrochemicals are naturally available from numerous sources but have not received attention. Findings reported here illustrate that these compounds are indeed potent co-factors for activation of the Nrf2 pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Each strongly supports expression of Nrf2 target genes in a variety of human cell types; and, in addition, 4-ethylcatechol is orally active in mice. Furthermore, findings reported here identify important and previously unrecognized sources of these compounds, arising from biotransformation of common plant compounds by lactobacilli that express phenolic acid decarboxylase. Thus, for example, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus collinoides, which are consumed from a diet rich in traditionally fermented foods and beverages, convert common phenolic acids found in fruits and vegetables to 4-vinylcatechol and/or 4-ethylcatechol. In addition, all of the alkyl catechols are found in wood smoke that was used widely for food preservation. Thus, the potentially numerous sources of alkyl catechols in traditional foods suggest that these co-factors were common in ancient diets. However, with radical changes in food preservation, alkyl catechols have been lost from modern foods. The

  4. Cultured meat in western media:The disproportionate coverage of vegetarian reactions, demographic realities, and implications for cultured meat marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick D Hopkins

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the media coverage of the 2013 London cultured meat tasting event, particularly in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Using major news outlets, prominent magazines covering food and science issues, and advocacy websites concerning meat consumption, the paper characterizes the overal emphases of the coverage, the tenor of the coverage, and compares the media portrayal of the important issues to the demographic and psychological realities of the actual consumer market into which cultured meat wil compete. In particular, the paper argues that Western media gives a distorted picture of what obstacles are in the path of cultured meat acceptance, especial y by overemphasizing and overrepresenting the importance of the reception of cultured meat among vegetarians. Promoters of cultured meat should recognize the skewed impression that this media coverage provides and pay attention to the demographic data that suggests strict vegetarians are a demographical y negligible group. Resources for promoting cultured meat should focus on the empirical demographics of the consumer market and the empirical psychology of mainstream consumers.

  5. The Study of Culture Function of Ancient Opera Stages in Hezhou%贺州古戏台社会文化功能探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭家威

    2012-01-01

    古戏台是贺州重要的物质文化遗存,通过分析古戏台的类型,探究古戏台的建筑特色,进而阐明宗教祭祀、社会教化、娱乐交往、文化传承是贺州古戏台在乡土社会中所承载着的重要文化功能。因而,贺州古戏台建筑在农业社会是一个神圣与世俗的文化空间。%The traditional stage is a important intangible cultural heritage in Xiao-He Ancient Road.This paper analyzed the types and architectural features of traditional stage,and elaborated its culture functions including religious ritual,social education,entertainment and communication,cultural heritage.Thus,the traditional stage of Xiao-He Ancient Road is a sacred and secular culture space in agricultural society.

  6. 论辽宁古代建筑的文化内涵%Discussion for the cultural connotation of ancient buildings in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒红霞; 王玲

    2015-01-01

    The ancient architectural culture of Liaoning has the rich connotation with its national culture, it’ s both living history “text”and has the world architectural culture significance. The cultural information from ancient times has provided valuable historical basis for the city origin and the layout. Those remains of religious, political and military construction, which reflect the multi-ethnic huaxia civilization, also the aesthetic consciousness that closed to the natural environment and the spirit heritage from the magnanimous unity nature of Chinese nation.%辽宁古代建筑文化具有多民族文化的丰富内涵,既是活的历史“文本”又具备世界建筑文化的意义。那些来自远古的文化信息,为城市起源、布局提供了宝贵历史依据;遗存的宗教、政治、军事建筑体现了多民族共建华夏文明,与自然环境亲近和谐的审美意识,以及中华民族心胸博大、天人合一的精神传承。

  7. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  8. Myth Today: the Traditional Understanding of Myth in Critical Theories of Society and the Usefulness of Vernant's Concept of Ancient Greek Mythology for Contemporary Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.

  9. Cultural planning and Chaos Theory in Cyberspace: some notes on a Digital Cultural Atlas Project for Western Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Lally

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the intersection between digital technologies and cultural planning. New information technologies ought to enable more powerful planning strategies. Yet a common seductive vision of planning is mirrored by utopian claims for cyberculture, which often fall short of the hoped-for reality. We suggest that one problem is the linear thinking common to mainstream planning and digital thinking, which leads to a cumulative lack of fit with the non-linear (chaotic world of social action. We draw on chaos and complexity theory to reframe planning problems and develop more creative digital strategies in a specific location, Western Sydney, using and adapting Geographic Information Systems.

  10. A cross-cultural and developmental analysis of self-esteem in Chinese and Western children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Ollendick, T H

    2001-09-01

    In this review, we examine the construct of self-esteem from a cross-cultural perspective in Chinese and Western children and adolescents. We also explore the role of childrearing practices in the development of self-esteem in these different cultures. In doing so, we first review the concepts of emic (i.e., variations in patterns of behavior within a given culture) and etic research (i.e., variations in common patterns of behavior or activities across cultures). Then, we invoke Berry's notions of "imposed-etic" and "derived-etic" approaches (J. Berry, 1989) in understanding crucial cross-cultural differences that are evident in the literature. We pose basic questions such as: (1) What does self-esteem "look" like in Chinese children? (2) How do childrearing practices in China influence the development of self-esteem in children? And, (3) what are the limitations of cross-cultural research in understanding a phenomenon such as self-esteem? We suggest that self-esteem does not "mean" the same things across these collectivist and individualistic cultures. We conclude our discourse with specific recommendations for clinical theory, research, and practice.

  11. THE CULTURE OF COEXISTENCE AND PERCEPTION OF THE OTHER IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 550 year Ottoman rule over the Balkan lands, where even today internal dynamics threaten peace and justice, how and through what means the Ottoman Empire achieved consistency, security and peace is a question to which a number of political scientists, sociologists, communication scientists and history researchers have sought an answer. The most interesting point of the question is that the peoples of the Balkans, a living museum comprising a number of different ethnic groups and religious beliefs, have reached the point where the culture of coexistence has been internalised and dynamics have moved from the conflict of identities to cultural integration. The Balkans are a bridge to the East from Europe and indeed to the West from Turkey, incorporating a patchwork political and cultural geography, the geopolitical location and a richness of culture and civilization, being one of the areas attracting the attention of researchers from different disciplines and capturing the imagination of the peoples of the world throughout history. Balkan studies are almost as difficult as climbing the peaks in the areas and meaningful answers cannot be reached by defining the area on a single parameter such as language, culture or traditions, while the phenomenon of the other can also be observed within the culture of coexistence in this intricate and significant location. Different ethnic groups with different cultures, such as the Southern Slavs (Bosniaks, Montenegrans, Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as well as Turks, Albanians, Bulgarians, Balkan Jews, Balkan Romany and Wallachians (Romanians and Greeks. Although these peoples may have different religious beliefs, in the ethnically rich Balkan region, religion, language, political and cultural differences are vital in the formation of a mosaic, making the discourse of coexistence possible and creating common values and loyalties, breaking down differences. The Serbian and Montenegrin peoples

  12. A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE HISTORY AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF THE ANCIENT CITY OF GAOCHANG IN WESTERN REGIONS%简论西域古城高昌的历史与宗教信仰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国祥

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives a brief account of the development of the ancient city of Gaochang in Western Regions in four different historical periods and analyzes the religious beliefs of Gaochang in each historical period.It believes that a co-exist system of multi-religious beliefs existed there with Buddhistm as the dominant belief in ancient Gaochang.%介绍了西域古城高昌在四个不同历史时期的发展概况,分析了高昌古城每一历史阶段的宗教信仰,认为古西域高昌存在以佛教为主导的多宗教并存的信仰体系。

  13. [Living in abundance in the ancient and modern worlds from a medical and cultural-historical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P

    2014-06-01

    Comparative investigations centre on attitudes of demand and consumption in ethnic groups living in affluence, beginning with the first pre-Christian century in the Roman Empire on the one hand and in Western countries in the post-industrial age of hight-tech in times of far advanced globalization on the other. In this context medical, psycho-social and socio-economical aspects will be treated considering ideal and cultural breaks. Renowned Roman and Greek historians, physicians and philosophers are vouching as witnesses of the times for developments in the antique world with their literary works, in excerpts and verbatim. Obviously general moral decay is a side effect of any affluence. Even in the antiquitiy the "ideology of renewal" proclaimed by the Emperor Augustus died away mostly in emptiness just as do the appeals for improving one's state of health for surviving directed to all citizens in our time. With the rise of Rome as a world power general relative affluence was widespread to such an extent that diseases caused by affluence have occured as mass phenomena. The old Roman virtues of temperance and frugality turned into greed and addiction to pleasure. In this way the Roman people under the banner of affluence degenerated into a society of leisure time, consumption, fun and throwaway mentality. The decline of the Empire was predetermined. The promise of affluence which modern Europe is addicted to is demanding its price following the principle of causality. "How the pictures resemble each other!"

  14. On the cultural guises of cognitive dissonance: the case of easterners and westerners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino-Browne, Etsuko; Zanna, Adam S; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P; Kitayama, Shinobu; Lackenbauer, Sandra

    2005-09-01

    Cognitive dissonance and effects of self-affirmation on dissonance arousal were examined cross-culturally. In Studies 1 and 2, European Canadians justified their choices more when they made them for themselves, whereas Asian Canadians (Study 1) or Japanese (Study 2) justified their choices more when they made them for a friend. In Study 3, an interdependent self-affirmation reduced dissonance for Asian Canadians but not for European Canadians. In Study 4, when Asian Canadians made choices for a friend, an independent self-affirmation reduced dissonance for bicultural Asian Canadians but not for monocultural Asian Canadians. These studies demonstrate that both Easterners and Westerners can experience dissonance, but culture shapes the situations in which dissonance is aroused and reduced. Implications of these cultural differences for theories of cognitive dissonance and self-affirmation are discussed.

  15. Developing and Evaluating a Curriculum for Exploratory Learning in Ancient Greek Culture: Perseus Evaluation Final Report 1995-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Gregory R.; Marchionini, Gary; Goodall, Jennifer

    This report evaluates findings of the Perseus hypermedia project, a digital library of resources for studying the ancient world, especially Greece. Specifically, this evaluation examined Perseus-elated assignments, activities, and methods developed from fall 1993 to spring 1996 at a number of institutions of higher education. It found that Perseus…

  16. Man and Nature in Chinese and Western Traditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑浩

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese conception of "oneness with man and heaven" and the Western tradition of man's separation from nature accompanied by a subject-object dichotomy are the cores of each culture, which largely decides the discrepancy in various aspects of the Chinese and Western ways. To have an embedded and penetrating idea about the differences between the two cultures, it is necessary to gain sufficient knowledge of man-nature relation in dominant Chinese and Western conceptions. This paper aims to explore this issue from the perspective of Taoism and Confucianism in Chinese context, and ancient Greek and Hebraic heritage and modern mechanical view in Western tradition.

  17. Identifying the Conditions for Rural Sustainability through Place-Based Culture: Applying the CIPM and CDPM Models into Meibei Ancient Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitional rural China faces more serious challenges in its sustainable development. How to regain the vital momentum of those historically and culturally preeminent villages, among over 680,000 administrative villages in total, has become the pressing agenda for all the stakeholders, due to the fact that these villages have huge potential to be the leverage for successful rural transition and new urbanization in China. This paper therefore tries to diagnose and identify the current situation of those villages from a cultural perspective by taking the Meibei ancient village as the case. By applying the proposed Cultural Inverted Pyramid Model (CIPM and Cultural Dual Pyramid Model (CDPM with seven layers, i.e., root/vision, value, symbol, hero, ritual, lifestyle, and governance & management, Meibei’s development mechanism has been systematically explored from a cultural perspective through the comparison between its past prosperity and present challenges. It is found that the great merit of Meibei’s past prosperity lied in the organic integration of cultural elements in all the layers through the five development dimensions, i.e., economic, social, institutional, environmental and cultural dimensions. The empirical study proves that CIPM is a useful tool for diagnosing and identifying the current situation of the village, while CDPM is an effective instrument for planning and designing a culture-embedded and improved place for the future. Unless Meibei can recreate a new cultural ecosystem with resilience fitting to its existed heritage with cultural excellence and tourism promotion, the village cannot catch up with its past prosperity. Finally, this paper calls for more in-depth culture-oriented research to improve the CIPM and CDPM paradigm to allow for the realization of rural sustainability, particularly from the perspectives of policy options and academic concerns.

  18. Children's activities and their meanings for parents: a mixed-methods study in six Western cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.

  19. Logos and Nous.. Two Origins of Western Scientific Culture%逻各斯与努斯:西方科学文化的两个原点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝苑; 孟建伟

    2012-01-01

    Western scientific culture has two important culture, the other is Nous embodied in ancient Roman origins: one is Logos embodied in ancient Greek culture. The former mainly exerts influence on the metaphysical levels of scientific culture, it gives birth to the ontological commitment to the rational order in natural world, confirms the ideal of life that human could actualize the selbfulfillment and self transcendence with the help of knowledge and wisdom, and provides the ontological argument for the possibility of the free and open communication in language, thus cultivating the metaphysical intellec tual virtues of scientific culture. The latter mainly exerts influence on the physical levels of scientific culture: it confirms the role of perceptional experience in human mind and spirit life, highlights the practical reason to reconstruct the world, and establishes the sense of social responsibility and commu nity consciousness to improve rational cooperation, thus cultivating the physical intellectual virtues of scientific culture. It is to a large extent the two intellectual virtues that shape western scientific cul ture. Logos and Nous are two origins to understand western scientific culture.%西方科学文化有两个重要的根源:一是古希腊文化中蕴含的逻各斯;二是古罗马文化中蕴含的努斯。前者对科学文化的影响主要在形而上层面:它孕育了信奉自然世界理性秩序和规律的本体信念,肯定了人类凭借知识和智慧实现自我和超越自我的人生理想,为人类运用语言进行自由开放的思想交流做出了本体论的辩护,从而给科学文化以“仰望天空”的精神品格;后者对科学文化的影响主要在形而下层面:它肯定了知觉经验在人类心灵和精神生活中的地位,凸显了改造世界的实践理性,确立了理性合作的社会责任感和共同体意识,从而给科学文化以“脚踏实地”的精神品格。正是这

  20. Where culture takes hold: "overimitation" and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal, and Bushmen children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark; Mushin, Ilana; Tomaselli, Keyan; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Children often "overimitate," comprehensively copying others' actions despite manifest perceptual cues to their causal ineffectuality. The inflexibility of this behavior renders its adaptive significance difficult to apprehend. This study explored the boundaries of overimitation in 3- to 6-year-old children of three distinct cultures: Westernized, urban Australians (N = 64 in Experiment 1; N = 19 in Experiment 2) and remote communities of South African Bushmen (N = 64) and Australian Aborigines (N = 19). Children overimitated at high frequency in all communities and generalized what they had learned about techniques and object affordances from one object to another. Overimitation thus provides a powerful means of acquiring and flexibly deploying cultural knowledge. The potency of such social learning was also documented compared to opportunities for exploration and practice. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN A MULTI CULTURAL BACKGROUND The Studies of Minority Regions in the Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China is a country with many nationalities. Each of them has formed its own special culture, which is different from the mainstream of majority Han nationality, by adapting to geo-environment during history. Due to different backgrounds, the regional developmental model of minorities in the western China is different from the Han nationality and western countries. Combining a knowledge-based civilization and sustainable development, the minority areas can seek the systematic integration of culture-economy-ecology. Based on this, the paper suggests that the minority areas in western China should take the way of emphasizing developmental quality rather than developmental quantity for a har monious system of culture-economy-ecology. Some approaches for developing minority areas in western China have been put foreword.

  2. Internalization of Western Culture's Thin-Ideal: A Literature Review on Internalization and Individuals with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Nicole K.

    This paper is a review of literature regarding internalization of Western culture's thin-ideal. The media's portrayal of a thin-ideal associates success and beauty with being thin. Research has shown that exposure to the culture's thin-ideal does not necessarily lead to eating pathology, but those who internalize the standard are more likely to…

  3. The Root of the Differences between Chinese Sports Culture and Western Sports Culture%论中西体育文化差异之根源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中民

    2014-01-01

    Chinese and western sports cultures are two important branches of the world culture. With the development of history, Chinese and western sports cultures show obvious differences. This paper, using the methods of literature review and logical analysis, studies the root of the differences between Chinese and western sports cultures.%中西方体育文化是世界文化中的两个重要分支,在历史的发展中,中西方体育文化体现出明显的差异性。文章通过文献资料法、逻辑分析法对中西方体育文化存在的差异之根源进行研究。

  4. Are Asian cultures really less ageist than Western ones? It depends on the questions asked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Hanke, Katja; Huang, Li-Li; Abrams, Dominic

    2017-04-01

    Ageism is an increasing concern in ageing populations such as Asia and Europe. A prevalent assumption in psychology is that Eastern cultures may be less prone to ageism because of norms and values that honour and respect elders. Yet, evidence for this culture hypothesis is inconclusive. The current study examines this issue by comparing attitudes towards older people in an Eastern and Western samples of 184 young people from the UK and 249 from Taiwan. Attitudes to old age were measured both as meta-perceptions (the perceived normative context) and personal attitudes in regard to the cognitive, affective and behavioural components of ageism. Consistent with the culture hypothesis, meta-perceptions about competence and admiration were more positive in Taiwan than in the UK, yet other meta-perceptions were more negative pointing to the existence of old age subtypes. Personal attitudes about older people in regard to the affective and behavioural, but not the cognitive component, were more negative in Taiwan than in the UK. Thus, cultural differences in ageism are more nuanced than suggested by previous research. The importance of distinguishing between the normative context and personal attitudes as well as the different components of ageism is highlighted by the present findings.

  5. Instructional Complements for Undergraduate World History or Western Civilization Courses: Selected Topics in the Ancient, Medieval, and Modern History of India: A Curriculum Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Wayne Hamilton

    This curriculum supplement on India consists of three modules that have been used with undergraduates in introductory world civilization courses. Module 1, "Ancient Period: Hinduism and the Caste System in India: Origin, Development, and Social Functions" discusses the religious doctrines of Hinduism, the caste system, and its structure.…

  6. Research on the Cultural Value of Ancient Chinese Terracotta Riding Figurine%古代骑像俑的文化价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朝鸿; 陆春莉

    2015-01-01

    Terracotta riding figurine is a mode of artistic expression of people , riding animals like horses or camels , and the organic integration of these subjects into ceramic crafts and sculptures , generally through special firing process .Many aca-demic and educational papers and books have been published nowadays regarding ancient Chinese terracotta figure arts . However , research particularly focus on riding figurine is still rare .The text in this article has demonstrated the historical e-volution of this art form:the emerging during Period of Battle Kingdoms , the booming during the Tang Dynasty , and the de-clining after Yuan Dynasty .The constant changing of political , cultural, and social environment finally leaded to the down-turn of this ancient tradition .The author of this article has been studying the physical characteristics of the art form together with the larger social and cultural background in attempt to provide an invaluable testimony to the rich heritage of ancient craftsmanship and the importance of cultural conservancy .%骑像俑是指把人物骑马、骑骆驼的景象做成泥胎,烧制成陶俑。目前,关于研究陶俑的论述很多,但是把陶俑中的骑像俑单独作为研究对象来分析的文章却很少。文章通过对骑像俑研究表明,这种文化形态开始于战国,兴盛于唐代,直至元代以后逐渐衰落。古代骑像俑文化衰退的主要原因是由于不同历史阶段社会环境的改变所造成的。对于骑像俑的研究,探讨了这类文化背后的社会习俗与风貌,为更好地保护文化遗产提供了重要的理论依据。

  7. Information about Ancient Culture in the Shui People's Embroidery%水族刺绣中蕴含的古文化信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘淘洁

    2012-01-01

    The Shui people's embroidery enjoys a long history,whose representative is horse-tail embroidery famous for its unique craftsmanship,materials and art forms related to their living way,customs and religious faith.This paper studies the information about the Shui people's ancient culture in the embroidery through the ancient Chinese characters,word shapes,embroidery materials and the constitution of picture patterns on it.%水族刺绣历史悠久,代表作是马尾绣,独特的制作技艺、制作材料、艺术形式,与水族的迁移生息、风俗节庆、宗教信仰等传统息息相关。本文从相关的古汉语字音、字形、刺绣所用材料、图案构成等方面分析其中蕴含的古文化信息。

  8. MODERN BEAMS FOR ANCIENT MUMMIES COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY OF THE HOLOCENE MUMMIFIED REMAINS FROM WADI TAKARKORI (ACACUS, SOUTH-WESTERN LIBYA; MIDDLE PASTORAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Carbone, Iacopo; Ottini, Laura; Profico, Antonio; Ricci, Francesca; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Fornaciari, Gino; Manzi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The Middle Pastoral human remains from Wadi Takarkori in the Libyan Acacus mountains (Fezzan) are exceptionally preserved partial mummies ranging between 6100 and 5000 uncal years BP; this small sample represents the most ancient of its kind ever found. In this report, we present a survey of the skeletal anatomy of these mummifed corpses, based on high resolution CT-scan data, including a preliminary phenetic interpretation of their cranial morphology.

  9. 浅析大园古苗寨建筑艺术的文化内涵%Cultural Connotations of Architectural Art of Dayuan Ancient Miao Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关雪荧; 赵秀琴

    2012-01-01

    大园古苗寨的建筑至今仍保持着本民族特有的传统建筑形态,尤以窨子屋最为普遍和独特。它那古朴别致的建筑形象、素朴粗犷的民族艺术风格,散发出浓厚的乡土气息和民族风格,蕴含着丰富而强烈的民族文化内涵。%Dayuan Ancient Miao Village still keeps its ethnic traditional architecture blockhouses which are unique in architectural form, simple and plain in artistic style and rich features. They embody abundant and impressive ethnic cultural connotations. style of in local

  10. From Philosophy Research Object and the Way of Thinking to See the Differences between Ancient Chinese and Western Philosophy%从哲学研究对象和思维方式看古代中西方哲学差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史彦虎; 乔利丽

    2012-01-01

    Philosophy research ability and results is an important part of cultural strength,and is the essence of the spirit of the times.However,poverty of philosophy is the fact that does not dispute.To boost the philosophy and social science,we can neither worship everything foreign,nor blindly prize the ancient.We should be dialectical analysis the Chinese and Western philosophy,and be based on the classical philosophy resources and social reality to solve the existing problems.We should not only know the differences between Chinese and western philosophy,but also analyse their characteristics and causes of formation.In learning and referencing inheritance and innovation,we prosper philosophy and the social sciences.The differences between Chinese and Western ancient philosophy,are not only embody in the research object,but also root in the way of thinking differences.The differences have both advantages and disadvantages for national science and culture development.%哲学的研究能力和成果是文化实力的重要部分,是时代精神的精华,然而哲学资源的贫困是不争的事实。要振兴哲学社会科学,我们既不能崇洋媚外,也不能一味崇古尚古,而必须对中西哲学进行辩证分析,基于古典哲学资源和社会现实解决现存的问题;我们既要了解中西哲学的差异,又要分析各自的特点及形成原因,在学习与借鉴、传承与创新中繁荣哲学社会科学。中西古代哲学的差异性不仅体现在研究对象上,而且根源于思维方式的本质差异,这些差异性对民族科学文化的影响有利有弊。

  11. 论《麦克白》中“两希”文化的融合%Amalgamation between Ancient Greek Culture and Hebraism in Macbeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树娇

    2012-01-01

    As the renowned representative personage in the late period of Renaissance,Shakespeare became more mature in the thought of consideration and critical acceptation towards Ancient Greek culture as well as Hebraism on the basis of humanistic.Macbeth makes Shakespeare's thought incisively and vividly.This text will see the confliction and amalgamation between Ancient Greek culture and Hebraism through the perspective of heroic image,inward contradiction and temptation of Macbeth's wife,by analyzing the mutual confrontation and dependence between rationality of pursuing nature desire and necessity of reasoning for restricting the desire.%作为文艺复兴后期的代表人物,莎士比亚的思想在人文主义基础上进一步成熟,表现在对"两希"文化的思考和批判的接受。《麦克白》作为其后期作品,将作者的思想淋漓尽致地展现了出来。从麦克白的英雄形象,麦克白的内心矛盾斗争及麦克白夫人引诱唆使麦克白弑君犯罪的三个角度,通过分析追寻自然欲望(野心或者恶)的合理性以及理性(神性或者善)制约欲望的必要性之间相互对抗又相互依赖关系,可了解其"两希"文化的碰撞和融合。

  12. A Study on Memes of Culture in Translating Ancient Chinese Poems into English%古汉诗英译的文化模因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃进

    2012-01-01

      从模因理论原理出发,研究汉诗英译的文化模因特征,认为古诗翻译具有形神相似模因、形似神不似模因、形不似神似模因和形神不相似模因等,在诗歌翻译的文化传播过程中,译者要更多地采用形神相似或者形不似神似模因,避免形似神不似或形神不相似模因的出现,只有这样,才能最大限度地将中国文化的精髓传递给外国读者。%  The author will study on memes of culture in translating ancient Chinese poems into English from memetic perspective and holds that translating ancient Chinese poems possess memes of meaning and spiritual conformity, meaning conformity but spiritual inconformity, meaning inconformity but spiritual conformity, as well as meaning and spiritual inconformity. The translator should employ more memes of meaning and spiritual conformity or meaning inconformity but spiritual conformity, avoiding memes of meaning and spiritual inconformity or meaning conformity but spiritual inconformity in the course of poetry translation;only in this way can the essence of Chinese culture be delivered to foreign readers to its full play.

  13. 中国古代音乐的文化精神述评%Review of the Cultural Spirit of Ancient Chinese Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安潮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient music shows different artistic characteristics in seven different periods of its development .They reflect the different levels in Chinese cultural spirit of subtlety ,charisma ,charm ,charm and artistic conception ,rhythm .The mystically distant music in ancient times ,music ritual style in Xia and Shang Dynasty ,rites spirit music in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period ,subtle music in the Qin and Han Dynasties ,fusion verve music in Wei and Jin Dynasties ,rich tone music in Sui and Tang Dynasties ,music with folk music rhythm in the Song and Yuan Dynasties ,local music style in the Ming and Qing Dynasties ,all show a diversified spirit of music culture in ancient China which is rich ,fully inclusive and equitable characteristics , and its core is vivid and refined and profound ..%中国古代音乐在其发展的7个不同时期呈现出不同的艺术特征,它们在精微、风采、神韵、气韵、意境、节奏等中国文化精神上有不同层次的体现。远古时期音乐的神秘悠远,夏商时期音乐祭神的风韵,春秋战国时期音乐的仪礼气韵,秦汉时期律学开启精微之风,魏晋时期音乐的融合神韵,隋唐时期音乐的博大气韵,宋元时期俗乐的节奏,明清时期地方戏曲的滥觞等,展现出中国古代音乐文化精神历时性征的多元丰富、兼容并蓄特点,潜藏于内并逐渐形成特色的是气韵生动和清微淡远。

  14. Cultural change after migration: Circumcision of girls in Western migrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on cultural change after migration in the practice of female circumcision, also named genital cutting or mutilation. Explorative studies show trends of radical change of this practice, especially the most extensive form of its kind (type III or the 'Pharaonic' type). The widespread interpretation that Islam would require circumcision of girls is questioned when, for example, Somalis meet other Muslim migrants, such as Arab Muslims, who do not circumcise their daughters. The few criminal court cases for circumcision of girls that have taken place in Western countries corroborate the conclusion that substantial change in the practice has occurred among migrants. In this literature review, an absence of reports is identified from healthcare providers who have witnessed circumcision after migration. Concurrently, a substantial knowledge exists on how to take care of already circumcised women and girls, and there is a system of recommendations in place regarding best practices for prevention. There is a great potential for healthcare providers to encourage this development towards general abandonment of circumcision of girls. The challenge for the future is how to incorporate culturally sensitive efforts of prevention on the one hand, and the examination of suspicious cases of illegal circumcision on the other. We recommend using--in a cautious way--the existing routines for identifying child abuse in general. Experiences from African contexts show that failure to generate significant change of the harmful practices/tradition may be due to the lack of multidisciplinary collaboration in different sectors of the society. In Western societies, the tendency toward abandonment of the practice could be reinforced by professionals who work toward better inclusion of men and women originally from countries where circumcision is practised.

  15. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  16. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans...

  17. Ancient genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-19

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past.

  18. Monarchical Activities of the Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria: A Cultural Heritage in Printmaking Visual Documentary.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Printmaking is a visual documentary media of art which was used as a medium of expression in analyzing myth and mythology monarchical activities of the Yorubas in South Western Nigeria in this study. The  monarchical activities of the Yoruba Kings, is  the cultural heritage and legacy that people do guide jealously and considered to be of high cultural value. The Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria are traditional entity which passed through the rites of installing kings for the throne fore...

  19. Early Sámi visual artists - Western fine art meets Sámi culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Hautala-Hirvioja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Johan Turi (1854–1936, Nils Nilsson Skum (1872–1951 and John Savio (1902–1938 were among the first Sámi visual artists. The production of their art work occurred between the 1910s and the early 1950s. Sámi aesthetics had its basis in folklore, i.e., handicraft or duodji, which did not follow the principle of art for art’s sake but combined beauty and practicality. Art was part of community life. Not until the 1970s was the word daidda, which is Finnish in origin and which means “art”, adopted into the Sámi language. Turi and Skum became famous through their books. They drew and wrote in order to pass the traditional knowledge of their people on to succeeding generations. They also wanted to introduce Sámi life and culture to non-Sámi people. One typical feature of their work is that they depicted Sáminess in a realistic way and sought to strengthen and preserve the Sámi identity through their art. In Turi and Skum’s work, both the documentation of community life and their own personal expression were strongly present and equally important; for this reason their pictures and texts have both practical and aesthetic dimensions. They did not attend school and were self-taught artists. The third pioneer of Sámi visual arts was John Savio, who, unlike the other two, attended secondary school and studied visual arts both independently and under the guidance of a mentor. He expressively combined Western ways of depiction with Sámi subjects. My article examines what made these early Sámi artists change over from Sámi handicraft, duodji, to Western visual arts, how they used Western pictorial conventions in dealing with their Sámi subjects, and the significance of their art for Sámi identity and culture. They lived and worked under cross pressure: the first few decades of the 20th century were characterized by racial theories that denigrated Sámi people, and the period following World War II was marked by demands for

  20. Western medical ethics taught to junior medical students can cross cultural and linguistic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Stephen A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9 and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7 There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third

  1. The Cultural Differences Between China and Western Countries——From the Perspective of Analyzing Advertising Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨

    2009-01-01

    There exists close interrelationship between language and culture: Language reflects culture and culture influences language. Based on the comparision of different advertising languages in Chinese and western cultures, their cultural differences will be investigated from three perspectives: philosophical ideology, value orientation and cultural traditions, in hope of promoting cross-cultural communciation.%语言和文化密切相关,本文拟从哲学观念、价值取向、文化传统三个方面对中西方的广告语言作一对比分析,以期从语言中探寻中西文化差异,促进跨文化交流.

  2. The Spiritual Journey of Aesthetic Imagery of Dwelling:from Perception,Meditation to Evocation --- Ideographic Paradigm Exploration of China Ancient Design Art〔*〕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Chinese design art contains endless philosophical meaning and deep aesthetic imagery,however,its ideographic system emerged through the simple laws of Image Formation and evolution of the nature of design practice. The ancient Chinese design art has formed a unique ideographic system,influenced by oriental culture,from primitive touching, observation and perception,to its meditation,association and experience,and that of its mer-ging,dedicating and transcending. Through the reading of China ancient cultural pluralism form and the analyzing of specific design art phenomenon,to highlight the aesthetic image of the spiritual home of dwelling and mental imagery in ancient history under the Chinese aes-thetic category. In the era of western and oriental art culture blend and diversification,we’ ll examine and ascertain the depth of the subtle of archaic Chinese design art,in order to achieve artistic contemplation.

  3. Zhang Dongsun’s Research on the Cultural Differences Betwee n China and Western Countries%张东荪对中西文化差异性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张殿兴

    2001-01-01

    张东荪认为,中西文化不仅存在明显的“古今之异”(时代性差异 ),而且还存在着“中外之别”(民族性差异),“古今之异”在于“社会组织与经济状态”,“中外之别”在于“思想方面”。他对中西思想上的不同进行比较研究,主要是通过构成文化要素之一的中西哲学上的差异来进行的。%In Zhang Dongsun’s view, there are difference s betw een Chinese and western cultures not only in ancient and modern times but also i n China and western countries. He holds that difference of times lies in the sta te of social organization, and difference of nationalities in thoughts. He carri ed out his comparative research work by way of comparing the differences between Chinese and western philosophy which is one of the factors of culture.

  4. Cultural scripts surrounding young people's sexual and romantic relationships in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Robyn; Schroffel, Heidi; Findlay, Trinity; Winskell, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Guatemala has one of the world's highest teenage pregnancy rates and 92% of young people report not using contraception for first sex. We conducted narrative-based thematic analysis of a sample of narratives (n = 40; 15 male-authored, 25 female-authored) on HIV and sexuality, submitted to a 2013 scriptwriting competition by young people aged 15-19 years from Guatemala's Western Highlands. Our objective was to identify dominant cultural scripts and narratives that deviated positively from that norm with a view to informing the development of educational curricula and communication materials promoting youth sexual and reproductive health. The narratives are characterised by romantic themes and melodramatic plotlines: three in four had tragic endings. Rigid gender norms and ideologies of enduring love make female characters blind to the potential consequences of unprotected sex and vulnerable to betrayal and abandonment. Unprotected sex is the norm, with contraception and sexually transmitted infection protection mentioned rarely. In the four positively deviant narratives, female and male characters' interaction is based on mutual respect, dialogue and genuine affection. The narratives reveal opportunities for action to increase sexual health knowledge and access to services and to challenge harmful cultural scripts, potentially by leveraging the positive value attached to romantic love by authors of both sexes.

  5. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  6. 韩国古代文学的文化产业化方向%Directions for the Cultural Industrialization of Ancient Korean Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑羽洛

    2015-01-01

    This study was situated at a cross point between the request of the times for postmodern dis‐course and the realistic demand for a cultural theory‐based approach toward ancient Korean literature . Today we are living in an era when culture has become an industry ,which is confirmed in the fact that we hear the expression“cultural industry”easily .Keeping that in mind ,the study proposed directionali‐ty for the cultural industrialization of classical literature within Korean linguistics and literature .It also specified its possibilities with its actual case of Seonbi Sansugil at Mt .Gaya .%以“脱近代”谈论的时代要求为基本立足点来探究韩国古代文学的文化论是有着现实意义的。如今的我们生活在文化产业的时代中,这一点从日常生活中耳濡目染的“文化产业”这一术语便可得到印证。正是基于此点,有必要集中探究韩国语文学中的古代文学如何进行文化产业,并揭示其方向性。以此为理论基础,用“韩国伽倻山先儒山水路”这一文化产业实例来具体说明以上论述的文化产业方向是可行的。

  7. 我国古代两种珍稀宝玉石文物分析%An Analysis of Two Ancient Precious Gems Cultural Relics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董俊卿; 干福熹; 李青会; 顾冬红; 阚绪杭; 程永建

    2011-01-01

    为了科学辨别易混淆文物的材质,以蓝绿色和蓝紫色宝玉石文物为例,利用外束质子激发X射线荧光、便携式能量色散X射线荧光、激光拉曼光谱和X射线衍射分析等现代无损科技手段,从安徽蚌埠双墩一号春秋墓、河南洛阳烧沟东汉墓和新疆和田皮山古城唐代墓葬中甄别与鉴定出被误认为是绿松石和琉璃(玻璃)器的天河石串珠和青金石耳?及青金石管饰。简要阐述了这两种彩色宝玉石的矿物学特征及应用历史。这三件彩色宝玉石文物的发现,丰富了中国宝玉石史的研究内容,拓宽了对我国古代先民开采、引进及应用宝玉石的认识。%For the purpose of distinguishing the materials of confusable cultural relics scientifically,take the case of glaucous and ianthinus gems cultural relics,the amazonite bead,lapis lazuli earring and tube,erroneously assumed to be turquoise and coloured glaze,were respectively discriminated and identified from Shuangdun No.1 Tomb of Spring and Autumn Period in Bengbu,Anhui Province,Eastern Han Tomb in Shaogou,Luoyang,Henan Province,and Tang Tomb in Pishan Ancient City,Hetian,Xinjiang by using the modern nondestructive analytical methods,such as external beam proton induced X-ray emission(PIXE),portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence(PXRF),laser Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis.Meanwhile,the mineralogical characteristics and application history of the two gems are also briefly described.The discovery of the three ancient gems cultural relics enriches the research contents of Chinese gems history,and broadens our understanding of our ancestors' mining,importing and using of gems.

  8. [Comparative research into the process of forming the theory of constitution in ancient western medicine and that of four trigrams constitution in Korean medicine and contents of two theories of constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Hong

    2009-06-01

    After conducting comparative research into the process of forming the Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine and that of Four Trigrams Constitution(Sasang Constitution) in Korean Medicine and contents of two Theories of Constitution in terms of medical history, both theories were found to be formed by an interaction between philosophy and medicine, followed by a combination of the two, on a philosophical basis. The Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine began with the Theory of Four Elements presented by Empedocles, followed by the Theory of Four Humors presented by Hippocrates and the Theory of Four Temperaments by Galenos, forming and developing the Theory of Constitution. After the Middle Ages, there was no significant advance in the Theory of Constitution by modern times ; however, it developed into the theory of constitution type of Kretschmer and others after the 19th century and into the scientific theory of constitution based on genetics presented by Garrod and others early in the 20th century. The Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution began with the Theory of Constitution in Huangdi Neijing, followed by developments and influences of existing medicine called beginning, restoration, and revival periods and DongeuisoosebowonSaSangChoBonGwon based on the original philosophy of Four Trigrams presented by Lee Je-ma, which is found in GyeokChiGo, DongMuYuGo and so on, ultimately forming and developing into the Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution in Dongeuisoosebowon. Recently, a lot of research is being conducted into making it objective in order to achieve reproducibility in diagnosis and so forth of Four Trigrams Constitution.

  9. A Study on the Functions of Western Cultural Non-Verbal Behavior in English Classroom in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    In China, English classroom is the main place of English language acquisition. Therefore, how to improve English classroom teaching effectively has become the scholars' concern. This paper reports a study conducted at North China Electric Power University on the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom in China.…

  10. Discoursive Practice and Cultural Position——A Study of Introduction of Western Literary Theories:1993-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Specialty:Comparative Literature and World Literature Observing,examining and studying five theoretical periodicals of foreign literary theories in China,this dissertation aims at studying closely the introduction of western literary theories into China ever since the cultural transformation in 1990s.

  11. Western Conceptualizations and Eastern Experience : A Cross-cultural Study of Traumatic Stress Reactions among Tibetan Refugees in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, M.A.; Stroebe, M.S.; Kleber, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and impact of traumatic experiences among Tibetan refugees in India. It explored the applicability of western conceptualizations of reactions to traumatic events among this cultural group. A randomly selected sample of refugee camp students was assessed on measures

  12. Western conceptualizations and Eastern experience: A cross-cultural study of traumatic stress reactions among Tibetan refugees in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, M.A.; Stroebe, M.S.; Kleber, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and impact of traumatic experiences among Tibetan refugees in India. It explored the applicability of western conceptualizations of reactions to traumatic events among this cultural group. A randomly selected sample of refugee camp students was assessed on measures

  13. Cultural Performance, Resource Flows and Passion in Politics: A Situational Analysis of an Election Rally in Western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article contributes to a growing body of literature that questions state-centred approaches to analysing politics, adopting a more de-centred and cultural perspective. It does so by presenting a situational analysis and detailed ethnography of a local election rally in Western Mexico. The analy

  14. Challenging the Western Approach to Cultural Comparisons: Young Pupils' Affective Structures Regarding Mathematics in Finland and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohilampi, Laura; Hannula, Markku S.; Varas, Leonor; Giaconi, Valentina; Laine, Anu; Näveri, Liisa; i Nevado, Laia Saló

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale studies measure mathematics-related affect using questionnaires developed by researchers in primarily English-based countries and according to Western-based theories. Influential comparative conclusions about different cultures and countries are drawn based on such measurements. However, there are certain premises involved in these…

  15. Cultural Performance, Resource Flows and Passion in Politics: A Situational Analysis of an Election Rally in Western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article contributes to a growing body of literature that questions state-centred approaches to analysing politics, adopting a more de-centred and cultural perspective. It does so by presenting a situational analysis and detailed ethnography of a local election rally in Western Mexico. The

  16. Western conceptualizations and Eastern experience : a cross-cultural study of traumatic stress reactions among Tibetan refugees in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, M A; Stroebe, M S; Kleber, R J

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature and impact of traumatic experiences among Tibetan refugees in India. It explored the applicability of western conceptualizations of reactions to traumatic events among this cultural group. A randomly selected sample of refugee camp students was assessed on measures

  17. RESIDENTS' ATTITUDES TO TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ANCIENT VILLAGE RESORTS--Case Study of World Cultural Heritage of Xidi and Hong Villages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; LU Lin; TONG Shi-rong; LU Song; YANG Zhao; WANG Yong; LIANG Dong-dong

    2004-01-01

    Tourism development surely has social, economic and environmental impacts on tourist destinations.The study on resorts residents' attitudes can help understand the nature of tourism development and the extent to which it may influence on tourist destinations. By now, researches on residents' perception and attitudes are plenteous in the international circle and achievements are great, yet few are found in developing countries. As a most representative cultural tourist destination, World Cultural Heritage-Xidi and Hong villages in Yi County of Anhui Province, are drawing the attention of both tourists and academic circles. This article, taking Xidi and Hong villages as examples, seeks to analyze ancient village residents' attitudes towards tourism impacts and then tries further to explore the connection between tourism development and residents' attitudes. Both qualitative and quantitative surveys are applied in the exploratory investigation into local residents' attitudes of tourism impacts. Based on abundant face-to-face interviews with the local households, tourism enterprises concerned, local government and tourists from July to August of 2002, we are able to have a better understanding of local residents' attitudes to community life, and perception of tourism impacts on society, economy and environment. By this we can promote domestic study on resorts residents' attitudes, and provide some theoretical grounds for establishing tourism development planning and perfect community participation system at tourist destinations.

  18. Genetic characteristics and migration history of a bronze culture population in the West Liao-River valley revealed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Chunxiang; Si, Dayong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu

    2011-12-01

    In order to study the genetic characteristics of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (LXC) population, a main bronze culture branch in northern China dated 4500-3500 years ago, two uniparentally inherited markers, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), were analyzed on 14 human remains excavated from the Dadianzi site. The 14 sequences, which contained 13 haplotypes, were assigned to 9 haplogroups, and Y-SNP typing of 5 male individuals assigned them to haplogroups N (M231) and O3 (M122). The results indicate that the LXC population mainly included people carrying haplogroups from northern Asia who had lived in this region since the Neolithic period, as well as genetic evidence of immigration from the Central Plain. Later in the Bronze Age, part of the population migrated to the south away from a cooler climate, which ultimately influenced the gene pool in the Central Plain. Thus, climate change is an important factor, which drove the population migration during the Bronze Age in northern China. Based on these results, the local genetic continuity did not seem to be affected by outward migration, although more data are needed especially from other ancient populations to determine the influence of return migration on genetic continuity.

  19. 文化景观视角下“四态合一”的古镇复兴方法与路径-以黔东南下司古镇概念性城市设计为例%Ancient Town Regeneration From Cultural Landscape Viewpoint:Xiasi Ancient Town Conceptual Urban Design,Qiandongnan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈可石; 李静雅; 朱胤琳; 周庆

    2014-01-01

    Ancient town redevelopment has heat up in recent years. New theories are needed to enrich the connotation and path of ancient town regeneration. The paper starts with cultural landscape, analyzes the type and components of Xiasi ancient town cultural landscape, studies the content of ancient town regeneration, concludes“four in one”regeneration strategy including ecology, morphology, culture, and business, and applies the strategy in Xiasi ancient town conceptual urban design.%近年来,我国古镇开发的热度持续升温,对古镇复兴研究的关注度也逐渐提高,因此有必要开拓新的理论视角,探寻古镇复兴的内涵与路径。研究从文化景观的角度入手,通过分析与解读古镇的文化景观类型和构成要素,提炼基于物质要素和价值要素的古镇复兴内涵,总结出融合生态、形态、文态和业态“四态合一”的古镇复兴策略和方法,并结合黔东南下司古镇概念性城市设计实践,阐述“四态合一”的古镇复兴方法在实践中的应用。

  20. 中西方酒文化比较%A Comparison between Chinese and Western Wine Cul-ture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤玲

    2014-01-01

    As a beverage, the wine is infiltrated into almost all human activities and plays an important role. It is not only an objective material, but also a symbol of a kind of culture. In to-day's frequent Chinese and Western cultural communication, the differences of Chinese and Western wine culture have been attached more and more importance. Through a comparison of the origin of wine, the morality and etiquette of wine, and wine-making raw materials between China and West, the dif-ferences between Chinese and Western wine culture are ana-lyzed, in order to avoid embarrassments in cross-cultural com-munication.%作为一种饮品,酒几乎渗透在人类一切活动中,并在其中起着重要作用。它不仅是一种客观物质,且代表一种文化。在中西方文化频繁交流的今天,中西酒文化之间的差异越来越受到重视。文章通过对中西方酒的起源、酒德酒礼和酿酒原料的对比,来探讨中西方酒文化差异,以避免在跨文化交际中陷入尴尬。

  1. Ancient human microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  2. Interaction of extended mantle plume head with ancient lithosphere: evidence from deep-seated xenoliths in basalts and lamprophyre diatremes in Western Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2016-04-01

    The Middle Cretaceous lamprophyric diatremes of the Jabel Ansaria Ridge contain xenoliths of ancient lower crustal rocks mainly represented by the suite of partly altered garnet granulite and eclogite-like rocks, which were formed at the expense of ferrogabbros and ferroclinopyroxenites most likely in the course of underplating of Fe-Ti basalt. Garnet (Alm26Grs11Py63) megacrysts and coarse-granular garnet-clinopyroxene intergrowths are most likely the varieties of rocks of this series. Garnet megacrysts are represented by large (up to 10 cm in diameter) round "nodules," often molten from the surface. Garnet is usually fractured, and the kelyphite material similar to that in rocks of the eclogite-granulite series occurs in fractures. In addition, we found several intergrowths of garnet with large (up to 3-5 cm in length) crystals of high-Al augite with the low of Ti and Na contents like in rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite. Coarse-grained garnet-clinopyroxene-hornblende rocks with spinel, as well as megacrysts of Al-Ti augite with kaersutite, form the second group in prevalence. This group is close to mantle xenoliths of the "black series" in alkali Fe-Ti basalt worldwide. Kaersutite in these rocks contains gaseous cavities, which provides evidence for the origin of rocks at the expense of a strongly fluidized melt/fluid. In contrast to rocks of the eclogite-granulite series, these rocks did not undergo alteration. Garnet Alm19-26Grs12-13.5Py59-67.5 usually associates with dark opaque spinel. In contrast, the Late Cenozoic plateaubasalts of the region practically do not contain lower crustal xenoliths, whereas xenoliths of mantle spinel lherzolite (fragments of the upper cooled rim of the plume head) are widely abundant. According to data of mineralogical thermobarometry, rocks of the eclogite-granulite suite were formed at 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths of 45-54 km) and 965-1115°C. Rocks of this suite are typical representatives of the continental lower crust

  3. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  4. The rise of eating disorders in Japan: issues of culture and limitations of the model of "westernization".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kathleen M; Borovoy, Amy

    2004-12-01

    As the first non-Western nation in contemporary history to become a major industrialized economic power, Japan is central to the debate on cultural relativism in psychiatric nosologies, and the study of eating disorders in Japan contributes to the complex discussion of the impact of culture and history on the experience, diagnosis and treatment of such disorders (R. Gordon 2001; Palmer 2001). Without question, the rise in eating disorders in Japan correlated with increasing industrialization, urbanization, and the fraying of traditional family forms following World War II. While the case of Japan confirms that the existence of eating disorders appears to be linked with these broader social transformations, it also points to the importance of specific cultural and historical factors in shaping the experience of eating disorders. In this article, we explore two particular dimensions of culture in contemporary Japan: (1) gender development and gender role expectations for females coming of age; and (2) beauty ideals and the role of weight and shape concerns in the etiology of eating disorders. Our analysis of these dimensions of culture, and the data accruing from empirical and qualitative research, reveal limitations to the model of "Westernization" and call for a more culturally sensitive search for meaning in both describing and explaining eating disorders in Japan today.

  5. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  6. Non-destructive analysis of ancient bimetal swords from western Asia by γ-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Matsugi, Kazuhiro; Arimatsu, Yui; Nojima, Hisashi

    2017-09-01

    Eight ancient bimetal swords held by Hiroshima University, Japan were analyzed non-destructively through γ-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). 137Cs and 60Co γ-ray irradiation sources were used to obtain transmission images of swords. A scanning radiography method using a 60Co γ-ray source was developed. XRF was used for qualitative elemental analysis of the swords. The presence of iron cores in the hilts of some swords had been observed and it was assumed that the cores were a ritual symbol or had a functional purpose. However, our work reveals that these swords were originally bronze-hilted iron swords and that the rusty blades were replaced with bronze blades to maintain the swords' commercial value as an antique. Consequently, the rest of the iron blade was left in the hilt as an iron tang. The junction of the blade and the guard was soldered and painted to match the patina color. XRF analysis clearly showed that the elemental Sn/Cu ratios of the blades and the hilts were different. These findings are useful for clarifying the later modifications of the swords and are important for interpreting Bronze Age and Iron Age history correctly.

  7. 跨文化视角下中西方婚姻文化研究%On Chinese and Western Marriage Culture from Cross-cultural Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋艳春

    2015-01-01

    Marriage culture is an important part of human culture. However, different Chinese and western marriage concepts and customs lead to different marriage culture. In cross-cultural context, marriage culture is bound to present a variety of forms. This article aims to go thorough comparison and analysis of marriage culture differences against different cultural background, expound⁃ing that exotic happy marriage must be based on mutual understanding cultural background.%婚姻文化是人类文化的重要组成部分,然而中西方不同的婚姻观念和婚姻习俗建构了不同的婚姻文化。在跨文化语境下,婚姻文化必然会呈现各种不同的表现形式。该文通过对不同文化背景下的婚姻文化差异进行对比和分析,阐述了幸福的异国婚姻必须建立在相通相融的文化背景下。

  8. 中国古代诗人骑驴的文化解读%Cultural Interpretation of Ancient Chinese Poets’Donkey Riding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晟

    2014-01-01

    Compared with oxen and horses, donkeys are smaller, slower and cheaper. Therefore quite a few Chinese poets in ancient China have anecdotes or experiences of riding donkeys, which is not limited to be defined as a conduct for it possesses of an unique spectacle and different connotations distinguished from riding oxen and horses which superficially composes of a particular humanity scenery as well as cultural phenomena. Generally speaking, there are four connotations for ancient Chinese poets’donkey riding: bitter reciting, dissolute lifestyle, indulgence and meditation of Chan. Certain internal relevancies are among the four: Reciting bitterly on a donkeyback, for one thing, is to brew new verses and capture inspiration, for the other, is the magnificence of poverty and frustration. Indulgence and meditation of Chan are respectively relevant to Taoism and Buddhism. If the covering of indulgence is underappreciated, then, the persistent determination of moaning is indeed similar to the meditation of Chan.%驴与牛马相比,体形矮小,行速迟缓,其价位亦较牛马低廉,故中国古代不少诗人都有骑驴的故事或经历,它不只是一种行为,它与骑马骑牛属于不同的景观,有不同的意义指向,表明它已构成独特的人文景观和文化现象。概括起来,中国古代诗人骑驴主要有四种文化内涵:苦吟、落拓、任诞与参禅。四者之间又有着某种内在关联:骑驴苦吟,既为酝酿诗思、捕捉灵感,又是生活贫困、落拓失意之写照;骑驴任诞与参禅则分别与道教、道家思想、佛教有关;如果说任诞的外衣下寄寓的是被褐怀玉、怀才不遇,那么苦吟的执著坚毅与参禅的境界确乎类似。

  9. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  10. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp. and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S Goddard

    Full Text Available Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis, in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP, which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP. Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female

  11. 商於古道文化旅游景区建设的现状与对策%On the Present Situation and Countermeasures of the Cultural Tourist Spots Construction of Ancient Shangwu Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书民; 冯维培

    2015-01-01

    商於古道是连接"古丝绸之路"的节点,素有中国"诗歌之路""商业之路"的美誉.建设商於古道文化旅游景区,对提升"秦岭最美是商洛"品牌内涵,促进文化和旅游的深度融合具有重要作用. 通过对商於古道文化旅游景区建设现状和存在的主要问题进行分析,提出加强旅游基础设施建设、加大互联网宣传力度、提高旅游管理人员的素质、优化旅游服务、加快文化旅游管理体制改革等对策,促进商於古道文化旅游业快速发展.%Ancient Shangwu Road, as one of the conjunctions of ″Silk Road″, enjoys the fame of ″Road of Poetry″ or ″Road of Business″. The construction of ancient Shangwu Road as a cultural tourist spots has great importance in promoting the tourism brand concept of ″Shangluo is the greatest beauty in Qinling Mountains″ and enhancing the deep integration of culture and tourism. Through the analysis on the present situation and existing problems of the construction of ancient Shangluo Road as a cultural tourist spots, the countermeasures are proposed such as fostering the tourism infrastructure construction, expanding the network publicity of tourism, improving the quality of tourism management and touring service level and accelerating the reform of the tourism management system, aiming to promote the rapid development of cultural and tourist industries about ancient Shangwu Road.

  12. Fashion and art : the influence of art on fashion and the coexisting relationship in the 20th century western culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gursoy, Beylem Cansu

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Design and Marketing de Moda This work aims to present the relationship between art and fashion in the 20th century western culture focusing particularly on art movements and how fashion and art inspired each other throughout the years. The specific art movements which are investigated are Surrealism, Cubism, Pop art and the inspiration in contemporary designers such as Alexander McQueen and John Galliano. Notions of fashion and art have been inves...

  13. An Analysis of Body Language between China and Western Countries in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global economy,cross-cultural communication has become increasingly frequent.In human communication,people use nonverbal language to communicate as well as verbal language.Body language,like verbal language,is also part of culture which exerts significant influence on cross-culture communication.However,body language varies due to different regions,race and culture customs and it is restricted by different cultural connotations.Therefore,in order to e nsure the cross-cultural communication goes smoothly,understanding body language connotation in different culture backgrounds is desperately necessary.

  14. An Analysis of Body Language between China and Western Countries in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the global economy,cross-cultural communication has become increasingly frequent.In human communication,people use nonverbal language to communicate as well as verbal language.Body language,like verbal language,is also part of culture which exerts significant influence on cross-culture communication.However,body language varies due to different regions,race and culture customs and it is restricted by different cultural connotations.Therefore,in order to ensure the cross-cultural communication goes smoothly,understanding body language connotation in different culture backgrounds is desperately necessary.

  15. An Exploration on the Cultural Causes for the Framework of “ The Other” in Western Reports on Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, Tibet has been one of the main items on the agenda in western re-ports on China .In many media reports , there is a highly homogenized “stereotype”.While defining and retelling the history and present status of Ti-bet, the western media has mixed a collective un-conscious imagination and assumptions derived from western culture . The special operational mechanism mentioned above is defined as a news-framework of “the other”.“Stereotypes” objec-tively correspond to a people ’ s psychological ex-pectations on the culture of “the other”, and make the outsider ’ s understanding to the “heter-ogeneous” culture which was originally isolated from each other become relatively easy .The west-ern’ s media construction on Tibet is just such a typical example . Due to the application of the news-framework of “the other”, what the media ’ s presentation of the “authenticity” to the audi-ence is not equal to the objective truth , but a kind of artificial construction based on political benefit , economic competition and cultural tradition . Be-cause they live within a different cultural scene , westerners hold a traditional European imperialistic view of Tibet, and this mentality has a direct in-fluence on the modern westerners ’ understanding of the Tibet issue . On the one hand , within the public opinion of the West , Tibet is a holy land full of aesthetic imagination .This vision and fan-tasy is triggered by the literature which is promoted a kind of value orientation of absolutism in the western religious context .On the other hand , the image of Tibet in the western media is not only part of realistic portrayal of Tibet , but also a projection of the desire of western culture , and it reflects a strong mentality of orientalism . 1.The Mentality of Orientalism in the“Shangri-La Scenario” The 20th century is a turning point in theprocess of when the westerners ’ contempt and rejectionof Tibet changed to one which

  16. 孙诒让的西方文化观%Sun Yirang’s View on the Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱林

    2015-01-01

    Sun Yirang was not only a great master of Confucian Classics and down-to-earth learning in the late Qing Dynasty but also got to learn a lot of western culture in his middle ages and even formed his own opinions. His sino-western cultural views reflected the characteristics of Chinese-style westernization. Sun’s knowledge about the west is obtained chiefly from reading extensively the western works with Chinese translation and all types of newspapers and periodicals as well as being told by others who had overseas experience. In spite of the limitation of time and conditions, Sun’s impression on the west was not entirely accurate, and has the shortcoming of Western culture originated from China. However, as a traditional scholar, Sun’s open attitude and tireless efforts on taking in western culture is very valuable.%孙诒让不仅仅是晚清经学后殿和朴学大师,中年以后他而且对西方文化有不少了解并提出了自己的看法,他的中西文化观体现着“中体西用”的时代特征。广泛阅读中译本书籍和各种报刊以及他人转述,是孙诒让了解西方文化的主要途径。尽管由于条件和时代局限,孙诒让对西方的认识存在“雾里看花”的情况,也没有摆脱“西学中源”说的窠臼,但是作为传统读书人,孙诒让中年之后在接受西方文化方面表现的通达态度和不懈努力都是难能可贵的。

  17. 彰往察来--中国古代灯具的文化传承与再设计1%Review and Reference--Cultural Inheritance and Redesign of Ancient Chinese Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 王坤; 赵娅清

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Chinese lamps, vary in variety and function, develop in a relatively more distinct and complete manner, relfect changes in lifestyle, social system, craft technology and aesthetic taste of ancient China. On the basis of research on design of ancient Chinese lamps,the thesis explore the designing concept of ancient lamp, analyzes the instructive signiifcance of traditional designing thought of lamp towards contemporary lamp design with practical designing cases and probes into means and approaches to cultural inheritance and redesign of traditional design.%我国古代灯具种类繁多、功能多样,有着较为清晰完整的发展脉络,其反映了古代社会的生活方式、社会制度、工艺技术、审美情趣的变化。本文在对古代灯具的设计研究的基础上,探讨古代灯具中的设计理念,结合设计实践案例,分析传统灯具设计思想对现代灯具设计的指导性意义,探索传统设计文化传承与再设计的方法与路径。

  18. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  19. 浅析中西方课堂文化差异%Class Culture Differences between China and Western World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蕊

    2015-01-01

    本文从课堂文化的内涵入手,通过对比、分析中西方课堂文化的差异及形成原因,试图加深中国师生对中西方课堂文化的认识和了解,进而缓解中西方课堂文化冲突,克服中国传统文化教育的弊病,对于西方的课堂文化,我们应该秉承取其精华,弃其糟粕的精神,构建中国特色的课堂文化.%Taking the classroom culture connotation as the breakthrough,this paper,through comparison and analysis of the Western classroom cultural differences and the reasons,tries to deepen Chinese teachers and students'aware-ness and understanding of classroom culture in the west,and to alleviate the classroom culture conflict between Chi-na and the west world,overcome the disadvantages of Chinese traditional culture and education. For the classroom culture of the west,we should uphold the essence,abandon its dregs of spirit,and build a classroom culture with Chinese characteristics.

  20. Qin Music Culture and the Generation of Literary Narrative Mood in Ancient Chinese Fictions%琴乐与古代小说文学叙事的意境生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚爱华

    2011-01-01

    琴乐作为一种内涵丰富的叙事客体,对于中国古代小说文学叙事的意境生成有着重要的作用。它使文学叙事的情绪节奏、叙事节奏等骤然发生改变,由闹热趋于静冷,由快实趋于慢虚,渐入清微淡远、含蓄静雅的美学境界。古代小说对琴人形象的塑造也多采用意境化笔法。中国古代小说呈现出的这些艺术风貌,与琴乐的文化气质、审美要求等艺术规定性有着紧密的联系,是古典叙事文学受动于琴乐客观自律性的结果。%Qin music culture as a narrative object with rich contents takes an important role in generation of literature narrative mood in ancient Chinese novels. It makes the emotional rhythm and narrative rhythm suddenly changed from excitement tends to quiet cold, from the fast tends to slow virtual reality, getting into a clear micro and subtle aesthetic realm. The image of Qin players in ancient novel is described in the mood of strokes. These ancient novels show that the temperament of Qin music culture, aesthetic requirements and other provisions of the arts are closely linked which is the result of the ancient novel by moving of the Qin music culture.

  1. Monarchical Activities of the Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria: A Cultural Heritage in Printmaking Visual Documentary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bankole Oladumiye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Printmaking is a visual documentary media of art which was used as a medium of expression in analyzing myth and mythology monarchical activities of the Yorubas in South Western Nigeria in this study. The  monarchical activities of the Yoruba Kings, is  the cultural heritage and legacy that people do guide jealously and considered to be of high cultural value. The Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria are traditional entity which passed through the rites of installing kings for the throne fore fathers as a leader with symbol of authority between the people and the spirit world. The kings in Yoruba kingdom is so much respected that they are seen as divine and representative of God on earth and they are exalted into the position of deity because of his monarchical duties to his subjects at large. The funfairs that accompany the monarch roles  are worth documenting using printmaking as vehicle of visual and historical expression of myths and mythologies demonstrating African culture which stands out as sacred. The discourse also relies on oral testimonies written and archival documents. The materials used for the execution of the prints are rubber, wood, plate, offset printing inks and glass which records the events as an alternative to the use of photographic documentation. The research examine the philosophy behind the monarchical roles of the Yoruba Kings in print visuals based on the cultural heritage of the Yoruba people it employs an exploratory qualitative methods rely on literature review.

  2. 西方文化中人的尊严的涵义及其演化%The Meanings of Human Dignity and Its Evolution in Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程新宇

    2015-01-01

    The meanings of human dignity was developed constantly from ancient Roma where it was origina-ted to modern society in western culture.Accordingly,the ethical emphasis were different in different era.In western traditional culture,the word dignity was mainly used in religion and philosophy,focused on every person should earn his own dignity by pursuing excellence in reason and morality.One’s dignity is not equal to the oth-er’s.Every person was responsible for his own dignity.In modern society,the word dignity is mainly used in politics,jurisprudence and bioethics.Although it is used as the foundation of human rights,its meanings is vague,focus on everyone has inherent dignity because everyone as human being is superior to other animals. Everyone has equal dignity.Others are responsible for one’s dignity,Today,the idea of human dignity in west-ern traditional culture is challenged overall,how to respond is a subject which is worth to study.%当今被广泛使用的尊严一词是一个历史的概念。从古罗马时期起源,经历中世纪和文艺复兴时期,再到启蒙运动时期,直到现当代,其涵义是逐渐变化的。相应地,其在伦理学上的侧重点也不同。在西方传统文化中,尊严一词主要用于宗教和哲学领域,其涵义相对固定,侧重于每个人要活出自己的尊严,即强调每个人自己要追求理性和道德上的卓越,使自己获得尊严。这种尊严在人和人之间是不平等的。个人对自己的尊严负责。在现当代,尊严一词主要用在政治、法学、生命伦理领域,虽然它被用来作为人权的基础,然而其涵义却是相当模糊和不确定的,侧重于每个人作为人类一员生而具有的高于动物的固有的尊严,这种尊严是人人平等享有的。别人要对自己的尊严负责。今天,西方文化传统中的人的尊严理念受到全面挑战,如何回应值得进一步研究。

  3. Ancient communion: Guidance from the ancestors. An Indian grandmother and granddaughter sharing stories on Native spirituality and Western science: Toward a theory of wholeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Fire Moon, Tandie Vera

    This study seeks to address the causes and potential solutions to the divisiveness and human destructiveness to humanity and the environment now reflected on a planetary scale. The research question is: How can Native American values enhance western thinking for the purpose of greater individual and planetary health? Fundamental research has been to develop the concept of `Integrity' as a model to explore various western concepts and Native knowledge as inter-facing systems. The model's formula integrates three major scientific theories-Relativity and Quantum Physics and Chaos, as a demonstration of the product of doing integrative thinking and research. Applying knowledge of Lakota Visionary Black Elk and other indigenous world views, this has evolved into a Unified Perceptual Field-``Toward a Theory of Wholeness.'' Study's goal is to utilize knowledge gained from this process to create greater positive choice in our fives, by designing systems that are highest functioning-creating greatest fulfillment, health and wholeness in the individual and the society. Methods of looking at data and wisdom in this study are the intuitive and analytical methodologies as defined in the Integrity Model. Part I, Visions and Stories from the DREAMTIME, reflects these knowledge quests. Within Part II, Native BASKETWEAVER Weaving New Realities, the thesis statement contains three major validations to emerge from this study: (1)The exploration inward reveals the deepest core of the material universe as the foundational, most subtle, powerful, infinitesimal quantum level of creation that we experience as our spiritual nature. (2)Trauma of physical impact by action, thought or word at early stages of human development disfigures the natural pattern of harmony, which is set into the biology/physiology-magnified and amplified in adult life, and mirrored out into space/time. (3)Early disturbance of one's perceptual intention (will/desire) weakens or breaks the natural underlying energy

  4. Path Selection in the Transition of Cultural Resources Capitalization in Xizhou Ancient Town%论喜洲古镇文化资源资本化转变的路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱波; 杨加方

    2011-01-01

    喜洲古镇拥有得天独厚的文化资源,是其发展古镇个性的重要倚仗。为避免其文化资源向资本转化过程中出现困境,可在找准古镇定位的基础上,实行文化资源的“CI”管理,集中展示其文化资源是当前适宜的文化营销选择。%Unique cultural resources have been an important foundation for its featured development of Xizhou Ancient Town. In order to avoid the dilemma during the capitalization of its cultural resources, we can implement the "CI" management of the cultural resources and show that its cultural resources are a currently proper cultural marketing option on the basis of a proper evaluation of the ancient town.

  5. Cultural Differences between Chinese and Western Countries in Advertisements%从广告语看中西文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石成蓉

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference can be found in many aspects, this paper deals with the differences between Chinese culture and English culture in the perspective of advertisements. Advertising is an important part of people's life. Advertisements in a certain country attract certain consumers, so they reflect the unique culture in the given country. This paper will focus on four aspects to illustrate the cultural difference between China and Western countries found in advertising creation and advertising language aimed to help people understand cultural difference in the trend of globalization and accelerate the cross-cultural communication.

  6. 75 FR 14459 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... possible cultural affiliation of the objects with the Tlingit and Haida. Photographs of the items and... Central Council of the Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes further identified the Double bladed dagger as ``Shak... consultation the museum reasonably believes these cultural items are culturally affiliated with the...

  7. From Empire to "Filmi:" A Fusion of Western and Indian Cultural Practices in Australian Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    During the 19th and 20th centuries, Indian culture was represented in Australia as part of celebrations of the British Empire. Children were presented with stereotypic representations of Indian culture, which provide a snapshot of contemporary perceptions. Such representations were rarely authentic. By removing music from one culture and…

  8. On culture the students western culrural literacy in college English teaching%在大学英语教学中培养学生的西方文化素养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭萍萍

    2012-01-01

      在大学英语教学中导入西方文化知识,培养学生的文化素养可以帮助他们找到许多语言知识的根源,对于增强学生的学习兴趣,发展他们的语言应用能力和跨文化交际能力都具有非常重要的作用。古希腊罗马文化,圣经文化和美国的核心价值观——美国梦这三方面构成西方文化的基石,也是学生了解西方文化的基础。教师在大学英语教学中有必要采用一些教学策略导入这三方面的知识。%  Introducing the knowledge on western culture and promote the students western culrural literacy is critical to college English teaching. On the one hand, culrural literacy can help students find the roote of many language thus raise their interests in Enlish study. On the other hand, it is helpful for students to improve their langauge appplication ability and interculture communication ability as well. In college English teaching, the knowedge on Bible, the knowedge on ancient Greek and Rome and the nulear value of America comprses three foundation stones for students to learn about the western culture. In college English classroom, it is very essential for teachers to take some teaching strategy leading in the knowledge of these three aspects.

  9. The Cultural Roots of the Ancient Greek Tragedy in Eugene O’Neill’s Dramas%尤金·奥尼尔戏剧中的古希腊悲剧文化根源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵攀

    2013-01-01

      尤金·奥尼尔的戏剧是对古希腊悲剧的批判与继承。文章从奥尼尔作品中的悲剧人物、悲剧主题和悲剧题材的根源出发,研究了尤金·奥尼尔作品中的悲剧文化根源——古希腊的悲剧文化。这为我们更好地欣赏尤金·奥尼尔作品,了解尤金·奥尼尔的古希腊悲剧文化特色奠定了基础。%  Eugene O’Neill’s dramas are a kind of criticism and inheritance of the ancient Greek tragedy. Ancient Greek tragedy is cultural roots in Eugene O’Neill’s tragedies from an analysis of its tragic figures, tragedy themes and its roots. It helps us appreciate Eugene O’Neill’s dramas better and learn more of his cultural features of ancient Greek tragedy.

  10. The Influence of Culture on Expressions of Politeness between Chinese and Westerners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2013-01-01

    Language is an important carrier of culture, and culture finds a better representation through language use. As Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis holds that there is a correlation between language and culture, different nations have different cultural back⁃grounds, which means that their ways of showing politeness are not the same. And this kind of difference will definitely be em⁃bodied in language. Politeness principles can apply to all languages, but it may have different representations in different cultures. Recognizing these differences may help us improve intercultural communication and behave more polite in intercultural commu⁃nication.

  11. Puerto Rican cultural beliefs: influence on infant feeding practices in western New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, B

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural beliefs and practices of Puerto Rican families that influence feeding practices and affect the nutritional status of infants and young children. The goal of the study was to outline strategies that would enable nurses to provide culturally congruent care for this population. Culture care theory guided the research, and an ethnonursing methodology was used. From interviews with 10 key and 5 general informants, 11 universal and 2 diverse themes were abstracted. The dimensions of kinship, cultural values, lifeways, and philosophical beliefs were found to influence Puerto Rican infant feeding practices. The cultural belief that big is healthy was found to be integrally related to cultural feeding practices. Strategies are suggested to facilitate provision of culturally congruent care for Puerto Rican infants and children in an ambulatory setting.

  12. 江南古桥及文化的地域性功能研究%A Study of the Regional Function of the Ancient Bridges and the Related Culture in Areas South of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱铁军

    2012-01-01

    Located in special geographical environment, the ancient bridges in areas south of Yangtze River has thrived with rich cultural connotations. The paper analyzes the diversification brought by the ancient bridges along with their regional social, economic, and cultural functions, finding that in ancient times they were not only the life support of the local people and the center of the regional commercial economy, and more importantly, in the process of their integration with the society, the ancient bridges had been tightly interweaved with the local social customs, anecdotes, Feng Shui, politics and religion, acquiring a distinctive regional culture. It is shown that the ancient bridges in the areas south of Yangtze River, boasting an important status and unique value in the local culture, has become valuable material and spiritual wealth of the region.%由于江南地区特殊的地理环境,江南古桥及文化发展兴盛,据此对江南古桥及文化所赋予的多元化和更深层次的区域性的社会、经济和文化功能及特质进行了深入的调查和研究,从而认为江南古桥不仅是古代江南百姓的生存依托和江南商业经济的枢纽,更为重要的是,江南古桥在与江南社会不断交融的历史进程中,与当地的社会风俗、奇人逸事、风水玄学、政治宗教等紧密相联,浸染了鲜明的地域文化色彩,充分显示出江南古桥及文化的重要地位和独特价值,也成为江南地域宝贵的物质和精神的双重财富。

  13. Can cognitive dissonance methods developed in the West for combatting the 'thin ideal' help slow the rapidly increasing prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue

    2013-12-01

    Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the 'thin ideal' that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed.

  14. 中国叙事文化学与西方主题学异同关系何在?——中国叙事文化学研究丛谈之二%The Differences between Chinese Narrative Culture and Western Thematology——The 2~(nd) Talk on Chinese Narrative Cultural Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁稼雨

    2012-01-01

    There are many similarities between the folk stories and the Chinese ancient written narrative literatures,which make it possible for Chinese Narrative Culture to learn from the western thematology in researching methods.Also,there are some differences between the folk tales and written literatures.Thematology can not fully reflect and interpret Chinese folk stories and written narrative literature,so it is necessary to make some reasonable adjustment to thematology on the basis of learning and make it suitable for the study of ancient Chinese narrative literature.%由于民间故事与中国古代书面叙事文学之间有多种相似性,所以使中国叙事文化学借鉴西方主题学方法成为可能;同时,由于民间故事与书面文学之间存在差异,主题学不能全面反映揭示和解读中国民间故事和书面叙事文学,所以需要在借鉴主题学研究的基础上对其进行合理改造,使之适合中国古代叙事文学的研究。

  15. 《孙子兵法》典籍文化展演的新思维%The New Thought of Ancient Book Cultural Performance of the Art of War by Sun Tzu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金钰欣

    2014-01-01

    Ancient books serve as a key media in inheriting historical culture.It is an important topic in developing the cul-tural creativity industry to transform the essence of ancient book’s culture to a life style or fashion.The great and profound thought of “Holistic Victory”in the Art of War by Sun Tzu,contains universal values of life attitude for benign competition, while the spirit of “Universal Design”can specifically present the core idea of the Art of War by Sun Tzu on merchandise and service of cultural performance.%典籍是传承历史文化的重要媒介。如何将典籍文化的精髓转为一种生活态度或流行时尚,是发展文化创意产业的重要课题。《孙子兵法》博大精深的“全胜”思想,蕴含着普世价值的良性竞合的生活态度,而“通用设计”的精神,正可以将《孙子兵法》典籍的核心思想,具体呈现在文化展演的产品与服务上。

  16. Personal choice: a blessing or a burden, or both? A cross-cultural investigation on need for closure effects in two Western and two East-Asian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Soetens, Barbara; Au, Evelyn W M; Yanjun, Guan

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates the role of dispositional need for closure (NFC) in how individuals within a particular culture perceive and appreciate choice. Data sets from the US (283 adults), Europe (263 adults and 427 students), China (218 adults and 309 students) and Singapore (258 students) were collected. The results showed that in Western cultures, people perceived choice in a linear way as either a burden or a blessing, whereas in Chinese culture, such opposition between perspectives did not appear, and individuals generally saw choice as both burden and blessing simultaneously. In Western cultures, high dispositional NFC was strongly associated with viewing choice-as-a-burden, whereas Chinese respondents with a high NFC perceived choice as a blessing and a burden simultaneously. The Singaporean results were similar to the Western pattern. These findings are discussed in terms of the NFC literature and cultural differences in dialectic versus differentiation thinking styles. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. "Parallel Leadership in an "Unparallel" World"--Cultural Constraints on the Transferability of Western Educational Leadership Theories across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin

    2009-01-01

    With the global economy becoming more integrated, the issues of cross-cultural relevance and transferability of leadership theories and practices have become increasingly urgent. Drawing upon the concept of parallel leadership in schools proposed by Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, and Hann as an example, the purpose of this paper is to examine the…

  18. Cultural Landscapes as a Methodology for Understanding Natural Resource Management Impacts in the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Toupal

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural demands on public lands in the United States continue to challenge federal land managers to address social and cultural concerns in their planning efforts. Specifically, they lack adequate knowledge of cultural concerns, as well as a consistent strategy for acquiring that knowledge for use in decision-making. Current federal approaches to understanding such issues as access, use, and control of resources include public participation, conservation partnerships, government-to-government consultations with American Indian tribes, cultural resource inventories, and landscape analysis. Given that cultural knowledge arises from human-nature relationships and shared perceptions of natural environments, and that landscapes are the ultimate expression of such knowledge, an exploratory methodology was developed to provide a different approach to understanding cultural concerns through landscape perceptions. Using cultural landscape theories and applications from the natural and social sciences, this study examines the landscape perceptions of four groups concerned with management planning of the Baboquivari Wilderness Area in southern Arizona: the Bureau of Land Management, the landowners of the Altar Valley, recreationists, and members of the Tohono O'odham Nation. The methodology is based on a human-nature relationship rather than cultural aspects or features. It takes a holistic approach that differs from other perception studies in that it includes: emic aspects of data collection and analysis; a spatial component (triangulation of data collection through narrative and graphic descriptions; ethnographic, on-site interviews; and cultural consensus analysis and small-sample theory. The results include: verification of four cultural groups; two levels of consensus (in the population of concern, and in each group that overlap in some aspects of landscape perception; descriptions of four cultural landscapes that illustrate similarities and

  19. Intercultural Effectiveness Training in three Western immigrant countries : A cross-cultural evaluation of critical incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, Selma L.; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of material for a new intercultural training instrument. More specifically, we examine the validity of 21 critical incidents used in the training. The training programme is targeted at natives in Western immigrant countries dealing - mostly

  20. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  1. Intersections of Western biomedical ethics and world culture: problematic and possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    1992-01-01

    ... What emerges from the intersection of systems of medical ethics across cultural lines is a recognition of the need for and the possibility of some form of metacultural ethic that can ameliorate cultural relativism. In medical ethics, all ethical positions are not of equal moral status -- regardless of how tightly bound they may be to a particular culture; for example, consider the nearly universal approbation for cooperative efforts of physicians who oppose the use of nuclear weapons and the condemnation of physicians who torture or experiment with prisoners of war. Even if violations of patient rights are tolerated in certain social and cultural settings, they are not tolerable in any common ethic of medicine. Growing recognition of the moral rights of patients, their special vulnerability as sick persons, and their dependency on the physician's knowledge constitute the empirical foundation of a morally defensible ethic of medicine. Those cultural systems that violate such norms cannot be given equal moral standing with systems that respect these norms, not because the cultural systems that support human and patients' rights are per se superior but because the protection of human rights is grounded in something more fundamental than culture -- the deference owed to all human beings qua human beings. This is a norm by which every culture may be judged....

  2. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  3. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  4. 古村镇保护与开发中的“文化嵌入”模式研究%A Study on“Cultural Embedding” Mode of Ancient Towns in Its Protection and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德刚; 易金; 田芸

    2016-01-01

    在经济诉求主导下,古村镇的发展越来越无法回避功利性选择。安仁古镇通过“嵌入”新的文化主题、建设新的文化载体,“成功”打造了一个在国内外颇具影响的“中国博物馆小镇”。安仁古镇的“文化嵌入”发展模式颇具典型意义,通过采用扎根理论研究方法,对其实施条件、路径选择、文化冲突与融合互动、商业模式设计等进行系统研究,分析新的文化主题嵌入对古村镇品牌构建的影响因素和作用机理,具有非常重要的实践意义和理论意义,能够为其他古村镇保护开发的模式选择提供经验借鉴和理论指导。%Dominated by the economic appeals ,it is increasingly difficulty for ancient tow ns to avoid the utilitarian trend .By embedding the new cultural theme as well as constructing the innovative carriers of culture ,the ancient town of Anren successfully builds the brand “China Museum Town”which is widely well‐known in China and abroad .Honestly ,Anren’s “Cultural Embedding” mode represents a typically exposed significance after series of research in terms of antecedent conditions , path choices , cultural conflict and integration , as well as business model designs based on the Grounded Theory methodology .Meanwhile ,this paper analyzes the affecting factors and mechanism of the cultural theme embeddedness on the brand construct of ancient tow ns in light of these significances practically and theoretically for further empirical references and theoretical suggestions to ancient tow ns .

  5. A Study on the Ancient Tea Horse Road Cultural Heritage in Longdong Area of Gansu--Investigation of the Cultural Route of the Ancient Tea Horse Road Cultural Heritage in Longdong Area of Gansu (III)%甘肃陇东地区茶马古道文化遗产考察研究--甘肃茶马古道文化线路遗产考察之三

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国穆

    2015-01-01

    陇东地区历史上古道交通发达,纵横交错的支干线构成完整的“茶马古道”文化遗产体系,见证了唐宋以来以茶马互市贸易为主的历史,是茶马古道线性文化遗产考察研究的丰富历史物证,无可辩驳地证明了丝绸之路东段主干及其支线古道作为曾经的“茶马古道”的历史。%Historically,the traffic development in Longdong area was prosperous and the Ancient Tea Horse Road witnessed the history since Tang and Song Dynasties,trading with tea and horses.The paper investigates the traffic history of the area since Tang Dynasty, and expresses concern with the cultural route of this Ancient Tea Horse Road.

  6. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  7. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  8. 5000 years of geometry mathematics in history and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Scriba, Christoph J

    2015-01-01

    The present volume provides a fascinating overview of geometrical ideas and perceptions from the earliest cultures to the mathematical and artistic concepts of the 20th century. It is the English translation of the 3rd edition of the well-received German book “5000 Jahre Geometrie,” in which geometry is presented as a chain of developments in cultural history and their interaction with architecture, the visual arts, philosophy, science, and engineering. Geometry originated in the ancient cultures along the Indus and Nile Rivers and in Mesopotamia, experiencing its first “Golden Age” in Ancient Greece. Inspired by the Greek mathematics, a new germ of geometry blossomed in the Islamic civilizations. Through the Oriental influence on Spain, this knowledge later spread to Western Europe. Here, as part of the medieval Quadrivium, the understanding of geometry was deepened, leading to a revival during the Renaissance. Together with parallel achievements in India, China, Japan and the ancient American cultur...

  9. 浅析西方文化霸权对我国文化的影响%Influence of Western Hegemony to Our Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴琳娜

    2011-01-01

    当今世界处在一个以西方发达资本主义国家为主导的全球化时代,随着全球化的迅猛发展,文化日益成为综合国力竞争的重要因素。西方发达资本主义国家正极力推行文化霸权主义。面对这种文化霸权主义,中国文化该何去何从。本文试图在分析西方文化霸权主义的基本特征基础上,寻求中国文化发展的出路。%Today the world is in the age of globalization dominated by western developed countries, with rapid development of globalization, the culture is increasingly becoming the important factor of competition in overall national strength. However, differences between Chinese and western economic development level in a certain extent also lead to weak east and strong west situation on cultural development. Therefore, western developed countries are pushing for cultural hegemonism, in the attempt to get rights of speak on culture. Facing such cultural hegemonism, how should Chinese culture do? This paper analyses the basic characteristics of western cultural hegemony, searching for the direction of Chinese cultural development.

  10. Followers of Confucianism or a New Generation? Learning Culture of Mainland Chinese: In Pursuit of Western-Based Business Education Away from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    The mainland Chinese learning culture has evolved due to the rapid changes in the economic, political, cultural and demographic demands. The changing characteristics of the Chinese students' learning behavioral styles and preferences, as well as the challenges faced in pursuit of Western-based education, are discussed with suggested…

  11. Cultural factors influencing Eastern and Western engineering students' choice of university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hua-Li; Eika Sandnes, Frode; Huang, Yo-Ping; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2010-05-01

    Insight into factors that affect students' choice of university is useful when designing study programmes, especially in global competition for students. This study focuses on Taiwanese and Norwegian students' preferences for university, study programme, course qualities and future career qualities. Hofstede's model was used to predict culture-related differences. A pair-wise decision questionnaire was used to conduct measurements. Cultural differences were observed in relation to choice of university, course qualities and future careers. Discipline of study had only minor impact on students' preferences. The results suggest that a career-relevant curriculum is culture-neutral. Moreover, personal advice is the most preferred factor among Taiwanese students when choosing university.

  12. The Cultural Differences of Non-verbal Communication between Western Countries and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月

    2013-01-01

      Communication behavior consists of verbal and nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication between human beings has drawn great attention to its study and research nowadays. The paper tries to show the culture differences in non-verbal communication through body language, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve such kinds of awareness and get a better understanding of cultural differences among different countries in the aspect of nonverbal communication so as to help smooth our communication barriers with people of different culture background.

  13. A Brief Discussion on the Sports Culture in North China in Ancient Times%我国古代北方民族体育文化简论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋

    2012-01-01

    文章运用文献资料研究方法,研究中国古代北方民族体育文化历史,对增强民族自尊心、发展现代民族体育文化,丰富近年我国开展阳光体育运动项目,建设社会主义物质文明和精神文明都有着重要意义。%By using textual research,this paper studies history of the sports culture in the northern part of ancient China.This research can help understand the evolution of the Chinese sports culture and develop its modern sports culture.And at the same time,it can enrich the content of the sunshine sports campaign started recently,and contributes to the construction of material and ideological civilization in China.

  14. Subsidence and conversion of the Dead Sea basin to an inland erosion base level in the early middle Miocene as inferred from geomorphological analysis of its ancient western fluvial outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Oded; Zilberman, Ezra

    2016-05-01

    The first major subsidence of the Dead Sea pull-apart basin (DSB) is evidenced by the thick Hufeira Member of the terrestrial Hazeva Formation. The age of the Hufeira Member and the conversion of the DSB to an inland erosion base level are not well constrained. For this purpose we studied the effect of the evolving basin on its ancient fluvial outlet to the Arad-Be'er Sheva Valley (ABSV), which served as a Miocene corridor between the embryonic DSB region in the east and the Mediterranean Sea in the west. We mapped and analyzed the morphostratigraphy of four series of rock-cut erosion surfaces (from top to bottom: the Barir, Kuseifa, Ar'ara, and Shemen surfaces). They are manifested in the east as fluvial erosion surfaces, capped by conglomerates, passing laterally westward to marine wave-cut surfaces, capped by a shallow marine limestone of the early middle Miocene Ziqlag Formation. The age of these surfaces is constrained to the early middle Miocene (Langhian) based on morphostratigraphy correlation with the Ziqlag Formation. Paleogeographic reconstruction of the two higher and older surfaces reveals transverse valleys, which drained the DSB region and crossed the present route of the regional water divide. These transverse valleys were presumably the western outlets to the Mediterranean Sea of the newly subsiding basin. Precambrian components in the assemblage of the clasts that cover the Kuseifa surface were not found in the Hufeira Member and thus reflect an ongoing post-Hufeira exumation of the DSB drainage basin. Hence, this early middle Miocene surface postdates the Hufeira Member, assigning an age of late early Miocene to the first major subsidence of the DSB. The two lower and younger surfaces represent local drainage systems confined to the ABSV. This transition from regional to local drainage system marks the establishment of the present regional water divide and the conversion of the DSB to an inland erosion base level during the early middle Miocene.

  15. The Influence of Cultural Anthropology on Zhou Zuo-ren’s Translation of Ancient Greek Literature%文化人类学对周作人译介古希腊文学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵

    2012-01-01

    As an important thinker during the May the Fourth Movement,Zhou Zuo-ren was greatly influenced by the concepts of cultural anthropology which,at that time,was unfolding itself in the west.Cultural anthropology exerts profound influences upon Zhou’s humane thoughts and translations,especially in the terms of translation from ancient Greek literature.This paper starts off from the aspect of Zhou’s reception of cultural anthropology,and proceeds to analyze Zhou’s purpose,accomplishments and features in translating ancient Greek literature.%作为"五四"时期重要的思想家,周作人深受当时西方方兴未艾的文化人类学的影响。文化人类学理论对周作人的人文思想和翻译活动,尤其是对古希腊文学的翻译发挥着深远的影响。他全景式地译介了希腊的神话、诗歌、戏剧,力图全面展示古希腊人的生活、思想、艺术、人生观、世界观,借以开启民众、教化大众。

  16. Consumers online information search: a cross-cultural study between China and Western Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuylsteke, Alexander; Wen, Zhong; Baesens, Bart; Poelmans, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Consumers in China increasingly turn to the Internet to acquire commercial information. This trend is expected to continue since Internet penetration and consumer spending keep growing steadily. Based on 32 hours of interviews with students and business professionals in China, and a questionnaire completed by a sample of 1140 Chinese and Belgian students, we find a number of significant differences between Chinese and Western Europeans in their online search process for information prior to a...

  17. Comparative Study of Western and Chinese Wine Culture%中西方酒文化对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚鹏

    2012-01-01

    随着社会历史的发展,酒已深入人们的物质及精神生活,并成为一种民族性的社会文化现象。因此,对酒文化的研究有助于加深对文化的理解。本文的目的是通过对中西方酒酒文化进行对比研究,以探寻产生这些差异的因素,从而促进跨文化交际中文化双方的相互理解,相互尊重。%With the development of society and history,wine roots deeply in material and spiritual life of human being,and becomes a national social cultural phenomenon.This paper is to make a contrastive study on the differences in wine culture between China and Western countries,and try to explore the underlying cultural factors contributing to these differences to enhance deep understanding of both alien and native cultures and develop mutual respect between them.

  18. Germans on the Western Waters: Artisans, Material Culture, and Hybridity in Virginia's Backcountry, 1780-1830

    OpenAIRE

    Slough, Spenser David

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the socioeconomic lives of artisans of German descent who worked within Wythe County, Virginia from 1780 to 1830. It is particularly concerned with how a distinct German-American culture manifests over time as seen through these artisans' produced materials and structures. This thesis traces this manifestation through a careful examination of Wythe material culture, wills, probates, inventories, court records, account books, receipts, invoices, census records, personal cor...

  19. Christian ethical perspectives on marriage and family life in modern Western culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The past four decades witnessed a tremendous and wide-ranging change in family patterns in Western societies. Amongst these changes are phenomena such as growing number of divorces, births out-of-wedlock, and the absence of fathers because of globalisation, same-sex marriages and cohabitation of people without a marriage contract. Western societies are typified as “highdivorce societies”. Furthermore, in the United States the number of couples cohabiting has increased eightfold since 1970 and it is fair to conclude that the situation is similar in other Western societies. The purpose of the article is to deal with these patterns from a Reformed perspective. The central theoretical argument is that these developments can be perceived as a crisis in view of the Biblical perspectives on marriage and family life. However, the Biblical perspectives not only offer a clear indication of healthy marriage and family life entail, but also indicate that a Christian attitude in marriage and family life can serve as a remedy for the damage caused by the new trends.

  20. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  1. Parental influences on weight-related health behaviors in western and eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J

    2017-03-01

    Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Zimbabwe culture before Mapungubwe: new evidence from Mapela Hill, South-Western Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.

  3. The Ancient Salt-oil Channel of Wujiang and Its Far-reaching Influence on the Development of Tujia People's Economy and Culture in Guizhou%乌江盐油古道及其对贵州土家族经济文化发展的深远影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安元奎

    2011-01-01

    在川渝至贵州之间,自古存在一条盐油古道。它以乌江航运为主,水陆并进,自川境涪陵(今属重庆)起运川盐,溯乌江经彭水、龚滩、沿河、新滩、潮砥,抵达思南、石阡,辐射铜仁、湘西等地,下载桐油等土特产品水运出黔。这条盐油古道涵盖川、渝、黔、湘,对贵州土家族地区经济文化发展,产生了深远影响,堪与滇藏之间的荼马古道媲美。%Throughout history, there has been an ancient salt-oil channel between Sichuan (including Chongqing) and Guizhou. This channel, whose trunk is Wujiang shipping, owns both water and land transportation. It starts from Fuling (now belongs to Chongqing) to ship the salt in Sichuan Province, then goes upstream along Wujiang, passes by Pengshui, Gongtan, Yanhe, Xintan, and Chaodi, and reaches Sinan, Shiqian, covering Tongren, Western Hunan and other places, and finally loads the Tung oil and other native products out of Guizhou through water transportation at the downstream. This channel, which covers Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, and Hunan, has profound influence on the economic and cultural development of Tujia areas in Guizhou, comparable to the Tea-horse Ancient Road between Yunnan and Tibet.

  4. Cultural determinants of optimal breastfeeding practices among indigenous Mam-Mayan women in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Hilary M; Solomons, Noel W; Chomat, Anne Marie; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G

    2015-02-01

    Among indigenous Mam-Mayan women, breastfeeding practices may be intertwined with cultural influences during the early postpartum period. Our study explored whether beliefs regarding transmission of emotions through breast milk, the feeding of agüitas or temascal (traditional sauna) use were associated with achievement of the World Health Organization infant feeding recommendations and if these cultural practices served as moderators of the relationship between optimal breastfeeding practices and infant anthropometry. We recruited 190 mother-infant dyads at infant age breastfeeding and cultural practices were collected via questionnaire. Infant length, weight, and head circumference were measured and z scores were calculated. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine determinants of initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, breastfeeding frequency, breastfeeding exclusivity, and infant weight-for-age z score (WAZ). Mothers who delivered at the traditional midwife's house (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5) and those who did not believe in the transmission of susto (fright) through breast milk (OR = 2.4) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum. Higher breastfeeding frequency was observed among mothers who spent more time in the temascal. Initiating early breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum was the sole infant feeding practice positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding and WAZ. Our investigation in the Western Highlands of Guatemala has highlighted the link between cultural practices and beliefs during lactation, breastfeeding practices and infant growth. Public health practitioners need to understand how local cultural practices influence early initiation of breastfeeding to promote adequate infant weight. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. 滇藏茶马古道文化遗产廊道保护层次研究%A Study on Preservation Arrangement of the Cultural Heritage Corridor of the Ancient Tea and Horse Road in Yunnan-Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍

    2012-01-01

    滇藏茶马古道是一项历史久远、跨越滇藏川区域、遗产资源丰富且整体文化价值极高的线状文化遗产,文化遗产廊道理念为古道完整遗产的保护与利用提供了新思路.鉴于茶马古道遗产廊道保护战略的宏观性和整体性,急需从具体实施层面对保护战略进行拆分和细化,划分古道遗产廊道的保护层次.在古道遗产廊道保护目标和保护原则的指导下,从“点、线、面”三个尺度进行分层,不同层次提出具体保护项目、保护内容和保护措施,使保护战略落到实处,更有效指导古道遗产廊道保护实践.%The ancient Tea and Horse road in Yunnan-Tibet is a linear cultural heritage with long history, crossing the area of Yunnan, Tibet and Sichuan, abundant heritage resources and important cultural values. The concept of cultural heritage corridor provided a new idea to preserve the ancient road heritage wholly. Because the preserving strategy of the ancient road heritage corridor was too macroscopic and integrated, it was very necessary to analyze the preserving strategy in details and determine its preserving arrangement. Under the guidance of the preserving targets and principles, the article divided the heritage area into 3 preservation gradations of "point", "line" and "surface" and put forward the concrete preserving programs, preserving contents and measures, so as to put the strategy into practice and facilitate the preservation of the ancient road heritage corridor effectively.

  6. Deconstructing the cultural confinement of the Western menopausal women towards a spirituality of liberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Meletiou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the ages, menstruation and menopause have posed unique challenges in the life of women. In Biblical times, much was said about the impurity of a menstruating woman. In the past century, however, the focus gradually shifted to menopause and the effect thereof on a woman�s body, both aesthetically and physiologically. Freud went so far as to argue that menopausal women are neurotic and that an oophorectomy (the surgical removal of the female ovaries should be a standard procedure for a menopausal woman. Unfortunately, this Freudian theory has not yet been completely demolished in our contemporary society. Hysterectomies (the surgical removal of the uterus are still frequently performed on menopausal women, and all too often, antidepressants are included in menopausal women� medical regimes. The question remains: Can hysterectomy, hormone replacement therapy and antidepressants �erase� the challenges that Western menopausal women face?Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Western menopausal women are under tremendous social pressure to preserve their youthfulness. Many middle-aged women live with the fear that their declining sexual appeal may result in rejection, both personally and professionally. Unfortunately, the intellectual value of these women is seldom acknowledged.�

  7. Western Culture in Japanese Film: Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood" and "Ran."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E.

    Akira Kurosawa, the most popular Asian film maker with audiences in the United States, has found in William Shakespeare's plays themes and plots that resonate within Japanese culture. While the translations of "Macbeth" into "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" into "Ran" are quite direct and literal with only minor changes in plot and emphasis, in…

  8. Resurrecting Class : Class voting and cultural voting in postwar western societies (1956-1990)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.J. Achterberg (Peter); D. Houtman (Dick); J. van der Waal (Jeroen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBy means of a re-analysis of the most relevant data source - the international social mobility and politics file - this paper criticizes the newly grown consensus in political sociology that class voting has declined since World War II. An increase of crosscutting cultural voting, rooted

  9. Effect of Changing Governance System: Result of Western Style Management Adoption to Japanese Culture of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichiro Hotta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.

  10. Western Culture in Japanese Film: Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood" and "Ran."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E.

    Akira Kurosawa, the most popular Asian film maker with audiences in the United States, has found in William Shakespeare's plays themes and plots that resonate within Japanese culture. While the translations of "Macbeth" into "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" into "Ran" are quite direct and literal with only…

  11. Cross-cultural validity of the food-related lifestyles instrument (FRL) within Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Bredahl, Lone;

    2004-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument (FRL) is tested for cross-cultural validity. In the first part of the analysis, consumer samples from Denmark (N = 1209), France (N = 1000), Germany (N = 1000), Spain (N = 1000), and the UK (N = 1000) are compared using multi-sample confirmatory factor analys...

  12. Effect of Changing Governance System: Result of Western Style Management Adoption to Japanese Culture of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichiro Hotta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.

  13. The Kazanga festival : ethnicity as cultural mediation and transformation in central western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural dynamics of ethnicity in the context of a postcolonial African State, Zambia. The opening sections define ethnicity and pinpoint its central dilemma: while unmistakably constructed and thus selectively empowering the brokers coordinating the construction process, eth

  14. Western and Eastern Culture Comparison-Compare the First Photogra-phers between West and East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-wei

    2016-01-01

    The nineteenth century was a period when the visual arts, growing in both the West and the East, flourished. It wit-nessed the beginning of photography, the great innovation which posed questions of the blurred distinctions between art and sci-ence. The nineteenth century was also the era of collisions of numerous technology and cultures between the West and the East.

  15. Western Culture in Japanese Film: Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood" and "Ran."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E.

    Akira Kurosawa, the most popular Asian film maker with audiences in the United States, has found in William Shakespeare's plays themes and plots that resonate within Japanese culture. While the translations of "Macbeth" into "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" into "Ran" are quite direct and literal with only…

  16. Iranian Parents' Resistance to Incompatible Aspects of Western Culture: Implications for ELT Material Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Seyed Ahmad; Subbakrishna, Rangaswamy

    2011-01-01

    The British and US varieties of English have now come under suspicion of promoting American and British ways of life and marginalizing the local identities of their learners. Prompted by these suspicions, many scholars and policy makers have voiced doubts about the cultural adequacy of the native speaker-controlled ELT programs. In a recent survey…

  17. Romantizmas ir krikščioniškoji Vakarų kultūros tradicija | Romanticism and the Christian Tradition of the Western Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Čiočytė

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the notion of unity seen in the history of Western (Christian culture; the notion is implied in investigations made by Rene Burke, Aidan Day, George Steiner. According to these scholars, the only cultural break that can be clearly seen in Western culture took place at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries, when egocentric and nihilistic elements of the modern/postmodern conception of the world began to come into opposition with the Christian world-view. While considering the tension between traditional and “antitraditional” Western cultures, the article stresses the philosophical assumptions that undermine both cultures. The first signs of this cultural break can be seen in the period of Romanticism. Even though Romanticism is still strongly connected with the Western tradition, including its Christian aspect (the romanticists were strongly interested in the spiritual and the transcendental, the main aspects of Romanticism (egocentrism, homotheism, anticommunal tendencies strongly oppose the tradition of Christian conception of the world. In the works of English, German, Polish, Russian Romanticists a double movement can be observed away from the traditional Christian philosophy and back towards it. Lithuanian Romanticism has hardly any such phenomena of double movement, it doesn’t quarrel with Christian thought. The article ends with the consideration of possible causes and consequences of this lack of opposition to the Christian world-view seen in Lithuanian Romanticism.

  18. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses. Developing in the second half of the 20th century, the television, as one of the most effective mass communication media of the modern age, has combined sound and images to create a technical medium where culture is produced, transmitted, circulated and consumed and subsequently recycled to reach the target audiences, while in terms of the transmission of messages, the television has become the flagship of the media economy in comparison with other mass communication media and channels. As the influences of globalisation have been felt upon the creative processes of film and serial instruments and in the adoption and dissemination of strategic objectives, global cultural transmission is more varied, wider in scope and with more intense content than ever before. Furthermore, as a result of the constant development, regeneration and transformation of communication technology, we can postulate that television serial and film scenarios are a new form of marketing communication, as they are deeply intertwined with daily life and culture in the modern world. However, mass communication media gather groups of people with a common language and interest, causing groups to become communities. The role

  19. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F A Sekeff-Sallem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical dystonia (CD is a prevalent and incapacitating movement disorder which needs a thorough clinical evaluation of every patient to better tailor treatment strategies. In Brazil, there are no validated CD scales that measure the burden of dystonia. The aim of our study was to translate and adapt the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS to Brazilian Portuguese. After translation and back-translation according to international methods, a pre-test was carried out with 30 patients. Patients under 8 years of formal schooling had severe difficulty in understanding the whole scale. The scale went through a remodeling process, without loss of its conceptual and semantic properties. The new scale was tested in 15 patients, with good understanding scores. We are now in the process of validation of the adapted scale.

  1. Beyond the West. Frankfurt, Between Anthropology and Cultural History

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With the beginning of the XXth century in Germany prevailed a common ideology based on the reject of Western rationalism. It was seen an ineffective instrument to understand ancient civilizations (Greek culture, according to Nietzsche’s point of view that W. F. Otto assumed, and monumental civilizations researched by Spengler) and traditional or “primitive” civilizations (Frobenius, like researcher in African cultures). Therefore, one felt the need of a different form of understanding based o...

  2. Linguistic & Rhetorical Paradigm as Innovative Theoretical Methodological Platform of Studying Discursive Processes of East Slavic and Western Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests studying conceptual models and mechanisms of linguistic consciousness of East Slavic and Western cultures with the application of the theoretical methodological approach of Linguistic & Rhetorical (L&R Paradigm as an integrative philological trend of an innovative type. The L&R Paradigm rests on the intersection of three categorical dimensions: ideological aspects of a speech event (ethos, logos, pathos; stages of universal cycle of idea-into-speech transformation (invention, disposition, elocution as a technology of discursive processes; levels of the structure of a linguistic personality as a discourse producer and ideology bearer (associative verbal network, thesaurus, pragmatic field. Hence, the article proposes three groups of L&R parameters of studying speech and thinking phenomena: ethos-motivational-dispositional; logos-thesaurus-inventional; pathos-verbal-elocutionary.

  3. Quantitative analysis of a biopharmaceutical protein in cell culture samples using automated capillary electrophoresis (CE) western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Marchionni, Kentaro; Hu, Yunli; Zhang, Wei; Sosic, Zoran

    2017-10-25

    An effective control strategy is critical to ensure the safety, purity and potency of biopharmaceuticals. Appropriate analytical tools are needed to realize such goals by providing information on product quality at an early stage to help understanding and control of the manufacturing process. In this work, a fully automated, multi-capillary instrument is utilized for size-based separation and western blot analysis to provide an early readout on product quality in order to enable a more consistent manufacturing process. This approach aims at measuring two important qualities of a biopharmaceutical protein, titer and isoform distribution, in cell culture harvest samples. The acquired data for isoform distribution can then be used to predict the corresponding values of the final drug substance, and potentially provide information for remedy through timely adjustment of the downstream purification process, should the expected values fall out of the accepted range. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Some Late Ming Western Technical Terms and Their Implications for Cultural Transformation:"Brain," "Geometry," "Globe," and "Cathay"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Tianyu

    2006-01-01

    The cluster of technical terms that the Jesuit Matteo Ricci and his Chinese partners Xu Guangqi and Li Zhizao cotranslated and introduced into Chinese in the late Ming dynasty was of significance for China's cultural transformation.For instance,"brain" replaced "heart" as a specific term referring to the organ of consciousness and memory.The classical Chinese interrogative numeral jihe was used to represent the core mathematical term "geometry".Diqiu,meaning "the globe of the earth"in English,was minted to amend the traditional hemispherical dome cosmology.The identification of "Cathay" with China clarified the ambiguity in the Western geographical concept of the Far East,which had existed since the Middle Ages.

  5. PCR-RFLP assays to distinguish the Western and Eastern phylogroups in wild and cultured tench Tinca tinca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajbner, Z; Kotlík, P

    2011-03-01

    The tench Tinca tinca is a valued table fish native to Europe and Asia, but which is now widely distributed in many temperate freshwater regions of the world as the result of human-mediated translocations. Fish are currently being transplanted between watersheds without concern for genetic similarity to wild populations or local adaptation, and efficient phylogeographic markers are therefore urgently needed to rapidly distinguish genetically distinct geographical populations and to assess their contribution to the hatchery breeds and to the stocked wild populations. Here, we present a new method to distinguish recently discovered and morphologically undistinguishable Western and Eastern phylogroups of the tench. The method relies on PCR-RFLP assays of two independent nuclear-encoded exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) markers and of one mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) marker and allows the rapid identification of the Western and Eastern phylogroup and also of three geographical mtDNA clades within the Eastern phylogroup. Our method will enable researchers and fishery practitioners to rapidly distinguish genetically divergent geographical populations of the tench and will be useful for monitoring the introduction and human-mediated spread of the phylogroups in wild populations, for characterization of cultured strains and in breeding experiments.

  6. On The Prehistory Of Chinese-Western Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓彤; 曹薇

    2010-01-01

    @@ The earlist prehistory of western comparative literature can be traced back to the Ancient Rome, as the literature of that period (in ancient Latin) intentionally imitated the Ancient Greek literature(in ancient Greek), like the Virgil's Aeneid was an imitation of Homeric epic, so the writers and theorists of Ancient Rome always compare the differences and similarities of the two periods、 nationalities and languages that reflected in literature.

  7. Cultural Stereotypes, Differences and Similarities between Eastern and Western Cultures%类属性思维与东西方文化异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎岳庭[美

    2012-01-01

    Ethnicity and culture may determine our individual thinking and behavior while ecology and living surroundings usually produce an effect on ethnic background and cultural settings. Though Easterners and Westerners share much in common, they differ tremendously with regard to their strategic planning and cultural stereotypes. In line with this discussion, this article is constructed by the following aspects: first, it expounds on the definition of ecology, culture and ethnicity, as well as the ethnic 4L-theory (Land, Language, Life Styles and Spirituality, and Leadership); second, it addresses the cultural influences on our thinking and behavior; third, it discusses what a stereotype or stereotyping is and how it is applied to our life; fourth, it deals with the relationship between ethnocentrism and cultural stereotypes; fifth, a close relationship is articulated between national strategy and cultural stereotypes, one of which being that Westerners tend to think more analytically whereas Easterners tend to think more holistically; sixth, two cases (Hollywood and Confucius Institute) are offered to illustrate the East-West differences (e.g., individualism and collectivism) ; and finally, this article ends with conclusions and future directions.%人的思维和行为,受一定民族文化的影响,民族文化的形成同我们的生活和生态环境又密不可分。东方人和西方人有很多相同之处,但他们在战略上和文化上的类属性思维有很大差异。本文首先讨论:什么是生活生态和民族文化及民族4L理论(土地=land,语言=language,生活方式与精神信仰=life style and spirituality,领袖=leadership);第二,文化如何影响人的行为和思维?第三,什么是类属性思维?为何要使用类属性思维?第四,民族文化和类属性思维的关系如何?民族文化有自我性和认同感吗?第五,民族战略规划同类属性思维有何关系?第六

  8. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2005-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  9. Chinese Ancient Marriage Culture on Contemporary Marital Life Enlightenment%论中国古代婚恋文化对当代婚姻生活的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Chinese Confucian classics and the works of love literature on love and marriage life made a specifica-tion and description,to show the long history and distinctive ancient marriage culture,which contains a lot of useful elements of today’s society,love and marriage life is beneficial.Modern society because of lifestyle changes,people’s concept of mar-riage has changed,“the unmarried cohabitation”,“flash marriage”,“flash off”and an affair affect the stability of the society, the harmonious development,the ancient tradition of marriage in the cautious attitude of marriage,the wedding,sincere and specification of marriage faithful long-term stability requirements,the emphasis on love and marriage,can provide reference for solving these contradictions and problems.At the same time,between the couple together the ancient marriage culture and how to deal with the reality of marriage and family conflicts and other issues also gives a beneficial enlightenment.%中国古代儒家经典和爱情文学作品等对爱情和婚姻生活做出了规范和描述,展现了历史悠久且特色鲜明的古代婚恋文化,其蕴含的诸多积极有益的元素,对当今社会的爱情婚姻生活都有所裨益。当代社会由于生活方式的转变,人们的婚恋观也出现了变革,“不婚同居”、“闪婚”、“闪离”和婚外情等问题影响着社会的稳定、和谐发展,古代传统婚恋观中对婚姻的谨慎态度、对婚礼的规范、对婚姻长久稳定的要求、对爱情和婚姻的真挚与忠贞的强调,都可以为解决这些矛盾和问题提供参考。同时,古代婚恋文化中对夫妻相守之道和如何处理好婚姻与家庭现实之间的矛盾等问题也给出了有益的启示。

  10. 成都平原全新世气侯变迁与古蜀文化演进相关性研究%The Study of Relativity on Chengdu Plain Holocene Climatic Change and the Evolution of Ancient Shu Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付顺; 李奋生; 颜照坤; 郑月蓉

    2011-01-01

    三星堆文明的神秘消失,古环境演变应是重要原因,与全球性古气候环境变化直接相关.通过建立成都平原新石器时代以来具有较高分辨率的文化事件序列和古气候环境序列,进而将其进行对比分析,得出成都平原全新世以来气候变迁与中国其它地区基本趋势是一致的.古蜀文化发展的阶段性与全新世以来气候的变迁直接相关并贯穿于古蜀文化演进的始终.其中气候温湿期对应着古蜀文化快速发展或繁荣时期,而古蜀文化的突然中断往往对应出现气候变冷干事件,显示古蜀文化演进与成都平原全新世气侯变迁直接相关.%The mysterious disappearance of ancient Shu civilization,resulting from the evolution of ancient enviroment, is closely related to the change of global ancient climate. Based on the change of Chengdu plain Holocene climate and the evolution of ancient Shu culture, through the combination of the natural sciences and humanities and social sciences, the authors are trying to establish the sequence of cultural events and ancient climate and environment with high-resolution in Chongdu plain since the Neolithic culture. On this basis, taking the prehistoric culture of the ancient Shu as a whole, the authors comparatively analyse the sequence of cultural events and the Holocene climatic environment, and then make a comprehensive study of the relationship between the climatic and environmental change and the cultural evolution. The warm and moist period of the climate corresponds to the rapid development of aucient Shu culture,while the cold and dry period corresponds to the abrupt interruption of ancient Shu culture. In the end the authors get the conclusion that the Holocene climatic environment change of the Chengdu plain is strongly interrelated with ancient Shu culture evolution.

  11. Changes of Traditional Vietnamese Culture in Ancient Architecture Artistic Perspective%从古代建筑艺术中看越南传统文化的变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨健

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes some ancient building types which mostly reflect Vietnamese traditional culture, highlights change process of the Vietnam's traditional culture and characteristics. There is typical community culture of Southeast Asia vil ages. Vietnam's traditional religious culture always is developed by Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism and differenced with Theravada Buddhism and mixed with the local religious character of Vietnam. Vietnam's traditional system culture is stil under the influence of China's feudal totalitarianism thought.%越南村社建筑、古代佛教建筑、黄城建筑等几种古代建筑是最能体现越南民族文化本色的建筑,它不但突出了越南传统文化的艺术空间,而且还折射出越南的文化变迁过程以及传统文化特色:典型的东南亚村社文化;区别于小乘佛教却又杂糅着本地宗教特色的儒、释、道三教并流的传统宗教文化;东西方文化碰撞下仍深受中国封建集权思想影响下的传统制度文化。

  12. 主体间性哲学观照下的汉诗文化意象翻译%A Study of Culture-bound Image Translation in Chinese Ancient Poetry from the Perspective of Intersubjectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓嘉

    2012-01-01

    本文以主体间性理论为支撑,透视了汉诗文化意象翻译中的文化内涵,并从文化翻译观的角度探讨了文化意象翻译与主体间性之间的关系。此外,文章还通过具体译例分析了主体间性理论对汉诗文化意象翻译的启示及如何突破意象的不可译性。%Based on the theory of intersubjectivity,this paper first expounds the cultural connotation in translation of culture-bound image in Chinese poetry,then discusses the relationship between culture-bound image translation and intersubjectivity from the perspective of cultural translation,and finally in translation cases it analyzes the enlightenment from intersubjectivity theory concerning the culture-bound image translation in Chinese ancient poetry and overcoming the untranslatability in translation.

  13. Ethics in brain injury rehabilitation: existential choices among western cultural beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, J F

    1993-01-01

    The following issues in the practice of brain injury rehabilitation are explored: (1) validity of support for efficacy based on experience in clinical practice, (2) validity of support for efficacy based on research, (3) consumer protection, (4) qualifications and regulation of individual providers, (5) regulation of programme development and marketing. Ethical responses to these issues from each of three cultural belief systems (humanism, science and self-interest) are examined from a metaphilosophical perspective based on contemporary cognitive psychology and on philosophies of social constructionism and existentialism.

  14. Western Powers' Colonization of Tonga in Terms of the Cultural Invasion of Christianity%从基督教入侵看西方国家对汤加的殖民

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬媛

    2014-01-01

    19世纪以前,汤加就有自己的宗教信仰并持续了几百年。然而19世纪以后,在西方基督教的强势入侵下,其本土宗教分崩离析。基督教在汤加生根发芽,奠定了其作为汤加主要宗教的基础,反映了西方国家对汤加的殖民统治。时至今日,汤加的政治、经济和文化教育等社会领域仍深受影响,基督教已成为当今汤加社会生活中重要的组成部分。%Tonga had had their local religious belief since ancient times,which however,was liquidated and replaced by western Christianity at the beginning of the 19th century.Christianity took place,laid foun-dations as the Tongan mainstream religion,and triggered a vast and swift change upon Tongan politics,eco-nomics,culture,education,and other social aspects.Up till today,Christianity has become an important part of modern Tongan life.

  15. Tswanarising global gayness: the 'unAfrican' argument, Western gay media imagery, local responses and gay culture in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a strategic intervention in the debate over the value of globalised gay identity for emerging sexual minority communities in the South. Focusing on self-identifying gay men in Botswana using semi-structured interviews, it explores their views of what characterises 'modern gay culture' and relates these to international media clichés of a glamorous, stylish, hedonistic gayness. I argue that identifying with what is so visibly a Western image of gayness exposes sexual minority communities to the most dangerous of the justifications for homophobia in Africa, the argument that sexual dissidence is a neo-colonial conspiracy to subvert 'African values'. The 'unAfrican' argument has to be taken very seriously, not only because it taps into the intense, conflicted emotions at the heart of the post-colonial condition, but also because it contains an undeniable germ of truth. This poses a dilemma, since global gay discourses, including the media clichés, are an important source of inspiration for African sexual minorities. A communication activism strategy is proposed to undermine the unAfrican argument by cultivating and asserting the 'tswanarisation' of gay culture in Botswana that is already taking place. A similar strategy may also be effective in other African societies.

  16. 走向浪漫主义的西方大学文化%Culture of Western University Heading for Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冉

    2012-01-01

    起源于德国的浪漫主义深刻影响了西方社会的政治、经济和文化。浪漫主义反对启蒙运动对真理和单一模式的唯一追求,认为人的本质是自由意志,世界上并不存在事物的固定不变的结构和一个必须适应的模式。浪漫主义的这种核心观点同样影响了西方大学文化的当代走向。近代的英国纽曼模式和现代的德国洪堡模式均体现了启蒙运动的主要特征,当代的美国克尔模式则通过强调人的自由意志,反对大学的结构化和模式化,充分体现了浪漫主义的特征。在后浪漫主义的当代大学文化中,对理想人和大学本身的界定是大学发展不能回避的问题。大学只有和社会进行永恒的对话,才能促进两者的和谐发展。%Romanticism that originated from Germany has deeply influenced the politics, economy and culture of Western societies. Romanticism opposes the emphasis by Enlightenment on truth and one singular pattern and argues that the nature of humanity is free will, that there doesn' t exist one fixed structure, and that the all-adaptable singular pattern is non-existent. This essential philosophy of Romanticism influences the modern trend of Western university culture. If British Newman pattern and German Humboldt pattern represented the essential characteristics of Enlightenment, then the American Kerr pattern emphasized the free will of man and fully embodied the characteristics of Romanticism against the university being structured and modeled. In the post-Romantic university culture, the definition of the ideal person and the university itself are unavoidable questions in the face of university evolution. Only by eternally conversing with the society, can universities facilitate mutual development.

  17. An Analysis on the Vampire Image in the Western Culture - Edward in Twilight as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐路

    2016-01-01

    Vampire, has become a well-known screen image all over world and loved by the young people and teenagers, and after Twilight released, let this cultural image of vampire go to the top. This image of vampire in literary works has long been favored by readers, not by chance; deriving the film Twilight series, define the vampire image with a new angle for the audience, so that the vampire has a more rich face, make the vampire present a more rich multi-faceted, it also opened up a new world for the film of vampire theme. A good image can promote the development of the plot, describe a story more vividly, help it gain more success. The author of the series Stephanie Meyer portrays a perfect figure, Edward. We can see that Meyer depicts a handsome vampire image who is always melancholy and moody, but readers see more is a brave and kind man who is willing to pay for love.

  18. Forest conservation in a changing world: natural or cultural? Example from the Western Carpathians forests, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to plan for the future management of some of the most biodiverse forests of Europe, it is essential that we understand under which condition they arose and the time and processes responsible for their variability. Here, I highlight the main findings from the palaeoecological (pollen and charcoal, archaeological and historical investigation comprising the last 6000 years, in the Apuseni Natural Park, NW Romania and discuss the effect of the past land use and forest management on these forests. I then ask what does it mean in term of conservation values if these forests are not natural but a human product and bring up the relevance of cultural landscape for conservation.

  19. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pollegioni

    Full Text Available Common walnut (Juglans regia L is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan, where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

  20. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  1. 内蒙古中西部地区历史文化期的气候变迁与沙化%Climate Change and Desertification of Central and Western Regions of Inner Mongolia in History and Culture Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志勇

    2011-01-01

    内蒙古中西部地区位于我国北部边疆,处于生态环境脆弱的农牧交错带上,自然演变的过程漫长且复杂,是灾害多发的地带,是极易土地沙化的区域,对各种自然和人为扰动极为敏感.在阐述内蒙古中西部地区气候形成概况的基础上,通过文献资料回顾了人类古代历史文化期的气候的变化与沙化情况.研究结果表明,历史上冷暖干湿气候差异性的交替运行,导致区域生态环境的波动变化和易灾、易沙化的趋势;气候的变化还通过早期人类活动的集聚格局,间接地影响了历史时期土地沙化的发展.%Central-western region of Inner Mongolia located in northern border of China, in the fragile ecological environment belt, has a long and complex process of natural evolution, and is a disaster-prone and vulnerable to desertification area, sensitive on natural and man-made disturbances. Based on discussing the general situation of climate formation in central-western region of Inner Mongolia, the climate change and desertification in ancient history and culture period were reviewed through literatures. The results showed that such wet and dry climate alternating history, lead to fluctuations changes in the regional ecological environment and trends in disaster and desertification. Climate change through the accumulation of early human activity patterns, indirectly affected the development of land desertification in the historical period.

  2. 地方特色文化在古镇旅游开发中的作用%The Effect Of Local Culture On The Tourism Development Of Ancient Towns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诗

    2014-01-01

    中国作为一个本身就有着几千年历史的国家,留存下来的古城、古镇数量庞大,这其中有的久负盛名,有的名不见经传。随着国民收入的提高,人们对精神生活的追求唤醒了沉睡中的古镇,大大小小的古镇都开始去追根溯源,一面挖掘自己的历史背景,一面招商引资,希望成为下一个丽江、凤凰或是乌镇。然而古镇旅游的发展不是通过历史溯源去争论谁比谁更古老,也不是通过资金堆砌去攀比谁的修建更宏伟大气;古镇旅游的发展需要文化去浸淫,需要时间去打磨,用沉淀下来的慢节奏去吸引长期生活在快节奏下的现代都市游客。文章通过以乌镇旅游开发为案例,从特色文化的发掘和落地的角度,来探讨差异化地方文化对古镇旅游开发的重要性。%There are numerous ancient cities and towns, as china is a country with thousands years’history. Some of them have long-standing reputation, some are known by few people. With the increasing of gdp, chinese start to beter their spiritual life, such as, going travel.This provides an opportunity for the ancient town’s tourism. In order to atract investment, many local governments are busying to trace these towns’ roots and dig the value of tourism development. Every ancient town is planned to be the new version of lijiang, fenghuang or wuzhen.However, the development of ancient town’s tourism does not only depend on how historic the town is or how magniifcent the architecture here is. It needs culture elements, because tourists who come from the modern city would like to enjoy the traditional local culture. This paper takes the development of wuzhen as a case study, to discuss the importance of local culture during the process of ancient town’s tourism development.

  3. Cross-Cultural Differences in Beliefs and Practices that Affect the Language Spoken to Children: Mothers with Indian and Western Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Background: Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. Aims: The goal of the project was to identify differences in the…

  4. Philosophy of Education in Cultural Perspective. Essays Commemorating the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Celebration of the Far Western Philosophy of Education Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, James John, Ed.

    The manuscript contains 48 essays commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Far Western Philosophy of Education Society. Topics included are cultural awareness; the teaching of values; philosophy and teacher education; humanistic education; existentialism and education; the nature of man; and the educational philosophies of Abraham J. Heschel,…

  5. Collaborative, Comparative Inquiry and Transformative Cross-Cultural Adult Learning and Teaching: A Western Educator Metanarrative and Inspiring a Global Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, Joellen E.

    2013-01-01

    Intentionally designing international perspectives into adult educator preparation programs is a step toward developing instructors' social and instructional cache of understandings about learning, knowledge, and facilitative methodologies that transcend their own Western cultural influences. In a class offered through an MA in adult learning and…

  6. The Reasons and the Cultural Connotation of Ancient Egyptian Specter Worship%古埃及亡灵崇拜的原因及其文化蕴涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵克仁

    2012-01-01

    Nature worship, specter worship and Pharaoh Worship were the es- sential contents of ancient Egyptian religion. The specter worship was the intermedi- ate link of Egyptian religious development, so it has played a unique role for con- necting nature worship and specter worship. The specter worship was the inevitable result of nature worship, reflecting the Egyptian transition from Primitive society to Slave society; without doubt it was the embodiment of human Social forces. Besides, specter worship was also influenced by the Egyptian thinking mode and human geo- graphical environment in the Nile basin. Specter worship entailed the important infor- mation of Egyptian civilization. Specifically speaking, with rich cultural connation, Pyramid Texts, Coffin Texts and Book of the Dead demonstrated the evolution of the ancient Egyptian society, morality and Ethnic customs. The sculptures and paintings dominated by the concept to the worship of specter revealed the art level and popular aesthetic in ancient Egypt. The last but not the least, the establishment of mummies and the building of the pyramids contained philosophy in ancient Egypt.%自然崇拜、亡灵崇拜和法老崇拜是古埃及宗教的核心内容。亡灵崇拜是埃及宗教发展的中间环节,因而具有承上启下的独特作用。亡灵崇拜是埃及自然崇拜发展的必然结果,反映了埃及由原始社会向奴隶社会过渡的历史,因而是人间社会力量的折射。亡灵崇拜还受到埃及人思维模式和尼罗河人文地理环境的影响。亡灵崇拜中蕴涵着埃及文明的重要信息。金字塔文、棺文和亡灵书等死者之书反映了埃及当时的社会变迁、道德风尚和民族习俗,蕴涵着丰富的文化信息;在亡灵崇拜观念支配下进行的雕像、绘画,反映了当时的艺术水平与大众审美;木乃伊制作、金字塔建筑等冥世活动中蕴涵着埃及人的死亡哲学。

  7. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  8. 《越南汉喃铭文拓片总集》述要%Han cultural impact of historical overview and explanations in Corpus of Ancient Vietnamese Inscription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈日红; 刘国祥

    2013-01-01

    Corpus of Ancient Vietnamese Inscription is a rubbings collection recording of Northern Vietnamese history. Its original materials are scattered in the inscriptions in temples, shrines and other nearby villages, which spans from the late Ming Dynasty to early twentieth Century. The inscription writes in ethnic life style in North Vietnam with the Hannan. There are four aspects, namely, the morality, system, customs, religion in Corpus of Ancient Vietnamese Inscription, which associate Vietnam’s national culture with the Chinese culture.%《越南汉喃铭文拓片总集》是一部记录越南北部民族生活史的拓片总集,它的原始材料均为散落在庙宇、村社、神祠等附近的碑铭。它以碑为载体,用汉喃这种越南特殊的文字书写越南北部民族的生活风情,时间跨度从明末一直到二十世纪初,从道德、制度、风俗、宗教等四个方面对《越南汉喃铭文拓片总集》中的汉文化影响进行了释例,爬梳出越南河内以北的民族文化与汉族文化的历史渊源。

  9. The City-state Civilization Embodied in Ancient Greek Mythology%浅析古希腊神话中的城邦文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙俊宇

    2011-01-01

    古希腊神话具有的人本主义、民主精神、自由思想、享乐主义等特点,体现出城邦文明的特征。本文分析了古希腊神话的特点及其表现出的城邦文明,并对比了东西方文化视野中的古希腊神话和中国神话。%Features like humanism, democracy, liberal thoughts and hedonism in ancient Greek mythology reflect the characteristics of city-state civilization. This paper analyzes the features of ancient Greek mythology and the city-state civilization it embodied, also compares the ancient Greek and Chinese mythology in the view of the Western and Oriental cultures.

  10. We will eat disgusting foods together – evidence of the cultural basis of Western entomophagy-disgust from an insect tasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Lieberoth, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Insects are a highly sustainable and nutritional source of protein, and, thus, incorporating insects in to Western food culture would address major global challenges such as global warming, deforestation, and obesity. Consumer studies show, however, that Westerners’ willingness to eat insect...... to eat insects, and actual insect eating behavior in the tasting session. In contrast, perceived social norms emerged as a significant predictor of insect eating behavior. These findings suggest that food culture and perceived social norms play a substantial role in Westerners’ insect-disgust. The result......-containing food is low. One formidable barrier is the perception that insects are disgusting, and it is generally believed that this insect-disgust is driven by an evolutionary wired fear of contamination and disease. In the present study, we tested the biological and cultural roots of Western insect...

  11. On the Influence of Yi-ology on the Ancient Chinese Legal Culture%简论易学对中国古代法律文化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹤薇

    2012-01-01

    I Ching:Book of Changes is the earliest book widespread in ancient China, and recognized as "the best of all the scrip- tures,the origin of all the schools of thought".Its rich content whereas plain wording help reserve historical materials in the ancient time and serve as a channel for later generations to study people's life then.In the text and commentaries of I Ching,plenty of le- gal phenomena and thoughts are recorded. For generations,practitioners of laws spare no efforts in studying the legal culture in it. Research of the legal culture in I Ching experienced a development process from suspicion to confirmation,from annotation to anal- ysis,from sporadic cases to unitary study.In the text of I Ching,many legal issues can be found,like "suit", "imprisonment", "sen- tence", "penalty',etc.The influence of I Ching on the legal society of ancient China will be analyzed by briefly introducing the symbolisms in hexagrams like Shibe,Xie,Bi,Feng and Lv.%《周易》是中国古代流传最早的成体系书,自古被誉为"群经之首,百家之源"。它的内容丰富,文字古朴,保留了许多上古的史料,亦给后人研究上古文化提供了便利。在《周易》经传文本里,记载了大量的法律现象和法律思想,经几代的法律人的共同努力,使《周易》的法律文化经过了"从疑到肯、从注到解、从零到整"的发展过程。在《周易》经传的文本里,记载着大量诸如"讼"、"狱"、"刑"、"罚"等法律现象。本文通过简述《周易》中《噬嗑》、《解》、《贲》、《丰》、《旅》等卦中的象辞,分析了易学文化对中国古代法制社会的影响。

  12. 古城文化型景区旅游真实性实证研究——以丽江古城为例%Empirical Research on Tourism Authenticity of Ancient Cultural City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀红

    2011-01-01

    基于旅游真实性理论和对丽江古城文化型景区进行的田野调查分析,探索我国古城文化型景区旅游者的旅游真实性结构情况,并进一步挖掘了古城文化型景区旅游真实性和旅游动机的内在联系.研究发现古城文化型景区旅游真实性总体上表现为客观真实性最高,依次为存在真实性、建构真实性和后现代真实性.古城文化型景区旅游真实性和旅游动机相关性总体上表现为“知识功能”动机、“奖励最大化”动机、“最小化惩罚”动机、“自尊”动机和“自我实现”动机逐步递减趋势;4类不同的旅游真实性与5类不同类型的旅游动机之间的相关性也表现出各自不同的特点.从理论上丰富了国内有关旅游真实性实证定量研究的成果,从实践上对现实的旅游市场研究和基于旅游者的规划活动极具应用价值.%On the basis of tourism authenticity theory and field investigation and analysis of Lijiang ancient city, the paper had explored tour ists ' authenticity, and further revealed the inner relation between tourism authenticity and tourism motivation of ancient cultural cities. It was found that ancient cultural cities generally had the highest objective authenticity, followed by existential, constructive and post-modem authen ticity. As for tourism motivation, motivation of knowledge function, of reward maximization, of punishment minimization, of self-esteem and of self-fulfillment presented to diminish progressively. Relationships between four types of tourism authenticity and five types of tourism motiva tions also varied from each other. It had enriched empirical quantitative research results of domestic tourism authenticity in theory, and provid ed application value for research on realistic tourism market and planning activity based on tourists in practice.

  13. Dance Poem presents Ancient Northwestern Settings and Folle Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WEST of the Yang Pass, a dance poem created and performed by the Lanzhou Song and Dance Troupe, presents the audience with a picture of ancient times and folk customs on the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China. It depicts our ancestors’ staunch will to live, and their pioneering spirit, as well as the splendid traditional culture. The dance poem includes 11 sections: "Prelude," "Ancient Road," "Desert," "Camel Station," "Crescent Moon Spring," "Ancient Castle," "Temple Oil Lamps," "Mogao Grottoes," "Red Willows," "Market," "Ancient Battle Fields," and "Fields." West of the Yang Pass is a dance without particular characters or coherent plot. A group

  14. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  15. Constructing the Special Cultural Villages & Towns and Promoting the Development of Western Rural Cultural Development%建设特色文化村镇促进西部农村文化产业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 张倩

    2012-01-01

    Based on the actual survey and comprehensive research of problems about conserving the cultural ecological soil in the process of urbanization, and having some individual creation, mass production and market introduction of cultural products, it is put forward that under the support of industrial policy, western villages and towns should integrate their western special cultural villages and towns resources into one cultural industry with strong development advantages, and form the intensive development model of rural cultural industry with the combination of local characteristics and the trend of times, and thus improve the development of western rural cultural industry.%在对城市化过程中保存文化生态土壤、进行文化产品的个性化创作与批量化制作及文化产品的市场化推广等问题进行实地考察、综合研究的基础上,提出了西部农村应在产业政策的扶持下,将西部特色文化村镇资源整合为具有发展优势的文化产业,形成具有地方特色与时代潮流的集约式的农村文化产业发展模式,以促进西部农村文化产业的发展。

  16. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  17. Communication Arts in the Ancient World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

    Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

  18. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  19. The Cultural and Natural Heritage in the Western Part of the Republic of Macedonia and Their Impact on the Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Todorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The territory of Western Macedonia covers an area of 10473 km², or 40.7% of the total territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The territory includes Polog, Pelagonia and the Southwest Plan Regions. The cultural and the natural heritage in the western part exceeds the country borders, so some of them are important tourist destinations in the Balkans and Europe. The transformation of the area can be observed through the number of visitors, realized overnight stays, participation of the tourism in the national GDP and their impact on the development of linear and institutional infrastructure in this part of the country.

  20. Social and Cultural Perspective of Chinese and Western Euphemism%中西方委婉语的社会文化透视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑素娟

    2015-01-01

    Although there are many differences between Chinese and western language exchange, there are many differences between Chinese and Western languages. Euphemistic language, it can reach the ideal effect of taboo, reflecting the speaker for ya psychology, psychological compensation, reflecting the culture of a kind of polite, also play a certain to cover up the role. There are also differences between Chinese and Western languages, which reflect the distinct characteristics of Chinese and Western culture. This paper analyzes the characteristics of different national culture reflected by the use of euphemism, and discusses the trend of the change of euphemism in Chinese and Western countries. In order to grasp the correct use of euphemism in the communication of Chinese and Western culture, and strengthen the exchange of Chinese and Western culture.%中西方语言交流中虽然存在许多差异之处,但在中西方语言中都存在委婉语这一语言现象.委婉语的使用可以达到理想的避讳效果,反映了说话者的求雅心理、补偿心理,体现了一种礼貌文化,也发挥着一定的掩饰作用.中西方语言中的委婉语也存在着不同之处,不同的委婉语反映了中西方民族文化的显著特色.本文就通过分析委婉语出现的心理条件,论述委婉语的运用所反映的不同民族文化的特色,并讨论中西方委婉语变迁的趋势.从而把握中西方交流中委婉语的正确使用策略,加强中西方跨文化的交流.

  1. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY WESTERN TRAVELLERS’ CONCEPTION OF THE ARĪM: RESTORING THE CULTURAL COMPLEXITY OF THE IJĀB IN ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faredah Mohsen al-Murahhem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines 19th   century Western travellers’ understanding of the ḥarīm. Focusing in  particular on visual  depictions,  it  investigates  the  misconception  and  misrepresentation  of  the  ḥarīm  in  Orientalists’ paintings and Western culture, using thework of the artist John Frederick Lewis as a main case study. Arguing that such representations oversimplify and fantasise sacred Islamic cultural experience,  this  paper,  as a counterpoint, restores a detailed understanding of the ḥarīm and defines its wider Islamic implication within Arabic culture. Applying etymology and Islamic scripture to the study of architectural design,  this study explores the centrality of the concept of ḥijāb (veil to the organisation of physical space for women in the Islamic home. Written from the perspective of an Arabic Muslim  woman, this study seeks to explore the concept of the ḥarīm from the “Others” perspective. Keyword: Western travellers, Orientalists, Muslim women, ḥarīm, Arabic culture

  2. 从婚礼习俗看中西文化差异%Approaching Chinese-Western Cultural Differences through Wedding Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余琳

    2012-01-01

    婚俗是文化风俗的一部分。中西方在传统婚前习俗、婚礼服饰、婚礼仪式及婚宴等方面存在着很大的差异。对中西婚俗文化进行比较和研究,探讨不同文化背景下的民俗差异,有利于中国文化走向世界,西方文化走进中国。%Wedding custom is one part of culture and custom. There are great differences between Chinese and Western weddings in terms of pre-wedding custom, wedding clothing, wedding ceremony, wedding feast, and so on. We should conduct comparison and research on Chinese and Western wedding customs, so as to explore differences caused by different cultural backgrounds, which will be helpful for Chinese culture to be known by the world, while Western culture to be known by Chinese.

  3. Application of English Movie in the Chinese and Western Culture Communication%英语电影在中西方文化交流中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洋海

    2015-01-01

    英语电影是西方英语国家进行外界交流的重要手段,英语国家通过英语电影这种媒介传播手段实现了文化交流的基本目的。中西方文化交流是促进世界文化一体化发展的重要手段,但是实际交流过程中仍存在较大的局限性,促进英语电影在中西方文化交流中的运用是英语国家发展的重要手段。%English movie is the important measure of communicating with the outside world for western English-speaking countries. Through the medium transmission method of English movie, English-speaking countries realize the basic purpose of cultural communication. The Chinese and western culture communication is an important measure to promote the development of world cultural integration. But there are still large limitations in the process of actual communication. How to promote the application of English movie in the Chinese and western culture communication is the important measure for the development of English-speaking countries.

  4. The Utilization of Historical Data and Geospatial Technology Advances at the Jornada Experimental Range to Support Western America Ranching Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Havstad

    2011-09-01

    that afford the opportunity to obtain high (5 cm resolution data now required for rangeland monitoring. The Jornada team is now a leader in civil UAV applications in the USA. The scientific advances at the Jornada in fields such as remote sensing can be traced to the original Western America ranching culture that established the Jornada in 1912 and which persists as an important influence in shaping research directions today.

  5. The rams horn in western history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  6. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  7. Ancient Archways and Ancestral Halls in Shexian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    SHEXIAN, located in the southern foothills of Huangshan Mountain in Anhui Province, is an ancient county which was once the seat of Huizhou Prefecture. The area is also known as the birthplace of Anhui merchants. With a long history, favorable geographic position and a unique culture created mainly by those rich Anhui merchants, Shexian has retained a large number of cultural relics, especially ancient archways,

  8. Ancient Marital Rites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Clearly defined rites governing speech and actions dominated both the social and domestic activities of ancient Chinese people. Rites not only dominated the lives of men, but were also prominent in the lives of women.

  9. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  10. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  11. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  12. 文化保守主义思潮与中西体育之争的文化思考%Cultural Reflection of Cultural Conservatism and Sino-western Sports Vontroversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华

    2012-01-01

    Since modem times, the communication between Chinese and western sports, mixing and conflicts have always close relations with modern Chinese society. But the cultural conservatism complex existed in different periods of modern Chinese society has been play an important guiding role in leading the development of sports in China. Cultural conservatism has the important meaning in correcting the western sports excessive dilation and expansion, in carrying forward the national sports culture, and keeping the world sports culture diversity. Meanwhile, due to that cultural conservatism itself has the cultural logic, it makes Chinese and western sports cultural exchange appear nationalism and cultural anxiety conditions.%近代以来,中西体育之间的交流、融合与冲突始终与近代中国社会所处的情景有着紧密的关系。而近代中国社会中所存在的文化保守主义情结在不同时期内一直对中国体育的发展起着重要的引导作用。文化保守主义在纠正西方体育的过度膨胀与扩张、弘扬民族体育文化、保持世界体育文化多样性等方面具有重要意义。但同时需要注意的是,由于文化保守主义自身所具有的文化逻辑,使得中西体育文化交流中会出现民族主义和文化焦虑的状况。

  13. Space Archaeology for military-agricultural colonies (tuntian) on the ancient Silk Road, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-04-01

    The ancient Silk Road, a pioneering work in the history of human civilization, contributed greatly to the cultural exchange between China and the West. It is the precious cultural heritage should be shared by the whole humanity. Although there were countless archaeological sites along the ancient Silk Road, most of the existing researches just focused on the sites, lacking the overall understanding of the relationships between sites and their supporting environment. Space archaeology provides a new viewpoint for investigating, discovering, reconstructing and documenting the archaeological sites under different scales. The tuntian system was a state-promoted system of military-agricultural colonies, which originated in the Western Han dynasty (206 BC-9 AD). All the imperial dynasties in Chinese history adopted the practice of tuntian to cultivate and guard frontier areas as an important state policy for developing border areas and consolidating frontier defence. This study describes the use of Chinese GF-1 imagery, LS-7 ETM+ data and ASTER GDEMV2 products to uncover an ancient irrigated canal-based tuntian system located in Milan oasis adjacent to the ancient Kingdom of Loulan at the southern margin of the Tarim Basin. The GF-1 and LS-7 data were first processed following atmospheric and geometric correction and enhanced by Gram Schmidt pansharpening. The linear archaeological traces of tuntian irrigation canals were extracted from the morphologically enhanced GF-1 PAN imagery using our proposed automatic method which adopts mathematical morphological processing and Canny edge operator. Compared with the manual extractions, the overall detection accuracy was better than 90%. In addition, the functions of the trunk, primary, secondary and tertiary canals were each analyzed and the spatial extent of Milan's tuntian landscape were analyzed with the help of the NDVI derived from the GF-1 multispectral imagery. The effective irrigated tuntian area was estimated to be 2

  14. Cultural perspectives of land and livelihoods: A case study of Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in far-Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming Lam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on human displacement caused by conservation have increasingly questioned: firstly, its justification in the name of biodiversity conservation; and secondly, the effectiveness of compensation in preventing impoverishment. Land compensation is widely practiced and it is a crucial part of contemporary people-centred conservation resettlement strategies. In this article, using the case of the Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in Nepal, I argue that policy-makers′ belief that the social impacts of dislocation can be properly mitigated by economic-focused resettlement programmes alone is a myth. They have ignored the close relationships between place, social networks and livelihoods. A study of a displaced indigenous community known as Rana Tharus in far-western Nepal shows that a strong sense of nostalgia and homesickness is evident in this community. Displaced Ranas continue to idealise their old abode as ′paradise on Earth′ while experiencing their new home as only promoting poverty, helplessness and danger. Their anger is due to the fact that they no longer have the mutual help or support from their neighbours as they once did in their old abode. From the Ranas′ point of view, the old land had both high economic and social value. The study demonstrates that the act of displacement is a violent disruption of a community′s daily social contacts. The destruction of the Ranas′ social networks has not only led to their dispossession and threatened their livelihoods, but has also made them vulnerable, because these traditional social webs provided important alternative livelihoods in a rural economy. As a consequence, it has further reinforced their sense of nostalgia. The cultural and social meanings of land must be obtained prior to implementing any resettlement policies. The study indicates that if displacement is truly unavoidable for conserving biodiversity, more comprehensive rehabilitation resettlement policies than those

  15. Cross -Cultural Comparative Study on Chinese and Western Views of “Homosexuality”%中西方同性恋观的跨文化比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金丽珍

    2014-01-01

    Homosexuality has a long history in Chinese culture and western culture .It is known that Chinese homosexuality and western homosexuality have something in common and something different . This paper aims to explore the same things and the different ones in these two cultures ,analyze their cultural roots and discuss their cultural significance ,w hich help to reduce misunderstanding and misrea‐ding about homosexuality and protect homosexuals’ rights .%同性恋现象由来已久,同性恋文化在中西方社会的发展具有共同点也存在着差异。本文探讨了中西方文化下的同性恋现象的显著共同点以及明显差异,并从文化视角探究其共同性与差异性的历史文化根源以及文化意义。

  16. Review on the Meaning of Cultural Industry in Western Academia%西方学术界文化产业含义的研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭运进

    2011-01-01

    The western scholars have different cognitions of the connotation and the definition of denotation of the concept of cultural industry, but they reach a consensus on the core issues. Generally speaking, the concept of western culture industry mainly refers to provide the community with the activities of cultural products and services. When the westem scholars give a definition of cultural industry, they emphasize the internal relationship, creative features, social significance and spiritual value of cultural industry.%西方学者对文化产业概念内涵和外延的界定存在着较大的差别,但在一些核心问题上他们的观点又是一致的。大体说来,西方文化产业的概念主要是指为社会提供文化产品和服务的活动的集合。西方学者在界定文化产业的概念时,注重强调文化产业内部的联系、产业的创意特征及产业的社会意义和精神价值。

  17. A Brief Analysis of the Taboo Numbers between Chinese and Western Cultures%中西方禁忌数字之略谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景

    2011-01-01

    由于语言特征、宗教文化、神话传说以及民族文化心理的差异,禁忌数字在中西方文化中并不完全相同.同一个数字在一种文化中得到人们喜欢,却有可能遭到另一种文化的厌恶.对于中西方禁忌数字的了解不仅可以加深不同文化间的理解,而且对于跨文化交流大有裨益.%Taboo numbers are different between Chinese and western cultures because of their diverse language characteristics, religions, legends and cultural psychology. A same number favored in one culture may be disgusted in another. The study of the Chinese and western taboo numbers will not only enhance the understanding between the two cultures but also smooth the cross-cultural communication.

  18. Chinese Ancient Coins Academic Exchange Delegation Visits France and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>To further strengthen nongovernmental cultural exchanges,a Chinese delegation visited France and Austria from September 23 to 30for academic exchange on ancient coin.They had fruitful exchanges with coin experts of the two countries at the invitation of the France-China Culture and Art Exchange Centre and the Austria-China Friendship Association for Culture and Art Exchange.

  19. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2016-12-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  20. Teaching Career Education in Social Studies, Grades 10-12. World Culture, Ancient and Medieval History, Modern History. Resource Manual No. 314.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Mary Pat; Berninger, Roger

    Activities and teaching strategies proposed in this resource manual are intended to help social studies teachers at the high school level in adapting the career education philosophy to the classroom. The manual consists of two parts. Part 1 identifies goals and objectives of career education and various social studies subjects (world culture,…

  1. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  2. Effect of Buddhist Awareness on Ancient Japanese Fictions and Culture Cause%日本古代小说的佛学烙印与文化成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾艳军

    2011-01-01

    Buddhist awareness had a large influence on ancient Japanese fictions, the Pure Land, Anicca and Karma are three most typical aspects. The Pure Land belief is the mainstream of Japanese Buddhism with obvious characteristics of "this life". In Heian tales, Pure Land becomes spiritual support to redeem people from the suffering. In Middle - Age war tales, Pure Land belief is closely linked with death, as people' s ultimate concern for a happy afterlife in war turmoil. Anicca, an important factor in Middle -Age war tales, is not only a perceptual sigh for impermanent human lives but also theoretically explains the social law, that is to say,"when a thing reaches its extreme, it reverses its course", what' s more, it becomes warriers views of life and death stemmed from personal experiences. The history of Japanese fictions is permeated with the thought of Karma. Karma, Samsara, Reincarnation and other Buddhism factors bred Japanese popular teratology. These teratologies shows a trend to combine with the Confucian viewpoint of encouraging virtue and punishing evils.%日本古代小说大都具有浓郁的佛学色彩,净土、无常、果报是最典型的三个侧面。净土思想是日本佛教的主流且具有明显的现世特征:平安物语的净土信仰成为救赎宫廷贵族脱离苦难的精神支柱;中世战记物语的净土信仰多与死亡紧密相连,成为对战乱中人们渴求来世幸福的终极关怀。无常是日本小说尤其是中世物语中最浓墨重彩的一笔,无常既是对人间永无常住的感性叹息,也是对盛者必衰社会法则的理论解释,更成为武家社会切身感受的“生死观”。因果报应思想贯穿日本小说史的始终,它与宿世、轮回、转生等观念互为表里,成为孕育日本怪异小说流行的土壤之一,并表现出与儒家劝惩观念相结合的世俗化趋势。

  3. The Universal Constitutionalism in an Age of Religious Diversity. Western Secularism Tested by “New” Cultural Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alicino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An abridged version of this article (reported by Prof. Nicola Colaianni, University of Bari “Aldo Moro” was presented at the Seminar on “Secularism and Liberal Constitutionalism”, held at the University of LUISS “Guido Carli” (Rome on 6th July 2010.This article is due to be published in the International Review of Sociology, in 2011. SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. Relation-Collaboration between the State and Churches in Constitutional Democracies – 3. The laicité à la française Tested by a Deprivatised Religious Process – 3.1. The French Rigid Secularism. Freedom (of Religion through the State – 4. Canada’s Open Secularism. The  question of Religious-Based Family Law Disputes – 4.1 Reasonable Accommodation and “New” Religious Nomoi Groups – 5. Collaboration-Relation between the State and Churches in Italy – 5.1. The Italian Secularism Tested by the New “Religious Geography” – 6. Conclusion. Abstract Under the pressing process of immigration and globalisation many Western constitutional democracies have moved from a number of religions, sharing a common culture, to today's age of diversity. As opposed to the past, the current democracies are facing the lack of overlapping consensus over the basic constitutional laws: namely, the meaning and the scope of freedom of religion, secularism, the separation Church-State, equal treatment and the rule of law. This is because individuals often come to adopt their basic values by very different ways. The nature, scope and force of such values are likely to be affected by competing and, sometimes, contested fundamental values and worldviews. From here stems the pressing tension – or dilemma – between “unity” and “diversity”. This essay starts with general considerations about the freedom of religion principle, strictly related with the “separation” as well as “collaboration” between secular States and Churches; then the author analyses three case

  4. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  5. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  6. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  7. Social Construction of Cultural Identity Vulnerability in Ancient Town and Its Significance:A New Mode of Pluralistic Discourse Analysis%古镇文化身份脆弱性的社会建构及其意义--多元话语分析模式的尝试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜辽; 苏勤

    2014-01-01

    Economic identity is the mainstream of the current social identity. Cultural identity, based on imagine cultural community, reflects common historical experience and common cultural codes. Place is the eternal sub-ject of human geography. Heritage is a hot debate topic in current society, which retains the"dead world"de-sire. Cultural identity of heritage provides a way to let people know about personal life experiences and under-stand more social and cultural changes. Cultural identity of place is characterization of social-culture practice. Taking historic water town of the Changjiang River-Zhouzhuang as a case study, this article choses pluralis-tic discourse analysis method in the guidance of constructivist paradigm, and analyzes the vulnerability perfor-mances of cultural identity in ancient town. The results show that:government, developer, media, expert, tour-ist immigrant and local residents construct the cultural identity vulnerability in an ancient town. The govern-ment is dominant force in the local social and economic development, fulfilling the dual role as decision mak-ers and investors and maintaining culture identity of Zhouzhuang effectively. But traditional culture identity de-viates when tourism enters into a mature period in the context of market economy. Developers (especially en-trepreneurs) are outstanding creative destroyer, with an important quality of commercialization, which forced culture producers into a form of market competition, and strengthened the process of creative destruction in the field of aesthetic to meet the needs of tourist gaze, deconstructd the core meaning of traditional culture. Most of the heritage tourists in China did not take the initiative to pursue traditional culture, consciousness and atti-tude change since entering the postmodern. They abandoned stability of aesthetic modernity, praised all the commotion, distorted traditional cultural identity of ancient town to certain extent. Immigrants displace local

  8. A Research on Color Concept of Traditional Chinese Painting from the Color of the Ancient Painted Pottery of Majiayao Culture%从马家窖彩陶的色彩论中国画色彩观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万成

    2012-01-01

    this context analyze the color concept from the color on the ancient painted pottery of Maji- ayao culture, pigments of it and the way of painting, which put forward the decorative color concept of Chinese painting. After bimillennium, the color concept of Chinese painting is developing on the way of subjective color, the separation between color and ink, mutual transformation of black and white.%本文从马家窑彩陶的色彩、颜料构成、描绘方式出发,分析其色彩背后的文化观念,并进一步指出其色彩的装饰性和文化抽象性对之后中国画色彩观念的影响。此后两千余年,中国画的色彩一直是沿着主观施色、色不碍墨,黑白相生的方向发展的。

  9. 渭河流域东部全新世环境演变与古文化发展的关系研究%Relationship between the Holocene environmental change and ancient cultural evolution in the eastern Weihe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾耀锋; 庞奖励; 黄春长; 毛龙江; 史新民

    2012-01-01

    在对渭河流域东部全新世黄土剖面磁化率、粒度、Rb/Sr、CaCO3等气候指标测定分析的基础上,结合已测定的光释光(OSL)年龄和古文化研究的最新成果,探讨了该区环境演变与人类古文化演进的历史及其相互关系。研究发现,在9.34~6.77 ka BP全新世最适宜的气候条件下,在7.80~7.30 ka BP出现了老官台文化,之后发育了仰韶早期文化;在全新世中期6.77~5.48 ka BP干冷气候初期出现了仰韶文化最繁荣的庙底沟类型文化;中后期随资源环境的持续恶化,该区出现了仰韶文化衰落的西王村类型文化;在全新世中晚期的5.48~3.12 ka BP气候再次发生好转推动了该区龙山文化的发展;4.60~3.76 ka BP期间频繁发生的洪水事件可能进一步强化了人地关系,并进而推动了该区文化进入夏商人类文明时期;3.12 ka BP以来趋于干冷的气候在推动该区人类文明进一步发展的同时,人类活动对环境影响的强度和范围也日益加大。渭河流域古文化得以延续发展至今,一方面说明气候环境的变化并未超越先民适应能力的范围,另一方面也说明渭河流域具有先民维持生存和发展的优越资源环境条件。%Based on systematic measurement and analysis of magnetic susceptibility,grain size,Rb/Sr ratio and CaCO3 for Laoguantai(LGT) profile in eastern Weihe River Basin,and combining the dated optical luminescence(OSL) ages and the latest achievements of ancient culture in this area,the paper investigate the histories of the environment change and ancient cultural evolution and their relationship during the Holocene.There bred the Laoguantai culture in about 7.80-7.30 ka BP in conditions of the Holocene climatic optimum(during 9.34-6.77 ka BP),and the early Yangshao culture developed subsequently.In the early middle Holocene of 6.77-5.48 ka BP,the most prosperous of the Miaodigou type of Yangshao culture emerged in conditions of dry

  10. 西域文化博物馆的结构布局及其文化意蕴%Western Region Culture Museum Structural Configuration and Its Cultural Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖肇羽

    2012-01-01

    Western region culture museum of the Talimu University is presently equipped with the synthesis exhibition the central hall western region human geography sand table, the foreword hall five big civilizations, the environment civilization and the celebrity portrait inscription two big corridors, the special exhibition divides into the prehistoric culture, the tribal grouping tribal group culture, the religious culture, stations troops to open up wasteland cultural, the grave culture, the cultural fusion, the academic source and course, the silk road calligraphy and painting work place, the cultural studio nine big exhibition halls, the general history exhibition divides into the pre-qin, two Chinese, the Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Dai, the Tang Dynasty, the five dynasties ten countries, Yuan Ming, the Qing Dynasty, the near modern exhibition hall nine big exhibition halls, total 22 organic constituents. The western region culture museum is for the purpose of to common people omni-directional demonstration western region that rich charm, arousing the heart and soul multicultural source, the whole presents the well-established historical vein as far as possible, broad and profound civilized inside story. And attempts take the literature picture, the cultural relic exhibit article, the scene restoration Trinity form to transform the cultural heritage symbol as the mark of visual performances, the display makes the past serve, the present, the principle to the people to demonstrate, the western region culture mystery and the aoncieness.%塔里木大学西域文化博物馆现设有综合陈列的中央大厅西域人文地理沙盘、序厅五大文明、环境文明与名人像赞的两大长廊,专题陈列分为史前文化、族群文化、宗教文化、屯垦文化、墓葬文化、文化融合、学术源流、丝路书画坊、文化演播室九大展厅,通史陈列分为先秦、两汉、魏晋南北朝、隋代、唐代、五代十国、元

  11. Etruscan Culture Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    EARLY this year an exhibition on the ancient civilization of Etruria was held at the Beijing-based China Millennium Monument.The theme of the exhibition was Etruscan Culture and on show were the most representative cultural and historical relics of this ancient civilization unearthed in the past 20 years. The 349 exhibits from various

  12. FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING ON THE BASIS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHINESE AND WESTERN CULTURES%基于中西文化心理差异的外语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕; 胡猛

    2005-01-01

    Foreign language teaching encounters difficulties in terms of learners, psychological differences between Chinese and western cultures. In this article, the major manifestations and their reasons for those cultural differences are discussed. Therefore, foreign language teachers are encouraged to cultivate the learners to improve their cross-cultural awareness so as to lessen the negative influences, creating the optimal foreign language teaching approaches in the background of Chinese culture.

  13. Ancient Arts of Minahasa: A Public History Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuda B. Tangkilisan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Hetty Palm (1958, there are no people like the Minahassan that experienced a tremendous change in the nineteenth century. The changes had a great impact on their way of life, including arts, as a result of Christianization. In the opinion of the zending (priests, their ancient arts did not suit the new faith. They abandoned their traditional arts and as the consequence, the next generation lost their historical ties with their ancestors in the field of arts. They adopted a new way of life of the Western (Dutch culture. Accordingly, when they become a part of the new state, they considered it important to revitalize the old traditions. However, they had problems as there are no relics from the past. Now they have two options: to cultivate the old or to invent a new tradition. This article discusses the problem and its development from a Public History perspective. The early finding shows that the Minahasans are aware that tradition can get along with the modernity in harmony as their cultural identity. It also deals with the challenge this had brought to traditional historical authority.

  14. 秦东古书院发展及教育文化功能浅说%The Development of Ancient Academy and the Function of Education and Culture in Qin Dong Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Academy of ancient China , as cultural and education organization started from the Tang Dynasty to build -up, came to its prosperous stage in the Song Dynasty , went through the Yuan , Ming and Qing Dynasties , and until the late Qing Dynasty it converted to the modern new-style school .After the Song Dynasty , because of the center of the culture shifted to the south , it leads to Shaanxi lost the status of cultural center gradually .The academy development relatively has lagged behind and got some develop-ment during the Ming and Qing Dynasties .The development of academy was slightly better in Qin Dong area .This area successively appeared more than 50 different level colleges which all promoted the local education greatly , especially in promoting the local edu-cation level , talents cultivation , ethical culture and the library and publication activity .in modern times , and the academy also con-verted to the new-style school .%书院作为中国古代特有的文化教育组织形式,始于唐而盛于宋,历经元、明、清,直至清末转变为近代新式学堂。两宋以后,文化重心的南移使陕西逐渐失去了文化中心地位,书院发展也相对滞后,明清时期才得到相对发展。秦东地区书院发展相对于陕西其他地区略占优势,前后出现过50多所水平不一的书院,它们对秦东地方文化教育发展有很大的促进作用,尤其在促进地方教育水平提升、人才培养、习俗伦理教化、藏书刻书出版等方面成就斐然,近代顺大势而转变为新式学堂。

  15. The cross-culture impact on managing business: an evidence from culture, performance evaluation practices, and trust in a Western Multinational Company’s subsidiary in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Purwohedi, Unggul

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to investigate the cross-cultural influence on organizational practices, performance evaluation process and trust on supervisors in a Multinational Company (MNC) in Indonesia. Amongst studies of national culture and MNCs there appears to have been no studies investigating the interaction between cross-culture, performance evaluation, and trust. Therefore, I conducted a case study research in one French MNC in Indonesia to understand this process. I int...

  16. Can cognitive dissonance methods developed in the West for combatting the ‘thin ideal’ help slow the rapidly increasing prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the ‘thin ideal’ that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed. PMID:24991176

  17. Stars Influence on the Earth in Maya Culture: Stars and Planets in Maya Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican Culture of Maya’s was one of the ancient and advanced cultures of the American continent and they influenced other Amerindian peoples. The life of Maya people, of the Earth itself and of the Universe is set and constructed around Maya Calendar and has a cyclic character as a direct influence of the stars. Many centuries the Western civilization with the its linear Calendar had not accepted the ideas of the possible influence of the stars and planets to peoples lives. The end of the last century and the beginning of XXI’s had started to demonstrate the opposite. The present work tries to show the process of meeting and intersection of the ancient ideas of Maya civilization and some of new ideas from the modern sciences.

  18. ENDANGERED ETHNIC CULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The ancient traditions of many minority groups across China face extinction because of economic development On March 22, a group of scholars from Canada and China met at Qinghai Nationalities Institute in the western Province of Qinghai to exchangeideas

  19. The ancient Greek promiscuity

    OpenAIRE

    Čvorović Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Non-reproductive sex, including homosexuality, is a by-product: such behavior would be a consequence of selection for male sexual eagerness due to the significantly less parental investment in the past. Here we argue that the key element in restraining such behavior is ancestral: traditions that discourage promiscuity. The ancient Greece is selected to illustrate this thesis.

  20. The ancient Greek promiscuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-reproductive sex, including homosexuality, is a by-product: such behavior would be a consequence of selection for male sexual eagerness due to the significantly less parental investment in the past. Here we argue that the key element in restraining such behavior is ancestral: traditions that discourage promiscuity. The ancient Greece is selected to illustrate this thesis.

  1. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  2. Beijing Ancient Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunli

    The Beijing Ancient Observatory is now the only complete example of an observatory from the seventeenth century in the world. It is a monument to the prosperity of astronomy in traditional China. Its instruments are emblems of the encounter and amalgamation of Chinese and European Science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  3. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  4. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  5. Cloning Ancient Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    west of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in Zhongshan Park, there stand several ancient cypress trees, each more than 1,000 years old. Their leafy crowns are all more than 20 meters high, while four have trunks that are 6 meters in circumference. The most unique of these

  6. ANCIENT INDIAN BACTERIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Sircar, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this paper to disseminate the formation of basic knowledge of bacteriology in ancient India. In the aetiology of many diseases microbial relation plays a role which was realized by the modern medicine only a century ago.

  7. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  8. Analysing from the original advertising translation between Chinese and western cultural differences%从原创广告翻译探析中西文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦琳

    2014-01-01

    With the development of Chinese society and economy, the advertising industry develops quickly. Especial y the original advertisement translation is more and more attention, because it is facing not only the transformation of language, more assuming the task of cultural exchanges and expand the market. Only real y understand Chinese and western cultural differences, can be directly touch the heart of the foreign people, realize the sale of goods. This article discusses the key to the original advertisement translation from the view of western cultural differences.%随着中国社会和经济的发展,广告业发展的速度飞快。尤其是原创广告的翻译所受到的关注越来越多,因为其面临的不仅是语言的转换,更担负着文化的交流与拓宽市场的任务。只有真正了解中西方文化差异,才可以直接打动异域人的心灵,实现商品的销售。本文从中西方文化差异的角度入手,重点对原创广告的翻译进行探讨。

  9. A Cultural Analysis of the Difference of Vegetarian Concept between China and Western countries%中西素食观念异同的文化探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武保勤

    2016-01-01

    Many social phenomena can be dug out the deep reason from the perspective of culture. Vegetarianism is an important revolution in human diet field. Chinese and Western vegetarianism show different forms and characteristics influenced by geographical environment, production mode, historical and cultural factors. Based on the differences of vegetarian concept between China and Western countries, this thesis tries to view the deep reasons of it from the perspective of religion, moralities, health care so as to know the social phenomenon and at the same time promote the mutual understanding between these two cultures.%很多社会现象都可以从文化角度发掘出其深层次原因。素食是人类饮食领域的一场重大变革,受地理环境、生产方式、历史文化等因素影响,中西方素食呈现出不同的表现形式及特点。文章以中西素食观念差异为立足点,试从宗教、道德、养生三个方面管窥中西素食观念异同的深层次原因,在了解这种社会现象的同时增进两种文化的相互理解。

  10. 熊熊革命炉火中的乡土文化精神寂灭——贾平凹小说《古炉》中的符号象征系统%Disillusion of Homeland Culture in the Cultural Revolution Movement——Symbols System in Jia Pingwa's Novel The Ancient Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚斌; 韩瑞婷

    2012-01-01

    Jia Pingwa in his novel The Ancient Stove employs three symbols——the symbol of regional culture,the symbol of organization culture,the symbol of life culture——to describe the Cultural Revolution Movement occurred in the last half of the 20th century vividly and authentically.Actually,the movement has changed the Chinese social progress totally.The author reveals that the movement is like the flame of stove to make Chinese homeland culture disillusioned,which includes homeland culture,clan culture and family culture.It is the movement that makes Chinese people form a brand-new view about value of life and death.%贾平凹的小说《古炉》从地域文化符号、组织文化符号、生活文化符号三个符号象征系统,通过对20世纪下半叶彻底改变中国社会发展进程的无产阶级"文化大革命"运动的历史还原,向人们揭示出,这场运动就像点燃了熊熊不息的社会炉火,对中国人造成了乡土文化精神的寂灭,主要包括家园乡土文化、家族乡土文化和家庭乡土文化精神的寂灭。可以说,正是这场运动,使得中国人形成了一种全新的生死价值观。

  11. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  12. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...

  13. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the Food Related...... Lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument...

  14. Influence of culture is on development of corporations (on the example of corporations of the USA, Japan, countries of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stoyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of features of elements of economic culture of the USA, Japan, countries of Western Europe is given. Generalized experience of different countries and different companies from making of ethics of внутріфірмових and міжфірмових business relationships in the контектсі use of experience for the Ukrainian enterprises

  15. How Do We Think about Death?--A Cultural Glance of Superstitious Ideas from Chinese and Western Ghost Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli

    2009-01-01

    Superstitious ideas are always in people's life in spite of scientific and technological advancement. Hungry Ghost Festival in China, Halloween in some western countries and Day of the Dead in Mexico are three religious festivals which are observed every year. They reveal people's idea about ghosts and spirits after death. They also include…

  16. Influence of plant culture conditions on efficacy of foliar applications of entomopathogenic fungi against western flower thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of greenhouse tests was conducted to assess the efficacy of foliar applications of two commercially available entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Metarhizium brunneum strain F52, against western flower thrips infesting potted impatiens grown with subirrigation. Unformu...

  17. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  18. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  19. Place-based Pedagogy and Culturally Responsive Assessment in Hawai`i: Transforming Curriculum Development and Assessment by Intersecting Hawaiian and Western STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, P. W. U.

    2016-12-01

    Context/Purpose: The Hawaiian Islands span 1500 miles. Age, size, altitude and isolation produced diverse topographies, weather patterns, and unique ecosystems. Around 500 C.E. Polynesians arrived and developed sustainable social ecosystems, ahupua`a, extending from mountain-top to reef. Place-based ecological knowledge was key to personal identity and resource management that sustained 700,000 people at western contact. But Native Hawaiian students are persistently underrepresented in science. This two-year mixed methods study asks if professional development (PD) can transform teaching in ways that support K12 Native Hawaiian students' engagement and learning in STEM. Methods: Place-based PD informed by theories of structure and agency (Sewell, 1992) and cultural funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992) explicitly intersected Hawaiian and western STEM knowledge and practices. NGSS and Nā Hopena A`o, general learner outcomes that reflect Hawaiian culture and values provided teachers with new schemas for designing curriculum and assessment through the lens of culture and place. Data sources include surveys, teacher and student documents, photographs. Results: Teachers' lessons on invasive species, water, soils, Hawaiian STEM, and sustainability and student work showed they learned key Hawaiian terms, understood the impact of invasive species on native plants and animals, felt stronger senses of responsibility, belonging, and place, and preferred outdoor learning. Survey results of 21 4th graders showed Native Hawaiian students (n=6) were more interested in taking STEM and Hawaiian culture/language courses, more concerned about invasive species and culturally important plant and animals, but less able to connect school and family activities than non-Hawaiian peers (n=15). Teacher agency is seen in their interest in collaborating across schools to develop ahupua`a based K12 STEM curricula. Interpretation and Conclusion: Findings suggest PD

  20. Extinct 244Pu in Ancient Zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Grenville; Harrison, T. Mark; Holland, Greg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Gilmour, Jamie

    2004-10-01

    We have found evidence, in the form of fissiogenic xenon isotopes, for in situ decay of 244Pu in individual 4.1- to 4.2-billion-year-old zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia. Because of its short half-life, 82 million years, 244Pu was extinct within 600 million years of Earth's formation. Detrital zircons are the only known relics to have survived from this period, and a study of their Pu geochemistry will allow us to date ancient metamorphic events and determine the terrestrial Pu/U ratio for comparison with the solar ratio.

  1. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  2. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  3. Ambrosia of Ancients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2004-01-01

    IN 196 B.C. a Chinese philosopher observedto his ruler: "A lord's to ppriority is the welfare of his subjects; to the peopie, eating is foremost." Chinese ancients perceived clearly the essentiality of grain cultivation to the survival of the population and country as a whole. This is apparent in the premillennial term for "country" -sheji literally translated as god of land and grain.

  4. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng; Huang, Guang; Sørensen, Bjarne T; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2011-04-01

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the food related lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument, in which a number of dimensions of the original instrument had to be omitted. This revised instrument was tested for statistical robustness and used as a basis for the derivation of consumer segments. Construct validity of the instrument was then investigated by profiling the segments in terms of consumer values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern replicates partly those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed consistent value-attitude-behaviour profiles. The results also suggest which dimensions may be missing in the instrument in a more comprehensive instrument adapted to Chinese conditions, most notably a broader treatment of eating out activities.

  5. The Influence of Chinese Food Culture on Western Diet Custom%中国饮食文化对西方日常食俗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜

    2012-01-01

    饮食文化具有强大的超越国界的包容性,中国饮食文化也影响了西方人的饮食生活。西方日常食俗是西方饮食文化的重要组成部分,当前,西方日常饮食中积极吸收了一些来自中国的饮食品种,同时,一些中国的饮食器具逐步被西方人所接受和使用,丰富和方便了西方人的饮食生活。%Chinese food culture has great influence on the westemers' diet, which goes beyond national boundaries. As an important part of western food culture, western diet custom has gradually accepted some kinds of Chinese food as well as cooking utensils, which makes westerners' daily life richer and more convenient.

  6. The Analysis and Annotation of Cultural Landscape in Tea Horse Road:Planning and Design Strategies of Tea Horse Ancient Town in Lincang%茶马古道文化景观的解读与诠释——临沧茶马古镇规划设计探略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙彬; 戴翔

    2011-01-01

    Territory cultural landscape is one of the basic resources for tourism development, and to condense and present the characteristics of territory cultural landscape is an important source for tourism area planning and design. The paper takes Tea horse ancient town in Lincang of Yunnan as an example, analyzes and summarizes the characteristics of territory cultural landscape in Tea horse road through the perspectives of material cultural landscape and non-material cultural landscape, then it proposes the strategies of design and planning of Tea horse ancient town.%特定的地域文化景观是旅游开发所依托的重要资源之一,而对地域文化景观特征的提取与呈现是旅游区规划设计中的重要思路.该文以云南临沧茶马古镇规划设计为例,从物质文化景观与非物质文化景观两个层面入手,对茶马古道文化景观的特征进行了分析与解读,并结合临沧当地的自然人文条件,形成了临沧茶马古镇旅游区的规划设计策略.

  7. The Roles Played by Western Missionaries in the Spreading of Western Culture and Cross-cultural Communication%西方传教士在传播西方文化以及跨文化交流中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云鹤; 戚健

    2011-01-01

    作为特殊历史时期存在的一个特殊群体,传教士在跨文化交流中起到了特殊的作用。传教士所起的作用可从近代来华传教士所产生的文化效应,传教士的文化背景对跨文化交流的影响以及中国的历史背景对跨文化交流的需求这三方面来作分析。我们应以科学理智的眼光看待传教士这一特殊的群体,对宗教文化、传统文化和社会经济发展进行综合分析和思考,客观分析作为文化使者的传教士在跨文化交流中所起的作用。%As a special group in the special historical period,Western missionaries played special roles in spreading Western culture and intercultural communication.This article analyzes the roles played by the missionaries who acted as messengers from the following aspects: the cultural effects brought about by the Western missionaries during modern China;the missionaries'cultural background which effected on the Cross-cultural Communication;China's demand for cross-cultural communication during the special historical era.

  8. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  9. Kawabata Literature Fusion of Eastern and Western Cultures%融合东西文化的川端文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文娟

    2012-01-01

    川端康成是日本新感觉派的代表作家之一。1968年,通过《雪国》、《古都》、《千只鹤》等作品,获得了诺贝尔文学奖。川端康成面向于改革传统的文学技法和表现形式,注重现实的感觉,把欧美现代派的小说技法和日本的传统文化很好的融合起来。川端文学在具备民族个性的同时,也具备了世界性的意义,川端文学以及新感觉派文学给中国文坛带来了很大的影响。%Yasunari Kawabata is one of the representatives of Japanese New Sensation School. In 1968, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature by "Snow Country", "Ancient Capital," "One thousand Cranes" and other works. Kawabata reforms the traditional lit- erary writing techniques and pays more attention to the reality, and fuses the modem writing craftsmanship with Japanese traditional cul ture. Kawabata literature reflects not only the national identity, but has a global significance. Therefore, Kawabata literature and Japa nese New Sensation School literature bring great influence to the Chinese literature in the 1980s.

  10. PIXE and INAA studies on ancient potteries from Guangfulin relics in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site in Shanghai. From the external features of these potteries, archeologists can classify them into two different cultural types: Liangzhu culture (local culture) and a new culture which might be derived elsewhere, but they can not recognize whether they were produced in the same place. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were used to measure the chemical compositions of the samples and the results were analyzed using multivariate statistics. We found that the two methods can complement each other and their database can be mutually referenced in the study of ancient potteries. Experimental results show that the compositions of the potteries from the two cultural types are different, which means that the materials for ancient potteries of new culture originate from elsewhere. This supports the archaeologists' speculation that a group of ancient people migrated to Shanghai from some other places 4000 years ago.

  11. 108 WESTERN INFLUENCE ON CHINESE AND NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    western cultures and globalization; and as a result of these, ... In Nigeria, westernization is seen as the effects of western invasion and colonization on some native societies of the world which had both positive and negative impacts. Nigerians.

  12. Ancient and modern women in the "Woman's World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Isobel

    2009-01-01

    Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.

  13. The Second National Research Conference “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turko-Tatar States of Western Siberia” (Kurgan, 17–18 April 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Maslyuzhenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of the Second National Research Conference “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turko-Tatar States of Western Siberia”, which was held in Kurgan on 17th–18th April 2014. 38 researchers from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine participated at the Conference. The Conference was focused on several topics. On the first day, the Conference started with the issues of the Shiban’s ulus history and a role of the Shibanids in the history of the Golden Horde, including the issue of the borders of these lands, the ulus of Jochi’s place in its administrative structure, the participation of representatives of the dynasty in the events of the Great Zamyatnya (i.e, the Great Distemper and strives of the 1420’s. There were also discussed the ethnic and political processes in the Tyumen and Siberian Yurt. Considerable attention was paid to the Turkization of the Western Siberian population and formation of various groups of the Siberian Tatars. Researchers have noted the limitations of the source base of the late-medieval history of the region and the need for a comprehensive approach to the research involving experts in the fields of history, archaeology, ethnography, anthropology, linguistics. A separate debate was held on the role of the Nogai and Bukhara factor in the history of the Kuchum Siberian khanate. On the second day, there were discussed various aspects of the Turkic-Tatar peoples’ occurrence from the Ural-Irtysh interfluve to the Russian State. There were presented reports both on the policy and destiny of the Kuchum descendants and legal and military aspects of the Tatar yurtes’ subordination. There was held a discussion about two versions of the Ichkinski Tatar ethnogenesis as a special group of the Tatar population of the region. Thereupon, the conference participants called for a cautious stance on the use of ethnic reconstructions in Turkic history and their use in the construction of

  14. Imperial power,gentry power and clan power: Western and Chinese cultural traditions in a comparative perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bing; Wang Dan

    2006-01-01

    The differences between China and Western countries in human and physical environment has brought about two distinctive models of state.In the Chinese-style state of quasi-consanguinity,in which family and state have a similar structure,imperial power,gentry power,and clan power are the product of common ownership of consanguineous groups.The similarity in the structures of these three kinds of power derives from the fact that they are all restricted by the power of lineage generated from the self-sufficient small farmer economy,and must obey the conventions of ancestors which hold the benefits of the group as supreme.The relationship between these three kinds of power,is definitely not the one that is based on the division of power that is founded on individual private ownership in Western countries.where'public power'and'individual private ownership'are antithetic.but are three aspects of the patriarchal dictatorship that complement each other.Therefore,village rule in China and autonomy in the West are two totally different concepts,and gentry power is also not the'authorized power'from the state.

  15. Socio-cultural Context of Adolescents’ Motivation for Marriage and Childbearing in North-Western Nigeria: A Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godswill James

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has experienced high fertility levels over the last three decades, despite the implementation of the National Policy on Population in 1988 which stipulated four children per woman, and eighteen years as the minimum age at marriage. The proportional contribution of adolescents’ fertility (among women age 15-19 to the overall fertility rate among women age 15-49 has been increasing over time. A comprehensive understanding of adolescents’ fertility behavior requires exploring the motivations and desires of both males and females as they influence male-female relationships and how the related behavioral outcomes are modified by contexts in which they occur. Hence, this research article investigated the contexts of adolescent motivations for marriage and childbearing in North-Western Nigeria. Primary data were obtained using qualitative methods. Thirty-six focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years, stratified by sex, marital status, fertility status and residence; and 48 in-depth interviews (IDIs with community-resident adolescents who have ever married or/and have begun childbearing. Results show that adolescents’ attitudes are largely pronatalist. Motivations for teenage marriage and childbearing reflect various levels of influence, such as parental pressure and social norms. Individual needs and desires also feature prominently, including economic survival, connection with wealthy and powerful individuals, domestic help and guaranteed support, as well as high reproductive risks. There is need for an external catalyst to raise awareness and to address the reproductive behavior or norms in North-Western Nigeria.

  16. Los colores de las conchas marinas en el antiguo occidente de México. El caso del Posclásico Seashell color in ancient western Mexico. The case of the Postclassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez-Gastélum

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los estudios sobre la cosmovisión mesoamericana -en especial aquellos relacionados con el cuerpo humano y las significaciones del color-, se analizan los patrones de uso de las conchas marinas y los objetos elaborados con éstas en las sociedades prehispánicas del occidente de México durante el periodo Posclásico (1100-1350 d.C., con la finalidad de acercarse al simbolismo que les fueron otorgados por parte de quienes las utilizaron.Based on studies of Mesoamerican cosmology, especially with regard to the human body and the meaning of color, we analyzed the use patterns of seashells and objects made from seashells in the Pre-Hispanic societies of western Mexico in the Postclassic period (1100-1530 A.D.. The goal was to understand the symbolism given to these objects by the people who utilized them.

  17. Relata refero. Perception of the Ancient Greek Past in the Contemporary Education in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Mihajlović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the 18th century, along with the modern educational system, the reception of the ancient Greek culture arrived to Serbia. This image of the classical past was heavily influenced by the wider social and political circumstances of the time. Along with the organizational and pedagogical principles, the pioneers of education and the founders of academic disciplines among the Serbs took over the Western narrative on Classical Greece, unintentionally including its ideological foundation. After this so-called "phase of institutionalization", continuous reproduction of this narrative took place through the educational system. The consequence is that in the contemporary Serbian education the examples of the 19th century theoretical concepts are almost perfectly preserved.

  18. World Cultural and Scenic Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Or-ganization has put ten sites in China on its list of WorldCultural and Natural Scenic Areas.China is proud of thehonor.The country has long history,brilliant culture,beautiful scenicspots,many ancient cultural sites and magnififcent ancient architec-ture.

  19. Cultural conflict: the impact of western feminism(s) on nurses caring for women of non-English speaking background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jeanine; Street, Annette

    2002-09-01

    Much research has been conducted for understanding the health needs of people of different cultural backgrounds and the problems they experience in seeking health care. In Australia, despite such research, it is argued that there remains an exclusionary health care culture that continues to affect equity and access for people of non-English speaking background. There was a need for research in which health professionals examined their own Anglo-Australian culture and its impact on other ethnic communities. Such concerns provided the impetus for a feminist praxis study to engage nurses in understanding and improving care for migrant women. This study was conducted with 26 nurses in a paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Five collaborative research groups were formed, each consisting of four to six nurses who were co-researchers. Together, the nurses and researchers explored the health care experiences of migrant women, using a variety of quantitative and qualitative data collection strategies. This paper explores a major finding of the study, which was the impact of liberal feminist approaches on the practices of Australian nurses who cared for women of different ethnicity and race. The study found that the efforts of liberal feminist nurses to "treat all people the same" meant that women from different cultural backgrounds did not always receive equity in care. Through the feminist praxis process the nurses were able to explore contradictions in their practice and focus on equity in care to meet the specific gendered and racially constructed needs of women of different cultural backgrounds. A number of strategies were adopted that included regular use of female health interpreters and provision of privacy for migrant women when caring for their children.

  20. Western Cultural Hegemony from Edward Said's“Orientalism”%从萨义德的《东方学》看西方文化霸权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽敏

    2013-01-01

    1975年,萨义德的《东方学》出版,在整个世界引起了学者们的热烈讨论,特别是欧美国家,形成了蔚然壮观的学术景象。从东方学的权力话语方式这一含义出发,研究传统东方学中的权力话语及其运行机制,并以此为理论支撑,从而揭示西方的文化霸权主义以及文化全球化中中国文化面临的困境。%In 1975, Saeed published "Orientalism", which has aroused a heated discussion of scholars in the whole world, Especially in the European and American countries, formed a spectacular academic scene. This paper from the power discourse of Orientalism, Research on traditional Orientalism discourse power and its operation mechanism, And taking the theory as a support, reveals the face western cultural hegemonism and cultural globalization Chinese cultural dilemma.

  1. Effectiveness of place-based science curriculum projects situated in Hawaiian and Western cultural institutions at an urban high school in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Jennifer Leslie Hoof

    Place-based education is a multidisciplinary and experiential approach to learning that utilizes a local environment or community. This study examined the influences of place attachment and cultural affiliation in the school on student experience and learning in a place-based science course, as well as the course's potential influence on environmentally responsible behaviors. The participants attended an urban high school on O'ahu, Hawai'i. By understanding student reaction to experience in both Western- and Hawaiian-centered classes, this study contributes to the literature on place-based education in relation to how differences in cultural affiliation in a school setting can have varying impacts on place attachment, science literacy, and environmental responsibility. A comparative case study was conducted with students enrolled in the Hawaiian Academy and non-academy students. Analysis of a pre- and post-survey and science content assessments, student documents, field notes, and interview transcripts suggested place-based science has both similar and different impacts on students depending on cultural affiliation within the school. Students in the Hawaiian Academy, as a whole, showed stronger science literacy and environmental responsibility than students in the non-Hawaiian Academy class. However, non-Hawaiian Academy students showed increased place attachment in a spiritual sense. Reactions from both groups suggest a need for smaller learning communities that promote a unity of knowledge rather than distinct courses and disciplines.

  2. Contrastive Studies Between the Chinese and the Western Cultures of Learning%中国与西方学习文化的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志英

    2007-01-01

    Chinese and Western students bring different behaviors and cultures into their clsssrooms.Such difference is orislnated from and influenced by their different cultures of learning as well as the traditional Chinese philosophies,i.e.Confucianism and Taoim.This paper argues that to develop Chinese students'intercultural awareness and introduce culture teaching is an integral part of English language education.%中国学生有着与西方学生不同的课堂行为和文化.这种差异源于他们不同的学习文化背景,同时,中国学生也受到来自中国传统哲学思想儒家和道教的影响.笔者在分析中西文化盖异的基础上认为,要避免跨文化交际失败,教师应注重培养学生的跨文化意识,文化教学应成为外语教学必不可少的部分.

  3. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background - Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin...

  4. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  5. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  6. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  7. Metaphors in Chinese Culture and Western Culture from the Perspective of Color Words%从颜色词汇看中西文化背景下的隐喻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2012-01-01

    为减少因对颜色词汇隐喻的文化内涵把握不当而导致的跨文化交际误解误译,从隐喻的民族性与共性角度,通过文化对比研究法,对中西方颜色词汇的隐喻文化现象进行研究与阐述。通过对比黄色与蓝色、红色与白色这两组在中西颜色词汇中文化特征较明显的组合,得出其民族性与共性。同时以颜色与职业为例,提及文化渗透中的隐喻现象,为跨文化交际提供参考与支持。%In order to decrease the misunderstandings and mistranslations caused by inappropriate understanding of cultural connotation towards metaphor, this thesis discusses and elaborates the metaphorical cultural phenomenon towards Chinese and western color vocabularies from the aspects of nationality and generality through the approach of cultural comparison. The thesis chooses yellow, blue, red and white, which appear obvious cultural features, as its study objects, and obtains their metaphorical nationality and generality. At the same time, the relations between color vocabularies and positions are set as examples, which aim to discuss metaphorical phenomenon in cultural infiltration and supply reference and support for cross- cultural communication.

  8. Game support in modern Western culture (through the example of activities of the International Play Association, IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the support of children's games, initiated by the International Play Association (IPA. The most prominent political and legislative initiatives of UN Organization is the adoption of general comments and amendments to article 31 of the Convention on the rights of the child, proclaiming the right to play, as well as a list of measures to support the games for educational organizations both in the family and in the city. It describes the spatial projects and object-related conditions for the games brought into practice in Western countries: Adventure playground (APG-, play streets, Scarpstore PlayPod. The article specifies the functions of playwokers called up for supporting the game and also their training.

  9. THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN A MULTI CULTURAL BACKGROUND The Studies of Minority Regions in the Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; La-chang

    2001-01-01

    [1]HE Jing-xin, 1997. The problem studies of sustainable development in minority region of west China [J]. National Studies,(2): 39-48. (in Chinese)[2]LU La-chang, Huang RU, 1995. Ecological civilization and sustainable development [J]. Future and Development, (1):52-54. (in Chinese)[3]LU La-chang, 1995. Cultural ecologist and development in China minority region[J]. Geography and Territory Studies, (4):56-59. (in Chinese)[4]LU La-chang, 1997. The man-earth relationship and sustainable development in minority of west China [J]. Economic Geography, 17(3): 100-104. (in Chinese)[5]LU La-chang, 1999. On Naxi national cultural ecology [J].Human Geography, (2): 22-26. (in Chinese)

  10. Mycological and palynological studies of early medieval cultural layers from strongholds in Pszczew and Santok (western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural layers from early medieval strongholds in Pszczew and Santok have been examined for the presence of pollen grains and spores as well as residues of fungi. The presence of the following remains has been recorded: fossil hyphopodia of Gaeumannomyces, teliospores of Puccinia, spores of Bipolaris, Thecaphora and Tilletia, teliospores of the genus Urocystis, Ustilago and Uromyces, ascocarps (perithecium of the Ascomycota or the pycnidium of Sphaeropsidales. A greater diversity and abundance of fungi spores sensu lato was recorded in Santok, as compared to Pszczew. Both early medieval sites recorded a significant proportion of cereal pollen, including Secale cereale. It remains an undisputed fact that the grains and other plants collected in both strongholds were strongly infected with fungi. The analysis of the cultural layers for the presence of fungi remains provides significant data on the presence of certain species of plants and their growth conditions in natural environments and in agriculture.

  11. The Theory and Practice of Cultural Heritage Corridor Construction——A Case Study of The Ancient Tea and Horse Road in Yunnan-Tibet%文化遗产廊道构建的理论与实践——以滇藏茶马古道为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Cultural Heritage Corridor is a new idea and method in international heritage conservation field which specialized in conserving large-scale,trans-regional and comprehensive linear cultural heritage.Facing the serious fact that the ancient tea and horse road in Yunnan and Tibet was destroyed repeatedly,it was very important and essential to construct cultural heritage corridor strategy which can bring the ancient road and heritages along the road into regional integral conserving system.Based on the theory of heritage corridor,the theoretical system of cultural heritage corridor was formed including its definition,intension and construction pattern.Guided by its theoretical system,a few measures must be taken to ensure the construction practice of the cultural heritage corridor on the ancient tea and horse road in Yunnan and Tibet,in order to provide a model of conserving linear heritages which are similar to the ancient tea and horse road in Yunnan and Tibet in our country.%文化遗产廊道是国际遗产保护界内专门针对大尺度、跨区域、综合性线状文化遗产保护的新思维与新方法。面对滇藏茶马古道屡遭破坏的严重事实,构建文化遗产廊道保护战略将茶马古道及古道上的遗产单体纳入区域性整体保护体系是极其重要且必要的。以遗产廊道理论为基础,文化遗产廊道在概念、内涵及建构模式方面形成自身的理论框架,在此框架下,须采取多项措施保障以滇藏茶马古道为对象而进行的文化遗产廊道的构建实践,以期为我国类似于茶马古道的线状遗产保护提供有效借鉴。

  12. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument......, which was tested for statistical robustness and used as a basis for the derivation of consumer segments. Construct validity of the instrument was then investigated by profiling the segments in terms of consumer values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products...... as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern is not unlike those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed remarkably consistent value-attitude-behaviour profiles. The present study offers empirical evidence...

  13. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-Western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    lifestyle (FRL) instrument to reveal food consumption patterns in a Chinese context. Data were collected from 479 respondents in 6 major Chinese cities using a Chinese version of the FRL instrument. Analysis of reliability and dimensionality of the scales resulted in a revised version of the instrument...... values, attitudes and purchase behaviour, using frequency of consumption of pork products as an example. Three consumer segments were identified: concerned, uninvolved and traditional. This pattern replicates partly those identified in Western cultures. Moreover, all three segments showed consistent...... value-attitude-behaviour profiles. The results also suggest which dimensions may be missing in the instrument in a more comprehensive instrument adapted to Chinese conditions, most notably a broader treatment of eating out activities....

  14. A Study on Cultural Values Embodied in Western and Chinese Cosmetic Advertisements%中西化妆品广告的文化价值观研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珂

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of economy makes people's material life richer and richer.Advertisement plays an important role in commodity economy.This paper analyses western and Chinese cosmetic advertisements from the perspective of cultural values.It finds that Chinese cosmetic advertisements emphasizes nature,group behavior and authority,whereas western cos-metic advertisements highlights advanced technology,empirical data and individuality.%经济的高速发展使人们的物质生活越来越丰富,广告在商品经济中发挥着重要的作用。本文从文化价值观的角度对中西化妆品广告进行分析,发现中国的化妆品广告崇尚自然,突出群体行为和权威性;西方的化妆品广告则强调领先的科技和实验数据,鼓励发扬个性。

  15. Old cultures never die? Cultural genocide in international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.; Boerefijn, I.; Henderson, L.; Janse, R.; Weaver, R

    2012-01-01

    In March 2008, the Dalai Lama made a statement on the situation in Tibet, arguing that "whether intentionally or unintentionally, some kind of cultural genocide is taking place", because "the ancient nation of Tibet with its ancient cultural heritage is dying". He made this statement in relation to

  16. 大一统民族之观念具形——中西文化相区别之根源%The Grand-Unity Nation Ideology Formation: Chinese and Western Cultures Differing Here

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳承万

    2012-01-01

    The Nation Ideology Formation is MOU Zongsan' book Historical Philosophy's introducto- ry innovation. Mou referred to Hegel's methodology in Historical Philosophy, with which philosophical spirit he highly focuses on the reflection and examination of history. Hegel, in his Historical Philosophy, gives an account of "Hellenism" represented in artists' "stone--statue" (material--form) formation orien- tation, which is the western rationalist spirit in its realization. The "materialization" process is the "west- ern nationalist ideology formation" and western external pursuit culture in its own natural development. But in China is not such "pursuit" culture, but the internal reflection and disposition as a culture, with which the ideology formation and process differ al or materialization, but the ancient reflective from the westerners': not representing the artist's "materi- schematism, the "heaven--man unity" as a moral and vir- tuous character representation. "Control of official books for praise of government--Basis of heavenly or- ders for decision of human relationships", "Principles of time for recounting--Standards of space for gov- erning. " The three official characters (chief--sorcerer--official in unity) serve as government's moral and intellectual principles for the official "heaven--man unity" formation, developed later into the formation of jades and square--hole coins. Its round heaven and square earth symbolize man's heavenly consciousness. The square for wit and round for spirit ideology (as heaven--earth principle) serve as man's heavenly incli- nations. The heaven--man unity focuses on the formation of man's pursuit of Good for virtuous morality as good conscience (MOU Zongsan). This is China's national ideology whose symbolism is so formed as to differ from the western rationalist realization of material qualities, thus making Chinese and west- ern cultures differ from

  17. A Brief Analysis on Culture in the Western Regions and its Function in Social Administration%浅谈西部文化及在其社会管理中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2016-01-01

    The essay mainly explored culture and its function on social administration;Ex-plored the origin and specific features of western culture and the functions to execute social culture maintenance so to execute instructive significance for cultural workers.%主要探讨文化及文化对社会管理的功能;探讨西部文化的源起与特质,以及作为社会管理文化的功能。以期对于文化工作者具有指导意义。

  18. Differences between Chinese and Western Cultures and Their Inlfuence on Modern Garment Design%中西传统文化的差异及对现代服装设计的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志民

    2014-01-01

    文章探讨了中国传统文化和西方文化产生的背景和差异及两种文化对服装服饰的影响,如何从文化差异上进行服装的再设计是每一个设计师的责任。%The paper discusses the origins of Chinese traditional culture and western culture, the differences between the two cultures and their influence on modern garment and accessories. It points out that it is the responsibility for every designer to redesign garment by respecting the cultural differences.

  19. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  20. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  1. Atherosclerosis in Ancient Egyptian Mummies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allam, Adel H; Thompson, Randall C; Wann, L. Samuel; Miyamoto, Michael I; Nur el-Din, Abd el-Halim; el-Maksoud, Gomaa Abd; Al-Tohamy Soliman, Muhammad; Badr, Ibrahem; el-Rahman Amer, Hany Abd; Sutherland, James D; Sutherland, M. Linda; Thomas, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    ... is exclusively a disease of modern society and did not affect our ancient ancestors. The findings of the present study provide evidence to the contrary. Atherosclerosis was first identified in ancient Egyptians when Johann Nepomuk Czermak found calcific aortic atherosclerosis during an autopsy of the mummy of an elderly Egyp...

  2. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  3. Assessing the role of ancient and active geothermal systems in oil-reservoir evolution in the eastern Basin and Range province, western USA. Annual progress report, June 1, 1992--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Results of our research on the oil fields of the Basin and Range province of the western USA continue to support the following concept: Convecting, moderate-temperature geothermal systems in this region have fostered and in some cases critically influenced the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil. At one Basin-Range field (Grant Canyon), oil-bearing and aqueous fluid inclusions in late-stage hydrothermal quartz were entrapped at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing at reservoir depths (120--130{degrees}C); apparent salinities of the aqueous varieties match closely the actual salinity of the modern, dilute oil-field waters. The inclusion-bearing quartz has the oxygen-isotopic signature for precipitation of the mineral at contemporary temperatures from modern reservoir waters. Measured and fluid-inclusion temperatures define near-coincident isothermal profiles through the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon suggesting ongoing heat and mass transfer. These findings are consistent with a model whereby a still-active, convectively circulating, meteoric-hydrothermal system: (1) enhanced porosity in the reservoir rock through dissolution of carbonate; (2) hydrothermally sealed reservoir margins; (3) transported oil to the reservoirs from a deep source of unknown size and configuration; and (4) possibly accelerated source-rock maturation through an increase in the local thermal budget. Grant Canyon and other Basin-Range oil fields are similar to the oil-bearing, Carlin-type, sediment-hosted, disseminated gold deposits of the nearby Alligator Ridge district. The oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogues of these deposits, or perhaps an incipient phase in their evolution.

  4. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  5. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  6. A Discussion of Development Characteristics of Chinese and Western Piety Culture from the Perspectives of Cultural Roots%从不同文化根源看中西孝文化的发展特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶燕

    2015-01-01

    不同文化根源孕育出中西方不同的孝文化,且在影响着它的发展演变.根植于农耕文明的中国孝文化可谓枝繁叶茂而绚丽多彩,它在十八大报告提出的全面提高公民道德素质,弘扬中华传统美德和促和谐的良好风尚中仍将发挥重要作用.而西方孝文化由于重商的文化根源,始终停留和局限家庭层面,内涵外延都没有太大的发展变化.从中西文化比较可以看出,中西孝文化的不同发展特点,对进一步发展中国孝文化有重要参考价值.%Cultural roots gives birth to different piety cultures of China and the west, thus affecting their evolution. Rooted in the farming civilization and described as lush and colorful Chinese piety culture plays a very important role in the proposition of improving citizen's moral quality, carrying forward the traditional Chinese virtues and promoting social harmonious and good habits according to the report of the 18th National Congress of CPC. However the western culture of filial piety rooted in mercantilism still is limited to the family level, so its connotation remains unchanged and under-developed. This paper makes a comparative study of piety cultures of China and the west.

  7. Estimating alcohol content of traditional brew in Western Kenya using culturally relevant methods: the case for cost over volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S; Okumu, Thomas O; Bryant, Kendall L; Goulet, Joseph L; Maisto, Stephen A; Braithwaite, R Scott; Justice, Amy C

    2010-08-01

    Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang'aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang'aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang'aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang'aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard.

  8. 西安地区周秦汉与隋唐时期古都文化之主要内涵与基本特点%Main implications and. basic features of the ancient city culture of Xi'an in Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui and Tang Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱士光

    2011-01-01

    In order explore the main implications and basic features of the ancient city cuhue of Xi'an in different dynasties, the paper analyzes the city planning, construction, layout and the architec- tural ideology in West Zhou, Qin, West Han, Sui and Tang Dynasties with the help of a huge amounts of documents. The analysis finds that the culture in the West Zhou cities fully displays the rites and music culture of Zhou Dynasty; the ancient city culture in Qin Dynasty shows the great unification spirit and the Chang'an culture in Han Dynasty integrates the related theories of the earlier dynasties and at the same time has its creative sense. In contrast, the Chang'an culture in Sui and Tang Dynasties indicates its opening-up orientation in its multi-phase cultures.%为探究西安地区各朝代古都文化之主要内涵与基本特点,结合大量史料,对西周、秦、西汉、隋与唐王朝都城之规制、建设、平面布局、主要建筑之思想理念进行剖析。分析认为:西周都城文化充分反映了周代礼乐文化;秦都城文化体现了大一统的精神;汉长安城文化以尊儒思想为主体,整合了前朝相关理论,并有所创新;隋唐长安城文化表征了多元文化的开放气象。

  9. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  10. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  11. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  12. The Evil Eye--an ancient superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes and discusses the ancient superstition of the Evil Eye. The author describes his own personal childhood introduction to the subject of the Evil Eye which years later instigated his scholarly inquiry. The history of this very geographically widespread folk belief is elaborated upon, along with common manifestations as they appear in a number of different countries and cultures. Some of the methods used to thwart the negative effects of the Evil Eye are enumerated. Relevant psychodynamics and common expressions of the Evil Eye superstition are elucidated upon.

  13. The Comparison between the Origin of Chinese and Western Culture%中西文化起源对比与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永媛; 张晶

    2011-01-01

    A cuhure's formation has a relation with a certain geographical environment, climate, the ecological environment and other natural conditions. In the meanwhile it has a relation with a national customs, habits, religion and politics, economy and other v.arious factors. This paper tries to compare and analyze the origin of Chinese and Western culture, from the aspects of natural foundation, the formation of primitive religion, and the formation of primitive political and economic system, for making a foundation for future research in cross- cultural communication.%一种文化的形成与一定的地理环境、气候以及生态环境等自然条件相联系,同时也与一个民族的风俗、习惯、宗教信仰,以及政治、经济等多方面的因素有关。试从自然基础、原始宗教的形成,以及原始政治经济制度的形成三方面对比分析中西文化的起源,为今后研究跨文化交际中的中西文化差异奠定基础。

  14. Wilde in Cultural Exchange Between Chines and Western Aesthetic%从中西审美文化交融的角度看王尔德

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑红

    2009-01-01

    Oscar Wilde, as a representative of Aestheticism, has been the focus of attention of critics. From the perspective of cultural exchange between Chinese and Western aesthetic, Wilde's complex contradictions in the text and its character are dewed. Starting from his aesthetic ideas, this paper summarizes the artistic uncertainty embodied by his works, meanwhile, with combination of traditional Chinese culture--Zhuangzi's aesthetic thinking, a comparative analysis is carried on, thus a goal of reinterpreting the subversive writer from a new perspective is achieved.%唯美主义代表人物王尔德一直是评论界关注的焦点,从中西审美文化交融的角度透视王尔德的文本及其矛盾复杂的人格,从他的审美思想出发,归纳总结其作品所体现的艺术不确定性,并结合中国传统文化中庄子的审美思想,进行比较分析,从而从全新的视角重新解读这个颠覆性的作家.

  15. 湘西苗族服饰文化及其开发%On the Culture of Miao Dvess and Its Development in Western Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿少宁

    2011-01-01

    从旅游学的角度出发,在分析云南少数民族服饰文化资源的特点走向市场化的基础上,借鉴云南少数民族服饰的艺术审美及其深刻的文化内涵,分析了湘西苗族服饰的款式特点,并根据当前我国及世界高端服装产业的特征和发展动态结合湘西服饰的特点以高端定做的市场进一步提出了湘西苗族服饰文化资源旅游开发的策略以及应注意的问题。%Starting from the angle of tourism and on the basis of the analysis of the features of Yunnan minority costume culture towards marketization,as well as its aesthetic and profound cultural connotation, this paper analyzes the styles of Miao dress in Western Hunan. According to the current features of fashion industry and the development trend of Miao dress,this paper also puts forward the strategies and problems so as to, develop the marketable and fashionable tourism costumes.

  16. Getting to Know the Basics of Western Culture in the Preparation for IELTS Test%在雅思备考中预热西方文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继红

    2013-01-01

      近几年来,中国学生到国外留学呈现显著的上升趋势。与此同时,留学生活中出现的问题也日渐突出。日常生活中的问题主要是由于对当地文化的不了解和交流能力的欠缺,从而带来诸多不便;学习生活方面的困扰则是源于对西方教学模式的不适应。文章主要从雅思考试的各个角度,基于日常生活和学习生活两个方面分析考试内容与留学生活的对接,给考生指出努力的方向,旨在帮助考生在备考雅思的同时,从基本能力上取得突破性进展,为即将开始的留学生活奠定良好的基础。%  It is reported that a growing number of Chinese students choose to study in English-speaking countries. However, due to the difference between Chinese culture and western culture, many students feel exhausted, physically and mentally, during the first two months or even half year in abroad. In order to largely avoid these phenomena among the students who will study abroad, the thorough analysis of international students’difficulties is conducted in two aspects:survival and academic. Both are analyzed by using the contents frequently adopted in IELTS listening, reading and speaking tests. By means of comparing the questions quoted from IELTS test past papers in Cambridge IELTS with students’real situations in life, it demonstrates the basics of western cul⁃ture. And more importantly, it gives students explicit guidance about their preparation for IELTS:the stress and pressure can be re⁃lieved, more or less, if the would-be international students attach importance to the culture disparity in the process of preparing for IELTS test.

  17. 中西方网络广告的文化价值观比较%The Comparison of Cultural Values Concept of Chinese -Western Network Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱兰; 曲艺

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet age,network advertising occupies a pivotal position in the advertising industry and gradually become a major trend in the development of future advertising.By contrast in the west network advertising under dif-ferent cultural values,it presents in the west online advertising to show young,beauty,modernity,health,comfort and the de-velopment of common values;it also points out the difference in the cultural backgrounds western online advertising in the pres-ence of differences in historical and cultural orientation,collectivism and individualism,the unity or distinctive of heaven and man and form of expression.%伴随着网络时代的到来,网络广告在广告行业中占据着举足轻重的地位,逐渐成为今后广告发展的大趋势。本文通过对比中西方不同文化价值观下的网络广告,提出中西方网络广告展现出年轻性、爱美性、现代性、健康性、舒适性、发展性的共同价值观;同时也指出孕育于不同文化背景下的中西方网络广告在历史文化导向、集体主义与个人主义、天人合一与天人相分以及表现形式上存在差异。

  18. 浅析中西文化对翻译的影响%On the Influence of Chinese and Western Culture on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of globalization, the communication between countries in politics, economy, culture, science and education, etc. has become more and more frequent. So as an important way of communication and study between different people, trans-lation plays more important role. Translation, as a way of communication, is not only the change of different languages, but also the com-munication of different cultures. This thesis will elaborate on the differences of Chinese and Western culture on translation from the as-pects of history, geographical environment, habits and custom.%随着全球一体化的深入发展,各国之间在政治、经济、文化、科技、教育等各方面的交流越来越频繁,而翻译作为使用不同语言的人们之间互相交流、互相沟通、互相学习的重要手段,其作用也越来越重要。翻译作为一种交流方式,不仅仅是两种语言之间的转换,更是不同文化之间的交流。本文将从历史文化、地理环境、风俗习惯和生活习惯等几个方面详细阐述中西文化差异对翻译的影响及翻译时的注意事项。

  19. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  20. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…