.... Discussion of Proposed Rule On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach... representative via VHF radio on channel 16, to request authorization. If authorization to enter, transit through... between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among...
... Championship. On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon... VHF radio on channel 16, to request authorization. If authorization to enter, transit through, anchor... government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of...
Pitt, William A.; Meyer, Frederick W.
The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Palm Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....
Lietz, A. C; Debiak, Elizabeth A
.... The major cause of these sediment deposits most likely is due to stormwater heavily laden with fluvial sediment, discharging through the S-155 control structure on the West Palm Beach (C-51) Canal...
...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL AGENCY... offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The... Atlantic Ocean, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida. The high speed power boat race event will include...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of Palm Beach County seagrasses, mangrove habitat, oyster reef, and spartina. The mapped area is the Lake Worth Lagoon...
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This MrSID-compressed true color dataset is one component of the digital orthophoto coverage (DOI) over Palm Beach County, FL. This dataset is comprised of 3-band...
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — True color 3-band 24-bit orthophotos at a map scale of 1"=100' with 6-inch ground pixel resolution were produced for Palm Beach County, FL. Orthophotography for over...
rocks of the central west coast of India. Vol. 10, No.2, 1990 bonate and Miliolite Problems of Gujarat, PRL Ahmedabad:41 42 Kale VS, RajagllIU SN (1985) Neogene and Quaternary transgres sional and regressional history of the west coast of India... (1990) 10: 111-115 Geo-Marine Letters ~1990 Springtr-Vtrlng Ntw Yolldnc. Beach Rocks of the Central West Coast of India B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India, 403004 Abstract Along the central west coast of India several...
... benefit LNA traffic that primarily arrives from, or departs to, the west and east of the airport. The... Beach Approach to maneuver, provide better transit to the practice areas to the west and permit straight... above. The dispersal headings vary from 030 to 160 degrees and the southern most heading would exit...
Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wilson, Christina; Wu, Chang-Yu; Stormer, James E
Due to concerns about adverse health effects associated with inhalation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 30 ambient air samples were obtained at an air quality monitoring station in Palm Beach County, Florida, from March 2013 to March 2014. The ambient PAH concentration measurements and fractional emission rates of known sources were incorporated into a chemical mass balance model, CMB8.2, developed by EPA, to apportion contributions of three major PAH sources including preharvest sugarcane burning, mobile vehicles, and wildland fires. Strong association between the number of benzene rings and source contribution was found, and mobile vehicles were identified to be the prevailing source (contribution≥56%) for the observed PAHs concentration with lower molecular weights (four or fewer benzene rings) throughout the year. Preharvest sugarcane burning was the primary contributing source for PAHs with relatively higher molecular weights (five or more benzene rings) during the sugarcane burning season (from October to May of the next year). Source contribution of wildland fires varied among PAH compounds but was consistently lower than for sugarcane burning during the sugarcane harvest season. Determining the major sources responsible for ground-level PAHs serves as a tool to improving management strategies for PAH emitting sources and a step toward better protection of the health of residents in terms of exposure to PAHs. The results obtain insight into temporal dominance of PAH polluting sources for those residential areas located near sugarcane burning facilities and have implications beyond Palm Beach County, in areas with high concerns of PAHs and their linked sources. Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Palm Beach County, Florida, meant to estimate contributions of major sources in PAH concentrations measured at Belle Glade City of Palm Beach County. Number of benzene rings was found to be the key parameter
To determine whether, during a hurricane, geographic accessibility to hospitals with emergency care is compromised disproportionately for the elderly than for the nonelderly. The locations of hospitals with emergency health care and a subset of those hospitals functional during a hurricane were compared with the distribution of the elderly population at the block group level in Palm Beach County, Florida. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) proximity analysis (minimum distance to closest hospital) and cumulative distribution functions were used to measure and compare hospital accessibility during normal and hurricane conditions for the elderly and nonelderly populations. Accessibility to closest functional hospital during a hurricane was compromised disproportionately for the elderly. Geographic accessibility to emergency health care is compromised disproportionately for the elderly in Palm Beach County. Compounding the risk is the likelihood of the elderly experiencing a greater health care need during a hurricane. This poses a community public health crisis and calls for effective and collaborative planning between health professionals and disaster planners to address the health care needs of the elderly. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).
Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Sanilkumar, V.; Pathak, K.C.
Study on beach processes for an year shows seasonal changes without annual net erosion. The beaches are stable and regain the maximum profiles during February to April. Distribution of longshore current direction is not uniform along the study...
Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.
) and highest transmissivity in coastal areas. Zone 2, the most transmissive and extensive zone, is thickest (80 feet or more) and most transmissive in the inland eastern areas near Florida's Turnpike. In this area, zone 1 is absent, and the semiconfining unit above zone 2 extends to the land surface with a thickness commonly ranging from 50 to 100 feet. The thickness of zone 2 decreases to zero in most wells near the coast. Zone 3 attains its greatest thickness (100 feet or more) in the southwestern and south-central areas; zone 3 is equivalent to the gray limestone aquifer. The distribution of transmissivity was mapped by zone; however, zones 2 and 3 were commonly combined in aquifer tests. Maximum transmissivities for zone 1, zones 2 and 3, and zone 3 were 90,000, 180,000, and 70,000 ft2/d (feet-squared per day), respectively. The northern extent of the area with transmissivity greater than 50,000 ft2/d for zones 2 and 3 in the inland northeastern area along Florida's Turnpike has not been defined based on available data and could extend 5 to 10 miles farther north than mapped. Based on the thickness of zone 2 and a limited number of aquifer tests, a large area of zone 2 with transmissivity greater than 10,000 ft2/d, and possibly as much as 30,000 ft2/d, extends to the west across Water Conservation Area 1 from the inland southeastern area into the south-central area and some of the southwestern area. In contrast to the Biscayne aquifer present to the south of Palm Beach County, zones 2 and 3 are interpreted to be present principally in the Tamiami Formation and are commonly overlain by a thick semiconfining unit of moderate permeability. These zones have been referred to as the 'Turnpike' aquifer in the inland eastern areas of Palm Beach County, and the extent of greatest thickness and transmissivity follows, or is adjacent to, Florida's Turnpike. Where it is thick and transmissive, zone 1 may be considered equivalent to the Biscayne aquifer. Areas
Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.
The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer
De Avila, Elizabeth
Issues of sexual assault have become pervasive across all social strata in American society. Citizens need to start having conversations regarding these issues. To combat the issue of sexual assault, children need to be educated regarding the multifaceted aspects of sex through sex education in order to understand consent and resources they have available to them. Utilizing grounded theory methodology, this thesis analyzes sex education literature provided to Palm Beach County Middle School students. Using Burke's theory of terministic screens and Foucauldian theories of power and control; an understanding of the ideological underpinnings of this literature and discourse were acquired. After analysis, suggestions for disclosure and sex education programs are provided.
X-irradiated Palm Oil of the Elaeis guineensis specie was studied by assessing the effect of the radiation on the Peroxide, Iodine and Fatty acid values of the oil. These were compared with values of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil. Results showed a rise in the peroxide value by as much as 52.5% for thermoxidized oil and ...
Dohany, A L; Phang, O W; Rapmund, G
Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) arenicola Traub, a vector of scrub typhus, had previously been found to occur in the coastal vegetation behind the edge of open sand along the beaches of Peninsular Malaysia. Surveys of the west coast beaches of Sabah and Sarawak were conducted to determine if this species occurs in similar habitat in East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Leptotrombidium (L.) arenicola was not collected from the eighteen sites studied. Of the 11,982 mite larvae collected, 55 per cent were L.(L.) deliense (Walch), a well-known, widespread vector of scrub typhus.
Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne
of naturally shaped beaches while at the same time the risk for erosion is reduced. For this reason beach nourishment is used widely along the Danish North Sea coast (called West Coast) and this method is preferred in preference to put up solid constructions. Beach nourishment is the primary method used...... is shaped. The aim of the present investigation was to examine how to extract sand samples of an actual beach nourishment to obtain a satisfactory description of the sedimentary composition. In specific the goal was a description of the variation of the sand characteristics in space. The reason...... for this is that the compositions of sand affect the erosion and the shaping of the beach. The results show that by collecting 13-15 sand samples it is possible to obtain a description of d50 with a precision of 0.1 mm within a confidence interval of 95-99 %. If a precision of 0.05 mm is wanted, it is necessary to collect 67...
Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.
TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA K. A. Abdul Rasheed *, V. Kesava Das, C. Revichandran, P. R. Vijayan and Tony. J. Thottam National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre (RC... large waves of height 11 to 11.5m in Kutch region (Pendse 1945). Most of the tsunamis are generated by the earthquake-initiated seabed displacements. Landslides (including underwater landslides), volcanic eruptions, impact of large objects (such...
Vos, de R.E.
This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was
Full Text Available This research analyzes the competitive advantage in order to enhance the marketing performance of oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province, which aims to: (1 find out the implementation of competitive advantage of the oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province, (2 find out the achievement of marketing performance of the oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province, and (3 find out the influence of competitive advantage on the marketing performance of the oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province. This is a descriptive and verification research that uses a descriptive and explanatory survey on the analysis unit of oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province. The period of research implementation of two (2 years, divided into two stages; First Stage (2013 and Second Stage (2014. The data are collected using questionnaires as well as interviews and observations. The collected data are further processed using path analysis. The results of the First Stage (2013 research find that only few of the oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province are able to achieve the marketing performance in high category or above their expected target. This is presumed to be related to the weak competitiveness or competitive advantage of the companies as found in the results of descriptive analysis of this research. In order to understand more of such relatedness, it is necessary to conduct further research of the Second Stage (2014 focusing on investigating the influence of competitive advantage on the marketing performance of oil palm plantation companies in West Kalimantan Province.
Han, M.; Yu, J.; Yang, D. Y.; Kim, J. W.
The purpose of this study is to investigate seasonal movement patterns of gravel movements on the west coast of Korean peninsula. This study aims improve understanding of the process of coastal sediments movement and contribute to coastal erosion management. The study site is Taean Bangpo Beach, which is characterized by its macro tide and composite gravel beach (CGB). In this study, we carried out a radio frequency identifier (RFID) tracer movement monitoring experiment. Four hundred tracers, similar in size and shape to beach sediment, were inserted into the beach in February and December 2015. From the results, it was confirmed that generally, gravel moved southward in the winter and northward in the summer. It was also confirmed that the gravel moved long distances in the summer and winter, but much shorter distances in the spring. At the end of the results, it is confirmed that the tracer recovery rate in summer is lower than in winter. Bangpo Beach was influenced by strong wind and wave energy driven by the East Asian winter monsoon, and by normal tidal energy during the other seasons. It means that seasonal variation of gravel movement in the beach is attributed to the difference of seasonal energy conditions. In addition, it is interpreted that the sand at the intertidal zone cannot be removed in the summer when the wave energy is weak, causing the tracer to be buried. This study is expected to contribute to the study of composite gravel beach and coastal coarse sediment movement which have been lacking in research.
Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.
The pocket beach at Tila-Mati, Karwar, central west coast of India, is characterised by the occurrence of amphibole-rich (chiefly tremolite-actinolite) coarse sand in the zone of minimal impact of waves and currents. In the total sediment, grain...
Kuswaji Dwi Priyono
Full Text Available This paper tries to analyze of prognosis of the Integrated Tourism Area Planning of Kapuknnaga Beach (KWTPK Tangerang Regency West Java. The two method applied to compose the prognosis are extrapolation and indication. The extrapolation is based on the local area infomation data of contemporary knowledge in the past and presence, while the indication method utilizes the whole interrelation activities programmed with the possible consequences. Land function transformation effects of KWTPK will cause environmental destroy as annual flsh flood, salt water intrusion and polution of urban’s industry sewage. As further effect there is a raising of turbidity and nitrition degree of sedimentation which make coral-ridge degradation toward annihilation. The coral-ridge annihilation will cause the sea waves power collide with the seashore area directly which threatens KWTPK.
Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.
. Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...
Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko
To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.
Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jena, B.K.
Goa has a 125-km-long coastline of which two-thirds consists of beautiful sandy beaches. There are mainly 17 beaches having significant importance of tourism. Sporadically, surf drownings have been reported at a few stretches of the beach. Longshore...
André H. Bechara
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main etiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. At present, this zoonosis is considered an emerging disease mainly in the Americas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in restinga areas along beaches in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. The study areas included the following beaches: Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Reserva, Prainha and Grumari. Ninety specimens of Achatina fulica were collected. Positive molluscs were found only in Barra da Tijuca. Infection prevalence was 5.5%. The presence of this parasite in the beachfront areas, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city demonstrates the potential risk of infection for visitors and the expansion of this helminth in the State of Rio de Janeiro.
Bechara, André H; Simões, Raquel O; Faro, Marta Júlia; Garcia, Juberlan S
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main etiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. At present, this zoonosis is considered an emerging disease mainly in the Americas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in restinga areas along beaches in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. The study areas included the following beaches: Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Reserva, Prainha and Grumari. Ninety specimens of Achatina fulica were collected. Positive molluscs were found only in Barra da Tijuca. Infection prevalence was 5.5%. The presence of this parasite in the beachfront areas, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city demonstrates the potential risk of infection for visitors and the expansion of this helminth in the State of Rio de Janeiro.
Brown, Joanne; Etherington, George; Pellow, Peter [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England (United Kingdom)
A programme of monitoring carried out since 2006 has found radioactive objects on beaches near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in West Cumbria. These objects comprised particles with sizes smaller than or similar to grains of sand (less than 2 mm) and contaminated pebbles and stones. Public Health England has undertaken an assessment of the health risks to people using the beaches along the Cumbrian coast from these contaminated objects. The assessment has addressed two key aspects. Firstly, estimates have been made of the likelihood that people using the beaches for various activities could come into contact with a radioactive object. Secondly, for the unlikely event that an individual does come into contact with such an object, the resulting radiation doses and associated health risks have been assessed. The ingestion of an 'alpha-rich' particle (a particle for which the content of the alpha-emitting radionuclide americium-241 exceeds the content of caesium-137) has the greatest potential to give rise to significant health risks. The intestinal absorption of a range of particles recovered from West Cumbrian beaches was quantified by means of in vivo uptake studies using laboratory rats, and the results were used to predict doses that would result from the ingestion of a single particle. The conclusion of the assessment, based on the currently available information, is that the overall health risks to beach users are very low and significantly lower than other risks that people accept when using the beaches. The highest calculated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer are of the order of one hundred thousand times smaller than the level of risk that the UK Health and Safety Executive considers to be the upper limit for an acceptable level of risk (1 in a million) for members of the public and workers. The exposure route with the greatest potential for deterministic effects, such as localised skin ulceration, is direct irradiation of
Laboratories Administrative Chairman Mrs. Melissa Arrajj Martin Marietta Astronautics Group Assistant Administrative Chairman Ms. Jo Ellen Dunn CSA...pp. 326-334.  Tecza, J.A., J.C. Giordano , E.S. Zorzi, and S.K. Drake, "Squeeze Film Damper Technology: Part 2 - Experimental Verification Using a
Mihlan, G. I.; Mitchell, R. I.; Smith, R. K.
A survey to assess control technology for integrated circuit fabrication was conducted. Engineering controls included local and general exhaust ventilation, shielding, and personal protective equipment. Devices or work stations that contained toxic materials that were potentially dangerous were controlled by local exhaust ventilation. Less hazardous areas were controlled by general exhaust ventilation. Process isolation was used in the plasma etching, low pressure chemical vapor deposition, and metallization operations. Shielding was used in ion implantation units to control X-ray emissions, in contact mask alignes to limit ultraviolet (UV) emissions, and in plasma etching units to control radiofrequency and UV emissions. Most operations were automated. Use of personal protective equipment varied by job function.
Shenoi, S.S.C.; Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.
-normal movement of sand. The depth at which this pivot point occurs is inversely related to the width of the beach. The differential energy environments, even over short distances, are found to be the prime factors that determine the magnitude of temporal beach...
Pradeep Kumar, T.B.
Beaches are the main sources for economic heavy minerals (HM) like ilmenite rutile, monazite, zircon, garnet and sillimanite. The seasonal HM accumulations, colloquially called 'beach washings' are mined by IREL and KMML in Kerala and by IREL and several private enterprises in Tamil Nadu. These sediments are found to contain 85-90% THM. It is presumed that during the monsoon, the sea is agitated and the churning and spiralling action of water lifts HM-bearing sediments from the sea floor and transports in suspension and deposits on the beach berm, the backwash taking the relatively lighter part of the sediment load back into the sea. This process is thought to give rise to HM-enriched sand on the beach face and the swash plain. It is pertinent to understand the controls on these economically important and scientifically interesting processes. Beachface is the seaward section of a beach exposed to and shaped by the action of waves. The beach face is the zone of most active change. Berm is the terrace of a beach that has formed in the backshore, above the water level at high tide. Berms are commonly found on beaches that have fairly coarse sand and are the result of the deposition of material by low energy waves. On broad beaches there may be three or more sub-parallel berms, each formed under different wave conditions. Swash zone is defined as that part of the beach extending from a nearshore shallow depth to the limit of maximum inundation; is a relatively narrow region of great importance for the exchange of sediment between land and sea. Morphological processes such as storm-induced erosion, post-storm recovery, seasonal variation in foreshore shape, and evolution of rhythmic
Germer, Jörn Uwe
The area planted to oil palm expanded during the last decades substantially, making it become the world's second most important oil crop. Despite its economic significance the oil palm remains remarkably unknown. Little attention is paid also to the oil palm undergrowth, though important in stabilizing the agro-ecosystem in plantations. Comprehensive knowledge of undergrowth species adapted to specific ecological niches in oil palm plantations is essential to investigate their function in ...
Mazidah, Nurnaini; Nugroho, Firman; Bathara, Lamun
This research was conducted on March 25, 2016 until 11 April 2016 which is placed in Gandoriah Beach, Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province. This study aims to identify economic activities and socio-cultural as the impact of the presence of marine tourism and determine the impact of tourism activities on the beach Gandoriah to the economy of coastal communities. The method used in this research is survey method. There are 64 respondents, that consist ...
Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O
Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.
Kumar, B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.
.7% (PDB) and delta sup(18)O signatures lie in a narrow range of +27.5 to +28.6% (SMOW), respectively. Isotopic data obtained in this study show that cementation of beach rock carbonates might have taken place in a shallow vadose zone. The large variations...
Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André
High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Nio. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Nio of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Nio did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Nio winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Nio is principally linked to the El Nio Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Nio), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Rosanne E. de Vos
Full Text Available This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was abolished. This case enables an empirical enquiry of land tenure as well as the meaning of land and associated resources for people’s livelihoods in a pre-plantation situation. The article aims to understand how people’s responses to the oil palm plantation project are rooted in the way they give meaning to the land that is targeted for conversion. Using a functional analysis of property relations, the article shows that people value multiple functions of land, including food security, income security over generations, flexibility to respond to crises and opportunity, and the ability to retain autonomy and identity as farmers. One of the factors that contributed to the conflict was the expectation that a conversion of diversified agricultural land and forest into a monoculture plantation, run by a company, would change the functionality of land and associated resources in a way that would negatively impact livelihood opportunities, lifestyles, and identity.
Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.
The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms
Veerayya, M.; Shenoi, S.S.C; Murty, C
Sediment samples collected along 6 beach profiles of a log-spiral shaped beach and nearby dunes have been studied for particle size distribution in relation to wave refraction patterns. The results reveal that the foreshore sediments...
Full Text Available A range of various different planting distances (from 7.5 to 9.5 m between oil palms were tested using an equilateral triangle design in a plantation density experiment which was settled in an oil palm commercial plantation in Nigeria. Climatic conditions were quite stable, with two seasons and around 2000 mm of annual rainfall. The soil was of desaturated ferralitic type, sandy on the surface, deep and without coarse elements. The early impact of plantation density was analysed at eight years after planting. Some early signs of depressive effect on yields were found for high planting densities (180 and 205 p/ha. Such a negative impact was not severe enough to counteract the effects of a higher number of palms per hectare. As a consequence, a gradient could be observed as yields (in tons of bunches per hectare increased with density. We can anticipate that the competition effect between palms will increase over time with high densities, so that the counteracting point ought to be reached in a few years. A thinning treatment has been included in the protocol. Thinning was carried out at the end of the eight-year period.
Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann
Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal
-90%) in the foreshore regions of individual beaches whereas low CaCO sub(3) (less than 20%) in the dune and backshore areas of these beaches and adjoining nearshore environs up to 10 m isobath. The observed spatial distribution shows the occurrence of modern carbonate...
Veerayya, M.; Pankajakshan, T.
of wave heights in headland-bays and at river mouths. Certain stretches of open ocean beaches located on either side of the Kali River and the headland-bay beaches south of Karwar Head experience relatively higher wave heights for W and WSW waves...
Moore, Nouerand and Lincoln, in concert with other employees of FBK Products, LLC., knowingly participated in a scheme to fraudulently market and sell an unnecessary and unneeded septic treatment product to residents of various states across the country.
Laursen, Lea Louise Holst
in a fringe area of Denmark with a declining population. Further, in the 1990s, the city of Frederikshavn went through rough times with the closing down of big industries and a following high rate of unemployment in the blue collar workforce. This focus on events and experiences shall be seen as a way out...... of this crisis - finding alternatives to a formerly great production and maritime industry. The city's key word is experience economy, and the many events and experiences are seen as a way of positioning the city on the map of Denmark - standing out from the crowd. The question is now whether it is succeeding...
Sajeev, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Chandramohan, P.; Nampoodiripad, K.S.N.
Mean grain size distribution under different environmental conditions along the coast of Kerala showed considerable spatial variation (0.14-0.96 mm). Standard deviation values indicated a very well sorted class along all the beaches with a lowest...
Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Ganesan, P.; Sautya, S.; Nanajkar, M.
In most ecosystems, community structure emerges as a result of the complex interaction between biotic and environmental variables. Sandy beaches connected to adjacent ecosystem like estuaries/creeks provide an opportunity to understand the role...
Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.
Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...
Suneel, V., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Vethamony, P., E-mail: email@example.com [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Naik, B.G., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Krishna, M.S., E-mail: email@example.com [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, 530 017 (India); Jadhav, Lakshmikant, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India)
Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa.
Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Naik, B.G.; Krishna, M.S.; Jadhav, Lakshmikant
Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa
Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...
Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.
, and is presented in a consolidated form. Beach ridges of the east and west coast of India are grouped in thirteen-beach ridge complexes based on their association. Review indicates that the beach ridges of India are not older than the Holocene age...
Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.
To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.
Sulistianingsih, E.; Kiftiah, M.; Rosadi, D.; Wahyuni, H.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is an indicator of economic growth in a region. GDP is a panel data, which consists of cross-section and time series data. Meanwhile, panel regression is a tool which can be utilised to analyse panel data. There are three models in panel regression, namely Common Effect Model (CEM), Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and Random Effect Model (REM). The models will be chosen based on results of Chow Test, Hausman Test and Lagrange Multiplier Test. This research analyses palm oil about production, export, and government consumption to five district GDP are in West Kalimantan, namely Sanggau, Sintang, Sambas, Ketapang and Bengkayang by panel regression. Based on the results of analyses, it concluded that REM, which adjusted-determination-coefficient is 0,823, is the best model in this case. Also, according to the result, only Export and Government Consumption that influence GDP of the districts.
Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant
Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hails, A. J.; Yaziz, S.
The ocypodid crab, Dotilla myctiroides, was studied on the south-west coast of peninsular Malaysia. The mean numbers and biomass over a year along a transect from high to low water ranged from 37·5 to 579 crabs m -2 and from 2·22 to 50·79 g m -2 (wet weight) respectively. Berried females were found in all months of the year but two peaks of activity were apparent, from November to February and May to July. It is suggested that this may be related to changes in food abundance associated with the effects of monsoon winds on sea currents. Laboratory growth studies indicated that maximum life span was approximately 13 months (from first crab stage) for males and 10 months for females. Growth rate decreased with increasing size of crab. Egg number increased with size of female.
Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Kwadjo, K Eric; Rosete, Yaima Arocha
A new Afrotropical species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. nedotepae Triapitsyn sp. n., is described and illustrated. The type series was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Nedotepa curta Dmitriev (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) during a survey for its natural enemies in Côte d'Ivoire. This peculiar leafhopper, recently described from Ghana (Dmitriev 2016), lays its eggs on leaflets of coconut palm, and could be an economically important pest of this crop in West Africa, particularly because it is a suspected vector of the phytoplasma associated with the Côte d'Ivoire Lethal Yellowing disease of coconut, as characterized by Arocha-Rosete et al. (2014). Coconut lethal yellowing diseases cause severe economic losses to the very important coconut growing industry in several West African countries and elsewhere, being considered a threat of global economic and social significance (Gurr et al. 2016). Thus, the parasitoid may be of potential importance for natural biological control of this pest and urgently needs a scientific name to be used in further publications on its biology and ecology. Such studies are currently underway by the second author, who collected the type series of the new species.
85 CHEMICAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT .......... 91 Chemical Control Technology Development: Overview by Howard E. Westerdahl ...A, B, & C) Chemical Convod Technlo Development - H. Westerdah, WES, Presiding 8:00 a.m. Overview - Chemical Control Technology -H. Westerdahl , WES 8...Paul PO Box 631 1421 USPO & Custom House Vicksburg, MS 39181-0631 St. Paul, MN 55101-1479 Howard Westerdahl Tim Worley USAE Waterways Experiment Station
Ju iC Administrative Chairman Mrs. Melissa Arrajj D tri Martin Marietta Astronautics Group CI!3 Assistant Administrative Chairman DL r’ vb.jo Ellen...Squeeze Film Dampers", Journal of Lubrication Technology, Trans. ASME, 1983, pp. 326-334.  Tecza, J.A., J.C. Giordano , E.S. Zorzi, and S.K. Drake
... of the law enforcement boats and cruise ship tenders which will mark a transit lane in channel. (ii... east of the law enforcement vessels and cruise ship tenders, which will mark a transit lane in the..., tug boats and contracted security vessels may assist the Coast Guard Captain of the Port under the...
Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Nath, B.N.; Faria, D.G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.
(Davies 1972). The long stressful abiotic factors such as the winds and waves make these beaches highly dynamic and ecologically sensitive (Brown and McLachlan 1990; Knox 2001). This stress is further compounded by human activities such as tourism... to improve the extraction, followed by extraction in chloroform methanol mixture. Extractant was dried under vacuum (Bligh et al. 1959) and oxidized with 0.15% acid dichromate (Parsons et al. 1984). Stearic acid was used as a standard and absorbance...
Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.
Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances
Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Das, Anindita; Nath, B N; Faria, Daphne G; Loka Bharathi, P A
We investigated the influence on bacterial community and biochemical variables through mechanical disturbance of sediment-akin to small-scale mining in Kalbadevi beach, Ratnagiri, a placer-rich beach ecosystem which is a potential mining site. Changes were investigated by comparing three periods, namely phase I before disturbance, phase II just after disturbance, and phase III 24 h after disturbance as the bacterial generation time is ≤7 h. Cores from dune, berm, high-, mid-, and low-tide were examined for changes in distribution of total bacterial abundance, total direct viability (counts under aerobic and anaerobic conditions), culturability and biochemical parameters up to 40 cm depth. Results showed that bacterial abundance decreased by an order from 10(6) cells g(-1) sediment, while, viability reduced marginally. Culturability on different-strength nutrient broth increased by 155% during phase II. Changes in sedimentary proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were marked at berm and dune and masked at other levels by tidal influence. Sedimentary ATP reduced drastically. During phase III, Pearson's correlation between these variables evolved from non-significant to significant level. Thus, simulated disturbance had a mixed effect on bacterial and biochemical variables of the sediments. It had a negative impact on bacterial abundance, viability and ATP but positive impact on culturability. Viability, culturability, and ATP could act as important indicators reflecting the disturbance in the system at short time intervals. Culturability, which improved by an order, could perhaps be a fraction that contributes to restoration of the system at bacterial level. This baseline information about the potential mining site could help in developing rational approach towards sustainable harnessing of resources with minimum damage to the ecosystem.
Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.
Shoreline changes affect functionality of a sandy beach as a wildlife habitat and coastal erosion is among the primary causes of the changes. We examined temporal shifts in locations where loggerheads placed nests in relation to coastal erosion along a barrier island beach in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We first confirmed consistency in long-term (1855–2001), short-term (1976–2001), and more recent (2002–2012) shoreline change rates in two adjacent beach sections, one historically eroding (west beach) and the other accreting (east beach). The mean annual shoreline change rate in the two sections was significantly different in all time periods. The recent (1998–2012) mean change rate was −10.9 ± 9.9 m/year in the west beach and −2.8 ± 4.9 m/year in the east beach, which resulted in the loss of about 70% and 30% of area in the west and east beaches, respectively. Loggerheads nested significantly closer to the vegetation line in 2012 than in 2002 in the west beach but the difference between the two time periods was not significant in the east beach. However, the distance from nests to the vegetation line from 2002 to 2014 was significantly reduced annually in both beaches; on average, loggerheads nested closer to the vegetation line by 9 m/year in the west beach and 5.8 m/year in the east beach. The observed shoreline change rate and corresponding shift of nest placement sites, combined with the forecasted future beach loss, highlighted the importance of addressing the issue of beach erosion to conserve sandy beach habitats.
Meshram, D.C.; Sangode, S.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Dhongle, D.; Porate, S.
tsunami events (i.e., 2004 IOT), the only reported event after 1945 in the west coast. Alternative marine and terrigenous sands are characteristic of tsunami run-up and backwash deposits, while the dimensions of SSDs may be related to the <2 m magnitude...
... and Research Centers Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with pollution ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. The ...
Carter, R. W. G.
Mixes of carbonate and quartz sands, which are commonly encountered in Recent coastal sediments, require careful analysis if they are to be correctly interpreted. Grain-size data fall into multimodal or segmented zig-zag distributions which may require some kind of component separation if they are to be summarised by conventional statistics, and before they can be assigned to a particular hydrodynamic depositional process or environment. Unfortunately, separation techniques are only spasmodically applied, usually without due regard to the consequences. Such artificially filtered or truncated distributions are of little subsequent use. Using a range of samples from two beaches in NW Ireland, where carbonate proportions range from nearly zero to over sixty percent, the interrelationships of the two dominant components were examined. Where only a small carbonate proportion is incorporated into a large quartz one, predictable modifications of the size-curve are apparent. However, the components are more independent if mixtures are near equal. The occurrence of a number of distinctive combinations of simple straight lines and complex zig-zag curves probably reflects the relatively dynamic nature of the carbonate fraction.
California Natural Resource Agency — Beaches are commonly characterized by cross-shore surveys. The resulting profiles represent the elevation of the beach surface and nearshore seabed from the back of...
L Mbuagbaw; SG Noorduyn
The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a v...
The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...
industrial activity in a number of developing West. African and ... pharmaceutical industries for the manufacture of drugs. ... production line of which oil palm fruit digestion is one. Thus, one ... For effective design of the machine, it was necessary.
Bennett, Matthew R.; Cassidy, Nigel J.; Pile, Jeremy
Chesil Beach (Dorset) is one of the most famous coastal landforms on the British coast. The gravel beach is over 18 km long and is separated for much of its length from land by a tidal lagoon known as The Fleet. The beach links the Isle of Portland in the east to the mainland in the west. Despite its iconic status there is little available information on its internal geometry and evolutionary history. Here we present a three-fold model for the evolution of Chesil Beach based on a series of nine ground penetrating radar (GPR) traverses located at three sites along its length at Abbotsbury, Langton Herring and at Ferry Bridge. The GPR traverses reveal a remarkably consistent picture of the internal structure of this barrier beach. The first phase of evolution involves the landward transgression of a small sand and gravel beach which closed upon the coast leading to deposition of freshwater peat between 5 and 7 k yr BP. The second evolutionary phase involves the 'bulking-out' of the beach during continued sea level rise, but in the presence of abundant gravel supplied by down-drift erosion of periglacial slope deposits. This episode of growth was associated with a series of washover fans which accumulated on the landward flank of the barrier increasing its breadth and height but without significant landward transgression of the barrier as a whole. The final phase in the evolution of Chesil Beach involves the seaward progradation of the beach crest and upper beach face associated with continued sediment abundance, but during a still-stand or slight fall in relative sea level. This phase may provide further evidence of a slight fall in relative sea level noted elsewhere along the South Coast of Britain and dated to between 1.2 and 2.4 k yr BP. Subsequently the barrier appears to have become largely inactive, except for the reworking of sediment on the beach face during storm events. The case study not only refines the evolutionary picture of Chesil Beach, but
Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne
is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more...... an example of a holistic evaluation of a 721.000 m3 (155 m3 /m) Beach Nourishment done at the Danish West Coast in 2005....
Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.
Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.
Geomorphological studies along the Central West Coast of India extending between Bombay to Goa, have been undertaken, using aerial photographs and LANDSAT imagery. Coastal features like active and abandoned cliffs, spits, bars, beach rock, beach...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A precision formation flying coronagraph with an inflatable, passive ‘beach ball’ occulter has the chance to make possible the next generation of advances in coronal...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA has published a list of coastal recreation waters adjacent to beaches (or similar points of access) used by the public in the U.S. The list, required by the...
Emerich Souza, Priscila; Kroon, Aart; Nielsen, Lars
Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well-marked by......Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well...... beach-ridge GPR profiles. Most of them are located at the boundary between a unit with reflection characteristics representing palaeo foreshore deposits, and a deeper and more complex radar unit characterized by diffractions, which, however, is not penetrated to large depths by the GPR signals. Based...
Previous works on the South African gill-net and beach-seine ... catch and effort between four different regions along the South ... evaluate participation in and management of the ... mesh on the West Coast and the Southern and Eastern.
Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo
The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.
Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W
The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence
Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...
The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...
... lives as a scavenger in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches on the west coast of South Africa. Individuals emerge with the receding tide leaving exit holes, then forage for about two hours before returning to the vicinity of the high-water mark where they aggregate to bury themselves, leaving behind cone-shaped mounds.
Balle, Søren Hattesen
of American literary Romanticism, whereas The Beach Boys became the sixties’ most well-known pop icon of surf music and surf culture. Nevertheless, their common interest in California as a particular topographic image of the American West invites comparison and further study. This paper aims to make...
A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides on various beaches in and around Saldanha Bay, located on the West Coast of South Africa. Several mathematical techniques were applied to obtain GIS overlay that could be ...
Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA gathers state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories. Between 1999 and...
Vanglateenistus korraldab Tartus, Tallinnas ja Jõhvis enesekaitsekoolitusi gümnaasiumiõpilastele. Jakob Westholmi abiturient Henri Palm on osalenud treeningutel osalenud kolm aastat ning jagab kogemusi
The oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) is of great importance to the people of West Tropical and Equatorial Africa. This palm is there a major food crop under semi-wild conditions and since the end of the 18th century a principal commercial crop. In the first chapters the centres of
Ryan J Newton
Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls. Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise
Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B; Kroon, Aart
The formation of berms and their transformation into beach ridges in a micro-tidal environment is coupled to wave run-up and overtopping during extreme sea levels. A straight-forward comparison between extreme sea levels due to storm-surges and active berm levels is impossible in the semi...... prograding spit on the south-eastern Baltic shores of Zealand, Denmark. The modern, sandy beach at this location consists of a beachface with a shallow incipient berm, a mature berm, and a dune-covered beach ridge. It borders a beach-ridge plain to the west, where more than 20 N–S oriented beach ridges...... and swales are present. Measured water-level data from 1991 to 2012 and topographical observations, carried out during fair weather period and during a storm event, provided the basis for a conceptual model exhibiting berm formation and transformation into the local beach-ridge system. The character...
Nadot, Sophie; Alapetite, Elodie; Baker, William J.
Among the 416 angiosperm families, palms (Arecaceae) are striking in possessing almost all possible combinations of hermaphroditic and/or unisexual flowers, making them a particularly interesting subject for studies of the evolution of plant sexuality. The purpose of this review is to highlight...... the amazing diversity of sexual expression in palms with a view to proposing scenarios to explain the evolution of this character, drawing on the numerous advances that have been made over the last 20 years in palm systematics, ecology, developmental biology, phylogenetics and genomics. We provide an overview...... of the variability of sexual expression in palms, with illustrations of the associated morphological diversity and its significance to reproduction. We discuss the evolution of sexual systems using the most recent phylogenetic framework available for palms. Finally, we review advances made towards unravelling...
Full Text Available Minal Joshi,1 Ruth Cheng,2 Hattiyangadi Kamath,1 Joel Yarmush1 1Department of Anesthesiology, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies Abstract: Shoulder arthroscopy has been shown to be the procedure of choice for many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Neuropraxia of the great auricular nerve (GAN is an uncommon complication of shoulder surgery, with the patient in the beach chair position. We report a case of great auricular neuropraxia associated with direct compression by a horseshoe headrest, used in routine positioning for uncomplicated shoulder surgery. In this case, an arthroscopic approach was taken, under regional anesthesia with sedation in the beach chair position. The GAN, a superficial branch of the cervical plexus, is vulnerable to neuropraxia due to its superficial anatomical location. We recommend that for the procedures of the beach chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. Keywords: neuropraxia, anesthesia, arthroscopy, great auricular nerve
Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.
river mouth runs for ~6.2 km along the shore- line. Both sites are well-known fishing zones along west coast of India and also popular tourist places. However, there was no field data available on the beach morphody- namics covering different annual... Tables, Indian and selected Foreign Ports. Survey of India, Government of India, New Delhi, 2008–2011, p. 238. 10. Beach Morphology Analysis Package, Coastal Engineering Tech- nical Note, CETN-11/34, US Army Engineer Waterways Experi- ment Station...
Do, K.; Yoo, J.; McCall, R. T.
The sand pocket beaches with two headlands are global features, but it's not easy to predict berm and dune erosion due to alongshore variation of water depth. This study investigates the sediment transport and morphological change using available wave and beach profile data, as well as to assess the applicability of the XBeach morphological model (Roelvink et al., 2009). The Haeundae is small pocket beach, 1.4 km long, located in the southern corner of the Korean Peninsula. The Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) measured beach profile along 27 survey lines. The beach profiles were surveyed five times from 17 June 2014 to 10 October 2014. For this duration, a wave gauge (AWAC) was installed at a depth about 23 m off the coast of Haeundae Beach. Severe four storms attacked Haeundae Beach for this duration and these storms lasted about 1 2 days with a peak significant wave height of 2.5 4.0 m. The placed sand is fairly sorted and its median diameter is 0.23 mm. 2DH coastal morphological model, XBeach developed to simulate dune erosion due to storm impacts. The model is based on the nonlinear shallow water equation and resolves nearshore hydrodynamics by employing a 2DH description of wave groups and infragravity motions. In this study, the numerical model XBeach was compared with the field data and used to estimate the sediment transport pattern on the sand pocket beach. The numerical model resulted in a comparable prediction in the west-part, but the east-part cannot reproduce the erosion and accretion of the sand, partly due to complex bathymetry and the lack of sediment. This limitation needs to be improved to use measured sand thickness data in future study
Hu, Nai-Ren; Wu, Yun-Ta; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng
In the east coast of Taiwan, the sort grain size more belongs to cobble or gravel, which is physically distinct compared to the sandy beach in the west coast of Taiwan. Although gravel beaches can dissipate more of wave energy, gravel beaches were eroded and coastal road were damaged especially during typhoons. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geomorphological response of gravel beach due to irregular waves. This experiment was carry out in a 21m long, 50 cm wide, 70 cm high wave tank at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan. To simulate of the geometry in the east coast of Taiwan, a physical model with 1/36 scale-down was used, in which the seawall was 10cm built upon a 1:10 slope and gravel grains with D50 being 3.87 mm was nourished in front of the seawall. In terms of typhoon-scale wave condition, irregular waves with scale-down conditions were generated for 600 s for each scenarios and, three different water levels with respect to the gravel beach are designed. Application of laser combined with image processing to produce 3D topographic map, the erosion zone and accretion zone would be found. The resulting morphological change of gravel beach will be measured using an integrated laser and image processing tool to have 3D topographic maps. It is expected to have more understanding about under what conditions the gravel coasts suffer the least damage. In particular, the relation between erosion rates of gravel beach, the angle of gravel slope and the length of the plane on the gravel slope will be achieved
The Ability of Kayambang (Salvinia molesta D.S Mitchell and EcEng Gondok (Eichornis crassipies (Mart. Solms to Decrease the Nitrogen Degree of liquid Waste from PTPN XIII Palm Oil factory in Ngabang-West Kalimantan
Agus Sri Mulyono
Full Text Available The wastewater effluent of Ngabang Palm Oil Industry in one of several industrial waste, that contains high organic substances. One of them is nitrogen (N-total. Waste water treatment of palm oil industry used ponding system today, and one of solution to treat that wastewater effluent is using aquatic weeds as biofilter action. Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes (Mart. Solms and water fern (Salvinia molesta D.S.Mitchell known as aquatic weeds that capable to decrease in a large amount the organic and inorganic substances. The aim of this research is to study the capacity of water hyacinth and water fern in decreasing nitrogen compounds (N-total, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, N-organic in wastewater effluent palm oil industry based in variation of treatment and difference of exposure time. This research was carried out in green house and Biology Laboratory of Biology Programme Study, Mathematic and Science Faculty of Tanjungpura University and Testing Laboratory of Institute for Industrial Research And Standardization Pontianak, from July 1st – October 31th, 2006. This experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Factorial Design with three treatments and three replication times. The collected data analized by Annava Test and least Significance Difference (LSD test. The result show that the treatment with combination of water hyacinth and water fern were able to decrease the N-total (92,64%; ammonia (96,47%; and nitrite (90,14%.
Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...
The meiofauna at higher tide levels on a sheltered beach has been found to .... temperature of the sea water was also measured in the shallows (about 0,5 m deep). For the ... Movement was monitored over a five-hour period on the rising tide (08h30-13h30) and a ...... Distribution of sand fauna in beaches at Miami, Florida.
Mbuagbaw, L; Noorduyn, S G
The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.
Full Text Available The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change.
... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...
Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.
Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.
C. I. Yoo
Full Text Available Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D and beach profile (vertical 2D on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.
Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in
Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.
constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...
Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael
The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150
Kelley, Joseph T.
Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.
A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...
A Note from the Author and from O'Reilly Media about what this bookdoes--and doesn't--do: Palm webOS is a brand new platform and represents a very different type ofoperating system where the web runtime is used as the basis for the UI andApplication model. Palm and O'Reilly felt that it was important to have abook available to help developers get a basic understanding of the new Palmplatform at the time that the SDK was released; this timing played a majorrole in the content and structure of the book. Ideally this book would have been a complete reference of the new platformbut that wasn't
Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball
It has been suggested that vertical perforated tubes placed below the beach surface will increase the drainage of the beach, and hence increase the deposition of sand on the beach. The system is called the PEM-system, Pressure Equalization System, and the Danish company SIC (www.shore.dk) is doing...... the marketing. Although it for a coastal engineer seems obvious that such a device can’t drain the beach (nearly no driving forces ), SIC has succeeded in installing the system in more than 75 locations around the world (according to the company). In Denmark a full scale experiment at the exposed west coast has...... been performed through 2005-08, and a similar Dutch test is going on right now at Egmond, Holland. In this paper, we model the flow in the beach taking into account the presence of (high-permeable) tubes and demonstrate that the drainage effect is negligible. Further, the morphodynamic behavior...
O'Hara, Lynne M.
In the winter of 2011, this author was working late in her classroom at Central Bucks High School West in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, when she opened an email offering a summer institute where 15 teachers would walk the D-Day beaches in Normandy, France. The catch--each teacher had to bring one high school student. The Albert Small Student/Teacher…
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...
Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.
Various factors controlling the coastal processes at 7.5 km long Visakhapatnam Beach were investigated in detail. Studies reveal that the depositional and erosional phases differ from place to place along this coast. Major part of the beach...
California Natural Resource Agency — Several criteria were used for beach selection. BEACON 's Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan included all of the most popular beaches in the two counties...
... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY... temporary special local regulation on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during... powerboat racing regatta. The event will be held on the Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY and will feature...
Pit, I.R.; Dekker, S.C.; Kanters, T.J.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.
To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: socalled beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand,
Data from an ecological survey of three sandy beaches in. Transkei and from Gulu beach on the eastern Cape coast,. South Africa, are presented. Physical parameters such as beach profile, sand particle size, Eh and carbonate content, as well as abundance, composition, biomass and distribution of the macrofauna and ...
Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.
In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…
The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal. A.H. Dye, A. Mclachlan and T. Wooldridge. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of four sandy beaches on the. Natal coast of South Africa are presented. Physical para· meters such as beach profile, particle size, moisture, ...
Onaka, S.; Endo, S.; Uda, T.
Bali Island in Indonesia is a world-famous resort area, and the beaches composed of coral sand are one of the most important resources for tourism. However, serious beach erosion has occurred since the 1970s owing to the tourism development along the coastal areas. To recover previous natural sandy beaches, Bali Beach Conservation Project was undertaken by the Indonesian Government as the ODA project financed by Japan. Three seriously eroded beaches (Sanur, Nusa Dua and Kuta) with a total len...
Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik
-medicinal data on African palms, and investigate patterns of palm uses in traditional medicine; and highlight possible under-investigated areas. Materials and methods References were found through bibliographic searches using several sources including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar and search engines...... in traditional medicine, with most of the uses related to fruit (and palm oil), root, seed and leaf. Palms were used in traditional medicine mostly without being mixed with other plants, and less commonly in mixtures, sometimes in mixture with products of animal origin. Future ethno-botanical surveys should...... were able to demonstrate the value of palms in traditional medicine, and provide recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys....
Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.
Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve
Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.
Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne
The case described in this article regards 4.7 km of beach in Ferring, situated approx. 5 km south to the mouth of the Limfjord strait on the west coast of Denmark. In 2005, this section of the beach was nourished with 721,000 m3 of material in order to protect backshore properties, natural...
Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne
The case described in this article regards 4.7 km of beach in Ferring, situated approx. 5 km south to the mouth of the Limfjord strait on the west coast of Denmark. In 2005, this section of the beach was nourished with 721,000 m3 of material in order to protect backshore properties, natural herit...
Macdonald, W.G.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.
During the last decade, exploration and mining of modern-Tertiary heavy mineral beach and raised beach sands along the west coast of South Africa has developed into a major industry. High resolution radiometric techniques have demonstrated their use as a quantitative indicator of total heavy mineral
Di Genova, Lorenza; Cerquiglini, Laura; Penta, Laura; Biscarini, Anna; Esposito, Susanna
Palm oil is widely used in the food industry for its chemical/physical properties, low cost and wide availability. Its widespread use has provoked an intense debate about whether it is a potential danger to human health. In a careful review of the scientific literature, we focused on nutritional characteristics and health effects of the use of palm oil with regards to children, seeking to determine whether there is evidence that justifies fears about the health effects of palm oil. Our review showed that palm oil represents a significant source of saturated fatty acids, to which scientific evidence attributes negative health effects when used in excess, especially with regards to cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence about the harmful effects of palm oil on the health of children. Nevertheless, palm oil has possible ill health effects linked to its composition of fatty acids: its consumption is not correlated to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young people with a normal weight and cholesterol level; the elderly and patients with dyslipidaemia or previous cardiovascular events or hypertension are at a greater risk. Therefore, the matter is not palm oil itself but the fatty-acid-rich food group to which it belongs. The most important thing is to consume no more than 10% of saturated fatty acids, regardless of their origin and regardless of one's age. Correct information based on a careful analysis of the scientific evidence, rather than a focus on a singular presumed culprit substance, should encourage better lifestyles.
Coconut and palm oils which were the major sources of dietary fats for centuries in most of West Africa have been branded as unhealthy highly saturated fats. Their consumption has been peddled to supposedly raise the level of blood cholesterol, thereby increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. This adverse view has ...
... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...
of Expertise. Beach profile surveys were provided by USACE Jacksonville District (SAJ), University of South Florida (USF), and Coastal Planning ...the Gulf of Mexico from Clearwater Beach in Pinellas County, FL, to Venice Beach in Sarasota County, FL (Figure 1). Active Federal projects existing...since the early 1900s. At present, most of the shoreline is considered to be urban . The coastal area is directly under the influence of past and present
Yang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Hsing-Yu; Fang, Hui-Ming; Hsiao, Sung-Shan; Tsai, Cheng-Han
Beaches are the places where the interaction of the land and sea takes place, and it is under the influence of many environmental factors, including meteorological and oceanic ones. To understand the evolution or changes of beaches, it may require constant monitoring. One way to monitor the beach changes is to use optical cameras. With careful placements of ground control points, land-based optical cameras, which are inexpensive compared to other remote sensing apparatuses, can be used to survey a relatively large area in a short time. For example, we have used terrestrial optical cameras incorporated with ground control points to monitor beaches. The images from the cameras were calibrated by applying the direct linear transformation, projective transformation, and Sobel edge detector to locate the shoreline. The terrestrial optical cameras can record the beach images continuous, and the shorelines can be satisfactorily identified. However, the terrestrial cameras have some limitations. First, the camera system set a sufficiently high level so that the camera can cover the whole area that is of interest; such a location may not be available. The second limitation is that objects in the image have a different resolution, depending on the distance of objects from the cameras. To overcome these limitations, the present study tested a quadcopter equipped with a down-looking camera to record video and still images of a beach. The quadcopter can be controlled to hover at one location. However, the hovering of the quadcopter can be affected by the wind, since it is not positively anchored to a structure. Although the quadcopter has a gimbal mechanism to damp out tiny shakings of the copter, it will not completely counter movements due to the wind. In our preliminary tests, we have flown the quadcopter up to 500 m high to record 10-minnte video. We then took a 10-minute average of the video data. The averaged image of the coast was blurred because of the time duration of
Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.
Studies on the topography of the beach and the inshore reaches at Valiathura, near Trivandrum reveal that the beach is in a stable equilibrium and presents well defined cyclicity in accretion and erosion every year. During 1 year, the beach...
Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.
Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...
This paper investigates the achievable yield and extent of oil palm yield decline over time in four large oil palm plantations in Nigeria and Cameroon. In Nigeria the highest achieved palm oil yield was 2.64 tonnes per hectare for 9-year-old palms in one of the plantations studied. By the eighteenth year, the yield had ...
African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.
Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.
Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest...... formations and determine the number of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. We determine how much...... palms are used for subsistence purposes by carrying out quantitative, ethnobotanical research in different forest types and we also study trade patterns for palm products from local markets to markets that involve export to other countries and continents. We study different ways in which palms...
Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C
Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.
Kevin T. Smith
Palms are real, but are they really trees? The answer depends on definitions. As usually tall, peremrial plants with roots, stems, and leaves, palms seem to qualify. Palms should also qualify because arborists care for them, and arborists care for trees, right? My introduction to botany class defined trees as plants that produce wood. Unraveling the question of whether...
Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal
A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.
Radermacher, M.; de Schipper, M.A.; Swinkels, Cilia M.; MacMahan, Jamie; Reniers, A.J.H.M.
In recent years, the application of large-scale beach nourishments has been discussed, with the Sand Motor in the Netherlands as the first real-world example. Such protruding beach nourishments have an impact on tidal currents, potentially leading to tidal flow separation and the generation of tidal
Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Varadachari, V.V.R.
Morphological variations of 2 of the major beaches of Goa have been found to be cyclic over a period of approximately 1 yr. These beaches attain their maximum sediment storage around April/May. They are then subjected to rapid rates of erosion...
Canal Bruland, R.; Mooren, M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.
In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants
Swamy, G.N.; Varadachari, V.V.R.
are generally weak and the rip currents are very rare. The sweep zone is around 1.5 m in the foreshore of the beach. Investigations on beach volume indicate that sand bypasses Baga promontory and moves northward and gets locked up in the southern part of Anjuna...
Norlida, H M; Md Ali, A R; Muhadhir, I
Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of pastry margarine.
Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per
At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.
Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.
A need exists for frequent and prompt updating of shoreline positions, rates of shoreline movement, and volumetric nearshore changes. To effectively monitor and predict these beach changes, accurate measurements of beach morphology incorporating both shore-parallel and shore-normal transects are required. Although it is possible to monitor beach dynamics using land-based surveying methods, it is generally not practical to collect data of sufficient density and resolution to satisfy a three-dimensional beach-change model of long segments of the coast. The challenge to coastal scientists is to devise new beach monitoring methods that address these needs and are rapid, reliable, relatively inexpensive, and maintain or improve measurement accuracy.
Dany Pérez Dubé
Full Text Available Palm (Elaeis guineensis oil and its fractions can be combined to obtain designed fats with desired composition and physical properties. Incorporation of this type of ingredient in meat products can influence meat products process and sensory quality. In this study, a mixture of palm refined oil and stearin were employed to replace pork fat in a mortadella type product. A two-component mixture design was employed by the D-optimum design. Moisture, fat, protein, cocking losses and instrumental texture profiles were determined, besides a sensory evaluation. Results indicate that 8.8 % of pork fat can be replaced to obtain a good quality mortadella. Maximum palm fat in formulation was 44% of total fat content.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish and benthos baseline surveys were made at 155 sites of the near shore region off Kahekili Beach Park, West Maui in January and August, 2008. Survey sites were...
Tapsoba, François; Legras, Jean-Luc; Savadogo, Aly; Dequin, Sylvie; Traore, Alfred Sababenedyo
In South-West of Burkina Faso, palm wine is produced by spontaneous fermentation of the sap from a specific palm tree Borassus akeassii and plays an important role in people's lives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main agent of this alcoholic fermentation but little is known about the diversity of the isolates from palm. In this work, 39 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were isolated from palm wine samples collected from 14 sites in Burkina Faso, as well as 7 isolates obtained from sorghum beer (Dolo) from 3 distant sites. Their diversity was analyzed at 12 microsatellite loci, and compared to the genotypes obtained for other African yeast populations isolated from Cocoa hulks from Ghana, sorghum beer from Ivory Coast, palm wine from Djibouti Republic, and to our database of strains from miscellaneous origins (bread, beer, wine, sake, oaks…). The ploidy of these strains has been assessed as well by flow cytometry. Our results show that B. akeassii palm wine contains a specific yeast population of diploid strains, different from Dolo produced in the same area and from other palm wine strains from Ivory Coast, Nigeria, or Djibouti Republic. In contrast, Dolo strains appeared as a group of related and mainly tetraploid strains despite being isolated from different countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tamura, T.; Woodroffe, C. D.; Oliver, T.; Cunningham, A. C.
A sequence of beach ridges often records a `cut and fill', where the fair-weather swash accretion of beach sand is punctuated by storm erosion. The detailed chronology of the sequence is thus a clue to decipher past storm events and associated beach erosion, but has not been explored much. Here we explore the potential of such a sequence to detect past extreme retreats in Bengello Beach at Moruya, southeastern Australia. Beach monitoring since 1972 reveals that Bengello beach has shown a typical cut and fill, in which the beach retreats several tens of meters in relation to storms and recovers within a following few years. A storm event caused extreme retreat up to 50 m in 1974. Since then, no retreat exceeded 30 m. The beach monitoring highlights the sporadic nature of the prograded beach deposits; they can only be preserved as stratigraphic records during rapid beach recovery following a large retreat deeper than the beach profile envelope. Thus, ages of the preserved beach deposits roughly correspond to timings of large retreat. Optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages were determined for beach deposits at 5-10 m intervals along a shore-normal transect from the modern foredune to beach ridge 120 m inland. The most landward sample was dated as 510 yr, indicating that the net progradation rate is 0.24 m/yr, concordant with both the long- and short-term rates since the mid Holocene and 1972, respectively. Other ages show four events of retreat around 350, 180, 130 and 90 yr, and also reflect the beach scarp resulting from the 1974 event. The retreat of each event is given by the distance between the shoreline position prior to storm erosion and relevant gap in OSL age. The position of the pre-storm shoreline is estimated by assuming a constant rate of the net progradation of 0.24 m/yr, as with long- and short-term rates. The retreat of the four events is then determined as 45-55 m, similar to the 1974 event. In summary, extreme beach retreats, including that in
determined by methods outlined by A.O.C.S. (American Oil Chemist Society) , Usoro et al. , Clark , and ... diesel have shown that novel vegetable diesels could be obtained from palm oil. .... C-H stretch for alkenes and aromatics.
In this study, potential alternate hosts of the phytoplasma causing coconut lethal yellowing disease. (CLYD) in Mozambique were investigated based on 16S rRNA and secA genes. The results reveal that the naturalized palm species, Elaeis guineensis and Borassus aethiopum are alternate hosts of CLYD phytoplasma in ...
Suryani, Sri; Maharani, Hamzah, Muhammad Alimuddin
Losari Beach is the most important site in Makassar. It lies at the west side of Makassar city. This place is known as the place where people are relaxed and gathering with friends or family after working, and now it becomes the icon of Makassar city. As the biggest city in eastern Indonesia, Makassar grows very fast. We can find constructions for building hospitals, shopping malls, bussines activities, and residences everywhere. The most important construction activities that will effect Losari Beach is the reclamation to build the Center Point of Indonesia that takes an area of 157 hectares and it is located at the west side of Losari Beach. In the last research presented in 9th International Conference on Marine Technology (October 2014) using surface-water modeling system (SMS) software showed that reclamation will significantly increase concentrations of BOD and COD (± 7 mg/L for BOD and 6.2 mg/L for COD). This condition will cause Losari Beach becomes very polluted. A probable solution to overcome this problem is to clean the wastewater before introducing to the sea. This paper will describe the type of the wastewater treatment plant that can be used to solve the water pollution problem in Losari Beach.
The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...
Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is the public-facing query of the Program tracking, Beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients database (PRAWN) which tracks beach closing and advisory information.
Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T.
Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches
Ariel Lugo; J.L. Frangi
We studied the response of Prestoea montana (Sierra Palm, hereafter Palm) brakes and a Palm floodplain forest to hurricanes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Over a span of 78 years, 3 hurricanes passed over the study sites for which we have 64 years of measurements for Palm brakes and 20 years for the Palm floodplain forest. For each stand, species...
Precise identification of beach sand minerals is an essential prerequisite for the reserve estimation of a given deposit and also in the subsequent evaluation of the process flow sheet for its optimal recovery. Traditional methods that are used for the identification of the beach sand minerals such as magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, rutile, anatase, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, monazite, quartz and others include heavy liquid separation (bromoform and methylene iodide) and studying the optical properties of the grains from different fractions so as to identify the specific phases in a sample. Grain counting of specific minerals from a given sievefraction under a petrological microscope to estimate the mode and their subsequent conversion in to weight percent fractions forms the critical second stage that is followed by the reserve estimates. These methodologies are tedious and time consuming often involving a few days for a single sample. The paper introduces the numerous instrumental methods (XRF, XRD - Rietveld and CCSEM) of mineral speciation and their qualification in with case studies from the west coast deposits in India
Palm nut shell is an aggregate replacement material in concrete production . It is also an economically and ... requirements amongst the machine parameters of vegetable oil expellers. A manually-operated screw ... using such indices as feed rate, capacity, percentage oil recovery, machine efficiency, and oil yield.
Hefni Rusli, M.; Wheals, Alan E.; Sharma, Sweta; Seman, Idris A.; Cooper, Richard M.
Vascular wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis (Foe) has devasted oil palm in west and central Africa. This study investigates the spatial distribution of Foe, whereby non-random, clustered patterns of the disease were recorded in four separate plantations in Ghana; infection from tree to tree via elongating roots therefore plays a more significant role than aerial distribution by conidiospores, with management implications. Control of Foe with disease-resistant palm lines...
Iskander, Moheb M; Frihy, Omran E; El Ansary, Ahmed E; El Mooty, Mohamed M Abd; Nagy, Hossam M
Seven breakwaters were constructed behind offshore submerged ridges to create a safe area for swimming and recreational activities west of Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Morphodynamic evaluation was based on the modified Perlin and Dean numerical model (ImSedTran-2D) combined with successive shoreline and beach profile surveys conducted periodically between April 2001 and May 2005. Results reveal insignificant morphologic changes behind the detached breakwaters with slight coastline changes at the down and up-drift beaches of the examined breakwaters (+/-10 m). These changes are associated with salient accretion (20-7 0m) in the low-energy leeside of such structures. Concurrent with this sand accretion is the accumulation of a large amount of benthic algae (Sargassum) in the coastal water of the shadow area of these structures, which in turn have adverse effects on swimmers. Practical measures proposed in this study have successfully helped in mitigating such accumulation of algae in the recreation leeside of the breakwaters. The accumulation of Sargassum, together with the virtual insignificant changes in the up-drift and down-drifts of these structures, is a direct response to both coastal processes and the submerged carbonate ridges. Coastal processes encompass reversal of the directions of long-shore sand transport versus shoreline orientation, the small littoral drift rate and sand deficiency of the littoral zone. The beach response to the breakwaters together with the submerged ridges has also been confirmed by applying the ImSedTran-2D model. Results indicate that submerged ridges play a principal role in the evolution of beach morphology along the west coast of Alexandria. Although the study area is exposed to more than 70% wave exposures, the morphodynamic behavior of the beaches indicates that the submerged ridges act in a similar way as an additional natural barrier together with the artificial detached structures.
Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.
The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology
Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any addi...
May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi
Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404
May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi
Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers ( sn) -2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.
Rice, Amy L; Burns, Jennifer B
Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Hundreds of millions of children and tens of millions of women living in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia are at particularly high risk of the adverse health consequences associated with this largely preventable condition. Red palm oil comes from oil palms that are traditionally grown in tropical regions of West Africa and are now cultivated on a large-scale commercial basis in Southeast Asia. Red palm oil is the richest naturally occurring source of beta-carotene, a carotenoid that the human body can convert into usable vitamin A (retinol). This paper reviews a series of key intervention studies designed to investigate the impact of using red palm oil-based interventions to improve vitamin A status. These included studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America in which red palm oil was used (or proposed for use) (1) as a dietary supplement, (2) as an in-home fortificant, (3) to fortify foods used for distribution in targeted supplementary feeding programs, and (4) to fortify staple food products. Overall, the results suggest that red palm oil is highly efficacious in improving vitamin A status among populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency. The time has come to move beyond trials of biological efficacy and focus on conducting operational research projects, effectiveness trials, and cost-benefit analyses that will help expand the use of red palm oil in areas where it is likely to be well accepted but remains underutilized as a dietary source of provitamin A.
Eshleman, Jodi L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.
conditions to help isolate the effects of offshore wave direction and period on nearshore wave predictions. Alongshore varying average beach change statistics are computed at specific profile locations from topographic beach surveys and lidar data. The study area is located in the San Francisco Bight in central California. Ocean Beach is a seven kilometer long north-south trending sandy coastline located just south of the entrance to the San Francisco Bay Estuary (Figure 1). It contains an erosion hotspot in the southern part of the beach which has resulted in damage to local infrastructure and is the cause of continued concern. A wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling efforts have been focused here as part of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) San Francisco Bight Coastal Processes Study, which began in October 2003 and represents the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to very strong tidal flows, with measured currents often in excess of 1 m/s at the north end of the beach. Current profiler measurements indicate that current magnitudes are greater in the northern portion of the beach, while wave energy is greater in the southern portion where erosion problems are greatest (Barnard et al., 2007). The sub-aerial beach volume fluctuates seasonally over a maximum envelope of 400,000 m3 for the seven kilometer stretch (Barnard et al, 2007). The wave climate in the region is dominated by an abundance of low frequency energy (greater than 20 s period) and prevailing northwest incident wave angles. The application of a wave model to the region is further complicated by the presence of the Farallon Islands 40 kilometers west, and a massive ebb tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (~150 km2), which creates complicated refraction patterns as wave energy moves from offshore Ocean Beach; however the cost and threat of the energetic nearshore environment have limited the temporal
Full Text Available Research utilization of liquid smoke from oil palm empty fruit bunches of raw rubber has been made to utilize solid waste from industrial processing of oil palm empty fruit bunches of oil palm so that it becomes economically valuable products. This research has been done by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at a temperature of 400oC for 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours. The results show that the pyrolysis liquid smoke oil palm empty fruit bunches for 8 hours give a high concentration of phenol and acetic acid, respectively 5% and 0.454%. Liquid smoke that has been obtained is used as a coagulant in raw rubber plantation crops of the people residing in the village of Ambawang, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan. Results of treatment of liquid smoke on raw rubber show that the rubber products that have been frozen and dried are superior in terms of color, smell and drying time compared with the treatment of formic acid and water battery which has been added so far on raw rubber by the local rubber farmers.
California Natural Resource Agency — This is a dataset of beach nourishment history for the California Coastline from the 1920s to 2000. The original data was in tabular form (an Excel spreadsheet) and...
Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional .... counting the cells present in a sample of aged seawater and comparing this with .... This activity peaked at 71 % above the undisturbed level after 16 hours.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 5 kilometers southwest of Newport Beach. Seriously affected area: 1,200 square kilometers. Damage: $40 million. Schools were among the buildings most severely...
Corcoran, Patricia L.; Biesinger, Mark C.; Grifi, Meriem
Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth
Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim
The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moerman, Annelies T.; de Hert, Stefan G.; Jacobs, Tom F.; de Wilde, Lieven F.; Wouters, Patrick F.
Cases of ischaemic brain damage have been reported in relatively healthy patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Unrecognised cerebral hypoperfusion may have contributed to these catastrophic events, indicating that routine anaesthesia monitoring may not suffice.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of oil palm with linkages to biofuel in Indonesia and analyzes the associated environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We selected three plantation study sites in West Papua (Manokwari, West Kalimantan (Kubu Raya, and Papua (Boven Digoel to assess the impacts. Research findings indicate that the development of oil palm in all three sites has caused deforestation, resulting in significant secondary external impacts such as water pollution, soil erosion, and air pollution. In terms of social impacts, many stakeholder groups, i.e., employees, out-growers, and investing households, report significant gains. However, we found these benefits were not evenly distributed. Other stakeholders, particularly traditional landowners, experienced restrictions on traditional land use rights and land losses. We observed increasing land scarcity, rising land prices, and conflicts over land in all sites. Three major trade-offs are associated with the development of oil palm plantations, including those related to biofuels: unevenly distributed economic benefits are generated at the cost of significant environmental losses; there are some winners but also many losers; and economic gains accrue at the expense of weak rule of law. To reduce the negative impacts and trade-offs of oil palm plantations and maximize their economic potential, government decision makers need to restrict the use of forested land for plantation development, enforce existing regulations on concession allocation and environmental management, improve monitoring of labor practices, recognize traditional land use rights, and make land transfer agreements involving customary land more transparent and legally binding.
Dehouck, Aurelie; Sénéchal, Nadia; Lafon, Virginie; Almar, Rafael; Castelle, Bruno; Froidefond, Jean-Marie
Historical shoreline oscillations along adjacent beaches south the Arcachon tidal inlet (south-west France) have been directly controled by sediment inputs carried through the inlet by the littoral drift. In parallell, field observations aiming at understanding high frequency processes governing short-term beach morphodynamics are conducted on a very few local beach sites, among them the beach of Biscarrosse located 12 km south the inlet where video cameras are implemented. It have been suggested that Biscarrosse Beach was recently affected by nearshore large-scale sandy structures propagating southward and originating from the inlet. But, basic information about the space and time dynamics of these bodies is actually missing. In addition, there is a spatial gap in knowledge concerning the hydro and morphodynamics particularities along the south-Gironde coast, i.e. between the ebb-delta and adjacent beaches which have been subject to intense monitoring and the beach of Biscarrosse. In fact, this is a complex area where beaches are dominated by channeled tidal flows on one hand, while typical swell-dominated beaches extend for several tens of kilometers on the other hand, characterized by rhythmic crescentic outer bar patterns and oblique bar-and-rip inner bar. So, large-scale observations are needed to fill the spatial gap in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of nearshore sandbar morphodynamics. To achieve this objective, we benefited from satellite remote sensing timeseries that were recently made available by the CNES, the French Space Agency, through the Kalideos database. It encompasses SPOT high resolution (10-m and 20-m pixels) multispectral imagery from 1986 to 2009. The method is based on a semi-empirical algorithm using seawater optical properties to invert satellite reflectance at the sea level into water depth (Lee et al., 1998; Lafon et al., 2002). The algorithm was calibrated with in situ reflectance measurements collected in the nearshore
Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.
... affecting oil palm production in predominantly oil palm producing areas of Ondo state of Nigeria. ... This was because the mangrove swamp zone does not .... Research stations e.g. NIFOR. Radio .... palm production management practices.
Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.
The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...
Boateng, Laurene; Ansong, Richard; Owusu, William B; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda
Coconut and palm oils which were the major sources of dietary fats for centuries in most of West Africa have been branded as unhealthy highly saturated fats. Their consumption has been peddled to supposedly raise the level of blood cholesterol, thereby increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. This adverse view has led to a reduction in their consumption in West Africa and they have been substituted for imported vegetable oils. Recent information however, indicates some beneficial effects of these oils particularly their roles in nutrition, health and national development. There is the need for a better understanding of their effects on health, nutritional status and national development. This paper therefore attempts to review the roles which coconut and palm oils play in these respects in developing countries, as a means of advocating for a return to their use in local diets. None declared.
Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie
Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) groves are found in the Americas from the south-west USA (36°N lat.) to Chile (21°S lat.) and eastward to the Caribbean Islands; from Venezuela, 63°W long. to 117°W long. (USA) and at elevations from 0-2,000 m. However, successful production of ripe dates is possible ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) established an Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA) in front of Kahekili Beach Park in West Maui that was...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) established an Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA) in front of Kahekili Beach Park in West Maui that was...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...
Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70 under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30 in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.
Full Text Available User perceptions can become vital especially at beach preferences as cleanliness, safety and amenities are some of the apparent factors that will affect. With the awareness of probable adaptation of beach users’ demands into policy recommendations, a case study has been carried out at Black Sea Coast of İstanbul at Şile beaches. Şile has been chosen in this study purposefully as it is a touristic district of İstanbul which has aimed to earn Blue Flag award previously. Secondly, it receives high amount of visitors especially during the peak periods in weekends; as it has a very close location to the city, people are choosing here most of the time just for the day. In this research with factors about human use of beach and impacts like cleanliness and sufficiency of amenities (showers, toilets, changing cubicles, parks etc. and the number of lifeguards are studied. Regarding the findings, the researchers consequently highlight recommendations for Şile beach management which could enhance the visitor experience.
Barfod, Anders S.
The Southeast Asian mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurmb occurs in large, monospecific stands in estuaries and along rivers. It is the only member of the subfamily Nypoideae, which derived early in palm evolution and is known from a fossil record extending back in time at least 70 millions years...
Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...
Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus
This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...
Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge
This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....
Ewing, L.; Foteinis, S.; Kalligeris, N.; Palaiologou, A.; Synolakis, C. E.
The coastlines of the Greece are rapidly retreating at a rate that has increased substantially in the past decade. We describe here specific examples of rapid erosion and we speculate as to the causes. In some instances, erosion is advancing at a rate of 1m/year. As in other parts of the Mediterranean, the causes are anthropogenic and include sand mining from the beaches and rivers, poor design of coastal structures that create reflection patterns that focus waves on vulnerable areas, removal of sand dunes to build roads, and coastal construction too close to shoreline. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and antiquated legislation. We conclude that unless urgent salvage measures to protect the beaches and end sand mining and dune removal, several beaches will disappear within the next decade.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...
The wave climate, littoral current patterns, monthly and seasonal longshore drift rates, beach profile changes, and sediment budget of the beach sediments were determined along Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India) for the NE, SW monsoons...
diversity and abundance of macrofauna, beach slope and par- ticle size are analysed in ... Particular attention will be given to the distribution .of physical beach types .... hibited some evidence of phytoplankton blooms which are an important ...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Program focuses on the following five areas to meet the goals of improving public health and...
Watts, Andrew J R; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S; Lewis, Ceri
Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m -2 per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m -2 per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In July and August 1972, I spent five weeks on an expedition to study rattans and other palms in the provinces of Jambi and West Sumatra. This central area of Sumatra was chosen because expeditions have already been made to South Sumatra in February 1971 and March 1972 and to North Sumatra and Aceh with the Kyoto University Expedition in August 1971, and therefore collections made in this central area would link up collections from the south and north and would hence add considerably to our knowledge of the palm flora of this rich island. After advice from the Department of Nature Conservation in Jambi and from Dr. M. Jacobs in Rijksherbarium (Leiden had been considered, it was decided to work westwards from Berbak Nature Reserve on the east coast near Nipah Panjang, to the Bukit Barisan, the main range of Sumatra, to Gunung Kerinci Nature Reserve and G. Tujuh near Sungai Penuh and from there, across the western part of the Bukit Barisan to Padang and Bukittinggi. From Bukittinggi it was planned to visit the Kafflesia arnoldii Nature Reserve at Batang Palupuh, and then return to Jambi by way of Muara Tebo and Muara Tembesi, where reputedly there still exists lowland forest. By more or less confining our collecting activities to the normally neglected Palmae it was hoped that within the time available a large area could be covered reasonably, and a palm transect for central Sumatra made. Two assistants from Bogor accompanied me to help in the difficult task of collecting rattans: Dedy Darnaedi (Herbarium Bogoriense and Abdul Hanan (Kebun Raya. These assistants were also given individual collecting assignments as part of a scheme for training assistants in field botany. Dedy was to collect Pteridophyta and Hanan to collect material for growing in the Kebun Raya. Soetrisno Soewoko, head of Nature Conservation in Jambi accompanied us throughout tha expedition.
The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...
Weed consistently depressed the performance of oil palm and this depressive effect was attributed to aggressive growth resources, smothering of the oil palm and preventing the palm from proper ventilation and solar radiation. Weed interference on inflorescence production of oil palm was assessed with the view of ...
Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.
Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress
Watts, Andrew J.R.; Porter, Adam; Hembrow, Neil; Sharpe, Jolyon; Galloway, Tamara S.; Lewis, Ceri
Marine litter and its accumulation on beaches is an issue of major current concern due to its significant environmental and economic impacts. Yet our understanding of spatio-temporal trends in beach litter and the drivers of these trends are currently limited by the availability of robust long term data sets. Here we present a unique data set collected systematically once a month, every month over a six year period for nine beaches along the North Coast of Cornwall, U.K. to investigate the key drivers of beach litter in the Bude, Padstow and Porthcothan areas. Overall, an average of 0.02 litter items m −2 per month were collected during the six year study, with Bude beaches (Summerleaze, Crooklets and Widemouth) the most impacted (0.03 ± 0.004 litter items m −2 per month). The amount of litter collected each month decreased by 18% and 71% respectively for Padstow (Polzeath, Trevone and Harlyn) and Bude areas over the 6 years, possibly related to the regular cleaning, however litter increased by 120% despite this monthly cleaning effort on the Padstow area beaches. Importantly, at all nine beaches the litter was dominated by small, fragmented plastic pieces and rope fibres, which account for 32% and 17% of all litter items collected, respectively. The weathered nature of these plastics indicates they have been in the marine environment for an extended period of time. So, whilst classifying the original source of these plastics is not possible, it can be concluded they are not the result of recent public littering. This data highlights both the extent of the marine litter problem and that current efforts to reduce littering by beach users will only tackle a fraction of this litter. Such information is vital for developing effective management strategies for beach and marine litter at both regional and global levels. - Highlights: • Unique and systemically collected beach clean data set from 9 beaches over 6 years. • The most abundant litter items were
beaches with rdkctive and dissip:1tive characteristics (sensu. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ay u n der licen ce gran ted by th e P u blish er (dated 2009). ... beach intertidal communities WaS reviewed, (b) location of len sam.!y beaches studied in south-central Chile, imd (c) location of two sandy beaches studied on the ...
Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail
Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)
Jayakumar, S.; Raju, N.S.N.; Gowthaman, R.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.
16th November-15th December 1999, are as follows: (1) daily beach profiles, (2) daily littoral environmental observations and (3) beach sediment samples for grain size distribution. Longshore sediment transport rate is estimated theoretically based...
Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah
Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.
Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah
Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709
Durban has several established beach sport events. One of the many events is the Mr Price Pro, an internationally recognised surfi ng event, which takes place during the Vodacom Beach Africa festival, held annually during the July holiday season. This article examines the environmental impact of beach tourism events by ...
the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. ... the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy ... of beach dynamics and depositional environment. ...... erates beach ridges and inland sediment deposits ... Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division;.
Chandramohan, P.; Jayakumar, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Ilangovan, D.
Vainguinim Beach is a small and narrow pocket beach located on the rocky coast of Dona Paula Bay, at the estuarine front of the Zuari River in Goa, India. The beach has been widely used for recreation and swimming by a large number of tourists...
Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...
Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.
and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...
Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.
Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.
Madsen, A.J.; Plant, N.G.
This paper presents a test of a very simple model for predicting beach slope changes. The model assumes that these changes are a function of both the incident wave conditions and the beach slope itself. Following other studies, we hypothesized that the beach slope evolves towards an equilibrium
de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.H.; Hoonhout, B.M.; Vos, S.E.; Cohn, Nicholas; Ruggiero, P; Aagaard, T.; Deigaard, R.; Fuhrman, D.
This paper shows the first results of measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes during the recently conducted SEDEX2 field experiment at Long Beach, Washington, U.S.A.. Beach erosion and sedimentation were derived using series of detailed terrestrial LIDAR measurements
considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.
Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary
With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While may of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida’s west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway lower symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting
Sitompul, Monica Angelina
Have been conducted Determination of Iodin Value by method titration to some Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) and Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (RBDPKO). The result of analysis obtained the Iodin Value in Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 0,16 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (B) = 0,20 gr I2/100gr, Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (C) = 0,24 gr I2/100gr. And in Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil (A) = 17,51 gr I2/100gr, Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel ...
Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 and 50-301; NRC-2010-0123] FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach.... Borchardt (NRC) to M. S. Fertel (Nuclear Energy Institute) dated June 4, 2009. The licensee's request for an...
Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita
Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700
De Schipper, M.A.
Alongshore variability in topography (i.e. height differences in bed level along the coast) can exist on both natural and nourished beaches. An important question prior to implementation of a nourishment project is how alongshore variability is going to evolve and, related to this variability, the
Synolakis, C. E.; Foteinis, S.; Voukouvalas, V.; Kalligeris, N.
In the past decade, erosion rates for the coastlines of Greece are rapidly increasing. Many beaches on the northern coast of the island have substantially retreated, while others have disappeared or will disappear within the present or the following decade if no action is taken. For the better understanding and visualization of the current situation, specific examples of rapid erosion are described and afterwards we speculate as to the causes. We infer that, as in other parts of the Mediterranean, the causes are anthropogenic and include removal of sand dunes to build roads, sand mining from beaches and rivers, permanent building construction within the active coastal zone, on or too close to shoreline, and poor design of coastal structures. The reason behind the rapid erosion of Greece coastlines is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management and antiquated legislation. We conclude that unless urgent measures for the protection and even salvation of the beaches are taken and if the sand mining and dune removal does not stop, then several beaches will disappear within the present and the following decade.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.
Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E
(reflective, intermediate and dissipative), with beach gradients ranging from approximately 1:6 to 1:60 exposed to offshore significant wave heights of 0.5–3.0 m. The ratio of swash energy in the short-wave (f > 0.05 Hz) to long-wave (f ... the three beach types. Swash energy at short-wave frequencies is dominant on reflective and intermediate beaches and swash at long-wave frequencies is dominant on dissipative beaches; consistent with previously reported spectral signatures for the surf zone on these beach types. The available swash spectra...
Orren, M.J.; Eagle, G.A.; Fricke, A.H.; Gledhill, W.J.; Greenwood, P.J.; Hennig, H.F-K.O.
Chemical and meiofaunal studies have been carried out on ten sandy beaches along the south and west coasts of South Africa with the aim of establishing base line levels of some parameters, including trace metals, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, oxygen absorbed from alkaline permanganate (OA), temperature and salinity and the diversity and size of meiofaunal populations. Guidelines for the normal levels of the various parameters have been set out and some reasons for their variability have been suggested. The various sites share similarities with regard to exposure, granulometry and hydrology
Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar
Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.
Jundika C. Kurnia
Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.
Kelly, Elizabeth A; Feng, Zhixuan; Gidley, Maribeth L; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Kumar, Naresh; Donahue, Allison G; Reniers, Adrianus J H M; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M
When beach water monitoring programs identify poor water quality, the causes are frequently unknown. We hypothesize that management policies play an important role in the frequency of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceedances (enterococci and fecal coliform) at recreational beaches. To test this hypothesis we implemented an innovative approach utilizing large amounts of monitoring data (n > 150,000 measurements per FIB) to determine associations between the frequency of contaminant exceedances and beach management practices. The large FIB database was augmented with results from a survey designed to assess management policies for 316 beaches throughout the state of Florida. The FIB and survey data were analyzed using t-tests, ANOVA, factor analysis, and linear regression. Results show that beach geomorphology (beach type) was highly associated with exceedance of regulatory standards. Low enterococci exceedances were associated with open coast beaches (n = 211) that have sparse human densities, no homeless populations, low densities of dogs and birds, bird management policies, low densities of seaweed, beach renourishment, charge access fees, employ lifeguards, without nearby marinas, and those that manage storm water. Factor analysis and a linear regression confirmed beach type as the predominant factor with secondary influences from grooming activities (including seaweed densities and beach renourishment) and beach access (including charging fees, employing lifeguards, and without nearby marinas). Our results were observable primarily because of the very large public FIB database available for analyses; similar approaches can be adopted at other beaches. The findings of this research have important policy implications because the selected beach management practices that were associated with low levels of FIB can be implemented in other parts of the US and around the world to improve recreational beach water quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All
Ezeronye, O U; Legras, J-L
To study the yeast diversity of Nigerian palm wines by comparison with other African strains. Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were obtained from palm wine samples collected at four locations in eastern Nigeria, and characterized using different molecular techniques: internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, inter delta typing and microsatellite multilocus analysis. These techniques revealed that palm wine yeasts represent a group of closely related strains that includes other West African isolates (CBS400, NCYC110, DVPG6044). Population analysis revealed an excess of homozygote strains and an allelic richness similar to wine suggestive of local domestication. Several other African yeast strains were not connected to this group. Ghana sorghum beer strains and other African strains (DBVPG1853 and MUCL28071) displayed strikingly high relatedness with European bread, beer or wine strains, and the genome of strain MUCL30909 contained African and wine-type alleles, indicating its hybrid origin. Nigerian palm wine yeast represents a local specific yeast flora, whereas a European origin or hybrid was suspected for several other Africa isolates. This study presents the first genetic characterization of an autochthonous African palm wine yeast population and confirms the idea that human intervention has favoured yeast migration.
The largest monazite deposits in the world are the readily accessible placers in beach, bar and dune sands along the west and east coasts of India. The commercial monazite deposits in India are natural concentration of monazite with other valuable minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, etc. in the beach placers. These high grade accruals deposited to 1 - 1.5 m depth are selectively collected using labour intensive methods and processed for individual mineral recovery. All known methods of physical concentration of minerals are used for separating monazite and other valuable minerals. These make use of the five important physical properties of the minerals, viz., electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, specific gravity, surface characteristics and grain size distribution. The Indian Rare Earths (IRE) are operating three minerals beneficiation plants - two in the western coast at Chavara in Kerala and Manavalakurichi in Tamilnadu and one in the eastern coast of Chatrapur in Orissa State. Due to intensive selective mining all these years, there is considerable depletion in the quality of beach accruals which if fed directly to the processing plants will considerably affect their efficiency. Therefore, IRE has introduced integrated mining systems using dredge and pre-concentrate the dredge spoils to the required grade using spiral plants before feeding to the dry mills in the above plants. IRE has also advanced plans to exploit the 5 million m.t. monazite reserves in the country. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab
Environmentalists are all fired up as rainforests are cut down for palm oil production in south eastern Asia. An international certification system is to ensure sustainable production and save the rainforests. (orig.)
Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Baker, William J.
spatial scales. Among others, we ask the following questions: To what extent can niche conservatism explain large-scale distribution patterns? Which assembly mechanisms are responsible for palm community composition on different spatial scales? What is the role of phylogenetic history for spatial patterns...... clustering. On a continental scale in the New World, we inferred from phylogenetic turnover that palms diversified mainly within seven biogeographic regions. This pattern of in situ diversification is strongly driven by a combination of phylogenetic niche conservatism, environmental filtering and dispersal...... limitation. Niche conservatism with respect to temperature seasonality and extremes emerges as an important determinant of palm species and clade distributions and thus there is concern that palms might be considerably vulnerable to climate change. On a regional to local scale in the Western Amazon...
Palm, Eero, 1974-
Eero Palm arhitektiks saamisest, oma töödest, tööprotsessist, enda eramust, küsimustest, mida arhitekt peab lahendama objekti luues, kompromissidest, arengutest ehitusturul. Loetletud Eero Palmi töid
Loh Soh Kheang; Astimar Abdul Aziz; Ravigadevi Sambathamurthi; Mohd Basri Wahid
The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)
Full Text Available This paper describes the uses of 64 species of palms in 28 villages in Departamento de Loreto, Peru. There, the palms are of great use as food (Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, for fiber production (Astrocaryum chambira, Aphandra natalia, for construction of houses (Euterpe precatoria, Iriartea deltoidea,Socratea exorrhiza, thatching (many species of Attalea, Lepidocaryum tenue and for many medicinal purposes (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua.
Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.
A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam
Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...
Ribeiro, Mónica; Taborda, Rui; Lira, Cristina; Bizarro, Aurora; Oliveira, Anabela
Headland sediment bypassing plays a major role in definition of coastal sedimentary budget and consequently in coastal management. This process is particularity important at headland-bay beaches on rocky coasts. However, headland-bay beach research is usually focused on the beach rotation since these beaches are generally regarded as closed systems. The sediment bypassing mechanisms have been extensively studied in the context of artificial structures (e.g. groins and jetties) but studies of natural headland sediment bypassing are scarce and usually applied to decadal time scales. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of headland sediment bypassing processes in non-artificial environments, taking as a case study a natural coastal stretch at the Portuguese west coast. The study is supported on the analysis of planform beach changes using Landsat satellite images (with an acquisition frequency of 16 days) complemented with field surveys with DGPS-RTK and ground-based photographic monitoring. The study area can be described as a cliffed rocky coast that accommodates a series of headland-bay beaches with different geometries: some are encased in the dependence of fluvial streams, while others correspond to a narrow and elongated thin sand strip that covers a rocky shore platform. This coast is generally characterized by a weak, but active, sediment supply and high levels of wave energy due to the exposure to the swells generated in the North Atlantic. The long-term stability of the beaches in conjunction with active sediment supply along the study area (from streams and cliff erosion) and a sink at the downdrift end of this coastal stretch (an active dune system) support the existence of headland sediment bypassing. The analysis of planform beach changes show a coherent signal in time but with a range that depends on the orientation of the stretch where each beach is included. In general, beaches displays a clockwise rotation during summer related to the NW
Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan
Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos
Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the
This study documents the use of beach dewatering systems to accrete beach sand and minimize erosion, and to develop quantitative guidance for constructing and operating beach dewatering installations...
The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...
A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...
Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.
The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm
and fun-filled sunny golden beach-centered tourism. However, despite having an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) thousand times its landmass, the ocean based economic activities contributing to the Gross National Product of Mauritius have been... and necessary legislation for conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity and its Exclusive Economic Zone (in yellow) of the Republic of Mauritius 79 components. Setting up of an integrated coastal zone management framework involving impact...
Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda
Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.
Hans van Haren
Full Text Available A summer bather entering a calm sea from the beach may sense alternating warm and cold water. This can be felt when moving forward into the sea ('vertically homogeneous' and 'horizontally different', but also when standing still between one's feet and body ('vertically different'. On a calm summer-day, an array of high-precision sensors has measured fast temperature-changes up to 1 °C near a Texel-island (NL beach. The measurements show that sensed variations are in fact internal waves, fronts and turbulence, supported in part by vertical stable stratification in density (temperature. Such motions are common in the deep ocean, but generally not in shallow seas where turbulent mixing is expected strong enough to homogenize. The internal beach-waves have amplitudes ten-times larger than those of the small surface wind waves. Quantifying their turbulent mixing gives diffusivity estimates of 10(-4-10(-3 m(2 s(-1, which are larger than found in open-ocean but smaller than wave breaking above deep sloping topography.
Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen
The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.
The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a
Carothers, Steven W.; Johnson, Robert A.; Dolan, Robert
Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month period. Sand discoloration became significantly higher over all Glen Canyon beaches during the same time period. All indices were significantly higher in Glen Canyon than on similar Grand Canyon beaches. These differences are probably due to differences in: (a) level of impacts tolerated by the respective management regimes and, (b) in the number of user days among the two National Park Service administrative units. Management alternatives are presented for reversing the present trends of recreational impact on Glen Canyon beaches.
Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M
Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe
On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.
U.D. Chavan; R. Amarowicz; F. Shahidi
Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions) that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach...
Panama City Beaches, and they contain a wide variety of beach homes, condominiums, hotels, small commercial tourism - based enterprises, and resorts. The...exam Mexico Beach T O2.5 miles MaVO Ma KLLT GUL F OF MEXI CO Erosion Area No. 5I C EWoM Crooked Island 4.2 miles ECT Erosion Area No. 4 BAY Lwcmca.n
2008 and Ayodele, 2010) and also results in an increase in demand for palm oil. The demand .... climate change adaptation practice needs of oil palm entrepreneurs in Edo State, .... female respondents had one form of education or the other.
Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment with cyclophosphamide among rats. ... Background and purpose: Palm pollen is a good source of natural antioxidants and has a high level of health ... HOW TO USE AJOL.
Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.
Quality Assessment of Soaps Produced from Palm Bunch Ash-Derived Alkali and ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The remedial process involved subjecting the dried palm bunch matter to total combustion, ...
Loganathan, R; Selvaduray, K R; Nesaretnam, K; Radhakrishnan, A K
The oil palm tree, Elaeis guineesis, is the source of palm oil, otherwise known as the "tropical golden oil". To date, Malaysia and Indonesia are the leading producers of palm oil. Palm oil is widely used for domestic cooking in Malaysia. Palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherol, carotene, phytosterols, squalene, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols, and phospholipids. Although the phytonutrients constitute only about 1% of its weight in crude palm oil, these are the main constituents through which palm oil exhibits its nutritional properties. Among the major health promoting properties shown to be associated with the various types of phytonutrients present in palm oil are anti-cancer, cardio-protection and anti-angiogenesis, cholesterol inhibition, brain development and neuro protective properties, antioxidative defence mechanisms, provitamin A activity and anti-diabetes.
1Plant Breeding Division, Nigerian Institute For Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) P.M.B 1030 .... computed following standard statistical methods (Steel .... The production of NIFOR elite ... Malaysia Palm Oil Board, Kualar Lumpur, pp 171 – 237.
Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko
We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.
Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.
Domínguez-Tejo, Elianny; Metternicht, Graciela; Johnston, Emma L; Hedge, Luke
Sandy beaches are unique ecosystems increasingly exposed to human-induced pressures. Consistent with emerging frameworks promoting this holistic approach towards beach management, is the need to improve the integration of social data into management practices. This paper aims to increase understanding of links between demographics and community values and preferred beach activities, as key components of the social dimension of the beach environment. A mixed method approach was adopted to elucidate users' opinions on beach preferences and community values through a survey carried out in Manly Local Government Area in Sydney Harbour, Australia. A proposed conceptual model was used to frame demographic models (using age, education, employment, household income and residence status) as predictors of these two community responses. All possible regression-model combinations were compared using Akaike's information criterion. Best models were then used to calculate quantitative likelihoods of the responses, presented as heat maps. Findings concur with international research indicating the relevance of social and restful activities as important social links between the community and the beach environment. Participant's age was a significant variable in the four predictive models. The use of predictive models informed by demographics could potentially increase our understanding of interactions between the social and ecological systems of the beach environment, as a prelude to integrated beach management approaches. The research represents a practical demonstration of how demographic predictive models could support proactive approaches to beach management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liang, Zhang; Lianru, Gao; Bing, Zhang
The seashore, especially coral bank, is sensitive to human activities and environmental changes. A multispectral image, with coarse spectral resolution, is inadaptable for identify subtle spectral distinctions between various beaches. To the contrary, hyperspectral image with narrow and consecutive channels increases our capability to retrieve minor spectral features which is suit for identification and classification of surface materials on the shore. Herein, this paper used airborne hyperspectral data, in addition to ground spectral data to study the beaches in Qingdao. The image data first went through image pretreatment to deal with the disturbance of noise, radiation inconsistence and distortion. In succession, the reflection spectrum, the derivative spectrum and the spectral absorption features of the beach surface were inspected in search of diagnostic features. Hence, spectra indices specific for the unique environment of seashore were developed. According to expert decisions based on image spectrums, the beaches are ultimately classified into sand beach, rock beach, vegetation beach, mud beach, bare land and water. In situ surveying reflection spectrum from GER1500 field spectrometer validated the classification production. In conclusion, the classification approach under expert decision based on feature spectrum is proved to be feasible for beaches
Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.
In a changing climate context coastal areas will be affected by more frequent extreme events. Understanding the relationship between extreme events and coastal geomorphic response is critical to future adaptation plans. Beach ridge landforms commonly identified as hurricane deposits along tropical coasts in Australia and in the Caribbean Sea. However their formative processes in such environments are still not well understood. In particular, the role of different extreme wave events (storm waves, tsunami waves and extreme swell), in generating beach ridges is critical to their use as palaeotempestology archives. Anegada Island is a carbonate platform situated in the British Virgin Island between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Pleistocene in age, Anegada is surrounded by the Horseshoe fringing coral reef. Two Holocene sandy beach ridge plains are present on the western part of the island. The north beach ridge plain is Atlantic facing and has at least 30 ridges; the south beach ridge plain is Caribbean Sea facing and contains 10 ridges. Historical aerial photos enabled the shoreline evolution from 1953 to 2012 to be studied. Three different coastal domains are associate with the beach ridge plains: strong east-west longshore transport affects the north coastline, the south-west coastline from West End to Pomato Point represents an export corridor for these sediments and finally, along the southern coastline, from Pomato Point to Settling Point the area presents a depositional zone with little to no change in the last 70 years. The link between the extreme wave events that have affected Anegada Island in the last 70 years and beach ridge creation is discussed. Hurricane Donna crossed over Anegada Island in 1960: its geomorphological signature is tracked in the shoreline change analysis and its implication in beach ridge formation is discussed. Anegada Island has also been impacted by tsunami waves (Atwater et al., 2012) and a comparative discussion of the
Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea
The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....
Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...
Chandramohan, P.; Rao, B.P.
The impact of the May, 1979 cyclonic storm on Visakhapatnam beach, India and the observations made on beach profiles, waves and littoral currents prior to and during the storm are discussed. In general, at Visakhapatnam beach accretion trend starts...
Gouveia, A.D.; Joseph, P.S.; Kurup, P.G.
Results of wave refraction and beach profile studies are presented for a stretch of 35 km shore line comprising of Loliem Beach, Karwar, Karnataka, India which is separated by rock promontories from comparatively stable beaches on either side of it...
Hamdan bin Suhaimi; Anuar bin Kasim
The inner structure of lamellar liquid crystal before and after addition of RDB palm olein was characterised employing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and optical microscopy. Results show that the addition of RDB palm olein to both layered structure indicate a temporary disturbance resulting in penetration of RDB palm olein into the layered structure
The experiment was carried out between 1996 and 2004 to determine the productivity and economic returns to the resource base of farmers practicing different oil palm/food crop intercropping in an intensive four-year sequential cropping using the standard oil palm density. Oil palm was intercropped for four years, ...
The study examined the challenges and prospects of smallholder oil palm production in Awka Agricultural Zone of Anambra State. Seventy two smallholder oil palm farmers were interviewed for the purpose of eliciting information. Smallholder oil palm farmers in Awka Agricultural Zone were educated (79.2% - Senior ...
Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to compare genetic material from four females date palm and four unknown male trees of Egyptian date palm. The genetic similarity between the four females date palm (Zaghloul, Amhat, Samany and Siwi) ranged from 87.5 to 98.9%. The banding profiles obtained ...
Palm wine obtained from Raphia palm (Raphia hookeri) in Ayingba, Kogi State, Nigeria, was pasteurized through zero addition of preservative and placed on the shelf for 6 months. After 6 months, another sample of palm wine obtained from the same area was fetched and comparative analysis was carried out on both wine ...
Kuana, Vanessa A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa B.; Takahashi, Marcio C.; Campos, Adriana de; Sena Neto, Alfredo R.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Marconcini, Jose M.
The palm mesocarp fibers are residues produced by the palm oil industries. The objective of this paper is to determine an efficient treatment to extract crystal cellulose nanofibers from the palm mesocarp fibers to be incorporated in biodegradable polymeric composites. The fibers were saponified, bleached and analyzed with thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (author)
Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge
This tutorial provides an introduction to Palm distributions for spatial point processes. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions in the general case. Finally, we...
The study was on economic analysis of palm oil processing in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State, it was designed to determine the costs and returns of palm oil processing in the area of study. Seventy five (75) palm oil processors were randomly sampled from the study location and a structured interview schedule was ...
Purpose: To characterize diclofenac sodium (DS) liposomes prepared using palm oil fractions. Methods: Reverse-phase evaporation method was used to prepare liposomes containing 10, 20, 30 , 40 or 50% palm oil fractions. The effect of palm oil content on liposome formation, surface morphology, shape, size and zeta ...
Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette
The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of o...
in the center), and Type 3 (a full‑thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia). Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring‑shaped blisters and ring‑shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm. KEYWORDS: Camphor, palm burn, ring ...
Estimated error of ± 0.18 and ± 0.2 are envisaged while applying the models for predicting palm kernel and sesame oil colours respectively. Keywords: Palm kernel, Sesame, Palm kernel, Oil Colour, Process Parameters, Model. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 6 (1) 2006 pp. 34-38 ...
Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.
Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.
There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on some anti ... In Nigeria, palm oil production ... crude palm oil produced, 5-7.5 tonnes of water ... inter group comparison using least significant .... York, U.S.A. pp.
Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver is one of the insects that attack date palm trees directly and cause its death. This infection poses serious economical consequences in Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries. RPW assimilates the components of palm tree tissues. Significant amount of microbiota in ...
Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty
To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. Ameri...
In the last few decades, rapid global demand for edible oils has resulted in a significant increase in the land area of oil crop cultivation. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. This research was undertaken to evaluate ...
Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.
Brazil has the world's largest suitable land area for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) establishment, with estimates as high as 238 million ha. To promote oil palm development, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) in 2010 and delineated 30 million ha for its growth that excluded forested areas and indigenous reserves. Here we examine oil palm expansion (2006-2014) as well as the SPOPP's effectiveness in Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil. By combining analyses of satellite imagery, land registration data, and site based interviews, we found that oil palm area expanded 205%. Although >50% of oil palm parcels were located within 0.5 km of intact forests, lands. Direct intact forest conversion pre- and post-SPOPP declined from 4% to <1%; however, <1% of the 30 million ha promoted for oil palm was developed by 2014. To explore the major factors that may have constrained oil palm expansion under the SPOPP, we conducted microeconomic simulations of oil palm production, combined with interviews with actors/individuals from oil palm companies, civil society, researchers at universities and NGOs, and governmental agencies. Brazil's oil palm-deforestation dynamics, policies, and economic conditions will be discussed.
Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.
Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail
UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)
Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood
UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)
Lee, S. J. Y.; Ng, W. P. Q.; Law, K. H.
In the past decades, palm industry is booming due to its profitable nature. An environmental concern regarding on the palm industry is the enormous amount of waste produced from palm industry. The waste produced or palm biomass is one significant renewable energy source and raw material for value-added products like fiber mats, activated carbon, dried fiber, bio-fertilizer and et cetera in Malaysia. There is a need to establish the palm biomass industry for the recovery of palm biomass for efficient utilization and waste reduction. The development of the industry is strongly depending on the two reasons, the availability and supply consistency of palm biomass as well as the availability of palm biomass processing facilities. In Malaysia, the development of palm biomass industry is lagging due to the lack of mature commercial technology and difficult logistic planning as a result of scattered locality of palm oil mill, where palm biomass is generated. Two main studies have been carried out in this research work: i) industrial study of the feasibility of decentralized and centralized palm biomass processing in Sarawak and ii) development of a systematic and optimized palm biomass processing planning for the development of palm biomass industry in Sarawak, Malaysia. Mathematical optimization technique is used in this work to model the above case scenario for biomass processing to achieve maximum economic potential and resource feasibility. An industrial study of palm biomass processing strategy in Sarawak has been carried out to evaluate the optimality of centralized processing and decentralize processing of the local biomass industry. An optimal biomass processing strategy is achieved.
Sand samples collected on the beaches of the 'radioactive' Brazilian town of Guarapari were first separated by flotation in bromoform and successively divided into various magnetic fractions with a Franz isodynamic separator. concentrations of background radionuclides in samples of monazite, ilmenite, and zircon were determined by a γ-ray spectrometer. Chemical composition of monazite, ilmenite and magnetite were assessed by means of an electron microprobe. Monazite resulted to be relatively rich in ThO 2 whose abundance ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 (wt%). (author)
Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman; Rida, Anak Tajau; Mek Zah Salleh; Rosley Che Ismail
Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)
Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.
The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...
Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.
Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at
Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…
Pineiro, G.; Norbis, W.; Panario, D.
The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport
A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...
de Vries, S.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.; Ruessink, B.G.
This paper aims to conceptually simulate observed spatial and temporal variability in aeolian sediment transport rates, erosion and deposition on a beach. Traditional strategies of modeling aeolian sediment transport rates do not account for supply limitations that are common on natural beaches. A
1Advanced Biotechnology and Breeding Centre, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P.O. Box 10620,. 50720 Kuala Lumpur .... Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves. The DNA ..... tries are essential to avoid the risk of genetic erosion. The.
Full Text Available One of existence determining factor of PBS palm oil is a harmonious relation with communities surroundings, thus the partnership between the palm oil plantation with the farmers surroundings is one of effort which has created the harmonization in palm oil plantation. The objective of the article is to express the sustainability of each pattern of palm oil PBS partnership, and this partnership form gives the sustainability advantages for the farmer and palm oil PBS in Central Kalimantan. The article used quantitative method through the survey approach, primary data and secondary data. The article result there are three main patterns of palm oil plantation partnership in Central Kalimantan, they are MSA, KKPA, and IGA. IGA has value as a form which has degree of continuing that higher than MSA and KKPA, thus make IGA can be the reference in frame of PBS palm oil partnership in Central Kalimantan with keeping the superiority and improving the weaknesses.
Full Text Available The current situation concerning research in ethnobotany and economic botany of Peruvian palms is analyzed through a review of the literature with emphasis on knowledge related to uses and vernacular names. Of the 136 Peruvian palm species, 104 have at least one use. A total of 268 different uses distributed in 16 categories were registered. The most frequent categories are "construction", "edible", "craft industry" and "medicinal". There are 109 palm species with at least one vernacular name in Peru. The consulted literature is analyzed in four categories: (i general studies in economic botany, (ii ethnographic and ethnobiological studies, (iii studies of South-American palms of economic interest, (iv studies that exclusively deal with the useful Peruvian palms. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Peruvian palms proves to be essentially descriptive, with much repetitive information. Studies that significantly contribute to the genetic or agronomical improvement of the economically promising palms are rare.
Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in beach placer exploration combines the activities of data collection, organisation, visualisation, query, analysis and prediction. GIS has the potential to enhance the capability for creative data analysis, modelling and interpretation. Exploration software and GIS are essential tools for geoscientists searching for mineral deposits. GIS technology has come a long way in the past fifteen years, especially in data handling, analysis, visualization etc. Modern technology and solutions are now evolving to allow geoscientists to share data easily between mapping platforms and enterprise level GIS environments. In beach placer exploration programme, data handling and processing are the main challenging tasks due to generation and processing of large volume of field and laboratory data of the areas under investigation. Though there are limitations in visualising map data as a single map on a screen, due to its non-proportionate lengths and widths, a GIS can very well handle all these varied datasets to demarcate highly potential zones within a narrow coastal strip. Generally these datasets contain information from thousands of drillholes about their location co-ordinates, depth, height, description and thickness of lithounits, water table level, radioactivity and other pertinent subsurface properties. Field data collection can be efficiently done using a hand held global positioning system (GPS) installed with mobile-GIS application and data handling software
Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F.; Mukendi-Ngalula, David; Waanders, Frans B.
The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.
Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.
Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N
The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering issuance of an Exemption, pursuant to...
Estiasih, T.; Ahmadi, K.
Crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) are rich sources of bioactive compounds. PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refinery that produce palm frying oil. Physical refining of palm oil by deodorization produces palm fatty acid distillate. CPO and PFAD contain some bioactive compounds such as vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols), phytosterol, and squalene. Bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD are vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene. Vitamin E of CPO and PFAD mainly comprised of tocotrienols and the remaining is tocopherol. Phytosterols of CPO and PFAD contained beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol. Tocotrienols and phytosterols of CPO and PFAD, each can be separated to produce tocotrienol rich fraction and phytosterol rich fraction. Tocotrienol rich fraction from PFAD has both antioxidant and cholesterol lowering properties. Bioactive compounds of PFAD silmultaneously have been proven to improve lipid profile, and have hepatoprotector effect, imunomodulator, antioxidant properties, and lactogenic effect in animal test experiment. It is possible to develop separation of bioactive compounds of CPO and PFAD integratively with the other process that utilizes fatty acid.
Jin, Jingjing; Lee, May; Bai, Bin; Sun, Yanwei; Qu, Jing; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Sugiharti, Maria; Wong, Limsoon; Ye, Jian; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua
Oil palm is the world's leading source of vegetable oil and fat. Dura, Pisifera and Tenera are three forms of oil palm. The genome sequence of Pisifera is available whereas the Dura form has not been sequenced yet. We sequenced the genome of one elite Dura palm, and re-sequenced 17 palm genomes. The assemble genome sequence of the elite Dura tree contained 10,971 scaffolds and was 1.701 Gb in length, covering 94.49% of the oil palm genome. 36,105 genes were predicted. Re-sequencing of 17 additional palm trees identified 18.1 million SNPs. We found high genetic variation among palms from different geographical regions, but lower variation among Southeast Asian Dura and Pisifera palms. We mapped 10,000 SNPs on the linkage map of oil palm. In addition, high linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected in the oil palms used in breeding populations of Southeast Asia, suggesting that LD mapping is likely to be practical in this important oil crop. Our data provide a valuable resource for accelerating genetic improvement and studying the mechanism underlying phenotypic variations of important oil palm traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.
Olafisoye, O B; Oguntibeju, O O; Osibote, O A
Oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) is one of the most productive oil producing plant in the world. Crude palm oil is composed of triglycerides supplying the world's need of edible oils and fats. Palm oil also provides essential elements and antioxidants that are potential mediators of cellular functions. Experimental studies have demonstrated the toxicity of the accumulation of significant amounts of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil that affects the health of consumers. It has been reported that uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from the oil palm tree may be from water and soil on the palm plantations. In the present review, an attempt was made to revise and access knowledge on the presence of some selected trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations based on the available facts and data. Existing reports show that the presence of nonessential trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil may be from natural or anthropogenic sources in the environment. However, the available literature is limited and further research need to be channeled to the investigation of trace elements and radionuclides in soil, water, leaves, and palm oil from oil palm plantations around the globe.
Palm oil is an important nutritional food requirement and in order to facilitate the production of palm oil for consumption, the production process of palm oil has been investigated. The basic operations involved in the production of edible palm oil include; purchase, transportation and reception of oil palm bunches; bunch ...
Fachuang Lu; Steven D. Karlen; Matt Regner; Hoon Kim; Sally A. Ralph; Run-Cang Sun; Ken-ichi Kuroda; Mary Ann Augustin; Raymond Mawson; Henry Sabarez; Tanoj Singh; Gerardo Jimenez-Monteon; Sarani Zakaria; Stefan Hill; Philip J. Harris; Wout Boerjan; Curtis G. Wilkerson; Shawn D. Mansfield; John Ralph
The industrial production of palm oil concurrently generates a substantial amount of empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers that could be used as a feedstock in a lignocellulose based biorefinery. Lignin byproducts generated by this process may offer opportunities for the isolation of value-added products, such as p-hydroxybenzoate (pBz),...
Haploid auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected from palm wine and propagated by protoplast fusion with Brewers yeast. Fusion resulted in an increase in both ethanol production and tolerance against exogenous ethanol. Mean fusion frequencies obtained for a mating types ranged between 8 x ...
Emerich Souza, Priscila; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart
Beach-ridge deposits have been used as sea-level indicators in numerous studies from temperate coastal regions. However, their present surface morphology in artic regions may not accurately correspond to past sea-level, because subsequent surface erosion, solifluction processes and/or later...... sediment deposition may have altered the surface significantly. The internal structure of these beach ridges, however, is often well-preserved and thus constitutes an important key to reconstruction of past sea levels as seen elsewhere. In the present study, high-resolution reflection GPR data and high......-precision topographic data were collected at Lakse Bugt (Disko Island, West Greenland) using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a RTK-Trimble R8 DGPS, respectively. Three transects were collected across a sequence of fossil, raised beach ridge deposits, and two transects were obtained across modern beach deposits...
Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder
Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974
Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division
The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.
Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin
Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia . This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents , and more recently for biofuels . The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry . There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.
The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.
Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.
Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J
The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.
Gong, P.; Qi, C. Y.; Yu, L.; Cracknell, A.
Oil palm is one of the most productive vegetable oil crops in the world. The main oil palm producing areas are distributed in humid tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, western and central Africa, northern South America, and central America. Increasing market demands, high yields and low production costs of palm oil are the primary factors driving large-scale commercial cultivation of oil palm, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Global demand for palm oil has grown exponentially during the last 50 years, and the expansion of oil palm plantations is linked directly to the deforestation of natural forests. Satellite remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring expansion of oil palm. However, optical remote sensing images are difficult to acquire in the Tropics because of the frequent occurrence of thick cloud cover. This problem has led to the use of data obtained by synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is a sensor capable of all-day/all-weather observation for studies in the Tropics. In this study, the ALOS-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR-2 (Phased Array type L-band SAR) datasets for year 2015 were used as an input to a support vector machine (SVM) based machine learning algorithm. Oil palm/non-oil palm samples were collected using a hexagonal equal-area sampling design. High-resolution images in Google Earth and PALSAR-2 imagery were used in human photo-interpretation to separate oil palm from others (i.e. cropland, forest, grassland, shrubland, water, hard surface and bareland). The characteristics of oil palms from various aspects, including PALSAR-2 backscattering coefficients (HH, HV), terrain and climate by using this sample set were further explored to post-process the SVM output. The average accuracy of oil palm type is better than 80% in the final oil palm map for Malaysia.
MacMahan, J. H.; Koscinski, J. S.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Thornton, E. B.
As part of the Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction (CLASI) experiment, an alongshore array of 6-m high towers instrumented with ultrasonic 3D anemometers and temperature-relative humidity sensors were deployed at five sandy beaches near the high-tide line in Monterey Bay, CA, in May-June 2016. A cross-shore array of towers was also deployed from within the active surfzone to the toe of the dune at one beach. In addition, waves and ocean temperature were obtained along the 10m isobath for each beach. The dissipative surfzone was O(80m) wide. The wave energy varies among the beaches owing to sheltering and refraction by the Monterey Canyon and headlands. The tides are semi-diurnal mixed, meso-tidal with a maximum tidal range of 2m. This results in a variable beach width from the tower to the tidal line. Footprint analysis for estimating the source region for the turbulent momentum fluxes, suggests that the observations represent three scenarios described as primarily ocean, mixed beach and ocean, and primarily beach. The direct-estimate of the atmospheric stability by the sonic anemometer suggest that all of the beaches are mostly unstable except for a few occurrences in the evening during low wind conditions. The onshore neutral drag coefficient (Cd) estimated at 10m heights is 3-5 times larger than open ocean estimates. Minimal variability was found in Cd based on the footprint analysis. Beach-specific spatial variability in Cd was found related to atmospheric stability and wave energy.
Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.
A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.
The goal of Geostatistics is in the prediction of possible spatial distribution of a property. Application of Geostatistics has gained significance in the field of exploration, evaluation and mining. In the case of beach and inland placer sands exploration, geostatistics can be used in optimising the drill hole spacing, estimate resources of the total heavy minerals (THM), estimation on different grid pattern and grade - tonnage curves. Steps involved in a geostatistical study are exploratory data analysis, creation of experimental variogram, variogram model fitting, kriging and cross validation. Basic tools in geostatistics are variogram and kriging. Characteristics of a variogram are sill, range and nugget. There is a necessity for variogram model fitting prior to kriging. Commonly used variogram models are spherical, exponential and gaussian
The City of Hermosa Beach, California, with the support of the AGU's TEX program, is exploring the potential for renewable energy generation inside the City, as part of the implementation of the City's 2015 Municipal Carbon Neutral Plan. Task 1: Estimate the technical potential of existing and future technologies Given the City's characteristics, this task will identify feasible technologies: wind, solar, tidal/wave, wastewater biogas, landfill biogas, microscale anaerobic digestion (AD), and complementary energy storage. Some options may be open to the City acting alone, but others will require working with municipal partners and private entities that provide services to Hermosa Beach (e.g., wastewater treatment). Energy storage is a means to integrate intermittent renewable energy output. Task 2: Review transaction types and pathways In this task, feasible technologies will be further examined in terms of municipal ordinances and contractual paths: (a) power purchase agreements (PPAs) with developers, under which the City would purchase energy or storage services directly; (b) leases with developers, under which the City would rent sites (e.g., municipal rooftops) to developers; (c) ordinances related to permitting, under which the City would reduce regulatory barriers to entry for developers; (d) pilot projects, under which the City would engage with developers to test new technologies such as wind/wave/microscale AD (pursuant to PPAs and/or leases); and (e) existing projects, under which the City would work with current wastewater and landfill contractors to understand (i) current plans to develop renewable energy, and (ii) opportunities for the City to work with such contractors to promote renewable energy. Task 3: Estimate costs by technology Finally, the last task will gather existing information about the costs, both current and projected, of the feasible technologies, including (i) overnight construction cost (capital); (ii) integration costs (e
Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.
Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.
Full Text Available Biodiesel conversion from transesterification reaction palm oil with methanol was studied by using an ash of palm empty bunch as a base catalyst. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and indicator titration analysis were used as tools for characterization of ash sample. Chemical structure of biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of ash sample weight (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g immersed in 75 mL methanol and the methanol-palm oil mol ratio (3:1; 6:1; 9:1 and 12:1 toward the conversion of biodiesel were investigated. Biodiesel was prepared by refluxing palm oil and methanol containing ash sample. The reflux was done at room temperature for 2 h. Ester layer was distillated at 74 oC, extracted with aquadest and then dried using Na2SO4 anhydrous. The product was characterized by GC-MS, ASTM D 1298 (specific gravity 60/60 °F, ASTM D 97 (pour point, ASTM D 2500 (cloud point, ASTM D 93 (flash point, ASTM D 445 (kinematics viscosity 40 °C and ASTM D 482 (ash content. The result of GC-MS analysis showed that methyl palmitate is primary content of biodiesel product. A 15 g weight of ash sample gave the maximum biodiesel conversion. By increasing methanol mole quantity, biodiesel conversion increased progressively and maximum at 9:1 methanol-palm oil ratio (84.12 % and decreased on 12:1 ratio (75.58 %. Most of the biodiesel products were similar to those of the diesel physical characters. Keywords: Biodiesel conversion, transesterification, palm oil, palm empty bunch
Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal
Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P
We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
NIFOR) on oil palm industry in Nigeria. It interfaces of achievements and developmental strides of the Institute on oil palm industry in Nigeria from its was establishment during colonial period as Oil Palm Research Station (OPRS.) in 1939 ...
Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent
Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233
Chong Jing Yi; Narayanan Kannan
Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled h...
Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P
Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Lars; Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Clemmensen, Lars B; Weβling, Ronny; Elberling, Bo
Identification of sea-level proxies is important for reconstruction of past sea-level variation. Methods for reconstructing Holocene relative sea-level curves are crucial for quantification of the impact of Greenland ice thickness variation on global sea level and vertical land movement. Arctic beach ridges constitute important potential archives of sea-level variation. However, their surface morphology may have undergone modification since deposition due to freezing/thawing processes and erosion, and their morphology may therefore not be trustworthy for sea-level reconstruction. Therefore, geophysical imaging is used to examine the internal structures of the beach ridges and to define a sea-level proxy unaffected by surface processes. The GPR reflections from study sites in West and South Greenland show deposition of beachface deposits and upper shoreface deposits; the contact between steeply dipping beachface reflections and less-dipping shoreface reflections is used as sea-level proxy. Numerous points are identified along GPR transects facilitating reconstruction of relative sea-level variation of hitherto unprecedented resolution. Erosional events and deformation caused by freezing/thawing processes are clearly delineated. The approach constitutes a solid base for reconstruction of relative sea-level curves affected by a well-defined vertical land movement history since the studied beach ridge systems represent long time intervals and only relatively small spatial extents.
Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. Almost all palm species are used in rural communities...
Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….
Gilburn, Andre S.
Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.
Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka
Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in
Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)
This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Evaluating the radiological health compliance of some beach environments in Delta State ... as well as specified members of the public (customers) are not at radiological risk.
Full Text Available Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.
Postmonsoonal survey of Caranzalem beach, Goa, India indicated the presence of plastic pellets. These pellets varied in shape, size and number, and are considered to be contaminants of marine environment...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Daytona Beach, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....
Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.
Macrofauna and meiofauna of 2 sandy beaches having medium and fine sand particles, respectively, were investigated, quantitatively Macrofauna density was highest around high water mark and progressively decreased towards low water mark Meiofauna...
Mascarenhas, A.; Ingole, B.S.
implications of sand dunes, significance of benthic biodiversity, knowledge of coastal geological processes and restoration of degraded sand dunes should form an integral part of any beach management strategy....
Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A
A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...
Murty, C.S.; Veerayya, M.; Sastry, J.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.
formation, variations in the profiles show anomalous behaviour. The differences in grain-size distribution of the sediments of these 2 beaches are attributed to the available wave energies at these 2 locations...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...
Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel. PMID:27819020
Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.
Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...
Veerayya, M.; Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.
Wave refraction studies have been carried out for waves of different periods approaching the coast at Colva, with directions of approach lying between180 degrees and 340 degrees, to obtain a qualitative picture of littoral flows along the beach...
3 Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Potsdam, ... Some beaches are characterized by a red-brownish sand colour, the Ain Achir and the ... The occurrence of clays has been determined using the methyl-blue method.
Full Text Available Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic Crude Palm Oil price. Finally, the domesticCrude Palm Oil is significantly affected by international Crude Palm Oil price.Keywords: consumption, cooking oil price, crude palm oil price and cooking oil
This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 11th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm and Beauty Hadrons, currently known as the BEACH Conferences. The BEACH conferences cover a broad range of physics topics in the field of Hyperon and heavy-flavor physics. This conference continues the BEACH series, which began with a meeting in Strasbourg in 1995 and since then offers a biennial opportunity for both theorists and experimentalists from the high-energy physics community to discuss all aspects of flavour physics. The 11th Conference took place in the Lecture Theatre of the Physics West Building of the University of Birmingham (United Kingdom) from July 22nd to July 26th and was attended by 107 participants. All of the sessions were plenary sessions accommodating review talks and shorter contributions discussing both theory and recent experiments. At the end of the conference Valerie Gibson (Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK) and Sebastian Jaeger (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, UK) summarized and put in context all the presentations of the conference giving two very interesting Summary talks. These Conference Proceedings are particularly interesting since, due to the long shutdown of the LHC in Geneva (CH), most of the data presented were from the entire data set available. This volume in fact offers an interesting panorama of the present situation and allows a comparison of the experimental data and the theory in a field that is always in continuous evolution. The conference was impeccably organized by the Local Organizing Committee chaired by Cristina Lazzeroni (Birmingham Univeristy, Birmingham, UK) that I want to thank particularly here. Many from the University Staff have contributed to the smooth running of the conference. We would like to thank the Local Scientific Secretariat for their invaluable help in making the conference a truly enjoyable and unforgettable event; a special thanks
Pit, Iris R.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, Martin J.; Griffioen, Jasper
To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of
Awan, Faisal Saeed; Maryam; Jaskani, Muhammad J; Sadia, Bushra
Breeding of date palm is complicated because of its long life cycle and heterozygous nature. Sexual propagation of date palm does not produce true-to-type plants. Sex of date palms cannot be identified until the first flowering stage. Molecular markers such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) have successfully been used to identify the sex-linked loci in the plant genome and to isolate the corresponding genes. This chapter highlights the use of three molecular markers including RAPD, SCAR, and SSR to identify the gender of date palm seedlings.
Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif
In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...
Molecular research on the genetic diversity of Tunisian date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) using the random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methods.
Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu
Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.
Moreira, José R.; Goldemberg, José
Englund et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044002) have recently analyzed biodiesel production from oil palm plantations as one possible way to mitigate climate change while providing cost effective results. They show that data for detailed quantification of biological carbon sequestration is available allowing a high confidence evaluation of positive impacts when oil palm plantation for food and biodiesel production is carried out in degraded, cultivated soil, and also with some varieties of natural vegetation in the Amazon. Nevertheless, economic risk associated with the future price of fossil fuels and uncertainties related with carbon subsidy are barriers. Here we discuss the assumptions under which such controversial proposal is based and suggest further analysis for Brazilian decision makers.
Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq
Full Text Available Palm distributions are basic tools when studying stationarity in the context of point processes, queueing systems, fluid queues or random measures. The framework varies with the random phenomenon of interest, but usually a one-dimensional group of measure-preserving shifts is the starting point. In the present paper, by alternatively using a framework involving random time changes (RTCs and a two-dimensional family of shifts, we are able to characterize all of the above systems in a single framework. Moreover, this leads to what we call the detailed Palm distribution (DPD which is stationary with respect to a certain group of shifts. The DPD has a very natural interpretation as the distribution seen at a randomly chosen position on the extended graph of the RTC, and satisfies a general duality criterion: the DPD of the DPD gives the underlying probability P in return.
Ferrari, Thomas E.
The beaching and stranding of whales and dolphins around the world has been mystifying scientists for centuries. Although many theories have been proposed, few are substantiated by unequivocal statistical evidence. Advances in the field of animal magnetoreception have established that many organisms, including cetaceans, have an internal `compass,' which they use for orientation when traveling long distances. Astrobiology involves not only the origin and distribution of life in the universe, but also the scientific study of how extraterrestrial conditions affect evolution of life on planet Earth. The focus of this study is how cetacean life is influenced by disturbances in its environment that originate from an astrological phenomenon - in the present study that involves solar flares and cetacean beachings. Solar storms are caused by major coronal eruptions on the Sun. Upon reaching Earth, they cause disturbances in Earth's normally stable magnetosphere. Unable to follow an accurate magnetic bearing under such circumstances, cetaceans lose their compass reading while travelling and, depending on their juxtaposition and nearness to land, eventually beach themselves. (1) This hypothesis was supported by six separate, independent surveys of beachings: (A) in the Mediterranean Sea, (B) the northern Gulf of Mexico, (C) the east and (D) west coasts of the USA and two surveys (E and F) from around the world. When the six surveys were pooled (1614 strandings), a highly significant correlation (R 2 = 0.981) of when strandings occurred with when major geomagnetic disturbances in Earth's magnetosphere occurred was consistent with this hypothesis. (2) Whale and dolphin strandings in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the east coast of the USA were correlated (R 2 = 0.919, R 2 = 0.924) with the number of days before and after a geomagnetic storm. (3) Yearly strandings were correlated with annual geomagnetic storm days. (4) Annual beachings of cetaceans from 1998 to 2012 were
Goverment of Uganda; Department for International Development (DFID) of the UK Government
Metadata only record In 1999, the Integrated Co-management of Lakes through Beach Management Units project was started in an effort to implement a new approach to the management of lake resources in Uganda. The main components of this plan involved decentralization, local community management, and improving the livelihood of the poor. In order to finance the management of these areas, the Beach Management Units (BMU's) are charging user fees to those individuals who obtain benefit from the...
Galgani, Francois; Ellerbrake, Katrin; Fries, Elke; Goreux, Chantal
Background: Assessing the chemical or bacterial contamination in marine waters and sediments is a very common approach to evaluate marine pollution and associated risks. However, toxicity and organic pollution of beach sands have not yet been considered, except in adjacent waters. In the present study, the toxicity and the chemical contamination of natural beach sands collected 20 m from the shoreline at two sites located on the Mediterranean Sea (Marseille and La Marana, Corsica) were studie...
Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Angusamy, N.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.
in Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu, India Soosai Manickaraj, D 1 ., Chandrasekaran, R 1 ., Gujar, A.R 2 ., Loveson, V.J 3 ., Angusamy, N 4 ., Chandrasekar, N 5 ., and Victor Rajamanickam, G 1 1 Disaster Management, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur... measurements are necessary. By comparing measurements taken at different times, a beach's stability is determined. Shoreline change data has many uses. This information is needed to evaluate the carrying capacity of the beach. It is also used to set...
Pit, Iris R; Dekker, Stefan C; Kanters, Tobias J; Wassen, Martin J; Griffioen, Jasper
To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of mobilisation
de Sousa, Rosigleyse C.; Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; Jiménez Quintana, José Antonio
The Amazon coast is rich in natural resources, with highly valued natural landscapes and ecological systems. These environments include estuarine beaches, which are important areas for recreational activities. The present study provides an environmental and recreational diagnosis of three of these estuarine beaches on the Amazon coast (Colares, Maruda, and Murubira). The study was conducted in July, 2012, 2013 and 2015. An set of variables was assessed: (i) physical variables (hydrodynamics),...
Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been paid to beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscape feature and around 70 % of the Marche region's coast (central Adriatic is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the region includes the beach of Senigallia, frequently monitored in the last decades and characterized by a multiple bar system, which represents a natural beach defense. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show long-term stability, confirmed by a good adaptation of an analyzed stretch of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short- to medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. The medium-term dynamics of the beach, which deal with the evolution of submerged bars and are of the order of years or seasons, have been related to the wave climate collected, during the analyzed temporal windows, by a wave buoy located about 40 km off Senigallia. An overall interpretation of the hydrodynamics, sediment characteristics and seabed morphology suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term. These medium-term time ranges during which waves mainly come from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and by a larger/smaller relative wave height, and seem to induce seaward/shoreward bar migration as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southeastward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile shape suggests the adaptation to a decreasing sediment size in the submerged beach. This is probably due to the presence of both the harbor jetty and river mouth north of the investigated area.
Full Text Available he aim of this article is not only to review the latest three biographies of Olof Palme, - written respectively by Kjell Östberg (2007-9, Klas Eklund (2010 and Henrik Berggren (2010 - but also and above all to identify their methodology, so as to single out some of the controversial points in Palme’s political career, yet leaving out both scandals and vulgar attacks.
Full Text Available The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids.Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1: 59-63.Epub 2006 Mar 31.La cinética de la biodegradación de los ésteres metílicos y etílicos derivados de palma (biodiesel por una población silvestre de bacterias aeróbicas fue medida a 20 °C, como medición manométrica del consumo de oxígeno. Los ésteres metílicos y etílicos se obtuvieron por transesterificación del aceite de palma con metanol y etanol,respectivamente. La flora bacteriana incluyó a los géneros Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter y Enterobacter. Las velocidades de consumo de oxígeno para las muestras de biodiesel fueron similares a lo observado en la biodegradación de disoluciones 1.0 mM de sustratos sencillos solubles en agua, tales como carbohidratos, aminoácidos y albúmina de huevo.
Full Text Available Morphologically, Singkawang and adjacent area consist of zones beaches, undulating hills, and steep hills. Granitic rocks and alluvium as a based rock of Singkawang coasts. Generally, Singkawang coasts was developed for coastal farms, fishery pond, and beach resorts, where most of these area have been eroded. Geological and physical oceanography condition are the aspects that build the characteristics of Singkawang coast. Human activities also play an important role in managing the equilibrium and dynamics of this coastal region. This research is to determine the dynamics and coastline changes of Singkawang coasts based on the characteristics of the coastal element and sediment. The high erosion was occurred at Semalagiâ€“Cape Bajau. The Cape Bajau - Cape Banjar is relatively stable due to headlands of this coast is characterized by igneous rocks which resistant to the erosion. The Cape Banjar â€“ South Coasts is very intensive erosion coast. Modern shorelines of the Singkawang coast might be as a shallow marine environment which were occurred thousands years ago (pre-Recent. The high of sedimentation process is generated by global sea level change, where was occurred at that time, and might be changed the area become part of the mainland coast of Singkawang. Keywords: coastal dynamics, erosion, sedimentation, Singkawang, West Kalimantan.
Banzon, J A
The harvestable energy from the coconut palm is in the form of husks, shells and oil from the nuts and the leaf petioles with a regular monthly production of a bunch of nuts and one leaf. From the known energy content of the husks, nut shells and petioles, the number of palm trees required to provide the total energy for domestic cooking at wood equivalent to 1-3 kg firewood per day ranges from 5-14 for husks, shells and petioles, or 15-47 if the material is first converted to charcoal. In order to provide diesel fuel containing 10% coconut oil and cope with the annual increase in such a demand, the coconut crop would have to increase at the rate of 1 nut per bunch per month from 3-11 nuts to 12 nuts over the next 8 years. Highest coconut sap yield in ethanol terms, amounts to 109 MJ/month per palm which equals the oil in a 20-nut fruit bunch, thus indicating possible greater energy harvest from coconut sap than from coconut oil.
Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center
This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.
Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo
Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.
Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.
Blanc, Mathieu; David, Fabrice; Abrami, Laurence; Migliozzi, Daniel; Armand, Florence; Bürgi, Jérôme; van der Goot, Françoise Gisou
Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species. As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm ( http://swisspalm.epfl.ch), our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation.
Harries, Hugh C; Clement, Charles R
The location of the original home of the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, and the extent of its natural dispersal are not known. Proponents of a South American origin must explain why it is not indigenous there and why it shows greatest diversity in southern Asia. Conversely, proponents of an Asian origin must explain why there are no Asian Cocoseae and why the closest botanical relative to Cocos is in South America. Both hypotheses share the common problems of how, when, where and in what directions long-distance dispersal occurred. These difficulties are resolved by accepting that C. nucifera originated and dispersed by populating emerging islands of the coral atoll ecosystem, where establishment conditions impose high selection pressures for survival. When lifted by wave action onto virtually sterile, soilless coralline rocks just above sea level and exposed to the full impact of the sun, seednuts must germinate, root and establish vigorous populations. The cavity within the nut augments the buoyancy provided by the thick husk, which in turn protects the embryo and, by delaying germination, simultaneously extends viability while floating and provides a moisture-retentive rooting medium for the young seedling. These adaptations allow coconuts to disperse widely through the coral atoll ecosystem. The monthly production of fruit and the long floating duration ensure that viable seednuts are always available in the lagoon to replace those destroyed by hurricanes and tsunamis, or to populate newly emerged coral atolls elsewhere. Long-distance dispersal is secondary, because it was the spontaneous, independent migration of coral polyps on a prolonged geological time scale that generated new coral atolls in new areas where the coconuts would be amongst the earliest inhabitants. The coconut palm became an intermittent, itinerant, pioneer endemic there, and also on suitable beaches on volcanic or large islands and continental coastlines.
Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun
The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alexandrakis, G.; Poulos, S.
, meeting a new state of equilibrium when land loss reaches the 68.67% of its initial width. Similarly, the beach zones of Ag. Petros (Isl. Andros), Korission Lagoon (Isl. Corfu), Marathon bay (Attica) and Alfios river delta (west Peloponnese) a reduced rate of retreat after the first 50 years, attaining a new state of equilibrium but when already have lost more than 85% of their current width. Bruun P., (1962). Sea level rise as a cause of shore erosion. Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 88: 117-130. Ciavola, P., Corbau, C., 2002. Modeling the response of an intertidal bar to b medium energyQ events. Solutions to Coastal disasters '02. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 526- 542. Nicholls, R.J., Leatherman, S.P. (Eds.), Potential Impacts of Accelerated Sea-Level Rise on Developing Countries, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, vol. 14, 324 pp. Dean R.G. (1991). Equilibrium Beach Profiles: Characteristics and Applications. Journal of Coastal Research, Vol 7, No. 1, pp 53-84. Hellenic Hydrographic Service, 2004 Tidal data in Greek harbours. Hellenic Hydrographic Service pp 40 IPCC (Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change) (2007). The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability.
The palm oil industry is one of the main commodity industries in South East Asia. This is the case for the two main producers and exporters of crude palm oil in the world, Malaysia and Indonesia, and thus there is an importance placed on the trading of the commodity in Malaysia, especially for hedging purposes for the producers. This is because; the main use of the product is for exporting purposes rather than for consumption, and thus it is important if there is a tool that the producers or ...
Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei
African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604
Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei
African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.
Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.
India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license
Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering
Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.
For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?
Cervantes, Omar; Espejel, Ileana; Arellano, Evarista; Delhumeau, Sheila
Four beaches that share physiographic characteristics (sandy, wide, and long) but differ in socioeconomic and cultural terms (three are located in northwestern Mexico and one in California, USA) were evaluated by beach users. Surveys (565) composed of 36 questions were handed out to beach users on weekends and holidays in 2005. The 25 questions that revealed the most information were selected by factor analysis and classified by cluster analysis. Beach users’ preferences were assigned a value by comparing the present survey results with the characteristics of an “ideal” recreational urban beach. Cluster analysis separated three groups of questions: (a) services and infrastructure, (b) recreational activities, and (c) beach conditions. Cluster linkage distance ( r = 0.82, r = 0.78, r = 0.67) was used as a weight and multiplied by the value of beach descriptive factors. Mazatlán and Oceanside obtained the highest values because there are enough infrastructure and services; on the contrary, Ensenada and Rosarito were rated medium and low because infrastructure and services are lacking. The presently proposed method can contribute to improving current beach evaluations because the final score represents the beach users’ evaluation of the quality of the beach. The weight considered in the present study marks the beach users’ preferences among the studied beaches. Adding this weight to beach evaluation will contribute to more specific beach planning in which users’ perception is considered.
Júlio Guazzelli Gonzalez
Full Text Available Abstract The feeding ecology of the beach silverside (Atherinella blackburni in the surf zone of a tropical sand beach, located in the southeastern Brazil, was accessed through the gut content analysis of 198 fish. Factors such as fish's size, season and day period were analysed to understand how these variables affect the diet composition of the species. Results show that A. blackburni is a coastal neritic fish with a broad feeding niche. Most recurrent prey were zooplanktonic crustaceans, insects and benthic molluscs, in which Copepoda crustaceans were the dominant dietary item in occurrence and abundance. A. blackburni appears to have a slight ontogenetic shift in its diet, changing from benthic molluscs to crustaceans and insects along its life cycle. The diel activity also reveals to be an important factor to the A. blackburni feeding ecology. The predominant occurrence of small fish during the morning, along with the main preys for this size class, suggests that small individuals use shallower waters as feeding grounds during the morning and, during the night, they move to deeper waters for protection against predators.
Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.
Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.
Annual oil shipments off the west coast of Vancouver Island include over 300 tankers carrying 26 million m 3 of crude oil, over 400 loads totalling ca 2 million m 3 of refined petroleum products delivered to local ports, and thousands of smaller fuel deliveries. The incidence and estimated risks of oil spills off the coast of Vancouver Island are reviewed. Large spills of over 1,000 bbl are likely to affect the area every 4-5 y, but several hundred minor spills occur annually. Beached bird surveys yielded densities of 0.72 carcasses/km, of which at least 12% were oiled by small, predominantly unreported spills. Under normal conditions, the incidence of oiled birds on beaches is low relative to beach survey results from other parts of the world, but these data underestimate the actual at-sea mortality because of the characteristics of the beaches and the ocean currents off the island. This has been confirmed by experiments using bird-sized drift blocks released off the island and studies of carcass persistence on beaches. The effects of the Nestucca spill, which killed ca 56,000 seabirds off Vancouver Island and northern Washington in winter 1988-89, are reviewed. 57 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs
Maize, soyabean and pigeon pea were inter-planted with a juvenile oil palm plantation in 1999-2002 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (7°15'N, 3°25', altitude 144m above sea level) to evaluate the growth of the interplanted oil palm as well as yield and overall economic returns ...
Date palm is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of several countries, including Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, North Africa etc. Inflorescence rot is a serious disease of date palm which limits its yield. The identification of the causal organism is a key step to tackling this disease, and such studies ...
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal on nutrient composition, fatty acid profile and sensory qualities of the meat of turkeys fed the dietary treatments. Six dietary treatments were formulated using palm kernel meal to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent.
A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...
Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.
Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study
It was found that a large percentage of the respondents were aware of the 5 improved oil palm processing technologies with friends and relatives as major source of information. Adoption was significant for 3 out of 5 technologies under study. The major constraints to improved oil palm processing technologies were high ...
The study examined characteristics of small-scale palm oil production enterprise in Anambra State, Nigeria. All the palm oil producers in Anambra State formed the population of the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected from primary source through ...
The genus Acrocomia, popularly known as macaw palm or macaúba, occurs in savanna areas and open forests of tropical America, with distribution from Central to southern South America. They are important oleaginous palm trees, due to their role in ecosystems, local economies, and their potential for b...
This research investigates the ripeness grading identification of the palm oil FFB using color features that are color histogram, color moment and color correlogram. Palm is harvested during the optimum stage of its ripeness since it improves the FFB oil quality and quantity. Harvesting wrong bunches decreases the oil ...
The Igbo speaking people are well known for palm oil production and processing in Nigeria. This occupation is one of the lucrative ventures among other trades or occupations for which the Igbo are known. With recent technological advancement in the method of production and processing palm oil, more English terms that ...
A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...
Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.
The need to know what values of engineering properties of palm kernels to use for rational design of handling and processing systems for palm kernels prompted a literature search for collation of published values. These values are presented in this work. And to manage the discrepancies observed among values published ...
Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn
closed forest. The palm inflorescence constitutes the structural and chemical framework within which interaction with the visiting insects take place. By investing in protective features such as sclerenchyme, raphide-containing ideoblasts and tannin rich tissues the palm may prevent destructive...
The palm family which is very versatile, of great service to man, and in great abundance in the tropics has not attracted the desired research efforts. In this work, raffia palm leaves, serving as raw materials, have been processed into a refined, researchful, value added form and produced into specimens which are then ...
Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Design and construction of palm kernel cracking and separation machines. JO Nordiana, K ...
May 1, 2012 ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of. Iraq, Iran and North Africa. Date palm trees are infected by several pathogens like fungi, ...
Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing
Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...
However, this study was designed to economically assess oil palm projects in Nigeria. Secondary data used for this study were collected from Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) and related journals. The data collected were analyzed using discounted cash flow techniques. The result shows that at 32% interest ...
A public health strategy for increasing the potassium and magnesium intake of the population was explored. These electrolytes have been confirmed by epidemiological studies to have some health benefits. A process for production of mineral water using palm bunch ash was developed. The composition of the palm bunch ...
NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.
In response to a growing interest in improving seedling production of oilseed species (like macaw palm), a fruit drying protocol for facilitating seed extraction was proposed. This enabled the production of macaw palm seedlings, but the temperature most suitable for seed extraction without losing its physiological quality is ...
Oil palm processing is a source of livelihood to many people. The study analyzed cost determinants and profitability of smallholders' oil palm processors using traditional and improved processing technologies. A multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected through questionnaire; ...
Populations of many vulture species have undergone substantial declines. In Africa, 82% are threatened and although research on vultures has increased, the biology and ecology of several species is still poorly known. The Palm-nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensis has peculiar ecological characteristics, feeding on palm ...
Feb 26, 2014 ... Malaysia and Indonesia together accounting for around. 83% of world palm oil production in 2001 (Wahid et al.,. 2004). The oil palm is an important economic crop, producing food and raw materials for the food, confectionary, cosmetics and ... inherently very slow, and high heterogeneity is still observed ...
Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace ...
Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.
The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.
The nineteenth century ‘commercial transition’ from export economies based on slaves to ones dominated by commodities like palm oil has been a central theme in West African history. However, most studies have tended to focus on the impact of the change and assumed that its causes were largely a result of the British decision to abolish their transatlantic slave trade in 1807 and subsequently persuading or forcing other nations to do the same. This thesis makes two principal contributions to t...
Khai Loong Chong; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Christine Pohl; Kian Pang Tan
Oil palm becomes an increasingly important source of vegetable oil for its production exceeds soybean,sunflower,and rapeseed.The growth of the oil palm industry causes degradation to the environment,especially when the expansion of plantations goes uncontrolled.Remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor the development of oil palm plantations.In order to promote the use of remote sensing in the oil palm industry to support their drive for sustainability,this paper provides an understanding toward the use of remote sensing and its applications to oil palm plantation monitoring.In addition,the existing knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations for further research are given.
Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel
A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.
Norsyabilah, R.; Hanim, S.S.; Norsuhaila, M.H.; Noraishah, A.K.; Siti Kartina
Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)
Mauder, M.; Khan, B.; Forkel, R.; Banzhaf, S.; Russo, E. E.; Sühring, M.; Kanani-Sühring, F.; Raasch, S.; Ketelsen, K.
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models permit to resolve relevant scales of turbulent motion, so that these models can capture the inherent unsteadiness of atmospheric turbulence. However, LES models are so far hardly applied for urban air quality studies, in particular chemical transformation of pollutants. In this context, BMBF (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) funded a joint project, MOSAIK (Modellbasierte Stadtplanung und Anwendung im Klimawandel / Model-based city planning and application in climate change) with the main goal to develop a new highly efficient urban climate model (UCM) that also includes atmospheric chemical processes. The state-of-the-art LES model PALM; Maronga et al, 2015, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2515-2015), has been used as a core model for the new UCM named as PALM-4U. For the gas phase chemistry, a fully coupled 'online' chemistry model has been implemented into PALM. The latest version of the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP) Version 2.3, has been utilized for the numerical integration of chemical species. Due to the high computational demands of the LES model, compromises in the description of chemical processes are required. Therefore, a reduced chemistry mechanism, which includes only major pollutants namely O3, NO, NO2, CO, a highly simplified VOC chemistry and a small number of products have been implemented. This work shows preliminary results of the advection, and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants. Non-cyclic boundaries have been used for inflow and outflow in east-west directions while periodic boundary conditions have been implemented to the south-north lateral boundaries. For practical applications, our approach is to go beyond the simulation of single street canyons to chemical transformation, advection and deposition of air pollutants in the larger urban canopy. Tests of chemistry schemes and initial studies of chemistry-turbulence, transport and transformations are presented.
Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Smale, Malcolm; Schoeman, David
Storms can have a large impact on sandy shores, with powerful waves eroding large volumes of sand off the beach. Resulting damage to the physical environment has been well-studied but the ecological implications of these natural phenomena are less known. Since climate change predictions suggest an increase in storminess in the near future, understanding these ecological implications is vital if sandy shores are to be proactively managed for resilience. Here, we report on an opportunistic experiment that tests the a priori expectation that storms impact beach macrofaunal communities by modifying natural patterns of beach morphodynamics. Two sites at Sardinia Bay, South Africa, were sampled for macrofauna and physical descriptors following standard sampling methods. This sampling took place five times at three- to four-month intervals between April 2008 and August 2009. The second and last sampling events were undertaken after unusually large storms, the first of which was sufficiently large to transform one site from a sandy beach into a mixed shore for the first time in living memory. A range of univariate (linear mixed-effects models) and multivariate (e.g. non-metric multidimensional scaling, PERMANOVA) methods were employed to describe trends in the time series, and to explore the likelihood of possible explanatory mechanisms. Macrofaunal communities at the dune-backed beach (Site 2) withstood the effects of the first storm but were altered significantly by the second storm. In contrast, macrofauna communities at Site 1, where the supralittoral had been anthropogenically modified so that exchange of sediments with the beach was limited, were strongly affected by the first storm and showed little recovery over the study period. In line with predictions from ecological theory, beach morphodynamics was found to be a strong driver of temporal patterns in the macrofaunal community structure, with the storm events also identified as a significant factor, likely
Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi
Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored
Aug 24, 2016 ... Key words: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., free fatty acid content, crude palm oil, inheritance. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm (Elaeis ... of world's production of vegetable oils. The highest palm oil producing countries ... Without prior refining, acidic palm oil is improper for human consumption (Anonymous, 2005).
Palm kernel, one of the end products of oil palm fruit processing is recovered by the cracking of the palm nuts which is first dried to aid efficient kernel recovery. In small-scale mills palm nuts are air-dried. This paper investigates the optimum drying time necessary for efficient nut cracking. Such factors as wholeness of kernel, ...
Fresh palm wine samples were obtained from oil palm and raffia palm into sterile flasks. The samples were examined for yeasts properties and performance in wine making using grapes. The yeasts in the palm wine were characterized, identified, and screened for their sedimentation rate, ethanol tolerance, alcohol content, ...
Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.
Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject
Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Aparna, K R; Shyamsundar, S
Analysis of fingerprints and palm prints at the crime scene is vital to identify the suspect and establish a crime. Dermatoglyphics can even be valuable in identification of a dismembered hand during medicolegal investigations to establish the identity of an individual in cases of mass disasters/mass homicides. The present research studies the variation in ridge density in different areas of the palm prints among men and women. The four prominent areas were analysed on the palm prints that included central prominent part of the thenar eminence (P1), hypothenar region; inner to the proximal axial triradius (P2), medial mount; proximal to the triradius of the second digit (P3) and lateral mount; proximal to the triradius of the fifth digit (P4). The mean palm print ridge density was significantly higher among women than men in all the designated areas in both hands except for the P3 area in the right hand. Statistically significant differences were observed in the palm print ridge density between the different palm areas in men and women in right and left hands. No significant right-left differences were observed in the palm print ridge density in any of the four areas of palm prints among men. In women, right-left differences were observed only in the P3 and P4 areas of palm prints. This preliminary study indicates that though the palm print ridge density is a sexually dimorphic variable, its utility for estimation of sex in forensic identification may be limited owing to significant overlapping of values.
Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.
The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, poil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.
Ari L. Darmawan
Full Text Available Palm oil fiber has its potency as feed fiber source for ruminant, but contains high lignin and causes limited digestibility. This research was carried out to find the effect of soaking palm oil fiber in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash (FPOFBA on in vitro digestibility. This experiment used a completely randomized design that repeated for 4times. Palm oil fruit bunch ash was mixed in water and entered into container for 24 hours within concentrations, consists of: 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/L. Moreover, this filtrate used to soak palm oil fiber for 3 hours. The processed products were analyzed for their level of lignin and crude fiber. Meanwhile, in vitro test was used to measure digestibility. It showed that soaking in filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash gave significant effect to decrease level of lignin and crude fiber (P0.05, such as 23.48 and 24.12% as well as 16.70 and 17.06 % in each. It can be concluded that soaked palm oil fiber with 150 g/L concentration of filtrated palm oil fruit bunch ash was more effective in improving digestibility.
... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...
Rossano, Claudia; Gambineri, Simone; Fanini, Lucia; Durier, Virginie; Rivault, Colette; Scapini, Felicita
The aim of the present study was to test sun orientation and rhythmic activity of two sandhopper populations from two Atlantic macro-tidal beaches. A population from Le Verger beach (orientated to 346°, Ille et Vilaine, Brittany, France) and a population from Damgan (orientated to 195°, Morbihan, Brittany, France), were tested on the beach under clear sky discriminating for landscape vision. For both populations locomotor activity rhythm was recorded in the laboratory. The two beaches differed for climatic features, tidal range and for human use. Both talitrid populations resulted very well orientated toward the shoreline, and both used solar position and landscape vision to orient. However the multiple regression analysis of orientation with climatic features showed a different use of local cues by the two populations and a slight influence of tidal regime (ebbing and rising tide), in spite of the supralittoral zonation of sandhoppers. In the laboratory they showed a well defined rhythmic behaviour as well as a bimodal rhythmicity, explained as a tidal one. These results are a new brick in the complex picture of orientation and rhythm studies on sandy beach invertebrates.
Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi
We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siti, M. F.H.; Norizzah, A. R.; Zaliha, O.
Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)
Jayakumar, S.; Raju, N.S.N.; Gowthaman, R.
stream_size 67326 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name INCHOE_Proc_2004_1_9.pdf.txt stream_source_info INCHOE_Proc_2004_1_9.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 G51G114G...100G32 G73G110G100G105G97G110G32 G78G97G116G105G111G110G97G108G32 G67G111G110G102G101G114G101G110G99G101G32 G111G110G32 G72G97G114G98G111G117G114G32 G38G32 G79G99G101G97G110G32 G69G110G103G105G110G101G101G114G105G110G103G44 G78G73G79G44G32G71G111G97G44...
Krishnakumar, V.; Murty, C.S.; Heblekar, A.K.
The wave-induced nearshore circulation model suggested by Noda has been modified and applied for three small segments along the coast of Goa. The present model incorporates the prevailing bottom topography and considers its variation along...
Sivadas, S.; Sautye, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.
removal of sediment. However, the macro faunal parameters returned to the pre-disturbances values within a period of two months after disturbances, suggesting short-term impact of physical disturbances....
Ganesan, P.; Gaonkar, S.S.
stream_size 47700 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name NIO_TR-4_2006.pdf.txt stream_source_info NIO_TR-4_2006.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 1 NIO/TR-04.... As a regular practice, the calibration of all the survey instruments were carried out before commencing the actual survey, to eliminate all types of errors, while collecting the field data. The geographical co-ordinates for the permanent benchmarks (at...
Krishnakumar, V.; Murty, C.S.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Heblekar, A.K.
are qualitatively assessed. The degree of refraction is less and no abnormal energy concentrations occur along this stretch. The waves after breaking give rise to many opposing flows forming circulation cells along the entire stretch. Zones of quasi-permanent rip...
Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.
.57 20.00 9.71 0.72 16.93 95 0 – 20 77.35 38.41 19.06 - 19.87 Talashil Berm 94 0 – 20 96.64 48.31 33.64 - 14.67 Talashil Dune 93 0 – 20 57.25 20.27 7.33 0.16 29.48 Talashil Dune 37 0 – 20 7.52 2.48 1.34 - 4.72 Hirlewadi HT 39 0 – 20 12.60 6.44 3....53 ” Average 5.03 1.87 0.59 - 2.56 37 0 – 20 1.36 0.36 0.08 - 0.92 Hirlewadi MT 20-40 2.00 1.26 0.21 - 0.53 ” 40-60 1.97 0.61 0.24 - 1.12 ” Average 1.77 0.74 0.17 - 0.85 (HT= High Tide, LT= Low Tide and MT=Mid Tide...
Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José
Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.
A global beach litter assessment is challenged by use of low-efficiency methodologies and incomparable protocols that impede data integration and acquisition at a national scale. The implementation of an objective, reproducible and efficient approach is therefore required. Here we show the application of a remote sensing based methodology using a test beach located on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline. Litter was recorded via image acquisition from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, while an automatic processing of the high volume of imagery was developed through machine learning, employed for debris detection and classification in three categories. Application of the method resulted in an almost 40 times faster beach coverage when compared to a standard visual-census approach. While the machine learning tool faced some challenges in correctly detecting objects of interest, first classification results are promising and motivate efforts to further develop the technique and implement it at much larger scales.
Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Sup [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer.
Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Lee, Jong Sup
Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer
Contamination of sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in Kaliningrad region is evaluated on the base of surveys carried out from June 2015 to January 2016. Quantity of macro/meso/microplastic objects in the upper 2cm of the sandy sediments of the wrack zone at 13 sampling sites all along the Russian coast is reported. Occurrence of paraffin and amber pieces at the same sites is pointed out. Special attention is paid to microplastics (range 0.5-5mm): its content ranges between 1.3 and 36.3 items per kg dry sediment. The prevailing found type is foamed plastic. No sound differences in contamination are discovered between beaches with high and low anthropogenic load. Mean level of contamination is of the same order of magnitude as has been reported by other authors for the Baltic Sea beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, Cecilia; Parkes, Stephen; Zhang, Qiannan; Zhang, Xiangliang; McCabe, Matthew; Duarte, Carlos M.
A global beach litter assessment is challenged by use of low-efficiency methodologies and incomparable protocols that impede data integration and acquisition at a national scale. The implementation of an objective, reproducible and efficient approach is therefore required. Here we show the application of a remote sensing based methodology using a test beach located on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline. Litter was recorded via image acquisition from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, while an automatic processing of the high volume of imagery was developed through machine learning, employed for debris detection and classification in three categories. Application of the method resulted in an almost 40 times faster beach coverage when compared to a standard visual-census approach. While the machine learning tool faced some challenges in correctly detecting objects of interest, first classification results are promising and motivate efforts to further develop the technique and implement it at much larger scales.
Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A
Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Panikkar, B.M.; Rajan, S.
The seasonal cycles of organic matter and chlorophyll at some beaches of the Kerala Coast were studied in relation to the abundance of the interstitial fauna at one of the beaches The faunal abundance showed no definite correlation either...
Each year, millions of Americans visit beaches for recreation and contribute significantly to local coastal economies as a result. Considering the frequency that coastal beaches are used for recreation, closures due to bacterial contamination have the potential to negatively impa...
Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.; Vinayaraj, P.
Cross-shore beach profiles and textural characteristics of foreshore sediment were analyzed for understanding an annual cycle of intertidal beach dynamics at Devbag, an Island sheltered estuarine coast. Cross-shore transects were monitored in a...
Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica Afonso
Estimates of future beach evolution in response to sea-level rise are needed to assess coastal vulnerability. A research gap is identified in providing adequate predictive methods to use for platform beaches. This work describes a simple model to evaluate the effects of sea-level rise on platform beaches that relies on the conservation of beach sand volume and assumes an invariant beach profile shape. In closed systems, when compared with the Inundation Model, results show larger retreats; the differences are higher for beaches with wide berms and when the shore platform develops at shallow depths. The application of the proposed model to Cascais (Portugal) beaches, using 21st century sea-level rise scenarios, shows that there will be a significant reduction in beach width.
Minato, Susumu; Shimo, Michikuni
In order to understand the mechanism of beach-to-beach variations in dose rates, measurements at 35 sand beaches were carried out along the Enshu-nada coast (a total of 140km). The sand samples were collected at 10 beaches to obtain the concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium by means of Ge(Li) spectroscopy. Factors affecting the variation in dose rates were discussed, incorporating these data with data of coastal sea-bottom sediments taken by the Geological Survey of Japan. Two-dimensional measurements were performed at 50 locations each in two beaches near the Tenryu river mouth to know within-beach variations in detail. Contour maps of the data revealed a considerable regularity. It was found from simple analyses of the data collected in this work that the dose rate levels at beaches are affected by the distance from the river mouth, erosion or sedimentation of beach, and depth distribution of seawater. (author)
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, SC, during the Labor Day fireworks... [[Page 51476
Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.; Rao, B.P.
Influence of breakwaters on Yarada Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India (3.5 km length) stability and distribution on wave induced longshore currents in this region were studied. Monthly observations on variation in beach levels, distribution of wave...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the beach closure data and land use information around each beach in 2006 and 2011 in the United States. The original data are created by EPA...
Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad
Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport
Didier, D.; Bernatchez, P.; Dumont, D.; Corriveau, M.
High and mid-latitude beaches have typical morphological characteristics influenced by nearshore processes prevailing under ice conditions during cold season. Nearshore ice complexes (NIC) offer a natural coastal protection by covering beach sediments, while offshore ice-infested waters dissipate incoming waves. Climate change contributes to sea ice shrinking therefore reducing its protection against erosion and flooding. In the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence (ESL, GSL) (eastern Canada), sea ice cover undergoes an overall shrinking and simulated future projections tend toward a negligible effect on wave climate by 2100. Quantifying the effect of nearshore dynamics on frozen beaches is therefore imperative for coastal management as more wave energy at the coast is expected in the future. To measure the effect of a frozen beach on wave runup elevations, this study employs a continuous video recording of the swash motion at 4Hz. Video-derived wave runup statistics have been extracted during a tidal cycle on a frozen beach, using the Pointe-Lebel beach (ESL) as a test case. Timestack analysis was combined with offshore water levels and wave measurements. A comparison of runup under icy conditions (Dec. 30 2016) with a runup distribution during summer was made under similar high energy wave conditions. Results indicate high runup excursions potentially caused by lowered sediment permeability due to high pore-ice saturation in the swash zone, accentuating the overwash of the eroding coastline and thus the risk of flooding. With projected reduction in coastal sea ice cover and thus higher wave energy, this study suggests that episodes of degradation and weakening could influence the coastal flood risk in mid- and high-latitude cold environments.
Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman
Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.
Wetterer, James K; Wood, Lawrence D; Johnson, Chris; Krahe, Holly; Fitchett, Stephanie
Ants known for attacking and killing hatchling birds and reptiles include the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), tropical fire ant [Solenopsis geminata (Fabr.)], and little fire ant [Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)]. We tested whether sea turtle nest placement influenced exposure to predaceous ants. In 2000 and 2001, we surveyed ants along a Florida beach where green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.), leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli), and loggerheads (Caretta caretta L.) nest. Part of the beach was artificially replenished between our two surveys. As a result, mean beach width experienced by nesting turtles differed greatly between the two nesting seasons. We surveyed 1,548 sea turtle nests (2000: 909 nests; 2001: 639 nests) and found 22 ant species. S. invicta was by far the most common species (on 431 nests); S. geminata and W. auropunctata were uncommon (on 3 and 16 nests, respectively). In 2000, 62.5% of nests had ants present (35.9% with S. invicta), but in 2001, only 30.5% of the nests had ants present (16.4% with S. invicta). Turtle nests closer to dune vegetation had significantly greater exposure to ants. Differences in ant presence on turtle nests between years and among turtle species were closely related to differences in nest placement relative to dune vegetation. Beach replenishment significantly lowered exposure of nests to ants because on the wider beaches turtles nested farther from the dune vegetation. Selective pressures on nesting sea turtles are altered both by the presence of predaceous ants and the practice of beach replenishment.
Johnson, Henry M.
IntroductionVirginia Beach is a rapidly growing city of more than 425,000 people. Sources of fresh water within the city, however, are limited. Prior to 1998, the Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department met the city's water needs by purchasing treated drinking water from the City of Norfolk. Because Norfolk had to meet its own requirements, the amount of water available to Virginia Beach was limited to about 30 million gallons per day (mgd) and even less during droughts. This water supply was supplemented with ground water from city-owned, community, and private wells. In many parts of the city, however, ground water cannot be used because of high concentrations of chloride, iron, and (or) sulfur, which give the water an unpleasant taste.In early 1998, a pipeline came on-line that can carry up to 45 mgd of water from Lake Gaston to Virginia Beach. The Gaston pipeline has alleviated concerns about water supply and quality for most residents living north of the "Green Line." These residents primarily use ground water only for small-scale domestic activities such as watering lawns, filling ponds and pools, and washing cars. City water and sewer services have been extended beyond the Green Line into the "Transition Area." Residents and businesses south of the Transition Area, however, continue to rely on ground water to meet most of their needs for potable and non-potable water. To help assure a continued, reliable supply of ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Virginia Beach Public Utilities Department, has begun an assessment of the shallow ground-water resources underlying the City of Virginia Beach.
Mahabot, Marie-Myriam; Pennober, Gwenaelle; Suanez, Serge; Troadec, Roland; Delacourt, Christophe
Global change introduce a lot of uncertainties concerning future trajectory of beaches by directly or indirectly modifying major driving factors. An improved understanding of the past shoreline evolution may help for anticipate future coastline response. However, in tropical environment, studies concerning carbonate beaches dynamics are scarce compared to open sandy beaches. Consequently, coral reef protected beaches morphological adjustment is still poorly understood and long-term evolution rate are poorly quantified in these specific environment. In this context, La Reunion Island, insular department of France located in Indian Ocean, constitute a favoured laboratory. This high volcanic island possesses 25 km of carbonate beaches which experience hydrodynamic forcing specific from tropical environment: cyclonic swell during summer and long period swell during winter. Because of degraded coral reef health and high anthropogenic pressure, 50% of the beaches are in erosion since 1970s. Beach survey has been conducted since 1990s by scientist and are now encompassed as pilot site within a French observatory network which guarantee long-term survey with high resolution observational techniques. Thus, La Reunion Island is one of the rare carbonate beach to be surveyed since 20 years. This study aims to examined and quantify beach response at decadal scale on carbonate sandy beaches of Reunion Island. The study focus on 12 km of beaches from Cap Champagne to the Passe de Trois-Bassins. The analyze of 15 beach profile data originated from historical and DGPS beach topographic data confirm long term trend to erosion. Sediment lost varies between 0.5 and 2 m3.yr-1 since 1998. However longshore current have led to accretion of some part of beach compartment with rate of 0.7 to 1.6 m3.yr-1. Wave climate was examined from in-situ measurement over 15 years and show that extreme waves associated with tropical cyclones and long period swell play a major role in beach dynamics
Gheskiere, T.; Hoste, E.; Kotwicki, L.; Degraer, S.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Vincx, M.
Despite their rather barren and arid appearance, European sandy beaches harbour a highly diverse fauna and flora and some of them are even highly productive. In contrast to tropical sandy beaches little is known about the structural and functional diversity of the different benthic components. This study aims to investigate the structural diversity of the meiobenthos, emphasizing on free-living marine nematodes on a Belgian sandy beach.The samples were collected on the sandy beach of De Panne...
SUL, J. A. I. do.; SANTOS, I. R.; FRIEDRICH, A. C.; MATTHIENSEN, A.; FILLMANN, G.
Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...
Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.
Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.
to shallow water. Bodge (1992) and Komar and McDougal (1994) suggested an exponential form as a preferred solution that exhibited finite slope at the...performance measures were computed from the shoreline to hsea, the active volume of sand bar variability. 3.1. Duck, NC, example Tests were carried out...applications. J. Coast. Res. 7, 53–84. Komar, P.D., McDougal ,W.G., 1994. The analysis of beach profiles and nearshore processes using the exponential beach
B A Ramesh
Full Text Available Introduction: Camphor burns on the palm are uncommon and rarely encountered by a plastic surgeon. Aim: This study aims to analyze different patterns of camphor burns on the palm. Methods: Five women and one man presented with camphor burns on their palm. All patients had burns on their right palm. The shape of camphor, the duration of contact with the ignited camphor on the palm, and post-burn treatments were evaluated. Results: Three types of camphor burns were noted: Type 1 (a ring-shaped or a dome-shaped blister with unburned skin in the center, Type 2 (an oval-shaped partially thick burn with unburned skin in the center, and Type 3 (a full-thickness burn exposing the palmar fascia. Conclusion: Different types of camphor burns on the palm are described in this study. This is the first study to report ring-shaped blisters and ring-shaped partially thick camphor burns caused on the palm.
Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C
Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separated from glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels' properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.
Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.
Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.
As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.
This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.
...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic coordinates... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport need...
...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES: Effective 0901...), amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...
... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.17 What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in...
...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano Beach... Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade on Sunday, December 11, 2011. The marine parade will consist of... Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this temporary...
Estimating the non-market value of beaches for saltwater recreation is complex. An individual’s preference for a beach depends on their perception of beach characteristics. When choosing one beach over another, an individual balances these personal preferences with any additional costs including travel time and/or fees to access the beach. This trade-off can be used to infer how people value different beach characteristics; especially when beaches are free to the public, beach value estimates rely heavily on accurate travel times. A current case study focused on public access on Cape Cod, MA will be used to demonstrate how travel costs can be used to determine the service area of different beaches, and model expected use of those beaches based on demographics. We will describe several of the transportation networks and route services available and compare a few based on their ability to meet our specific requirements of scale and seasonal travel time accuracy. We are currently developing a recreational demand model, based on visitation data and beach characteristics, that will allow decision makers to predict the benefits of different levels of water quality improvement. An important part of that model is the time required for potential recreation participants to get to different beaches. This presentation will describe different ways to estimate travel times and the advantages/disadvantages for our particular application. It will go on to outline how freely a
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach, Alabama. This action is necessary for the... conduct a high speed boat race on the Gulf of Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October...
Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.
During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)
Zaliha, Omar; Elina, Hishamuddin; Sivaruby, Kanagaratnam; Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Marangoni, Alejandro G
The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to -40°C leads to the further formation of a β'polymorph. Upon heating, a of β'→βtransformation was observed between 32.1 to 40.8°C, before the sample was completely melted at 43.0°C. The crystallization onset temperature of RBDPS was 44.1°C, with the appearance of the α polymorph at the same temperature as the appearance of the first sharp DSC exothermic peak. This quickly changed from α→β´ in the range 25 to 21.7°C, along with the formation of a small β peak at -40°C. Upon heating, a small XRD peak for the β polymorph was observed between 32.2 to 36.0°C, becoming a mixture of (β´+ β) between 44.0 to 52.5°C. Only the β polymorph survived further heating to 59.8°C. For RBDPKO, the crystallization onset temperature was 11.6°C, with the formation of a single sharp exothermic peak at 6.5°C corresponding to the β' polymorphic form until the temperature reached -40°C. No transformation of the polymorphic form was observed during the melting process of RBDPKO, before being completely melted at 33.2°C. This work has demonstrated the detailed dynamics of polymorphic transformations of PKO and PS, two commercially important hardstocks used widely by industry and will contribute to a greater understanding of their crystallization and melting dynamics.
Alapetite, Elodie; Barfod, Anders; Albert, Beatrice
pollen production and stamen number has never been so far investigated. The diversity in stamen number observed among palms species and genera provides an ideal case study to test for such a correlation, taking into account phylogenetic constraints. Based on a survey of flowers from 82 species...... representative of the various palm tribes and compared it to stamen number, we show that pollen production in palms ranges from hundreds to millions grains. There is a relationship between stamen number and pollen production in our sampling, particularly in Coryphoideae and Arecoideae where there is a tendency...
Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema
Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows