WorldWideScience

Sample records for western canada pollution

  1. Western Forests and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    United States Environmental Protection Agency

    1992-01-01

    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.

  2. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  3. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  4. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels, industry (e.g., oil and gas and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin, Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides a valuable benchmark for future studies across the region and points the way forward for 'acid rain' policies in western Canada.

  5. Hierarchical den selection of Canada lynx in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Nicholas J. Decesare; Jay A. Kolbe; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2008-01-01

    We studied den selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis; hereafter lynx) at multiple ecological scales based on 57 dens from 19 females located in western Montana, USA, between 1999 and 2006. We considered 3 spatial scales in this analysis, including den site (11-m-radius circle surrounding dens), den area (100-m-radius circle), and den environ (1-...

  6. Decreasing Rates of Neomycin Sensitization in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John F; Abbas, Mariam; Hull, Peter; de Gannes, Gillian; Toussi, Reza; Milani, Azita

    2016-09-01

    Neomycin contact sensitization rates in North America range from 7% to 13%, whereas in Europe they average approximately 1.9%. Given that topical neomycin products are no longer readily available in Canada, the aim of this study was to examine what influence this may have had on neomycin sensitization rates in the 3 western provinces. On the basis of an observation originally communicated by L. M. Parsons and C. Zhang of the University of Calgary, which suggested significantly reduced rates of neomycin sensitization in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, a multicenter study of patch test results from 5690 patient charts was undertaken. Data from 3 other western Canadian Universities (the University of Saskatchewan, the University of Alberta, and the University of British Colombia) were analyzed. Data were available from 2001 to 2013 for the University of Saskatchewan (except 2006), whereas the University of Alberta and the University of British Columbia had data from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive statistics, trend analysis, and risk estimates were determined using SPSS version 20. Sensitization rates for neomycin have decreased in western Canada and are now similar to those of Europe. This trend is likely influenced by the reduced availability of over-the-counter and prescription neomycin products in Canada. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Drought causes reduced growth of trembling aspen in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-Guo; Alam, Syed Ashraful; Zhai, Lihong; Dawson, Andria; Stadt, Kenneth J; Comeau, Philip G

    2017-07-01

    Adequate and advance knowledge of the response of forest ecosystems to temperature-induced drought is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function. Recent massive decline in aspen-dominated forests and an increased aspen mortality in boreal forests have been associated with global warming, but it is still uncertain whether the decline and mortality are driven by drought. We used a series of ring-width chronologies from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) sites along a latitudinal gradient (from 52° to 58°N) in western Canada, in an attempt to clarify the impacts of drought on aspen growth by using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Results indicated that prolonged and large-scale droughts had a strong negative impact on trembling aspen growth. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal variability of drought indices is useful for explaining the spatial heterogeneity in the radial growth of trembling aspen. Due to ongoing global warming and rising temperatures, it is likely that severer droughts with a higher frequency will occur in western Canada. As trembling aspen is sensitive to drought, we suggest that drought indices could be applied to monitor the potential effects of increased drought stress on aspen trees growth, achieve classification of eco-regions and develop effective mitigation strategies to maintain western Canadian boreal forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Brief Review of Bovine Coccidiosis in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radostits, O. M.; Stockdale, P. H. G.

    1980-01-01

    Coccidiosis of beef cattle, in both its enteric and nervous forms, seen in feedlots in Western Canada is discussed. Cases of coccidiosis accompanied by nervous signs, occasionally up to 30% of those affected enterically, are most common during the coldest winter months. The pathogenesis of the nervous form of the disease is unknown. Clinical management of disease outbreaks using various chemotherapeutics is described. The importance of using anticoccidial drugs before the onset of clinical signs in cattle in contact with sick animals is discussed. PMID:7000331

  9. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, Barbara J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  10. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  11. Fault activation by hydraulic fracturing in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xuewei; Eaton, David W

    2016-12-16

    Hydraulic fracturing has been inferred to trigger the majority of injection-induced earthquakes in western Canada, in contrast to the Midwestern United States, where massive saltwater disposal is the dominant triggering mechanism. A template-based earthquake catalog from a seismically active Canadian shale play, combined with comprehensive injection data during a 4-month interval, shows that earthquakes are tightly clustered in space and time near hydraulic fracturing sites. The largest event [moment magnitude (MW) 3.9] occurred several weeks after injection along a fault that appears to extend from the injection zone into crystalline basement. Patterns of seismicity indicate that stress changes during operations can activate fault slip to an offset distance of >1 km, whereas pressurization by hydraulic fracturing into a fault yields episodic seismicity that can persist for months. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in wolves from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M; Elkin, Brett T; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-02-01

    Echinococcus species are important parasites of wildlife, domestic animals and people worldwide; however, little is known about the prevalence, intensity and genetic diversity of Echinococcus tapeworms in Canadian wildlife. Echinococcus tapeworms were harvested from the intestines of 42% of 93 wolves (Canis lupus) from five sampling regions in the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and visually identified to genus level by microscopic examination. Genetic characterization was successful for tapeworms from 30 wolves, and identified both Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis in all sampling locations. Mixed infections of E. canadensis/E. multilocularis, as well as the G8/G10 genotypes of E. canadensis were observed. These findings suggest that wolves may be an important definitive host for both parasite species in western Canada. This represents the first report of wolves naturally infected with E. multilocularis in North America, and of wolves harbouring mixed infections with multiple species and genotypes of Echinococcus. These observations provide important information regarding the distribution and diversity of zoonotic species of Echinococcus in western North America, and may be of interest from public health and wildlife conservation perspectives.

  13. The potential for western Canada to become a leader in electrically powered land transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, A.; Gilbert, R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Canada's western provinces are among the most oil-intensive jurisdictions in the world. Per capita consumption in 2007 was 70 percent higher than that of eastern Canada. While western Canada will be buffered as a producer of oil, predicted swings in oil prices may disrupt the fiscal capacity of producer provinces. The price of crude oil in western Canada is the same price established in world markets. This paper examined some of the opportunities available for western Canada to move away from oil consumption by becoming a leader in electric traction. Methods of replacing oil-based transportation with the use of electric vehicles were discussed. Western Canada's capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources was evaluated. Economic opportunities related to the electrification of land transport were also examined. The report concluded by stating that a clear vision and policy framework for supporting new technologies for surface transport across western Canada are needed. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Sage-grouse Management Zones in the Western U.S. and Canada - DRAFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts a preliminary version of the management zone boundaries for Greater and Gunnison sage-grouse in the western United States and Canada. These...

  15. Baseline (1961-1990) average total precipitation (mm) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average total precipitation (mm) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...

  16. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...

  17. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...

  18. Baseline (1961-1990) average total precipitation (inches) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average total precipitation (inches) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU)...

  19. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, David; Avery, Brent P.; Parmley, E. Jane; Deckert, Anne; Carson, Carolee A.; Dutil, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    During 2005–2010, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance identified increased prevalence of ciprofloxacin (a fluororquinolone) resistance among Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken in British Columbia (4%–17%) and Saskatchewan (6%–11%), Canada. Fluoroquinolones are critically important to human medicine and are not labeled for use in poultry in Canada. PMID:23764141

  20. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1977-02-01

    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  1. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2017-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  2. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

    2002-01-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of...

  3. The Effect of Climate Change on Optimal Wetlands and Waterfowl Management in Western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitey, P.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Warmer temperatures and a decrease in precipitation in the 21st century could severely deplete wetlands in the prairie pothole region of western Canada. In this study, we employ linear regression analysis to determine the casual effect of climate change on wetlands in this region, with temperature,

  4. Intense winter atmospheric pollution episodes affecting the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cusack, Michael; Reche, Cristina

    2010-03-15

    The geographic location of the Western Mediterranean Basin and its peculiar topography, the climatic conditions and the intense anthropogenic and natural emissions of atmospheric pollutants are key factors necessary to interpret the atmospheric aerosol phenomenology over this area. During the cold season it is common to have severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes (of an anthropogenic origin) affecting this region, not only in the urban and industrial areas but also in the regional and rural sites. During these episodes, the midday hourly PM(1) levels at regional background sites are in many cases higher than those at urban areas. Around 10% of the days under winter anticyclonic conditions registered similar PM(1) levels at the regional background than at the urban area and, sporadically the daily PM(1) levels at the regional background sites may exceed those at urban sites. Furthermore, the very high hourly PM(1) levels measured at regional background sites during these episodes are not regularly attained in the closest urban areas, which leads to the hypothesis that an important formation of secondary aerosols occurs during the transport of the polluted air masses towards the elevated rural sites. The interpretation of the variability of PM levels and composition (2002-2008) at one urban site (Barcelona) and at one regional background site (Montseny) allows us to illustrate the phenomenology of these scenarios, to quantify the mean annual contributions to the PM levels and to identify their main tracers. Ammonium nitrate appears to be the most abundant compound during these scenarios, although organic species and trace metals also increase markedly. Owing to the intensity, composition and recurrence of these atmospheric pollution episodes, important health, climatic and ecological implications may be derived.

  5. Habitat associations with counts of declining Western Grebes in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara E. Erickson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past several decades, numbers of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis have declined throughout their breeding and wintering ranges in North America. We estimated Western Grebe abundance and documented habitat factors between 2007 and 2009 from 43 lakes in Alberta, Canada where Western Grebes historically have occurred, to (1 compare Western Grebe abundance with the relative probability of persistence, and (2 identify habitat correlates of grebe abundance. The relative probability of Western Grebe persistence was correlated with abundance in the study area, although only 19% of the variation in persistence probability was explained by abundance. Western Grebe abundance was positively correlated with the shoreline extent of emergent bulrush (Scirpus lacustris, which is consistent with past studies and underlies the importance of protecting emergent vegetation in efforts to conserve Western Grebes. Grebe abundance also was positively correlated with a longer shoreline perimeter, but was inversely correlated with the amount of forested backshore, which occurred on lakes primarily at the northern margins of Western Grebe range. The amount of backshore development was positively associated with Western Grebe abundance, which might reflect a preference for similar lake characteristics by humans and grebes. These relationships are important to consider in the context of implementing and managing recovery of the Western Grebe in Alberta.

  6. Climate change in the western and northern forests of Canada: Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, G. A.; Webber, S. L.; MacKendrick, N. A. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This report contains summaries of papers presented at the Workshop on Climate Change in the Western and Northern Forests of Canada, held on February 17-19, 2003, in Prince George BC. The workshop provided an opportunity for the exchange of views on the expected impacts of climate change on Canada's western and northern forests, and potential adaptive strategies. Several papers also dealt with the implications of climate change on environmental, social, and economic values of the forest, and institutional barriers to adaptation. Six key topics were addressed in informal 'knowledge cafe sessions': forest fires, insects and disease, forest productivity, forest practices, biodiversity, and non-timber forest values. Another informal series of meetings, dubbed 'open space sessions' centred around managing the various mechanisms, organizations, and stakeholders involved in climate change research and adaptation strategies. Lists containing the names of authors, and of workshop participants are also included.

  7. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-07-25

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children.

  8. Schools, Air Pollution, and Active Transportation: An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of Calgary, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzon, Stefania; Shahid, Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    An exploratory spatial analysis investigates the location of schools in Calgary (Canada) in relation to air pollution and active transportation options. Air pollution exhibits marked spatial variation throughout the city, along with distinct spatial patterns in summer and winter; however, all school locations lie within low to moderate pollution levels. Conversely, the study shows that almost half of the schools lie in low walkability locations; likewise, transitability is low for 60% of schools, and only bikability is widespread, with 93% of schools in very bikable locations. School locations are subsequently categorized by pollution exposure and active transportation options. This analysis identifies and maps schools according to two levels of concern: schools in car-dependent locations and relatively high pollution; and schools in locations conducive of active transportation, yet exposed to relatively high pollution. The findings can be mapped and effectively communicated to the public, health practitioners, and school boards. The study contributes with an explicitly spatial approach to the intra-urban public health literature. Developed for a moderately polluted city, the methods can be extended to more severely polluted environments, to assist in developing spatial public health policies to improve respiratory outcomes, neurodevelopment, and metabolic and attention disorders in school-aged children. PMID:28757577

  9. A new 155-year record of Pb pollution from Devon ice cap, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Zdanowicz, C.; Fisher, D.; Hall, G.; Vaive, J.

    2003-05-01

    A 64-m long firn core from Devon Island (Canada) was used to investigate temporal trends of atmospheric lead pollution in the Canadian High Arctic. Lead concentration ([Pb]) in firn increased from 10 pg g^{-l} before the industrial revolution (1845-1880) to peak above 300 pg g^{-1} ca 1970. As in central Greenland cores, the Devon Island [Pb] profile generally follows 20^th century trends of leaded fuel consumption in the USA and Europe until 1970. However the post-1970 decline of [Pb] in the Devon core lags behind that measured in Greenland, which suggests that the Canadian High Artic presently receives atmospheric Pb from source(s) that contribute comparatively less to Pb deposition over Greenland. This additional Pb pollution probably reaches northern Canada via transpolar transport from Europe and/or Asia.

  10. Enforcing Canada`s pollution laws : The public comes first : The Government response to the third report of the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    In its third report, the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development made 24 recommendations with regard to enforcing Canadian pollution prevention laws. The recommendations are wide ranging and cover the enforcement of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, and pollution prevention provisions of the Fisheries Act. This report contains the responses to the recommendations by the federal Minister of the Environment on behalf of the Government of Canada. 8 tabs.

  11. Western U.S.-Canada crossborder case study : activity 2 : task D : conduct regional and local trucking case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This case study examines trucking across the western U.S.-Canada border and how it is influenced by truck size and weight (TS&W) regulations. Western border trucking differs from eastern border trucking in terms of the types of commodities being hand...

  12. Applying Binary Forecasting Approaches to Induced Seismicity in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahue, R.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has been chosen as a focus due to an increase in the recent observed seismicity there which is most likely linked to anthropogenic activities related to unconventional oil and gas exploration. Seismicity caused by these types of activities is called induced seismicity. The occurrence of moderate to larger induced earthquakes in areas where critical infrastructure is present can be potentially problematic. Here we use a binary forecast method to analyze past seismicity and well production data in order to quantify future areas of increased seismicity. This method splits the given region into spatial cells. The binary forecast method used here has been suggested in the past to retroactively forecast large earthquakes occurring globally in areas called alarm cells. An alarm cell, or alert zone, is a bin in which there is a higher likelihood for earthquakes to occur based on previous data. The first method utilizes the cumulative Benioff strain, based on earthquakes that had occurred in each bin above a given magnitude over a time interval called the training period. The second method utilizes the cumulative well production data within each bin. Earthquakes that occurred within an alert zone in the retrospective forecast period contribute to the hit rate, while alert zones that did not have an earthquake occur within them in the forecast period contribute to the false alarm rate. In the resulting analysis the hit rate and false alarm rate are determined after optimizing and modifying the initial parameters using the receiver operating characteristic diagram. It is found that when modifying the cell size and threshold magnitude parameters within various training periods, hit and false alarm rates are obtained for specific regions in Western Canada using both recent seismicity and cumulative well production data. Certain areas are thus shown to be more prone to potential larger earthquakes based on both datasets. This has implications

  13. Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, T.; Lee, S.

    1992-08-01

    U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (CFTA). The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  14. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  15. Canadian Drought Research and its Contributions to Sustainable Development in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.; Stewart, R.

    2009-05-01

    The widespread multi-year drought that North America experienced during the 1999-2004 period led to losses of $6 million in Gross Domestic Product and 41,000 jobs in western Canada. Furthermore, these impacts occurred in key sectors such as forestry, agriculture and water resources that are critical for western Canada's development. The processes that initiated and maintained the drought were related to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and were moderated by landscape processes and land-atmosphere interactions. The prolonged dry conditions had serious regional hydrological effects impacting soil moisture, then runoff and wetlands, and finally groundwater. The Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS) has been supporting the Drought Research Initiative (DRI) to study this event. Through its network of 15 funded investigators from six Canadian universities, and collaborators in other universities and government research laboratories and programs, DRI has characterized the drought's development, examined the critical processes that initiated, maintained and terminated the drought, and assessed and improved the ability to predict hydrological drought and its impacts. This presentation provides an overview of the research results obtained to date from DRI with a special emphasis on those results that relate to economic growth and sustainable development.

  16. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  17. The Rocky Mountain population of the western Canada goose: its distribution, habitats, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.; Bizeau, Elwood G.

    1980-01-01

    The western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) was divided into a Rocky Mountain population (RMP) and a Pacific population (PP) on the basis of band recovery patterns examined in this study and recovery data from other investigators. Habitat information obtained from nine cooperating wildlife agencies within the RMP's range provided a base line for evaluating future changes in nesting, molting, and wintering areas. The habitat inventory indicated that none of the seasonal habitats were currently limiting the size of the RMP. The RMP's range is divided into 15 reference areas and these are briefly described. Past studies of Canada geese in the Intermountain Region are reviewed. Topics covered in the discussion of breeding biology are nesting chronology, spring population composition, breeding age, clutch size, nesting success. artificial nesting structures, and gosling survival. Much of the mortality of Canada geese occurs before the birds are fledged. Man-made nesting structures reduce losses during incubation. but research is needed on the relations between brooding sites and gosling survival. Some western Canada geese, mainly prebreeders and unsuccessful nesters, make molt migrations to and from molting areas during and after the brood-rearing season. More than half of these molt-migrants are yearlings too young to nest; there are indications that even some successful nesters leave nesting areas to molt before the fledging of their offspring. Geese 2 years old or older may serve as guides to traditional molting areas for the first-time migrants (i.e., yearlings). Lack of disturbance appears to influence selection of specific molting areas within the nesting range of moffitti, whereas movements of molters out of the Intermountain Region may be related to the evolution of this subspecies. Apparently. molters of both the PP and RMP that leave the Region go to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although the taxonomic status of moffitti as related to the

  18. Impact of the Canadian Shield-Cordillera tectonic transition on controlling deformation within western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Audet, P.; Mallyon, D.; Chen, Y.; Currie, C. A.; Gu, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    Assembly of North America has been ongoing for more than 2 Ga, though geologically recent activity has been largely confined to the western margin—the Cordillera. Unlike a typical plate boundary fault, the Cordillera is characterized by a broad zone of distributed deformation as much as 800 km in lateral extent. The Canadian Cordillera is observed to have elevated heat flow, high topography, and a thin and weak lithosphere. Juxtaposed immediately to the east acting as a rigid backstop to deformation, is the strong and thick Canadian Shield. Both the location and nature of the Cordillera-Craton transition have been a subject of much study and debate. Past results suggest that the Cordilleran Deformation Front may mark the western extent of the cratonic lithosphere, whereas others indicate it extends further west, up to the Tintina Fault-Rocky Mountain Trench system. In the Mackenzie and Richardson Mountains of the northern Canadian Cordillera, this boundary likely becomes more complex and elusive due to the arcuate nature of the predominant tectonic structures. Despite high levels of seismicity across much of the region, detailed study has been limited by insufficient coverage of seismological infrastructure. With the USArray Transportable Array now deployed in Alaska and northwestern Canada, combined with several active regional arrays (e.g. the Yukon-Northwest Seismic Network, Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network), national and regional networks, and past seismological datasets, new studies now achieve improved resolution across large regions of western Canada and the craton-Cordillera transition. We present a new vertically polarized shear speed model of the lithospheric mantle and crust across western North America, and examine key features associated with the complex crust and lithosphere of dynamics of western North America. These include the location and nature of the Cordillera-Craton transition throughout the Cordillera, and what role the apparent step

  19. Polluting Canada's Public Square: The Harper Government's War on Science and the Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnitt, C.; Hoggan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Conversations about key environmental issues like climate change are increasingly viewed as matters of politics rather than matters of science. As a result, competing -and often polarized - interests have made public debate on these issues vulnerable to aggressive politicization. This politicization, particularly when it comes to important policy decisions regarding industrial (and especially fossil fuel) development, obscures the facts on these issues, leaving democratic public debate prey to aggressive public relations tactics, misinformation campaigns, pseudo-science, modern-day propaganda and/or the deliberate ';pollution' of the public square. In Canada a coordinated effort is underway to mischaracterize environmental groups as radical ideologues, associating environmental views and pursuits with extremism. A Tea Party-style echo chamber has also emerged in Canada, coordinating anti-science messaging in an attempt to bolster industrial development while misaligning environmental non-profits with domestic terror threats. This attempt to undermine ecological agendas and to push environmental concerns to the margins is paired with government-sponsored censorship of federally-funded scientists and the elimination of vital public science programs in Canada. The result is a dearth of scientific information surrounding significant environmental concerns - such as the Alberta oil sands and industry contamination of waterways - and a dangerous and false association of these issues with an extremist agenda. Ultimately scientists and science communicators face a unique set of challenges in Canada when it comes to addressing environmental issues. Although the 'science' of science communication has evolved to address relevant cultural and socio-political barriers associated with change resistance (for example, adapting one's behavior to minimize greenhouse gas emissions), much work remains in both acknowledging and ameliorating the politicization of science and the

  20. Letting go: How newly graduated registered nurses in Western Canada decide to exit the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachula, Kathryn M; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive

    2015-07-01

    The Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) estimates a nursing shortage in Canada will rise to 60,000 registered nurses by 2022. Further compounding this crisis is the approximate 14-61% of new nursing graduates who will change nursing roles or exit the profession. To explore the factors and basic psychosocial process involved in the decisions of newly graduated registered nurses in Western Canada who permanently exit the nursing profession within five years. Data was collected through unstructured and semi-structured interviews using the Glaserian grounded theory method. Participants were found to be in a process of letting go of nursing that commenced as students and continued as they entered practice as registered nurses. Four major themes were identified. 1) Navigating constraints of the healthcare system and workplace: participants encountered difficulties adjusting to shiftwork and workload. 2) Negotiating social relationships, hierarchies, and troublesome behaviors; specifically hierarchal and horizontal violence. 3) Facing fears, traumas and challenges. 4) Weighing competing rewards and tensions which resulted in leaving the nursing profession. Students and subsequently new nursing graduates require a variety of supports to establish a nursing identity and remain in the profession. These supports include a manageable workload; meaningful orientation; interprofessional teamwork; and engagement within transformational and authentic leadership constructs. New nurses require a sense of being welcomed, valued, respected and accepted into the workplace environment, as well as constructive feedback, emotional support and debriefing to face workplace challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Threshold responses in regional runoff from a heterogeneous low relief terrain - Western Canada's Boreal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Kevin; Anderson, Axel; Kettridge, Nick; Mendoza, Carl; Petrone, Rich; Silins, Uldis; Smith, Kevin; Waddington, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Runoff from larger catchments (>1000km) in the continental Boreal Plains (BP) eco-region of Western Canada, although low, can range over 3 orders of magnitude (4 mm to 350 mm/yr) among years and be difficult to predict. This region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedentedly rapid and large-scale industrial development. There is a need to assess and understand the dominant controls on the temporal and spatial threshold responses of regional runoff generation to be able to predict and mitigate the potential impacts of land use and effectiveness of reclamation practices on surface water quantity and quality. The Boreal Plain climate has regional moisture deficit (P 200 mm) states occurring every 2-3 decades. The differing CMD states altered the hydrologic connectivity among different portions of HRA's and HUs within catchments. During dry states base flow conditions ranged by over an order of magnitude (2 to 80 mm/yr), and increased with percent area of coarse textured HRAs. In fine textured landforms significant runoff was observed only in catchments with >30% wetland area. During mesic conditions catchment runoff coefficients were positively correlated with percent wetland area, suggesting that wetland networks were the primary source areas of surface water to regional runoff. During the infrequent wet states, runoff coefficients were similar among all catchments indicating that storage in forest HUs was exceeded and both forestlands and wetlands contribute to catchment runoff. Integrating the CMD with the configuration of wetland and forestland HUs and the type of glacial landforms HRAs rather than topographic drainage networks appears to better represent water cycling and sink source dynamics controlling runoff in low relief glacial landscapes such as the Boreal Plain.

  2. Mercury risk to avian piscivores across western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Elliott, John E.; Lepak, Jesse M; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    The widespread distribution of mercury (Hg) threatens wildlife health, particularly piscivorous birds. Western North America is a diverse region that provides critical habitat to many piscivorous bird species, and also has a well-documented history of mercury contamination from legacy mining and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of landscapes in the west limits the distribution of avian piscivore species, complicating broad comparisons across the region. Mercury risk to avian piscivores was evaluated across the western United States and Canada using a suite of avian piscivore species representing a variety of foraging strategies that together occur broadly across the region. Prey fish Hg concentrations were size-adjusted to the preferred size class of the diet for each avian piscivore (Bald Eagle = 36 cm, Osprey = 30 cm, Common and Yellow-billed Loon = 15 cm, Western and Clark's Grebe = 6 cm, and Belted Kingfisher = 5 cm) across each species breeding range. Using a combination of field and lab-based studies on Hg effect in a variety of species, wet weight blood estimates were grouped into five relative risk categories including: background ( 3 μg/g). These risk categories were used to estimate potential mercury risk to avian piscivores across the west at a 1 degree-by-1 degree grid cell resolution. Avian piscivores foraging on larger-sized fish generally were at a higher relative risk to Hg. Habitats with a relatively high risk included wetland complexes (e.g., prairie pothole in Saskatchewan), river deltas (e.g., San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Columbia River), and arid lands (Great Basin and central Arizona). These results indicate that more intensive avian piscivore sampling is needed across Western North America to generate a more robust assessment of exposure risk.

  3. The Effect of Climate Change on Wetlands and Waterfowl in Western Canada: Incorporating Cropping Decisions into a Bioeconomic Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withey, P.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2013-01-01

    We extend an earlier bioeconomic model of optimal duck harvest and wetland retention in the Prairie Pothole Region of Western Canada to include cropping decisions. Instead of a single state equation, the model has two state equations representing the population dynamics of ducks and the amount of

  4. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  5. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gana Gecheva; Nikolina Gribacheva; Lilyana Yurukova; Violeta Stefanova; Veselin Kmetov; Marina Frontasieva; Georgi Popgeorgiev

    2016-01-01

    The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2) with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  6. Developing cataract surgery priority criteria: results from the Western Canada Waiting List Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Kennneth G; Sanmugasunderam, Suren; Hadorn, David C

    2002-04-01

    The Western Canada Waiting List Project (WCWL) is a federally funded partnership of 19 organizations, including medical associations, health authorities, ministries of health and research organizations, that was created to develop tools to assist in the management of waiting lists. The WCWL cataract surgery panel, one of five panels constituted under this project, developed and tested a set of standardized clinical criteria for prioritizing among patients awaiting cataract surgery. The cataract surgery panel was composed of seven academic and community ophthalmologists, two family physicians, an optometrist, a health care services researcher and a health information specialist. The panel met three times between October 1999 and June 2000. The priority criteria were applied to 563 patients in the four western provinces. Regression analysis was used to determine the set of criteria weights that collectively best predicted clinicians' overall ratings of urgency. Interrater and test-retest reliability were assessed, based on clinicians' ratings of videotaped interviews with six hypothetical patients. The resulting criteria accounted for about one-third of the observed variance in clinicians' ratings of overall clinical urgency (R2 = 31.2%). The panel modified the original criteria and weights based on empirical results and clinical judgement. Reliability of the revised criteria items was mixed, with the lowest reliability observed for items dealing with glare and social role. Participating clinicians considered the criteria easy to use and reasonably reflective of expert surgical judgement regarding clinical urgency. Further development and testing of the tool appear warranted.

  7. CANADA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    . AAAA. Numéro du fournisseur. Protégé B*. (une fois rempli). RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX, FISCAUX ET BANCAIRES DU FOURNISSEUR – CANADA. Section 1 : RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX. Nom du particulier (nom, prénom) ou ...

  8. Recent climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological changes over the interior of western Canada: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, Chris M.; Wheater, Howard S.; Carey, Sean K.; Chun, Kwok P.

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the Earth's climate system has warmed significantly over the past several decades, and in association there have been widespread changes in various other Earth system components. This has been especially prevalent in the cold regions of the northern mid- to high latitudes. Examples of these changes can be found within the western and northern interior of Canada, a region that exemplifies the scientific and societal issues faced in many other similar parts of the world, and where impacts have global-scale consequences. This region has been the geographic focus of a large amount of previous research on changing climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological regimes in recent decades, while current initiatives such as the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) introduced in this review seek to further develop the understanding and diagnosis of this change and hence improve the capacity to predict future change. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the observed changes in various Earth system components and a concise and up-to-date regional picture of some of the temporal trends over the interior of western Canada since the mid- or late 20th century. The focus is on air temperature, precipitation, seasonal snow cover, mountain glaciers, permafrost, freshwater ice cover, and river discharge. Important long-term observational networks and data sets are described, and qualitative linkages among the changing components are highlighted. Increases in air temperature are the most notable changes within the domain, rising on average 2 °C throughout the western interior since 1950. This increase in air temperature is associated with hydrologically important changes to precipitation regimes and unambiguous declines in snow cover depth, persistence, and spatial extent. Consequences of warming air temperatures have caused mountain glaciers to recede at all latitudes, permafrost to thaw at its southern limit, and active layers over permafrost to thicken

  9. Modeling the intraurban variability of ambient traffic pollution in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrett, M; Arain, M A; Kanaroglou, P; Beckerman, B; Crouse, D; Gilbert, N L; Brook, J R; Finkelstein, N; Finkelstein, M M

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to model determinants of intraurban variation in ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Toronto, Canada, with a land use regression (LUR) model. Although researchers have conducted similar studies in Europe, this work represents the first attempt in a North American setting to characterize variation in traffic pollution through the LUR method. NO2 samples were collected over 2 wk using duplicate two-sided Ogawa passive diffusion samplers at 95 locations across Toronto. Independent variables employed in subsequent regression models as predictors of NO2 were derived by the Arc 8 geographic information system (GIS). Some 85 indicators of land use, traffic, population density, and physical geography were tested. The final regression model yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) of .69. For the traffic variables, density of 24-h traffic counts and road measures display positive associations. For the land use variables, industrial land use and counts of dwellings within 2000 m of the monitoring location were positively associated with NO2. Locations up to 1500 m downwind of major expressways had elevated NO2 levels. The results suggest that a good predictive surface can be derived for North American cities with the LUR method. The predictive maps from the LUR appear to capture small-area variation in NO2 concentrations. These small-area variations in traffic pollution are probably important to the exposure experience of the population and may detect health effects that would have gone unnoticed with other exposure estimates.

  10. Assesment of pollution of the territory as an example Western Donbas dumps mines Samara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezhyy A.Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Western Donbas waste dumps on the environmentwere studied. The operating monitoring aquifers were analyzed. The prediction calculation on a «piston displacement» were performed with intent to assess the level of pollution of groundwater. .

  11. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Miller; Kenneth W. Stolte; Daniel M. Duriscoe; John Pronos

    1996-01-01

    Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) pines in forests of the western United States. The principal aim is to document the development of field survey methods to be applied to assessment of chronic...

  12. Reconstructing a mid-Cretaceous landscape from paleosols in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnar, David F.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Brenner, Richard L.; Witzke, B.J.; Leckie, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Albian Stage of the mid-Cretaceous was a time of equable climate conditions with high sea levels and broad shallow epeiric seas that may have had a moderating affect on continental climates. A Late Albian landscape surface that developed during a regression and subsequent sea-level rise in the Western Canada Foreland Basin is reconstructed on the basis of correlation of paleosols penetrated by cores through the Paddy Member of the Peace River Formation. Reconstruction of this landscape refines chronostratigraphic relationships and will benefit future paleoclimatological studies milizing continental sphaerosiderite proxy records. The paleosols developed in estuarine sandstones and mudstones, and they exhibit evidence of a polygenetic history. Upon initial exposure and pedogenesis, the Paddy Member developed deeply weathered, well-drained cumulative soil profiles. Later stages of pedogenesis were characterized by hydromorphic soil conditions. The stages of soil development interpreted for the Paddy Member correlate with inferred stages of pedogenic development in time-equivalent formations located both basinward and downslope (upper Viking Formation), and landward and upslope (Boulder Creek Formation). On the basis of the genetic similarity among paleosols in these three correlative formations, the paleosols are interpreted as having formed along a single, continuous landscape surface. Results of this study indicate that the catena concept of pedogenesis along sloping landscapes is applicable to ancient successions. Sphaerosiderites in the Paddy Mem ber paleosols are used to provide proxy values for meteoric ??18O values at 52?? N paleolatitude in the Cretaceous Western Interior Basin. The meteoric ??18O values are used to refine existing interpretations about the mid-Cretaceous paleolatitudinal gradient in meteoric ?? 18O values, and the mid-Cretaceous hydrologic cycle. Copyright ?? 2005, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  13. Persistent and pervasive compositional shifts of western boreal forest plots in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Eric B; Chen, Han Y H

    2017-02-01

    Species compositional shifts have important consequences to biodiversity and ecosystem function and services to humanity. In boreal forests, compositional shifts from late-successional conifers to early-successional conifers and deciduous broadleaves have been postulated based on increased fire frequency associated with climate change truncating stand age-dependent succession. However, little is known about how climate change has affected forest composition in the background between successive catastrophic fires in boreal forests. Using 1797 permanent sample plots from western boreal forests of Canada measured from 1958 to 2013, we show that after accounting for stand age-dependent succession, the relative abundances of early-successional deciduous broadleaves and early-successional conifers have increased at the expense of late-successional conifers with climate change. These background compositional shifts are persistent temporally, consistent across all forest stand ages and pervasive spatially across the region. Rising atmospheric CO2 promoted early-successional conifers and deciduous broadleaves, and warming increased early-successional conifers at the expense of late-successional conifers, but compositional shifts were not associated with climate moisture index. Our results emphasize the importance of climate change on background compositional shifts in the boreal forest and suggest further compositional shifts as rising CO2 and warming will continue in the 21st century. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Western Pacific Tropospheric Ozone and Potential Vorticity: Implications for Asian Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Newell, Reginald E.; Davis, Douglas D.; Liu, Shaw C.

    1997-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (03) cross sections measured with lidar from a DC-8 aircraft over the western Pacific correspond closely with potential vorticity (PV). Both are transported from the middle latitude stratosphere, although this is not the only source of 03, and both have sinks in the tropical boundary layer. 03 and PV are good indicators of photochemical and transport process interactions. In summer, some Asian pollution, raised by convection to the upper troposphere, passes southward into the tropics and to the Southern Hemisphere. In winter, subsidence keeps the pollution at low altitudes where it moves over the ocean towards the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), with photochemical destruction and secondary pollutant generation occurring en route. Convection raises this modified air to the upper troposphere, where some re may enter the stratosphere. Thus winter Asian pollution may at have a smaller direct influence on the global atmosphere than it would if injected at other longitudes and seasons.

  15. Naturally acquired feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats from western Canada: Prevalence, disease associations, and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Madhu; Wobeser, Gary A; Taylor, Susan M; Jackson, Marion L

    2010-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated epidemiologic features and disease associations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in client owned cats from western Canada. Among 1205 cats that were tested 66 (5.5%) were positive for FIV antibody (FIV(+)) with a higher prevalence in males than females. FIV(+) cats were older than the overall population. Epidemiologic features and disease associations were compared between 58 FIV(+), but feline leukemia virus negative (FeLV(-)) cats and 58 age and sex matched FIV-negative (FIV(-)), FeLV(-) cats. FIV positivity was associated with a history of bite wounds, increasing age, and male gender. Lethargy and oral diseases were significantly associated with FIV positivity. Although several FIV(+) cats were euthanized, the survival time of FIV(+) cats after diagnosis was not significantly different from that of FIV(-) cats. In summary, FIV prevalence was low in cats from western Canada, clinical signs/diseases were mild, and lifespan was not different in FIV(+) cats.

  16. Naturally acquired feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats from western Canada: Prevalence, disease associations, and survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, Madhu; Wobeser, Gary A.; Taylor, Susan M.; Jackson, Marion L.

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated epidemiologic features and disease associations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in client owned cats from western Canada. Among 1205 cats that were tested 66 (5.5%) were positive for FIV antibody (FIV+) with a higher prevalence in males than females. FIV+ cats were older than the overall population. Epidemiologic features and disease associations were compared between 58 FIV+, but feline leukemia virus negative (FeLV−) cats and 58 age and se...

  17. Generalizing riparian hydrologic function in a heterogeneous landscape, Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, K.; Brown, S.; Hairabedian, M.; Landhäusser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Petrone, R.; Redding, R.; Riddell, J.; Silins, U.; Smerdon, B.; Snedden, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Western Boreal Plain (WBP) eco-region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedented development for forest, oil and gas resources stressing the need to assess the role and relative effectiveness of riparian areas in mitigating the impacts of land use changes on water quantity and quality. We compare findings from local scale transect studies across differing surficial geology at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) to characterize the variability in hydrological and biogeochemical processes of riparian areas located on major landforms and landscape positions typical of the WBP. Within the study region, the recurring role of riparian areas on hydrological linkages from uplands to aquatic systems was removal of soil water and groundwater by vegetation and translocation of water to adjacent hillslopes regardless of groundwater function. Water table depressions at the base of hillslopes were commonly observed. The sub-humid climate and deep and heterogeneous surficial deposits result in minimal upland runoff and complex surface -groundwater interactions. Aquatic-riparian flow reversals and losing conditions (water table gradients from aquatic to upland regions) were common and perched stream, pond and wetland systems were observed in areas of contrasting soil texture. The type and seasonality of flow path and variability in riparian function were related to interactions between sub-humid climate, surficial geologic landforms (texture) and topographic position within these landforms. Riparian functions were highly variable in coarse textured outwash landforms and influenced by regional-scale flow system and seasonal freezing. Riparian interactions on fined grained lacustrine plain landscapes were largely restricted to near surface discharge and recharge flow through. In contrast, on poorly drained and mixed textured moraine landforms, riparian systems were often isolated or interacted with recharge or perched flow systems. Our findings not only point to the need

  18. Relative performance of different exposure modeling approaches for sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air in rural western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyang-Mi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this paper is to compare different methods for predicting the levels of SO2 air pollution in oil and gas producing area of rural western Canada. Month-long average air quality measurements were collected over a two-year period (2001–2002 at multiple locations, with some side-by-side measurements, and repeated time-series at selected locations. Methods We explored how accurately location-specific mean concentrations of SO2 can be predicted for 2002 at 666 locations with multiple measurements. Means of repeated measurements on the 666 locations in 2002 were used as the alloyed gold standard (AGS. First, we considered two approaches: one that uses one measurement from each location of interest; and the other that uses context data on proximity of monitoring sites to putative sources of emission in 2002. Second, we imagined that all of the previous year's (2001's data were also available to exposure assessors: 9,464 measurements and their context (month, proximity to sources. Exposure prediction approaches we explored with the 2001 data included regression modeling using either mixed or fixed effects models. Third, we used Bayesian methods to combine single measurements from locations in 2002 (not used to calculate AGS with different priors. Results The regression method that included both fixed and random effects for prediction (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor had the best agreement with the AGS (Pearson correlation 0.77 and the smallest mean squared error (MSE: 0.03. The second best method in terms of correlation with AGS (0.74 and MSE (0.09 was the Bayesian method that uses normal mixture prior derived from predictions of the 2001 mixed effects applied in the 2002 context. Conclusion It is likely that either collecting some measurements from the desired locations and time periods or predictions of a reasonable empirical mixed effects model perhaps is sufficient in most epidemiological applications. The

  19. Impact of oil pollution on the North-western coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksissou, M.

    2003-04-01

    The North-western coast of Morocco has approximately 160 km from Asila city while passing by the towns of Tangier, Fnideq, M'diq and Tetouan to Oued Laou and shelters wetlands (lake Smir.), beaches, cliffs and mountains. Investigations carried out in 2000-2001 in this zone show scattered beaches and wetlands (Smir lake, Maleh river) polluted by oil. These polluted beaches and coastal wetlands are generally close to Marina or fishing ports and to the residential areas. Cases of fish (Rays and other Chondrychtiens), tortoises (Caretta caretta) and dolphins dead have been noted in some of these beaches during spring and summer (2000-2001) most probably because of oil pollution. Increased dredging in beaches (Haouara, Martil...) involves the salinity of the ground water and the disturbance of the marine biodiversity. Some management (construction of Kabila marina and Smir dam) involved disturbance of hydrology (salinity increased) and biodiversity (migration of the Birds from Smir lake towards Smir dam) in Smir lake. This management, dredging, algae extraction and oil act on the coastal biodiversity and involve the deterioration of the natural environment. The beaches polluted by oil obstruct the tourism activity. Measurements of prevention (by prohibition to get rid of the motor oil and the washing of the boats on the open sea, construction of sewage stations and industrial water purification) are necessary for the conservation of biological diversity and the tourism development. The cleaning of the beaches polluted within the framework of the activities of the ONG or the local communities is also necessary. An integrated coastal zone management is necessary for the nature conservation and the sustainable development of the North Western of Morocco. Keywords: Oil pollution, Biodiversity, Coast, Morocco.

  20. Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Western China has experienced rapid industrialization and urbanization since the implementation of the National Western Development Strategies (the "Go West" movement in 1999. This transition has affected the spatial and temporal characteristics of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution. In this study, we analyze the trends and variability of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs from 2005 to 2013 over Western China, based on a wavelet analysis on monthly mean NO2 data derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI measurements. We focus on the anthropogenic NO2 by subtracting region-specific "background" values dominated by natural sources. After removing the background influences, we find significant anthropogenic NO2 growth over Western China between 2005 and 2013 (8.6 ± 0.9 % yr−1 on average, relative to 2005, with the largest increments (15 % yr−1 or more over parts of several city clusters. The NO2 pollution in most provincial-level regions rose rapidly from 2005 to 2011 but stabilized or declined afterwards. The NO2 trends were driven mainly by changes in anthropogenic emissions, as confirmed by a nested GEOS-Chem model simulation and a comparison with Chinese official emission statistics. The rate of NO2 growth during 2005–2013 reaches 11.3 ± 1.0 % yr−1 over Northwestern China, exceeding the rates over Southwestern China (5.9 ± 0.6 % yr−1 and the three well-known polluted regions in the east (5.3 ± 0.8 % yr−1 over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, 4.0 ± 0.6 % yr−1 over the Yangtze River Delta, and −3.3 ± 0.3 % yr−1 over the Pearl River Delta. Subsequent socioeconomic analyses suggest that the rapid NO2 growth over Northwestern China is likely related to the fast developing resource- and pollution-intensive industries along with the "Go West" movement as well as relatively weak emission controls. Further efforts should be made to alleviate NOx pollution to achieve

  1. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  2. Magnetic properties of sediments in cores from the Mandovi estuary, western India: Inferences on provenance and pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prajith, A.; Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    Magnetic properties of sediments were investigated in 7 gravity cores recovered along a transect of the Mandovi estuary, western India to understand their provenance and pollution. The maximum magnetic susceptibility of sediments was at least 6...

  3. Finite-frequency P-wave tomography of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Implications for the lithospheric evolution in Western Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunfeng; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Hung, Shu-Huei

    2017-02-01

    The lithosphere beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin has potentially undergone Precambrian subduction and collisional orogenesis, resulting in a complex network of crustal domains. To improve the understanding of its evolutionary history, we combine data from the USArray and three regional networks to invert for P-wave velocities of the upper mantle using finite-frequency tomography. Our model reveals distinct, vertically continuous high (> 1%) velocity perturbations at depths above 200 km beneath the Precambrian Buffalo Head Terrane, Hearne craton and Medicine Hat Block, which sharply contrasts with those beneath the Canadian Rockies (lithosphere is substantially thinner beneath the adjacent Buffalo Head Terrane (160 km) and Medicine Hat Block (200 km). These findings are consistent with earlier theories of tectonic assembly in this region, which featured distinct Archean and Proterozoic plate convergences between the Hearne craton and its neighboring domains. The highly variable, bimodally distributed craton thicknesses may also reflect different lithospheric destruction processes beneath the western margin of Laurentia.

  4. A harvest management strategy for Canada geese in the western Mississippi Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) harvest in the Mississippi Flyway became increasingly complex during the 1980s. A strategy for managing harvest was...

  5. Species associations and habitat influence the range-wide distribution of breeding Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) on Western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2017-01-01

    Inter- and intra-specific interactions are potentially important factors influencing the distribution of populations. Aerial survey data, collected during range-wide breeding population surveys for Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior), 1987–2008, were evaluated to assess factors influencing their nesting distribution. Specifically, associations between nesting Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and EPP Canada Geese were quantified; and changes in the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese were identified. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models of EPP Canada Goose nest counts were evaluated within a cross-validation framework. The total count of EPP Canada Goose nests varied moderately among years between 1987 and 2008 with no long-term trend; however, the total count of nesting Lesser Snow Geese generally increased. Three models containing factors related to previous EPP Canada Goose nest density (representing recruitment), distance to Hudson Bay (representing brood-habitat), nesting habitat type, and Lesser Snow Goose nest density (inter-specific associations) were the most accurate, improving prediction accuracy by 45% when compared to intercept-only models. EPP Canada Goose nest density varied by habitat type, was negatively associated with distance to coastal brood-rearing areas, and suggested density-dependent intra-specific effects on recruitment. However, a non-linear relationship between Lesser Snow and EPP Canada Goose nest density suggests that as nesting Lesser Snow Geese increase, EPP Canada Geese locally decline and subsequently the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese on western Hudson Bay has changed.

  6. The M=7.9 Alaska Earthquake of 3 November 2002: felt reports and unusual effects across western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, A. L.; Cassidy, J. F.; Rogers, G. C.; Mulder, T. L.

    2003-04-01

    The 3~November 2002, M=7.9 Alaska earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes recorded in North America during the past 100 years. This earthquake was located 330~km west of the Yukon-Alaska border; surface rupture and aftershocks extended to within about 100~km of the border. More than 250 ``felt'' reports were submitted to the Geological Survey of Canda website (http://www.pgc.nrcan.gc.ca) within a few days of the earthquake. We summarize those reports from across western Canada. Accounts include typical high-frequency shaking effects to distances of approximately 1500~km, as well as numerous long-period effects to distances of nearly 3500~km: humans experiencing nausea, swaying high-rise buildings, telephone poles and chandeliers, seiches in lakes, inlets and swimming pools, instances of dirty well-water.

  7. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaelyn J Eberle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma, despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut. Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus, esocid (pike, and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.. Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  8. More bang for our buck. How Canada can create more energy jobs and less pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Canada’s increasing reliance on the oil sands is not the best strategy for the economy or our environment. This report shows if the $1.3 billion in government subsidies, now given to the oil and gas sector, were instead invested in renewable energy and energy efficiency, Canada would create more jobs: 18,000 more. We also discuss in detail the economic risks of relying increasingly on the volatile oil market.

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of mercury concentrations in freshwater fish across the Western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A; Fleck, Jacob; Stewart, Robin; Wiener, James G.; Evers, David C.; Lepak, Jesse M; Davis, Jay A; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fish is a global threat to environmental health. Mercury (Hg) monitoring programs are valuable for generating data that can be compiled for spatially broad syntheses to identify emergent ecosystem properties that influence fish Hg bioaccumulation. Fish total Hg (THg) concentrations were evaluated across the Western United States (US) and Canada, a region defined by extreme gradients in habitat structure and water management. A database was compiled with THg concentrations in 96,310 fish that comprised 206 species from 4262 locations, and used to evaluate the spatial distribution of fish THg across the region and effects of species, foraging guilds, habitats, and ecoregions. Areas of elevated THg exposure were identified by developing a relativized estimate of fish mercury concentrations at a watershed scale that accounted for the variability associated with fish species, fish size, and site effects. THg concentrations in fish muscle ranged between 0.001 and 28.4 (μg/g wet weight (ww)) with a geometric mean of 0.17. Overall, 30% of individual fish samples and 17% of means by location exceeded the 0.30 μg/g ww US EPA fish tissue criterion. Fish THg concentrations differed among habitat types, with riverine habitats consistently higher than lacustrine habitats. Importantly, fish THg concentrations were not correlated with sediment THg concentrations at a watershed scale, but were weakly correlated with sediment MeHg concentrations, suggesting that factors influencing MeHg production may be more important than inorganic Hg loading for determining fish MeHg exposure. There was large heterogeneity in fish THg concentrations across the landscape; THg concentrations were generally higher in semi-arid and arid regions such as the Great Basin and Desert Southwest, than in temperate forests. Results suggest that fish mercury exposure is widespread throughout Western US and Canada, and that species, habitat type, and region play an important

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Audrey; Bigras Poulin, Michel; Rousseau, Alain N; Dubey, Jitender P; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, one of the more common zoonotic parasites in the world, can cause serious illness in humans and other animals worldwide. Felids are the only known host that can shed T. gondii oocysts, which are essential to the perpetuation of the parasite. In much of boreal Canada, the Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) is the only wild felid host that could contribute to environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. We estimated the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Canadian lynx from western Québec and compared our results with earlier findings in the same region 12 yr earlier. We investigated factors associated with seroconversion, including age, sex, geographic location, and possible co-occurrence with domestic cats (Felis catus), and we assessed the proportion of lynx shedding T. gondii oocysts. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 84 lynx harvested by trappers in the eastern part of the study area during winter 2009-2010. Sera were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (cutoff titer 1:50) and fecal samples for parasite eggs by fecal flotation. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in sera of 14% of 84 lynx. Numerous helminth ova and coccidian oocysts were found in feces, whereas T. gondii-like oocysts were not detected. Antibody prevalence increased with age class (odds ratio [OR]=4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.57-11.99, Plynx (36%) trapped in the western part of the study area during winter 1997-1998 (OR=0.18, 95% CI=0.08-0.44, Plynx in Canada, and we review possible abiotic and biotic ecologic factors supporting these findings.

  11. Double burden of deprivation and high concentrations of ambient air pollution at the neighbourhood scale in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Dan L; Ross, Nancy A; Goldberg, Mark S

    2009-09-01

    Some neighbourhoods in urban areas are characterised by concentrations of socially and materially deprived populations. Additionally, levels of ambient air pollution in a city can be variable at the local scale and can create disparities in air quality between neighbourhoods. Socioeconomic and physical characteristics of neighbourhood environments can affect the health and well-being of local residents. In this paper we identify whether neighbourhoods in Montreal, Canada characterised by social and material deprivation have higher levels of ambient air pollution than do others. We collected two-week integrated samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) at 133 sites in Montreal during three seasons between 2005 and 2006. We used these data in a geographic information system, along with data describing characteristics of land use, roads, and traffic, to create a spatial model of predicted mean annual concentrations of NO(2) across Montreal. Next, we collected neighbourhood socioeconomic information for 501 census tracts and overlaid their boundaries on the pollution surface. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between neighbourhood-level indicators of deprivation and levels of ambient NO(2). We found associations between concentrations of NO(2) and neighbourhood-level indicators of material deprivation, including median household income, and with indicators of social deprivation, including proportion of people living alone. We identified specific neighbourhoods that were characterised by a double burden of high levels of deprivation and high concentrations of ambient NO(2). Because of the particular social geography in Montreal, we found that not all deprived neighbourhoods had high levels of pollution and that some affluent neighbourhoods in the downtown core had high levels. Our results underscore the importance of considering social contexts in interpreting general associations between social and environmental risks to

  12. Spatial analysis of air pollution and childhood asthma in Hamilton, Canada: comparing exposure methods in sensitive subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Altaf

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in air pollution exposure within a community may be associated with asthma prevalence. However, studies conducted to date have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to errors in measurement of the exposures. Methods A standardized asthma survey was administered to children in grades one and eight in Hamilton, Canada, in 1994–95 (N ~1467. Exposure to air pollution was estimated in four ways: (1 distance from roadways; (2 interpolated surfaces for ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and nitrous oxides from seven to nine governmental monitoring stations; (3 a kriged nitrogen dioxide (NO2 surface based on a network of 100 passive NO2 monitors; and (4 a land use regression (LUR model derived from the same monitoring network. Logistic regressions were used to test associations between asthma and air pollution, controlling for variables including neighbourhood income, dwelling value, state of housing, a deprivation index and smoking. Results There were no significant associations between any of the exposure estimates and asthma in the whole population, but large effects were detected the subgroup of children without hayfever (predominately in girls. The most robust effects were observed for the association of asthma without hayfever and NO2LUR OR = 1.86 (95%CI, 1.59–2.16 in all girls and OR = 2.98 (95%CI, 0.98–9.06 for older girls, over an interquartile range increase and controlling for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that traffic-related pollutants, such as NO2, are associated with asthma without overt evidence of other atopic disorders among female children living in a medium-sized Canadian city. The effects were sensitive to the method of exposure estimation. More refined exposure models produced the most robust associations.

  13. Ordovician sponges from west-central and east-central Alaska and western Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J.K.; Blodgett, R.B.; Britt, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate collections of fossil sponges have been recovered over a several-year period from a few scattered localities in west-central and east-central Alaska, and from westernmost Yukon Territory of Canada. Two fragments of the demosponge agelasiid cliefdenellid, Cliefdenella alaskaensis Stock, 1981, and mostly small unidentifiable additional fragments were recovered from a limestone debris flow bed in the White Mountain area, McGrath A-4 Quadrangle in west-central Alaska. Fragments of the agelasiid actinomorph girtyocoeliids Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby & Potter, 1986) and Girtyocoelia minima n. sp., plus a specimen of the vaceletid colospongiid Corymbospongia amplia Rigby, Karl, Blodgett & Baichtal, 2005, were collected from probable Ashgillian age beds in the Livengood B-5 Quadrangle in east-central Alaska. A more extensive suite of corymbospongiids, including Corymbospongia betella Rigby, Potter & Blodgett, 1988, C. mica Rigby & Potter, 1986, and C.(?) perforata Rigby & Potter, 1986, along with the vaceletiid colospongiids Pseudo-imperatoria minima? (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and Pseudoimperatoria media (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and with the heteractinid Nucha naucum? Pickett & Jell, 1983, were recovered from uppermost part of the Jones Ridge Limestone (Ashgillian), on the south flank of Jones Ridge, in the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle, in westernmost Yukon Territory, Canada. The fossil sponges from the McGrath A-4 and Livengood B-5 quadrangles were recovered from attached Siberian terranes, and those from the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle were recovered from an allochthonous Laurentian terrane in the Yukon Territory.

  14. Fluids associated with hydrothermal dolomitization in St. George Group, western Newfoundland, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    J. Conliffe; K. Azmy; S. A. Gleeson; D. Lavoie

    2010-01-01

    Dolomite reservoirs are increasingly recognized as an important petroleum exploration target, although the application of a hydrothermal dolomite exploration model to these reservoirs remains controversial. The St. George Group of western Newfoundland consists of a sequence of dolomitised carbonates, with significant porosity development (up to 30%) and petroleum accumulations. Fluid inclusion microthermometry and bulk fluid leach analyses indicated that fluids responsible for matrix dolomiti...

  15. Climate change and bark beetles of the western United States and Canada: Direct and indirect effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Jacques Regniere; Christopher J. Fettig; E. Matthew Hansen; Jane L. Hayes; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Rick G. Kelsey; Jose F. Negron; Steven J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    Climatic changes are predicted to significantly affect the frequency and severity of disturbances that shape forest ecosystems. We provide a synthesis of climate change effects on native bark beetles, important mortality agents of conifers in western North America. Because of differences in temperature-dependent life-history strategies, including cold-induced mortality...

  16. Perceptions of self-drive tourists along the Alaska-Canada border toward the increased security requirements of the western hemisphere travel initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Palso

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and feelings of self-drive tourists who cross the Alaska-Canada border about the increased security requirements of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI), and how such attitudes and feelings may impact the tourism industry in this region. Results of a 2007 survey suggest that implementation of passport requirements will have...

  17. HYDROCARBON POLLUTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper is aimed to estimate the current level of hydrocarbon pollution of the marine environment in the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The paper discusses the results of three-year studies conducted in 2012-2014 within the framework of Roshydromet’s Programme of monitoring of transboundary waters of the Caspian Sea. Spatial distribution of concentrations of hydrocarbons (total and polyaromatic in water and bottom sediments of the area was analysed. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were determined by means of infrared spectrometry and PAHs – of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.Results. The range of the total hydrocarbons in the area’s water is from slight traces to 240 µg/l, in sediments – from traces to 114 µg/g (dry weight. Total concentrations of PAHs in water varied from traces to 321 ng/l, in sediments – from traces to 699 ng/g (dry weight. For the source identification, data of satellite monitoring of the area were used. The data showed increasing input of hydrocarbons coming into the marine environment with discharges from vessels.Conclusion. The results of these studies are compared to those of previous research and show that the level of hydrocarbons in the area is typical for slightly polluted areas.

  18. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial isolates from equine infections in western Canada (1998–2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Chris; Greenwood, Sarah; Boison, Joe O.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Dowling, Patricia M.

    2008-01-01

    All bacterial samples of equine origin submitted to the diagnostic laboratory at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from January 1998 to December 2003 from either “in-clinic” or Field Service cases were accessed (1323 submissions). The most common bacterial isolates from specific presenting signs were identified, along with their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The most common site from which significant bacterial isolates were recovered was the respiratory tract, foll...

  20. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in primiparous women: a comparison from Canada and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlard, Bryan; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; S Curren, Meredith; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Foster, Warren; Needham, Larry; Wong, Lee-Yang; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Marro, Leonora; Leech, Tara; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p'-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, β-HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in primiparous women: a comparison from Canada and Mexico☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlard, Bryan; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Curren, Meredith S.; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Foster, Warren; Needham, Larry; Wong, Lee-Yang; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Marro, Leonora; Leech, Tara; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p′-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p′-DDE, β-HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America. PMID:25233368

  2. Comparison of Magnetic Anomalies of Lithospheric Origin Measured by Satellite and Airborne Magnetometers over Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.; Coles, R. L.; Mayhew, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomaly data from the OGO 2, 4 and 6 (Pogo) satellites are compared with upward-continued aeromagnetic data between 50 deg -85 deg N latitude and 220 deg - 260 deg E longitude. Agreement is good both in anomaly location and in amplitude, giving confidence that it is possible to proceed with the derivation and interpretation of satellite anomaly maps in all parts of the globe. The data contain a magnetic high over the Alpha ridge suggesting continental composition and a magnetic low over the southern Canada basin and northern Canadian Arctic islands (Sverdrup basin). The low in the Sverdrup basin corresponds to a region of high heat flow, suggesting a shallow Curie isotherm. A ridge of high field, with two distinct peaks in amplitude, is found over the northern portion of the platform deposits and a relative high is located in the central portion of the Churchill province. No features are present to indicate a magnetic boundary between Slave and Bear provinces, but a trend change is evident between Slave and Churchill provinces. South of 60 deg latitude a broad magnetic low is located over very thick (40-50 km) crust, interpreted to be a region of low magnetization.

  3. Persistent millennial-scale shifts in moisture regimes in western Canada during the past six millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Brian F.; Laird, Kathleen R.; Bennett, Joseph R.; Smol, John P.; Salomon, Anne K.

    2002-01-01

    Inferences of past climatic conditions from a sedimentary record from Big Lake, British Columbia, Canada, over the past 5,500 years show strong millennial-scale patterns, which oscillate between periods of wet and drier climatic conditions. Higher frequency decadal- to centennial-scale fluctuations also occur within the dominant millennial-scale patterns. These changes in climatic conditions are based on estimates of changes in lake depth and salinity inferred from diatom assemblages in a well dated sediment core. After periods of relative stability, abrupt shifts in diatom assemblages and inferred climatic conditions occur approximately every 1,220 years. The correspondence of these shifts to millennial-scale variations in records of glacial expansion/recession and ice-rafting events in the Atlantic suggest that abrupt millennial-scale shifts are important to understanding climatic variability in North America during the mid- to late Holocene. Unfortunately, the spatial patterns and mechanisms behind these large and abrupt swings are poorly understood. Similar abrupt and prolonged changes in climatic conditions today could pose major societal challenges for many regions. PMID:12461174

  4. Net aboveground biomass declines of four major forest types with forest ageing and climate change in western Canada's boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Biomass change of the world's forests is critical to the global carbon cycle. Despite storing nearly half of global forest carbon, the boreal biome of diverse forest types and ages is a poorly understood component of the carbon cycle. Using data from 871 permanent plots in the western boreal forest of Canada, we examined net annual aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) of four major forest types between 1958 and 2011. We found that ΔAGB was higher for deciduous broadleaf (DEC) (1.44 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) , 95% Bayesian confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.68) and early-successional coniferous forests (ESC) (1.42, CI, 1.30-1.56) than mixed forests (MIX) (0.80, CI, 0.50-1.11) and late-successional coniferous (LSC) forests (0.62, CI, 0.39-0.88). ΔAGB declined with forest age as well as calendar year. After accounting for the effects of forest age, ΔAGB declined by 0.035, 0.021, 0.032 and 0.069 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) per calendar year in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. The ΔAGB declines resulted from increased tree mortality and reduced growth in all forest types except DEC, in which a large biomass loss from mortality was accompanied with a small increase in growth. With every degree of annual temperature increase, ΔAGB decreased by 1.00, 0.20, 0.55 and 1.07 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. With every cm decrease of annual climatic moisture availability, ΔAGB decreased 0.030, 0.045 and 0.17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in ESC, MIX and LSC forests, but changed little in DEC forests. Our results suggest that persistent warming and decreasing water availability have profound negative effects on forest biomass in the boreal forests of western Canada. Furthermore, our results indicate that forest responses to climate change are strongly dependent on forest composition with late-successional coniferous forests being most vulnerable to climate changes in terms of aboveground biomass. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Advancing team-based primary health care: a comparative analysis of policies in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Misfeldt, Renee; Boakye, Omenaa; Nasmith, Louise; Wong, Sabrina T

    2017-07-17

    We analyzed and compared primary health care (PHC) policies in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to understand how they inform the design and implementation of team-based primary health care service delivery. The goal was to develop policy imperatives that can advance team-based PHC in Canada. We conducted comparative case studies (n = 3). The policy analysis included: Context review: We reviewed relevant information (2007 to 2014) from databases and websites. Policy review and comparative analysis: We compared and contrasted publically available PHC policies. Key informant interviews: Key informants (n = 30) validated narratives prepared from the comparative analysis by offering contextual information on potential policy imperatives. Advisory group and roundtable: An expert advisory group guided this work and a key stakeholder roundtable event guided prioritization of policy imperatives. The concept of team-based PHC varies widely across and within the three provinces. We noted policy gaps related to team configuration, leadership, scope of practice, role clarity and financing of team-based care; few policies speak explicitly to monitoring and evaluation of team-based PHC. We prioritized four policy imperatives: (1) alignment of goals and policies at different system levels; (2) investment of resources for system change; (3) compensation models for all members of the team; and (4) accountability through collaborative practice metrics. Policies supporting team-based PHC have been slow to emerge, lacking a systematic and coordinated approach. Greater alignment with specific consideration of financing, reimbursement, implementation mechanisms and performance monitoring could accelerate systemic transformation by removing some well-known barriers to team-based care.

  6. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection II. Location of study herds relative to the oil and gas industry in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    During the late part of 2000 and early months of 2001, project veterinarians recruited 205 beef herds to participate in a study of the effects of emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry on cattle reproduction and health. Researchers developed herd-selection criteria to optimize the range of exposure to facilities, including oil and gas wells, battery sites, and gas-gathering and gas-processing facilities across the major cattle-producing areas of Western Canada. Herds were initially selected on the basis of a ranking system of exposure potential on the basis of herd-owner reports of the locations of their operations in relation to oil and gas industry facilities. At the end of the study, researchers summarized data obtained from provincial regulatory agencies on facility location and reported flaring and venting volumes for each herd and compared these data to the original rankings of herd-exposure potential. Through this selection process, the researchers were successful in obtaining statistically significant differences in exposure to various types of oil and gas facility types and reported emissions among herds recruited for the study.

  7. The Nitrogen Balance of Three Long-term Agroecosystems on a Boreal Soil in Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Shirley M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Janzen, H. H.; Robertson, J. A.; Mcgill, William B.

    2008-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) budgets can be used to quantify the flows of N in agroecosystems and to account for differences in losses and retention of N. The objective of our study was to develop 24-year N budgets for three diverse cropping systems on a boreal soil at Breton, Alberta, Canada: AER an agroecological 8-year rotation, with N inputs from legumes [fababean (Vicia faba L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)] and manure; CF - a continuous perennial grass legume forage system, with N inputs from fertilizer (18 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.); and CG - a continuous annual grain system, with N fertilizer (90 kg N ha-1 yr-1). We were able to compile detailed N budgets, demonstrate accumulation of soil N, and attribute differences in N flow and permanence to treatment effects. For AER and CG, net inputs almost exactlymatched gains in soil N. The AER system had the highest N flow and the largest net N accumulation. Soil total N mass to 30 cm depth increased in all systems during 1980 2005, but increases were smaller in CG (0.59 Mg N ha-1) than in AER (1.90 Mg N ha-1) and CF (1.63 Mg N ha-1), showing the effect of legumes, perennial species, and manure in the latter systems. The proportion of total N inputs retained as soil N with organic N inputs in AER (44%) was about twice that with synthetic N fertilizer in CG (23%). The CF system had the lowest productivity and the least N loss to the environment (4 kg N ha-1 yr-1, compared to 28 for AER and 24 for CG). The proportion of N inputs lost to the environment was 16% for AER and 24% for CG. In CF, gains of soil N exceeded apparent net N inputs, perhaps because we under-estimated N inputs from clover. Estimate of legume N input was one of the larger sources of uncertainty. The study affirmed the value of N budgets in evaluating agroecosystem performance, and identified AER and CF as productive and sustainable systems due to their minimal reliance on external N inputs and small

  8. Holocene changes in fire frequency in north-western boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, D.; Bergeron, Y.; Carcaillet, C.; Gauthier, S.; Hely-Alleaume, C.; Flannigan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Changes in fire frequency were reconstructed for the last 8,000 yrs in the boreal forest of north-western Quebec using dendrochronology and charcoal records in lake sediments and organic soils. During the middle Holocene, fire frequency was characterized by a long period of low frequency between ca. 7500 and 2000 yrs BP. The high fire frequency during the last 2000 years was interrupted by periods of lower fire frequency notably since the end of the Little Ice Age ca 1850 AD. Climate appears to be the main process triggering fire. Simulations using GCMs (2xCO2 scenarios), buttressed by palaeoecological and dendrochronological evidence, suggest that future warming is unlikely to significantly increase fire frequency in the boreal forest of north-eastern Quebec since higher temperature appears to be associated with less frequent drought in this area. Palaeoecological and dendrochronological data clearly demonstrate the changing nature of forest ecosystem dynamics. We discuss the implications of these dynamics on disturbance-based forest management strategies

  9. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  10. Transient peat properties in two pond-peatland complexes in the sub-humid Western Boreal Plain, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Petrone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Canadian Western Boreal Plain (WBP, wetlands (ponds and peatlands comprise up to 50% of the landscape and represent unique habitat where summer precipitation is often outpaced by evapotranspiration and hillslope groundwater position does not follow topography. In this sub-humid location, groundwater fluxes and stores in riparian peatlands influence pond water levels and root zone moisture sources for forested uplands. To accurately describe the transport and retention of water in peat, it is important to consider peat subsidence. This paper quantifies the amount and effect of seasonal subsidence in a riparian peatland in the Utikuma Lake region in north-central Alberta, Canada. Results demonstrate that the deep and poorly decomposed peat deposits are resistant to compression, and that thick (and persistent ground frost hinders pore collapse (shrinkage above the water table until late summer when the ground has thawed. Even then, subsidence is still limited to the top 50 cm and is not closely related to changes in peatland water table or pond water level. Thus the water balance of these ponds and riparian areas appears to be less sensitive to peat volume changes than it is to the persistence of a substantial frost layer well into the snow-free period.

  11. Contributions of insects and droughts to growth decline of trembling aspen mixed boreal forest of western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-Guo; Dawson, Andria; Zhai, Lihong; Stadt, Kenneth J; Comeau, Philip G; Whitehouse, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Insects, diseases, fire and drought and other disturbances associated with global climate change contribute to forest decline and mortality in many parts of the world. Forest decline and mortality related to drought or insect outbreaks have been observed in North American aspen forests. However, little research has been done to partition and estimate their relative contributions to growth declines. In this study, we combined tree-ring width and basal area increment series from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) sites along a latitudinal gradient (from 52° to 58°N) in western Canada and attempted to investigate the effect of drought and insect outbreaks on growth decline, and simultaneously partition and quantify their relative contributions. Results indicated that the influence of drought on forest decline was stronger than insect outbreaks, although both had significant effects. Furthermore, the influence of drought and insect outbreaks showed spatiotemporal variability. In addition, our data suggest that insect outbreaks could be triggered by warmer early spring temperature instead of drought, implicating that potentially increased insect outbreaks are expected with continued warming springs, which may further exacerbate growth decline and death in North America aspen mixed forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Seeking serenity: living with HIV/AIDS in rural Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groft, Jean N; Robinson Vollman, Ardene

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this naturalistic inquiry was to describe the experience of living with HIV infection in rural Alberta, Canada. Although the urban HIV epidemic has been well researched, the virus continues its spread into more remote populations where there is a need to understand and address its impact. Affected rural residents form a diverse and marginalized group that includes women, Aboriginal peoples, immigrants, injecting drug users, and men who have sex with men, yet there are few data available to inform appropriate health and social services and practice. A number of factors, such as stigma, invisibility, isolation, confidentiality, poverty, and risk behaviours, contribute to the rural experience, but have not been clearly explicated in the literature. This study was conducted in order to better understand the perceptions of health in a rural setting, the processes involved in accessing care, the challenges and benefits associated with rural life, and the relationship between personal beliefs and values and the nature of the disease. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six HIV-seropositive individuals and one caregiver who were living or had lived in rural settings, as well as four AIDS agency staff from a small city. Participants represented varied backgrounds, ages, sexual orientations, exposure to risk behaviours, lifestyles, roles, and citizenship. A naturalist inquiry approach was used in order to explore the qualitative aspects of the experience. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Documents such as poetry, letters, field notes and journals served to enrich the data. Participants identified the components of health as a sense of wellbeing, quality of life, and independence. Within the context of HIV infection, health was achieved through three processes: (1) accommodating the reality of the diagnosis into daily life; (2) creating and engaging in supportive relationships and communities; and (3) reflecting on the meaning of

  13. Exposure to ambient air pollution in Canada and the risk of adult leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Nicholas [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Goldberg, Mark S., E-mail: mark.goldberg@mcgill.ca [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Ave. W., R4.29, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1 (Canada); Hystad, Perry [College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Villeneuve, Paul J. [Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Johnson, Kenneth C. [Science Integration Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of studies investigating adult leukemia and air pollution. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a Canadian population-based case–control study conducted in 1994–1997. Cases were 1064 adults with incident leukemia and controls were 5039 healthy adults. We used data from satellites and fixed-site monitoring stations to estimate residential concentrations of NO{sub 2} and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) for the period prior to diagnosis, starting in 1975 and ending in 1994. We modeled the average annual exposure of each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, province, smoking, education, body mass index, income, and self-reported exposures to ionizing radiation and benzene. We found an ‘n-shaped’ response function between exposure to NO{sub 2} and all forms of leukemia: from the tenth percentile to the median (4.51 to 14.66 ppb), the OR was 1.20; 95% CI: 0.97–1.48 and from the 75th percentile to the 90th (22.75 to 29.7 ppb), the OR was 0.79; 95% CI 0.68–0.93. For PM{sub 2.5} we found a response function consistent with a linear model, with an OR per 10 μg/m{sup 3} of 0.97 (95% CI 0.75–1.26). For chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found response functions that were consistent with a simple linear model, with an OR per 5 ppb of NO{sub 2} of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.00) and an OR per 10 μg/m{sup 3} of PM{sub 2.5} of 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.93). In summary, for chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found no evidence of an association with air pollution and with all forms of leukemia we found weak evidence of an association only at low concentrations of NO{sub 2}. It is possible that these inconsistent results may have arisen because of unaccounted urban/rural differences or possibly from a selection effect, especially among controls. - Highlights: • Analyzed associations between incidence of adult leukemia and PM • We used 20-year residential

  14. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Cloutier; Amy Cox; Ruth Kampen; Karen Kobayashi; Heather Cook; Deanne Taylor; Gina Gaspard

    2016-01-01

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with lead...

  15. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz Haderlein; T.L. Jensen; R.E. Dowbenko; A.D. Blaylock

    2001-01-01

    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  16. Effectiveness of Six Improved Cookstoves in Reducing Household Air Pollution and Their Acceptability in Rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilishvili, Tamara; Loo, Jennifer D; Schrag, Stephanie; Stanistreet, Debbi; Christensen, Bryan; Yip, Fuyuen; Nyagol, Ronald; Quick, Robert; Sage, Mike; Bruce, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuel burning is linked to poor health outcomes. Improved biomass cookstoves (ICS) have the potential to improve HAP. A pre-/post- intervention study assessed the impact of six ICS on indoor air quality and acceptability of ICS to local users in rural Western Kenya. We measured mean personal and kitchen level concentrations of particulate matter air quality guidelines. Achieving maximal potential of ICS requires adherence to more exclusive use and addressing user reported ICS limitations.

  17. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  18. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  19. Potential rates of anaerobic decomposition and experimental priming effects in thawed peats from discontinuous permafrost in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estop Aragones, C.; Heffernan, L.; Olefeldt, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent climate change has led to increased rates of warming and wildfire in the circumpolar region. It is predicted that this will promote the widespread thawing of permafrost and the development of thermokarst bogs in the peatlands of western Canada. Previously frozen deep organic matter becomes available to microbial activity with thermokarst with the potential loss of C stocks while liberating greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and creating a positive feedback to climate change. Although anoxic conditions in these waterlogged systems may reduce peat decomposition, fresh plant derived C inputs associated with high vegetation productivity post-thaw could increase peat decomposition. The effect of this potential mechanism on enhanced peat decomposition is poorly investigated though. We are measuring anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production rates from a peat plateau, an adjacent young and an old thermokarst feature in the discontinuous permafrost. Samples were selected from depths where peat has been exposed to seasonal thaw (active layer) and from deeper, previously frozen organic matter along 5 m profiles. Preliminary results indicate that most CO2 production is driven by the top meter of peat, especially in the recent thermokarst where the highest rates of CH4 production are also measured due to high vegetation productivity post-thaw. Data suggests that the decomposition of deeper peat is more temperature sensitive. We are considering a 13C labelling experiment to investigate the priming effects on heterotrophic respiration of organic matter heterotrophic respiration once the labile C pool has been depleted and production rates have become stable over time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy will be used to determine how peat quality is related to anaerobic decomposition rates, its temperature dependency, and priming effects. These measurements aim to constrain the fate of C through anaerobic decomposition upon permafrost thaw.

  20. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  1. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  2. Evaluation of the Water Quality Pollution Indices for Groundwater Resources of Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was carried out for evaluation of water quality pollution indices for monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu contamination in Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran during spring and summer 2012. Methods: Totally, 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm and maintained cool in polyethylene bottles. Samples were taken for the analysis of metals, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Results: The mean values of Contamination index (Cd, Heavy metal pollution index (HPI and Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI in samples for spring season were -2.27, 9.01 and 1.73 respectively and in samples for summer season were -1.95, 8.69 and 2.04 respectively. It indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Although the heavy metal pollution of the ground water in Ghahavand Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but severe precautions consideration such as manage the use of agricultural inputs, prevention of use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, control of overuse of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries are recommended in this area.

  3. Estimation of pollution load from an industrial estate, south-western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %. About 64.0% of the total pollution load of the industrial estate was contributed by industries in the basic metal, iron, steel and fabricated metal works sector. There is need for industrial emission monitoring and enforcement for pollution control ...

  4. Correlation of Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Seismicity with Operation Parameters of Shale Gas Extraction: Two Case Studies in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbod, A. M.; Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.; Snyder, D. B.; Cairns, S.; Walker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast British Columbia, specifically the Horn River Basin (HRB) and Montney Trend, are among the largest shale gas production regions in western Canada. In contrast, there has been no large-scale hydraulic fracturing (HF) operation in the Northwest Territories in the Norman Wells region of the central Mackenzie valley. In this study, we investigate the effect of injection pressure, operation duration and injected volume on the observed seismicity in the HRB and Norman Wells regions and compare our observations with the pre-HF records. In the HRB, we apply the single-station location and waveform correlation methods to establish a homogenous earthquake catalog (2006/12-2011/12). In the Northwest Territories, we combine data from a local seismograph network of 4 stations plus a dense array of 7 stations located from 1 km to 50 km from the operation wells to locate earthquakes (2013/09-2014/07). In the HRB, the initial effect of an increased injected volume is an increase in earthquake frequency but not magnitude. Local earthquakes gradually become larger in magnitude as the scale of HF in the region expands. While the injection pressure during HF operations has been regulated at a relatively constant level, the massive increase of injection volume in 2010 and 2011 coincides with a series of ML>3 events. Relatively large seismic moment release (>1014 N m) occurred only when the monthly injected volume exceeded ~150,000 m3. In addition, we observe variable time lags, from days to up to 4 months between intense HF and the occurrence of a significant local earthquake. On the other hand, in the Norman Wells region, two small-scale HF were performed in 2014 with a total injected volume of ~ 14000 m3. We observed an increase in the number of micro-earthquakes (M < 2.0) during the HF period without a clear change in the overall seismic pattern. From these two observations, we conclude that HF operations do not necessarily result in an increase in the occurrence rate of

  5. Air pollution removal by urban forests in Canada and its effect on air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Marlene Doyle; Mark McGovern; Jon Pasher

    2018-01-01

    Urban trees perform a number of ecosystem services including air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, cooling air temperatures and providing aesthetic beauty to the urban landscape. Trees remove air pollution by intercepting particulate matter on plant surfaces and absorbing gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. Computer simulations with local environmental...

  6. Implementing Indigenous and Western Knowledge Systems in Water Research and Management (Part 1: A Systematic Realist Review to Inform Water Policy and Governance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Castleden

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis/Metis peoples in Canada experience persistent and disproportionate water-related challenges compared to non-Indigenous Canadians. These circumstances are largely attributable to enduring colonial policies and practices. Attempts for redress have been unsuccessful, and Western science and technology have been largely unsuccessful in remedying Canada’s water-related challenges. A systematic review of the academic and grey literature on integrative Indigenous and Western approaches to water research and management identified 279 items of which 63 were relevant inclusions; these were then analyzed using a realist review tool. We found an emerging trend of literature in this area, much of which called for the rejection of tokenism and the development of respectful nation-to-nation relationships in water research, management, and policy.

  7. Assessment of the physicochemical and microbiological status of western Niger Delta soil for crude oil pollution bioremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ozochi, Chizoba A

    2015-06-01

    The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil across the western Niger Delta area of Nigeria were determined to assess its potential for natural remediation of crude oil pollution. The pH (oil-producing area, 6.1 ± 1.1; non-oil producing, 5.9 ± 0.9) and temperature (28-35 °C in both areas) were favourable to natural remediation, while the fluctuating moisture (7.7-45.6 %) and the dominant sandy soil textural classes (70 %) were limitations. The carbon nitrogen phosphorus (CNP) ratio markedly exceeded recommended 100:10:1, while the cation exchange capacity was below acceptable range. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and hydrocarbon-utilising and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (mean range log10 3.8 ± 1.5-6.52 ± 0.9 cfu/g) were favourable having markedly exceeded the minimum counts required. Crude oil loss was highest in loam soil, but significantly (P = 0.00) increased in all soil textural classes including sandy soils after amendment with cow dung/poultry dropping and manual aeration in laboratory and 8-month field tests as indicated by two-way ANOVA. Thus, the overall assessment is that while CNP can be viewed as the major limiting factor to natural oil pollution remediation in the western Niger Delta soil, its influence can be minimised by the amendment indicated in the study.

  8. Outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma among children and adults: A case-crossover study in northern Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have observed positive associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department (ED visits for asthma. However, few have examined the possible confounding influence of aeroallergens, or reported findings among very young children. Methods A time stratified case-crossover design was used to examine 57,912 ED asthma visits among individuals two years of age and older in the census metropolitan area of Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for the entire region were estimated from three fixed-site monitoring stations. Similarly, daily levels of aeroallergens were estimated using rotational impaction sampling methods for the period between 1996 and 2002. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity and seasonal epidemics of viral related respiratory disease. Results Positive associations for asthma visits with outdoor air pollution levels were observed between April and September, but were absent during the remainder of the year. Effects were strongest among young children. Namely, an increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average for NO2 and CO levels between April and September was associated with a 50% and 48% increase, respectively, in the number of ED visits among children 2 – 4 years of age (p Conclusion Our findings, taken together, suggest that exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of ED visits for asthma, particularly among young children and the elderly.

  9. Abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line sites in the Western James region of Northern Ontario, Canada: a source of organochlorines for First Nations people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Sutherland, Celine; Nieboer, Evert

    2006-11-01

    The potential exists for human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminants originating from abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line (MCRL) sites in sub-arctic Canada. We examined patterns of differences with respect to body burden of organochlorines (lipid-adjusted) between residents of the Ontario First Nations of Fort Albany (the site of MCRL Site 050) and Kashechewan (no radar base) and Hamilton (an industrial, southern Ontario community) to assess whether the presence of Site 050 influenced organochlorine body burden with respect to the people of Fort Albany. PCBs (Aroclor 1260 and summation operator14 PCBs congeners [CBs]) and DDE in the plasma of Fort Albany and Kashechewan subjects were elevated relative to Hamilton participants. PCB and DDE-plasma levels in First Nation women were of comparable magnitude to those reported for Inuit women living in the west/central Northwest Territories. Significantly lower DDE/DDT ratios observed for Fort Albany indicates exposure to higher levels of DDT compared to Kashechewan. The probable source of DDT exposure for Fort Albany people is the DDT-contaminated soil surrounding buildings of Site 050. The results of the correspondence analysis (CA) indicated that people from Hamilton had relatively higher pesticides and lower CB body burdens, while people from Fort Albany and Kashechewan exhibited relatively higher CBs and lower pesticide levels (CA-1). The separation of Fort Albany and Kashechewan from Hamilton was also clear using questionnaire data (i.e., plotting dietary principal component [PC]-1 scores against PC-2); PC-1 was correlated with the consumption of a traditional diet. Separation of Kashechewan and Albany residents occurred because the people of Kashechewan ate more traditional meats and consumed shorebirds. Only one significant relationship was found between PC analysis and contaminant loadings; PC-1 versus CA-3 for Kashechewan. The presence of Site 050 on Anderson Island appears to have

  10. The Lack of Association Between Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination and Clustering of Aboriginals with Tuberculosis in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Cook

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB remains a major health problem for Aboriginal people in Canada, with high rates of clustering of active TB cases. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccination has been used as a preventive measure against TB in this high-risk population.

  11. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, Meredith S., E-mail: meredith.curren@hc-sc.gc.ca [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei, E-mail: chun.lei.liang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Davis, Karelyn, E-mail: karelyn.davis@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kandola, Kami, E-mail: Kami_Kandola@gov.nt.ca [Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Brewster, Janet, E-mail: jbrewster@gov.nu.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Potyrala, Mary, E-mail: mary_potyrala@yahoo.ca [Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada); Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca [Center for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005–2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. - Highlights: • In 2005–07, younger age was related to lower levels of chemicals in northern Canada. • Eastern

  12. Crustacean assemblages in a polluted estuary from South-Western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moyano, J Emilio; García-Asencio, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    The spatial-temporal variation in crustacean assemblages of the Odiel-Tinto estuary, one of the most polluted areas in the world, was studied in 2000, 2002 and 2004. The crustacean assemblages were mainly established according to the natural gradient from estuarine to marine environment (based on water and sediment characteristics such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, granulometry or organic content). Pollutants such as copper, zinc or phosphates could also explain partially this pattern based on BIOENV and canonical correspondence analyses. However, there were clear symptoms of perturbation, mainly in the inner areas, such as a low number of species and a low abundance, especially in relation to the typical estuarine species (e.g. Cyathura carinata, Corophium spp.). This study provides baseline information which can be used as a reference point in a long-term perspective. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An evaluation of surface micro- and mesoplastic pollution in pelagic ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Florian; Saini, Camille; Potter, Gaël; Galgani, François; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Hagmann, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the distribution, abundance and characteristics of surface micro- and mesoplastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea. 41 samples were collected in 2011 (summer) and 2012 (summer). Results, firstly, revealed that micro- (micro- and mesoplastic concentrations was identified. Secondly, a classification based on the shape and appearance of microplastics indicated the predominant presence of fragments (73%) followed by thin films (14%). Thirdly, the average mass ratio of microplastic to dry organic matter has been measured at 0.5, revealing a significant presence of microplastics in comparison to plankton. Finally, a correction method was applied in order to correct wind mixing effect on microplastics' vertical distribution. This data allows for a comprehensive view, for the first time, of the spatial distribution and nature of plastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Tissue concentrations of four Taiwanese toothed cetaceans indicating the silver and cadmium pollution in the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Hsien; Zhuang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Lien-Siang; Liu, Jean-Yi; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Chen, Chiee-Young

    2017-11-30

    Muscle, lung, kidney and liver tissues of 45 bycatch and stranded cetaceans, including 14 Grampus griseus (Gg), 7 Kogia simus (Ks), 10 Lagenodelphis hosei (Lh), and 14 Stenella attenuata (Sa), were collected in the waters off Taiwan from 1994 to 1995, and from 2001 to 2012. Baseline concentrations (in μgg(-1) dry weight) of the cetaceans were lung (liver (0.43±0.28) for Ag, and muscle (0.03±0.03)=lung (0.22±0.19)liver (3.82±3.50)liver-Ag and kidney-Cd were found in two Lh. These Taiwanese cetaceans indicate marked Ag and Cd pollution in the recent two decades in the western Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpera, Carolina [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu; Moreno, Roci' o [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed.

  16. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  17. Magnetic properties of sediments in cores from the Mandovi estuary, western India: Inferences on provenance and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajith, A; Rao, V Purnachandra; Kessarkar, Pratima M

    2015-10-15

    Magnetic properties of sediments were investigated in 7 gravity cores recovered along a transect of the Mandovi estuary, western India to understand their provenance and pollution. The maximum magnetic susceptibility of sediments was at least 6 times higher in the upper/middle estuary than in lower estuary/bay. The χfd% and χARM/SIRM of sediments indicated coarse, multi-domain and pseudo-single domain magnetic grains, resembling ore material in the upper/middle estuary and coarse stable single domain (SSD) to fine SSD grains in the lower estuary/bay. Mineralogy parameters indicated hematite and goethite-dominated sediments in the upper/middle estuary and magnetite-dominated sediments in the lower estuary/bay. Two sediment types were discernible because of deposition of abundant ore material in the upper/middle estuary and detrital sediment in the lower estuary/bay. The enrichment factor and Index of geo-accumulation of metals indicated significant to strong pollution with respect to Fe and Mn in sediments from the upper/middle estuary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of air pollution caused by sugarcane burning in Western São Paulo on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Paula Roberta da Silva; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Oliveira, Ariadna Ferraz de; Osadnik, Christian Robert; Ferreira, Aline Duarte; Ramos, Dionei

    2017-03-02

    To evaluate the effects of acute exposure to air pollutants (NO2 and PM10) on hospitalization of adults and older people with cardiovascular diseases in Western São Paulo. Daily cardiovascular-related hospitalization data (CID10 - I00 to I99) were acquired by the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (DATASUS) from January 2009 to December 2012. Daily levels of NO2 and PM10 and weather data were obtained from Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB - São Paulo State Environmental Agency). To estimate the effects of air pollutants exposure on hospital admissions, generalized linear Poisson regression models were used. During the study period, 6,363 hospitalizations were analysed. On the day of NO2 exposure, an increase of 1.12% (95%CI 0.05-2.20) was observed in the interquartile range along with an increase in hospital admissions. For PM10, a pattern of similar effect was observed; however, results were not statistically significant. Even though with values within established limits, NO2 is an important short-term risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity.

  19. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  20. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelsey; Haynes, David; Talouli, Anthony; Donoghue, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.

  1. Assessing potential health risks to fish and humans using mercury concentrations in inland fish from across western Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Wiener, James G.; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Davis, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Fish represent high quality protein and nutrient sources, but Hg contamination is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can pose health risks to fish and their consumers. Potential health risks posed to fish and humans by Hg contamination in fish were assessed in western Canada and the United States. A large compilation of inland fish Hg concentrations was evaluated in terms of potential health risk to the fish themselves, health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish, and to humans that consume Hg contaminated fish. The probability that a fish collected from a given location would exceed a Hg concentration benchmark relevant to a health risk was calculated. These exceedance probabilities and their associated uncertainties were characterized for fish of multiple size classes at multiple health-relevant benchmarks. The approach was novel and allowed for the assessment of the potential for deleterious health effects in fish and humans associated with Hg contamination in fish across this broad study area. Exceedance probabilities were relatively common at low Hg concentration benchmarks, particularly for fish in larger size classes. Specifically, median exceedances for the largest size classes of fish evaluated at the lowest Hg concentration benchmarks were 0.73 (potential health risks to fish themselves), 0.90 (potential health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish), and 0.97 (potential for restricted fish consumption by humans), but diminished to essentially zero at the highest benchmarks and smallest fish size classes. Exceedances of benchmarks are likely to have deleterious health effects on fish and limit recommended amounts of fish humans consume in western Canada and the United States. Results presented here are not intended to subvert or replace local fish Hg data or consumption advice, but provide a basis for identifying areas of potential health risk and developing more focused future research and monitoring efforts.

  2. Assessing pollution in Izmir Bay from rivers in western Turkey: heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gorkem; Guven, Duyusen E; Ugurlu, Sanem Keles

    2013-12-01

    Urban rivers having different catchment areas and properties are investigated in order to infer their heavy metal contribution to the Izmir Inner Bay. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the waters and sediments of these rivers were measured and compared with the limit values given in the Sediment Quality Guidelines and Screening Quick Reference Tables (SQuiRTs). Metal concentrations in the sediments were determined to be between 0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1), 10 to 221.5 mg kg(-1), 28 to 153.5 mg kg(-1), 13 to 103.5 mg kg(-1), 31.5 to 157 mg kg(-1), and 124 to 1065.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Higher metal concentrations in river waters were observed in rainy seasons, and Cu and Zn were frequently found above the critical limits. The correlations between the concentrations in waters, sediments, and wash off fluxes of the river catchments were statistically investigated and evaluated. Strong correlations between Ni-Cr (r = 0.618, p pollution, which influences the whole city, may be the major source of these metals.

  3. Paleohydrogeology of the Canadian Rockies and origins of brines, Pb-Zn deposits and dolomitization in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Bruce E.; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    1994-03-01

    Results of stable isotopic and fluid-inclusion studies of Cambrian carbonate units in the southern Canadian Rockies indicate that, during the Late Devonian or Early Mississippian, a warm brine migrated from miogeoclinal shales in the western part of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin into the eastern carbonate sequences. This fluid had a temperature of 150 ±25 °C, salinity values of 20 to 25 equivalent wt% NaCl, and isotopic values of δ18O = -7‰ to 0‰,δ13C = -1‰ ±2‰, δD = -70‰ ±19‰, and 87Sr/86Sr >0.710. The fluids formed large bodies of coarse, sparry dolomite, as well as Pb-Zn, magnesite and talc mineralizations in the Cambrian units. It is probable that this event was also responsible for the development of Pb-Zn mineralization (specifically Pine Point) in the Devonian units, as well as a component of the present-day basinal brines in the basin.

  4. The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient air pollution with daily respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginaah, Isaac; Fung, Karen Y; Gorey, Kevin M; Khan, Shahedul

    2006-08-01

    The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the air drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the daily levels of air pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean daily respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO(2) and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO(2) (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO(2) (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in air quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing.

  5. Wintertime particulate pollution episodes in an urban valley of the Western US: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-W. A. Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of elevated PM2.5 episodes and potential exceedences of the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS in Truckee Meadows, Nevada, an urban valley of the Western US, during winter 2009/2010, an unusually cold and snowy winter. Continuous PM2.5 mass and time-integrated chemical speciation data were acquired from a central valley monitoring site, along with meteorological measurements from nearby sites. All nine days with PM2.5 > 35 μg m−3 showed 24-h average temperature inversion of 1.5–4.5 °C and snow cover of 8–18 cm. Stagnant atmospheric conditions limited wind ventilation while highly reflective snow cover reduced daytime surface heating creating persistent inversion. Elevated ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 and water associated with it are found to be main reasons for the PM2.5 exceedances. An effective-variance chemical mass balance (EV-CMB receptor model using locally-derived geological profiles and inorganic/organic markers confirmed secondary NH4NO3 (27–37%, residential wood combustion (RWC; 11–51%, and diesel engine exhaust (7–22% as the dominant PM2.5 contributors. Paved road dust and de-icing materials were minor, but detectable contributors. RWC is a more important source than diesel for organic carbon (OC, but vice versa for elemental carbon (EC. A majority of secondary NH4NO3 is also attributed to RWC and diesel engines (including snow removal equipment through oxides of nitrogen (NOx emissions from these sources. Findings from this study may apply to similar situations experienced by other urban valleys.

  6. An intergenerational study of perceptions of changes in active free play among families from rural areas of Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L. Holt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s engagement in active free play has declined across recent generations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of intergenerational changes in active free play among families from rural areas. We addressed two research questions: (1 How has active free play changed across three generations? (2 What suggestions do participants have for reviving active free play? Methods Data were collected via 49 individual interviews with members of 16 families (15 grandparents, 16 parents, and 18 children residing in rural areas/small towns in the Province of Alberta (Canada. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis guided by an ecological framework of active free play. Results Factors that depicted the changing nature of active free play were coded in the themes of less imagination/more technology, safety concerns, surveillance, other children to play with, purposeful physical activity, play spaces/organized activities, and the good parenting ideal. Suggestions for reviving active free play were coded in the themes of enhance facilities to keep kids entertained, provide more opportunities for supervised play, create more community events, and decrease use of technology. Conclusions These results reinforce the need to consider multiple levels of social ecology in the study of active free play, and highlight the importance of community-based initiatives to revive active free play in ways that are consistent with contemporary notions of good parenting.

  7. An intergenerational study of perceptions of changes in active free play among families from rural areas of Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L; Neely, Kacey C; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie; Pynn, Shannon R; Boyd, Kassi A; Ingstrup, Meghan; Robinson, Zac

    2016-08-19

    Children's engagement in active free play has declined across recent generations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of intergenerational changes in active free play among families from rural areas. We addressed two research questions: (1) How has active free play changed across three generations? (2) What suggestions do participants have for reviving active free play? Data were collected via 49 individual interviews with members of 16 families (15 grandparents, 16 parents, and 18 children) residing in rural areas/small towns in the Province of Alberta (Canada). Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis guided by an ecological framework of active free play. Factors that depicted the changing nature of active free play were coded in the themes of less imagination/more technology, safety concerns, surveillance, other children to play with, purposeful physical activity, play spaces/organized activities, and the good parenting ideal. Suggestions for reviving active free play were coded in the themes of enhance facilities to keep kids entertained, provide more opportunities for supervised play, create more community events, and decrease use of technology. These results reinforce the need to consider multiple levels of social ecology in the study of active free play, and highlight the importance of community-based initiatives to revive active free play in ways that are consistent with contemporary notions of good parenting.

  8. Education as a Social Determinant of Health: Issues Facing Indigenous and Visible Minority Students in Postsecondary Education in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Lam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The level of educational attainment is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health. While higher educational attainment can play a significant role in shaping employment opportunities, it can also increase the capacity for better decision making regarding one’s health, and provide scope for increasing social and personal resources that are vital for physical and mental health. In today’s highly globalized knowledge based society postsecondary education (PSE is fast becoming a minimum requirement for securing employment that can afford young adults the economic, social and personal resources needed for better health. Canada ranks high among OECD countries in terms of advanced education, with 66% of Canadians having completed some form of postsecondary education. Yet youth from low income indigenous and visible minority (LIIVM backgrounds continue to be poorly represented at PSE levels. The current study aimed to understand the reasons for this poor representation by examining the experiences of LIIVM students enrolled in a postsecondary program. Findings show that the challenges they faced during the course of their study had an adverse impact on their health and that improving representation of these students in PSE will require changes at many levels.

  9. Gender-Associated Perceptions of Barriers and Motivators to Physical Activity Participation in South Asian Punjabis Living in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Chau, Shirley; Walker, Gordon J; Mummery, W Kerry; Jennings, Cally

    2015-05-01

    Gender is a sociocultural factor known to impact the physical activity (PA) behaviors of South Asians. The purpose of this research was to examine gender-associated perceptions of barriers and motivators for PA in a South Asian population living Canada. A random sample (N = 204) of South Asian Punjabi adults (18yrs+) completed a computer assisted telephone interview concerning their perceptions to PA participation. Content analysis was used to identify relevant main themes and chi-square analysis was used to calculate gender differences. Results indicated that women more often reported a lack of time due to work and family (χ2 = 7.284, df = 1, P = .007) and a lack of motivation (χ2 = 4.982, df = 1, P = .026), yet men more often reported climate (χ2 = 7.045, df = 1, P = .008) as a barrier. Regarding motivators, men more often reported prevention and reduction of disease (χ2 = 4.451, df = 1, P = .034) and watching others perform (χ2 = 10.827, df = 1, P = .001); however, reducing weight gain (χ2 = 4.806, df = 1, P = .028) and looking like others (χ2 = 4.730, df = 1, P = .029) were reported more often by women. Gender-associated differences concerning PA are present in this population and must be considered in the design and implementation of effective interventions.

  10. Education as a Social Determinant of Health: Issues Facing Indigenous and Visible Minority Students in Postsecondary Education in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Janki; Ip, Eugene; Khalema, Ernest; Couture, Jennifer; Tan, Shawn; Zulla, Rosslynn T.; Lam, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    The level of educational attainment is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health. While higher educational attainment can play a significant role in shaping employment opportunities, it can also increase the capacity for better decision making regarding one’s health, and provide scope for increasing social and personal resources that are vital for physical and mental health. In today’s highly globalized knowledge based society postsecondary education (PSE) is fast becoming a minimum requirement for securing employment that can afford young adults the economic, social and personal resources needed for better health. Canada ranks high among OECD countries in terms of advanced education, with 66% of Canadians having completed some form of postsecondary education. Yet youth from low income indigenous and visible minority (LIIVM) backgrounds continue to be poorly represented at PSE levels. The current study aimed to understand the reasons for this poor representation by examining the experiences of LIIVM students enrolled in a postsecondary program. Findings show that the challenges they faced during the course of their study had an adverse impact on their health and that improving representation of these students in PSE will require changes at many levels. PMID:23989527

  11. Education as a social determinant of health: issues facing indigenous and visible minority students in postsecondary education in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Janki; Ip, Eugene; Khalema, Ernest; Couture, Jennifer; Tan, Shawn; Zulla, Rosslynn T; Lam, Gavin

    2013-08-28

    The level of educational attainment is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health. While higher educational attainment can play a significant role in shaping employment opportunities, it can also increase the capacity for better decision making regarding one's health, and provide scope for increasing social and personal resources that are vital for physical and mental health. In today's highly globalized knowledge based society postsecondary education (PSE) is fast becoming a minimum requirement for securing employment that can afford young adults the economic, social and personal resources needed for better health. Canada ranks high among OECD countries in terms of advanced education, with 66% of Canadians having completed some form of postsecondary education. Yet youth from low income indigenous and visible minority (LIIVM) backgrounds continue to be poorly represented at PSE levels. The current study aimed to understand the reasons for this poor representation by examining the experiences of LIIVM students enrolled in a postsecondary program. Findings show that the challenges they faced during the course of their study had an adverse impact on their health and that improving representation of these students in PSE will require changes at many levels.

  12. Levels, sources and chemical fate of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere and snow along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The Antarctic continent is among the most pristine regions; yet various organic contaminants have been measured there routinely. Air and snow samples were collected during the austral spring (October-November, 2010) along the western Antarctic Peninsula and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to assess the relative importance of long-range transport versus local primary or secondary emissions. Highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and DDTs were observed in the glacier's snow sample, highlighting the importance of melting glaciers as a possible secondary source of legacy pollutants to the Antarctic. In the atmosphere, contaminants were mainly found in the vapor phase (>65%). Hexachlorobenzene (33.6 pg/m(3)), PCBs (11.6 pg/m(3)), heptachlor (5.64 pg/m(3)), PBDEs (4.22 pg/m(3)) and cis-chlordane (2.43 pg/m(3)) were the most abundant contaminants. In contrast to other compounds, PBDEs seem to have originated from local sources, possibly the research station itself. Gas-particle partitioning for analytes were better predicted using the adsorption partitioning model than an octanol-based absorption approach. Diffusive flux calculations indicated that net deposition is the dominant pathway for PBDEs and chlordanes, whereas re-volatilization from snow (during melting or metamorphosis) was observed for PCBs and some OCPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Access to health services in Western Newfoundland, Canada: Issues, barriers and recommendations emerging from a community-engaged research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Hippe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that people living in rural and remote areas of Canada face challenges to accessing health services. This article reports on a community-engaged research project conducted by investigators at Memorial University of Newfoundland in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat Regional Councils and Regional Partnership Planners for the Corner Brook–Rocky Harbour and Stephenville–Port aux Basques Rural Secretariat Regions of Newfoundland and Labrador. The aim of this research was to gather information on barriers to accessing health services, to identify solutions to health services’ access issues and to inform policy advice to government on enhancing access to health services. Data was collected through: (1 targeted distribution of a survey to communities throughout the region, and (2 informal ‘kitchen table’ discussions to discuss health services’ access issues. A total of 1049 surveys were collected and 10 kitchen table discussions were held. Overall, the main barriers to care listed in the survey included long wait times, services not available in the area and services not available at time required. Other barriers noted by survey respondents included transportation problems, financial concerns, no medical insurance coverage, distance to travel and weather conditions. Some respondents reported poorer access to maternal/child health and breast and cervical screening services and a lack of access to general practitioners, pharmacy services, dentists and nurse practitioners. Recommendations that emerged from this research included improving the recruitment of rural physicians, exploring the use of nurse practitioners, assisting individuals with travel costs,  developing specialist outreach services, increasing use of telehealth services and initiating additional rural and remote health research. Keywords: rural, remote, healthcare, health services, social determinants of health

  14. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. Shury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  15. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Haderlein

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yields and increase grain N and N use efficiency when compared to the practice of side-banding of urea N fertilizer. CRU was designed to release timely and adequate, but not excessive, amounts of N to the crop. Crop uptake of N from seed-placed CRU was sufficient to provide yields similar to those of side-banded urea N. Grain N concentrations of the CRU treatments were higher, on average, than those from side-banded urea, resulting in 4.2% higher N use efficiency across the entire N application range from 25 to 100 kg ha-1. Higher levels of removal of N in grain from CRU compared to side-banded urea can result in less residual N remaining in the soil, and limit the possibility of N losses due to denitrification and leaching.

  16. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  17. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators, and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists, working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change.

  18. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Denise; Cox, Amy; Kampen, Ruth; Kobayashi, Karen; Cook, Heather; Taylor, Deanne; Gaspard, Gina

    2016-01-04

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators), and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists), working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change.

  19. The Use of Integrated Fluid Inclusion Studies for Constraining Petroleum Charge History at Parsons Pond, Western Newfoundland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Conliffe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy of inclusion oil, investigates the petroleum charge history at Parsons Pond, western Newfoundland. To address this matter, drill core and cuttings samples of allochthonous and autochthonous strata in the Parson’s Pond area were collected from three exploration wells. Fluid inclusions were examined from fragments of calcite and quartz veins, diagenetic cements in sandstone, and in large hydrothermal dolomite and calcite crystals. Primary aqueous inclusions in authigenic sandstone cements indicate that cementation occurred at relatively shallow depths and low temperatures (<50 °C. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (petroleum, wet gas and gas are generally restricted to calcite and quartz veins, indicating that petroleum and gas migration at Parson’s Pond is fracture-controlled. No hydrocarbons were observed in the diagenetic cements of the essentially tight sandstones. Fluid inclusion microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy indicate the presence of multiple generations of hydrocarbon fluid, ranging in composition from ~33 API gravity petroleum to pure CH4. Petrographic evidence suggests that hydrocarbons were generated multiple times during progressive burial and heating. In addition, the distribution of hydrocarbon bearing inclusions with depth suggests that deeper levels are gas-prone, with petroleum confined to relatively shallow depths. Although only gas flow was encountered during the drilling of exploration wells at Parson’s Pond, the presence of petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions in calcite and quartz veins indicates that the historical production from shallow wells in the Parsons Pond area likely tapped small reservoirs of fractured petroliferous strata.

  20. Influence of organizational context on nursing home staff burnout: A cross-sectional survey of care aides in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Stephanie A; Gruneir, Andrea; Hoben, Matthias; Squires, Janet E; Cummings, Greta G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2017-06-01

    Our study examined care aide characteristics, organizational context, and frequency of dementia-related resident responsive behaviours associated with burnout. Burnout is the experience of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Care aide burnout has implications for turnover, staff health, and quality of care. We used surveys collected from 1194 care aides from 30 urban nursing homes in three Western Canadian provinces. We used a mixed-effects regression analysis to assess care aide characteristics, dementia-related responsive behaviours, unit and facility characteristics, and organizational context predictors of care aide burnout. We measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Short Form. We found that care aides were at high risk for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, but report high professional efficacy. Statistically significant predictors of emotional exhaustion included English as a second language, medium facility size, organizational slack-staff, organizational slack-space, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of cynicism were care aide age, English as a second language, unit culture, evaluation (feedback of data), formal interactions, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of professional efficacy were unit culture and structural resources. Greater care aide job satisfaction was significantly associated with increased professional efficacy. This study suggests that individual care aide and organization features are both predictive of care aide burnout. Unlike care aide or structural characteristics of the facility elements of the organizational context are potentially modifiable, and therefore amenable to intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangoiti, G. [Fundacion CEAM, Valencia (Spain). Parque Tecnologico; Universidad del Pais Vasco-Euskal Herriko Universitatea. Bilbao (Spain); Millan, M.M.; Salvador, R.; Mantilla, E. [Fundacion CEAM, Valencia (Spain). Parque Tecnologico

    2001-07-01

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millan et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high 0{sub 3} concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project-Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area-are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65ppb of 0{sub 3} of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O{sub 3} concentrations up to 100ppb and even more. (author)

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics of evapotranspiration from forested, ephemeral wetlands and its implication for hydrologic connectivity in the Western Boreal Plain in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Alexander; Kettridge, Nicholas; Devito, Kevin; Hokanson, Kelly; Leonard, Rhoswen; Krause, Stefan; Waddington, James Michael

    2017-04-01

    In catchments where hydrologic connectivity is predominantly controlled by storage-threshold dynamics, landscape units promoting water transmission can be crucial for overall ecohydrological functioning. In Canada's Western Boreal Plain, ephemeral wetlands surrounded by upland forests on deep and coarse, glacial deposits are examples of such units. In the sub-humid climate, their importance is exacerbated due to regional, multi-year water deficits, resulting from high evapotranspirative (ET) demand coinciding with most of the annual precipitation and its variability between years. Yet, these ephemeral wetlands frequently saturate during small rain events; hence, they likely play a key role in supplying water to adjacent and downstream systems in both dry and wet periods. We assess factors controlling water losses from these wetlands to the atmosphere (via the soil surface and vegetation), how they change over time (i.e. throughout the growing season), and the extent to which they vary in space. Our goal is to generate process-based understanding of ET dynamics and to determine potential feedbacks that reduce ET losses, maximizing the magnitude and period over which these landscape units may act as water sources. We hypothesize that the following mechanisms enhance the ascribed water transmitting function: (1) external and internal shading reduces incident radiation and therefore available energy to drive ET; this effect increases with leaf area, but is counter-acted by interception. (2) Vegetation structure reduces turbulent exchange with air masses above the canopy, thereby decreasing humidity gradients driving ET. (3) High, near-surface soil tensions during periods of drying limit rates of evaporation. We applied a combined measurement approach to assess spatial and temporal dynamics of ET in the 2016 growing season (May - August) and gathered additional data to assess abiotic and biotic controls on ET rates. We continuously measured ET from the wetland's surface

  3. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-02-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds ("WAP 12", "WAP 20", and "WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of (210)Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

  4. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : interpretive overview by the science advisory panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, T.; Nielsen, O.; Berhane, K.; Cohen, B.S.; Hunter, B.; Lasley, B.; Martin, W.; Ribble, C.; Thorne, P.; Tollerud, D.; Witschi, H. [Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association, Calgary, AB (Canada). Science Advisory Panel

    2006-05-15

    The results of a study to determine if chronic exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry influence the health and reproductive performance of cattle and wildlife in western Canada was presented. Individual cows in herds from Alberta, Saskatchewan and northeastern British Columbia were monitored in pens and pastures to determine their exposure status. Data on other known risk factors such as the cow's age, breed and body condition were collected. The study measured concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}); hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S); and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured as benzene and toluene. Passive air monitors were located on all occupied pastures and wintering areas for each herd. Information on the location of over 39,000 animals from 205 herds on 3355 different parcels of land was recorded at 2 week intervals. Each animal's exposure was then averaged to create cumulative exposure values for biologically relevant risk periods for each outcome. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured a total of 365 times near the calving area for 32 herds. Five primary health outcomes were studied: (1) nonpregnancy; (2) length of breeding-to-calving interval; (3) abortion; (4) stillbirth; and (5) calf mortality. No associations were found among any of the exposure measures and the risk of nonpregnancy, abortion or stillbirth. Sulphur-containing exposures showed no associations with secondary outcome measures in the respiratory, immune and nervous systems. An association was found between exposure to SO{sub 2} and the increased risk of calf mortality. Findings also suggested that there was a greater risk of lesions in the calf skeletal or cardiac muscle with increased prenatal exposure to SO{sub 2}. Increased exposure to VOCs contributed to a greater risk of calf respiratory and thyroid lesions, and a lower count of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in calves. The results of a concurrent study on

  5. Geochemistry and Cyclostratigraphy of Magnetic Susceptibility data from the Frasnian-Famennian event interval in western Canada: Insights in the pattern and timing of a biotic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, M. T.; De Vleeschouwer, D.; Sliwinski, M. G.; Claeys, P. F.; Day, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Cyclostratigraphic calibration of magnetic susceptibility data along with stable isotopic and geochemical proxy data for redox, productivity, and detrital input from western Canada provide insight into the pace and timing of the Late Devonian, Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) biotic crisis. Two organic-rich shales that, in much of the world, display geochemical anomalies indicating low oxygen conditions and carbon burial characterize the F-F event. These events, referred to as the Lower and Upper Kellwasser events (LKE & UKE), have been linked to the evolutionary expansion of deeply rooted terrestrial forests and the concomitant changes in soil development and chemical weathering and changes in Late Devonian climate. Our geochemical data record relatively high levels of redox sensitive trace metals (Mo, U, V), proxies for biological productivity (Ba, Cu, Ni, Zn), and detrital input (Al, Si, Ti, Zr) during both events. C stable isotopic data generated from organic matter records a 3-4‰ positive excursion during both events. Each event is recorded in lowstand and/or early transgressive facies. These data corroborate hypotheses about enhanced biological productivity, driven by heightened terrestrial detrital input, leading to low oxygen conditions and decreases in biotic diversity during during relatively low stands of Late Devonian sea level. Age dating of such events in deep time is problematic due to insufficient biochronologic control. Each event is within one conodont biostratigraphic zone, with durations on the order of 0.5-1.0 Ma. Time series analysis of high-resolution magnetic susceptibility data identified 16 long eccentricity cycles (405 ky) during the Frasnian stage and one in the earliest Famennian stage. The geochemical anomalies associated with the LKE and UKE are recorded over 7 and 14 m of stratigraphic section respectively. These strata represent only a portion of a 405 ky long eccentricity cycle and astronomical tuning implies that the LKE likely occurred

  6. SCHOOL-BASED STRATEGIES TO REDUCE SUICIDAL IDEATION, SUICIDE ATTEMPTS, AND DISCRIMINATION AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY AND HETEROSEXUAL ADOLESCENTS IN WESTERN CANADA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth Saewyc; Chiaki Konishi; Hilary Rose; Yuko Homma

    2014-01-01

    ...) and explicit anti-homophobic bullying policies in secondary schools across British Columbia, Canada, with experiences of anti-gay discrimination, suicidal ideation and attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB...

  7. Evaluation of industrial wastewater pollutants from soap factories and breweries in the Bafoussam city vicinity and contribution to the reduction of this pollution (Western highlands of Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Gouafo; B.P.K. Yerima

    2013-01-01

    The discharges of wastewaters of industries in the Bafoussam city vicinity deteriorate the quality of surface and underground water and soils. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of ecotoxicity in the different industries and ways to fight against pollution. The following physico-chemical parameters were determined: COD, BOD5, OM, TP, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Fe, Al, EC, Turbidity, NH4+ and NO3- from wastewaters from all the two soap factories (SWC and SCS) and one breweries (ASCB) ind...

  8. Association between fish consumption, dietary omega-3 fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants intake, and type 2 diabetes in 18 First Nations in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushka, Lesya; Batal, Malek; David, William; Schwartz, Harold; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Sharp, Donald; Black, Andrew; Tikhonov, Constantine; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-07-01

    First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally higher rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population. Recent data suggest that a high consumption of fish may help prevent T2D. On the other hand, fish might also be a potential source of environmental contaminants which could potentially be a risk factor for T2D. To investigate the potential associations between self-reported T2D and consumption of locally-harvested fish, dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) and persistent organic pollutants intake among adult FNs living on reserve in Ontario. Data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, which included a cross-sectional study of 1429 Ontario FNs adults living in 18 communities across 4 ecozones in 2012 were analyzed. Social and lifestyle data were collected using household interviews. The consumption of locally-harvested fish was estimated using a traditional food frequency questionnaire along with portion size information obtained from 24hr recalls. Fish samples were analyzed for the presence of contaminants including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dietary intakes of DDE and PCBs were estimated using community-specific levels of DDE/PCBs in fish species. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential covariates including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, smoking, and education were developed. The prevalence of T2D in Ontario FNs was 24.4%. A significant positive association between fish consumption of one portion per week and more and T2D compared to no fish consumption was found (OR=2.5 (95% CI: 1.38-4.58). Dietary DDE and PCBs intake was positively associated with T2D (OR=1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.75) for DDE and OR=1.07 (95%CI: 1.004-1.27) for PCBs) per unit increase in DDE/PCBs while n-3-FAs intake, adjusted for DDE/PCBs intake, showed an inverse effect against T2D among older individuals

  9. Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Biagio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between  ∼  160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84–0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70–0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84–0.70 between 370 and 950 nm are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41–1.77 and 0.002–0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE, i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (−160/−235 W m−2 τ−1 at 60° solar zenith angle and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (−137/−92

  10. Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Doppler, Lionel; Gaimoz, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Ancellet, Gerard; Attié, Jean-Luc; Bucci, Silvia; Dubuisson, Philippe; Fierli, Federico; Mallet, Marc; Ravetta, François

    2016-08-01

    Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω) of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity) airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between ˜ 160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84-0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70-0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84-0.70 between 370 and 950 nm) are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41-1.77 and 0.002-0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE) to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE), i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (-160/-235 W m-2 τ-1 at 60° solar zenith angle) and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (-137/-92 W m-2 τ-1) for ω varying between its maximum and minimum value

  11. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  12. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  13. Bioerosion by microbial euendoliths in benthic foraminifera from heavy metal-polluted coastal environments of Portovesme (south-western Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cherchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring survey of the coastal area facing the industrial area of Portoscuso-Portovesme (south-western Sardinia, Italy revealed intense bioerosional processes. Benthic foraminifera collected at the same depth (about 2 m but at different distances from the pollution source show extensive microbial infestation, anomalous Mg/Ca molar ratios and high levels of heavy metals in the shell associated with a decrease in foraminifera richness, population density and biodiversity with the presence of morphologically abnormal specimens. We found that carbonate dissolution induced by euendoliths is selective, depending on the Mg content and morpho-structural types of foraminiferal taxa. This study provides evidences for a connection between heavy metal dispersion, decrease in pH of the sea-water and bioerosional processes on foraminifera.

  14. Assessment of traditional and improved stove use on household air pollution and personal exposures in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Fuyuen; Christensen, Bryan; Sircar, Kanta; Naeher, Luke; Bruce, Nigel; Pennise, David; Lozier, Matthew; Pilishvili, Tamara; Loo Farrar, Jennifer; Stanistreet, Debbi; Nyagol, Ronald; Muoki, Justus; de Beer, Lindsey; Sage, Michael; Kapil, Vikas

    2017-02-01

    Over 40% of the world's population relies on solid fuels for heating and cooking. Use of improved biomass cookstoves (ICS) has the potential to reduce household air pollution (HAP). As part of an evaluation to identify ICS for use in Kenya, we collected indoor air and personal air samples to assess differences between traditional cookstoves (TCS) and ICS. We conducted a cross-over study in 2012 in two Kenyan villages; up to six different ICS were installed in 45 households during six two-week periods. Forty-eight hour kitchen measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were collected for the TCS and ICS. Concurrent personal CO measurements were conducted on the mother and one child in each household. We performed descriptive analysis and compared paired measurements between baseline (TCS only) and each ICS. The geometric mean of 48-hour baseline PM 2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen was 586μg/m 3 (95% CI: 460, 747) and 4.9ppm (95% CI: 4.3, 5.5), respectively. For each ICS, the geometric mean kitchen air pollutant concentration was lower than the TCS: median reductions were 38.8% (95% CI: 29.5, 45.2) for PM 2.5 and 27.1% (95% CI: 17.4, 40.3) for CO, with statistically significant relationships for four ICS. We also observed a reduction in personal exposures to CO with ICS use. We observed a reduction in mean 48-hour PM 2.5 and CO concentrations compared to the TCS; however, concentrations for both pollutants were still consistently higher than WHO air quality guidelines. Our findings illustrate that ICS tested in real-world settings can reduce exposures to HAP, but implementation of cleaner fuels and related stove technologies may also be necessary to optimize public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Hygroscopic growth of water-soluble matter extracted from remote marine aerosols over the western North Pacific: Influence of pollutants transported from East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, K

    2016-07-01

    We examined the hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) nebulized from water extracts of total suspended particles (TSP) collected at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific during January to September 2003. The hygroscopic growth factor g(RH) of the aerosol particles was measured using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) with an initial dry particle diameter of 100nm and relative humidity (RH) of 5-95%. The measured growth factor at 90% RH, g(90%), ranged from 1.51 to 2.14 (mean: 1.76±0.15), significantly lower than that of sea salts (2.1), probably owing to the heterogeneous reactions associated with chloride depletion in sea-salt particles and water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The g(90%) maximized in summer and minimized in spring. The decrease in spring was most likely explained by the formation of less hygroscopic salts or particles via organometallic reactions during the long-range transport of Asian dust. Cl(-) and Na(+) dominate the mass fractions of WSM, followed by nss-SO4(2-) and WSOM. Based on regression analysis, we confirmed that g(90%) at Chichijima Island largely increased due to the dominant sea spray; however, atmospheric processes associated with chloride depletion in sea salts and WSOM often suppressed g(90%). Furthermore, we explored the deviation (average: 18%) between the measured and predicted g(90%) by comparing measured and model growth factors. The present study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic pollutants (SO2, NOx, organics, etc.) and the interactions with sea-salt particles often suppress the hygroscopic growth of marine aerosols over the western North Pacific, affecting the remote background conditions. The present study also suggests that the HCl liberation leads to the formation of less hygroscopic aerosols over the western North Pacific during long-range transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. School-Based Strategies to Reduce Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Discrimination among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents in Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Konishi, Chiaki; Rose, Hilary A.; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between the existence of and length of time since implementation of school-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and explicit anti-homophobic bullying policies in secondary schools across British Columbia, Canada, with experiences of anti-gay discrimination, suicidal ideation and attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), mostly heterosexual, and exclusively heterosexual students. Analyses of the province-wide random cluster-stratified 2008 B.C. Adolescen...

  17. Verification of a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model for year-long predictions in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic (Australia); Blockley, A.; Rayner, K. [Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2001-04-01

    A prognostic air pollution model (TAPM) has been used to predict meteorology and sulphur dioxide concentration in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia for 1997, with a view to verifying TAPM for use in environmental impact assessments and associated air pollution studies. The regulatory plume model, DISPMOD, developed for the Kwinana region has also been run using both an observationally based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-O) and using a TAPM-based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-T). TAPM predictions of the meteorology for 1997 compare well with the observed values at each of the five monitoring sites. Root mean square error and index of agreement values for temperature and winds indicate that TAPM performs well at predicting the meteorology, compared to the performance of similar models from other studies. The yearly average, 99.9 percentile, maximum and mean of the top 10 ground-level sulphur dioxide concentrations for 1997 were predicted well by all of the model runs, although DISPMOD-O and DISPMOD-T tended to overpredict extreme statistics at sites furthest from the sources. Overall, TAPM performed better than DISPMOD-O, which in turn performed better than DISPMOD-T, for all statistics considered, but we consider that all three sets of results are sufficiently accurate for regulatory applications. The mean of the top ten concentrations is generally considered to be a robust performance statistic for air pollution applications, and we show that compared to the site-averaged observed value of 95{mu}gm{sup -3}, TAPM predicted 94{mu}gm{sup -3}, DISPMOD-O predicted 111{mu}gm{sup -3} and DISPMOD-T predicted 125{mu}gm{sup -3}. The results indicate that the prognostic meteorological and air pollution approach to regulatory modelling used by TAPM, gives comparable or better results than the current regulatory approach used in the Kwinana region (DISPMOD), and also indicates that the approach of using a currently accepted regulatory model with a

  18. The Registry and Follow-Up of Complex Pediatric Therapies Program of Western Canada: A Mechanism for Service, Audit, and Research after Life-Saving Therapies for Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene M. T. Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging health technologies are being developed to care for children with complex cardiac defects. Neurodevelopmental and childhood school-related outcomes are of great interest to parents of children receiving this care, care providers, and healthcare administrators. Since the 1970s, neonatal follow-up clinics have provided service, audit, and research for preterm infants as care for these at-risk children evolved. We have chosen to present for this issue the mechanism for longitudinal follow-up of survivors that we have developed for western Canada patterned after neonatal follow-up. Our program provides registration for young children receiving complex cardiac surgery, heart transplantation, ventricular assist device support, and extracorporeal life support among others. The program includes multidisciplinary assessments with appropriate neurodevelopmental intervention, active quality improvement evaluations, and outcomes research. Through this mechanism, consistently high (96% follow-up over two years is maintained.

  19. Integrated assessment of infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants and mercury via dietary intake in a central western Mediterranean site (Menorca Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqué, Eva; Garí, Mercè; Arce, Anna; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O

    2017-07-01

    In this research the levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and mercury (Hg) in several food items from Menorca Island were presented. The dietary exposure assessment was performed in children population from the island. Finally, body burden of OCs and Hg in these infants were associated with their dietary intakes of the selected food items. The dietary exposure to persistent pollutants by children population from Menorca Island was assessed. The concentrations of 11 organochlorine pesticides, 6 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs) and 1 inorganic toxic element, Hg, were determined in 46 food samples that included fish, shellfish, meat, fruit, vegetables, cheese and eggs, which were acquired in local markets and department stores in the Menorca Island. The most contaminated food items were fish and shellfish, followed by meat and cheese products. OC levels were similar or lower than in other previous studies. However, 66% of the analysed fish and shellfish species for Hg exceeded the human consumption safety limits according to the European Union Legislation. Pollutant data from food was combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of these contaminants. According to our results, fish and fruit were the main sources of OCs to the EDIs (contributing to 37% and 29%, respectively) while fish and shellfish were the main sources of Hg (76% and 17%). The estimated EDIs of OCs were well below to the reported FAO/WHO Tolerable Intakes. However, estimated weekly intake of Hg would exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake indicated by EFSA in the case that the only fish and seafood source would be from the central western Mediterranean. Direct associations between fish/shellfish consumption and hair concentrations of Hg and fish and meat consumption and 4,4'-DDT concentrations in venous serum in the Menorcan children were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  1. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days < 0°C (a measure of winter season coldness) using the spatially interpolated climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days < 0°C was also estimated from recorded climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  2. Temporal and biogeographic comparisons of PCBs and persistent organochlorine pollutants in the blubber of fin whales from eastern Canada in 1971-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, K E; Muir, D C; Mitchell, E

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of PCB congeners and organochlorine (OC) pesticides were studied in archived fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) blubber samples collected in 1971-1972 from Newfoundland (Nfld) and Nova Scotia (NS) with the objective of obtaining a historical perspective on contaminant levels and proportions at a time when many persistent OCs were still in use. Concentrations of sigmaPCBs and sigmaDDTs in the blubber of 17 fin whales from historical whaling stations in 1971-1972 were generally in agreement with previously reported values for fin whales from Atlantic Canada. Although some differences in sex and body length (age) distribution of samples occurred, significant differences were detected in the concentrations and patterns of PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes in whales from Nfld and NS, supporting ecological evidence that whales from these regions represent relatively separate stocks. Temporal and geographical variations were examined by comparing data to those reported for fin whales from the St Lawrence Estuary (StL) in 1991 by Gauthier et al. (1997a). Significantly higher levels of sigmaDDT, sigmaCHL and HCB were found in the NS (1971-1972) stock compared with the StL (1991) animals, and in HCB between the Nfld stock (1971-1972) and the StL (1991) animals, as well as higher p,p'-DDE/sigmaDDT and lower p,p'-DDT/sigmaDDT ratios in the 1991 whales suggesting that temporal trends in these whales between the 1970s and 1990s were consistent with those in other marine mammals in Atlantic Canada. Evidence also suggests that geographical variations in patterns may occur for individuals from two relatively distinct stocks of fin whales in Atlantic Canada (NS, Nfld) and perhaps for one population (StL) related to, but recognisably different from the NS stock.

  3. School-Based Strategies to Reduce Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Discrimination among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Konishi, Chiaki; Rose, Hilary A; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between the existence of and length of time since implementation of school-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and explicit anti-homophobic bullying policies in secondary schools across British Columbia, Canada, with experiences of anti-gay discrimination, suicidal ideation and attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), mostly heterosexual, and exclusively heterosexual students. Analyses of the province-wide random cluster-stratified 2008 B.C. Adolescent Health Survey ( n = 21,70 8) compared students in schools with GSAs or policies implemented at least 3 years, and less than 3 years, with those in schools without GSAs or anti-homophobia policies, using multinomial logistic regression, separately by gender. LGB students had lower odds of past year discrimination, suicidal thoughts and attempts, mostly when policies and GSAs had been in place for 3+ years; policies had a less consistent effect than GSAs. Heterosexual boys, but not girls, also had lower odds of suicidal ideation and attempts in schools with longer-established anti-homophobic bullying policies and GSAs. Given consistently higher documented risk for suicidal ideation and attempts among LGB and mostly heterosexual adolescents, prevention efforts should be a priority, and school-level interventions, such as GSAs, may be an effective approach to reducing this risk, while also offering prevention benefits for heterosexual boys.

  4. Main partitioning criteria for the characterization of the health status in the freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea from spontaneously polluted area in Western Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falfushynska, Halina I; Gnatyshyna, Lesya L; Golubev, Alexandr P; Stoliar, Oksana B

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to appreciate the consequences of spontaneous human activity for freshwater mollusks in the generally ecologically sustainable area in Western Ukraine. For this, bivalve mollusk, Anodonta cygnea, at three sites, with mixed agricultural and municipal activities (A), close to a municipal water inlet (F) and the cooling pond of a nuclear power plant (N), were studied in spring, summer, and autumn. The set of parameters included the characteristics of oxidative stress (activity of catalase (CAT), levels of protein carbonyls (PC)), levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG, respectively), activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LD), cholinesterase (ChE), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the digestive gland, and concentrations of vitellogenin-like proteins (Vtg-LP) in gonads and also morphological indices. Although the discriminant functional analysis confirmed the general seasonal regularities for studied groups, it allowed to discriminate between sites (P stress; high levels of LD, EROD, and GST; and low levels of ChE and condition factor were reflected. This demonstrated the sensitivity of mussels to constant effect of mixed pollution. At site N, oxidative injury was shown that might be explained by the constantly high temperature. At site F, abrupt elevations of Vtg-LP and EROD levels in autumn were probably related to an emergency situation on the nearby dump. So, both chronic and temporal environmental effects were reflected by a set of markers in mollusk. The classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm selected GSH and PC in the digestive gland and Vtg-LP as partitioning criteria for the characterization of mussel health status. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Influence of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic Ocean on a parasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) occurring off coastal Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R A

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of environmental change on an endoparasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over a 30-year period off the coast of Labrador in the north-western Atlantic, North Atlantic Fisheries Organization subareas 2J-3K. Cod, once an abundant fish species that had been commercially exploited for many decades, declined precipitously during the mid-1980s onwards. This decline was attributed to climatic changes that affected the entire food chain from zooplankton to fish, sea birds and marine mammals. A monitoring programme was introduced, sampling cod by otter trawling using research vessels. The fish, after capture, were frozen at - 20 degrees C, subsequently thawed and the digestive tract removed and examined for the parasite in 2006. Data from samples taken in 1976, 1980-81, 1986, 1990, 2000 and 2003 were compared statistically with those collected in 2006. The results indicate a decline in the prevalence and mean abundance of E. gadi in 1986 with a minimum in 2000 but increasing gradually in 2003 and 2006. These changes were coincident initially with a decline of oceanic temperature and the entire food web, including capelin (Mallotus villosus), a preferred prey of cod and primary source of E. gadi. The increase in prevalence and mean abundance of the parasite in 2006 were associated with an increase of oceanic temperature and the return of small schools of capelin to offshore areas. Cod older than 4 years harboured a greater abundance of E. gadi than younger fish, while no difference was observed between the sexes. The results suggest that the abundance of E. gadi can be useful as a bioindicator of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic.

  6. Effects of implementing organic rice-duck integrated farming on reducing agricultural diffuse pollution around Dianshan Lake in the western suburbs of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Teng, Qing

    2017-04-01

    Located in the western suburbs of Shanghai, Dianshan Lake is a major source of Huangpu River, a mother river flowing through the metropolitan area. To protect the drinking water source areas, the development of any industries and livestock breeding is forbidden around the lake since the early time. However, the lake is still under a eutrophic state throughout the year. In 2013, for example, total N and total P in the lake water were 2.98 mg L-1 and 0.17 mg L-1 on average, respectively. It is believed that 72.2% of N and 73.1% of P in the lake come from agricultural diffuse pollution. The areas surrounding the lake include six towns and are all low-lying in landform. There are 5975 ha paddy fields at the six towns, making up 33.1% of total farming land in the areas. According to our questionnaires to local farmers at Jinze Town, one of the six towns, for the consecutive five years, the amounts of N and P2O5 applied within the rice growing season under the conventional rice farming are 336.6 kg ha-1 and 76.9 kg ha-1 on average, respectively, and those lost through leaching and runoff are 15.42 kg ha-1 and 3.55 kg ha-1 on average, respectively. Further study estimated that the total amounts of N and P2O5 applied around the lake within the rice growing season are 2.01×106 kg year-1 and 4.59×105 kg year-1, respectively; those lost through leaching and runoff are 0.99×105 kg year-1 and 0.23×105 kg year-1, respectively; those discharged from the fields into the lake are 0.99×104 kg year-1 and 0.23×104 kg year-1, respectively. Our study also indicated that the amount of pesticides and herbicides discharged from the paddy fields at the six towns into the lake is approximately 1.67×104 kg year-1. Appreciately, the agricultural diffuse pollution from the paddy fields surrounding the lake have posed severe threat to the lake. The field experiments indicated that raising ducks in the paddy fields within the rice growing season can not only highly reduce weed hazards and

  7. Properties of Blood, Porphyrins, and Exposure to Legacy and Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) Overwintering on the South Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. K.; Harris, M. L.; Trudeau, S.; Ikonomou, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    The surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) is a little-studied species of North American sea duck. Estimates suggest it has experienced a precipitous decline in breeding numbers over the latter half of the past century. To investigate the potential role of contaminant uptake and toxicity in the population decline, this study undertook to measure blood chemistry, porphyrin concentrations, EROD, and organic contaminants in mature surf scoters wintering in the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada. Hepatic organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether, and nonylphenol concentrations were relatively low; for example, ΣTEQs (toxic equivalents) for PCBs, dioxins, and furans combined ranged from 4.7 ng/kg wet weight in reference-site (Baynes Sound) birds to 11.4 ng/kg wet weight in birds from Vancouver Harbour. Nonetheless, elevated EROD activity indicated that birds in Howe Sound were responding to an Ah-receptor-mediated stressor, which was also affecting hematocrit values and possibly vitamin A status. In addition, a low proportion of lymphocytes in individuals across locations in early spring samples was associated with poor body condition. The apparent loss of fitness just prior to the onset of northerly migrations to breeding grounds is of particular concern. Compromised health of mature birds at this point in the season might impact negatively on the productivity and survival of some individuals, particularly those overwintering in Howe Sound. PMID:20204344

  8. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower. Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly between

  9. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower.

    Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly

  10. Mercury Bioaccumulation Response to Recent Hg Pollution Abatement in an Oceanic Predatory Fish, Blue Marlin, Versus the Response in a Coastal Predatory Species, Bluefish, in the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, R. T.; Cross, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    The consumption of marine fish, especially predatory species high in the food chain, is the major route through which people in developed countries are exposed to mercury. Recent work on a coastal species, bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), determined that the mercury concentration in fish from the U. S. Mid-Atlantic coast decreased 43% from 1972 to 2011. This mercury decline in a coastal marine fish parallels the mercury decline in many freshwater fish in the U.S. and Canada during the same time period. The result heightens interest in determining whether or not there has been any change in mercury concentration in oceanic predatory fish species, that is, fish that are permanent residents of the open ocean, during the past four decades. To answer this question we compared mercury analyses we made in the 1970s on tournament-caught blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) with those we made from 1998 to 2013. This comparison indicates that from the 1970s to 2013 mercury concentration in blue marlin caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean off the U.S. east coast has declined about 45%, a decline that is remarkably similar to the decline reported in coastal bluefish. These results suggest that a large area of the western North Atlantic Ocean is responding to reductions in emissions of mercury in the U.S. and Canada with reduced mercury bioaccumulation in predatory fish.

  11. What's the big idea : Western Canada's oilpatch has flourished due to the resourceful contributions of its creative inventors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.; Roche, P.

    2005-06-30

    This article presents a biography of Gene Moody, an oilpatch inventor who has received 2 U.S. and 2 Canadian patents for processes that use waste heat or exhaust for oil-patch related applications. In particular, the article discussed Underbalanced Drilling Services Ltd. (UDSL), a company formed by Moody after his development of a procedure that uses exhaust gas coming from internal combustion engines, to replace other gases that have traditionally been injected into fluids, to achieve underbalanced mode. The engines also provide power to compress the gas for delivery into the well. By using the same engines to provide and compress the service gas, the system is very efficient. UDSL was purchased by Precision Drilling Corp. in 1999 and Moody has moved on to developing new ideas. In 2000, Moody founded research and development firm Western Symbiotics Ltd., in order to develop Co-generative Heat and Integrated Power Systems (CHIPS), which involves the incremental transfer of waste engine heat to water. The rising cost of steel has prevented the system from being widely adopted. The article concluded with Moody's thoughts on creativity and his intentions to persevere in the field of inventing. 1 fig.

  12. Slipstream: an early Holocene slump and turbidite record from the frontal ridge of the Cascadia accretionary wedge off western Canada and paleoseismic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. S.; Enkin, Randolph J.; Riedel, Michael; Rogers, Gary C.; Pohlman, John W.; Benway, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Slipstream Slump, a well-preserved 3 km wide sedimentary failure from the frontal ridge of the Cascadia accretionary wedge 85 km off Vancouver Island, Canada, was sampled during Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) John P. Tully cruise 2008007PGC along a transect of five piston cores. Shipboard sediment analysis and physical property logging revealed 12 turbidites interbedded with thick hemipelagic sediments overlying the slumped glacial diamict. Despite the different sedimentary setting, atop the abyssal plain fan, this record is similar in number and age to the sequence of turbidites sampled farther to the south from channel systems along the Cascadia Subduction Zone, with no extra turbidites present in this local record. Given the regional physiographic and tectonic setting, megathrust earthquake shaking is the most likely trigger for both the initial slumping and subsequent turbidity currents, with sediments sourced exclusively from the exposed slump face of the frontal ridge. Planktonic foraminifera picked from the resedimented diamict of the underlying main slump have a disordered cluster of 14C ages between 12.8 and 14.5 ka BP. For the post-slump stratigraphy, an event-free depth scale is defined by removing the turbidite sediment intervals and using the hemipelagic sediments. Nine14C dates from the most foraminifera-rich intervals define a nearly constant hemipelagic sedimentation rate of 0.021 cm/year. The combined age model is defined using only planktonic foraminiferal dates and Bayesian analysis with a Poisson-process sedimentation model. The age model of ongoing hemipelagic sedimentation is strengthened by physical property correlations from Slipstream events to the turbidites for the Barkley Canyon site 40 km south. Additional modelling addressed the possibilities of seabed erosion or loss and basal erosion beneath turbidites. Neither of these approaches achieves a modern seabed age when applying the commonly used regional marine 14C reservoir age of

  13. Contribution of atmospheric processes affecting the dynamics of air pollution in South-Western Europe during a typical summertime photochemical episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gonçalves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The southern Mediterranean region frequently experiences critical levels of photochemical pollutants during summertime. In order to account for the contribution of different atmospheric processes during this type of episodes, the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modelling system was applied with high resolution (1 km2, 33 sigma vertical layers, 1 h to assess the different dynamics in a coastal environment and an inland-continental zone: the North-Eastern and Central Iberian Peninsula (NEIP and CIP, respectively. The former is characterized by a very complex terrain, while the latter behaves as a flat area, which clearly affects the pattern of local flows. A representative type of photochemical pollution episode (occurring over 78% of summer days which occurred during 17–18 June, 2004 is selected as the study period. The CMAQ Integrated Process Rate provides the hourly contributions of atmospheric processes to net O3, NOx and NMVOCs concentrations. The O3 photochemical formation occurs mainly in downwind areas from the main NOx emission sources during midday. At surface level it accounts for 50 to 75 μg m−3 h−1. The urban areas and main roads, as main sources of NOx emissions, act as O3 sinks, quenching up to −200 μg m−3 per hour during the traffic circulation peaks. The O3 concentration gradient generated, larger during daytime, increases the contribution of diffusion processes to ground-level O3 (up to 200 μg m−3 h−1 fluxes, mainly from upper vertical layers. The maximum positive contributions of gas-phase chemistry to O3 occur in the coastal domain at high levels (around 500 to 1500 m a.g.l., while in the continental domain they take place in the whole atmospheric column under the PBL. The transport of ozone precursors by advective flows determines the location of the maximum O

  14. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Erickson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Methods Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291. Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5 and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES, proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. Results A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased

  15. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anders C; Ostry, Aleck; Chan, Hing Man; Arbour, Laura

    2016-07-16

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291). Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs) were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5) and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES), proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased levels of maternal smoking. Maternal smoking had a

  16. Measuring River Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  17. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti

  18. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection III. Methods of assessing animal exposure to contaminants from the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    Researchers measured exposure to oil and gas industry emissions in 205 cow-calf herds located in Western Canada. They measured airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds with passive monitors placed in each pasture, wintering, or calving area that contained study animals from the start of the breeding season in the spring of 2001 until June 30, 2002. Researchers continued air monitoring in a subset of herds to the end of the study in fall 2002. Each sampling device was exposed for 1 month and then shipped to the laboratory for analysis. New samplers were installed and the shelters relocated, as necessary, to follow the movements of herd-management groups between pastures. Researchers linked the results of the air-monitoring analysis to individual animals for the relevant month. For the 205 herds examined at pregnancy testing in 2001, monthly mean exposures on the basis of all available data were as follows: sulfur dioxide, geometric mean (GM)=0.5 ppb, geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.2; hydrogen sulfide, GM=0.14 ppb, GSD=2.3; benzene, GM=0.247 microg/m3, GSD=2.5; and toluene, GM=0.236 microg/m3, GSD=2.7. Benzene and toluene were surrogates for volatile organic compound exposure. In addition to passive measurements of air quality, researchers obtained data from provincial regulatory agencies on the density of oil and gas field facilities and on flaring and venting from the surrounding facilities. They developed the data into additional measures of exposure that were linked to each animal at each location for each month of the study.

  19. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumana, Harcharan Singh; Sharma, Ramesh Chandra; Beniwal, Vikas; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-09

    : Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individuals. The situation is getting worse in developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and more importantly the rapidly growing population posing a threat to human life in the form of pulmonary, cardiovascular, carcinogenic or asthmatic diseases by accumulating toxic pollutants, harmful gases, metals, hydrocarbons etc. The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of ambient air pollutants and their human health risks like respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer using a Retrospective Approach of Bart Ostra. The parameters PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 were monitored at all selected study sites monitored through a high volume sampler (APM 451 Envirotech, Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India). Retrospective Approach was used for assessment of risk factors and disease burden of respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems. Environmental burden of disease showed that the problem of health related to air pollution is a main concern particularly in the growing cities of India. High to critical level of air pollution including PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 was observed in all seasons at traffic intersections and commercial sites. The respiratory infections (25% incidence in population exposed to indoor smoke problems) and a prevalence of asthma/COPD (4.4%) in households exposed to high vehicular pollution along with signs of coronary artery/heart disease and/or hypertension and cancers (37.9-52.2%), were reported requiring preventive measures. The study reflects a great concern for the mankind with the need of having streamline ways to limit air pollution and emphasize upon efficiently determining the risk of illness upon exposure to air pollution.

  20. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  1. Climatic isotope signals in tree rings masked by air pollution: A case study conducted along the Mont Blanc Tunnel access road (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Giovanni; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Saurer, Matthias; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Cherubini, Paolo; Pelfini, Manuela

    2012-12-01

    Three sites at about 1400 m a.s.l., were chosen for this study along the Mt. Blanc Motorway in Italy. Chronologies of stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O, δ15N), total N concentration and ring width of Larix decidua Mill. were analyzed to observe changes in growth and climatic signals in tree rings after significant changes in air pollution emissions occurred locally over time. The tunnel opened in 1968 and was closed for three years from March 1999 to March 2002. The obtained series from the three sites (Close = C, High = H and Far = F from the highway) for the analyzed periods, 1950-1970 (only sites H and F) and 1985-2008 (all sites), did not show any particular long-term change except site H that showed significant changes in δ18O (enrichment), δ15N (depletion) and total N (increase). δ13C values at site C were enriched in the first year of the tunnel closure (1999), showing an opposite trend in δ13C at site C, in comparison to the two control sites H and F, which cannot be explained by climatic factors. Since no great differences in δ18O were recorded in 1999, this enrichment in δ13C could be related to an enhancement in photosynthetic rate during periods of low air pollution loads. Opposite to δ15N, total N concentration shows a generally good correlation between sites, and site F was measured as the most N enriched. In a correlation analysis performed on the two study periods between the climatic parameters and ring width, we did not find any clear relationships, whereas for the series of stable isotopes and total N, we found the strongest and most significant relationships only between δ13C and summer (June to August) temperature (positive correlations) and precipitation (negative correlations) at sites H and F. These same relationships at site C were, instead, mostly insignificant, indicating an alteration of the climatic signal recorded in the δ13C chronology, caused by direct exposure to the high level of air pollution at this site. Given that

  2. CHANGES IN TRANSPARENCY OF WATER AND REDUCTION OF BIOMASS OF BENTHIC COMMUNITIES DUE TO THE DAMAGE TO THE BANKS AND THE OVERALL POLLUTION IN WESTERN PART OF THE SOUTH CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. As a result of fluctuations in water level, waves, circulation, rise and fall of the water levels there are constant partial erosion and leaching of soil banks in water bodies, with intensive ongoing pollution of the waters of the Caspian Sea, which we have seen in recent decades, and in the long run may dangerously affect the transparency of the water and reduction of biomass of the benthic community in the western part of the South Caspian Sea. The paper presents the results of the last 60 years of monitoring studies to determine the nature of transparency, depth of the euphotic layer, the primary production of phytoplankton photosynthesis, phytoand zoobentos biomass and destruction of organic matter in the coastal western shelf of the South Caspian. Methods. In the course of research, modern methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis were used, regulated by normative documents, duly approved for environmental monitoring of water bodies. Results. Studies have shown that since the second half of the 90’s, the mainland coast strip is strongly deformed, starting from the village of Shihva to Kura area, further from the south of the village of Narimanabada to Astara. Dozens of artificial coves, bays, islands were created with clay-soil mounds. Conclusions. A huge mass of clay and soil goes to the coastal waters of the western shelf as a result of the destruction of the structure of the coasts due to waves and wind, resulting in clastic particles in the water increased by 2.5 3 times, the transparency of the water in the area of 5-10 m depth contours is reduced by more than 2 fold, increasing the degradation 1.6 times. During this period, because of the intensity of sedimentation and the overall pollution in the study area, phytobenthos has almost disappeared and flowering has been reduced by 7580%. Zoobenthos has been badly damaged and biomass of bento detritivorous organisms has also been reduced. 

  3. Long-term (2001-2012) observation of the modeled hygroscopic growth factor of remote marine TSP aerosols over the western North Pacific: impact of long-range transport of pollutants and their mixing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Haque, Md Mozammel

    2015-11-21

    In order to assess the seasonal and annual variability of long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia and their effect on the hygroscopicity and precipitation process over the western North Pacific, we conducted long-term calculations of bulk hygroscopicity, g(90%)ZSR, based on the ZSR model using chemical composition data from 2001-2012 at Chichijima Island. We found that sea-salts (Na(+) and Cl(-)) are the major mass fraction (65%) of the total water-soluble matter followed by SO4(2-) (20%) and WSOM (6%). The seasonal variation of g(90%)ZSR was high in summer to autumn and low in winter to spring months, probably due to the influence of the long-range transport of anthropogenic SO4(2-), dust, and organics from East Asia and their interaction with sea-salts through heterogeneous reactions. On the other hand, annual variations of g(90%)ZSR showed a decrease from 2001 to 2006 and then an increase from 2007 to 2012. Interestingly, the annual variations in SO4(2-) mass fractions showed an increase from 2001 to 2006 and then a decrease from 2007 to 2012, demonstrating that SO4(2-) seriously suppresses the hygroscopic growth of sea-salt particles over the western North Pacific. This is further supported by the strong negative correlation between SO4(2-) and g(90%)ZSR. Based on the MODIS satellite data, the present study demonstrates that long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia to the North Pacific can act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei but significantly suppress the precipitation by reducing the size of cloud droplets over the western North Pacific.

  4. Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.G.; Roliff, W.A.; Sealey, R.; Palonen, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    Uncertainty of increased taxation of petroleum revenues proposed under the Canadian national energy program effected a minor slowdown of the rapid exploration in 1980. Total numbers of wells drilled in eastern Canada were: Ontario, 224; Quebec, 3; Nova Scotia, 1; and the Atlantic offshore, 13. Much of the Ontario drilling, 123 wells, was for development purposes. The success ratio on exploratory drilling in Ontario was 34.7, while all Quebec and Nova Scotia wells were dry. Production of oil and gas declined by 16.8% and 18.5% in New Brunswick. Oil production in Ontario increased by 1.2%. The increase in gas production of 14.3% to almost 443,535.5 x 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ was due almost entirely to development of known fields underlying Lake Erie. The exploration of offshore eastern Canada continued at a stable rate, with 12 wells completed. Of these, 2 were in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3 on the Grand Banks, 6 on the Labrador Shelf, and 1 in Davis Strait. All wells were abandoned or suspended at year end, although discoveries of hydrocarbon were made in Davis Strait and the Grand Banks. The early exploration stage, combined with record water depths, prevented any of these wells from being put into production, although testing will be continued on the most promising shows. Seismic exploration increased to approximately 30,000 km in the Atlantic offshore areas. In addition, 1,420.94 km was shot in Lake Erie. Onshore seismic exploration accounted for 1,078.67 km in Ontario, 350 km in Nova Scotia and 242.76 km in Quebec. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  5. Summertime tropospheric ozone distributions over central and eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Gregory, G. L.; Barrick, J. D.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Sachse, G. W.; Shipham, M. C.; Hudgins, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone measurements were obtained between the surface and the 6-km altitude on aircraft flights over central and eastern Canada during the summer 1990 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (GTE/ABLE 3B). Tropospheric O3 budgets for these regions were observed to be highly variable and significantly impacted by long-range transport and regional scale air mass modification processes. For example, integrated O3 abundance below 5-km altitude averaged 40% and 30% greater in air masses influenced by anthropogenic sources and biomass burning, respectively, than in background (polar) air. Conversely, aged air transported from subtropical areas of the Pacific at times reduced O3 abundance in this height interval by up to 20%. Though intrusion of anthropogenic air was infrequent during the experiment period, the influence of biomass-burning emissions was particularly notable as two thirds of the flights sampled air influenced by plumes from fires burning in Alaska and western Canada. The impinging pollution, both natural and anthropogenic, not only elevated O3 levels directly but also was a source of reactive nitrogen (and nonmethane hydrocarbons) which generally increases the tropospheric lifetime of O3 via moderation of photochemical destruction rates.

  6. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  7. Limitations On Canada Goose Production at Fish springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied the western Canada goose (B. c. moffitti) population at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in western Utah from March to July in 1996 and 1997 to...

  8. Analysis of copper tolerant rhizobacteria from the industrial belt of Gujarat, western India for plant growth promotion in metal polluted agriculture soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaff, Murali; Kamat, Shalmali; Archana, G

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural sites irrigated for long term with water polluted by industrial effluents containing heavy metals might adversely affect the soil microbial communities and crop yield. Hence it is important to study rhizobacterial communities and their metal tolerance in such affected agricultural fields to restore soil fertility and ecosystem. Present work deals with the study of rhizobacterial communities from plants grown in copper (Cu) contaminated agricultural fields along the industrial zone of Gujarat, India and are compared with communities from a Cu mine site. Microbial communities from rhizosphere soil samples varied in the magnitude of their Cu tolerance index indicating differences in long term pollution effects. Culture dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE) of bacterial communities revealed the diverse composition at the sampling sites and a reduced total diversity due to Cu toxicity. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene diversity of Cu tolerant rhizobacteria revealed the predominance of Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. under Cu stress conditions. Cu tolerant bacterial isolates that were able to promote growth of mung bean plants in vitro under Cu stress were obtained from these samples. Cu tolerant rhizobacterium P36 identified as Enterobacter sp. exhibited multiple plant growth promoting traits and significantly alleviated Cu toxicity to mung bean plants by reducing the accumulation of Cu in plant roots and promoted the plant growth in CuSO 4 amended soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; Sandau, C.D.; Koczanski, K.; Michaud, R.; De Guise, S.; Beland, P.

    2000-05-01

    Knowledge is limited regarding methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and especially MeSo{sub 2}-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), metabolites in cetacean species. The authors hypothesized that the ability of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to biotransform PCB and DDE compounds, and to form and degrade their MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, is related to the capacity for xenobiotic metabolism. Adipose biopsies were collected from male and female beluga whale from distinct populations in the St. Lawrence River estuary (STL) and western Hudson Bay (WHB), Canada, which are contrasted by the exposure to different levels of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing, chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants. The PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, 28 MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 14 meta-para chlorine-unsubstituted PCBs, and four MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 4,4{prime}- and 2,4{prime}-DDE were determined. The mean concentrations of total ({Sigma}-) MeSO{sub 2}-PCB in male STL beluga (230 ng/g), and ratios of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB (0.05) and {Sigma}-precursor-PCB (0.17) were approximately twofold higher, whereas the {Sigma}-precursor-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB ratio was approximately twofold lower, than in male WHB beluga. Both populations had a low formation capacity for MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs with {le} six chlorines (<4% of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs). The congener patterns were dominated by trichloro- and tetrachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs, and tetrachloro- and pentachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in WHB and STL animals, respectively. In addition to 2- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, two unknown MeSO{sub 2}-2,4{prime}-DDEs were detected. The mean 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE concentration in STL beluga (1.2 ng/g) was much greater than in WHB animals. The concentrations of 4,4{prime}-DDE, and not 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, increased with age in male STL animals. The authors demonstrated that sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus

  10. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, G.J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: g.j.pierce@abdn.ac.uk; Santos, M.B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain); Murphy, S. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB (United Kingdom); Learmonth, J.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Zuur, A.F. [Highland Statistics, 6 Laverock Road, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB41 6FN (United Kingdom); Rogan, E. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lahaye, V. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Ridoux, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts.

  11. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P; Poulos, Helen M; Goodale, Uromi M

    2015-08-15

    Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses' remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants' spectral reflectance, including 6h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ghetto poverty and pollution in Egypt: a deadly threat for western countries caused by new and infectious mutants. A cultural, social and microbiological synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassili, J H; Baradaeus, Cyril

    2012-10-01

    Egypt, whose soil germinated the first civilization, monotheism, refined ethics and culture of sharing the abundance of extracted natural resources among its populace became the crucible proliferating de-novo genotypes of organic and moral maladies. The enigma is these mutations are synchronized by several factors, namely; failing medical health, if there is any, abundant filth, cultural bankruptcy, over population, dogmatic militarism, societal deprivation and characterization, etc. These domineering ingredients fossilized Egypt as of 1952 coup in an irrevocable national apoptosis, together with the crippled social justice and imbalanced distribution of wealth among Egyptians, rates of bacterial and viral evolution to second generation resistant to known medical interventions are expected to exponentially accelerate. Therefore, it deemed essential to elaborate on pollution and psychosis-induced inflammations and grievous crimes evoked by dogmatic cults at the breeding source, e.g., ghettos and sporadic locations of the homeless in Cairo, Alexandria and Upper Egyptian villages. While this second generation of viral and bacterial diseases could labor plagues threatening the precariously maintained so-called social fabric of Middle Eastern countries, that are uniquely segregating its populace according to their dogmatic affiliations and soaked into intolerance, it would definitely compromise the integrity of the expensively managed medical care system of developed countries.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from lake Lille Lungegårdsvannet in Bergen, western Norway; appraising pollution sources from the urban history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Malin; Klug, Martin; Eggen, Ola Anfin; Ottesen, Rolf Tore

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to determine the temporal character and concentration variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) during the last 5,400 years in urban lake sediments through a combination of dating and chemo-stratigraphical correlation. We investigate the chemical history of the city of Bergen and determine the effect of specific point sources, as well as diffuse sources, and also help assess the risk of remediation plans. By using several organic compounds, metals and cyanide, we demonstrate the more accurate timing of sedimentation. The PAH results display very low concentrations in pre-industrial times, followed by a general increase that is punctuated by a few significant concentration increases. These most probably correspond to urban fires, domestic heating, gaswork activity and most recently due to traffic pollution. At the same depth as a significant rise in concentration from background levels occurred, the high relative occurrence of low-molecular-weight PAH-compounds, such as naphthalene, were replaced by heavier compounds, thus indicating a permanent change in source. The general observation, using ratios, is that the sources have shifted from pre-industrial pure wood and coal combustion towards mixed and petrogenic sources in more recent times. The (14)C dating provides evidence that the sedimentation rate stayed more-or-less constant for 4,500 years (from 7200 to 2700 calibrated years before present (calyr BP)), before isostatic uplift isolated the water body and the sedimentation rate decreased or sediments were eroded. The sediment input increased again when habitation and industrial activities encroached on the lake. The (14)C dating does not provide consistent data in that period, possibly due to the fact that the lake has been used as a waste site throughout the history of Bergen city. Therefore, results from (14)C dating from anthropogenically influenced sediments should be used with caution. © 2013.

  14. Structure, development and health status of spruce forests affected by air pollution in the western Krkonoše Mts. in 1979–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Král Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and health status of waterlogged or peaty spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst. forests in the summit parts of the Krkonoše Mts. in the Czech Republic were studied in 1979–2014. The objective was to evaluate the stand structure, dead wood, trend of the health status and productivity on four permanent research plots (PRP in relation to air pollution (SO2 and NOx concentrations and climatic conditions (temperatures and precipitation amounts. Stand structure was evaluated on the base of the measured parameters of individual trees on PRP. The health status of trees was evaluated according to foliage, and their vitality was assessed according to their radial growth documented by dendrochronological analyses. The radial growth was negatively correlated with SO2 and NOx concentrations. Stand dynamics during the observation period was characterised by increased tree mortality, the presence of dead wood and reduction of stand density from 1983 to 1992, while the most severe impairment of health status and stand stability occurred in 1982–1987. The foliage mass of living trees has been gradually increasing since 1988, but no pronounced improvement of tree vitality was documented after the decrease in SO2 concentration. However, particularly physiologically weakened spruce trees were attacked by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus. The process of forest damage is manifested not only by foliage reduction but also by symptoms of various necroses on the assimilatory organs. In terms of climatic data, the weather in April had the most important effect on radial growth. Diameter increment showed positive statistically significant correlation with temperature in growing season, but the precipitation effect was low.

  15. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  16. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  17. Study Canada: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    The document presents the first of five units on Canada developed for classroom use in American secondary schools. This unit, an overview of Canada, offers a sequence of information sheets for students and class activity suggestions for teachers which use a comparative approach stressing an understanding of Canada from the viewpoints of both…

  18. Relationship between particle matter and meteorological data in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Azad; Memarian Fard, Mahsa; Bahrami, Ala

    2017-04-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle, cloud formation, visibility, global climate, and human health. The meteorological conditions have important effects on PM2.5 mass concentration. Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network measures air pollutants at urban, suburban and rural locations in Canada. In this study, the point monthly relationships between meteorological data provided by Environment of Canada and PM2.5 mass concentration from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015 of fifteen speciation stations in Canada were analyzed. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentrations and precipitation as well as surface pressure demonstrated a negative correlation. It should be noted that the correlation between temperature and special humidity with PM2.5 in cold seasons and warm seasons were negative and positive respectively. Moreover, the weak correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 were obtained.

  19. Western USA groundwater drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  20. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals or other foreign substances that are detrimental to human, plant, or animal health. These pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural ...

  1. Microplastic pollutants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crawford, Christopher B; Quinn, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic Pollutants introduces the reader to the growing problem of microplastic pollution in the aquatic environment and is the first ever book dedicated exclusively to the subject of microplastics...

  2. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  3. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  4. Mecaster batnensis (Coquand, 1862), a late Cenomanian echinoid from New Mexico, with a compilation of Late Cretaceous echinoid records in the Western Interior of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Stephen C.; Cobban, William A.

    2017-03-01

    Echinoids are rare in the Upper Cretaceous of the Western Interior, where fewer than 60 unique occurrences are known to date, most of these represented by only a few tests or isolated spines. A notable exception is the Carthage coal field (Socorro County, New Mexico), where more than 200 specimens of Mecaster batnensis, previously referred to as Hemiaster jacksoni Maury, 1925, have been collected from the basal Bridge Creek Limestone Beds of the Tokay Tongue of the Mancos Shale. Prolific occurrences from the same beds are known from elsewhere in west-central and southwest New Mexico. Recorded originally from the Upper Cretaceous of Algeria, M. batnensis is a small- to medium-sized, irregular echinoid that is confined to the upper Cenomanian Euomphaloceras septemseriatum Zone in New Mexico. Measurements on 169 well-preserved specimens from two localities in New Mexico document a species that is, on average, 21.0 mm long, 19.8 mm wide, and 15.1 mm tall, yielding a width/length ratio of 0.94 and a height/length ratio of 0.72. Graphs plotting width against length and height against length are strongly linear. The Western Interior echinoid record spans the entire Late Cretaceous, although there are no records from rocks of Santonian age. Localities are spread from New Mexico on the south to Alberta on the north. Preservation ranges from coarse internal molds in high-energy sandstones to original tests in low-energy limestones.

  5. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  6. Growth and dieback of aspen forests in northwestern Alberta, Canada, in relation to climate and insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hogg E.H; Brandt J.P; Kochtubajda B

    2002-01-01

    ..., with >1000 Tg of carbon stored in the aboveground biomass of this species. Since the early 1990s, aspen dieback has been noted over parts of the southern boreal forest and aspen parkland in western Canada...

  7. Atmospheric pollution and atopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, D. [Hopital Nord, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-04-01

    One possible explanation to account for the current increase in prevalence of respiratory allergic diseases lies in the facilitating influence of air pollutants. Pollen grains collected in polluted areas could enclose a higher allergenic content. In vitro exposure of pollen grains to current levels of air pollutants can induce a change in protein and allergenic content. Animal experiments demonstrate that pre-exposure to high levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and diesel-exhaust particulates enhances specific responses to inhaled or intra-peritoneally administered pollutants. In humans, few studies have been performed. They also suggest an increased response to allergenic challenge after pre-exposure to a moderate concentration of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and Ozone. Epidemiological surveys comparing prevalence of atopy in urban vs settings usually demonstrate a higher prevalence in the former. However no survey can attribute this difference to urban pollutants. It is rather due the overall difference in daily living conditions. Comparative studies performed in groups of school children living in former East and West Germany show a two-fold higher prevalence of atopy and atopic diseases such as hay fever and asthma in former West Germany. It is hypothesized that the western way of life, including a lower rate of recurrent early childhood infections and a higher allergenic exposure could explain those differences. (author). 44 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Comparative studies of oil product regulation in polluted soil for several industrialized countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccassoni, F.; Kalnina, D.; Piga, L.

    2017-10-01

    Oil contaminated sites are the consequence of a long period of industrialization. Oil is a complex mixture including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to have negative effects on human health and the environment. Dividing oil products in groups (fractions) of petroleum hydrocarbons that act alike in soil and water, one can better know what happens to them. Being able to understand the behaviour of oil products in soil, it will allow to implement prevention and remediation actions. Interventions on contaminated sites are bound to comply with regulatory limits that each country has set in their own environmental legislation. The different concentration thresholds of oil products in soil for several EU countries and Canada has led to compare: limit values, analytical method, soil characteristics and/or land use. This will allow to evaluate what could be the best regulation approach, assessing if it is better to consider soil matrix in the site or the specific land use or both of them. It will also assess what is the best analytical methodology to be adopted to achieve the pollutant concentrations in the soil in order to have comparable results among different countries, such as: Baltic countries (Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania), Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark), Western countries (Italy and The Netherlands) and Canada, like gaschromatography in the range from C10 - C50. The study presents an overview of environmental regulatory system of several EU countries and Canada and the correlation between different parameters about oil products indicated in each environmental legislation.

  9. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  10. Atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R B

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  11. In vitro biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Dechlorane Plus flame retardants: a case study of ring-billed gull breeding in a pollution hotspot in the St. Lawrence River, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Giguère, Bernice; Letcher, Robert J; Verreault, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE) mixture (~97% of BDE-209) is now facing usage restrictions worldwide, which is leading to increased utilization of a series of alternative, replacement flame retardant (FR) products. Among these, Dechlorane Plus (DP) is receiving growing attention as this FR is increasingly being detected in wildlife samples, including birds from North America, Europe and Asia. Recent survey conducted in a known FR hotspot in the St. Lawrence River basin near Montreal (QC, Canada) revealed unexpectedly high detection frequencies and concentrations of BDE-209 and DP isomers (syn- and anti-DP) in the liver of breeding ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) (RBGUs). Despite the global distribution of these current-use FRs, there is to our knowledge no study that has addressed the in vitro biotransformation of BDE-209 and DP isomers in birds. This study aimed at understanding the in vitro metabolism of BDE-209 and syn- and anti-DP using liver microsomes of Montreal-breeding RBGUs. Although BDE-15 (positive assay control) was consistently and positively depleted over the 90-min time frame of the in vitro assay, no depletion was observed for BDE-209 and DP isomers. These results suggest that CYP isoenzyme-mediated reductive dehalogenation of BDE-209 and DP is not likely to be a substantial metabolic pathway in RBGUs. However, investigations on deiodinases (expression, activity) should be considered in future studies as these enzymes have been suggested to be involved in the sequential debromination of BDE-209 in fish and human studies. High levels of BDE-209 determined in liver of RBGUs that strongly correlated with those of known or suggested BDE-209 debromination products (hepta- through nona-BDEs) may thus be indicative of concomitant dietary (e.g., fish consumption) and environmental exposure in the greater Montreal area, combined with poor or lack of metabolic capability toward these FRs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  13. Analysis of tropospheric aerosol number density for aerosols of 0.2- to 3-micrometers diameter: Central and northeastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Barrick, John D.; Hudgins, Charles H.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Blake, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment conducted during the summer of 1990 focused on the distribution of trace species in central and northeastern Canada (altitudes less than 6 km) and the importance of surface sources/sinks, local emissions, distant transport, tropospheric/stratospheric exchange. Aircraft flights were based from North Bay, Ontario, and Goose Bay, Labrador, Canada. As part of the aircraft measurements, aerosol number density (0.2- to 3-micrometers diameter) was measured using an optical laser technique. Results show that summertime aerosol budgets of central and northeastern Canada can be significantly impacted by the transport of pollutants from distant source regions. Biomass burning in Alaska and western and central Canada exerts major influences on regional aerosol budgets. Urban emissions transported from the U.S./Canadian border regions are also important. Aerosol enhancements (mixed layer and free troposphere) were most prevalent in air with carbon monoxide mixing ratios greater than 110 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). When data were grouped as to the source of the air (5-day back trajectories) either north or south of the polar jet, aerosol number density in the mixed layer showed a tendency to be enhanced for air south of the jet relative to north of the jet. However, this difference was not observed for measurements at the higher altitudes (4 to 6 km). For some flights, mixed layer aerosol number densities were greater than 100 higher than free-tropospheric values (3- to 6-km altitude). The majority of the observed mixed layer enhancement was associated with transport of effluent-rich air into the Canadian regions. Aerosol emissions from natural Canadian ecosystems were relatively small when compared to transport.

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it has very local impacts that can profoundly affect communities, not the least of which is air pollution. Increasing temperatures are directly linked to poor air quality which, in turn, can affect the ...

  15. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primarily to one’s overall health. Top of Page Health Effects Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. ... its effect, disseminate information to the public regarding noise pollution and its adverse health effects, respond to inquiries on matters related to noise, ...

  16. GEOID '88: A gravimetric geoid for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Dezso

    1989-01-01

    Using Stokes' formula, a gravimetric geoid was calculated for Canada. The input data are as follows: 15 x 15' block averages were used for Canada and the USA and 1 x 1 deg block averages and satellite model (GEM-T1) provided values for the remaining part of the Earth. The geoid was calculated at 6398 points covering the area within the points rho(sub i)(phi sub i; lambda sub i) (lambda is + west): rho sub 1(40,125); rho sub 2(75,184); rho sub 3(75,10); and rho sub 4(40,60). The computed geoid refers to the GRS1980 and reaches a local minimum of -47.3 meters around the western part of Hudson Bay. A contour map of the geoid is shown.

  17. Pain medicine--a new credential in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley-Forster, Patricia; Karpinski, Jolanta

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, Pain Medicine was formally recognized as a subspecialty in Canada by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, a national organization with oversight of the medical education of specialists in Canada. The first trainees began their training at the Western University, London, Canada in July, 2014. This article traces the process of Pain Medicine's development as a discipline in Canada and outlines its multiple entry routes, 2-year curriculum, and assessment procedures. The application for specialty status was initiated in 2007 with the understanding that while Anesthesiology would be the parent specialty, the curriculum would train clinicians in a multidisciplinary setting. To receive recognition as a Royal College subspecialty, Pain Medicine had to successfully pass through three phases, each stage requiring formal approval by the Committee on Specialties. The multiple entry routes to this 2-year subspecialty program are described in this article as are the objectives of training, the curriculum, assessment of competency and the practice-eligibility route to certification. The process of accreditation of new training programs across Canada is also discussed. The new Pain Medicine training program in Canada will train experts in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of the spectrum of acute pain, cancer pain and non-cancer pain problems. These physicians will become leaders in education, research, advocacy and administration of this emerging field. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  19. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  20. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  1. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... ​This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system. Published by the Centre for International Governance Innovation, Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

  2. The Persistence of Traditional Medicine in Urban Areas: The Case of Canada's Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Among 119 low-income Canada Natives living in Saskatoon, interview survey found utilization of traditional medicine (1) did not detract from utilization of Western medical services; (2) was related to proficiency in an Indian language; and (3) was not related to difficulty in using Western medicine, age, income, or education. Contains 24…

  3. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  4. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  5. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  6. Acid precipitation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. W. Summers; D. M. Whelpdale

    1976-01-01

    The total annual emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in Canada are estimated to be 7.2 x 106 tons and 1.4 x 106 tons, respectively. These figures represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the estimated worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the Canadian SO2 emissions come from...

  7. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch

    2001-07-01

    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  8. Midwifery education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  10. The Economic Impact of Air Pollution on Timber Markets: Studies from North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. de Steiguer; [Editor

    1992-01-01

    Six papers analyze potential economic effects of forest damage resulting from air pollution.Economic effects in the Southeastern United States, the United States as a whole, Canada, Finland, and Europe as a whole are considered.

  11. Tackling pollution in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental conditions in many of the central and eastern European countries have improved since the collapse of communism, with some drastic reductions in pollution being registered. But the most important cause of these improvements has been the drop in output that came after economic restructuring. Western help has been useful in the transition to a market economy - but there are encouraging signs that the countries themselves are taking matters in hand. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations: Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 août 2013 ... Depuis 1984, la collection Canada Among Nations invite d'éminents chercheurs et praticiens du Canada et de l'étranger à évaluer ensemble la politique étrangère du Canada. Préparé par la Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (NPSIA) de l'Université Carleton, le numéro de 2013 est le premier ...

  13. Mapping of Critical Loads and Critical Load Exceedances in the Killarney Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hindar, A.; Henriksen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Calculations of critical loads for inputs of strong acids to lakes and exceedances of critical load can be a useful tool for the management of polluted areas. In Sudbury, Canada, large emissions of sulfur dioxide have resulted in widespread lake acidification in parts of northeastern Canada. Due to its vicinity to Sudbury, extensive lake acidification and fish loss has occurred in the Killarney Provincial Park. We have linked measured water quality to critical loads and strong acid deposition...

  14. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Canada's population is aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages.

  16. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  17. Epidemiology of obesity in the Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2008-11-01

    Obesity has emerged as a global public health challenge. The objective of this review was to examine epidemiological aspects of obesity in the Western Hemisphere. Using PubMed, we searched for publications about obesity (prevalence, trends, correlates, economic costs) in countries in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. To the extent possible, we focused on studies that were primarily population based in design and on four countries in the Western Hemisphere: Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Data compiled by the International Obesity Task Force show a substantial level of obesity in all of or selected areas of the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Chile, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela. Furthermore, countries such as Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States have experienced increases in the prevalence of obesity. In many countries, the prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men and in urban areas than in rural areas. The relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity depends on the stage of economic transition. Early in the transition, the prevalence of obesity is positively related to income whereas at some point during the transition the prevalence becomes inversely related to income. Like other countries in the Western Hemisphere, the four countries that we focused on have experienced a rising tide of obesity. The high and increasing prevalence of obesity and its attendant comorbidities are likely to pose a serious challenge to the public health and medical care systems in these countries.

  18. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  19. Radiation Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout. PMID:14143681

  20. Is human fecundity declining in Western countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. te Velde (Egbert); A. Burdorf (Alex); E. Nieschlag (Eberhard); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.A.M. Kremer; N. Roeleveld (Nel); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSince Carlsen and co-workers reported in 1992 that sperm counts have decreased during the second half of the last century in Western societies, there has been widespread anxiety about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human fecundity. The Carlsen report was followed by

  1. Is human fecundity declining in Western countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, E. te; Burdorf, A.; Nieschlag, E.; Eijkemans, R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Habbema, D.

    2010-01-01

    Since Carlsen and co-workers reported in 1992 that sperm counts have decreased during the second half of the last century in Western societies, there has been widespread anxiety about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human fecundity. The Carlsen report was followed by several

  2. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  3. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    61 Access to Medicines ...and Mexico . Canada claims the rule is a non-tariff barrier that has led to a steep drop in beef and hog shipments to U.S. processors...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties

  4. Skewed distribution of hypothyroidism in the coastal communities of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Knight, John C; Babichuk, Nicole A; Mulay, Shree

    2015-10-01

    Several studies published in the recent past have shown that rising levels of thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in the environment affect thyroid function in humans. These TDCs are the anthropogenic organic compounds that enter the human body mostly by ingestion and may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The studies also show the presence of high levels of TDCs in marine animals; therefore, consumption of contaminated seafood might trigger hypothyroidism. So far, there is no readily available population-based data, showing the regional distribution of hypothyroidism cases. We collected administrative data from the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information on hospitalizations with hypothyroidism (from 1998 to 2012) in 41 coastal communities of Newfoundland and found that mean hypothyroidism rates of west and south coasts were significantly higher than in the east coast (1.8 and 1.9 times respectively). A one-way analysis of variance was used to test for regional differences in rates. A significant between-group difference in the rate of hypothyroidism was found (F2,38 = 8.309; p = 0.001). The St. Lawrence River, its estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence are heavily polluted with TDCs from industries, their effluents, and urbanization in the Great Lakes Watershed and along the river. Environment Canada has already identified this river along with the Great Lakes Watershed as one of the top TDCs polluted water sources in the country. The west and south coasts are in contact with the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Local marine products are a regular diet of the coastal communities of Newfoundland. Based on these available evidence, we hypothesize the role of TDCs in the rise of hypothyroidism on the western and southern coasts. However, further study will be needed to establish any association between abnormally high rates of hypothyroidism and exposure to TDCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  6. Trans-Pacific transport of reactive nitrogen and ozone to Canada during spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Walker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We interpret observations from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment, Phase B (INTEX-B in spring 2006 using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to evaluate sensitivities of the free troposphere above the North Pacific Ocean and North America to Asian anthropogenic emissions. We develop a method to use satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns to provide timely estimates of trends in NOx emissions. NOx emissions increased by 33% for China and 29% for East Asia from 2003 to 2006. We examine measurements from three aircraft platforms from the INTEX-B campaign, including a Canadian Cessna taking vertical profiles of ozone near Whistler Peak. The contribution to the mean simulated ozone profiles over Whistler below 5.5 km is at least 7.2 ppbv for Asian anthropogenic emissions and at least 3.5 ppbv for global lightning NOx emissions. Tropospheric ozone columns from OMI exhibit a broad Asian outflow plume across the Pacific, which is reproduced by simulation. Mean modelled sensitivities of Pacific (30° N–60° N tropospheric ozone columns are at least 4.6 DU for Asian anthropogenic emissions and at least 3.3 DU for lightning, as determined by simulations excluding either source. Enhancements of ozone over Canada from Asian anthropogenic emissions reflect a combination of trans-Pacific transport of ozone produced over Asia, and ozone produced in the eastern Pacific through decomposition of peroxyacetyl nitrates (PANs. A sensitivity study decoupling PANs globally from the model's chemical mechanism establishes that PANs increase ozone production by removing NOx from regions of low ozone production efficiency (OPE and injecting it into regions with higher OPE, resulting in a global increase in ozone production by 2% in spring 2006. PANs contribute up to 4 ppbv to surface springtime ozone concentrations in western Canada. Ozone production due to PAN transport is

  7. A critical appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canada's similar conception of equality and India's influence on South African constitutionalism and shared experience with massive equality gaps make these jurisdictions instructive. Keywords: disability; Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa; substantive equality; ...

  8. An Old-Growth Definition for Western Hardwood Gallery Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Kindscher; Jenny Holah

    1998-01-01

    Western hardwood gallery forests are found across an extremely large, diverse geographical area that encompasses the Great Plains in the United States and Canada. Remnant forests of this type still exist in the "Prairie Peninsula," which historically projected an eastern finger into Ohio. The forests are restricted to floodplains of major rivers and are in...

  9. Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Vedal, Sverre; Brauer, Michael; White, Richard; Petkau, John

    2003-01-01

    The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10) has been limited in studies to date. The concentrations of PM(10) and other air pollutants in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from Janu...

  10. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  11. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  12. Influence of forest structure on the abundance of snowshoe hares in western Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan D. Berg; Eric M. Gese; John R. Squires; Lise M. Aubry

    2012-01-01

    Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are a primary prey species for Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America. Lynx management plans require knowledge of potential prey distribution and abundance in the western United States. Whether even-aged regenerating forests or multi-storied forests contain more snowshoe hares is currently unknown. During 2006-...

  13. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    stopped, in traversing the two countries’ 5,500- mile border. About 70% of U.S.-Canada merchandise trade crosses the border by truck; many of these...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties...pirated and counterfeit goods by customs agents without a court order. The government introduced a new Copyright Modernization Act (C-32) in June 2010

  14. Canada and the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuszewski, Judy; Crowther, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has a complex relationship with the global efforts to move to a green economy. Its policymakers and business leaders need to balance the country’s vast natural resources and the economic growth that they can foster, with the need to develop in a low-carbon, resource-efficient and socially inclusive manner. This report explores what the green economy means to Canada, with a particular focus on Canadian companies and the accountancy profession. Publisher PDF

  15. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  16. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  17. Impacts of an African Green Revolution on Greenhouse Gases and Pollution Precursors: Nonlinear Trace N Gas Emission Responses to Incremental Increases in Fertilizer Inputs in a Western Kenyan Maize Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades, agricultural soils in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa have become depleted of nitrogen (N) and other nutrients, creating challenges to achieving food security in many countries. At only 7 kg N ha-1 yr-1, average fertilizer application rates in the region are an order of magnitude lower than typical rates in the United States, and well below optimal levels. Increased use of nutrient inputs is a centerpiece of most African Green Revolution strategies, making it important to quantify the impacts of this change in practices as farmers begin moving towards 50-80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Increased N inputs are invariably accompanied by losses of trace N gases to the atmosphere, including the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO), a precursor to tropospheric ozone pollution. Several investigations of greenhouse gas emissions and one investigation of NO emissions from sub-Saharan agricultural systems have been conducted over the last 20 years, but they are few in number and were not designed to identify potentially important thresholds in the response of trace gas emissions to fertilization rate. Here we examine the response function of NO and N2O emissions to 6 different levels of inorganic fertilizer additions in a maize field in Yala, Kenya during the 2011 long rainy season. We used a randomized complete block design incorporating inorganic fertilizer treatments of 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 blocks. After each of 2 fertilizer applications, we measured trace gas fluxes daily, and conducted weekly measurements until trace gas emissions subsided to control levels. We fit the data to linear and exponential models relating N gas emissions to N input levels, and conducted a model comparison using AIC. Preliminary analysis suggests that NO emissions do respond in a non-linear fashion over the course of 67 days, as has been found in several commercial agroecosystems for N2O. Although N2O emissions responded linearly

  18. Seasonal resource selection of Canada lynx in managed forests of the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2010-01-01

    We investigated seasonal patterns in resource selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the northern Rockies (western MT, USA) from 1998 to 2002 based on backtracking in winter (577 km; 10 M, 7 F) and radiotelemetry (630 locations; 16 M, 11 F) in summer. During winter, lynx preferentially foraged in mature, multilayer forests with Engelmann spruce (Picea...

  19. Healthy neighborhoods: walkability and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D

    2009-11-01

    The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O(3)) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O(3) was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. All three attributes exhibit an urban-rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O(3) concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O(3) concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O(3)). "Sweet-spot" neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident's exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level.

  20. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Moisture sources and pathways associated with the spatial variability of seasonal extreme precipitation over Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuezhi; Gan, Thian Yew; Chen, Yongqin David

    2017-03-01

    Nine regions with spatially coherent seasonal 3-day total precipitation extremes across Canada were identified using a clustering method that is compliant to the extreme value theory. Using storm back-trajectory analyses, we then identified possible moisture sources and pathways that are conducive to occurrences of seasonal extreme precipitation events in four seasons for the nine regions identified. Moisture pathways for all extreme precipitation events were clustered to nine dominant moisture pathway patterns using the self-organizing map method. Results show that horizontal moisture pathway patterns and their occurrences were not evidently different between seasons. However, warm (summer and fall) and cold (winter and spring) seasons show considerable differences in the spreading of moisture sources in all nine regions, even though many sources do not frequently contribute to extreme precipitation events. In all four seasons, terrestrial evapotranspiration had provided major moisture sources to many extreme precipitation events occurred in inland regions. Central Canada had received more widespread moisture sources over surrounding oceans of North America than western and eastern Canada, because of more diverse moisture pathway patterns for central Canada that transport moisture from all surrounding oceans to central Canada. Extreme precipitation in southwestern Canada mainly resulted from atmospheric rivers over the North Pacific Ocean. For northwestern Canada, moisture pathway patterns were from the northern Pacific, Arctic and northern Atlantic oceans, even though more than 78% of trajectories for northwestern Canada were from the North Pacific. Westerlies from the North Pacific Ocean and northern polar jet streams controlled dominant pathways to central and eastern Canada. More extreme precipitation events over Canada were fed by the Arctic Ocean in warm than in cold seasons.

  2. Moisture sources and pathways associated with the spatial variability of seasonal extreme precipitation over Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuezhi; Gan, Thian Yew; Chen, Yongqin David

    2018-01-01

    Nine regions with spatially coherent seasonal 3-day total precipitation extremes across Canada were identified using a clustering method that is compliant to the extreme value theory. Using storm back-trajectory analyses, we then identified possible moisture sources and pathways that are conducive to occurrences of seasonal extreme precipitation events in four seasons for the nine regions identified. Moisture pathways for all extreme precipitation events were clustered to nine dominant moisture pathway patterns using the self-organizing map method. Results show that horizontal moisture pathway patterns and their occurrences were not evidently different between seasons. However, warm (summer and fall) and cold (winter and spring) seasons show considerable differences in the spreading of moisture sources in all nine regions, even though many sources do not frequently contribute to extreme precipitation events. In all four seasons, terrestrial evapotranspiration had provided major moisture sources to many extreme precipitation events occurred in inland regions. Central Canada had received more widespread moisture sources over surrounding oceans of North America than western and eastern Canada, because of more diverse moisture pathway patterns for central Canada that transport moisture from all surrounding oceans to central Canada. Extreme precipitation in southwestern Canada mainly resulted from atmospheric rivers over the North Pacific Ocean. For northwestern Canada, moisture pathway patterns were from the northern Pacific, Arctic and northern Atlantic oceans, even though more than 78% of trajectories for northwestern Canada were from the North Pacific. Westerlies from the North Pacific Ocean and northern polar jet streams controlled dominant pathways to central and eastern Canada. More extreme precipitation events over Canada were fed by the Arctic Ocean in warm than in cold seasons.

  3. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  4. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from moored buoy casts in the Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Western U.S., East Coast - US/Canada, and Great lakes from 01 November 2000 to 30 November 2000 (NODC Accession 0000351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of Western U.S., East Coast -...

  5. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  6. Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, Sverre; Brauer, Michael; White, Richard; Petkau, John

    2003-01-01

    The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10) has been limited in studies to date. The concentrations of PM(10) and other air pollutants in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from January 1994 through December 1996 were very low: the 50th and 90th percentiles of daily average PM(10) concentrations were 13 and 23 micro g/m(3), respectively, and 27 and 39 ppb, respectively, for 1-hr maximum ozone. Analyses of 3 years of daily pollution (PM(10), ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) concentrations and mortality counts showed that the dominant associations were between ozone and total mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the summer, and between nitrogen dioxide and total mortality in the winter, although some association with PM(10) may also have been present. We conclude that increases in low concentrations of air pollution are associated with increased daily mortality. These findings may support the notion that no threshold pollutant concentrations are present, but they also raise concern that these effects may not be effects of the measured pollutants themselves, but rather of some other factor(s) present in the air pollution-meteorology mix.

  7. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations : Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    expansion la plus rapide dans le monde et un virage vers une bonne ... Le CRDI, l'Israel Science Foundation, la Fondation Azrieli et les Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada annoncent l'appel de propositions pour la ...

  8. Survey of recreational fishing in Canada, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 Survey of Recreational Fishing in Canada collected information about recreational fishing activities to assess the economic and social importance of recreational fisheries to Canada's provinces and territories...

  9. A National Palliative Care Strategy for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, R. Sean

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify barrier to achieving universal access to high quality palliative care in Canada, review published national strategies and frameworks to promote palliative care, examine key aspects that have been linked to successful outcomes, and make recommendations for Canada.

  10. Pollution handbook 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The NSCA's latest Pollution Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of United Kingdom legislation on pollution control, air, noise, waste (including radioactive waste) and water pollution control. Legislation covering pesticides, marine and agricultural pollution is also summarised. It includes full details of all new pollution control legislation brought into force during 1999. Details of draft legislation implementing the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive and the contaminated land regime are included. Appendices list prescribed substances, part A and B processes and guidance notes, smoke control area authorised fuels, EC Directives and water quality regulations.

  11. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  12. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  13. canada's “thousand talent program”i: how canada research chair ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-24

    Oct 24, 2013 ... richer explanation of brain circulation, using the case study of Chinese holders of Canada Research Chairs. (CRC). Canada suffered brain drain in the 1990s, in particular to the United States. The Canada. Research Chair Program (CRCP), launched in 2000 by the Government of Canada, signalled the ...

  14. Comparing pyloromyotomy outcomes across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Alexander C; Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Changing patterns of referral and management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in North America have recently been described. Comfort with perioperative management, anesthesia, and corrective surgery have been cited as reasons for these changes. Our primary objective was to assess pyloromyotomy outcomes between different hospital types across Canada. The secondary objective was to geospatially map all pyloromyotomies to identify regions of higher HPS incidence across Canada. Data of all pyloromyotomies done between 2011 and 2013 were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Complication rates and length of hospital stay (LOS) were analyzed. Postal codes for each patient were used to geospatially map regions of higher HPS incidence. A total of 1261 pyloromyotomies were assessed. There was no difference in LOS or complication rates between different hospital types or surgeon group. Open pyloromyotomies were done in 75% of the cases. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified across Canada. This study found no difference in complication rate or LOS stay between hospital type and surgeon type across Canada. This may reflect a previously identified referral trend in the United States towards pediatric centers. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified, and may aid in identifying genetic elements causing HPS. 2c. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Computerized Library Networking in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Roderick M.; Islam, Mazharul

    1979-01-01

    Reviews a study which examined computerized bibliographic centers in Canada identifying three types: (1) library processing facility; (2) library network user group; and (3) information retrieval facility. The study also reported on ways to promote a computerized library network with emphasis on national location service. (CWM)

  16. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  17. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan

    2012-02-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  18. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  19. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  20. Falling behind - Canada's lost clean energy jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    With the depletion of conventional resources and the increasing concerns about the environment, emphasis has been put on developing clean energy. Clean energy is expected to become one of the main industrial sectors within the next decade, thus creating numerous jobs. While significant investments have been made by several countries to shift to clean energy, Canada is investing in highly polluting resources such as the tar sands. It is shown that if Canada were to match U.S. efforts in terms of clean energy on a per person basis, they would need to invest 11 billion additional dollars and this would result in the creation of 66,000 clean energy jobs. This paper showed that Canada is falling behind in terms of clean energy and the authors recommend that the Canadian government match U.S. investments and design policies in support of clean energy and put a price on carbon so as to favor the development of the clean energy sector and its consequent job creation.

  1. Response of Sphagnum fuscum to Nitrogen Deposition: A Case Study of Ombrogenous Peatlands in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, D.H.; Wieder, K.; Halsey, L.A.; Turetsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands cover about 30% of northeastern Alberta and are ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen deposition. In polluted areas of the UK, high atmospheric N deposition (as a component of acid deposition) has been considered among the causes of Sphagnum decline in bogs (ombrogenous peatlands). In relatively unpolluted areas of western Canada and northern Sweden, short-term experimental studies have shown that Sphagnum responds quickly to nutrient loading, with uptake and retention of nitrogen and increased production. Here we examine the response of Sphagnum fuscum to enhanced nitrogen deposition generated during 34 years of oil sands mining through the determination of net primary production (NPP) and nitrogen concentrations in the upper peat column. We chose six continental bogs receiving differing atmospheric nitrogen loads (modeled using a CALPUFF 2D dispersion model). Sphagnum fuscum net primary production (NPP) at the high deposition site (Steepbank - mean of 600 g/m2; median of 486 g/m2) was over three times as high than at five other sites with lower N deposition. Additionally, production of S. fuscum may be influenced to some extent by distance of the moss surface from the water table. Across all sites, peat nitrogen concentrations are highest at the surface, decreasing in the top 3 cm with no significant change with increasing depth. We conclude that elevated N deposition at the Steepbank site has enhanced Sphagnum production. Increased N concentrations are evident only in the top 1-cm of the peat profile. Thus, 34 years after mine startup, increased N-deposition has increased net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum without causing elevated levels of nitrogen in the organic matter profile. A response to N-stress for Sphagnum fuscum is proposed at 14-34 kg ha-1 yr-1. A review of N-deposition values reveals a critical N-deposition value of between 14.8 and 15.7 kg ha -1 yr-1 for NPP of Sphagnum species.

  2. Recently surveyed lakes in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada: characteristics and critical loads of acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac WONG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on minimal information, lakes in the western Canadian provinces of Manitoba (MB and Saskatchewan (SK have long been considered unaffected by acid rain. However, emissions of acidifying pollutants from MB smelters and oil sand processing in Alberta (AB may pose a developing threat. Surveys of 347 lakes located on geologically sensitive terrain in northern MB and SK were conducted to assess their acidification sensitivity and status. The survey domain (~193,000 km2 contained 81,494 lakes ≥1 ha in area. Small lakes dominated the inventory in terms of numbers, and large lakes dominated in terms of area. Survey lakes were selected using a stratified-random sampling design in 10 sampling blocks within the overall survey domain. Few lakes had pH <6, and only three (all in SK were acidic, i.e., Gran Alkalinity (Alk <0 μeq L–1. A broad range in lake sensitivity was apparent, and very sensitive lakes (low specific conductance, base cations and Alk were present in all sampling blocks. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was an important constituent of many lakes. Critical loads (CL of acidity calculated using the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC revealed extremely low 5th percentile values for every block (range 1.9 to 52.7 eq ha–1 y–1. Block CL exceedances calculated using estimated S and N deposition for 2002 ranged from 54.5 to 909 eq ha–1 y–1. The largest exceedances were for sampling blocks located near smelter sources or downwind of the oil sands. Lake chemistry revealed by our surveys was compared to others conducted both nearby and outside Canada.

  3. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  4. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  5. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available regions. Ambient air pollution relates to the quality of outdoor air and will be discussed in this chapter, with a focus on the air pollutants which are typically regulated in this context internationally....

  6. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  7. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  8. Impact of noise and air pollution on pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Tamburic, Lillian; Sbihi, Hind; Davies, Hugh W; Brauer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Motorized traffic is an important source of both air pollution and community noise. While there is growing evidence for an adverse effect of ambient air pollution on reproductive health, little is known about the association between traffic noise and pregnancy outcomes. We evaluated the impact of residential noise exposure on small size for gestational age, preterm birth, term birth weight, and low birth weight at term in a population-based cohort study, for which we previously reported associations between air pollution and pregnancy outcomes. We also evaluated potential confounding of air pollution effects by noise and vice versa. Linked administrative health data sets were used to identify 68,238 singleton births (1999-2002) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with complete covariate data (sex, ethnicity, parity, birth month and year, income, and education) and maternal residential history. We estimated exposure to noise with a deterministic model (CadnaA) and exposure to air pollution using temporally adjusted land-use regression models and inverse distance weighting of stationary monitors for the entire pregnancy. Noise exposure was negatively associated with term birth weight (mean difference = -19 [95% confidence interval = -23 to -15] g per 6 dB(A)). In joint air pollution-noise models, associations between noise and term birth weight remained largely unchanged, whereas associations decreased for all air pollutants. Traffic may affect birth weight through exposure to both air pollution and noise.

  9. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  10. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  11. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    251, 1975. [2] L A Bame, Arctic air pollution: An overview of current knowledge,. Atmos Environ., 20, 643-663, 1986. [3] LA Bame and R S Schemenauer, Pollutant wet deposition mechanisms in precipitation and fog water, Water Air Soil Pollut., ...

  12. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  13. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  14. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  15. Heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.

  16. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 9, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to Recommended Environmental Quality Targets for the Western Indian Ocean · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JF Machiwa, 17-30 ...

  17. Transitioning from Traditional: Pollution, Diet and the Development of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous people in virtually all parts of the world have transitioned from a traditional way of life to incorporate western culture to some degree. The forces driving these transitions are varied although there are some common features. Today, some traditional communities are exposed to pollution from nearby industries that have been located in undeveloped areas to take advantage of natural resources, inexpensive labor, lax regulations, or other features. Avoiding sources of pollution can s...

  18. Air pollution detection by satellites: The transport and deposition of air pollutants over oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. S.

    Research is continuing towards the possible detection of air pollution by remote sensing techniques, and satellite imagery has been examined to find evidence of cross-Atlantic transport of air pollution. Pollution masses from industrial areas are often carried out over the Atlantic Ocean by tropospheric winds. However, the pollution mass is generally steered by convergent flows and fronts of extra-tropical cyclones, and wet deposition and scavenging of air pollutants within clouds occur primarily over the cold ocean, especially during the occlusion stage of a cyclone. As a result, the oceanic area from Cape Hatteras to 1500 km ENE of Newfoundland (the SW sector of the Icelandic low area) is often a 'dumping ground' (sink region) for air pollution from N America. However, a dust cloud generated by a volcanic eruption and a smoke plume from large-forest fires in western N America have been observed near the W coast of Europe. Saharan dust carried to N America by trade winds have been identified on satellite imagery. The massive smoke generation by large forest fires in Siberia is also identified in the present study. The results of research on forest fire smoke are currently being used by scientists studying the atmospheric effects of a large-scale nuclear war. It is suggested that the area between the S of Japan and the SW section of the Aleutian low is another principal sink of air pollutants and dust originating from NE Asia.

  19. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact

    OpenAIRE

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available...

  20. 1999 pollution handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murley, L. [ed.

    1999-05-01

    The NSCA`s latest Pollution Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of United Kingdom legislation on pollution control, air, noise, waste (including radioactive waste) and water pollution control. Legislation covering pesticides, marine and agricultural pollution is also summarised. Details of the Northern Ireland Industrial Pollution Control Order and the Waste and Contaminated Land Order are included. Each chapter summarises relevant European Community Directives and Regulations and International Conventions and shows how these have been implemented in the UK. Detailed appendices list processes prescribed for integrated pollution control (IPC) and local air pollution control, process guidance notes, smoke control area authorised fuels, EC Directives and water quality directives. A bibliography of reference books and other publications covering more detail of legislation and control methods is included. 131 refs.

  1. Pharmacy information systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jeff; Jennings, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Canada Health Infoway is to provide at least 50% of all Canadians with an electronic health record (EHR) by 2010. The goal of the Infoway Drug Information Systems Program is to develop an interoperable drug information system that will keep each patient's medication history: prescribed and dispensed drugs, allergies, ongoing drug treatment, etc. Drug and drug-interaction checks will be performed automatically and added to the patients' drug profiles. Physicians and pharmacists will be supplied with data to support appropriate and accurate prescribing and dispensing, thereby avoiding adverse drug interactions and drug-related deaths [1]. This paper describes Canadian developments in pharmacy eHealth. It presents the results of the Pharmacy Informatics Pharmacy Special Networks (PSN) survey about computer systems used in hospital pharmacies across Canada including information concerning Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems deployed; which may reduce the number of errors in orders.

  2. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  3. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    2008 budget seeks to ensure continuity through the Canada First Defence Strategy , which will provide for yearly increases of 2% beginning in 2011-12...Minister Harper of permitting Canada’s Afghanistan strategy “to be defined by Washington.” He stated that “once [Canada’s] military mission ends in...56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ http

  4. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...Powers and Prospects in Canada’s North, ed. Abele Frances (Montréal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2009), 378. 167Richard Spencer, “ Fracking ...Boom Frees the US from Old Oil Alliances,” The Telegraph, December 13, 2013, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/energy/oil/10476647/ Fracking -boom-frees

  5. Canada: expanding nuclear fuel exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paehlke, R.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium is soon to be a very big business in Canada and most of the expansion is bound for export markets. The expansions that are planned are both in uranium mining and in fuel processing. Almost all environmental problems associated with the nuclear fuel cycle thus far in Canada have been associated with these two phases of the cycle: mining and processing. The water in Elliot Lake has been found to have high concentrations of radium and the drinking water of Serpent River, Ontario--downwater from Elliot Lake--has been found to be contaminated by excess radioactivity. Buildings in both Port Hope, Ontario, and Uranium City, Saskatchewan (near Eldorado's Saskatchewan minesite), have excess radiation counts attributable to radon and radon daughter gases. Several aspects of the expansion are currently undergoing environmental impact assessment. Far and away the most careful and balanced inquiry is the Saskatchewan government-appointed inquiry under Mr. Justice E. D. Bayda of the Saskatchewan Appeals Court. This inquiry is, in the first instance, examining a proposal by Amok Ltee., a consortium of a French multinational and the French government, to develop a $135 million uranium mine and mill at Cluff Lake in the northern portion of Saskatchewan. But the inquiry is considering all aspects and implications of the full nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage of the uranium boom in Canada centers on processing. Here two major new plants are proposed by Eldorado Nuclear: one at Port Granby, Ontario; the second at Varman, Saskatchewan. Several massive nuclear power stations are planned east of Toronto, but nuclear opposition is growing in Canada. (MCW)

  6. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods: Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing func...

  7. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  8. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  9. The importance of policy in emissions inventory accuracy--a lesson from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Judi

    2009-04-01

    Actual atmospheric emissions in northeast British Columbia, Canada, are much higher than reported emissions. The addition of upstream oil and gas sector sources not included in the year-2000 emissions inventory of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) increases annual totals of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compound emissions by 115.1, 89.9, and 109.5%, respectively. These emissions arise from numerous small and unregulated point sources (N = 10,129). CAC summaries are given by source type and source sector. An analysis of uncertainty and reporting policy suggests that inventory omissions are not limited to the study area and that Canadian pollutant emissions are systematically underestimated. The omissions suggest that major changes in reporting procedures are needed in Canada if true estimates of annual pollutant emissions are to be documented.

  10. Microbiological guideline values for recreational bathing in Canada: Time for change?

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Lévesque; Denis Gauvin

    2007-01-01

    Recreational bathing is an activity practiced by thousands of Canadians every year. While its health benefits are numerous, bathing in polluted water can also be a source of health problems. These problems are generally nonspecific and are difficult to detect through usual health monitoring systems. Most involve ear and eye ailments, febrile respiratory illness and, particularly, gastroenteritis. In 1992, Health Canada recommended microbiological guideline values for recreational water qualit...

  11. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  12. The effects of air pollution on the health of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-10-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence.The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children.Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children's health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children.Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada's cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations.

  13. Assessing Light Pollution in China Based on Nighttime Light Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and economic development inevitably lead to light pollution, which has become a universal environmental issue. In order to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns and evolvement rules of light pollution in China, images from 1992 to 2012 were selected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS and systematically corrected to ensure consistency. Furthermore, we employed a linear regression trend method and nighttime light index method to demonstrate China’s light pollution characteristics across national, regional, and provincial scales, respectively. We found that: (1 China’s light pollution expanded significantly in provincial capital cities over the past 21 years and hot-spots of light pollution were located in the eastern coastal region. The Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regions have formed light pollution stretch areas; (2 China’s light pollution was mainly focused in areas of north China (NC and east China (EC, which, together, accounted for over 50% of the light pollution for the whole country. The fastest growth of light pollution was observed in northwest China (NWC, followed by southwest China (SWC. The growth rates of east China (EC, central China (CC, and northeast China (NEC were stable, while those of north China (NC and south China (SC declined; (3 Light pollution at the provincial scale was mainly located in the Shandong, Guangdong, and Hebei provinces, whereas the fastest growth of light pollution was in Tibet and Hainan. However, light pollution levels in the developed provinces (Hong Kong, Macao, Shanghai, and Tianjin were higher than those of the undeveloped provinces. Similarly, the light pollution heterogeneities of Taiwan, Beijing, and Shanghai were higher than those of undeveloped western provinces.

  14. Slash smoke dispersal over western Oregon...a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Dell; Franklin R. Ward; Robert E. Lynott

    1970-01-01

    Smoke from slash burns in the Cascade Mountains during a 3-day period ofstable air conditions at lower elevations in October 1969 added little to existing air pollution in the Willamette Valley, in western Oregon. Aerial observations and weather data analysis determined that slash smoke dispersed eastward — away from the Valley. Studies of this type can help improve...

  15. Investigation into metal contamination of the Berg River, Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent decline in water quality of the Berg River, Western Cape, South Africa, has led to the investigation into the degree of metal pollution in the river system. This study was conducted over a period of one year, from May 2004 to May 2005. The nitric acid digestion technique was used to extract metals from water, ...

  16. Phosphorus recycling and availability in the western Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Freixo Leote, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus is a main and often limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, as suggested for the western Wadden Sea. In this area, freshwater discharge was a major nutrient source in the past. However, pollution reduction measures dramatically reduced its contribution, particularly for phosphorus. In

  17. Marking Physical Literacy or Missing the Mark on Physical Literacy? A Conceptual Critique of Canada's Physical Literacy Assessment Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Randall, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Margaret Whitehead first introduced the concept of physical literacy over 20 years ago. Since that introduction, physical literacy has been gaining in popularity within many Western physical education and sport contexts. This is particularly true within Canada, where physical literacy has been embraced by two of the nation's most notable national…

  18. Instructional Insights Gained from Teaching a Research Methods Course to Chinese International Graduate Students Studying in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Jacqueline L.; Woloshyn, Vera E.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese students represent an increasing proportion of the student body in Canadian postsecondary institutions (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2015). While studying abroad, many of these students face linguistic and sociocultural challenges (Zhang, 2016), resulting in calls for Western instructors to provide linguistically and culturally…

  19. Debating the Arctic during the Ukraine Crisis – Comparing Arctic State Identities and Media Discourses in Canada and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have argued that domestic factors, including each state’s Arctic state identities, may explain why some Western states (e.g. Canada) have been more critical of Russia in the Arctic than others (e.g. Norway). The present study analyses part of the link between Arctic state identit...

  20. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  1. Can changing the timing of outdoor air intake reduce indoor concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, M; Dobbin, N; St-Jean, M; Wallace, L; Marro, L; Shin, T; You, H; Kulka, R; Allen, R W; Wheeler, A J

    2016-10-01

    Traffic emissions have been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Many schools are situated close to major roads, and as children spend much of their day in school, methods to reduce traffic-related air pollutant concentrations in the school environment are warranted. One promising method to reduce pollutant concentrations in schools is to alter the timing of the ventilation so that high ventilation time periods do not correspond to rush hour traffic. Health Canada, in collaboration with the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board, tested the effect of this action by collecting traffic-related air pollution data from four schools in Ottawa, Canada, during October and November 2013. A baseline and intervention period was assessed in each school. There were statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in concentrations of most of the pollutants measured at the two late-start (9 AM start) schools, after adjusting for outdoor concentrations and the absolute indoor-outdoor temperature difference. The intervention at the early-start (8 AM start) schools did not have significant reductions in pollutant concentrations. Based on these findings, changing the timing of the ventilation may be a cost-effective mechanism of reducing traffic-related pollutants in late-start schools located near major roads. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Health Canada.

  2. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Canada CRS-8 20 “Spend More On Military, U.S. Envoy Urges Ottawa.” Toronto Star. Feb. 25, 2004. 21 “Canada’s Flying Coffins .” Peter Newman...introduction of alien species of aquatic life may disturb the ecological balance and endanger fishing in Lake Winnipeg, into which the Red River empties...have been under review. The two countries have continued the long-standing debate over the ecological impact of possible development in Alaska’s

  3. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  4. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  5. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). © 2011 Lans and Turner; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. The air quality health index and emergency department visits for urticaria in Windsor, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousha, Termeh; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with several health conditions, limited not only to respiratory and cardiovascular systems but also to cutaneous tissues. However, few epidemiological studies examined pollution exposure on skin problems. Basically, the common mechanism by which pollution may affect skin physiology is by induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Urticaria is among the skin pathologies that have been associated with pollution. Based on the combined effects of three ambient air pollutants, ozone (O₃), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and fine particulate matter (PM) with a median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), on mortality, the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) in Canada was developed. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of short-term changes in AQHI with emergency department (ED) visits for urticaria in Windsor-area hospitals in Canada. Diagnosed ED visits were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 2905 ED visits (males = 1215; females = 1690) for urticaria from April 2004 through December 2010. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for ED visits associated with increase by one unit of risk index were calculated employing conditional logistic regression. Positive and significant results were observed between AQHI levels and OR for ED visits for urticaria in Windsor for lags 2 and 3 days. A distributed lag nonlinear model technique was applied to daily counts of ED visits for lags 0 to 10 and significant results were obtained from lag 2 to lag 5 and for lag 9. These findings demonstrated associations between ambient air pollution and urticarial confirming that air pollution affects skin conditions.

  7. Indoor Air Pollution and Health Risks among Rural Dwellers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Indoor Air Pollution and Health Risks among Rural Dwellers in Odeda Area,. South-Western Nigeria. 1Oguntoke, O.; 2Opeolu B O. and 3Babatunde N. Abstract. This study monitored the concentration of five greenhouse gases and examined the health outcome among the exposed rural residents. A total of 15 villages were ...

  8. Air pollution and dry deposition of nitrogen and sulphur in the AOSR estimated using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Mei Hsu; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2015-01-01

    NO2 and SO2 are the primary pollutants produced by industrial facilities of the Athabasca Oil sand Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada. The major emission sources are the upgrader stacks for SO2 and stacks, mine fleets and vehicles for NO2. After emitting from the sources, NO

  9. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., United Refining Company v. Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on..., Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., and United Refining Company (Complainants) filed a formal complaint...

  10. Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller C Peter

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1 creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2 enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3 using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments.

  11. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research.

  12. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  13. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  14. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  15. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  16. River Pollution: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  17. LightPollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    Light pollution is a relatively new topic, both for scientists and for the general public. Light pollution is usually defined as any of the many adverse effects of poor night-time lighting. These include artificial sky glow, light trespass (obtrusive light), glare, energy waste and impacts on human health and the ecosystem. Almost everyone is affected in some way by these problems....

  18. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  19. Winter distribution, movements, and annual survival of radiomarked Vancouver Canada geese in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Hodges, John I.; Conant, Bruce P.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Groves, Debbie J.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Pacific Flyway Canada geese (Branta canadensis) requires information on winter distribution of different populations. Recoveries of tarsus bands from Vancouver Canada geese (B. canadensis fulva) marked in southeast Alaska, USA, ≥4 decades ago suggested that ≥83% of the population was non-migratory and that annual adult survival was high (Ŝ = 0.836). However, recovery distribution of tarsus bands was potentially biased due to geographic differences in harvest intensity in the Pacific Flyway. Also, winter distribution of Vancouver Canada geese could have shifted since the 1960s, as has occurred for some other populations of Canada geese. Because winter distribution and annual survival of this population had not recently been evaluated, we surgically implanted very high frequency radiotransmitters in 166 adult female Canada geese in southeast Alaska. We captured Vancouver Canada geese during molt at 2 sites where adults with goslings were present (breeding areas) and 2 sites where we observed nonbreeding birds only. During winter radiotracking flights in southeast Alaska, we detected 98% of 85 females marked at breeding areas and 83% of 70 females marked at nonbreeding sites, excluding 11 females that died prior to the onset of winter radiotracking. We detected no radiomarked females in coastal British Columbia, or western Washington and Oregon, USA. Most (70%) females moved ≤30 km between November and March. Our model-averaged estimate of annual survival (Ŝ = 0.844, SE = 0.050) was similar to the estimate of annual survival of geese marked from 1956 to 1960. Likely populations in the Pacific Flyway. Because annual survival of adult Vancouver Canada geese was high and showed evidence of long-term consistency, managers should examine how reproductive success and recruitment may affect the population.

  20. Pollutant concentrations in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, O.; Kiviranta, H.; Karjalainen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new...... information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data......Unborn children are exposed to environmental pollutants via the placenta, and there is a causal relationship between maternal intake of pollutants and fetal exposure. Placental examination is an effective way for acquiring data for estimating fetal exposure. We analyzed the concentrations of 104...

  1. [Indoor pollution and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, J

    1998-09-01

    The indoor pollution, where the patients pass in general close to 90% of their time, is an important factor to take in consideration if one wants to evaluate suitably the effects of the air pollution on the health. Causes of this kind of pollution are partially linked to the external pollution and the outdoor environment and also are function of human activities and introduced products in the habitat (heating, tabagisme, handywork, products of maintenance, coatings, materials of construction, etc.). The effects on health are as various as the pollutants, going from sharp intoxication to irritations or simply desagreements. In this problem of public health we may not underestimated sensitive persons and risky group as well as long terme effects, and chronic exposition effects. The search of solutions needs multiple competences from the physician, who has to play an essential role.

  2. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in western North Atlantic, including the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the coastal waters of the United States and Canada. The animals described are not grouped by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance…

  3. Ecological impacts and management strategies for western larch in the face of climate-change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 185,000 forest inventory and ecological plots from both USA and Canada were used to predict the contemporary distribution of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) from climate variables. The random forests algorithm, using an 8-variable model, produced an overall error rate of about 2.9 %, nearly all of which consisted of predicting presence at...

  4. Global Affairs Canada | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a Government of Canada Crown Corporation, we are an important part of Canada's foreign affairs and development efforts. ... The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund is a CA$125 million initiative that aims to bring market-ready agriculture innovations to more people, improving lives and livelihoods.

  5. Canada's World : a Deliberative Dialogue | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition. IDRC, the Israel Science Foundation, the Azrieli Foundation, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research announce the call for proposals for the fourth round of the Joint Canada-Israel Health... View moreCall for proposals for the ...

  6. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  7. Mexico-Canada Knowledge Translation Partnership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  8. The OECD Reports on Canada's Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, P.

    1976-01-01

    Extracts from a 1975 study undertaken by the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on the state of education in Canada is presented. The extracts focus on the vocational technical field and call for a vigorous and creative rethinking in the practical and technical education of Canada's youth. (Author/EC)

  9. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  10. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  11. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  12. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  13. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, B. Lynn; Schleihauf, Emily; Mask, Angela; Haldane, David; Drebot, Michael; Baikie, Maureen; Cole, Teri J.; Fleming, Sarah; Gould, Richard; Lindsay, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis ticks, which transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), are endemic to at least 6 regions of Nova Scotia, Canada. To assess the epidemiology and prevalence of LD in Nova Scotia, we analyzed data from 329 persons with LD reported in Nova Scotia during 2002–2013. Most patients reported symptoms of early localized infection with rash (89.7%), influenza-like illness (69.6%), or both; clinician-diagnosed erythema migrans was documented for 53.2%. In a separate serosurvey, of 1,855 serum samples screened for antibodies to B. burgdorferi, 2 were borderline positive (both with an indeterminate IgG on Western blot), resulting in an estimated seroprevalence of 0.14% (95% CI 0.02%–0.51%). Although LD incidence in Nova Scotia has risen sharply since 2002 and is the highest in Canada (16/100,000 population in 2013), the estimated number of residents with evidence of infection is low, and risk is localized to currently identified LD-endemic regions. PMID:26401788

  14. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchette, Todd F; Johnston, B Lynn; Schleihauf, Emily; Mask, Angela; Haldane, David; Drebot, Michael; Baikie, Maureen; Cole, Teri J; Fleming, Sarah; Gould, Richard; Lindsay, Robbin

    2015-10-01

    Ixodes scapularis ticks, which transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), are endemic to at least 6 regions of Nova Scotia, Canada. To assess the epidemiology and prevalence of LD in Nova Scotia, we analyzed data from 329 persons with LD reported in Nova Scotia during 2002-2013. Most patients reported symptoms of early localized infection with rash (89.7%), influenza-like illness (69.6%), or both; clinician-diagnosed erythema migrans was documented for 53.2%. In a separate serosurvey, of 1,855 serum samples screened for antibodies to B. burgdorferi, 2 were borderline positive (both with an indeterminate IgG on Western blot), resulting in an estimated seroprevalence of 0.14% (95% CI 0.02%-0.51%). Although LD incidence in Nova Scotia has risen sharply since 2002 and is the highest in Canada (16/100,000 population in 2013), the estimated number of residents with evidence of infection is low, and risk is localized to currently identified LD-endemic regions.

  15. Paint removal activities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1993-03-01

    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  16. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  18. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  19. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  20. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  1. Migration stopover ecology of western avian populations: A southwestern migration workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Hazelwood, Rob

    2004-01-01

    The importance of migration stopover sites in ensuring that migratory birds successfully accomplish their journeys between breeding and non-breeding ranges has come to the forefront of avian research. Migratory birds that breed in western United States (US) and Canada and overwinter primarily in western Mexico migrate across the arid region of northern Mexico and southwestern US. Many of these migrants use lowland riparian stopover habitats, which comprise less than 0.1% of the western U.S. landscape. These habitats represent a significant conservation priority.

  2. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  3. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  4. Transitioning from traditional: pollution, diet and the development of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Lawrence M

    2012-12-01

    Indigenous people in virtually all parts of the world have transitioned from a traditional way of life to incorporate western culture to some degree. The forces driving these transitions are varied although there are some common features. Today, some traditional communities are exposed to pollution from nearby industries that have been located in undeveloped areas to take advantage of natural resources, inexpensive labor, lax regulations, or other features. Avoiding sources of pollution can safeguard health, but may have untoward consequences. When exposure to pollutants is through components of the traditional diet, people must alter their diet to avoid the pollutants, and in so doing, they transition away from traditional culture. Further, avoiding local, contaminated food involves eating commercial, mass produced foods that can contribute to obesity which is a growing problem worldwide. The choice between eating uncontaminated food from stores or maintaining traditional ways including a traditional diet, is a stressful one adding to the overwhelming stress of acculturation.

  5. Particle Pollution Designations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This area provides information on the process EPA, the states, and the tribes follow to designate areas as attainment (meeting) or nonattainment (not meeting) the particle pollution air quality standards.

  6. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  7. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  8. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  9. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  10. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  11. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  12. POLLUTION AND HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Pratibha Pathak

    2017-01-01

    Over the last three decades there has been increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environmental pollution, in particular, the global burden of disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due to prolonged exposure to environmental pollution. Most of these environment-related diseases are however not easily detected and may be acquired during childhood and manifested later in adulthood. Im...

  13. Project Canada West. Canadian Environmental Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The overall objective of the curriculum development project is to develop a general high school level interdisciplinary course on environment studies. This potential five to ten month course is outlined as follows: ecology, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, population, socioeconomic implications, and resource management. The general…

  14. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  15. Loss of glutathione S-transferases in pollution-associated liver neoplasms in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) from Lake Ontario

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stalker, M J; Kirby, G M; Kocal, T E; Smith, I R; Hayes, M A

    1991-01-01

    White suckers (Catostomus commersoni) are one of two species of bottom-feeding fish in which various liver neoplasms are more prevalent in urban/industrial sites in western Lake Ontario than in less polluted sites in the Great Lakes...

  16. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  17. Nuclear power in Canada : an examination of risks, impacts and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, M.; Jamison, A.; Wong, R.; Czajkowski, P.

    2006-12-15

    This study examines the environmental impacts of the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Canada through each of the four major stages of nuclear energy production: uranium mining and milling; uranium refining, conversion and fuel fabrication; nuclear power plant operation; and waste fuel management. It is intended to inform public debate over the future role of nuclear energy in Canada, and to facilitate comparisons of nuclear energy with other potential energy sources. The study examines waste generation, atmospheric releases, impacts on water quality and water use, and landscape and ecosystem impacts of nuclear energy production. It also examines the occupational and community health impacts of nuclear power and key long-term challenges to its sustainability, including security and weapons proliferation risks. Specific environmental impacts are examined in the context of CANDU nuclear technology, the only reactor type currently in use in Canada. The study findings likely underestimate the overall impacts of the use of nuclear energy for electricity production in Canada. This is a result of significant gaps in the publicly available information on releases of pollutants and contaminants, as well as on the fate of certain waste streams related to the nuclear industry. In addition, the study relies on what are likely conservative estimates in a number of key areas, particularly with respect to the generation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

  18. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles

    2013-11-19

    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time.

  19. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck... Manifest, Customs Form 7512-B Canada 81/2. The driver shall present the manifest in four copies to U.S...

  20. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  1. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  2. Opportunities for manufactured housing in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairstow, Dale

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1984, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation commissioned this study because it wanted to find out why manufactured housing appeared to be increasing in importance in certain foreign...

  3. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  4. The future of Canada's radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2017-11-01

    Through involvement in CHIME, ALMA, the Jansky VLA and the Murchison Widefield Array, Canada is well placed in current radio astronomy facilities and the future looks even brighter, with strategic interest in the SKA and the Next Generation VLA.

  5. Driver's Licences for the handicapped in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg; Clarke, Bryan R.

    1985-01-01

    The article reviews Canada's Guide for Physicians in Determining Fitness to Drive a Vehicle and then considers sections of provincial motor vehicle acts that regulate the issuance of licenses to the handicapped. (CL)

  6. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  7. Comprehensive school health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Paul J; Schwartz, Margaret E

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian education system is among the best in the world academically. In contrast, students' (children and youth) eating and activity levels are so poor that they have led to prevalence rates of overweight that are among the highest in the world. Given the enormous public health burden associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, Canada needs to address this health risk. Comprehensive school health (CSH) is a promising approach to promoting healthy eating and active living (HEAL). This article provides a review of CSH and discusses its four essential elements: 1) teaching and learning; 2) social and physical environments; 3) healthy school policy; and 4) partnerships and services. It also provides a common understanding of the implementation and broader benefits of CSH, which, in addition to health, include student learning and self-esteem. The article further discusses some complexities of a rigorous evaluation of CSH, which comprises proof of implementation, impact and positive outcome. Though such an evaluation has yet to be conducted, some studies did confirm successful implementation, and another study observed positive outcomes. Rigorous evaluation is urgently needed to provide a stronger evidence base of the benefits of CSH for learning, self-esteem and disease prevention. This evidence is essential to justify devoting more school time to promote HEAL and more resources to implement and support CSH to the benefit of both learning and health.

  8. Export opportunities for Czech companies in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Otta, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the theses is to analyze economic cooperation of Czech republic and Canada. There is a particular information about Canadian economical and political setting as well as local business environment. The theses places emphasis on how to help Czech exporters trading with Canada, and gives complete overview of opportunities for export, entrance to the market and helps to understand local business customs.

  9. The Beginning Farmers’ Problem In Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about beginning farmers in Canada derive from trends in data that show that the population of farmers and the number of young farmers are declining. This paper discusses and analyses issues regarding the constraints and opportunities beginning farmers in Canada face. The discussion covers whether issues peculiar to beginning farmers are, from an economic policy point of view, a source of concern and whether there are motives for government intervention. The main conclusions are 1) th...

  10. A Strategic Analysis of Canada Post's Parcel Ecommerce Growth Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Canada Post is a market leader in the business to consumer residential delivery of parcels in Canada. There is an increasing demand for residential delivery due to the worldwide growth in ecommerce sales. This paper presents a strategic analysis of the opportunity for Canada Post to increase its breadth and depth in the parcel delivery industry in Canada. The analysis will review the parcel industry, the ecommerce opportunity, an internal review of Canada Post, develop and evaluate four strat...

  11. Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...

  12. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  13. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, X.; U. S. Akhtar

    2009-01-01

    Windsor (Ontario) – the automotive capital of Canada does not have any significant mercury (Hg) sources. However, Windsor experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 aimed to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor. <...

  14. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of language maintenance has received considerable attention from linguists around the world, there are still many aspects of this language-contact phenomenon that could be examined further. This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the state of Croatian as a heritage language in Canada. The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to describe the demographic characteristics of the Croatian community by investigating the number of people of Croatian descent and the number of Croatian speakers in Canada. The second, and more specific, aim of the paper is to provide an account of the state of Croatian as a minority language and examine the extent of language maintenance in the community. To accomplish the first objective, Canadian census data (1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 was analyzed, with special focus on linguistic census data (number and age of Croatian speakers in Canada, mother tongue of people of Croatian descent, language most used at home, etc.. To accomplish the second objective, census data was supplemented with data from a questionnaire-based survey completed by members of the Croatian community in Toronto. The survey was completed by 220 participants; 110 first-generation Croatian Canadians and 110 second-generation Croatian Canadians. Two versions of the questionnaire were designed, one for first-generation participants and the other for second-generation participants. The great majority of items in the two versions were identical; each version contained questions about demographic characteristics, language use in everyday life, and self-perceived language proficiency in English and Croatian. The majority of questions were of a closed type (multiple-choice questions and rating scales, but there were also some open-ended questions, so as to give participants the opportunity to express their viewpoint or comment on certain issues. Questions were written in both Croatian and English

  15. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  16. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  17. Marine pollution: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  18. Reimagining Haj Khalil v. Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Bahdi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of cultural competence for tort law by analyzing the Federal Court’s decision in Haj Khalil v. Canada. Given that this symposium in honour of Rose Voyvodic’s life and work is entitled “Re-Imagining Access to Justice,” this paper asks “how do the principles of cultural competence allow us to think about the facts of the Haj Khalil differently. In particular, what would a cause in fact analysis look like if it were informed by the principles of cultural competence?” My analysis proceeds by “reading the silences” or focusing on the unstated assumptions and unexplored elements of Haj Khalil’s story to bring into focus factors relevant to factual causation which remain largely unexplored or undervalued by the Federal Court. An examination of the facts that framed Haj Khalil`s claim against immigration officials through a culturally competent lens would open the possibility of a different understanding of causation as it arises on the facts of the case. While Canadian courts have emphasized the importance of social context for fair judgment, they have not fully come to grips with the implications of social context for judicial decision-making. This is particularly the case within negligence law which remains vexed by the need to maintain an objective standard while simultaneously recognizing the importance of context and circumstance to particular claims. Cet article souligne l’importance de la compétence culturelle pour le droit de la responsabilité civile délictuelle en analysant le jugement Haj Khalil c. Canada de la Cour Fédérale. Vu que ce symposium en honneur de la vie et de l’oeuvre de Rose Voyvodic est intitulé « Re-Imagining Access to Justice», cet article pose la question «comment les principes de compétence culturelle nous permettent-ils de concevoir différemment les faits de Haj Khalil. En particulier, comment se présenterait la causalité si l’analyse des faits

  19. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  20. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six…

  1. Aging in a Multicultural Canada: A Graphic Overview = Le Vieillissement dans un Canada Multiculturel: Apercu Graphique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Secretary of State, Ottawa (Ontario). Multiculturalism Directorate.

    This document, in English and French, provides a graphic overview of statistical data on aging and ethnicity in Canada. Most of the information was drawn from 1981 and 1986 census figures and immigration statistics. Part 1, "Multicultural Canada," provides background information on the multicultural nature of the population. One map and…

  2. Canada Among Nations 2014 – le Canada et le système financier ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... Le 28e ouvrage de la collection Canada Among Nations revient sur la crise financière mondiale de 2008 et examine son impact au Canada ainsi que le rôle que le pays a joué et joue toujours au sein du système financier international.

  3. Ground-living spiders (Araneae at polluted sites in the Subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koponen, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders were studied around the Pechenganikel smelter combine, Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia. The average spider density was 6-fold greater and the density of Linyphiidae specimens 11.5-fold higher at slightly polluted sites, compared with heavily polluted sites. Altogether, 18 species from 10 families were found at heavily polluted sites, the theridiid Robertus scoticus clearly dominating (23.3 % of identifiable specimens, also Neon reticulatus (9.6 %, Thanatus formicinus (9.6 % and Xysticus audax (8.2 % were abundant. The most numerous among 58 species found at slightly polluted sites were Tapinocyba pallens (18.5 %, Robertus scoticus (13.7 %, Maso sundevalli (9.5 % and Alopecosa aculeata (8.2 %. The family Linyphiidae dominated at slightly polluted sites, 64 % of species and 60 % of individuals; compared with heavily polluted sites, 23 % and 38 % respectively.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  5. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  6. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  7. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  8. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  9. Article Commentary: Researching Prescription Drug Misuse among First Nations in Canada: Starting from a Health Promotion Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Anne Dell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intentional misuse of psychotropic drugs is recognized as a significant public health concern in Canada, although there is a lack of empirical research detailing this. Even less research has been documented on the misuse of prescription drugs among First Nations in Canada. In the past, Western biomedical and individual-based approaches to researching Indigenous health have been applied, whereas First Nations’ understandings of health are founded on a holistic view of wellbeing. Recognition of this disjuncture, alongside the protective influence of First Nations traditional culture, is foundational to establishing an empirical understanding of and comprehensive response to prescription drug misuse. We propose health promotion as a framework from which to begin to explore this. Our work with a health promotion framework has conveyed its potential to support the consideration of Western and Indigenous worldviews together in an ‘ethical space’, with illustrations provided. Health promotion also allots for the consideration of Canada's colonial history of knowledge production in public health and supports First Nations’ self-determination. Based on this, we recommend three immediate ways in which a health promotion framework can advance research on prescription drug misuse among First Nations in Canada.

  10. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    that industrial Western military culture negatively influenced the ability to wage .... revolution occurred when Western troops started to pay attention to local support for ... The fourth principle is the priority of the fight against the insurgents'.

  11. Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  12. Estimation of indoor and outdoor ratios of selected volatile organic compounds in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Jovic, Branka; Cakmak, Sabit; Austin, Claire C.; Zhu, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air and outdoor air concentration (I/O) ratio can be used to identify the origins of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). I/O ratios of 25 VOCs in Canada were estimated based on the data collected in various areas in Canada between September 2009 and December 2011. The indoor VOC data were extracted from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Outdoor VOC data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) Network. The sampling locations covered nine areas in six provinces in Canada. Indoor air concentrations were found higher than outdoor air for all studied VOCs, except for carbon tetrachloride. Two different approaches were employed to estimate the I/O ratios; both approaches produced similar I/O values. The I/O ratios obtained from this study were similar to two other Canadian studies where indoor air and outdoor air of individual dwellings were measured. However, the I/O ratios found in Canada were higher than those in European cities and in two large USA cities, possibly due to the fact that the outdoor air concentrations recorded in the Canadian studies were lower. Possible source origins identified for the studied VOCs based on their I/O ratios were similar to those reported by others. In general, chlorinated hydrocarbons, short-chain (C5, C6) n-alkanes and benzene had significant outdoor sources, while long-chain (C10sbnd C12) n-alkanes, terpenes, naphthalene and styrene had significant indoor sources. The remaining VOCs had mixed indoor and outdoor sources.

  13. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  14. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  15. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  16. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  17. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  18. The next big thing : unconventional gas explorers lay technical foundations for shale gas development across Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2007-12-15

    Canadian exploration companies have successfully developed strategies for economically extracting gas from coal seams and unconventional tight reservoirs. According to Talisman Energy Inc., the next step is to tap into Canada's shale gas resource. In contrast to conventional gas targets, shale gas acts both as a source rock and reservoir rock with the natural gas contained within shale sequences. The gas is stored as adsorbed gas attached to kerogen in the shale, or exists as free gas in pores and fractures. The 2 main types of shale reservoirs include those where the gas was produced thermogenically through high temperatures and those where the gas was produced biogenically through bacterial breakdown. Innovative drilling and stimulation technologies are needed to extract sufficient volumes of gas and to commercially produce either type of shale play. Western Canada is the primary focus for shale gas exploration, mostly in deeper thermogenic shales in northern Alberta and British Columbia. Industry experts are comparing a play in the Fort Nelson area to the prolific Barnett Shale in Texas. Directional drilling and measurement while drilling technology has allowed shale developers in the United States to more accurately hit target prospects and to intersect more of the prospective pay zone. Improved fracturing technology has also allowed developers to improve the permeability of shale reservoirs. This experience will be helpful in Canada, although much experimenting is still required, including microseismic mapping that provides images of the fractures created by hydraulic fracturing. The area for biogenic shale exploration in Canada is in the Colorado Cretaceous Group of shales stretching across central Alberta and Saskatchewan. Stealth Ventures Ltd. and PanTerra Resource Corp. have been testing several technologies to make the shale play economic. Developing the plays will require the appropriate drilling and completion technologies to assess the plays. It

  19. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  20. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  1. Country report on pollution: India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, R.; Purvaja, R; Lakshmi, Ahana

    2011-01-01

    Biogeographical features, coastal ecosystems and coastal activities of the Bay of Bengal Coast of India. Overview of sources of pollution, water and sediment quality. Present status of pollution and trans-boundary issues. International instruments adopted, policy and mechanisms for pollution control and enforcement of existing policies and legislations.

  2. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  3. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Muta, Hiromi; Somada, Shinichi; Maeda, Toyoki; Mutoh, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kanako; Suehiro, Yoko; Hisano, Terumasa; Kurita, Ryo; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Mori, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Tsunetomi, Nobuto; Uchida, Akihiro; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2007-01-01

    Here, we report a case of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia. A 64-year-old man, who had been diagnosed as having a schizophrenic disorder at the age of 30, presented with alopecia, atrophic nail changes, hyperpigmentation of the skin, and inflammatory polyposis of the stomach and colon. Endoscopic ultrasonography of the stomach and colon revealed diffuse mucosal thickening with small hypoechoic areas, corresponding to edema of the lamina propria. After treatment with parenteral hyperalimentation and tranexamic acid, his physical findings and polyposis gradually improved. This is the first report of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia.

  4. [Immigration and labor: Australia and Canada compared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovetta, F; Quinlan, M

    1995-08-01

    "Australia and Canada share...a common colonial history and many similarities in geography, economy, demography, etc., as well as a substantial anti-non anglo-celtic immigrant tradition, in spite of their being immigration countries. Those similarities and differences are analyzed here, as far as labor migration and relationships between immigrant and local labor are concerned. The arrival of European labor first, Asian later, was perceived similarly by both Australia and Canada, combining racial prejudice and unions' hostility towards contract labor migration as well as towards assisted migration. The evolution of those difficult relations through the 19th and 20th centuries is analyzed here." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that the ...

  6. Managing Air Quality - Air Pollutant Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  7. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  8. Water pollution by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Brian

    2008-02-12

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification of the catchment as well as nutrient, particulate and biocide pollution. The European Water Framework Directive implicitly recognizes this in requiring restoration of water bodies to 'good ecological quality', which is defined as only slightly different from pristine state. The implications for the management of agriculture are far more profound than is currently widely realized.

  9. Environmental pollution and reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B.

    1987-05-01

    In the human a high percentage of conceptus dies during early pregnancy. Cytogenetical analyses of first trimester abortions found in 50-60% chromosomal anomalies. Epidemiological studies revealed occupational effects on reproduction. In view of these informations environmental pollution has to be considered as a potential reason for reproductive disorders. In animal experiments several substances like chemicals, metals, caffeine, nicotine, and drugs revealed to be embryotoxic during early pregnancy (preimplantation period), in combination even in a supra-additive fashion. The embryo, however, is not only a target of environmental hazards during early pregnancy but in all stages of gestation. This was taken into consideration by the 'MAK'-commission in publishing riskgroups for industrial chemicals which may damage embryonic or fetal development. Subdivision into pregnancy riskgroups is desirable for as many occupational chemicals and environmental pollutions as possible. Valid techniques for investigating embryo development are available, esp. during very early pregnancy.

  10. Conceptualising professionalism in occupational therapy through a Western lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordichuk, Chelsea J; Robinson, Allison J; Sullivan, Theresa M

    2015-06-01

    The term professionalism is embedded within curriculum and occupational therapy documents, yet, explicit discussion of the concept is lacking in the literature. This paper strives for a greater understanding of how professionalism is currently conceptualised within Western occupational therapy literature. A broad literature search was conducted and included international peer-reviewed and grey literature from Western cultures including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. To enrich understanding, some documents from medicine were also included. Professionalism is widely upheld as a core construct of occupational therapy. However, an evidence-based consensus of the specific elements of professionalism guiding occupational therapy practice is lacking. Currently, understanding of professionalism is largely based on multiple, isolated concepts presented in Western professional association documents. Acknowledging the multifaceted and multicultural nature of professionalism is essential to begin systematically delineating and conceptualising elements of professionalism specific to occupational therapy. This review has been conducted from a solely Western cultural lens. Additional work to highlight differences specific to international contexts, cultures, and societal influences is needed to enrich the understanding of professionalism in occupational therapy practice. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  12. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  13. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  14. All projects related to canada | Page 22 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    , VULNERABLE GROUPS, Climate change. Region: Malawi, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 566,860.00. Support for Communities affected by Mining in Canada and around the Globe. Project. Founded ...

  15. All projects related to Canada | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... an international platform committed to making governments more open, accountable, and responsive to citizens. Topic: INFORMATION DISSEMINATION, CANADA, Civil society, GOVERNMENT, PRIVATE SECTOR, INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. Region: Brazil, Nepal, Nigeria, Canada, United States, Netherlands.

  16. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  17. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work…

  18. The Image of Russia on the Western Screen: the Present Stage (1992–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article included the analysis of evolution Russian image representation on the Western (USA, UK, Germany, Canada, France, Italy screen – of the period of post-communist modern times (1992-2013: ideological and social trends, myths, stereotypes, illusions, classification of the contents’ models and modifications of genres. The main conclusion: the image of Russia in the majority of the Western fiction films of 1992–2013 is still treated as an image of something, “alien”, “different”, often hostile

  19. Conceptualizing food security or aboriginal people in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Elaine M

    2008-01-01

    Food insecurity is an urgent public health issue for Aboriginal people in Canada because of high rates of poverty; the effects of global climate change and environmental pollution on traditional food systems; and high rates of diet-related diseases. However, to date, public health has operated with conceptualizations of food security that were developed in non-Aboriginal contexts; they do not take full account of the traditional food practices of Aboriginal people or Aboriginal conceptualizations of food security. In this paper, I argue that there are unique food security considerations for Aboriginal people related to the harvesting, sharing and consumption of country or traditional foods, which impact the four pillars of food security: access, availability, supply and utilization. Thus food security conceptualizations, policies, and programs for Aboriginal people must consider both the market food system and traditional food system. Given the centrality of traditional food practices to cultural health and survival, I propose that cultural food security is an additional level of food security beyond individual, household and community levels. Conceptualizations of food security for Aboriginal people will be incomplete without qualitative research to understand Aboriginal perspectives; such research must take account of the diversity of Aboriginal people.

  20. Are Parents More Likely to Be Unemployed? A Study of Nine Western Democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Stjärnfäldt, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The relation between parenthood and market work is an established field of study in demography. This thesis specifically focuses on the relation between parenthood and unemployment, the involuntary absence of work, in a cross sectional study of nine western democracies. The studied countries are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A significant relation between motherhood and unemployment where found in Germany, Poland, the United ...

  1. Adapting to Climate Change: Social-Ecological Resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic Community

    OpenAIRE

    Fikret Berkes; Dyanna Jolly

    2002-01-01

    Human adaptation remains an insufficiently studied part of the subject of climate change. This paper examines the questions of adaptation and change in terms of social-ecological resilience using lessons from a place-specific case study. The Inuvialuit people of the small community of Sachs Harbour in Canada's western Arctic have been tracking climate change throughout the 1990s. We analyze the adaptive capacity of this community to deal with climate change. Short-term responses to changes in...

  2. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor - Canada Survey | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They will also allow detailed comparisons with developing countries. This comparative analysis will support dialogue on the following issues: -ways to improve entrepreneurship; -the private sector's role in fostering entrepreneurship; and, -how greater entrepreneurship can contribute to economic development in Canada ...

  3. French Immersion in Canada: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safty, Adel

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the theoretical foundations of French immersion programs in Canada, which are based on early exposure, creation of a natural imitative environment, cross-language interference and support, contextualized learning, and a communicative approach. Describes the practical applications of the theories, immersion program teachers and their roles,…

  4. STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoito, Isha

    2016-01-01

    Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…

  5. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  6. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  7. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties…

  8. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  9. Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Liccioli, Stefano; Verocai, Guilherme G.; Gesy, Karen M.; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Fuentealba, Carmen; Duignan, Padraig J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids. PMID:23017505

  10. Culture and Community in Canada's Isolated Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina

    This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…

  11. extérieur du canada

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX, FISCAUX ET BANCAIRES DU FOURNISSEUR –. EXTÉRIEUR DU CANADA. Veuillez lire attentivement les instructions figurant aux pages 2 et 3 avant de remplir le présent formulaire. Nouveau. Modification. Section 1 : RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX. Nom du particulier (nom, prénom) ...

  12. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  13. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  14. Alcohol use among immigrants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agic, Branka; Mann, Robert E; Tuck, Andrew; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Bondy, Susan; Simich, Laura; Ilie, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    This study examined prevalence of alcohol consumption among immigrants and the Canadian-born populations of Ontario by ethnic origin, and the association between ethnicity, country of birth, age at arrival, length of residence in Canada and drinking measures. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a cross-sectional survey of Ontario adults, conducted between January 2005 and December 2010 (n = 13,557). The prevalence of alcohol consumption and risk drinking was generally lower among foreign-born than Canadian-born respondents, but significant variations across ethnic groups were found. In general, foreign-born respondents of European descent reported higher rates of alcohol use and risk drinking than foreign-born respondents from other ethnic groups. We also observed that ethnicity effects varied by whether or not respondents were born in Canada, and by the age at which they arrived in Canada. While previous studies generally found an increase in immigrants' alcohol consumption with years in Canada, our data suggest that longer duration of residence may have either positive or negative effects on immigrants' alcohol use, depending on the country of origin/traditional drinking pattern. More research is needed to explore determinants of alcohol use and risk drinking among immigrants and to identify those groups at highest risk. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Evolving Perspectives on Lyme Borreliosis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, JLH; Middelveen, MJ; Klein, D; Sperling, FAH

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23091570

  16. Education of advanced practice nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Misener, Ruth; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Harbman, Patricia; Donald, Faith; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Carter, Nancy; Kilpatrick, Kelley; DiCenso, Alba

    2010-12-01

    In Canada, education programs for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) roles began 40 years ago. NP programs are offered in almost all provinces. Education for the CNS role has occurred through graduate nursing programs generically defined as providing preparation for advanced nursing practice. For this paper, we drew on pertinent sections of a scoping review of the literature and key informant interviews conducted for a decision support synthesis on advanced practice nursing to describe the following: (1) history of advanced practice nursing education in Canada, (2) current status of advanced practice nursing education in Canada, (3) curriculum issues, (4) interprofessional education, (5) resources for education and (6) continuing education. Although national frameworks defining advanced nursing practice and NP competencies provide some direction for education programs, Canada does not have countrywide standards of education for either the NP or CNS role. Inconsistency in the educational requirements for primary healthcare NPs continues to cause significant problems and interferes with inter-jurisdictional licensing portability. For both CNSs and NPs, there can be a mismatch between a generalized education and specialized practice. The value of interprofessional education in facilitating effective teamwork is emphasized. Recommendations for future directions for advanced practice nursing education are offered.

  17. Multiphase flow of the late Wisconsinan Cordilleran ice sheet in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    In central British Columbia, ice flow during the late Wisconsinan Fraser glaciation (ca. 25-10 ka) occurred in three phases. The ice expansion phase occurred during an extended period when glaciers flowed westward to the Pacific Ocean and east-southeastward onto the Nechako Plateau from ice centers in the Skeena, Hazelton, Coast, and Omineca Mountains. Initially, glacier flow was confined by topography along major valleys, but eventually piedmont and montane glaciers coalesced to form an integrated glacier system, the Cordilleran ice sheet. In the maximum phase, a Cordilleran ice divide developed over the Nechako Plateau to 300 km inland from the Pacific coast. At this time, the surface of the ice sheet extended well above 2500 m above sea level, and flowed westward over the Skeena, Hazelton, and Coast Mountains onto the continental shelf, and eastward across the Rocky Mountains into Alberta. In the late glacial phase, a rapid rise of the equilibrium line caused ice lobes to stagnate in valleys, and restricted accumulation centers to high mountains. Discordant directions in ice flow are attributed to fluctuations of the ice divide representing changes in the location of accumulation centers and ice thickness. Ice centers probably shifted in response to climate, irregular growth in the ice sheet, rapid calving, ice streaming, and drainage of proglacial and subglacial water bodies. Crosscutting ice-flow indicators and preservation of early (valley parallel) flow features in areas exposed to later (cross-valley) glacier erosion indicate that the ice expansion phase was the most erosive and protracted event.

  18. Necrotizing hepatitis associated with Clostridium novyi in a pony in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Jennifer L.; Uzal, Francesco A.; Whitehead, Ashley E.

    2017-01-01

    Severe icterus, peritoneal effusion, localized fibrinous peritonitis, and necrotizing hepatitis were found at necropsy of a 20-year-old female pony with a history of acute onset depression, inappetence, fever, and marked elevation in hepatic enzymes. Gross pathology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were compatible with a diagnosis of clostridial hepatitis caused by Clostridium novyi-group bacteria. This is believed to be the first reported case of clostridial hepatitis in an equid in...

  19. Root Throw and Sediment Transport in the Rocky Mountains of Western Canada: Field and Modelling Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, J.; Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    Sediment transport associated with root throw was investigated in Kootenay National Park in southeastern British Columbia. Tree toppling and root throw may result in sediment transport, as soil associated with the root wad is upheaved in the form of a root plate, which eventually disintegrates and deposits on the ground forming a mound. Although root throw is a widely recognized process, its role as an agent of sediment transport has not been widely considered. This study provides critical field data documenting the role of episodic root throw on sediment transport at a local scale (order of magnitude approximately 1 m). We then use these data in conjunction with a forest population dynamics model to consider the contribution of root throw to larger-scale sediment routing and its temporal dynamics. A detailed field measurement program documented characteristics associated with root throw in burned and pre- fire scenarios (e.g., root plate dimensions, direction of tree fall, root wad disintegration). Sediment transport rates due to root throw are relatively low; approximately two orders-of-magnitude lower than typical creep rates defined in the literature. However, in a landscape where larger mass movements are relatively uncommon, this small transport plays a role in sediment transfers, and contributes to soil mixing and formation of microtopography. In the post-fire scenario, an increase in root throw occurred as fire-killed trees toppled in the first years following the fire. The removal of vegetation also exposed root plates to erosion, and disintegration rates increased. A tree population model is developed to simulate tree recruitment, growth, mortality, and toppling rates over time scales greater than 1000 years. In the model, fire events occur as a stochastic disturbance which kills all trees, and recruits new trees. Thus, the model cycles through forest generations with lifespan determined by fire events. The number of trees at any time interval is the net result of recruits minus the proportion that die within the time interval by either wildfire or other ecological causes e.g., competition. Tree dbh is based on tree age and age- related growth rate, with a minimum dbh required before a tree will uproot significant amounts of sediment. Root plate volume, width, height are based on dbh and calibrated using the field data. Some literature suggests that dead trees uproot significantly less sediment than live trees when they fall over, and this option can be incorporated in the model. Subsequent disintegration rates of root plates are calibrated using the field data to derive transport rates in the model. The temporal sequencing of sediment transport rates due to tree topple over millennial time scales is influenced by the tree population dynamics and the associated fire return intervals. Results of the simulations show that peaks in sediment transport occur at approximately one half and one forth of the average fire interval. The sediment transport becomes more continuous and less pulsed as the fire interval increases. Both of these effects are a result of the interaction of tree topple with fire and competition and old age.

  20. Unconventional Oil Reserves Development in the Viking Play (Western Canada Using Horizontal Wells and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Baishev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil production from the Viking play in Saskatchewan province started in the 1950s and continues since that time. Horizontal drilling and multistage fracturing have caused resurgence in development of this play. Based on the production data from several fields, the comparative results of the Viking play development using vertical and horizontal wells are presented. Horizontal wells drilling made it possible to increase oil production in those formation zones that were previously considered predominantly gas-saturated, as well as in the zones affected by water injection using vertical wells in order to maintain reservoir pressure. Infill drilling combined with longer lateral completion length also positively affected the development of oil reserves from the Viking play.

  1. Geochemistry and diagenetic history of the Ordovician Lower Head Formation sandstones, western Newfoundland, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azmy, Karem; Conliffe, James; Blamey, Nigel J.F

    2016-01-01

    ...) comprises siltstones with very fine grained to fine-grained sandstones. Petrography confirms that these sandstones are matrix rich, essentially wackes, with detrital minerals including quartz, feldspar, biotite, and numerous accessory minerals...

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence and Correlates in Women and Men Attending STI Clinics in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Plitt, Sabrina; Turnbull, LeeAnn; Smyczek, Petra; Brandley, Judith; Scarrott, Ron; Naidu, Prenilla; Bertholet, Lindsay; Chernesky, Max; Read, Ron; Singh, Ameeta E

    2017-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence (2.8%) in female sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees was within the prevalence of chlamydia (5.8%) and gonorrhea (1.8%), while being very low for male attendees (0.2%). Correlates among women were indigenous ethnicity, other ethnicity, and being symptomatic.

  3. Assisted migration to address climate change: recommendations for aspen reforestation in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura K; Gylander, Tim; Mbogga, Michael S; Chen, Pei-Yu; Hamann, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Human-aided movement of species populations in large-scale reforestation programs could be a potent and cost-effective climate change adaptation strategy. Such large-scale management interventions, however, tend to entail the risks of unintended consequences, and we propose that three conditions should be met before implementing assisted migration in reforestation programs: (1) evidence of a climate-related adaptational lag, (2) observed biological impacts, and (3) robust model projections to target assisted migration efforts. In a case study of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux.) we use reciprocal transplant experiments to study adaptation of tree populations to local environments. Second, we monitor natural aspen populations using the MODIS enhanced vegetation index as a proxy for forest health and productivity. Last, we report results from bioclimate envelope models that predict suitable habitat for locally adapted genotypes under observed and predicted climate change. The combined results support assisted migration prescriptions and indicate that the risk of inaction likely exceeds the risk associated with changing established management practices. However, uncertainty in model projections also implies that we are restricted to a relatively short 20-year planning horizon for prescribing seed movement in reforestation programs. We believe that this study exemplifies a safe and realistic climate change adaptation strategy based on multiple sources of information and some understanding of the uncertainty associated with recommendations for assisted migration. Ad hoc migration prescriptions without a similar level of supporting information should be avoided in reforestation programs.

  4. Mixtures of modern and historical wheat cultivars under organic management in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pridham, Jackie; Entz, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Two historic (Red Fife and Marquis) and two modern (5602HR; AC Barrie) wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars were assessed to determine if cultivar mixtures provided a benefit to grain yield and disease and weed suppression in Manitoba over 3 site-years. 5602HR was the highest yielding sole cultivar while Marquis and AC Barrie were the lowest yielding sole cultivars. Red Fife yielded similar to 5602HR in several cases. Orthogonal contrasts across all site-years showed that 3 and 4 cultivar mix...

  5. The Response of Alpine Glaciers in Western Canada to Early 21st Century Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menounos, B.; Beedle, M. J.; Lueders, S.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1998, the rate of global warming has slowed but the degree to which this slowdown has affected alpine glaciers in North America remains uncertain. Here we describe glacier fluctuations in the continental mountain ranges of British Columbia, Alberta, Yukon and the Northwest Territories for the period 1985-2013. Our manual digitization of over 3,000 glaciers mapped from 12 Landsat scenes builds upon a glacier inventory for the period 1985-2005 that utilized aerial photography and satellite imagery (Landsat) for the mountain ranges of British Columbia and Alberta. Landsat imagery allowed us to extend the spatial distribution of this inventory to include most alpine glaciers that straddle the Yukon and Northwest Territory border (Nahanni region) for the years 1985 and 2004. We also digitized glaciers from pan-sharpened Landsat 8 imagery for the year 2013. Glacier recession rates differ among regions between the early [1985-2005] and recent [2005-2013] periods. Recession rates during the recent period, for example, slowed by 43% and 15% for the Nahanni and Columbia Basin regions respectively. When compared to the early period, recent recession rates accelerated by 17% and 121% for glaciers in the Southern and Northern Rocky Mountains. Some of this regional variability is attributed to climate anomalies in the study area based on our analysis of instrumental (CRU 3.21) and reanalysis (ERA Interim) data, but the doubling of the recessional rate for the Northern Rocky Mountains is anomalous. Non-climatic factors that could explain this anomalous rapid retreat of Northern Rocky Mountain glaciers includes low minimum elevation of these glaciers, debris cover and shadowed terrain in the Landsat imagery.

  6. Vegetation development on reclaimed lands in the Coal Valley Mine of Western Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, W.L. [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2000-01-01

    Revegetated lands within the Coal Valley Mine were sampled for species composition, woody plant frequencies, and tree heights. The vegetation on 68 sampled sites was dominated by a mixture of Festuca rubra L. and Trifolium repens L. Four distinctive plant communities were present. A Lodgepole pine/Willow/Lindley's aster community represented the most advanced stage of forest development, having a multilayered structure and composed primarily of indigenous species, although only 19 years old. Deciduous shrubs and trees ({lt} 50 cm tall) occurred on 43% of the sites. Salicaceae were the primary species. Total plant cover averaged {gt} 85% in all community types with plant litter covering {gt} 75% of the ground surface. There were 123 plant species found growing on the mine with 77% indigenous species, although they represented {lt} 5% of the total vegetation cover. The height of planted Pinus contorta Loudon and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss were modelled over a 24-year period. Both species had reduced height growth and significant attrition for several years after planting. On average, however, surviving trees had 8- and 14-year heights similar to local provincial reforestation standards. It is hypothesized that tree canopy closure is a key factor in facilitating the naturalization of forest understorey vegetation on reclaimed lands.

  7. Beluga whale summer habitat associations in the Nelson River estuary, western Hudson Bay, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Smith

    Full Text Available To understand beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas estuarine use in the Nelson River estuary, southwest Hudson Bay, we recorded and examined beluga movements and habitat associations for the July through August period in 2002-2005. We compared locations of belugas fitted with satellite transmitters ("tags" (2002-2005 and aerial-surveyed (2003 and 2005 belugas for years of differing freshwater flow from the Nelson River which is influenced by hydroelectric activity. Using the beluga telemetry location data, we estimated an early August behavioral shift in beluga distribution patterns from local estuarine use to a progressively more migratory behavior away from the estuary. The timing of this shift in behavior was also apparent in results of beluga aerial surveys from the 1940s-1960s, despite environmental changes including later freeze-up and warming ocean temperatures. Overall, during the higher than average discharge ("wet" year of 2005, the three tagged belugas ranged farther from the Nelson River but not farther from the nearest shore along southwestern Hudson Bay, compared to the 10 tagged belugas tracked during the "dry" years of 2002-2004 with below average discharges. Aerial survey data for 2003 and 2005 display a similar dry vs. wet year shift in spatial patterns, with no significant change in overall density of belugas within the study area. In the Nelson estuary, proximity to the fresh-salt water mixing area may be more important than the shallow waters of the upper estuary. Killer whales (Orcinus orca were observed in the Churchill area (200 km northwest during each year of study, 2002-05, and belugas may benefit from the proximity to shallow estuary waters that provide protection from the larger-bodied predator. Study results contribute to an understanding of the influence of environmental variation on how and why belugas use estuaries although considerable uncertainties exist and additional research is required.

  8. Implementation of a unique RRT model in a tertiary care centre in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Teddie; Bartel, Reagan

    2017-05-01

    In early 2010, the Royal Alexandra Hospital (RAH) was the only tertiary hospital in Edmonton, Alberta, without a rapid response team (RRT). Once funding was obtained, the RAH RRT was developed with the mission of "Helping you make it happen" with the underlying philosophy that any call is a good call and the team is there to support care on the wards. The RAH RRT is unique, as it uses a registered nurse/respiratory therapist model rather than the physician model used by most tertiary centres. The RAH RRT provides consistent and efficient response to deteriorating patients and visitors to the hospital. The RRT does not replace the attending team, rather the team supports them to provide improved patient care and to escalate care if required. Other major centres in Alberta have heard about the success of the RAH model and are moving toward a similar model.

  9. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  10. 77 FR 39624 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Turboprop Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... holidays. Fax: 202-493-2251. For service information identified in this AD, contact Pratt & Whitney Canada...-238-7176; fax: 781-238-7199. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion Transport Canada, which is the... information referenced above. We are issuing this AD because we evaluated all information provided by Canada...

  11. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  12. Tropospheric ozone surface depletion (spring) and pollution (summer) in 2008 from the ARCTAS Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARC-IONS) soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. M.; Luzik, A. M.; Doughty, D. C.; Gallagher, S. D.; Miller, S. K.; Oltmans, S. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Witte, J. C.; Bryan, A. M.; Walker, T.; Osterman, G. B.; Worden, J.

    2008-12-01

    During NASA's ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere with Aircraft and Satellites; http://espo.nasa.gov/arctas) spring and summer 2008 campaigns, an ozonesonde network, ARC- IONS (ARCTAS Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study), launched ozonesonde-radiosonde packages each day (1-20 April, 26 June-12 July) during the A-Train satellite constellation overpass, ~1300 local. Seventeen ARC-IONS stations were located across the northern tier of North America, over both Alaska and Canada, with one site in Greenland and two in the western US; map at (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/arcions). In addition to satellite validation, the soundings provided a coherent, well-distributed set of ozone profiles for: (1) comparison with and interpretation of airborne measurements; (2) complementarity to ARCTAS and IPY (International Polar Year) ground bases at Greenland, Barrow, Eureka, Yellowknife; (3) model evaluation; (4) investigations of processes affecting day-to-day ozone variability. Two aspects of tropospheric ozone variability are described here. First, ozone depletion likely associated with rapid halogen reactions, is prominent in spring at Barrow (71N, 157W) and Resolute (75N, 95W). Second, during summer, relationships among long-range transport of Asian pollution (industrial and fires), California and Canadian fires and daily ozone budgets are established with trajectories, satellite smoke/fire data and laminar identification, the latter method developed in Thompson et al. (2007) and Yorks et al. (2008). Canadian maritime stations display eastern seaboard pollution and stratospheric influences as in IONS-04 (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study).

  13. Delusions of power : vanity, folly and the uncertain future of Canada`s hydro giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skene, W.

    1997-12-31

    The current state of Canada`s power supply industry was reviewed. The author explained how Canada`s biggest electrical empires (Ontario Hydro, B.C. Hydro and Hydro-Quebec) were forged and how they have influenced not only Canada`s economic development but also how Canadians live their daily lives. He investigates how political and corporate decisions being made today will influence our future ability to have access to a reliable supply of low-cost electricity. The environmental and social costs of alternative power generation were also examined. He outlines the past behaviour of publicly owned utilities which was characterized by overspending and excessive generating capacity. These practices invited the current round of restructuring, deregulation, demonopolization and privatization. He feels that these forces are threatening to break up Canada`s publicly owned and regulated electric power system. Arguments for and against dismantling, selling off, or reorganizing the public utilities were dissected in an attempt to find answers as to how we got ourselves into the current mess. This unprecedented drive for restructuring may turn out to be an event more profound in terms of its implications for our future than the eighteenth century transition from agricultural society to an industrial society. The overall conclusion was that large public utilities, especially those relying on nuclear and fossil-fuel generation, will have to make way for renewable sources. It was predicted that new technologies will be developed that will inevitably lead to the dismantling of the large utilities over time. If we are wise enough to learn from our mistakes, publicly-owned and regulated utilities will continue to be allowed to co-exist with new entrants to provide the reliability and quality of service that competition and new competitive entrants into the field cannot provide. 112 refs.

  14. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  15. Curbing pollution in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1991-03-01

    Existing policies to control pollution are inadequate especially those in developing countries. National economic policies do not consider environmental effects. For example, some governments subsidize fossil fuels, water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Those governments in the process of restructuring pollution control policies must seek ways to reduce their conceivable side effects on economic growth, revenue raising, and equity. They need to consider key administrative, technological, and institutional drawbacks and depend on numerous fiscal means to complement more traditional pollution control mechanism. They must intervene to prevent or reduce pollution since markets do not consider the interests of those affected by pollution. They can do so by imposing regulations on polluters, taxing emissions, limiting the amount of pollution, subsidizing cleaner options, and/or assigning and enforcing property rights. Pollution and environmental quality standards im most developing countries parallel those in the US and in Europe, but these standards are not effective because monitoring, enforcement, and regulatory capacities are inclined to be weak. In the early phases of pollution control, governments should tax fixed inputs (e.g., fuels) based on the level of expected emissions. These taxes would advance public budgets. For transnational pollution problems, affected nations should negotiate together and consider international transfers to support environmental solutions. When developing policy, governments must consider the competitive behavior of the marketplace and how people and companies will react to policy tools. These prudent considerations will define the likelihood of reducing costs and strengthen the efficiency of intervention thus determining the ability to afford environmental protection.

  16. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  17. Recruitment process of a Chinese immigrant study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this article were to provide a comprehensive overview of the recruitment experience and participant characteristics in an antihypertensive dietary educational intervention pilot trial among Chinese Canadians. The recruitment was conducted in a community centre. Two recruitment approaches, self-referral and proactive recruitment, were used. Among 618 Chinese Canadians in the blood pressure screening, 105 (17.0%) individuals were eligible to participate in this trial. Of the 105 eligible individuals, 45 (42.9%) declined enrollment and 60 (57.1%) consented to participate in the trial and were recruited. The most common reason for refusal was being unable to access to the education location (n=19, 42.2%) followed by being too busy to participate (n=18, 40.0%). All participants were Chinese immigrants and the mean number of years living in Canada was 9.2. Most participants had low English proficiency, accepted Chinese culture more than Western culture, and had strong traditional health beliefs. It is concluded that both self-referral and proactive recruitment approaches were effective. Home-based interventions using Internet and telephone should be used as alternative delivery approaches to improve recruitment rate and facilitate participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental pollution and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giampaolo, L; Quecchia, C; Schiavone, C; Cavallucci, E; Renzetti, A; Braga, M; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical evidences and epidemiological studies show that allergic pathologies of the respiratory tract are increasing in the world areas with high pollution impact, demonstrating how many polluting substances favor both allergic sensitization and the bronchial inflammatory changes characteristic of asthma. It has been shown that asthma, as many other diseases, is a complex interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental stimuli that results in clinical expression of various phenotypes of asthma: allergic, intrinsic etc. Many pollutants have such a potential. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can favor allergic sensitization, induce acute asthma attacks and increase bronchial reactivity, acting both on allergen, on bronchial mucosa and on immune cells. In fact, DEP can favor B lymphocytes to shift to a production of IgE and T cells to produce Th2 cytokines. Asthma can be also induced by high exposure to many other substances as NO2 and first of all ozone (O3): strong oxidizing substance that is synthesized, in absence of ventilation, by photochemical reaction due to the combination of ultraviolet sun radiation on exhaust gases as NO2 and hydrocarbons. Ozone is abundant in cities with minimal concentration in the morning gradually increasing during the day until maximal levels in the afternoon and then decreasing during the night. Epidemiological studies show that the number of access to hospital for acute asthma and even the use of bronchodilator by asthmatics increase during the high level periods when Ozone constitute almost 90 percent of the total oxidants in the environment. Particulate matter of very small diameter have a crucial role in favoring asthma attacks, and smaller the substance deeper the penetration in the bronchial tree, with an inflammatory reaction in the peripheral bronchial mucosa characterized by increased vessel permeability, mucosal edema, inflammatory mediator production by damaged epithelium and inflammatory cells that determines

  19. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  20. Role of atmospheric circulations in haze pollution in December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2017-09-01

    In the east of China, recent haze pollution has been severe and damaging. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric circulations and local meteorological conditions were conducive factors. The number of December haze days over North China and the Huanghuai area has increased sharply since 2010 and was greatest in 2016. During 2016, the most aggressive control measures for anthropogenic emissions were implemented from 16 to 21 December, but the most severe haze pollution still occurred, covering approximately 25 % of the land area of China and lasting for 6 days. The atmospheric circulations must play critical roles in the sub-seasonal haze events. Actually, the positive phase of the East Atlantic-West Russia pattern in the middle troposphere strengthened the anomalous anti-cyclone over the NH area that confined vertical motion below. The associated southerly anomalies made the cold air and surface wind speed weaker, but enhanced the humid flow. Thus, the horizontal and vertical dispersion of atmospheric particulates was suppressed and the pollutants gathered within a narrow space. In December 2016, these key indices were strongly beneficial for haze occurrence and combined to result in the severest haze pollution. The influences of the preceding autumn sea surface temperature near the Gulf of Alaska and the subtropical eastern Pacific, October-November snow cover in western Siberia, and associated physical processes on haze pollution are also discussed.

  1. Towards sustainable pollution management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, N. G. W.

    2017-03-01

    It is often overlooked pollution control itself may not be entirely free from adverse impact on the environment if considered from a more holistic perspective. For example mechanised wastewater treatment is energy intensive and so has a carbon footprint because of the need to move air to supply oxygen to the aerobic treatment process. The aerobic treatment process then results in excess bio-sludge which requires disposal and if such is not appropriately performed, then there is risk of surface and groundwater contamination. This presentation explores the changes which have been investigated and are beginning to be implemented in wastewater, sludge, and agro-industrial wastes management which are more environmentally benign. Three examples shall be used to illustrate the discussion. The first example uses the conventional sewage treatment system with a unit process arrangement which converts carbonaceous pollutants from soluble and colloidal forms to particulate forms with an aerobic process before attempting energy recovery with an anaerobic process. Such an arrangement does, however, result in a negative energy balance. This is not withstanding the fact there is potentially more energy in sewage than is required to treat it if that energy can be effectively harvested. The latter can be achieved by removing the carbonaceous pollutants before the aerobic process and thereby using the aerobic process for polishing instead of treating. The carbonaceous pollutants so recovered then becomes the feed for the anaerobic process. Unfortunately conventional anaerobic sludge digestion only removes 35-45% of the organic material fed. Since biogas production (and hence energy recovery) is linked to the amount of organic material which can be degraded anaerobically, the effectiveness of the anaerobic digestion process needs to be improved. Contrary to a commonly held belief wherein methanogenesis is the “bottleneck” in anaerobic processes, hydrolysis is in sludge digestion

  2. 'Race' and HIV vulnerability in a transnational context: the case of Chinese immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel

    2017-06-01

    Although immigrants' sustained connections with their homelands are well documented, so far we know little about how 'race' - in particular, conceptions of race back home - influences the HIV vulnerability of racialised immigrants to Western countries. Drawing on data from a multi-sited, qualitative study of Chinese immigrants to Canada, this paper presents a contextualised understanding of the impacts of race on HIV risk faced by these individuals in a transnational context. Data were collected from four study sites in Canada and China as part of a study investigating the relationship between HIV risk and transnationalism. Although race appears to have bearing on their risk perceptions and sexual practices, immigrants' understandings of race are not necessarily consistent with dominant discourses of race in Canada, but are also mediated by their racial habitus developed in China. Findings reveal the complex power dynamics - not just power asymmetries but also power fluidity - around race from a transnational perspective and thus challenge the assumed dichotomy of dominance and subordination underpinning traditional explanations of the relationship between race and HIV risk. In the context of transnationalism, researchers should go beyond a nation-bound concept of society (i.e. the host society) and take into account the simultaneous influence of both host and home countries on immigrant health.

  3. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  4. Introduced and Native Haplotypes of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wildlife in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesy, Karen M; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    Recent detection of a European-type haplotype of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in a newly enzootic region in British Columbia prompted efforts to determine if this haplotype was present elsewhere in wildlife in western Canada. In coyote (Canis latrans) definitive hosts in an urban region in central Saskatchewan (SK), we found a single haplotype of E. multilocularis that was most similar to a haplotype currently established in the core of this parasite's distribution in Europe and to the European-type haplotype found in coyotes and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris) in British Columbia. We found six haplotypes of E. multilocularis from deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) intermediate hosts in southwestern SK that were closely related to, and one haplotype indistinguishable from, a haplotype previously reported in the adjacent north-central US. This is a higher level of diversity than has previously been recognized for this parasite, which suggests that the population native to central North America is well established, rather than a recent introduction from the Arctic. These findings, in combination with recent cases of alveolar hydatid cysts in dogs in Canada, raise concerns that European haplotypes of E. multilocularis may be increasing in distribution within wildlife in Canada. European haplotypes may pose greater risks to veterinary and human health than native haplotypes long established in central North America.

  5. Archeomagnetism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data

  6. The Effect of Soil Radioactivity in Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hosseini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the sources of natural occurring radiation was soils. The purpose of article was to determine soil pollution by radiation absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, annual gonad dose equivalent and annual effective dose equivalent. Methods & Materials: The soil samples was located in Chahbahar city in Blouchestan of Iran, was chosen for studying of radioactivity. It was collected from twenty five points, each one in three separate places with 100 meter distance (twelve in western and thirteen in eastern sites in the region. Then, each three soil samples were mixed and dried as one sample. The radioactivity concentration was measured in soil samples by gamma spectrometer. Results: The natural radioactivity doses of soil in studied samples resulted in average absorbed dose rate, 42.92 ±4.03 nGy h-1; radium equivalent activity, 86.79±8.26 Raeq per Bqkg- the external hazard index, 1:8231.86±327.76; the annual gonad dose equivalent, 322.9±31.6 μSvh-1; and the annual effective dose equivalent 193.15μSvh-1.The results of study were compared with the international recommended values and radioactivity measurements in soils of different countries. Conclusion: The contribution of natural radioactivity in pollution of area in comparison to ICRP was low.

  7. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 6, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. ... Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete Worms from the Mzinga Creek and Ras Dege Mangrove Ecosystems, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. The potential role of hydrogen energy in India and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; Lakshmikanth, H.D.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599

    2008-01-01

    We used the TIMER energy model to explore the potential role of hydrogen in the energy systems of India and Western Europe, looking at the impacts on its main incentives: climate policy, energy security and urban air pollution. We found that hydrogen will not play a major role in both regions

  9. International aspects of pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, F. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)); De Zeeuw, A.J. (Tilburg Univ. (Netherlands))

    1992-01-01

    Pollution is a by-product of production, is only gradually dissolved by the environment, and crosses national borders. The market outcome ignores the adverse effects of pollution and thus yields higher levels of output and pollution than would prevail under a supranational social planner which does care about pollution. In practice, governments often do not cooperate and this leads to outcomes of pollution and production in between the market outcomes under supra-national social planning. Absence of precommitment leads to lower emission charges, less cleaning-up activities and more pollution. Appropriate levels of emission charges under the various outcomes are a result of this analysis. Attention is also paid to investment in clean technology. The debate between optimists, who believe that higher production is compatible with sound environmental policy, and pessimists can be analyzed in this way. 5 figs., 1 app., 27 refs.

  10. The trading game : emissions trading schemes offer pollution as a market commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, D.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the market mechanisms for emissions trading. The concept emerged in signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol in response to their commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions trading systems allow large polluters to buy and sell pollution credits in order to meet emission reduction targets. While member states in the European Union (EU) started trading in February 2005, Canada is still developing its own proposal that will be introduced in 2008 to correspond with the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol. In contrast to the European model that places absolute limits on GHG emissions, the Canadian system is intensity-based. Heavy polluters, known as large final emitters, will have to cut emissions of the 6 GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol as a percentage of their total industrial output. Companies that reduce their emissions more than their defined targets can trade the surplus as credits on the open domestic market. It was argued that this allows businesses to meet their own emissions targets while failing to contribute effectively to Canada's overall Kyoto target. In addition, in order to lessen the burden to industry, Canada has imposed a $15 cap on the price of credits, which is in contrast to the European system. It was argued that businesses in Europe will be more motivated to meet their targets because of the higher value on European pollution credits. With less onus on business in Canada to reduce absolute targets, the burden of reducing GHG emissions has shifted to federal taxpayers. The paper addressed some of the factors that led to Canada's decision to use an intensity-based system. One main factor was the refusal of the United States to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and the cost disadvantage this would create for Canadian firms. However, some argue that by paying more attention to energy use, companies can reduce emissions and increase shareholder value by achieving cost savings that are greater than the

  11. Foreign and Domestic Contributions to Springtime Ozone Pollution over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Yan, Y.; Lin, W.; Chen, H.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant that damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China' ozone pollution. Here, we use the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations to quantify the springtime contributions of ozone transported to China from regions with large anthropogenic emissions. Model simulations have been validated by comparisons with ground-based measurements, aircraft, ozonesonde, and satellite observations, leading confidence to model's ability of simulating ozone over China. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone air quality. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign emissions contribute 40% near the surface and increases with altitude, and the contribution reaches up to 70% in the upper troposphere. Ozone pollution from North America and Europe mainly accompany strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities that are favorable to the long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 1 4 ppb over Western and Northern China. Despite much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is greater than European contribution due to the nearly tripled anthropogenic VOC emissions. Ozone transported from South and Southeast Asia has a significant impact on Southern China, and contributes more efficiently in the upper troposphere due to strong upwelling. Anthropogenic emissions of Japan and South Korea enhance ozone over China's east coastal regions by 2 4 ppb. Overall, China's domestic ozone pollution is affected significantly by foreign anthropogenic emissions, which is in part because although China emits large amounts of ozone precursors, its substantial NOx emissions suppress

  12. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and ΡΜ10, respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM10 and PM2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO2, NOx and SO2) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM10 and PM2.5, for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Changing air mass frequencies in Canada: potential links and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, J K; Cakmak, S

    2014-03-01

    Many individual variables have been studied to understand climate change, yet an overall weather situation involves the consideration of many meteorological variables simultaneously at various times diurnally, seasonally, and yearly. The current study identifies a full weather situation as an air mass type using synoptic scale classification, in 30 population centres throughout Canada. Investigative analysis of long-term air mass frequency trends was completed, drawing comparisons between seasons and climate zones. We find that the changing air mass trends are highly dependent on the season and climate zone being studied, with an overall increase of moderate ('warm') air masses and decrease of polar ('cold') air masses. In the summertime, general increased moisture content is present throughout Canada, consistent with the warming air masses. The moist tropical air mass, containing the most hot and humid air, is found to increase in a statistically significant fashion in the summertime in 46% of the areas studied, which encompass six of Canada's ten largest population centres. This emphasises the need for heat adaptation and acclimatisation for a large proportion of the Canadian population. In addition, strong and significant decreases of transition/frontal passage days were found throughout Canada. This result is one of the most remarkable transition frequency results published to date due to its consistency in identifying declining trends, coinciding with research completed in the United States (US). We discuss relative results and implications to similar US air mass trend analyses, and draw upon research studies involving large-scale upper-level air flow and vortex connections to air mass changes, to small-scale meteorological and air pollution interactions. Further research is warranted to better understand such connections, and how these air masses relate to the overall and city-specific health of Canadians.

  14. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; Teran, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  15. Effects of pesticides on Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes published and unpublished sources relating to exposure of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to pesticides, emphasizing documented episodes of poisoning by organochlorine (OC), organophosphorus (OP), and carbamate compounds. Canada geese accumulate the lipid-soluble OC compounds, although they have a lower potential for biomagnification of these pesticides than animals at higher trophic levels in food webs. Low residues of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE were frequently found in tissues and eggs of Canada geese, but they had no apparent adverse effects on reproductive success or eggshell thickness. Likewise, in an orchard system in central Washington state, the OC rodenticide endrin accumulated in tissues and eggs of Canada geese without apparent adverse effect. In contrast, ingestion of seeds treated with the OC heptachlor caused mortality, lowered reproductive success, and caused a local population decline of geese in Oregon and Washington. In recent years, the most persistent OC's have been banned by law and replaced with less persistent carbamate and OP compounds that do not readily accumulate in animal tissues. However, many of these compounds are acutely toxic and have caused numerous die-offs of Canada geese. Among OP compounds, diazinon was responsible for most reported die-offs (41 incidents involving >535 geese), whereas parathion applied alone or jointly with methyl parathion accounted for most reported mortalities (8 incidents involving >3,000 geese). Three other OP's, a carbamate (carbofuran), zinc phosphide, and strychnine also caused goose die-offs. Mortality from anticholinesterase (antiChE) compounds occurs relatively soon after exposure and death can usually be diagnosed by evaluation of brain cholinesterase (thE) activity. Because geese are primarily grazers, the main route of exposure to antiChE's is apparently ingestion of contaminated grasses and forbs; dermal absorption and inhalation are other routes. Despite the

  16. Pollution transport from North America to Greenland during summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution transported to the Arctic is a significant concern because of the rapid, enhanced warming in high northern latitudes, which is caused, in part, by short-lived climate forcers, such as ozone. Long-range transport of pollution contributes to background and episodic ozone levels in the Arctic. However, the extent to which plumes are photochemically active during transport, particularly during the summer, is still uncertain. In this study, regional chemical transport model simulations are used to examine photochemical production of ozone in air masses originating from boreal fire and anthropogenic emissions over North America and during their transport toward the Arctic during early July 2008. Model results are evaluated using POLARCAT aircraft data collected over boreal fire source regions in Canada (ARCTAS-B and several days downwind over Greenland (POLARCAT-France and POLARCAT-GRACE. Model results are generally in good agreement with the observations, except for certain trace gas species over boreal fire regions, in some cases indicating that the fire emissions are too low. Anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution (BB from North America was rapidly uplifted during transport east and north to Greenland where pollution plumes were observed in the mid- and upper troposphere during POLARCAT. A model sensitivity study shows that CO levels are in better agreement with POLARCAT measurements (fresh and aged fire plumes upon doubling CO emissions from fires. Analysis of model results, using ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios, shows that pollution plumes formed ozone during transport towards the Arctic. Fresh anthropogenic plumes have average ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios of 0.63 increasing to 0.92 for aged anthropogenic plumes, indicating additional ozone production during aging. Fresh fire plumes are only slightly enhanced in ozone (ΔO3/ΔCO=0.08, but form ozone downwind with ΔO3/ΔCO of 0.49 for aged BB plumes (model-based run. We estimate

  17. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  18. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  19. Parks awash in light pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The first-ever nationwide survey of light pollution impacts on the U.S. National Park System has found that light pollution is a pervasive threat to national parks, and interferes with visitors' ability to observe stars and the night sky. The survey, which queried National Park Service (NPS) staff, found that dark night skies are a vital park resource, and that light pollution is considered a resource problem in many parks.The survey credited the National Park Service with already taking some steps to reduce light pollution within parks, but added that the agency can do more to deal with the problem.

  20. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.