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Sample records for west medinipur district

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sumana

    2014-05-01

    To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study.

  2. A STUDY ON ETHNO-MEDICINAL USE OF SOME COMMONLY AVAILABLE PLANTS FOR WOUND HEALING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES IN THREE SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The information of ethno-medicinal uses as haemostatic, antiseptic wound healer and anti-dermatitic properties containing plants in human and animals were collected from three districts of southern West Bengal, India, viz. Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, and Murshidabad which are situated in different agro-climatic conditions. Presently twenty one such plants were recognized and most of them are new claim regarding the said treatments. The plants were properly identified with the help of relevant literatures, photographed and available relevant previous information about the medicinal properties or uses were also searched out from the earlier literatures and were enlisted for comparison.

  3. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  4. Scrub Typhus in Southern Districts of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Nilendu; Chakraborty, Sayantani

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus has been previously reported from north and eastern Indian states and areas such as Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It has also been known to be endemic in some parts of South India (Eastern and Western Ghats). However, no cases have ever been reported from the southern districts of West Bengal. Here, we report five cases of scrub typhus from South 24 Parganas and Kolkata, two districts in the southern part of West Bengal, India.

  5. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out in Wemberma district of west Gojjam zone, North West Ethiopia. From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle were randomly selected and examined for trypanosomosis. The prevalence of the ...

  6. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out in Wemberma district of west Gojjam zone, North West Ethiopia. From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle were randomly selected and examined for trypanosomosis. The prevalence of the.

  7. Scrub typhus in Southern Districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu Sarma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus has been previously reported from north and eastern Indian states and areas such as Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It has also been known to be endemic in some parts of South India (Eastern and Western Ghats. However, no cases have ever been reported from the southern districts of West Bengal. Here, we report five cases of scrub typhus from South 24 Parganas and Kolkata, two districts in the southern part of West Bengal, India.

  8. Groundwater Quality in the Wassa West District of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. K. Kortatsi

    Abstract. Reconnaissance hydrochemical survey of 56 wells was conducted in the Wassa West District with the objective of providing baseline data for the establishment of groundwater quality monitoring stations. The data acquired is used in this paper to assess the quality of groundwater in the District. Groundwaters are ...

  9. Groundwater Quality in the Wassa West District of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. K. Kortatsi

    providing baseline data for the establishment of groundwater quality monitoring stations. The data acquired ... Government of Ghana and some major mining companies operating in the District provide boreholes as .... Major and minor ions data for representative groundwater samples from the Wassa West District. Location.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Wassa West District of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reconnaissance hydrochemical survey of 56 wells was conducted in the Wassa West District with the objective of providing baseline data for the establishment of groundwater quality monitoring stations. The data acquired is used in this paper to assess the quality of groundwater in the District. Groundwaters are mainly ...

  11. Malaria in Wanokaka and Loli sub-districts, West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syafruddin, D.; Asih, P.B.; Coutrier, F.N.; Trianty, L.; Noviyanti, R.; Luase, Y.; Sumarto, W.; Caley, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and

  12. A photovoltaic case study: Pinnacles National Monument -- West District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candelaria, G.J. [National Park Service, Paicines, CA (United States). Pinnacles National Monument

    1997-12-31

    The remote West District of Pinnacles National Monument has no commercial electrical service. All development infrastructure has been historically powered by diesel generators. The noise and air pollution produced by these generators was a significant intrusion into the monument`s wilderness qualities and values. A partnership effort resulted in the design, installation, testing, modification, and completion of a $150,000 photovoltaic solar energy system with propane generator backup which now generates and distributes all electric power in the West District. The result is a clean, quiet, almost pollution-free, sustainable, non-intrusive, and efficient energy generation system that continues to prove its reliability and economic value.

  13. Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    ASEP SUNJAYA ADHIKERANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhikerana AS, Sugardjito J (2010 Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 11: 46-54. We have characterized deforestation in the Ketapang district forests when we implemented the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii Conservation in Trans-boundary Landscape between Central and West Kalimantan provinces. For the purpose of evaluating the changes in land use and land cover in the study areas, a series of Landsat imageries have been analyzed. Each of the Landsat imagery data set for all study areas was initially classified using unsupervised classification into 13 different land-cover types. Ground truth checks were undertaken for Ketapang district forests and Sungai Puteri peat swamp forest, from which the results were used for the supervised land use classification of these two study areas. Between 1992 and 2000 there was only small conversion of primary forest into secondary forests. During this period barren land remained extensive about 30.17% of the total area of Ketapang district. Both agriculture and plantation areas substantially increased 56% and 55% respectively during 2003, while at the same time the extent of both primary and peat swamp forests were considerably reduced up to 15% and 28% respectively. The most striking conversion was from secondary forest to agricultural land and from peat swamp forest to swamp areas. A fraction of lowland forest was also converted into oil-palm plantation which was extended with considerable size into agricultural land. The patterns of land use changes detected in this study indicated a number of possible causes that trigger deforestation in this district include, the local government policy and market demand.

  14. 78 FR 79707 - Notice of Public Meeting, Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Boise District Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ....HT0000 LXSS024D0000 241A 4500060956] Notice of Public Meeting, Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Boise District Resource...) 384-3364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gateway West Project Subcommittee advises the Boise District...

  15. Malaria in Wanokaka and Loli sub-districts, West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji B S; Coutrier, Farah N; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Luase, Yaveth; Sumarto, Wajiyo; Caley, Marten; van der Ven, Andre J A M; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2006-05-01

    Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and Loli, during the periods of January, May, and August 2005. The survey included three selected villages in each sub-district, and blood smear analyses of 701, 921, and 894 randomly selected subjects in January, May, and August revealed 30.5%, 25.3%, and 28.2% malaria positives, respectively, consisting mainly of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and in a few cases, P. malariae. Analysis of malaria prevalence at different age groups clearly reflected the common phenomenon that younger individuals are more vulnerable by infection of either P. falciparum or P. vivax. In falciparum malaria, the frequency of cases carrying gametocytes was also relatively high involving all age groups. The findings indicate that the malaria incidence and transmission in the area are relatively high and that further exploration is warranted to establish a precise malaria control program.

  16. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

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    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  17. Choice of Malaria Care Services in Sissala West District in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malaria care provider choice in Sissala West District, using a multinomial logistic regression model. A cross-sectional survey design was used and data was collected from 400 malaria infected individuals or their caretakers in the district. The results showed that travel time and waiting time negatively influence the choice of ...

  18. Malaria in Bulambya, Ileje district, south-west Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. JANGSON2. 1National Institute for Medical Research, Tukuyu Research Station,. P.O Box 538, Tukuyu, Tanzania. 2Ileje District Council, District Medical Office, P.O Box 2, Itumba, Tanzania ... of increasing disease transmission (Cox et al., 1999;. Bødker et al., 2003; Mboera et al., 2005). In addition,. Mbeya regional health ...

  19. 75 FR 71666 - Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Forest Service Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend... Jeffries, District Ranger, Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE. Third Street, Suite A...-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE. Third Street, Suite A-262, Bend, Oregon 97701...

  20. Prospecting for Groundwater in the Bawku West District of the Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integrated approach involving the Electromagnetic (EM) and Vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey methods, has been used to locate potential drilling sites to find groundwater for twenty (20) rural communities in the Bawku West District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. The EM method involved the use of the ...

  1. 78 FR 70959 - Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Resource Advisory Council to the Boise District; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Resource Advisory Council to the Boise... Management (BLM) Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Boise District Resource Advisory Council (RAC... Ave., Boise, ID 83705, Telephone (208) 384-3364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gateway West Project...

  2. Escherichia coli as bioindicator of the groundwater quality in Palmerah District, West Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanti, M. P.; Fachrul, M. F.; Wijayanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of thie research is to determine the quality of groundwater in Palmerah District, West Jakarta (6°11’24.32”S 106°47’49.88”E) by correlation between the depth of the well and the distance of septic tank with the distribution of Escherichia coli. The presence of E. coli is measured by using the Most Probable Number method. The distribution pattern of the E. coli was processed by Surfer Program. Research was conducted in April upto July 2017. The highest amount of E. coli always found in the Jati Pulo and Palmerah sub-district which is >1100 MPN/100 ml; while the lowest amount of E. coli found in the Kemanggisan sub-district and Slipi sub-district which is coli within the dense residential area.

  3. ANALYSIS OF INCIDENCE OF INFERTILITY IN CATTLE OF HOWRAH DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Asit Kumar Maji; Arindam Samanta

    2013-01-01

    A total of 823 numbers of cattle (342 Crossbred Jersey and 481 Non-descript) were presented for gynaeco-clinical examination after considering specific history of cattle at 26 fertility camps during January 2006 to December 2008 in flood prone rural areas of Howrah district of West Bengal, India. Statistical analysis of the data pointed out that among overall infertility problem incidence of anestrous and repeat breeding were 67.68 % and 32.32 % respectively. Incidence of anest...

  4. The complexities of managing forest resources in post-decentralization Indonesia: a case study from Sintang District, West Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasmi, Y.; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Alqadrie, S.; Budiarto, T.; Ngusmanto,; Abidin, E.; Komarudin, H.; McGrath, S.; Zulkifli,; Afifudin,

    2005-01-01

    The study attempted to understand the dynamics and complexities of forest resources management following decentralization, the interactions among stakeholders in forest resources management, and the impacts of the new legislation on local community livelihoods in Sintang District, West Kalimantan.

  5. HIV/AIDS related deaths from three district hospitals of West Bengal: An observation

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    MK Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on HIV/AIDS incidence or deaths are limited in poor-resource country like India and non-existent in state of West Bengal. These data are essential for formulating policies for HIV intervention strategies to curb HIV epidemic. In present study, a descriptive analysis of all registered cases from three district hospitals (Maldah, North 24 Parganas and Darjeeling during July 2006-December 2007 was conducted. HIV/AIDS related deaths were found to be higher in Darjeeling district compare to other two districts. A comprehensive and well-coordinated survey is needed to explore further HIV/AIDS mortality data in India for providing necessary information in developing HIV prevention programs.

  6. The influences of natural environment upon the evolution of sands dunes in tropical environment along Medinipur Coastalarea, India

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    Sudip Dey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This papaer assesses development of coastal sand dunes particulary along tropical coast. in depth study along on coastal dune morphology along Medinipur coastal track shows that sea levels remained very dynamic during the Holocene period. Evidence of Holocene sea level changes are found which were responsible for for the origin almost parallel distinct dune colonies through the geological past along this coastal track. The existence of tropical-monsoon climate with its seasonal phenomena plays an important the barrier property of dunes as well. in this paper possible biologcal interactions between sand mass of dunes and vegetation in different stages of development has also been dealt.

  7. Financial viability of district mutual health insurance schemes of lawra and sissala East districts, upper west region, ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevutsey, S K; Aikins, M

    2010-12-01

    The National Health Insurance Act, passed in 2003 mandates the National Health Insurance Authority to, in conjunction with the district assemblies establish district mutual health insurance scheme (DMHIS) governed by semi-autonomous boards in all ten regions. Since its implementation, unsubstantiated reports indicate increasing health care and administrative costs of the various DMHIS across the country without any corresponding increase in the premium level. We sought to assess the financial viability of the DMHIS in Lawra (LDMHIS) and Sissala East (SEDMHIS) districts, Upper West Region of Ghana. Cost analysis of revenue and expenditure of LDMHIS and SEDMHIS from 2004 to 2007 was used to estimate the revenue, expenditure, administrative cost, expense, claims and combined ratios. The scheme's major sources of revenue were funds from NHIA on behalf of exempted group and the formal sector employees and premium collected from the informal sector. Other sources of revenue were significant at the beginning and became almost negligible at the end of 2007. At the end of 2005, administrative cost was higher than medical claims. By the end of 2007, it has reduced to 34.3% and 15.7% of the total expenditure of the SEDMHIS and LDMHIS respectively. The combined ratios decreased from 2.27 and 1.17 in 2005 to 0.74 and 0.95 in 2007 for SEDMHIS and LDMHIS respectively. Continuous NHIA support, increasing coverage of the scheme and a corresponding reduction in administrative cost would increase revenue. If this is sustained, the schemes could be financially viable in the long term.

  8. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  9. Current situation of midwives in indonesia: Evidence from 3 districts in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The village midwife is a central element of Indonesia's strategy to improve maternal and child health and family planning services. Recently there has been concern that the midwives were not present in the villages to which they had been assigned. To determine the extent to which this was the case we conducted a field-based census and survey of village midwives in three districts in West Java Province, Indonesia. Findings In June 2009 we interviewed a random sample of village midwives from three districts - Ciamis, Garut and Sukabumi - in West Java Province. Trained interviewers visited all villages represented in the sample to interview the midwives. We also obtained information about the midwives and their professional activities in the last year. Thirty percent of village midwives had moved to another location in the 12 months between the end of 2008, when the sampling frame was constructed, and December 2009 when the survey was conducted; most had moved to a government health center or another village. Of those who were present, there was considerable variation between districts in age distribution and qualifications. The total number of services provided was modest, also with considerable variation between districts. The median number of deliveries assisted in the last year was 64; the amount and mix of family planning services provided varied between districts and were dominated by temporary methods. Conclusions Compared to an earlier survey in an adjacent province, the village midwives in these three districts were younger, had spent less time in the village and a higher proportion were permanent civil servants. A high proportion had moved in the previous year with most moving to a health center or another village. The decision to move, as well as the mix of services offered, seems to be largely driven by opportunities to increase their private practice income. These opportunities are greater in urban areas. As urbanization procedes the forces

  10. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis: prevalence and risk factors in districts of metema and west armachiho, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Feleke; Tessema, Belay; Moges, Feleke; Gelaw, Aschalew; Eshetie, Setegn; Kumera, Gemechu

    2015-10-26

    Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging challenge for TB control programs globally. According to World health organization, 2012 report Ethiopia stands 15(th) out of the 27 high priority countries in the world and 3(rd) in Africa. Updated knowledge of the magnitude of MDR-TB is so substantial to allocate resources, and to address prevention and control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated risk factors in West Armachiho and Metema districts of North Gondar. A cross-sectional study was conducted in West Armachiho and Metema districts between February 01 and June 25, 2014. A total of 124 consecutive smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included in the study. Socio-demographic and possible risk factor data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug susceptibility testing was first performed for rifampicin using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For those rifampicin resistant strains, drug susceptibility testing was performed for both isoniazid and rifampicin to identify MDR-TB using the proportional method on LJ media. Data were analyzed using statistical Package SPSS version 20; binary logistic regression was used to assess the association. P-values DOTS are recommended to reduce the burden of MDR-TB.

  11. Level of Rural Development in Burdwan and Murshidabad Districts, West Bengal: A Comparative Study

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    Syfujjaman Tarafder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this research is to examine the level of attainment of rural development in the two districts—Burdwan and Murshidabad. The reasons for selecting these two districts stems from the fact that majority of the population of these two districts dwell in rural areas. The concept of rural development is comprehensive. It includes economic development of rural people through the development of productive sectors and employment associated with rural infrastructural development as well human development. Therefore, rural development includes in its domain all the aspects of human development of the rural people. The present Central as well as State Governments have undertaken different policies and plans to bring about positive changes amidst the rural people. In most cases, however, the policies and plans fail to achieve the desired level of changes in the rural areas (Desai, 1991. Although in fewer isolated cases, some success has been achieved, but overall development remains to be reached. This research, based mainly on secondary data aims to investigate the scale of progress in the two districts —Burdwan and Murshidabad of West Bengal, India, in the areas embracing social correlates of rural poverty, basic infrastructure facilities, standard of living and quality of life. The data are analysed with the help of statistical and cartographical analysis.

  12. Groundwater availability in the Lahaina District, west Maui, Hawai'i

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    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Engott, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the public water supply in the Lahaina District, west Maui, Hawai'i, is pumped from a freshwater lens in volcanic rocks. Because of population growth, groundwater withdrawals from wells in this area are expected to increase from about 5.8 million gallons per day in 2007 to more than 11 million gallons per day by 2030. Currently (2011), the salinity of water pumped from some of the wells in the area exceeds acceptable limits for drinking water. The expected increasing demand for water in an area in which the salinity of water is already unacceptable has led to concern over the long-term sustainability of withdrawals from existing and proposed wells.

  13. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

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    Ghosh Sambuddha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  14. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

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    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  15. Determinants of contraceptive practices among eligible couples of Urban Slum in Bankura District, West Bengal

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    Avisek Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary care physicians should be aware of the alarming population growth in the developing countries including India. Objectives: To find couple protection rate (CPR and risk variables that affect contraceptive practice among eligible couples in an urban slum of Bankura district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study of 3 months was undertaken on 200 eligible couples in Bakultala urban slum, Lokepur, Bankura district, West Bengal to get relation between various factors that could affect contraceptive practices. Results: Majority of the study population (59% was young adults (20-29 years age; 65% belonged to nuclear families; one-third were married in less than 18 years of their age. CPR was 67.50%; 49% used permanent methods. Among contraceptive users, significantly higher numbers of couples were married during 18-24 years of age (75%, belonged to nuclear family (70%, literate up to class 10 (73%, having three or more living children (77.50%, and from socioeconomic status of class II (80%. Female literacy rate was higher than national average; 92.50%wives of eligible couple were literate; and tubectomy was commonest contraceptive methods. Conclusion: CPR was high, though different factors like age at marriage, type of family, number of living children, literacy status of female partner, and socioeconomic status significantly affected contraceptive behavior of the study population.

  16. Maternal and Child Health Determinants in West Manggarai District East Nusa Tenggara Province

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    Ruben Wadu Willa

    2015-03-01

    kesehatan yang sulit, ibu hamil yang memeriksa ke dukun dan tidak tersedianya rumah sakit di kabupaten serta penyakit infeksi malaria dan diare. Solusinya adalah bidang harus aktif dengan melibatkan kepala desa dalam memantau ibu hamil, perlu disediakan perahu motor dan pembangunan rumah sakit daerah.Kata kunci:kematian ibu dan anak, Manggarai BaratABSTRACTBackground: West Manggarai district in period January until July 2012. Infant mortality rate were 34 cases, stillbirths were 33 cases and maternal mortality rate was 9 cases. Methods:This research is qualitative study using Focus Group Discussion (FGD desain, cooperation with head of public health center, midwife, nutrition program manager, and public health at health department. Results:Maternal and infant mortality in Labuan Bajo public health center caused by maternal nutritional deficiency, infectious diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever, mother less attention to the baby when the baby’s ill and difficult access to health services. The problem solution is pregnant women should be regularly having antenathal care, using of mosquito nets. Need to be provided cheaper sea transport. Causes of malnutrition and undernourishment is knowledge, parenting skill and infectious diseases such as diarrhea and malaria. To overcome this problem midwife should be proactive giving counseling to families with malnutrition children under five. Maternal and infant mortality in Winekang public health center caused by not availability of hospital at district, pregnant women still seeking treatment to traditional healers, the implementation of government regulations are less strict and families often late in taking decision to be referred. The solution is health officers must always giving counseling to pregnant women and cross-sector approach to monitoring. Whereas the main cause nutritional problems is parenting behavior, infectious diseases, and not enough healthy food. Conclusion:Maternal and infant mortality caused by difficult

  17. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrite, Silvia; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. We selected 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening. Cases of hearing impairment were defined as those with pure-tone average ≥41 dBHL in adults and ≥35 dBHL in children in the better ear, or children under age 4 who failed the OAE test in both ears. Each case with hearing loss was examined by an ear, nose and throat nurse who indicated the main likely cause. We examined 3567 (86.9%) of 4104 eligible people. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.6). The prevalence was low in people aged 0-17 (1.1%, 0.7-1.8%) and 18-49 (1.1%, 0.5-2.6%) and then rose sharply in people aged 50+ (14.8%, 11.7-19.1%). Among cases, the majority were classified as moderate (76%), followed by severe (15%) and profound (9%). More than one-third of cases of hearing impairment were classified as unknown (37%) or conductive (37%) causes, while sensorineural causes were less common (26%). Prevalence of hearing impairment in North-West Cameroon is in line with the WHO estimate for sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of cases with known causes are treatable, with impacted wax playing a major role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF IMPORTED MALARIA IN THE NORTH-WEST FEDERAL DISTRICT

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    K. E. Novak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of imported malaria in the North-Western Federal district (NWFD in 2012–2016. Research materials: the study included 84 patients treated for malaria in the hospitals of the NWFD. Results: 84 cases of malaria were registered in the NWFD from 2012 to 2016, which constituted 18,9% of all cases registered inRussian Federation(n=445:St. Petersburg(n=60,Arkhangelsk(n=10,Murmansk(n=5,Leningradregion (n=4,Vologdaregion (n=2 and 1 case in Komi,NovgorodandKaliningradregion. Patients with malaria had a history of a recent visit to: Asian countries (37%, n=31, West Africa (35%, n=30, North Africa (11%, n=7,South Africa(8%, n=7, East and Central Africa (3% correspondingly,Dominican Republic,CubaandSouth America(1% correspondingly. Pl. vivax was most common cause of malaria in patients visited Asia (87%, while recent travel to West Africa predispose patients to malaria caused by Pl. vivax in 37%, Pl. falciparum in 57% and Pl. оvale in 6% of all cases. All patients arrived from the North, South, Central Africa andDominican Republichad malaria caused by Pl. falciparum. Conclusion: in NWFD in 2012-2016 in the process of providing care to patients with malaria the following trends were marked: late referral of patients for medical care, careless collection of epidemiological data and travel history, late diagnosis of the disease, insufficient supply of antimalarial drugs and severe malaria in patients with comorbidity. Lack of adequate therapy with modern drugs has led to the lethal cases in patients with tropical malaria and the occurrence of late relapses of tertian malaria.

  19. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  20. A study on pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines in Lagos West Senatorial District, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Daniel, A; Popoola, T D; Salami, E F

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing use of herbal products and herbal medicines globally with the belief that herbal medicines are always 'safe' and carry no risk because they are from natural sources. However, there are concerns regarding medicinal plants and their ability to produce adverse effects. The growing herbal medicine usage has increased the need to monitor the safety of herbal medicines. Thus, the recommended approach by the World Health Organization (WHO) is to include herbal medicines in existing national pharmacovigilance systems. This study aimed to determine the knowledge of pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines amongst herbal medicine practitioners. The study was carried out in Lagos West Senatorial District of Lagos State, Nigeria. Three categories of practitioners (378 respondents) were engaged and they include Traditional Herbal Sellers, Natural Health Practitioners and Pharmacists. The results showed that herbal medicines are commonly recommended for malaria, typhoid, diabetes and fever. 281 (74.3%) of the respondents claimed that herbal medicines have no adverse effects and only 91 (24.1%) of the respondents said there were some adverse effects reported by the users. Adverse effects reported include nausea, diarrhoea and weight loss. Amongst those that received reports of adverse effects, only 19 (20.9%) documented these reported adverse effects; none of these documentations were forwarded to the regulatory bodies or national pharmacovigilance centre in Nigeria. These results showed inadequate adverse effects monitoring (Pharmacovigilance) amongst the practitioners and underscore the necessity to educate and enlighten herbal medicine practitioners on the need for pharmacovigilance activity of herbal products.

  1. EVALUATION AND DETERMINATION OF LAND IN THE DISTRICT OF WEST SERAM

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    Edwen D. Waas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to identify the land in the district of West Seram Maluku Province, carried out in 2013 using Classification System Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survay Staff, 2010. From the results of the study found five orders of soil lowered as much as seven sub-orders, nine groups and 15 subgroups ground. Order of Entisol lowered three subgroups, namely Lythic Udorthents, Typic Udorrthents, and Typic Quartzipsamments. Order of Molisols down two subgroups, namely Lythic Hapludolls and Typic Hapludolls. Order of Inceptisol lowered seven subgroups, namely Fluventic Endoaquepts, Vertic Endoaquepts, Typic Endoaquepts, Lythic Dystrudepts, Typic Dystrudepts, Aquic Eutrudepts, and Typic Eutrudepts. Order of Alfisols lowered one subgroup, ie Typic Hapludalfs. Order of Ultisols down two subgroups, namely Typic Paleudults and Typic Hapludults. In general, the soils in the study area is the land has not been progressing and has solum soil horizon from shallow to deep. Ground color varies from yellow hinga reddish brown. Loamy to sandy texture, consistency until sticky, effective depth of s

  2. ANALYSIS OF INCIDENCE OF INFERTILITY IN CATTLE OF HOWRAH DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Asit Kumar Maji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 823 numbers of cattle (342 Crossbred Jersey and 481 Non-descript were presented for gynaeco-clinical examination after considering specific history of cattle at 26 fertility camps during January 2006 to December 2008 in flood prone rural areas of Howrah district of West Bengal, India. Statistical analysis of the data pointed out that among overall infertility problem incidence of anestrous and repeat breeding were 67.68 % and 32.32 % respectively. Incidence of anestrous was higher in Non-descript cattle (53.86 % than that Crossbred Jersey cattle (46.14 % and incidence of repeat breeding was also significantly (P < 0.001 higher in non-descript cattle (68.05% than that of crossbred (31.95% animal. Irrespective of breeds the incidence of true anestrous, subestrus, anestrous due to pyometra with persistent corpus leuteum and infantile genitalia with other congenital disorders were 81.51 %, 9.34%, 1.44% and 7.71% respectively. It also revealed that incidence of repeat breeding due to anovulatory estrus, follicular cyst and uterine infection were 43.61%, 46.24%, and 10.15% respectively which were also significantly higher (P<0.001 in Non-descript cattle in comparison with Crossbred Jersey (72.4 vs. 27.0 %, 59.34 vs. 40.65% and 88.89 vs. 11.11% respectively for ND vs. CBJ.

  3. PROFIT FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN AND WEST UNGARAN DISTRICTS, SEMARANG REGENCY

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    R.D. Haloho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the production factors on the profit of thedairy cattle farming business in Semarang regency. The research was conducted during July-September2012. The method used was a survey method. The sampling technique used multistage random samplingmethod. The selected locations (Getasan and West Ungaran District were deliberately selected becausethey had the highest population of dairy cattle. Respondents were dairy cattle farmers who were drawnrandomly as many as 80 respondents. The measured variables were profit, cost of forage, cost ofconcentrate, cost of labor, capital and farm experience. The data were analyzed descriptively andstatistically. Data were analyzed using the profit function Output Unit Price Cobb-Douglas. Multiplelinear regression was used in the study. The research showed that the factors of production inputssimultaneously significantly affected farmers profit (P<0.05. Forage cost, concentrate feed cost, andcapital partially affected on farmer profit (P<0.05. The average production cost was IDR1,661,827/year. The average profit was IDR 2,399,453/month. The average revenue was IDR737.625/month with an average of lactation cattle scale ownership was 2.4 head/farmer. According tothe result, dairy cattle’s farming in Semarang Regency was profitable.

  4. Literacy Rates and its Impact on Birth Rates in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

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    Mahadeb Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equality in socio-economic component is essential for human development and social change. Educational inequality reduces economic growth and women's empowerment on the one hand and increases birth rate on the other. In population studies, it has been established that educational level is collinearly related with demographic behaviour. This study aims to investigate inequalities in literacy rates and its impact on birth rates in Nowpara-I Gram Panchayat (GP located in the Krishnagar II C.D. Block, Nadia District of West Bengal using a household survey conducted in 356 households among women aged 49 and above in triangulation with secondary data. The aim of this study is to explore the causes of the spatial inequalities in education and its effect on spatial variations in birth rates. The key finding suggest that in Nowpara-I, negative relationships exist between female education and birth rate because education has a positive impact on empowerment, late marriage, use of contraceptives and family size.

  5. Commuting patterns of workers in a village of Barddhaman district, West Bengal

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    Bhaswati Mondal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commuting helps to keep balance between residence and workplace of workers. With growing accessibility and connectivity, the importance of commuting is increasing all over the world. It is becoming a major substitute to migration. In commute-studies, commute-pattern is an important chapter. It highlights commuters’ directions of movement, distance they cover, modes of transport they use, the time they take to commute, etc. Unlike the urban-based commute pattern, commute pattern in rural areas are relatively an under-researched issue. In fact, traditionally rural people are thought to carry a sedentary lifestyle. Using primary data, this study aims to explore the commute patterns of rural workers located in the village of Gandharbapur of Barddhaman district of West Bengal, India. All the commuters were found to be engaged in non-farm work. Commuters stem from two major groups. One group of commuters is accumulated farm-income induced. They possess sufficient agricultural land. Investing their surplus farm-income, they have established non-farm works. The second group of commuters is poverty-driven. They are landless poor or are marginal farmers and to escape poverty, they have slipped into these works. Located beyond the suburban area (Memari being the nearest town, most commuters commute to nearby rural areas. Due to non-availability of public transport, women commute less than men do. Regular-paid government employees commute longer than other workers commute. The article concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.

  6. Environmental and host-related determinants of tuberculosis in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia

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    Tesema C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheru Tesema,1 Takele Tadesse,2 Mulat Gebrehiwot,2 Azanaw Tsegaw,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal4 1College of Medical and health science, Debremarkos Universitty, Debremarkos, 2Institute of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 3College of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 4Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical laboratory Science, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Each year, one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB. Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia.Methods: A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2. Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community.Results: A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31–5.76, households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.07–4.61, living space <4 m2 per person (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 2.09–4.63, a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.99–5.35, history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.35–3.12, a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07–2

  7. Environmental and host-related determinants of tuberculosis in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesema, Cheru; Tadesse, Takele; Gebrehiwot, Mulat; Tsegaw, Azanaw; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2015-01-01

    Each year, one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB). Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia. A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2). Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course) clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community. A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls) participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31-5.76), households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.07-4.61), living space <4 m(2) per person (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 2.09-4.63), a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.99-5.35), history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.35-3.12), a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-2.21), and absence of windows (AOR 4.42, 95% CI 2.46-7.95) were independently associated with the development of TB. This study identified that the number of family members in the household, educational status, room space per person, history of contact with a TB patient, availability and number of windows, location of kitchen facilities within the house, and whether or not the house had a ceiling were independently associated with contracting TB. Every community should construct houses with the

  8. Environmental and host-related determinants of tuberculosis in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesema, Cheru; Tadesse, Takele; Gebrehiwot, Mulat; Tsegaw, Azanaw; Weldegebreal, Fitsum

    2015-01-01

    Background Each year, one third of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB). Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia. Methods A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2). Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course) clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community. Results A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls) participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31–5.76), households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.07–4.61), living space .11, 95% CI 2.09–4.63), a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.99–5.35), history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.35–3.12), a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07–2.21), and absence of windows (AOR 4.42, 95% CI 2.46–7.95) were independently associated with the development of TB. Conclusion This study identified that the number of family members in the household, educational status, room space per person, history of contact with a TB patient, availability and number of windows, location of kitchen facilities within the house, and whether or not the house had a ceiling were independently associated with contracting TB. Every community should

  9. What Governs District Manager Decision Making? A Case Study of Complex Leadership in Dangme West District, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwamie, Aku; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Dijk, Van Han

    2015-01-01

    Management and leadership in complex health systems
    have been little addressed as contributors toward improving maternal
    and newborn health. Widespread perceptions of weak district-level
    management and leadership have encouraged capacity strengthening
    interventions with a predominant

  10. SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTH PARASITES IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES IN BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    N. Shit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infestation is a major constraint of livestock and causes great economic loss to animal husbandry by the way of retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of animals to other infections. In view of the parasitism, the present study was aimed to elucidate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in cattle and buffaloes in Bankura district, West Bengal. A total of 1200 fecal samples (200 samples/ species/season were collected directly from the farmers’ end in three different seasons namely winter, summer and rainy seasons. The stool samples were examined initially by direct smear followed by sedimentation and floatation techniques within 24h of collection. All three major parasites i.e. nematode (Toxocara, Strongyloides, Strongyle and Trichuris, cestode (Moniezia and trematode (Paramphistomes and Fasciola were observed and analyzed based on the morphology of eggs. The degree of incidence was superior in buffaloes compared to the cattle irrespective of the seasonal variations. The rainy season showed the highest degree of parasitic occurrence (67.00% compared to winter (52.25 and summer (38.75% seasons. The study of species-wise incidence demonstrated a highest peak of Paramphistomes (32.17% where very few samples were positive for Trichuris sp. (2.42%. Among the sub-divisions, Bishnupur represented the maximum occurrence of helminth parasites (62.05% as compared to Bankura sadar (58.47% and Khatra (40.16%. Significantly (P<0.05 higher percent of trematode and nematodes were prevalent in Bishnupur though the same observation was manifested for cestodal infection in Khatra. It can be concluded that a favorable hot and humid condition during rainy season favors the growth of propagation of developmental stages which would be the reason of peak prevalence. It can also be focused that a micro level agro-climatic disparity may lead to the variation within the study sites.

  11. Community Acceptance of Tsetse Control Baits: A Qualitative Study in Arua District, North West Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Vanja; Tirados, Inaki; Esterhuizen, Johan; Mangwiro, Clement T. N.; Torr, Stephen J.; Lehane, Michael J.; Smith, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT), including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets) in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. Conclusions/Significance Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and “ghosts from the river” which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early engagements with

  12. Risk factors associated with default among tuberculosis patients in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India

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    Nirmalya Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment outcome "default" under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP is a patient who after treatment initiation has interrupted treatment consecutively for more than 2 months. Aims: To assess the timing, characteristics and distribution of the reasons for default with relation to some sociodemographic variables among new sputum-positive (NSP tuberculosis (TB patients in Darjeeling District, West Bengal. Settings and Design: A case-control study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs of Darjeeling from August′2011 to December′2011 among NSP TB patients enrolled for treatment in the TB register from 1 st Qtr′09 to 2 nd Qtr′10. Patients defaulted from treatment were considered as "cases" and those completed treatment as "controls" (79 cases and 79 controls. Materials and Methods: The enrolled cases and controls were interviewed by the health workers using a predesigned structured pro-forma. Statistical Analysis Used: Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR, adjusted odds ratios (AOR. Results: 75% of the default occurred in the intensive phase (IP; 54.24% retrieval action was done within 1 day during IP and 75% within 1 week during continuation phase (CP; cent percent of the documented retrieval actions were undertaken by the contractual TB program staffs. Most commonly cited reasons for default were alcohol consumption (29.11%, adverse effects of drugs (25.32%, and long distance of DOT center (21.52%. In the logistic regression analysis, the factors independently associated were consumption of alcohol, inadequate knowledge about TB, inadequate patient provider interaction, instances of missed doses, adverse reactions of anti-TB drugs, Government Directly Observed Treatment (DOT provider and smoking. Conclusions: Most defaults occurred in the intensive phase; pre-treatment counseling and initial home visit play very important role in this regard. Proper counseling by health care workers in

  13. Valuing Ecotourism of a Recreational Site in Ciamis District of West Java, Indonesia

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    Endah Saptutyningsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as an alternative tourism, involves visiting natural areas in order to learn, to study or to carry out activities environmentally friendly, that is a tourism based on the nature experience which enables the economic and social development of local communities. Ecotourism encourages rural economics and provides benefits to income and employment generation. It is considered as an alternative for enhancing rural lifestyle and for leading positive changes in the distribution of income. One of the area which has ecotourism site in Indonesia is Karangkamulyan site, Ciamis District of West Java. There is a tourist attraction that not only offers natural beauty, history and cool atmosphere, it also serves as a place of education and research on the history in the field of archeology. This attraction should receive special attention from the local government so that the tourists and local people also get the benefits. Ecotourism can be classified as possessing public goods-type characteristics, and as such, welfare benefit estimates must utilize non-market valuation techniques. This study employs the travel cost method and contingent valuation method. Travel cost and contingent valuation methods are applied to the problem of estimating the potential consumer surplus available to tourists from ecotourism in Ciamis. The results are compared with contingent valuation analysis of willingness-to-pay of tourists in their current trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis. The result of travel cost method indicates that tourists’ average travel cost is estimated at no more than one hundred thousand rupiahs. The contingent valuation method concludes that the tourists’ average willingness to pay in their trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis is are about IDR 6,800 in average. 

  14. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

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    Vanja Kovacic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT, including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early

  15. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

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    AR Alborzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (3 years, sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57% were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip­pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp. were identified on 9 (7.14%, 7 (5.56%, 6 (4.76%, 3 (2.38%, 3 (2.38%, 2 (1.59%, 2 (1.59% and one (0.79% of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67 than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59, age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22 and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42, but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05.Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert

  16. Blood transfusion practice in a rural hospital in Northern Ghana, Damongo, West Gonja District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubio, Chrysantus; Tierney, Geraldine; Quaye, Theophilus; Nabilisi, James Wewoli; Ziemah, Callistus; Zagbeeb, Sr Mary; Shaw, Sandra; Murphy, William G

    2012-10-01

    Blood transfusion in rural sub-Saharan Africa presents special challenges. Transfusions are primarily given for emergencies--life-threatening blood loss or anemia; blood is usually collected from family or replacement donors; and facilities to store an adequate reserve in a hospital bank are constrained. We report the everyday and organizational practices in a medium-sized district hospital in Northern Ghana. Information and data on blood transfusion practices at West Gonja Hospital, Damongo, were available from the laboratory reports, from day books and workbooks, and from direct observation in the following four areas: blood collection and blood donors; blood donation testing; blood storage and logistics; and clinical transfusion practice, adverse events, and follow-up. The hospital serves a rural community of 86,000. In 2009, a total of 719 units of whole blood were collected, a rate of 8.36 units per 1000 population. All donors were family or replacement donors. Positivity rates for infectious disease markers were 7.5% (64/853) for hepatitis B surface antigen, 6.1% (50/819) for hepatitis C virus, 3.9% (33/846) for human immunodeficiency virus, and 4.7% (22/468) for syphilis. Supply of laboratory materials was sometimes problematic, especially for temperature-critical materials. Difficulties in sample labeling, storage of blood and laboratory supplies, and disposal of waste were also incurred by operational, material, and financial constraints. Follow-up for outcomes of transfusion is not currently feasible. The operational, demographic, and financial environment pertaining in a rural hospital in Northern Ghana differs substantially from that in which much of current blood transfusion practice and technology evolved. Considerable effort and innovation will be needed to address successfully the challenges posed. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... and Salt Lake Field Offices AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake Field Offices will be changing from 2370 South 2300 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84119-2022, to 2370 South Decker...

  18. MOSS FLORA OF THE KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT (WEST SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Lapshina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Overview of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District moss flora was made based on original authors’ data and information from literature sources. List of mosses includes 307 species. 236 species occur on a flat part of the District; theirs distribution and habitats are described. 21 species are reported from the region for the first time.

  19. Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural Farmers in West-Akim District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The District lies within the semi- deciduous forest zone, and it is characterized by a double rainfall between. 1238mm and 1600 mm per annum. The District's rich vegetation gives it a unique advantage of producing a wide range of food and cash crops such as cocoa, oil palm, cassava, plantain, maize, rubber and oranges.

  20. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  1. Arsenic Contamination of Ground Water and its Health Impact on Population of District of Nadia, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Debendra Nath Guha; Ghosh, Aloke; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Ghosh, Nilima; Saha, Chandan; Mazumder, Rathindra Nath Guha

    2010-01-01

    Background: The global health impact and disease burden due to chronic arsenic toxicity has not been well studied in West Bengal. Objective: To ascertain these, a scientific epidemiological study was carried out in a district of the state. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological study was carried out by house-to-house survey of arsenic affected villages in the district of Nadia. A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for this survey for the selection of the participants. A total number of 2297 households of 37 arsenic affected villages in all the 17 blocks were surveyed in the district. Result: Out of 10469 participants examined, prevalence rate of arsenicosis was found to be 15.43%. Out of 0.84 million people suspected to be exposed to arsenic, 0.14 million people are estimated to be suffering from arsenicosis in the district. Highest level of arsenic in drinking water sources was found to be 1362 μg/l, and in 23% cases it was above 100 μg/l. Majority of the population living in the arsenic affected villages were of low socio-economic condition, inadequate education and were farmers or doing physical labour. Chronic lung disease was found in 207 (12.81%) subjects among cases and 69 (0.78%) in controls. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 257 (15.9%) cases and 136 (1.5%) controls. Conclusion: Large number of people in the district of Nadia are showing arsenical skin lesion. However, insufficient education, poverty, lack of awareness and ineffective health care support are major factors causing immense plight to severely arsenic affected people. PMID:20922118

  2. Impact of extension interventions in improving livelihood of dairy farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Suman; Garai, Sanchita; Maiti, Sanjit; Meena, B S; Ghosh, M K; Bhakat, Champak; Dutta, T K

    2017-03-01

    Livestock is a one of the major sources of livelihood for most of the small and marginal farmers in India, particularly for rural households who live in below poverty line. Extension interventions have long been seen as a key element for enabling farmers to obtain information and technologies that can improve their livelihoods. It is also recognized that extension is an important factor in promoting dairy development. Ex-post-facto cause to effect research design was applied in this study to trace out the impact of extension interventions in improving knowledge, attitude, adoption towards scientific dairy farming practices and improvement in milk production of dairy animal and income from dairying which will be resulted into improved livelihood of rural poor in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Therefore, 60 dairy farmers of experimental villages who were considered as beneficiaries and 60 dairy farmers of control villages who were considered as non-beneficiaries were selected as sample for the study. It was found that beneficiaries had significantly higher score in all the five components of livelihood improvement with its all sub components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, adoption of scientific dairy farming practices, milk production per household per day and monthly income from dairying except disease control, and marketing component of adoption. Hence, it may be concluded that extension interventions had a significant impact on improving livelihood of rural dairy farmers in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

  3. Low-flow characteristics of streams in the Lahaina District, West Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chui Ling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize streamflow availability under natural low-flow conditions for streams in the Lahaina District, west Maui, Hawaiʻi. The study-area streams included Honolua Stream and tributary Pāpua Gulch, Honokahua Stream and tributary Mokupeʻa Gulch, Kahana Stream, Honokōwai Stream and tributaries Amalu and Kapāloa Streams, Wahikuli Gulch and tributary Hāhākea Gulch, Kahoma Stream and tributary Kanahā Stream, Kauaʻula Stream, Launiupoko Stream, Olowalu Stream, and Ukumehame Gulch. The results of this study can be used to assist in the determination of technically defensible instream-flow standards for the study-area streams. Low-flow characteristics for natural (unregulated) streamflow conditions were represented by flow-duration discharges that are equaled or exceeded between 50 and 95 percent of the time. Partial-record sites were established on 10 main streams and 5 tributary streams, mainly upstream from existing surface-water diversions. Flow characteristics were determined using historical and current streamflow data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations and miscellaneous sites, and additional data collected as part of this study. Based on strategically scheduled observations, six of the study-area streams were ephemeral streams that were observed to remain dry at least 50 percent of the time: Pāpua Gulch, Honokahua Stream and its tributary Mokupeʻa Gulch, Kahana Stream, and Wahikuli Gulch and its tributary Hāhākea Gulch. For the remaining streams with measurable flow, Honolua, Honokōwai, Kahoma, Kanahā, Kauaʻula, Launiupoko, and Olowalu Streams, and Ukumehame Gulch, flow-duration discharges were computed for the 30-year base period (water years 1984–2013), using two record-augmentation techniques. The 95-percent flow-duration discharges ranged from 0 to 4.8 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The 50-percent flow-duration discharges ranged from 0.47 to 9.5 ft3/s. This study also estimated the streamflow

  4. Heterogeneity in District-Level Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease during the 2013-2015 Epidemic in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Krauer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in West Africa in 2013-2015 spread heterogeneously across the three hardest-hit countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and the estimation of national transmission of EVD provides little information about local dynamics. To investigate district-level transmissibility of EVD, we applied a statistical modelling approach to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0 for each affected district and each country using weekly incident case numbers. We estimated growth rates during the early exponential phase of the outbreak using exponential regression of the case counts on the first eight weeks since onset. To take into account the heterogeneity between and within countries, we fitted a mixed effects model and calculated R0 based on the predicted individual growth rates and the reported serial interval distribution. At district level, R0 ranged from 0.36 (Dubréka to 1.72 (Beyla in Guinea, from 0.53 (Maryland to 3.37 (Margibi in Liberia and from 1.14 (Koinadugu to 2.73 (Western Rural in Sierra Leone. At national level, we estimated an R0 of 0.97 (95% CI 0.77-1.18 for Guinea, 1.26 (95% CI 0.98-1.55 for Liberia and 1.66 (95% CI 1.32-2.00 for Sierra Leone. Socio-demographic variables related to urbanisation such as high population density and high wealth index were found positively associated with R0 suggesting that the consequences of fast urban growth in West Africa may have contributed to the increased spread of EVD.

  5. The expanded program on immunization service delivery in the Dschang health district, west region of Cameroon: a cross sectional survey

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    Walter Ebile Akoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is the most effective intervention strategy, and the provision of vaccination at fixed posts and outreach posts is a backbone of a sustainable vaccination system in developing countries. Access to immunization services is still limited in Cameroon. Several health districts in the west region have recorded new epidemic outbreaks, including the occurrence of a wild polio virus epidemic outbreak in 2013. The aim of this study was to assess immunization service delivery in one of the largest health districts in the west region of Cameroon; the Dschang Health district. Methods It was a cross sectional study conducted in 2013, in 42 health facilities covering 18 health areas in the Dschang Health District. Data were collected with questionnaires administered to health personnel face to face and an observation grid was used to assess resources and tools. Data were entered and analyzed in Epi Info. Results A total of 42 health facilities were assessed and 77 health personnel were interviewed. Overall, 29 (69.0 % health facilities organized one vaccination session monthly, 2 (4.8 % organized an outreach within the last 3 months prior to the study, 15 (35.7 % did not have a vaccination micro plan, 24 (32.9 % health personnel had not been supervised for at least the last 6 months prior to the study, 7 (16.7 % health facilities did not have a functional refrigerator, 1 (2.4 % did not have a vaccine carrier, 23 (54.8 % did not have a means of transport (vehicle or motorcycle and 12 (28.6 % did not have an EPI guideline. The knowledge of health personnel on vaccine and cold chain management, and on diseases of the EPI under epidemiological surveillance was found to be limited. Conclusion The frequency and strategic provision of immunization services in the Dschang Health district is inadequate. Resource availability for an adequate provision of immunization services is insufficient. The knowledge of health personnel

  6. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

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    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  7. Choice of Malaria Care Services in Sissala West District in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends the provision of more health facilities in the district, the intensification of public education on malaria prevention and control and the monitoring of the use of affordable anti-malaria drugs such as the Artemisinin based Combination Therapy (ACTs). Key words: Choice, Multinomial Logit, Marginal ...

  8. Mineralisation footprints and regional timing of the world-class Siguiri orogenic gold district (Guinea, West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Erwann; Thébaud, Nicolas; Miller, John; Roberts, Malcolm; Evans, Noreen

    2017-04-01

    expressed as fracture zones of higher V3S vein density. A composite geochemical cross section across fracture zones from the Kosise deposit indicates that gold mineralisation in the Siguiri district is associated with enrichments in Ag, Au, As, Bi, Co, Mo, (Sb), S, Te and W relative to background. Geochemical variations associated with the ore shoots in the Siguiri district are consistent with petrographic observations and highlight an albite-carbonate-sulphide-sericite alteration. The fourth and last hydrothermal event is associated with the development of a late penetrative S4S cleavage during D4S deformation, which overprints all pre-existing hydrothermal features and is associated with the deposition of free gold, chalcopyrite and galena along fractures in V3A pyrite and V3B pyrite and arsenopyrite. Mineralogical and geochemical footprints as well as timing of the gold-mineralising events in the Siguiri district, when compared with other deposits of the West African Craton, highlight the synchronicity of gold mineralisation in Siguiri (syn-D3S and syn-D4S events) with other similar events in this part of the craton, such as the early Au-Sb-Bi-(Te-W) mineralisation at the Morila deposit in Southeast Mali. Our results support the hypothesis that late Eburnean-age gold mineralisation in the Siguiri district and in the West African Craton as a whole was polyphase.

  9. Gold grade of epithermal gold ore at Lamuntet, Brang Rea, West Sumbawa District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, Rika; Idrus, Arifudin; TBMP, Himawan

    2017-06-01

    Lamuntet is one of gold ore mining area carried out by the Artisanal Small scale Gold Mining (ASGM) located in West Sumbawa, Indonesia. Most of the miners at this area are not the local miners but also those from other regions. Mineralization of this area is strong identified as low sulfidation epithermal system. There are two blocks of this mining location, namely, Ngelampar block with an area of 0.164 km2 and Song block with an area of 0.067 km2. This study was focused on Ngelampar block. The characteristic of epithermal system is the existence of quartz vein with comb, vuggy, and sugary texture. The aim of this research was to analyze the gold grade and other metals, such as Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. The research methods included literature study from previous researches, field work, laboratory work, and interpretation. The literature study was performed on previous researches with similar study area. The field work comprised of direct observation and sampling. Fieldwork was done for a week to obtain gold ore/vein. Sixteen samples were analyzed to obtain the grade of ore/metal. The Hg laboratory analysis was then performed on the six samples with the highest gold grade. Laboratory works were conducted at Intertek Jakarta by using Fire Assay (FA) for gold grade and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) for Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. Results of the analysis showed the range of Au was grade (0.1 ppm - 27.8 ppm), Cu was 26 ppm -1740 ppm, Pb was 101 ppm- >4000 ppm, Zn of 73 ppm- >10,000 ppm, Ag of 3 ppm -185 ppm, As was 150 ppm-6530 ppm, and Hg of 0.08 ppm - 1.89 ppm. L1 and L15 had high grade for all values (Au, Ag, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg). Gold mineralization was formed as electrum because of Ag content is higher than 20%. Associated minerals of the samples in the study area were galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite which showed the characteristic of rich base metal of Pb, Zn, and Cu at LS epithermal.

  10. OUTBREAK OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN FREE RANGE BUFFALO AND CATTLE GRAZING AT RIVERSIDE GRASSLAND IN MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhegic Septicaemia among free ranging buffaloes and cattle reared at the natural grassland at the embankment and surrounding area of Bhagirathi river in 3 blocks of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, postmortem examination, bacteriological study and biochemical tests. Among 154 affected animals (2.16% of total animals at risk buffalo were 85.71% and cattle were 14.28%. A total of 52 affected animals (33.76% died before starting treatment. Among the dead animals, 86.53% was buffalo and 13.46% was cattle. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by vaccination, restriction of animal movement and proper disposal of carcasses.

  11. Maternal health care initiatives: Causes of morbidities and mortalities in two rural districts of Upper West Region, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sumankuuro

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities have received much attention over the years in sub-Saharan Africa; yet addressing them remains a profound challenge, no more so than in the nation of Ghana. This study focuses on finding explanations to the conditions which lead to maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities in rural Ghana, particularly the Upper West Region.Mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the medical and non-medical causes of maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities in two rural districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana. Survey questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were employed to collect data from: a 80 expectant mothers (who were in their second and third trimesters, excluding those in their ninth month, b 240 community residents and c 13 healthcare providers (2 district directors of health services, 8 heads of health facilities and 3 nurses.Morbidity and mortality during pregnancy is attributed to direct causes such urinary tract infection (48%, hypertensive disorders (4%, mental health conditions (7%, nausea (4% and indirect related sicknesses such as anaemia (11%, malaria, HIV/AIDS, oedema and hepatitis B (26%. Socioeconomic and cultural factors are identified as significant underlying causes of these complications and to morbidity and mortality during labour and the postnatal period. Birth asphyxia and traditional beliefs and practices were major causes of neonatal deaths.These findings provide focused targets and open a window of opportunity for the community-based health services run by Ghana Health Service to intensify health education and promotion programmes directed at reducing risky economic activities and other cultural beliefs and practices affecting maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  12. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from schools'…

  13. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  14. Nutritional status of school going children and adolescents aged 9-13 years at Haldia in West Bengal, India

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    Sudip Datta Banik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Malnutrition in children and adolescents is a global problem. In developing nations of Africa and Southeast Asia, the prevalence of undernutrition in children is very high. There is scanty data 'With respect to the nutritional status of school going children and adolescents, especially from suburban and rural areas in India. Objective A study was undertaken among boys (n = 174 and girls (n = 128 aged 9 13 years in a suburban area of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal in India to understand age and sex variation of nutritional status of the subjects. Methods A crosssectional study among the schoolgoing children and adolescent aged 9 13 years was done during JuneSeptember 2009 in Haldia. Results Age and sex variation of anthropometric characteristics (body mass index or BMI and conicity index or CI revealed that remarkable sections of both the sexes were suffering from underweight (8.30%, stunting (14.60% and wasting (2.80%. Significant sex differences were observed in cases of mean CI (P=O.OO1, weightforage zscore (P = 0.0001 and weight-for-height ,-score (P 0.0001. Discussion Besides notable prevalence of under nutrition in both sexes, situation of the girls is worse (underweight - 11.70% and stunting - 21.10% compared to the boys. This is most evident among the subjects of both sexes aged 11 and 12 years.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF EMPOWERMENT OF SIDEWALK TRADERS IN WEST DENPASAR SUB DISTRICT DENPASAR CITY: IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Wana Pariartha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sidewalk traders, as informal economic sector, have been in existence in almost allthe cities in Indonesia. As an impact of migration of people, they have been recognized as astructural phenomenon which will always exist. They will always exist in Denpasar City. InWest Denpasar Sub District, as part of Denpasar City, their existence has been assumed notonly to cause the city to look disorganized but it has also been assumed to create discomfortand to disturb public order. However, as Indonesian citizens, they have the right to haveoccupation and live properly as stated in Article 27 of the 1945 Constitution. Theempowerment management of the sidewalk traders in West Denpasar Sub District refers tothe Local Rules and Regulations (Perda of number 3 of Year 2000. However, the fact inthe field shows that what has been expected has not been properly coming true yet.Based on this fact, a research was conducted with the problems formulated asfollows: 1 how the government managed the empowerment of the sidewalk traders; 2what responses were given by the community to the model of such a management ofempowerment; 3 and what were its effects and meanings. As a consequence, this researchaims at 1 identifying the management of empowerment of the sidewalk traders; 2identifying the responses given by the community to the model of such a management ofempowerment; 3 identifying its effects and meanings. From the aspect of methodology,this research is classified as a qualitative one. The theory of deconstruction, the theory ofhegemony, the theory of response, the theory of motivation and achievement wereemployed for exploring the problems formulated above. The techniques employed forcollecting the data needed were the technique of observation, the technique of interview,the technique of observation and focus discussion group.The findings show that the Local Rules and Regulations (Perda of Number 3 of2000, which is derived from the Local Rules and Regulations

  16. Social Motivation And Peoples Participation In Development Of Rural Development In District Of West Of Nias Province North Sumatra

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    Sismudjito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the problem of social related to the development. Some of the province in Indonesia which is North Sumatera consisting of 8 cities and 25 districts. Most of the populated shows a number poverty are still relatively high. According to the Susenas in North Sumatera Province particulary West of Nias is the county that classified as having a number of high poverty and decrease in the number of poverty was only 1 each year. To that local governments West of Nias make the implementation of the building area shaped participative which stems from the social motivation sociated in the West of Nias. In this study formulated to the problem is the social motivation and community participation is a factor objectify the construction of underdevelopment area.This research using a combination of a quantitative approach and qualitative approach by the combined method. This method can be done in together turns even combined with starting from the framework exploration then inditifity and classifying data with sourched from the questionnaires development and depth interviews. In this research also used technique of population and research sample. Management of the data could be done by 3 statistics techniques 1 Product Moment Correlation 2 Partial Correlation 3 Analysis of the line.The result of research suggests that through the work of social motivation and community participation can positive affect towards underdeveloped area. The level of community participation appears through an increase participation degrees towards the development of underdeveloped area. The working of community participation could a achieved development in its area with shows a sense of empathy from members of society So it can be concluded that the high participation facilitate the realization of the development of underdeveloped area.

  17. Too Green to be True. IOI Corporation in Ketapang District, West Kalimantan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, I. [Aidenvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    This report reveals that the Malaysian showcase company IOI Group does not live up to its environmental promises in newly established plantations in the Ketapang district - the Indonesian part of Borneo. Glossy CSR policies, engagement in multi-stakeholder initiatives and the possession of certificates from the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil do not offer proof of IOI Group's 'green' credentials. Instead, Europe's increasing demand for palm oil in food and biofuels is leading to deforestation, breaches of environmental law and land conflicts in Asia (authors abstract)

  18. Adherence of doctors to a clinical guideline for hypertension in Bojanala district, North-West Province, South Africa

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    Asafa R. Adedeji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements that assist practitioners and patients to make healthcare decisions for specific clinical circumstances. Non-adherence of doctors to guidelines is thought to contribute significantly to poor delivery of clinical care, resulting in poor clinical outcomes.Aim: To investigate adherence of doctors in rural district hospitals to clinical guidelines using the South African Hypertension Guideline 2006 as an example.Setting: Four district hospitals in Bojanala district of North-West Province, South Africa.Methods:A cross-sectional study determined adherence practices of doctors from records of patients with established hypertension seen at the four district hospitals.Results: Of the 490 total records documented by 29 doctors, screening for co-morbidity or associated factors was carried out as follows: diabetes mellitus 99.2%, obesity 6.1%, smoking 53.5%, dyslipidaemia 36.9%, abdominal circumference 3.3%; organ damage: eye 0, kidney 82%, heart 43.5%, chronic kidney disease 38.2%, stroke/transient ischaemic attack 15.9%, heart failure 23.5%, advanced retinopathy 0.2%, coronary heart disease 23.7%, peripheral arterial disease 13.9%. Critical tests/measurements were documented in the following proportions: blood pressure 99.8%, weight 85.3%, height 65.7%, body mass index 3.1%, urinalysis 74.5%, lipogram 76.1%, urea/creatinine 80.4%, electrocardiogram 42.9%, blood glucose 100%; risk determination and grading: diagnosis by hypertension severity 19%, low added risk 57.1%, moderate added risk 64.7%, high added risk 89.6%, very high added risk 89.2%. Adherence to therapies was as follows: first-line guideline drugs 69.4%, second line 84.7%, third line 87.8% and fourth-line 89.6%.Conclusion: Overall adherence of doctors to treatment guidelines for hypertension was found to be low (51.9%. Low adherence rates were related to age (older doctors and less clinical experience, and

  19. Ethnopharmacological use of herbal remedies for the treatment of malaria in the Dangme West District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Alex; Akwetey, George A; Achel, Daniel G

    2010-06-16

    Malaria is one of the most important diseases in the world. Because of the devastating nature of the disease there is an urgent need to develop new drugs or vaccines for the treatment, prevention and management of the disease. The objective of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of malaria in the Dangme West District of Ghana. Data was collected from 67 indigenous households in ten communities in the district using a validated questionnaire. In total, 30 species of plants belonging to 28 genera in 20 families were reported to be used in the preparation of the herbal remedies. Mature leaves were the most (55%) common plant part used and 73.3% of the herbal remedies involved a single plant. Most of the herbal remedies were prepared by boiling and administered orally. The majority (47%) of the species of plants used were collected from their compounds or home gardens. Knowledge about malaria and treatment practices exists in the study area. Herbal remedies were commonly used by people for the treatment of malaria because they were cost-effective. They are also more accessible. Many of the species of plants used have been documented for the treatment of malaria as well as investigated for their phytochemical and antimalarial and/or antiplasmodial activity confirming the results of previous studies as well as rationalization of their traditional use. Five species of plants used in the study area, namely, Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C. Wendl. (Poaceae), Deinbollia pinnata Schum. &Thonn. (Sapindaceae), Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), Greenwayodendron sp. (Annonaceae) and Solanum torvum Sw (Solanaceae), are documented for the first time for their use in the treatment of malaria. "The result of this study provides the basis for further pharmacological studies on the herbal remedies used". Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incentives to yield to Obstetric Referrals in deprived areas of Amansie West district in the Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuamah, Gladys Buruwaa; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Akohene, Kofi Mensah; Boateng, Daniel; Dobin, Dominic; Addai-Donkor, Kwasi

    2016-07-22

    Obstetric referrals, otherwise known as maternal referrals constitute an eminent component of emergency care, and key to ensuring safe delivery and reducing maternal and child mortalities. The efficiency of Obstetric referral systems is however marred by the lack of accessible transportation and socio-economic disparities in access to healthcare. This study evaluated the role of socio-economic factors, perception and transport availability in honouring Obstetric referrals from remote areas to referral centres. This was a cross-sectional study, involving 720 confirmed pregnant women randomly sampled from five (5) sub-districts in the Amansie west district in Ghana, from February to May 2015. Data were collected through structured questionnaire using face-to-face interviewing and analyzed using STATA 11.0 for windows. Logistic regression models were fitted to determine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy history on obstetric referrals. About 21.7 % of the women studied honoured referral by a community health worker to the next level of care. Some of the pregnant women however refused referrals to the next level due to lack of money (58 %) and lack of transport (17 %). A higher household wealth quintile increased the odds of being referred and honouring referral as compared to those in the lowest wealth quintile. Women who perceived their disease conditions as emergencies and severe were also more likely to honour obstetric referrals (OR = 2.3; 95 % CI = 1.3, 3.9). Clients' perceptions about severity of health condition and low income remain barriers to seeking healthcare and disincentives to honour obstetric referrals in a setting with inequitable access to healthcare. Implementing social interventions could improve the situation and help attain maternal health targets in deprived areas.

  1. Entomological investigations into an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE in northern districts of West Bengal, India (2011-2012

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    T Mariappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE is one of the most important arboviral diseases of human beings with outbreaks in many parts of Southeast Asia including India. We present the entomological findings of an outbreak occurred in northern part of West Bengal during 2011-2012 with special emphasis on the role of JE vectors in different seasons. Methods: Adult mosquito collections were made with the help of mouth aspirators, aided by flash lights during day time resting inside human and animal habitations as indoor, and resting outside field grasses, bushes, underneath of culverts and bridges as outdoor, and in and around the pig enclosures and cattle sheds during dusk period in JE affected villages from Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in North West Bengal. In all study villages, a long handled with enamel bowl dipper was used to obtain immature stages of mosquitoes from various breeding habitats. Results: A total of 19 different types of mosquito breeding habitats were examined for vectors of JE. From these habitats, 23.7 per cent were positive for breeding during the study period. Overall, nine different species were recorded through emergence, but none was positive for JE virus when subjected for detection of virus. Adult mosquitoes of more than 50 per cent of the potential JE vector species obtained through dusk and the rest through indoor and outdoor collections in all seasons. Altogether, 27 different species were recorded. Most of these were JE vectors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in addition to Cx. vishnui subgroup, detection of JE virus antigen in Cx. quinquefasciatus indicated the possible maintenance of JE virus in nature through poor vector mosquitoes throughout the year. Since, all potential vector species reported elsewhere in India were also found in this region and fluctuated in density in different seasons, a proper integrated vector control programme needs

  2. Potential reduction of non-residential solid waste in Sukomanunggal district West Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, I. D. A. A.; Reswari, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Sukomanunggal district a development unit 8 with the designation as a regional trade and services, industrial, education, healthcare, offices, and shopping center. The development of this region will make an increasing solid waste generation, especially waste from non-residential facilities. The aims of this research to know the potential reduction of waste source. The method used is the Likert scale questionnaire to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of non-residential facilities manager. Results from this research are the existing reduction of non-residential solid waste is 5.34%, potential reduction of the waste source is optimization of plastic and paper waste with the reduction rate up to 19,52%. The level of public participation existing amounted to 46.79% with a willingness to increase recycling efforts amounted to 72.87%. Efforts that can be developed to increase public awareness of 3R are providing three types of bins, modification of solid waste collection schedule according to a type of waste that has been sorted, the provision of the communal bin.

  3. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

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    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  4. Prevalence of Thinness among Rural Bengalee Pre-school Children in Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S; Bose, K; Bisai, S; Chakraborty, R

    2009-09-01

    This-cross sectional study investigated the age and sex variations in thinness among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls) 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity. The children were randomly recruited from 66 Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The area is remote and mostly inhabited by Bengalee Muslims. All preschool children (3-5 years old) living in Chapra Block are enrolled at these centres. Anthropometric measures taken included height and weight using standard techniques and then body mass index (BMI) was computed. Age and sex specific cut-off values of body mass index (BMI) were utilised to identify thinness. Overall prevalence of thinness was 49.68% and 51.57% among boys and girls, respectively. There were significant (p< 0.05) sex differences in height, weight and BMI. In general, the frequency of thinness increased with increasing age in both sexes. The rates of Grade-III and Grade-II thinness were higher among girls (Grade-III = 7.46%, Grade-II = 13.44%) compared with boys (Grade-III = 5.48%, Grade-II = 11.72%). In contrast, Grade-I thinness was higher among boys. The results from this study indicate that the nutritional status of rural Bengalee pre-school children is unsatisfactory. These children are experiencing marked nutritional stress. There is scope for much improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  5. Evaluating the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected districts of the Upper West region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Musah; Aidoo, Felix; Hayford, Michael Saah; Adomako, Dickson; Asare, Enoch

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is a very important asset to the people of the Upper West region of the Ghana where majority of them are farmers. Groundwater serves as the most reliable source of water for their domestic and agricultural activities. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected communities of five districts where farming activities are very intensive. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major anions and cations. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also measured. From the results of the analyses and measurements, the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation were evaluated based on the TDS, EC, percentage sodium (%Na), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelly's ratio (KR) and chloro-alkaline Indices (CAI). US salinity laboratory diagram and Wilcox diagrams were also applied. The EC results show that the groundwater in the study area can be classified as none and slight to moderate. According to the US salinity diagram, groundwater in the study area falls within the low salinity-low sodium hazard and medium salinity-low sodium hazard class. The %Na and the resulting Wilcox diagram also classify the groundwater as excellent to good and good to permissible. The groundwater in the study area is generally good for irrigation purposes. However, there are few instances which are problematic and would require special irrigation methods.

  6. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

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    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  7. Geochemical appraisal of fluoride-laden groundwater in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The present study has been carried out covering two blocks—Suri I and II in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. The evaluation focuses on occurrence, distribution and geochemistry in 26 water samples collected from borewells spread across the entire study area homogeneously. Quantitative chemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from the present study area has shown that samples from two locations—Gangta and Dhalla contain fluoride greater than the permissible limit prescribed by WHO during both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sampling sessions. Significant factor controlling geochemistry of groundwater has been identified to be rock-water interaction processes during both sampling sessions based on the results of Gibb's diagrams. Geochemical modeling studies have revealed that fluorite (CaF2) is, indeed, present as a significant fluoride-bearing mineral in the groundwaters of this study area. Calcite or CaCO3 is one of the most common minerals with which fluorite remains associated, and saturation index calculations have revealed that the calcite-fluorite geochemistry is the dominant factor controlling fluoride concentration in this area during both post- and pre-monsoon. High fluoride waters have also been found to be of `bicarbonate' type showing increase of sodium in water with decrease of calcium.

  8. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of BDM/CNGD Well 3997, Lee District, Calhoun County, West Virginia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, casing, completing, and stimulating the Hunter Bennett No. 3997 well located in Lee District, Calhoun County West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with CNG Development Company. The well was spudded on November 9, 1990, and drilling was completed on December 14, 1990. The well was drilled on an average asmuth of 312 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2459 feet. The well was turned to a 90 degree inclination from the vertical over a measured course length of 1216 feet. Approximately 1381 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2179 feet had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Each zone is a little more than 300 feet long. The well was stimulated with nitrogen gas in zones one and two. Early production results are encouraging. The BDM/CNGD horizontal well averaged 147 mcfd of gas over the first week of production and, in week five, began to produce oil at a rate of about 2 bbl/day.

  9. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of BDM/CNGD Well 3997, Lee District, Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, casing, completing, and stimulating the Hunter Bennett No. 3997 well located in Lee District, Calhoun County West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with CNG Development Company. The well was spudded on November 9, 1990, and drilling was completed on December 14, 1990. The well was drilled on an average asmuth of 312 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2459 feet. The well was turned to a 90 degree inclination from the vertical over a measured course length of 1216 feet. Approximately 1381 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2179 feet had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Each zone is a little more than 300 feet long. The well was stimulated with nitrogen gas in zones one and two. Early production results are encouraging. The BDM/CNGD horizontal well averaged 147 mcfd of gas over the first week of production and, in week five, began to produce oil at a rate of about 2 bbl/day.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index (HIS) of Surili (Presbytis comata Desmarest, 1822) in mixed forest of Kuningan District, West Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Supartono, Toto; Priyono Kartono, Agus; Hikmat, Agus; Ramdhoni, Syahru

    2017-01-01

    Java has been experiencing deforestation due to high population pressure. A lot of natural forests which play an important role as wildlife habitat are loss. The remaining natural forest distribute in mountainous areas in the form natural conservation area, meanwhile the others have been converted into settlement andinfrastructure, food crops, cash crops plantation, estate and private forest plantation. Javan langur (Presbytiscomata) is an endemic species of Java and used to utilize natural forest as their habitat. However, in a recent observation the species isfound inside plantation forest in Kuningan district, West Java. This is a unique finding, due to the fact that a plantation forest is not suitable habitat for Javan langur. The research is aimed to develop Habitat Suitability for this species based on physical, biological and human disturbance factors. Data on Javan langur presence and its habitat component were derived from field observation and secondary data/map. Result showed HSI could be developed based on 4 PC and showed that the study area mostly is occupied by low HIS Index or not suitable area for surili.

  11. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  12. Epidemiological Mapping of Human Onchocerciasis in Transmission Suspected Districts of Bale, Borena, and West Arsi Zones of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindew Mekasha Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is mainly found in western part of Ethiopia and there is no evidence of transmission in the east ward. However, some zones (Bale, Borena, and West Arsi are suspected for transmission given the area has fast flowing rivers and is covered with vegetation. Therefore, this study was conducted to map onchocerciasis transmission in those zones. About 19 villages were selected based on proximity to the rivers, representation of districts, zones, and vegetation covers, whereas the study participants, all village residents of age > 5 years with good health condition, were skin sniped and examined using microscopy. In this study a total of 2560 study participants were surveyed of which 1332 were female (52% and 122 were male (48%. The age group of 21–30 years was highest (34.4% and that of age > 51 years was the lowest (3.1% study participants. The survey result revealed that none of the study participants regardless of age, sex, and location demonstrated skin snip Onchocerca microfilariae. The prevalence of microfilariae and community microfilarial load (CMFL were 0% and 0 mf/s, respectively. The finding implied that there is no onchocerciasis in the area and, therefore, there is no need for interventions. Black fly distribution, cytotaxonomic study, and intraborder cross transmission monitoring are recommended.

  13. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

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    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  14. Recurrent drought in the Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District Municipality of the North West Province in South Africa: an environmental justice perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon van Riet

    2012-01-01

    This article adopts an environmental justice approach to recurrent drought in the North-West Province of South Africa. It is based on a secondary data analysis of a study – of which the author was a research team member – conducted in the Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District Municipality in February 2007, which assessed the impact of drought on older people. The methodology used during the initial study included observation, individual interviews, focus group interviews and participatory resear...

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-10-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, {HCO}3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and {SO}4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( {HCO}3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( {HCO}3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality

  16. Undernutrition among adult Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: relationship with educational status and food habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran; Sadhukhan, Sanjay; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2009-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1203 adult (> 18 years of age) Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition and the relationship of educational level and food habit with undernutrition. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) computed following the standard equation. A BMI Educational status was coded as: no formal education, 1-8 years of schooling and > 8 years of schooling. Food habit was recorded as vegetarian or non-vegetarian. The mean ages of males and females were (39.6 +/- 15.0 years) and (39.6 +/- 15.0 years), respectively. There were significant (p education and nutritional status. Overall, the frequencies of CED (43.5%) were much higher than overweight (7.0%) among subjects with no formal education. The frequencies of CED and overweight among subjects with 1-8 years of formal education were 25.7% and 9.7%, respectively. Similarly, significantly (p education in both sexes (males = 39.5%; females = 45.6%) compared to the presence of overweight (males = 1.8%; females = 9.8%). Sex-combined frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p educational status as well as food habit had significant effect on BMI in both sexes. In general, the educational status had a stronger impact (males: t = 6.356, females: t = 5.017) than food habit (males: t = 3.373; females: t = 2.763) on BMI. This significant impact remained even after controlling for the effect of age. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that adult Bengalees of Dearah were under serious nutritional stress indicating a public health problem. In addition, a strong inverse relationship existed between educational level and CED. Moreover, vegetarianism was significantly associated with CED. Urgent public health measures are required, particularly among females, to reduce the high prevalence of CED in this population. Similar studies should be conducted in other parts of West Bengal before any general conclusions can be

  17. Prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Fundong District, North-West Cameroon: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Tracey; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Sieyen, Nana Christopher; Lavy, Christopher; Polack, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological data on musculoskeletal conditions such as degenerative joint diseases and bone fractures are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. Fifty-one clusters of 80 people (all ages) were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected by compact segment sampling. Six screening questions were asked to identify participants likely to have a musculoskeletal impairment (MSI). Participants screening positive to any screening question underwent a standardised examination by a physiotherapist to assess presence, cause, diagnosis and severity of impairment. In total, 3567 of 4080 individuals enumerated for the survey were screened (87%). The all-age prevalence of MSI was 11.6% (95% CI: 10.1-13.3). Prevalence increased with age, from 2.9% in children to 41.2% in adults 50 years and above. The majority of MSI cases (70.4%) were classified as mild, 27.2% as moderate and 2.4% as severe. Acquired non-trauma comprised 67% of the diagnoses. The remainder included trauma (14%), neurological (11%), infection (5%) and congenital (3%). The most common individual diagnosis was degenerative joint disease (43%). Over one-third (38%) of individuals with MSI had never received medical care or rehabilitation for their condition. This survey contributes to the epidemiological data on MSI in low- and middle-income countries. Nearly half of adults aged over 50 years had an MSI. There is a need to address the treatment and rehabilitative service gap for people with MSI in Cameroon. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Limited access to iodized salt among the poor and disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Tapas Kumar; Das, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Roy, Rabindranath

    2010-08-01

    Iodine deficiency is endemic in West Bengal as evident from earlier studies. This community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district during August-November 2005 to assess the consumption of adequately-iodized salt and to ascertain the various factors that influence access to iodized salt. In total, 506 households selected using the multi-stage cluster-sampling technique and all 79 retail shops from where the study households buy salt were surveyed. The iodine content of salt was tested by spot iodine-testing kits. Seventy-three percent of the households consumed salt with adequate iodine content (> or = 15 ppm). Consumption of adequately-iodized salt was lower among rural residents [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-0.9], Muslims (PR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), and households with monthly per-capita income of ban on non-iodized salt were more likely to consume adequately-iodized salt (PR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.01-1.3). The iodine content was higher in salt sold in sealed packets (PR: 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.8) and stored on shelves (PR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0). Seventy-two percent of the salt samples from the retail shops had the iodine content of > or = 15 ppm. The findings indicate that elimination of iodine deficiency will require targeting the vulnerable and poor population.

  19. Factors influencing access to pharmaceutical services in underserviced areas of the West Rand District, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditonkana A. Sello

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examined demographic and socio-economic factors that may influence pharmaceutical services (PS in underserviced communities of the West Rand District, Gauteng Province, South Africa. A quantitative survey was conducted using structured questionnaires administered to the general public (n = 2014 in Bekkersdal, Kagiso, Mohlakeng, Munsville and Diepsloot townships. The questionnaire explored demographic details, employment and education status, income levels, payment methods and convenience of services. Of the respondents, 54.0% were women, 52.0% were unemployed; 65.0% had secondary educationor higher and > 70.0% had no income or earned < R1000 p.m. Unemployment was higher amongst women. Only 13.9% of respondents had medical aid membership, which influenced their choice of health provider, with the exception of pharmacy services which are notaffected by medical aid membership. Medical aid members were, however, more able to pay. Employment status and education also influenced the choice of provider, with most of the employed (66.0% and educated (64.4% preferring a pharmacy or GP. On pharmacist gender, 47.5% of respondents had no preference, 27.6% preferred male pharmacists, whilst 24.9% preferred female pharmacists. Men with preferences preferred male providers (77.0%, whilst female respondents preferred female providers (69.3%. Respondents with no formal education and those with low or no income expressed higher gender preferences rates than those with formal education or higher income, respectively. Thus, access to PS was influenced by gender, age, family income and education level. Whilst medical aid membership had no influence on access to PS, it influenced ability to pay. These factors should be considered by those wishing to offer PS in such areas.

  20. Sustainability Analysis of Existing Agriculture on High Risk Erosion Area (Case Studies in Lembang, West Bandung District and in Dongko, Trenggalek District)

    OpenAIRE

    WIDIRIANI, RACHMI; SABIHAM, SUPIANDI; SUTJAHJO, S. HADI; Las, Irsal

    2009-01-01

    There are three main constraints for the upland agriculture development, namely (1) steep slopes that limit the suitable farm land, (2) soil erosion rate tends to be higher than the rate of soil losses and (3) high average annual rainfall. This research focused on sustainability analysis at high risk erosion area in Lembang sub district and Dongko sub district. The aim of this research was to analyze index and sustainability status of the border area, existing farming on high risk erosion. Mu...

  1. Profile of Community Mental Health Service Needs in the Moretele District (North-West Province) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiba, Precious; Schneider, Helen; Porteus, Kimberly; Gunnarson, Veronica

    2001-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergence of democracy in South Africa led to a need to transform all public structures, including the health care system. The aim has been to transform these structures in order to bring them in line with the new culture of human rights. Transformation of the whole health care system is motivated by a number of key objectives, which include achieving equity in resource allocation and health service delivery, developing primary health care infrastructure and decentralising services to promote community participation. AIMS OF THE STUDY: In the context of de-institutionalising mental health services in South Africa, this study aimed to investigate community mental health service needs of mental health service users and that of their families in the Moretele district, North-West province, South Africa. METHODS: The study was conducted in three clinics situated in three different communities in the Moretele district. Data collection consisted of : 147 clinical record reviews, 105 interviews with patients followed by a joint interview with a family member, 83 interviews with caregivers and eight interviews with community key informants (traditional healers, a civic leader, a councillor, a retired teacher, and a physician). RESULTS: The majority of service users were males (54%). The mean age was 41 years and 63% had completed primary schooling.Patients were recorded as having only one of two primary diagnoses, namely schizophrenia (57%) or epilepsy (41%). However, a review of prescribed drugs and caregiver interviews showed that there was a presence of mood disorders among service users. The local hospital was service users primary entry point into the mental health care system, followed by traditional healers (30%). Interviews with service users, service providers and caregivers reveal limited knowledge of patient illness. Nevertheless, service users who had epilepsy were more likely to provide details of their illness than those with mental illness

  2. Transformation of Agricultural Land for Urbanisation, Infrastructural Development and Question of Future Food Security: Cases from Parts of Hugli District, West Bengal

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    Giyasuddin Siddique

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries of the world encounter urbanisation and infrastructural development in or around the fertile tracts and the absence of any landuse plan for desired land use change has led to conversion of farmlands, which is detrimental to future food security and environmental quality. Hugli district is traditionally well known as one of the most prosperous agricultural regions of West Bengal but the district is experiencing rapid urban extension and infrastructural development towards productive agricultural land since 1991. This has caused decline in the amount of agricultural production which may be treated as an indicator of increasing threat to the long run sustainable livelihood security of the people of the whole of West Bengal. This article critically explores the transformation of agricultural (farm land because of growing rate of urbanisation and infrastructural development, which in turn poses the question of threat to food (in security. Although, this is a growing problem across the universe, this article probes the future food security questions of Hugli district, West Bengal by examining the impact of the highly intertwined indicators of urbanisation and infrastructural development on agricultural (farm land use and its effect on food security. Regression analysis, Spearman’s Ranking Correlation Coefficient, Remote Sensing technologies, Markov Chain Model, Projection of future population growth and yield rate are employed to understand the depth of the problem. The result not only shows a direct negative correlation between urban extension and agricultural areal contraction but also the supervised classification of satellite imageries shows that there is rapid change of rural land use from 1996-2016. There is no match between future population growth and future yield rate of crops and the Markov Chain Model further predicts that the cropland will decrease from 62.77% to 42.90% and the built up area will increase from 31

  3. Stunting, underweight and wasting among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme children aged 3-5 years of Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

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    Bose, Kaushik; Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bisai, Samiran; Ganguli, Sanjib; Khatun, Argina; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated age and sex variations in height and weight, levels of stunting, underweight and wasting among 533 (254 boys; 279 girls) 3- to 5-year-old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 11 Integrated Child Development Services centres of Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height or=30%). The prevalence rates of stunting (20-29%) and wasting (5-9%) were medium. In conclusion, the nutritional status of the subjects is unsatisfactory. There is scope for improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  4. Prevalence of undernutrition among pre-school children of Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India, measured by composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF).

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    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2009-09-01

    Since independence, one of the greatest problems facing India is malnutrition among under five year old children. However, there exists scanty information of the prevalence of undernutrition among preschool children in India and West Bengal. The present cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence of undernutrition among children 3.0-5.9 years old in a rural area of West Bengal covered by the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). Randomly selected sixty six ICDS centres of the Chapra Block Nadia District, West Bengal, India, were chosen. A total of 2016 children, aged 3.0-5.9 years were studied. It was observed that boys were heavier and taller than girls at all ages. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in boys as well as in girls. Among the children, 48.20%, 10.60% and 48.30% were stunting, wasted and underweight, respectively. The CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition, with 60.40% of the studied children suffering from anthropometric failure, in comparison to the three other conventional indicators. We conclude that the nutritional status of the subjects is unsatisfactory. More studies dealing with CIAF should be undertaken among pre-school children from different parts of India. Such investigations will allow us not only to compare the rates of three conventional measures of undernutrition with CIAF, but also help to demonstrate the enhanced utility and effectiveness of the latter measure.

  5. LAND USE CHANGE AND RECOMMENDATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PEATLAND FOR AGRICULTURE: Case Study at Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts, West Kalimantan

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    Wahyunto Wahyunto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatland is an increasingly important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon storage. Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts of West Kalimantan rely their future agricultural development on this environmentally fragile peatland because of the dominance (58% and 16% area, respectively of this land in the two districts. A study aimed to evaluate land use changes on peatland and to develop strategies for sustainable peatland use and management for agriculture. Time series satellite imageries of land use and land cover, ground truthing, and statistical data of land use change were analyzed for generating the dynamics of land use changes in the period of 1986-2008. Field observation, peat sampling, and peat analyses of representative land use types were undertaken to assess peat characteristics and its agricultural suitability. The study showed that within 22 years (1986-2008, the area of peat forests in Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts decreased as much as 13.6% from 391,902 ha to 328,078 ha. The current uses of the peatland in the two districts include oil palm plantation (8704 ha, smallholder rubber plantation (13,186 ha, annual crops (15,035 ha, mixed cropping of trees and annual crops (22,328 ha, and pineapple farming (11,744 ha. Our evaluation showed unconformity of the current uses of peatland with regulations and crops agronomic requirements such as peat thickness and maturity, rendering unsustainability. This study recommends that expansion of agriculture and plantation on peatland areas be limited over idle land within the agricultural production and conversion production forest areas. About 34,362 ha (9.7% of uncultivated log-over forest and shrubs can potentially be developed for agriculture. Peat soils with the thickness of >3 m should be allocated for conservation or forest protection due to low inherent soil fertility and high potential greenhouse gas emissions if converted for agriculture.

  6. The dynamics of population, land scarcity, agriculture and non-agricultural activities : West Usambara mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambiya, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the findings of research conducted between December 1996 and December 1997 in two villages, Kweminyasa and Lukozi, in Lushoto District, Tanzania, and comprising a general broad survey of individuals to determine the pattern of nonagricultural activities over time, a survey of

  7. Recurrent drought in the Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District Municipality of the North West Province in South Africa: An environmental justice perspective

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    Gideon van Riet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an environmental justice approach to recurrent drought in the North-West Province of South Africa. It is based on a secondary data analysis of a study – of which the author was a research team member – conducted in the Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District Municipality in February 2007, which assessed the impact of drought on older people. The methodology used during the initial study included observation, individual interviews, focus group interviews and participatory research. The author of the present article suggests, however, that discourses of Disaster Risk Management (DRM and ’legislative compliance’, as in many other South African contexts, have not yet been a particularly useful framing for issues of disaster and drought. The author suggests that environmental justice discourses might offer a more useful framing or conceptualisation for those concerned with the issue of recurrent drought in the study area or similar contexts.

  8. Butterfly diversity in tropical moist deciduous sal forests of Ankua Reserve Forest, Koina Range, Saranda Division, West Singhbhum District, Jharkhand, India

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    A.P. Singh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies were sampled during February and September 2008 using pollard walk method to assess the species diversity in the tropical moist deciduous sal forest habitats of Ankua Reserve Forest, Koina Range, Saranda Division, West Singhbhum District, Jharkhand. This area, a total of 999.9ha, is being proposed for lease under an iron ore mining project. This short-term study revealed high beta diversity of butterflies in these forest tracts, with 71 species recorded. Of these, two species, Leopard Lacewing Cethosia cyane (Drury, 1773 and Restricted Demon Notocrypta curvifascia (C. & R. Felder, 1862, are new records for Jharkhand state while three other species recorded are listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act 1972. This study provides support for long-term conservation of these fragmented sal forest tracts to ensure biodiversity protection.

  9. Maternal Education, Reported Morbidity and Number of Siblings are Associated with Malnutrition among Lodha Preschool Children of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India

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    Samiran Bisai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition among tribal preschool children is highly prevalent in almost all states of India and is the predisposing factor for morbidity as well as mortality. Objectives: Aim of the study was to detect prevalence of malnutrition and their associated factors. Study design: A cross sectional study. Study subjects: Lodha tribal children aged 1-5 years. Sample size: A total of 141 children were included in the present study. Data collection: Data was collected in pre-structured questionnaire, which included household socio-demographic data, morbidity status of child and anthropometric measurements like height, weight. Results: The overall prevalence of malnutrition in the form of underweight, stunting, wasting and overweight was 40.4%, 29.8%, 34.0%, 5.0%, respectively. According to the WHO classification of severity of malnutrition, the overall prevalence of underweight and wasting was very high, indicating a critical situation. The reported morbidity was 20.6% and majority of children suffered from diarrhoea (7.8%. The results revealed that morbidity status, number of sibling, mother literacy status had significant association on underweight More importantly; rate of underweight was significantly higher among children who had reported morbidity, no of sibs 3 and above and or illiterate mothers.  They had 3.7, 2.15 and 2.81 times greater risk of being underweight. Similarly, children having morbidity had more than 3 times greater chance of developing wasting.    Conclusion:  The Lodha pre-school children were suffering from nutritional stress which was associated with reported morbidity, mother’s lack of education and high number of siblings.

  10. Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia

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    Addisu Workineh Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17 of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163 of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236 of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920 of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely.

  11. Magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the early Triassic Laodou lode gold deposit in the Xiahe-Hezuo district, West Qinling orogen, China: implications for gold metallogeny

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    Jin, Xiao-ye; Li, Jian-wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Sui, Ji-xiang

    2017-08-01

    The Xiahe-Hezuo district in the West Qinling orogen contains numerous Au-(As-Sb) and Cu-Au-(W) deposits. The district is divided into eastern and western zones by the Xiahe-Hezuo Fault. The western zone is exposed at a shallow level and contains sediment-hosted disseminated Au-(As-Sb) deposits, whereas the eastern zone is exposed at a deeper level and contains Cu-Au-(W) skarn and lode gold deposits within or close to granitic intrusions. The Laodou gold deposit in the eastern zone consists of auriferous quartz-sulfide-tourmaline and minor quartz-stibnite veins that are structurally controlled by fault zones transecting the Laodou quartz diorite porphyry stock and enveloped by potassic and phyllic alteration. Both the veins and alteration halos commonly contain quartz, sericite, tourmaline, pyrite, and arsenopyrite, with minor galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and enargite. Gold occurs mainly as invisible gold in pyrite or arsenopyrite and locally as inclusions less than 50 μm in diameter. The zircon U-Pb age of 247.6 ± 1.3 Ma (2 σ) on the host quartz diorite porphyry and the sericite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 249.1 ± 1.6 and 249.0 ± 1.5 Ma (2 σ) on two ore-related hydrothermal sericite samples are within analytical errors of one another. At the formation temperature (275 °C) inferred from microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion, sericite and tourmaline yield calculated δDH2O values of -70 to -45‰ and δ 18OH2O of 5.8 to 9.7‰, while quartz yields calculated δ 18OH2O values of 5.1˜5.7‰. Hydrothermal tourmaline in quartz-sulfide-tourmaline veins has δ 11B of -11.2 to -0.9‰ (mean of -6.3‰) that are similar to the values of magmatic tourmaline (-8.9 to -5.5‰ with a mean of -6.8‰) in the host quartz diorite porphyry. The δ 34S values of sulfide minerals range from -5.9 to +5.8‰ with a mean of -0.6‰ that is typical of magmatic sulfur. Pyrite from hydrothermally altered quartz diorite porphyry and quartz

  12. Policy Implementation Of Special Autonomy Funds Case Study Of Education Funding In The District Manokwari West Papua Indonesia

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    Baesara Wael

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Regulations special autonomy Papua is a product policy given by the central government in an effort to promote development in various aspects of the four main program priorities for the economy education health and infrastructure. in the context of policy implementation then this can be considered as one of the factors that interfere with activities especially in relation to the legal rules of the program is not yet clear. the focus of this study is how can the implementation of special autonomy fund policies in education in Manokwari West Papua province. This study used a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. This study seeks to identify and analyze on the implementation of policy autonomy special funds Education in Manokwari West Papua Province through qualitative interpretation. This study seeks to reveal how the implementation of the Special Autonomy Fund for Education in Manokwari West Papua Province. The research concludes that the Communication External and Internal communication is not maximized. The quality of human resources is still minimal and not understand the working procedures due to no regulation or supported by PERDASI PERDASUS governing socialisation Education and lack of special autonomy or special autonomy funds in terms of the form of facilities or equipment Resource inadequate facilities. In terms of the funds Resources regarding the distribution of the Special Autonomy Fund of uneven and has not touched most of the basic needs of the people of Papua especially Papuan society itself as well as in terms of the Resource Authority regarding the delegation of authority from supervisor to subordinate unclear because there is no standard operating Procedure SOP. Furthermore in terms of structure in an organizational bureaucracy that there should be a very clear organization structure to facilitate the delegation of authority and accountability.

  13. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

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    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  14. Does Women Empowerment Predict Contraceptive Use? A Study in a Rural Area of Hooghly District, West Bengal

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    Aparajita Dasgupta Dasgupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: India launched the world’s first national family planning programme in 1952. Unfortunately, considerable numbers of eligible couples in India are still not using any method of contraception in spite of the fact that knowledge related to contraceptives are not lacking. Studies reported that the status of the women in the family and largely in the community, represented by a measure ‘women empowerment’ plays a role in determining contraceptive use. However, there is dearth of literature in this regards especially among women of reproductive age of West Bengal. Aims & Objectives: To find out the current contraceptive use and its relationship, if any with women empowerment among adult married women of reproductive age group in a rural area of West Bengal. Material & Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 151 WRA using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Current use of contraceptive was the outcome variable. The main explanatory variable was ‘empowerment score’-a summed measure of four domains: ‘financial autonomy’, ‘freedom of movement’, ‘involvement in household level decision making’ and ‘woman’s power in sexual and reproductive decision making’. Results: 63.6% study participants were using any method of contraception at the time of study. Women empowerment [AOR (CI: 1.11 (1.02-1.22] and education of women [AOR (CI: 2.56 (1.13-5.85] were significantly associated with contraceptive use, even after adjustment with other independent variables. Conclusion: Educating women and empowering them will improve the family planning practices. This will, in long run play a pivotal role in improving family and community health.

  15. Immunisation coverage and its determinants among children aged 12-23 months in Atakumosa-west district, Osun State Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedire, Elizabeth B; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Kasasa, Simon; Wasswa, Peter; Nguku, Patrick

    2016-08-30

    Routine immunisation (RI) contributes immensely to reduction in mortality from vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) among children. The Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 revealed that only 58 % of children in Osun State had received all recommended vaccines, which is far below World Health Organization (WHO) target of 80 %. We therefore, assessed RI uptake and its determinants among children in Atakumosa-west district of Osun State. Atakumosa-west district has an estimated population of 90,525 inhabitants. We enrolled 750 mothers of children aged 12-23 months in this cross-sectional study. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of mothers on RI, history of RI in children and factors associated with full RI uptake. A fully-immunised child was defined as a child who had received one dose of Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, three doses of Oral-Polio-Vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We tested for the association between immunisation uptake and its likely determinants using multivariable logistic regression at 0.05 level of significance and 95 % confidence Interval (CI). Mean ± (SD) age of the mothers and children were 27.9 ± 6.1 years and 17.2 ± 4.0 months, respectively. About 94 % (703/750) of mothers had received antenatal care (ANC) and 63.3 % (475) of the children possessed vaccination cards. Seventy-six percent (571/750) had good knowledge of RI and VPD. About 58 % (275/475) of children who possessed vaccination card were fully-immunised. Mothers antenatal care attendance (aOR = 3.3, 95 % CI = 1.1-8.3), maternal tetanus toxoid immunisation (aOR = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.1-10.0) access to immunisation information (aOR = 1.8, 95 % CI = 1.1-2.5) and mothers having good knowledge of immunisation (aOR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.6-3.8) were significant determinants of full

  16. Immunisation coverage and its determinants among children aged 12-23 months in Atakumosa-west district, Osun State Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

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    Elizabeth B. Adedire

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine immunisation (RI contributes immensely to reduction in mortality from vaccine preventable diseases (VPD among children. The Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 revealed that only 58 % of children in Osun State had received all recommended vaccines, which is far below World Health Organization (WHO target of 80 %. We therefore, assessed RI uptake and its determinants among children in Atakumosa-west district of Osun State. Methods Atakumosa-west district has an estimated population of 90,525 inhabitants. We enrolled 750 mothers of children aged 12–23 months in this cross-sectional study. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of mothers on RI, history of RI in children and factors associated with full RI uptake. A fully-immunised child was defined as a child who had received one dose of Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, three doses of Oral-Polio-Vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We tested for the association between immunisation uptake and its likely determinants using multivariable logistic regression at 0.05 level of significance and 95 % confidence Interval (CI. Results Mean ± (SD age of the mothers and children were 27.9 ± 6.1 years and 17.2 ± 4.0 months, respectively. About 94 % (703/750 of mothers had received antenatal care (ANC and 63.3 % (475 of the children possessed vaccination cards. Seventy-six percent (571/750 had good knowledge of RI and VPD. About 58 % (275/475 of children who possessed vaccination card were fully-immunised. Mothers antenatal care attendance (aOR = 3.3, 95 % CI = 1.1-8.3, maternal tetanus toxoid immunisation (aOR = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.1-10.0 access to immunisation information (aOR = 1.8, 95 % CI = 1.1-2.5 and mothers having good knowledge of immunisation (aOR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1

  17. Caregivers' perception of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour for under five children in Mandura District, West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mitiku, Israel; Assefa, Adane

    2017-04-08

    Early diagnosis and prompt malaria treatment is essential to reduce progression of the illness to severe disease and, therefore, decrease mortality particularly among children under 5 years of age. This study assessed perception of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour for children under five with fever in the last 2 weeks in Mandura District, West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 491 caregivers of children under five in Mandura District, West Ethiopia in December 2014. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and analysed using SPSS version 20. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the determinants of caregivers' treatment-seeking behaviour. Overall, 94.1% of the respondents perceived that fever is the most common symptom and 70% associated mosquito bite with the occurrence of malaria. Of 197 caregivers with under five children with fever in the last 2 weeks preceding the study 87.8% sought treatment. However, only 38.7% received treatment within 24 h of onset of fever. Determinants of treatment-seeking include place of residence (rural/urban) (AOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01-7.70), caregivers age (AOR 3.40, 95% CI 1.27-9.10), knowledge of malaria (AOR 4.65, 95% CI 1.38-15.64), perceived susceptibility to malaria (AOR 3.63, 95% CI 1.21-10.88), and perceived barrier to seek treatment (AOR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06-0.52). Majority of the respondents of this study sought treatment for their under five children. However, a considerable number of caregivers first consulted traditional healers and tried home treatment, thus, sought treatment late. Living in rural village, caregivers' age, malaria knowledge, perceived susceptibility to malaria and perceived barrier to seek treatment were important factors in seeking health care. There is a need to focus on targeted interventions, promote awareness and prevention, and address misconceptions about

  18. Changing Pattern of Crop Fraction in Late Blight Induced Potato Crops in Potato Bowl of West Bengal by using Multi-temporal Time Series AWiFs Data

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    Chakrabarty, Abhisek

    2016-07-01

    Crop fraction is the ratio of crop occupying a unit area in ground pixel, is very important for monitoring crop growth. One of the most important variables in crop growth monitoring is the fraction of available solar radiation intercepted by foliage. Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is considered to be the most destructive crop diseases of potato worldwide. Under favourable climatic conditions, and without intervention (i.e. fungicide sprays), the disease can destroy potato crop within few weeks. Therefore it is important to evaluate the crop fraction for monitoring the healthy and late blight affected potato crops. This study was conducted in potato bowl of West Bengal, which consists of districts of Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan, Bankuara, and Paschim Medinipur. In this study different crop fraction estimation method like linear spectral un-mixing, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based DPM model (Zhang et al. 2013), Ratio vegetation index based DPM model, improved Pixel Dichotomy Model (Li et al. 2014) ware evaluated using multi-temporal IRS AWiFs data in two successive potato growing season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 over the study area and compared with measured crop fraction. The comparative study based on measured healthy and late blight affected potato crop fraction showed that improved Pixel Dichotomy Model maintain the high coefficient of determination (R2= 0.835) with low root mean square error (RMSE=0.21) whereas the correlation values of NDVI based DPM model and RVI based DPM model is 0.763 and 0.694 respectively. The changing pattern of crop fraction profile of late blight affected potato crop was studied in respect of healthy potato crop fraction which was extracted from the 269 GPS points of potato field. It showed that the healthy potato crop fraction profile maintained the normal phenological trend whereas the late blight affected potato crop fraction profile suddenly fallen

  19. Hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater systems in the Ellembelle district, Ghana, West Africa

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    Edjah, A. K. M.; Akiti, T. T.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.; Glover, E. T.

    2017-05-01

    An integrated approach based on the hydrogeochemistry and the isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater was carried out in the Ellembelle district of the Western Region of Ghana. Measurement of physical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved solutes, total hardness and conductivity), major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2- and NO3 -), and stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) in 7 rivers, 13 hand-dug wells and 18 boreholes were taken. Na+ was the dominant cation and HCO3 - was the dominant anion for both rivers and groundwater. The dominant hydrochemical facies for the rivers were Na-K-HCO3 - type while that of the groundwater (hand-dug wells and boreholes) were Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 - type. According to the Gibbs diagram, majority of the rivers fall in the evaporation-crystallization field and majority of the hand-dug wells and the boreholes fall in the rock dominance field. From the stable isotope composition measurements, all the rivers appeared to be evaporated, 60 % of the hand-dug wells and 70 % of the boreholes clustered along and in between the global meteoric water line and the local meteoric water line, suggesting an integrative and rapid recharge from meteoric origin.

  20. The Autonomous Development Strategies of Micro and Small Entrepreneurs Through Coorporate Social Responsibility in Bogor District of West Java

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    Faizal Maad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective  of this  reseach were to: (1 analyze the level of autonomous of mikro and small entreprise (SMEs entrepreneurs are empowered through Coorporate Social Responsibility (CSR; (2 analyze the dominant factors that influence autonomous of MSEs entrepreneurs  are empowered through CSR;  and (3 formulate an appropriate  a strategy  in developing autonomy of MSEs entrepreneurs through CSR. The reseach  was conduct  in the village built two companies running CSR in Bogor district involved 212  (SMEs entrepreneurs which determined from population (450 SMEs entrepreneurs by Solvin formula with level of error 5 % and drawn by cluster random sampling. Data collection was conducted from July to November 2013, and consisted  the primary and secondary data. Data analysis was simulated by using structural equation model (SEM . The results showed that the degree  of autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs is low, its core was 36.89 out of 100.00. There are three strategies that must be done to develop of  autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs through  CSR, such as; (a an increase the empowerment sustainable of MSEs entrepereneurs (b improve the quality of  the environment  supporting MSEs and (c an increase in intensity of  empowerment for MSEs entrepreneurs.

  1. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and its correlates among police personnel in Bankura District of West Bengal.

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    Kumar, Pranav; Mallik, Debabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti; Sinhababu, Apurba; Mahapatra, Banamali Sinha; Chakrabarti, Phalguni

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among police personnel (N = 1817) in Bankura District, West Bengal, India to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and its correlates during July-November, 2011. Participants were enquired about their age, gender, physical activity, and predominant occupational activity. Diagnosis of DM, IFG, and IGT was based on a history, fasting, and 2-h post-load blood glucose estimation as per World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) were estimated. Out of 1817 subjects, DM was found in 15%, 1.1% had IFG and 5.7% had IGT. Age >50 years, family history of diabetes, hypertension, and abdominal obesity were found to be significantly associated with DM and IGT, whereas IFG was significantly associated with the family history of diabetes and hypertension. High prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetic condition warrants early effective intervention to keep the police force healthy and agile.

  2. A comprehensive screening program for β-thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India, dealing with 21 137 cases.

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    Bhattacharyya, Kallol Kumar; Chatterjee, Tridip; Mondal, Ujjalendu Bikash

    2016-11-01

    We here present a report of population screening programs (January 2012-December 2015) conducted by the Thalassemia Control Unit, Imambara Sadar Hospital, Chinsurah, Hooghly in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India for prevention of thalassemia. We screened β-thalassemia (β-thal) heterozygotes and homozygotes, and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A)-β-thal compound heterozygotes. Among 21 137 cases, we found 1968 heterozygotes and 192 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. Results were evaluated with standard hematological analyses including red cell indices, hemoglobin (Hb) typing and quantification. The participants of the screening program were divided into six groups (children, pre-marriage cases, post-marital cases, family members of affected individuals, family members of carriers and pregnant women). While considering the average frequency of carriers, many reports recorded both related individuals (family members of trait and affected individuals) as well as unrelated individuals such as school children and pregnant women. These would have to be considered separately and only the unrelated individuals taken to estimate carrier frequencies in this article that would give more realistic data on carrier frequency of unrelated individuals.

  3. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

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    Acharya, Tapas; Prasad, Rajesh; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance ( Cν) of fracture datasets of each domain. The Cν is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

  4. Willingness to pay for improvement in the agricultural activities of some six selected villages in west Akim district of Ghana (emphasis on cassava

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    Isaac Baidoo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a tropical crop which originated from South America. Structured questionnaires were used to gather essential information on farmers’ willingness to pay for improved cassava by means of contingent valuation Method (CVM. The Survey carried out in the West Akim District of Ghana shows that 54% are willing to pay for improvement in their agricultural activities. The varieties of cassava they cultivate are Madumaku, Otuaka, Bosuminsia, Bankyebrodee, Ankrah, Esiabeyem, Soshe, Ada and Krobo. OLS Regression results show that the area of land for cassava cultivation depends on the total acre of land the individual farmers possess, type of labour and the number of children they have and logistic regression results shows that, cassava variety, livestock and family labour are significant variables that affect the willingness to pay for improvement in their farming activities. It is recommended that a pilot project is set up in these communities so that those who are not sure will see the proposed improvement in agriculture in order to build up confidence in them.

  5. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal

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    Lina Bandyopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 230, 6th and 7th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. Results: The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t-test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47 to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30. To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96 to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03; Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Conclusion: Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  6. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

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    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  7. Evaluation of a national universal coverage campaign of long-lasting insecticidal nets in a rural district in north-west Tanzania

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    West Philippa A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITN are one of the most effective measures for preventing malaria. Mass distribution campaigns are being used to rapidly increase net coverage in at-risk populations. This study had two purposes: to evaluate the impact of a universal coverage campaign (UCC of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs on LLIN ownership and usage, and to identify factors that may be associated with inadequate coverage. Methods In 2011 two cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 50 clusters in Muleba district, north-west Tanzania. Prior to the UCC 3,246 households were surveyed and 2,499 afterwards. Data on bed net ownership and usage, demographics of household members and household characteristics including factors related to socio-economic status were gathered, using an adapted version of the standard Malaria Indicator Survey. Specific questions relating to the UCC process were asked. Results The proportion of households with at least one ITN increased from 62.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 60.9-64.2 before the UCC to 90.8% (95% CI = 89.0-92.3 afterwards. ITN usage in all residents rose from 40.8% to 55.7%. After the UCC 58.4% (95% CI = 54.7-62.1 of households had sufficient ITNs to cover all their sleeping places. Households with children under five years (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.9-2.9 and small households (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.4 were most likely to reach universal coverage. Poverty was not associated with net coverage. Eighty percent of households surveyed received LLINs from the campaign. Conclusions The UCC in Muleba district of Tanzania was equitable, greatly improving LLIN ownership and, more moderately, usage. However, the goal of universal coverage in terms of the adequate provision of nets was not achieved. Multiple, continuous delivery systems and education activities are required to maintain and improve bed net ownership and usage.

  8. A process evaluation of user fees abolition for pregnant women and children under five years in two districts in Niger (West Africa

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    Ridde Valéry

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African policy-makers are increasingly considering abolishing user fees as a solution to improve access to health care systems. There is little evidence on this subject in West Africa, and particularly in countries that have organized their healthcare system on the basis of the Bamako Initiative. This article presents a process evaluation of an NGO intervention to abolish user fees in Niger for children under five years and pregnant women. Methods The intervention was launched in 2006 in two health districts and 43 health centres. The intervention consisted of abolishing user fees and improving the quality of services (drugs, ambulance, etc.. We carried out a process evaluation in April 2007 using qualitative and quantitative data. Three data collection methods were used: i individual in-depth interviews (n = 85 and focus groups (n = 8; ii participant observation in 12 health centres; and iii self-administered structured questionnaires (n = 51 health staff. Results The population favoured abolition; health officials and local decision-makers were in favour, but they worried about its sustainability. Among health workers, opposition to providing free services was more widespread. The strengths of the process were: a top-down phase of information and raising community awareness; appropriate incentive measures; a good drug supply system; and the organization of a medical evacuation system. The major weaknesses of the process were: the perverse effects of incentive bonuses; the lack of community-based management committees' involvement in the management; the creation of a system running in parallel with the BI system; the lack of action to support the service offer; and the poor coordination of the availability of free services at different levels of the health pyramid. Some unintended outcomes are also documented. Conclusion The linkages between systems in which some patients pay (Bamako Initiative and some do not should be

  9. Influence of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) on recent phyto- and zooplankton in "the Anthropogenic Lake District" in south-west Poland

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    Sienkiewicz, Elwira; Gasiorowski, Michal

    2015-04-01

    In south-west Poland (central Europe) many the post-mining lakes formed so-called "the Anthropogenic Lake District". Areas, where water comes in contact with lignite beds characterized by high concentration of sulfide minerals are called Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Pyrite oxidation and other sulfide compounds caused release sulfuric acids and heavy metal ions. These processes caused decline of water pH, sometimes to extremely low pH lakes located in south-west Poland have water pH ranged between 2.7 and 8.9. Differences of water reaction in the mine lakes depend on many factors, such as bedrock buffer capacity, geological structure of carboniferous area, exploitation technique of lignite, methods of filling and water supply of reservoirs and their age. During the evolution of lakes' ecosystems, sulfate-iron-calcium type of waters occurring in acid lakes will transform in alkaline hydrogen-carbonate-calcium type of waters. Due to the different time of the completion of lignite exploitation, lakes' age varied between forty and over one hundred years. Studies showed that younger lakes are more acidic in compare to older. To estimate impact of AMD we analyzed recent diversity of diatoms and Cladocera remains and water chemistry from extremely acidic, relatively young lakes and from alkaline, older water bodies. As we expected, flora and fauna from acidic lakes have shown very low diversity and species richness. Among diatoms, Eunotia exigua (Bréb. ex Kütz.) Rabenhorst and/or E. paludosa Grunow were dominated taxa, while fauna Cladocera did not occurred in lakes with water pH area, exploitation of lignite continued up to 1973. Older lakes were formed in the region where the mine started work in 1880 and lignite mining stopped in 1926. Measurements of pH value in situ point to neutral or alkaline water, but because of the possibility of hysteresis phenomenon, the studies of phyto- and zooplankton have shown if there has already been a widespread neutralization of lake

  10. Polymorphisms in voltage-gated sodium channel gene and susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to insecticides in three districts of northern West Bengal, India.

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    Chatterjee, Moytrey; Ballav, Sudeep; Maji, Ardhendu K; Basu, Nandita; Sarkar, Biplab Chandra; Saha, Pabitra

    2018-01-01

    The control and prevention of dengue largely depends on vector control measures, environmental management, and personal protection. Dengue control programmes are facing great challenges due to development of insecticide resistance among vector mosquitoes. Information on susceptibility status to different insecticides is important for national programmes to formulate vector control strategies. We have studied the larval susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to temephos and adult susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, and 5% malathion as per WHO protocols in the northern districts of West Bengal. Polymorphisms in the VGSC gene were studied by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Ae. albopictus larval population showed sensitive [Resistance Ratio (RR99)10) to temephos at different study sites. Adult bioassay results revealed that Ae. albopictus was highly resistant to DDT [Corrected Mortality (CM) susceptible to deltamethrin and malathion (CM > 98%), except in Dhupguri where a low level of resistance to deltamethrin (CM = 96.25%) was recorded. None of the six important kdr mutations (S953P, I975M/V, L978, V980G, F1474C, D1703Y) were found in the VGSC of studied mosquitoes, but we identified 11 synonymous and 1 non-synonymous mutation in the VGSC gene. The higher susceptibility level to deltamethrin and malathion, along with the absence of important kdr mutations indicates that these two insecticides are still effective against Ae. albopictus in the study areas. The susceptibility status of temephos should be monitored closely as low to moderate levels of resistance were observed in few sites. A similar study is recommended for monitoring and early detection of insecticide resistance in other parts of the country.

  11. Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients from Malda district, West Bengal- A case study.

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    Golui, Debasis; Guha Mazumder, D N; Sanyal, S K; Datta, S P; Ray, P; Patra, P K; Sarkar, S; Bhattacharya, K

    2017-10-01

    Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients was established in Malda district of West Bengal. Out of 182 participants examined, 80 (43.9%) participants showed clinical features of arsenicosis, characterized by arsenical skin lesion (pigmentation and keratosis), while 102 participants did not have any such lesion (control). Experimental results of the twenty eight soils (own field) of the participants showed the mean Olsen extractable and total arsenic concentration of 0.206 and 6.70mgkg-1, respectively. Arsenic concentration in rice grain ranged from 2.00 to 1260μgkg-1 with the mean value of 146μgkg-1. The hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of As by human through consumption of rice varied from 0.03 to 3.52. HQ exceeds 1.0 for drinking water and rice grain grown in the study area in many cases. As high as 77.6% variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by the solubility-free ion activity model. Toxic limit of extractable As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard, associated with consumption of rice grain by human, was established. For example, the permissible limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.43mgkg-1 for rice cultivation, if soil pH and organic carbon content were 7.5% and 0.50%, respectively. However, the critical limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.54mgkg-1, if soil pH and organic carbon were 8.5% and 0.75%, respectively. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of arsenic in soils with respect to soil properties and human health under modeling-framework was established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tradition in treating taboo: Folkloric medicinal wisdom of the aboriginals of Purulia district, West Bengal, India against sexual, gynaecological and related disorders.

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    Modak, Biplob Kumar; Gorai, Partha; Dhan, Raghunath; Mukherjee, Anuradha; Dey, Abhijit

    2015-07-01

    In order to explore the traditional medicine practised by the ethnic communities residing in the topographically and climatically challenged Purulia, an underprivileged district of West Bengal, India, a quantitative ethnobiological approach was adopted to document the folkloric use of ethnomedicinals against different sexual, gynaecological and related ailments. Ethnobiological surveys were conducted during 2012-2015 by interviewing 82 informants or traditional healers with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The survey included questions on botanical and non-botanical ingredients and additives mixed with monoherbal and polyherbal formulations, vernacular names of the plants and animals, methods of preparation and administration and restrictions during medications. Additional quantitative indices such as use value, informant׳s consensus factor and fidelity level were used for data analysis. Twenty eight sexual and gynaecological disorders were found to be treated with 18 monoherbal and 31 polyherbal formulations consisting of a total number of 96 plant species from 86 genera and 47 families and four animal species. A variety of additives, either botanicals or non-botanicals were used with the formulations for higher efficacy and taste enhancement. Fabaceae (16 species) was found to be the most common family of medicinal plants whereas herbs (42.7%) and roots (32%) were the most common habit type and plant part used respectively. Use value, informant׳s consensus factor and fidelity level indicate frequency and coherence of citations. Age old belief on traditional medicine prevails in the studied area due to its efficacy, inexpensive price and the remoteness of tribal villages from conventional medical centres. Traditional healers had detailed knowledge of preparations, doses, methods of administration, restrictions during medications, safety and efficacy of using folkloric therapeutics against sexual and gynaecological disorders. Possible synergistic

  13. A Study on Gender Preference and Awareness Regarding Prenatal Sex Determination among Antenatal Women in a Rural Area of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India.

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    Roy, Archak; Biswas, Romy

    2017-02-01

    Sex ratio is one of the major indicators to find the gender preferences in the community. Change in sex ratio reflects underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. The present study was conducted with the aim to find out the knowledge of antenatal women regarding the prenatal sex determination and the Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act in a rural area along with assessing the gender preference in family among the study population. A community based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in the villages of Matigara Block of Darjeeling district of West Bengal, which serves as a field practice area of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital for two months. A total of 116 pregnant women were included and a pre designed pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the socio demographic details. The data were analysed by SPSS 20.0 software for proportions with chi-square tests. Knowledge of sex determination and the PNDT Act were found to be 44.82% and 18.10% among antenatal women. Knowledge regarding assessment of gender preference showed 52.58% expect a boy in this pregnancy. It was found that the determinants for gender preference were caste, sex of the last pregnancy and current gender composition. It was found that the determinants for knowledge of sex determination are age of the mother and the gravida of the mother. It was also found that the factor for the knowledge regarding the PNDT Act is age of the mother. These associations are statistically significant. This situation calls for a strategy which includes community based awareness campaigns, women employment, education, and empowerment and by ensuring effective implementation of PNDT Act by the government so that families find it difficult to undertake sex determination.

  14. Dietary diversity and associated factors among children of Orthodox Christian mothers/caregivers during the fasting season in Dejen District, North West Ethiopia.

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    Kumera, Gemechu; Tsedal, Endalkachew; Ayana, Mulatu

    2018-01-01

    Proper feeding practices during early childhood is fundamental for optimal child growth and development. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of dietary diversity are scanty. Particularly, the impact of fasting on children`s dietary diversity is not explored in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among children aged 6-23 months, whose mothers/care-givers were Orthodox Christians during the fasting season (Lent), in Dejen District, North West Ethiopia, 2016. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during the fasting season from March to April, 2016. The study sample were children aged 6-23 months, whose mothers/care-givers were Orthodox Christians. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 967 children proportionally from all selected kebeles. Data was entered using Epi data and statistical analysis were done using logistic regression. P-value children surveyed met the minimum requirement for dietary diversity. Unsatisfactory exposure to media [AOR = 5.22] and low household monthly income [AOR = 2.20] were negatively associated with dietary diversity. As compared to economic related reasons, mothers/caregivers who do not feed diet of animal origin to their children due to fear of utensil contamination for family food preparation were 1.5 times [AOR=1.5; 95% CI (1.05 - 2.53)] less likely to feed the recommended dietary diversity. The findings of this study revealed that the diet of children in the study area lacked diversity. Promoting mass media and socioeconomic empowerment of women have positive contribution to optimal child feeding practice. Sustained nutrition education to mothers regarding proper infant and young child feeding practice in collaboration with the respective religious leaders is highly recommended.

  15. Fluoride-contaminated groundwater of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India: Interpretation of drinking and irrigation suitability and major geochemical processes using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Gupta, Srimanta

    2017-08-01

    The present research work is confined to a rural tract located in the north-western part of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Chemical analysis of the groundwater shows the cations is in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) while for anions it is HCO3(─) > Cl(─) > SO4(2─) > NO3(─). The F(─) concentration was found to vary from 0.01 to 18 mg/L in the pre-monsoon and 0.023 to 19 mg/L in post-monsoon period. 86% of samples show low F(─) content (1.2 mg/L) mainly in the central and north-central parts of the study area at a depth of 46 to 98 m. The prime water type is CaHCO3 succeeded by F(─)-rich NaHCO3 and NaCl waters. The suitability analysis reveals that the water at about 81% of the sampling sites is unsuitable for drinking and at 16% of sites unsuitable for irrigation. The alkaline nature of the water and/or elevated concentration of Fe, Mn and F(─) make the water unsuitable for potable purposes while the high F(─) and Na(+) contents delimit the groundwater for irrigation uses. Multivariate statistical analysis suggests that chemical weathering along with ion exchange is the key process, responsible for mobilization of fluoride in groundwater of the study area.

  16. Undernutrition among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme Children aged 2-6 years of Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: A serious public health problem

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    Gopal Chandra Mandal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the rates of stunting, underweight and wasting among 2-6 year old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity.

    Methods: In this study, 20 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centres of Bali gram panchayet, Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, were selected. A total of 1012 (boys = 498; girls = 514 2-6 year old children were studied. Height-for-age (HAZ, weight-for-age (WAZ and weight-for-height (WHZ < -2 z-scores were used to evaluate stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively, following the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS Guidelines. Classification of severity of malnutrition was done based on the World Health Organization recommendations.

    Results: Boys were significantly heavier than girls at ages 2-4 years; they were significantly taller at ages 2 and 4. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in both sexes. Mean HAZ, WAZ and WHZ were less than those of NCHS for both sexes at all ages. The overall (age and sex combined rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were 26.6 %, 63.3 % and 50.0 %, respectively. The prevalence of stunting (boys = 24.9 %; girls = 28.2 %, and underweight (b = 62.2 %; g = 64.4 % was higher among girls whereas that of wasting was higher among boys (b = 52.4 %; g = 47.4 %. Based on World Health Organization classification of severity of malnutrition, the overall prevalence of stunting was medium (20 . 29 %, whereas those of underweight (. 30 % and wasting (. 15 % were very high, in both sexes.

    Conclusions: The nutritional status of the subjects was unsatisfactory indicating a major public health problem. There is scope for much improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  17. Petro- and paleomagnetic characteristics of the structural–material complexes of the diamond mining of the Nyurbinskaya pipe (Middle Markha district, West Yakutia

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    K. M. Konstantinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of physical and geological properties of a study object is an integral part of geological surveys at each stage. Without a model of physical and geological properties (PhGM it is impossible to obtain a complete set of reflection indicators of an object in physical fields. The models are useful in solving a wide range of tasks on substantiation of survey methods and routines for interpreting the field data. Generally, a mineral deposit FGM contains the main elements represented by structural–material complexes (SMC characterized by specific values of geometrical and physical parameters. We attempted at developing an PhGM of the diamond deposits controlled by the Middle Paleozoic trappe magmatism zone of the Vilyui paleoaulacogen. With this goal, in the period from 2002 to 2016, we carried out petrographic, paleomagnetic and geochemical studies of the SMC of the Nyurbinskaya pipe of Nakyn kimberlite field located in the Middle Markha district, West Yakutia. We studied terrigenous–carbonate rocks of the Late Cambrian of the Morkokinskaya and Oldondinskaya suites (Є3mrk and Є3–O1ol, respectively, dolerites of the Vilyui–Markha intrusive complex (βPZ2vm, autolithic kimberlite breccias of the Nakyn intrusive complex (iPZ2nk, and sandstones of the Early Jurassic Ukugut suite (J1uk. Important information was obtained on a wide range of petromagnetic parameters and paleomagnetism of the deposit SMC, elemental chemical composition of ferromagnetic minerals, and other data that can prove useful in discovering promising kimberlite sites in the Vilyui–Markha dike belt. The position of the paleomagnetic pole for the Late Cambrian of the Siberian Platform was clarified: latitude Φ=–35°, longitude Λ=136°, and confidence intervals dp/dm=3.5/6.9°. The poles were estimated for kimberlites (Φ=–11.5°, Λ=111.2°, dp/dm=3.5/7.5° and pre-pipe basites (Φ=–14.6°, Λ=117.4°, dp/dm=3.7/7.1°. According to the Nyurbinskaya deposit Ph

  18. Case-control study of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among children aged 0-4 years living in west Berkshire and north Hampshire health districts.

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    Roman, E; Watson, A; Beral, V; Buckle, S; Bull, D; Baker, K; Ryder, H; Barton, C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between parental employment in the nuclear industry and childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING-West Berkshire and Basingstoke and North Hampshire District Health Authorities. SUBJECTS--54 children aged 0-4 years who had leukaemia or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed during 1972-89, who were born in the study area and were resident there when cancer was diagnosed. Six controls were selected for each case: four from hospital delivery registers and two from livebirth registers maintained by the NHS central register. Controls were matched for sex, date of birth (within six months), and area of residence at birth and time of diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Parents' employment by the nuclear industry and exposure to ionising radiation at work. RESULTS--Five (9%) of the 54 cases and 14 (4%) of the 324 controls had fathers or mothers, or both, who had been employed by the nuclear industry (relative risk 2.2, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 6.9). Nuclear industry employees who work in areas where exposure to radiation is possible are given film badges to monitor their exposure to external penetrating ionising radiation. Three fathers of cases and two fathers of controls (and no mothers of either) had been monitored in this way before their child was conceived (relative risk 9.0, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 107.8). No father (of a case or control) had accumulated a recorded dose of more than 5 mSv before his child was conceived, and no father had been monitored at any time in the four years before his child was conceived. A dose-response relation was not evident among fathers who had been monitored. CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that the children of fathers who had been monitored for exposure to external penetrating ionising radiation in the nuclear industry may be at increased risk of developing leukaemia before their fifth birthday. The finding is based on small numbers and could be

  19. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

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    Edilu J. Sarba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test. Results: About 126 (41.7% cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302 were clinical and 32.8% (96/302 were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208, comprising 9.3% (112/1208, clinical and 32.8% (396/1208 subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208 of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (p<0.05 higher prevalence of mastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2% than indigenous (15.4%, in cattle above 7 years (75% than less than 2-6 years of age (28% and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3% than those with less than 4 calves (31.1% irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (p<0.05 higher mastitis prevalence in larger (46.6% than smaller herds (24.2% and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1% and intensive (42.3% than extensive (8.1% management system. Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security.

  20. The profile and treatment outcomes of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis re-treatment cases, in a district medical college of West Bengal, India

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    Abinash Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a high tuberculosis (TB burden county like India with different regional demography, knowledge about patient profile has a pivotal role in determining and identifying the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among TB re-treatment cases. Aim: The aim was to describe the demography and clinical characteristics of TB re-treatment cases and to evaluate the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among those patients. Settings and Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out at chest medicine outdoor from February, 2011 to 2014 in a district medical college of West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Sputum smear positive re-treatment pulmonary TB patients attending our chest medicine outdoor during the 3 years study period were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics on the basis of previous treatment history and records at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up during the 8 months treatment period (Category II treatment regimen under Revised National TB Control Program. At the end of the study period, treatment outcomes were analyzed and factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were identified. Statistical Analysis: All variables were described by proportions, and differences between independent groups were compared using the Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test, as applicable. Results: Among 74 patients, re-treatment was successful in 75.7% of relapse case, 66.7% of loss to follow-up cases and 53.8% of failure cases. Re-treatment failure was higher (38.5% in treatment failure cases compare to relapse cases (10.8% and initial loss to follow-up cases (16.7%. Young age, male, unmarried, employed who work outside appears to be the risk factors for loss to follow-up. Low body mass index, treatment from the private sector, history of alcoholism, radiological cavitory lesion, larger duration of previous treatment, lesser gap from previous treatment has

  1. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarba, Edilu J.; Tola, Getachew K.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test. Result: About 126 (41.7%) cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302) were clinical and 32.8% (96/302) were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208), comprising 9.3% (112/1208), clinical and 32.8% (396/1208) subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208) of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (pmastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2%) than indigenous (15.4%), in cattle above 7 years (75%) than less than 2-6 years of age (28%) and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3%) than those with less than 4 calves (31.1%) irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (pmastitis prevalence in larger (46.6%) than smaller herds (24.2%) and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1%) and intensive (42.3%) than extensive (8.1%) management system. Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security. PMID:28507411

  2. Effect of specific soccer training on general soccer ability of high fit tribal soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Gopal Chandra Saha; Dr. Hiralal Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of specific soccer training on General Soccer ability (volleying Skill) by using Mcdonald Soccer Test of high fit tribal soccer players. ninety, high fit tribal Soccer players out of two hundred and seventy, 9th and 10th grade school level tribal Soccer players from Ergoda School parihati of paschim Medinipur, District of West Bengal were randomly selected as the tribal subjects for this study. To ascertain the high fit tribal Soccer play...

  3. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  4. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  5. Reality of Educational Technology Use in Primary Level Social Studies Teaching in North West Badiya Education District Schools in Mafraq Governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menazel, Basil H.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the use of educational technology in social studies teaching and the obstacles to availability and use of educational technology in teaching social studies at schools in the North West Badiya Education Directorate in Mafraq governorate, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The study population comprised of 137 male and…

  6. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Hunter, Cynthia L; Heywood, Peter; Dibley, Michael J

    2010-10-12

    Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs) and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these services was also found, as some community members perceived

  7. Paleoproterozoic plume-related basaltic rocks in the Mana gold district in western Burkina Faso, West Africa: Implications for exploration and the source of gold in orogenic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jérôme; Gaboury, Damien

    2017-05-01

    Birimian volcanic rocks of the Mana District are located in the an important gold-mineralized segment of the Paleoproterozoic Houndé greenstone belt, western Burkina Faso, which contains cumulative resources of ∼11 Moz. Five orogenic gold deposits (∼8 Moz) are hosted in or close to basaltic rocks. Theses rocks were studied to investigate their possible role as a gold source in younger orogenic gold deposits. They are Fe-rich tholeiitic basalts with flat REE patterns, with (La/Yb)N = 0.96-1.3 and without negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.92-1.26). The basalts also have low initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.693612-0.702190) and positive εNd values (+2.25 to +3.14). Using a Ce/Nb vs. Th/Nb diagram and various plume-related basalts worldwide for comparison, the Mana basalts are shown to be plume-related. In addition, using Zr/Nb vs. Nb/Th and Nb/Y vs. Zr/Y binary diagrams and reference fields, the Mana basaltic rocks appear to have formed directly above the plume head. Because plume-related basalts tend to be enriched in gold relative to MORB, we propose that the gold endowment of the Mana district is mostly related to the occurrence of plume-related basaltic rocks, which may have served as an important metal stock during subsequent remobilization for forming the orogenic gold deposits. We also propose that for gold exploration, two simple geochemical diagrams involving Zr, Y, Nb and Th could be used at an early stage to test the origin of the basaltic rocks and hence indirectly establish the fertility of a specific belt for hosting orogenic gold deposits.

  8. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A) and NQO1 (C609T) polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid) of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jay Gopal; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Mahato, Basudev; Sripathi Rao, B H; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2013-10-01

    Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A) and NQO1 (C609T) polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products) of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)-based approach. A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html) using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609) was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82) P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524) P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both) and TT (8% and 7%, respectively) were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473) a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged garden workers aged above 31 years. A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk genotypes responsible for betel quid-induced oral diseases.

  9. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

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    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  10. Obstacles in the Utilisation of Maternal Health Care Services in Murarai-II C.D. Block, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

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    Alokananda Ghosh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving maternal health was one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and now it is one of the targets of 17 point Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. The utilisation of Maternal Health Care Services (MHCSs is a complex phenomenon and it is influenced by several factors, like-health care seeking behaviour of the cohorts belonging to different socio-economic and cultural background, distance of the facility centres, type and conditions of the roads including undulating surface, transportation cost, type and availability of transportation mode along with the factors related to the accountability and surveillances of the health care services. Therefore, clear understanding and discussion is needed to draw an association between MHCSs and its influential factors. The objectives of the study are to estimate the impact of accessibility on the underserved status of MHCSs and on the utilisation of MHCSs through paucity index. In addition, the study aims to evaluate the causal relationships between underserved situation and obstacle score with the paucity index of MHCS utilisation. The empirical observation unfolds that the provision and utilisation of MHCSs are strongly dependent on accessibility and distance. The situation is aggravating for proper delivery of services, which is responsible for the increasing obstacle score and paucity index, especially in remote sub- centres of Murarai-II C.D. Block of Birbhum District.

  11. Analysis Of Factors Influencing Quality Of Road Project Case Study Road Improvement Project of Linggang Melapeh Lama Village Linggang Bigung District Provincial Financial Help in West Kutai Regency

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    Rissa Oktavianti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are 1 to analyze factors influencing project quality in road improvement works 2 to analyze the most dominant factors influencing project quality in road improvement works 3 to analyze strategies that can be done to improve project quality in road improvement projects. This research uses descriptive method which is to know the factors that influence the Road Improvement Project Quality of Linggang Melapeh Lama Village Linggang Bigung Disrict Provincial Financial Help in West Kutai Regency Budget Year of 2016. The method used for data collection is by using questionnaire. The results of this research are 1 the factors that influence the project quality of Environmental Factor X1 with the coefficient value amp61538 of 0347 and Control Factor X4 coefficient amp61538 of 0369 2 the most dominant factor influencing the Project Quality is Control Factor X4 with the coefficient value amp61538 of 0369 3 Strategies that can be done to improve the quality of the project on road improvement work is to understand the environmental conditions socialization in the local environment interact and involve the community conduct more thorough surveys supervise the material quality supervision for each item of work with more thorough and routine in making a report or progress work.

  12. Prevalence of behavioral risk factors, overweight and hypertension in the urban slums of North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal, India, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Tushar; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Murhekar, Manoj V

    2014-01-01

    Globally, 1 billion people live in slums. There are few reports of high prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors among the urban poor. The prevalence of NCD risk factors in the slums in North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India was estimated. Cross-sectional survey in 24 slums selected using cluster sampling method was conducted. Questionnaire for behavioral risk factors was used and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were done. The study population included 1052 participants aged 25-64 years, 528 (50%) were males. Among males, 206 (39%) were current smokers and 154 (29%) were current alcohol users. Central obesity was prevalent among 32.8% males and 56.1% females and 115 (10.9%) had body mass index ≥27.5 kg/m 2 . Hypertension was prevalent among 35% males and 33% females. We observed high prevalence of NCD risk factors among urban slum dwellers that need to be addressed with health promotion programs and strengthening of primary health care system.

  13. Assessment of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing factor (MIF) and GIS: a case study from Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Guin, Shirshendu; Kaur, Harjeet

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing and GIS play a vital role in exploration and assessment of groundwater and has wide application in detection, monitoring, assessment, conservation and various other fields of groundwater-related studies. In this research work, delineation of groundwater potential zone in Birbhum district has been carried out. Various thematic layers viz. geology, geomorphology, soil type, elevation, lineament and fault density, slope, drainage density, land use/land cover, soil texture, and rainfall are digitized and transformed into raster data in ArcGIS 10.3 environment as input factors. Thereafter, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique is employed where ranks and weights, assigned to each factor are computed statistically. Finally, groundwater potential zones are classified into four categories namely low, medium, high and very high zone. It is observed that 18.41% (836.86 km2) and 34.41% (1563.98 km2) of the study area falls under `low' and `medium' groundwater potential zone, respectively. Approximately 1601.19 km2 area accounting for 35.23% of the study area falls under `high' category and `very high' groundwater potential zone encompasses an area of 542.98 km2 accounting for 11.95% of the total study area. Finally, the model generated groundwater potential zones are validated with reported potential yield data of various wells in the study area. Success and prediction rate curve reveals an accuracy achievement of 83.03 and 78%, respectively. The outcome of the present research work will help the local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating better planning and management of groundwater resources in the study area in future perspectives.

  14. Assessment of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing factor (MIF) and GIS: a case study from Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Guin, Shirshendu; Kaur, Harjeet

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing and GIS play a vital role in exploration and assessment of groundwater and has wide application in detection, monitoring, assessment, conservation and various other fields of groundwater-related studies. In this research work, delineation of groundwater potential zone in Birbhum district has been carried out. Various thematic layers viz. geology, geomorphology, soil type, elevation, lineament and fault density, slope, drainage density, land use/land cover, soil texture, and rainfall are digitized and transformed into raster data in ArcGIS 10.3 environment as input factors. Thereafter, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique is employed where ranks and weights, assigned to each factor are computed statistically. Finally, groundwater potential zones are classified into four categories namely low, medium, high and very high zone. It is observed that 18.41% (836.86 km2) and 34.41% (1563.98 km2) of the study area falls under `low' and `medium' groundwater potential zone, respectively. Approximately 1601.19 km2 area accounting for 35.23% of the study area falls under `high' category and `very high' groundwater potential zone encompasses an area of 542.98 km2 accounting for 11.95% of the total study area. Finally, the model generated groundwater potential zones are validated with reported potential yield data of various wells in the study area. Success and prediction rate curve reveals an accuracy achievement of 83.03 and 78%, respectively. The outcome of the present research work will help the local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating better planning and management of groundwater resources in the study area in future perspectives.

  15. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemics of the central nervous system infections caused by West Nile virus in the territory of the South Bačka District, Vojvodina, Serbia

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    Sević Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic RNA virus particle which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is sustained in arthropods within the transmission cycle between the mosquitoes and birds. Most commonly (80% of cases WNV infections are asymptomatic among people. Less than 1% of patients develop neuroinvasive forms of the disease - meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. The aim of the research is to determine most common clinical and laboratory manifestations, to emphazise the presence of comorbidities and outcomes of treatment among patients with WNV infection. Methods. This retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, evaluated 32 patients who were diagnosed with WNV infection based on clinical findings, laboratory, and serological tests. To assess statistical significance we used χ2, and t-test. Results. The study involved 22 (69% males and 10 (31% females aged from 31 to 65 years. On admission, there were 16 (50% febrile individuals, 27 (84.4% with positive meningeal signs, 17 (53.2% with pathological neurological signs, and 10 (31.3% with consciousness disorders. WNV infection was confirmed by the method enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA in all the patients, while Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR test was positive in 3 (30% of the tested patients. Cardiovascular comorbidities dominated in 7 (21.9% of the cases. Full recovery was accomplished in 87.5 % of the cases. Conclusion. The results of our study show that the absence of meningeal signs and fever on the day 7 of hospital treatment are indicators of good course and prognosis of neuroinvasive forms of WNV infection. Comorbidities do not increase the risk of disease. ELISA test is a sovereign diagnostic method. In most cases, after the administered symptomatic therapy, the complete recovery of patients was achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  17. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Pallabi; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Das, Dilip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  18. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Gopal Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Aims: Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Settings and Design: Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Materials and Methods: Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based approach. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609 was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82 P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524 P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both and TT (8% and 7%, respectively were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473 a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged <30 years [OR 3.779 (1.684-6.547 P = 0.001]. However, none were carrier of heterozygous GA allele of Kolkata population as compared with 29% north Bengal tea-garden workers aged above 31 years. Conclusions: A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk

  19. Combining food-based dietary recommendations using Optifood with zinc-fortified water potentially improves nutrient adequacy among 4- to 6-year-old children in Kisumu West district, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujinga, Prosper; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J; Superchi, Cecilia; Ten Hove, Hermine J; Onyango, Elizabeth Opiyo; Andang'o, Pauline; Galetti, Valeria; Zimmerman, Michael B; Moretti, Diego; Brouwer, Inge D

    2017-09-19

    Children in developing countries often face multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Introduction of zinc-fortified water can increase zinc intake, but additional recommendations are required to address overall diet nutrient adequacy. We developed and tested food-based recommendations (FBRs) that included zinc-fortified water for children aged between 4 and 6 years from rural Kenya to achieve the best possible nutrient adequacy. Dietary intakes of 60 children aged 4-6 years, from Kisumu West district, Kenya, were assessed using a quantitative multipass 24-hr recall. Linear programming model parameters were derived, including a list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, and distribution of frequency of consumption. By using the Optifood linear programming tool, we developed FBRs for diets including zinc-fortified water. FBRs with nutrient levels achieving ≥70% recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations RNI for most of the 12 considered nutrients were selected as the final recommendations for the children. With no FBRs and no zinc-fortified water, percent RNI coverage range was between 40% and 76% for zinc, improving to 66-101% after introduction of zinc-fortified water. The final set of FBRs achieved nutrient adequacy for all nutrients except for vitamin A (25% RNI) and folate (68% RNI). Introduction of zinc-fortified water combined with FBRs will likely improve the nutrient adequacy of diets consumed by children in Kenya but needs to be complemented with alternative interventions to ensure dietary adequacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  1. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  2. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  3. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  4. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  5. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  6. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  7. Government Districts, Other, Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues, Published in 2014, Not Applicable scale, City of Huntsville Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Government Districts, Other dataset current as of 2014. Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues.

  8. 77 FR 3756 - Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., 2011. d. Applicant: Nevada Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Yuba-Bear Hydroelectric Project. f... Nelson, General Manager, Nevada Irrigation District, 1036 West Main Street, Grass Valley, CA 95945, (530...

  9. Changing Gender Roles and Decision Making in Dangme West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Asante'. Abstract. Using both quantitative and qualitative data from the Dangme West district of Ghan.a, this study shows how the changing socio-economic status of women, as a result of governmental and non-governmental interventions,.

  10. Nonpublic Competition and Public School Performance: Evidence from West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard J.; Joshua C. Hall; Maria Y. Tackett

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether nonpublic school enrollment affects the performance of public school districts. If homeschooling and private schools act as competition, public school districts test scores should be positively associated with nonpublic enrollment. Using data on West Virginia county school districts, and controlling for endogeneity with an instrumental variables approach, we find that a one standard deviation increase in relative nonpublic enrollment in a county is associ...

  11. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community Development...

  12. Oakland, West

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  13. Degradação das paisagens de solos lateríticos e uso da terra no distrito de Birbhum, Bengala Ocidental, Índia / Degraded lateritic soils cape and land uses in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Jha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of lateritic environment as found in the south western and eastern Birbhum district can be considered as irresistible. Inherently poor physical and chemical status of existing lateritic soil profileand radical conversion of land uses as observed at cadastral level are the key factors of land degradation.Lateritic soilscapes are mostly affected by water erosion induced, vegetal and anthropogenic degradation attaining severe and very severe degradation status. Degraded lands in sample mouzas like Ballabhpur, Shyambati, Chawpahari Jungle, Bodakuri and Pachami account for 60.33%, 71.42%, 72.99%, 87.31% and 79.66% respectively out of their total lateritic exposures. In other words about 36.98%, 71.42%, 61.73%, 56.70% and 76.02% out of their total village areas and mostly non agricultural land use areaffected by it. Four degraded villages get the higher priority for friendly landscape conservation actions.

  14. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... District, San Juan Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton Gap District... Robles Willow Creek District, San Juan Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton... Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton Gap District viticultural areas within...

  15. VT School Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont School Districts and one Interstate School District. Part of data sets which model Vermont's education system governance boudaries for...

  16. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  17. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  18. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  19. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  20. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  1. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  2. Factors related to retention of community health workers in a trial on community-based management of fever in children under 5 years in the Dangme West District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Mercy; Bartholomew, L Kay; Nonvignon, Justice; Chinbuah, Margaret A; Pappoe, Matilda; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John O; Bart-Plange, Constance; van den Borne, Bart

    2014-06-01

    In resource-constrained settings of developing countries, promotion of community-based health interventions through community health workers (CHWs) is an important strategy to improve child health. However, there are concerns about the sustainability of such programmes owing to the high rate of CHW attrition. This study examined factors influencing retention of volunteer CHWs in a cluster randomised trial on community management of under-5 fever in a rural Ghanaian district. Data were obtained from structured interviews (n=520) and focus group discussions (n=5) with CHWs. Factors influencing CHWs' decisions to remain or leave the programme were analysed using a probit model, and focus group discussion results were used to elucidate the findings. The attrition rate among CHWs was 21.2%. Attrition was comparatively higher in younger age groups (25.9% in 15-25 years group, 18.2% in 26-45 years group and 16.5% in ≥46 years group). Approval of a CHW by the community (phigh level of community involvement in the selection process as well as other aspects of the intervention leading to high community approval and support. Attention for these aspects could help improve CHW retention in community-based health interventions in Ghana, and the lessons could be applied to countries within similar settings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wafula, Solomon Tsebeni; Ssemugabo, Charles; Namuhani, Noel; Musoke, David; Ssempebwa, John; Halage, Abdullah Ali

    2016-01-01

    .... It is largely affecting rural communities in the Eastern, West Nile and Central regions. This study assessed prevalence and risk factors associated with tungiasis in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda...

  4. Responding to Demographic Change: What Do Suburban District Leaders Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrassouba, Nagnon; Johnson, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the demographic shifts in a medium-sized school district in West Michigan and the responses developed as a result of these changes during the last two decades. Findings indicated that the district's school demographics changed from being European American to minority dominant. As a result of these changes in student population…

  5. Evaluate the Capabilities and Limitations Sustainable Rural Development in the Kermanshah District

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Safari AliAkbari; Hamdollah Pishroo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the capabilities and limitations sustainable rural development in the Kermanshah district, is. Kermanshah district is, the one of Kermanshah city in the Kermanshah Province, located in the West of Iran. Province with an area of 24,640 square kilometers, the seventeenth province of Iran, the extent of. Reviews features and capabilities of the rural Kermanshah district, in order to achieve sustainable development goals of the study is considered. To a...

  6. Implementing District Safety Standards at the Site Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Ethan; Webb-Dempsey, Jaci; Moore, Lucas C.; McClellan, Craig S.; Friebel, Carl H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 9/11 and Columbine, school safety has become a prevalent issue in education policy in the United States. As a result, states and school districts have responded with innumerable efforts to improve school safety. Harrison County Schools, located in West Virginia, received federal funding to supplement surveillance equipment at middle and high…

  7. 7 CFR 958.160 - Reestablishment of Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reestablishment of Districts. 958.160 Section 958.160 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Highway 19, thence west one mile along Highway 19 to Friends Road, thence south along Friends Road to...

  8. 77 FR 68076 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... of Cabell and Wayne Counties and the Graham tax district in Mason County, West Virginia; Boyd County... redesignation request and the related SIP revision for Cabell and Wayne Counties and the Graham tax district in... area, the Mountaineer Plant, Sporn Plant, and New Haven Plant are included in the inventory. WVDEP used...

  9. Complete genome sequence of two genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports on complete gene based phylogenetic analysis of JEV isolates from the State of West Bengal. It was evident from the results that JEV was still under circulation in both vaccine covered and not covered districts of West Bengal.

  10. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  11. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  12. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  13. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  14. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  15. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  16. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  17. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  18. Malaria in Bulambya, Ileje district, south-west Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    altitude mountainous range and the highest in the lower altitude plateaux. Of 1,504 mosquitoes caught, 205 (13.6%) were female Anopheles gambiae s.l., 215 (14.3%) An. funestus and 68.9% were culicines. Data from both health facility records and school surveys indicate that there is high malaria morbidity in the lower ...

  19. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea: Mecha District, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    regression analyses were undertaken to identify predictors of childhood diarrhea. Results: The ... Maternal education (AOR=5.6, 95% CI: 1.5 - 19.4), maternal history of recent diarrhea (AOR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.9 - 9.8), ..... compared to early rainy season, and a limitation to the ... health in Mexico Demographic and Health Survey.

  20. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea: Mecha District, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of diarrhea among mothers and under-five children was 8.2% and 18.0%, respectively. Maternal education (AOR=5.6, 95% CI: 1.5 - 19.4), maternal history of recent diarrhea (AOR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.9 - 9.8), availability of latrine facility (AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4), duration of breast feeding (AOR=2.7, ...

  1. Major challenges of beekeeping in Chiron Worde of West Harangue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Chiron District of West Harangue Zone, Ethiopia to identify the major challenges to bee-keeping activities so as to indicate the priority intervention areas for Government and non-governmental beekeeping development organizations. The average traditional and modern hives possessed per ...

  2. Policy Evaluation of District Mobile Internet Service Center Program (MPLIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyono Yalia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was motivated by a problem that is interesting to study the Provision of Facilities Policy Evaluation Program Universal Service Obligation (USO Internet Service Center District Mobile Program (MPLIK In Kuningan regency of West Java. The problem is how the Department of Communication and Information Policy in the Kuningan District MPLIK program in Kuningan District,? The aim is (1 want to know the Department of Communication and Information Policy in the Kuningan district MPLIK program in Kuningan district, (2 What factors are a supporter and obstacles in the implementation of policies in support of the Office of Communications and Informatics Program at Kabupaten MPLIK Brass, (3 Efforts effort whether carried out in the implementation of policies in support of the program Diskominfo MPLIK in Kuningan regency. The theory used as an approach to the problem of this research is the Evaluation of Policies Bardach. The research method used is a qualitative method of data collection techniques through participant observation and in-depth interviews. The results showed that in the Provision of Facilities Policy Evaluation Program USO MPLIK In Kuningan West Java through policy evaluation approach found another dimension, namely the importance of control, supervision, and coordination in addition to the four main dimensions of the policy evaluation is used as the approach in this study.

  3. The Relationship between Schools' Costs per Pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework Index Scores in Clark County School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Clark County School District (CCSD) asked the Western Regional Education Laboratory (REL West) to examine the relationship between spending per pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework (NSPF) index scores in the district's schools. Data were examined from three school years (2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14) and for three types of schools…

  4. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... and usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be life- ...

  5. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK for Kids? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es ... Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West Nile virus? And why is everyone talking about mosquitoes ? Even ...

  6. Hamilton district energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsales, D. [Hamilton Community Energy, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation began with a description of the Hamilton District Energy Project. A piping distribution system delivers the energy. For those buildings located in the close vicinity of the central energy centre, heating and cooling are provided. The Hamilton City Hall, the Copps Coliseum, and a host of other buildings located downtown are included in this project. Both the proximity to the energy centre and the pipe infrastructure are important components for the delivery of the energy. A natural gas burning engine is part of the energy centre. Direct waste is minimized since waste exhaust is used to heat water. Individual energy transfer systems, much smaller than the equipment being replaced, are used for each building connected to the district energy network. All emission requirements are met by district heating, which is a reliable source of energy and more efficient. There are instances where only more efficient energy solutions are available to a municipality when renewable energy sources are not feasible. figs.

  7. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  8. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  9. Positive deviance--the West Bengal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaphi, P; Dobe, M

    2005-01-01

    There are 11.1 million children in the age group 0-6 years in West Bengal. Of these, every second child under 3 years of age is underweight, more than four out of ten are stunted, and one out of eight are wasted. The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme in West Bengal has 355 operational projects covering 53,064 operational anganwadi centers reaching out to more than four million beneficiaries--approximately half of whom are children in the age group 0-3 years. The Department of Women and Child Development (DWCD) is trying to identify and replicate innovative, community-based, sustainable approaches. One such innovative initiative has been the "Keno Parbo Na" project based on the Positive Deviance (PD) approach which aims to reduce and prevent malnutrition among children under 3 years of age by focusing on local solutions and resources, local behaviors and practices. Behavior change is emphasized through participatory learning and community mobilization. The pilot phase of the project has been completed in two districts [Four blocks (2 in each District) and 32 villages/AWCs (8 in each block)] of West Bengal (Murshidabad and South 24 Parganas). The analysis of the project activities so far reveals that the issue of malnutrition and its prevention is now visible in the villages covered. Acceptance of desirable behavioral practices is observed within the community. A steady reduction in the moderate and severe level of malnutrition was noted across four districts. A general preponderance of girl children was noted at the entry stage indicating higher levels of severe and moderate malnutrition among girl children to begin with but also suggesting PD as an important strategy in reducing the gender gap in malnutrition. The boys gain in terms of nutritional status faster than the girls so in the intermediate phase malnourished girls are more in number. However, by the sixth / ninth round, as the malnutrition levels decline substantially, the gender gap

  10. District-Level Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make…

  11. perceptions in Dedza District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    logistical problems. HCWs identified the tendency of patients with ТВ to seek traditional and private healthcare services, the association of ТВ with HIV/AIDS, difficulties in. Abstract traveling to .... "Even those who come to collect the sputum sometimes take time ... when you complain they [district staff] say transport problem ...

  12. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  13. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  14. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  15. District energy a global solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damecour, R.; Andersson, B. [Kattner/FVB District Energy Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-08-01

    An overview of the development of district energy systems throughout the world is provided. Significant district energy data is provided for Canada, the United States, East Asia, Korea, Japan, China, Eastern Europe and Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. The overall conclusion is that district energy systems are here to stay and have a good chance of succeeding provided that the concept has the support of business, municipalities and national governments. The 40 years old district heating system in Vasteras, Sweden, the oldest and most successful district energy system in the world, was highlighted.

  16. Data on soil PHof Barddhaman district, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bid, Sumanta

    2017-06-01

    P H (Puissance de Hydrogen) is an essential ingredient of soil that effects on fertility and productivity of dirt. Barddhaman district is a part of Lower Gangetic Plain fully covered by alluvial soil and popularly known as 'rice bowl of West Bengal' owing to its lofty production. This data article provides a block level data on soil P H that is essential for further investigation of the relationship among soil ph, plant growth, plant health and productivity. This data is valuable in the field of soil geography and soil science. Soil P H data is more relevant in the ground of plant biology, agricultural geography and agricultural science. It helps to explain the acidic and alkaline nature of alluvial soil. The data consist of 195 samples ( n =195) taken from the entire district. Samples have been collected from March, 2014 to March, 2015 and experimented in the laboratory. Theoretically P H value is limited within 0-14. Experiment result exemplifies the highest value 8.5 found in Khandaghosh block whereas lowest value is 4.5 and the samples which result in lowest value are gathered from 4 different blocks like Manteswar, Burdwan - II, Barabani and Salanpur.

  17. Government Districts, Other - MDC_CommissionDistrict2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class representing the Redistricting Commission Plan 11-15, adopted November 15, 2001. This Commission District Boundary layer becomes effective...

  18. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  19. Annotated checklist of the plants of the Shimba hills, Kwale district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An annotated checklist of the Shimba Hills in Kwale District is presented. The checklist includes the plants found in the Shimba Hills National Reserve, Mkongani North and West Forest Reserves, Matuga, Mwaluganje Forest Reserve and Elephant Sanctuary, as well as Kaya Chombo, Kaya Teleza, Chitsanze Sacred Grove ...

  20. 76 FR 24466 - Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    .... Date Filed: April 15, 2011. d. Applicant: Nevada Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Yuba-Bear Project. f. Location: The Yuba-Bear Project is located on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada on the Middle Yuba River, Canyon Creek, Fall Creek, Rucker Creek, and Bear River, in Nevada, Placer and Sierra...

  1. A Teutonic ethnologist in the Windhoek district : rethinking the anthropology of Guenther Wagner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; LeBeau, D.; Gordon, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the history of anthropology in Namibia, focusing on the work of Guenther Kurt F. Wagner, who was appointed as Assistant Government Anthropologist for South West Africa in 1949. Wagner's unpublished work, 'Ethnographic survey of the Windhoek district' (1951), shows that Windhoek

  2. A first note on Japanese encephalitis virus isolation from Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Northern West Bengal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Thenmozhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is endemic in many parts of India including the state of West Bengal. In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973. The Culex vishnui subgroup of mosquitoes has been implicated as major vectors of JE. However in India, JE virus (JEV has been isolated from 16 species of mosquitoes. During September 2011, JE cases were reported from four districts -Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Dinajpur and Cooch Behar of West Bengal (North. Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified, pooled and screened for JEV using antigen capture ELISA. Out of 279 mosquito pools tested, one pool of Cx. pseudovishnui and three pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found positive for JEV. The ELISA positive pools were further confirmed as JEV by insect bioassay (Toxo-IFA. Two pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were confirmed as JEV. This represents the first report of JEV isolation from Cx. quinquefasciatus in West Bengal.

  3. Flypaper Effects Anomaly Of West Papua Capital Public Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Marthen Anthon Pentury

    2011-01-01

    In fiscal decentralization, local governments should be able to provide public service facilities for all communities. This study aims to determine the existence of flypaper effect in the total capital public expenditure and capital expenditure on education, health and infrastructure in districts in West Papua, 2003-2006. Tools of analysis used is panel data regression. The General Allocation Fund (DAU), the Special Allocation Fund (DAK) and the Special Autonomy Fund (DOK) partially and simul...

  4. Colposcopy services in the West Midlands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, C B; Jordan, J A

    1989-10-07

    A survey of all 72 consultant gynaecologists in the West Midlands region was carried out to determine their views on colposcopy services. All districts provided a colposcopy service and 47 consultants practised colposcopy. The consultants differed considerably in their views on criteria for referring women for investigation after smears. All but one thought that a positive smear result was an indication for immediate referral but whereas 55 thought that women with one or more inflammatory smear should be referred, 17 did not believe this to be necessary. Sixty seven consultants thought a preoperative colposcopic assessment desirable, but 10 had to ration referrals because of limited resources. Four forms of treatment were used: 17 districts had a carbon dioxide laser, eight used low voltage diathermy loop excision, two had only a cold coagulator, and one used only cold cautery. There was widespread dissatisfaction with resources and about the increasing amount of time spent on the service at the expense of other work. Consultants were also concerned about the relevance of much of what was done to the aim of the screening programme--reducing mortality from cervical cancer. Although additional resources are needed in some districts, referral policies, indications for colposcopic assessment, training, choice of treatment, and the value of follow up need to be reviewed if the service is to be improved.

  5. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Whether Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Improve with Antibacterial Treatment , February 13, 2018 NIH Scientists Adapt New ... ecological patterns in the United States, and insecticide resistance. Read more about West Nile virus biology, genetics ...

  6. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  7. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Medicine is owned by the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons. Aims: The aims of the Journal are: To provide a medium for international dissemination of information about medical science in West Africa and elsewhere. To furnish a means whereby ...

  8. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  9. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictData not...

  10. Geology of the Newtonmore-Ben Macdui district : Bedrock and superficial geology of the Newtonmore-Ben Macdui district : description for sheet 64 (Scotland)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R. A.; Merritt, J.W.; Leslie, A G; M. Krabbendam; Stephenson, D.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides an account of the geology of the Newtonmore-Ben Macdui district in the Grampian Highlands of Scotland, which extends from the Cairngorm massif in the north-east, west across to the Upper Spey valley and south into the upper parts of Glen Tilt and Glen Fearnach. The district is nearly all remote countryside with steep-sided glens between upland plateaus with relatively few distinct mountain peaks. The entire area lies within the Cairngorm National Park and much of the land...

  11. Reservoir-Driven Heterogeneous Distribution of Recorded Human Puumala virus Cases in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, S; Turni, H; Rosenfeld, U M; Obiegala, A; Straková, P; Imholt, C; Glatthaar, E; Dressel, K; Pfeffer, M; Jacob, J; Wagner-Wiening, C; Ulrich, R G

    2017-08-01

    Endemic regions for Puumala virus (PUUV) are located in the most affected federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg, South-West Germany, where high numbers of notified human hantavirus disease cases have been occurring for a long time. The distribution of human cases in Baden-Wuerttemberg is, however, heterogeneous, with a high number of cases recorded during 2012 in four districts (H districts) but a low number or even no cases recorded in four other districts (L districts). Bank vole monitoring during 2012, following a beech (Fagus sylvatica) mast year, resulted in the trapping of 499 bank voles, the host of PUUV. Analyses indicated PUUV prevalences of 7-50% (serological) and 1.8-27.5% (molecular) in seven of eight districts, but an absence of PUUV in one L district. The PUUV prevalence differed significantly between bank voles in H and L districts. In the following year 2013, 161 bank voles were trapped, with reduced bank vole abundance in almost all investigated districts except one. In 2013, no PUUV infections were detected in voles from seven of eight districts. In conclusion, the linear modelling approach indicated that the heterogeneous distribution of human PUUV cases in South-West Germany was caused by different factors including the abundance of PUUV RNA-positive bank voles, as well as by the interaction of beech mast and the proportional coverage of beech and oak (Quercus spec.) forest per district. These results can aid developing local public health risk management measures and early warning models. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. VT Data - Scenic Overlay District 20110301, Winhall

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Scenic Restriction overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Conservation & Recreational...

  13. West African crystalline maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, David J

    2004-05-01

    To report new observations in West African crystalline maculopathy. Retrospective, observational case series. Three patients drawn from a private retina practice. Review of clinical charts and photographic studies. Distribution of intraretinal crystals and changes after laser photocoagulation, and history of ingesting foods typical in a West African diet but atypical for an American diet. All patients were older than 50 years, had diabetic retinopathy, ate green vegetables not found in American diets, and showed no deleterious effects of the crystals. Kola nut ingestion in 2 patients was remote and sparse, and was unknown in a third patient. The first 2 affected patients originating outside the Ibo tribe of Nigeria are reported. The pattern of retinal crystals can be changed, and the quantity of crystals reduced, by laser photocoagulation of associated diabetic retinopathy. West African crystalline retinopathy is distinguishable from other causes of crystalline retinopathy. It may reflect a component of the West African diet, seems to have diabetic retinopathy as a promoting factor via breakdown of the blood-retina barrier, and can be modified by laser photocoagulation of diabetic retinopathy. Increased awareness of the condition will allow physicians seeing West African immigrants to make the diagnosis and treat the patients appropriately.

  14. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  15. Registration and management of community patients with tuberculosis in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cai, J.; Wang, D.; Wang, Q.; Liang, H.; Ma, A.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the registration, management and characteristics of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in north-west China, and investigate whether patients with TB were diagnosed and treated in a timely manner.STUDY DESIGN: Health-facility-based retrospective data were collected from district

  16. Basic school dropout in Ghana: a case study of the Amansie West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the increasing cost of education the persistent phenomenon of school dropout has become a constant worry to all stakeholders. The focus of this paper was to assess the trend of basic school dropout in Amansie West, a predominantly rural district in Ghana and to further determine the main causes and policy ...

  17. Malaria control strategies in the Kassena-Nankana East and West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines malaria control strategies adopted by households in the Kassena-Nankana East and West Districts of Ghana. Primary data was obtained through a questionnaire survey among 174 respondents, who were selected from 7 communities. Indepth interviews and focus group discussions were also ...

  18. THE DISTRICT OF CODRU – DISTRICT OR LAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA-MONICA CHITA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The District of Codru – District or Land? The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate why the ethnographic Codru is a “district” (ținut and not a “land” (țară – the term used by most people. To achieve this goal, we analyzed the significance of the two concepts, as well as their characteristic elements. Following the first part of the paper we presented connotations that have known “district and land” over time, and in the second part we presented the differences between the two concepts, with application to the District of Codru. Presentation and analysis of the situation eventually led to support the fact that the ethnographic Codru is a “district” – a unique mental space.

  19. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  20. Fire and EMS Districts - MDC_LifeSafetyInspDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Fire Prevention Department Inspector District layer is a polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Fire Prevention Deparment (MDFPD). It contains the...

  1. Geology and fluorspar deposits, Northgate district, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1960-01-01

    The fluorspar deposits in the Northgate district, Jackson County, Colo., are among the largest in Western United States. The mines were operated intermittently during the 1920's and again during World War II, but production during these early periods of operation was not large. Mining was begun on a larger scale in 1951, and the district has assumed a prominent position among the fluorspar producers in the United States. Within the Northgate district, Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks crop out largely in the Medicine Bow Mountains, and later sedimentary rocks underlie North Park and fill old stream valleys in the mountains. The metamorphic rocks constitute a gneiss complex that formed under progressively changing conditions of regional metamorphism. They consist principally of hornblende-plagioclase gneiss (hornblende gneiss), quartz monzonite gneiss, pegmatite, biotite-garnet-quartz-plagioclase gneiss (biotite-garnet gneiss), hornblende-biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss (hornblende-biotite gneiss) and mylonite gneiss. The igneous rocks comprise some local fine-grained dacite porphyry dikes near the west margin of the district, and a quartz monzonitic stock and associated dikes in the central and eastern parts of the district. The sedimentary rocks in the district range in age from Permian to Recent. Folded Permian and Mesozoic rocks underlie the basin of North Park, and consist in sequence from oldest to youngest, of Satanka(?) shale (0-50 feet of brick-red shale) and Forelle(?) limestone (8-15 feet of pink to light-gray laminated limestone) of Permian age, Chugwater formation of Permian and Triassic age (690 feet of red silty shale and sandstone), Sundance formation of Late Jurassic age (145 feet of sandstone containing some shale and limestone), Morrison formation of Late Jurassic age (445 feet of variegated shale and minor sandstone and limestone), Dakota group as used by Lee (1927), now considered to be of Early Cretaceous age in this area (200

  2. Quality Circles for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Shaker A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the applicability of quality circles in schools. Examines elements of a successful quality circle program, the decision to have such a program, establishing quality circles, potential problems, and the use of quality circles in school districts. (CT)

  3. VT Senate Districts 1992 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The senatorial district designations for this layer were taken from a trace map of unknown origin. A visual compilation of the traced lines and...

  4. VT Senate Districts 1992 - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The senatorial district designations for this layer were taken from a trace map of unknown origin. A visual compilation of the traced lines and...

  5. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  6. Districts for 104th Congress

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that...

  7. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  9. West Virginia: Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews library automation efforts in West Virginia. Topics include information equity and rural areas, library systems and resource sharing, statewide connectivity, a higher education telecomputing network that has expanded to include elementary and secondary school libraries, multitype library cooperation and staff training, and academic library…

  10. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  11. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-20

    Andalusia , along with a revision of its system of financing retirement and health costs. Its rate of macroeconomic growth now looks low compared...between certain factions of Islam (particularly the Shiites) and the open hostility to the West could pose formidable political problems. This is why

  12. From East to West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Vogels; Simone de Roos; Freek Bucx

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Van oost naar west The accession of Poland to the European Union in 2004, followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007, has led to an increase in the number of migrants coming from those countries to the Netherlands. How are the children of these migrants faring in the Netherlands? Are

  13. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Regulatory Affairs, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, California 95381, 209-883-8241 and...

  14. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation District (collectively, the Districts), are co-licensees for the Don Pedro...

  15. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA 95381. Greg Dias or Representative, Modesto...

  16. 77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Sacramento, CA 95816. Robert Nees, or Representative, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA...

  17. Empowerment model of biomass in west java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, C.; Fitriani, N. I.; Saad, A.; Yuliah, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the search of renewable energy sources as the substitution. In West Java, biomass has potential to be developed into bio-briquette because the resources are abundant. The objectives of this research are mapping the potency of biomass as bio-briquette in West Java, and making the model of the empowerment biomass potential involving five fundamental step which are raw material, pre-processing process, conversion mechanism, products, and end user. The main object of this model focused on 3 forms which are solid, liquid, and gas which was made by involving the community component as the owner biomass, district government, academics and researcher communities, related industries as users of biomass, and the central government as the policy holders and investors as a funder. In the model was described their respective roles and mutual relationship one with another so that the bio-briquette as a substitute of fossil fuels can be realized. Application of this model will provide the benefits in renewability energy sources, environmental, socio economical and energy security.

  18. Certification of district heating substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-01-15

    These Technical Regulations, F:103-6, have been produced and published by the Swedish District Heating Association in conjunction with manufacturers. Approved testing is part of the process of obtaining certification for a district heating substation. In addition, the process includes a review of documentation and of the manufacturer's production inspection procedures. A certified unit fulfils the requirements set out in the Association's document F:101, General Technical Requirements. Until further notice, the Association has selected SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden for certification of district heating substations. Certification means that the quality and function/performance of a prefabricated district heating substation have been examined and approved. Certification test method F:103-6 includes both static and dynamic tests and inspections. Detailed information on the district heating substation and its properties is given in the certification test reports. The unique feature of this certification is that the test reports are in the public domain. This is possible because the Association has full right of insight into the certification process, and because testing is performed in accordance with test programmes and procedures decided by the Association. In this document (F: 103-6), the Association specifies what is to be reported when SP carries out inspections at the manufacturer's premises. This can include details of claims lodged with the manufacturer and/or non-compliances with the required specification of the district heating substation. Such cases will be considered by a Certification Panel. Test reports and certificates provide information on the district heating substation's properties and performance, which can be used when assessing the substations. The technical tests do not address the long-term properties of substations, but SP's inspection specifically includes visual examination and application of its

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  20. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  1. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  2. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  3. District heat in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langseth, Benedicte; Havskjold, Monica

    2009-03-15

    District heat regulation - in Sweden: New district heat law (2008). The district heat suppliers are instructed to negotiate the price and other terms of delivery with the costumers when requested by the costumers. If the parties are unable to find an agreement, the can have the authorities arbitrate for them. More openness (e.g. annual reports). In Finland: The district heat suppliers decide their own prices. Has to reflect the costs, but allow for district heat expansion and a reasonable profit. Same price for same type of costumers. Regulated by general legislation (competition and consumer protection legislation). In Denmark: Designated areas for district heat and natural gas where electric heating is prohibited. 'Hvile i seg selv' principle. In Norway: District heat concessions are mandatory for installations over 10 MW. The municipality can decide that connection is mandatory, but not use of district heat. District heat price can not exceed electricity price. (AG)

  4. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  5. Antimony ore in the Fairbanks district, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Pemberton Lewis; Mertie, John B.

    1951-01-01

    Antimony-bearing ores in the Fairbanks district, Alaska, are found principally in two areas, the extremities of which are at points 10 miles west and 23 miles northeast of Fairbanks; and one of two minor areas lies along this same trend 30 miles farther to the northeast. These areas are probably only local manifestations of mineralization that affected a much broader area and formed antimony-bearing deposits in neighboring districts, the closest of which is 50 miles away. The ores were exposed largely as a result of lode gold mining, but at two periods in the past, high prices for antimony ore warranted an independent production and about 2500 tons of stibnite ore was shipped. The sulfide deposits occupy the same fractures along which a gold-quartz mineralization of greater economic importance occurred; and both are probably genetically related to igneous rocks which intrude the schistose country rock. The sulfide is in part contemporaneous with some late-stage quartz in which it occurs as disseminated crystals; and in part the latest filling in the mineralized zones where it forms kidney-shaped masses of essentially solid sulfide. One extremely long mass must have contained nearly 100 tons of ore, but the average of the larger kidneys is closer to several tons. Much of the ore is stibnite, with quartz as a minor impurity, and assays show the tenor to vary from 40 to 65 percent antimony. Sulphantimonites are less abundant but likewise occur as disseminated crystals and as kidney-shaped bodies. Antimony oxides appear on the weathered surface and along fractures within the sulfide ore. Deposits containing either stibnite or sulphantimonite are known at more than 50 localities, but only eighteen have produced ore and the bulk of this came from the mines. The geology of the deposit, and the nature, extent, and period of the workings are covered in the detailed descriptions of individual occurrences. Several geologic and economic factors, which greatly affect

  6. Increasing trend of Japanese encephalitis cases in West Bengal, India - a threat to paediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Taraphdar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV as the etiologic agent from the acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases mainly amongst the children and young adults from vaccinated and non-vaccinated districts of West Bengal. Methods: For the detection of JEV, a total of 828 sera were referred from vaccinated and non vaccinated districts of West Bengal during 2005-2011. Japanese encephalitis (JE positive cases were confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR method. Results: Out of 828 cases, 245 samples were positive by ELISA method and 46 samples were positive by RT-PCR method. Out of 291 total positive cases, 162 (55.6% were below 20 years of age. Initially in 2005, JE cases were highest amongst the children and young adults (0-20 years. After vaccination, although the JE cases declined gradually in the vaccinated districts, but again from 2010, JE cases from the said age group showed an increasing trend from those districts. JE cases were also reported from other endemic zones of this state, which were still non-vaccinated. Conclusions: In West Bengal, JE cases are still predominated among children and young adults till the year 2011. Mass scale vaccination programme and investigation on the circulating strains are essentially required to find out the reasons of increasing tendency of JE cases in this state.

  7. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  8. Robust small area estimation of poverty indicators using M-quantile approach (Case study: Sub-district level in Bogor district)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girinoto, Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2017-03-01

    The National Socio-Economic Survey samples are designed to produce estimates of parameters of planned domains (provinces and districts). The estimation of unplanned domains (sub-districts and villages) has its limitation to obtain reliable direct estimates. One of the possible solutions to overcome this problem is employing small area estimation techniques. The popular choice of small area estimation is based on linear mixed models. However, such models need strong distributional assumptions and do not easy allow for outlier-robust estimation. As an alternative approach for this purpose, M-quantile regression approach to small area estimation based on modeling specific M-quantile coefficients of conditional distribution of study variable given auxiliary covariates. It obtained outlier-robust estimation from influence function of M-estimator type and also no need strong distributional assumptions. In this paper, the aim of study is to estimate the poverty indicator at sub-district level in Bogor District-West Java using M-quantile models for small area estimation. Using data taken from National Socioeconomic Survey and Villages Potential Statistics, the results provide a detailed description of pattern of incidence and intensity of poverty within Bogor district. We also compare the results with direct estimates. The results showed the framework may be preferable when direct estimate having no incidence of poverty at all in the small area.

  9. Assessment of existing and prospective piping technology for district-heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, I.

    1979-09-01

    Data on design features and operational experience of 40 hot water and steam district-heating networks with an overall heat capacity of 18,000 MWt have been collected, systematized, and analyzed. Piping networks located in Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, USA, USSR, and West Germany have been analyzed and the data assembled. The data bank and analysis of the operational experience design features of hot water and steam district-heating networks are provided in Sections 2 and 3. In Section 4 the piping installation design is optimized in order to reduce costs wherever possible, without jeopardizing overall system efficiency, reliability or service life, and employing a mixture of typical US and European district-heating practices. The status of prospective non-metallic piping materials is presented in Section 5. The following materials have been investigated: fiberglass reinforced plastic, cross-linked polyethylene, polybutylene, prestressed concrete, polymer concrete, and asbestos-cement piping. (MCW)

  10. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  11. health in Wakiso District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective: Bride price payment is a gender issue with implications on gender relations in different socio-cultural contexts. It also impacts. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. In a qualitative study on the perceptions of domestic violence in Wakiso district, payment of bride price emerged as one of the ...

  12. West Greenlandic antipassive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Kappel Schmidt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of syntactic and morphological evidence from West Greenlandic (WG antipassive (AP constructions, I argue against the view that the AP affix is nominal. The fact that the transitivizing and the antipassive affixes in a number of verbs are in complementary distribution, leads me to conclude that they both realize a light verb, transitivizing v, one on the ERG-NOM pattern, the other on the NOM-ACC pattern. Nominalization facts of the two clause types indicate their syntactic structure, with possible implications for the semantic interpretation of the object and the position of the ergative subject.

  13. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  14. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  15. Iowa Congressional Districts for 2013-2022

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Congressional district boundaries, enacted April 19, 2011, effective beginning with the elections in 2012 for the 113th U.S. Congress. The districts will remain in...

  16. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  17. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  18. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  19. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  20. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district 1,...

  1. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications June 16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal...

  2. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of...: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 USC 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Turlock Irrigation...

  3. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  4. School District Leadership: Systems, Strategies, and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovash, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    The researcher studied eight Minnesota school district leadership systems, strategies, and structures and the effect on student achievement. Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from the eight Minnesota school districts. The population included eight northwestern Minnesota public school districts identified for "Needing…

  5. The Phantom Mandate: District Capacity for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Judy; Hange, Jane; Copeland, Glenda

    Nearly every state focuses on implementing standards-based systems but supports educational reform in as many different ways as there are states. An examination of 15 districts located in 13 states suggests, however, that some states and districts have policies and practices in common that support a district's capacity for reform, whether there is…

  6. Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

  7. Characteristics of High-Performing School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Azah, Vera N.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study inquired about characteristics of districts which influence changes in student achievement and how those characteristics are developed. Staff in 49 Ontario districts were surveyed to estimate the status of nine district characteristics on changes in provincial tests of math and language achievement over five years. A…

  8. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the ...

  9. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  10. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  11. related Factors of chronic Energy Deficiency at Pregnant Woman in kamoning and Tambelangan Sub District, Sampang District, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Kartika Mahirawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background:Pregnant woman who suffered Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED has delivered babies with low birth weight and increased the risk for mortality. The objective of this research was to analyze the related factors of CED at pregnant woman. Method:A Cross sectional design was used. A random sample of pregnant women who registered in kohort. has taken 104 people as the samples. Collecting data using questionnaires (quantitative and secondary data obtain through kohort register during 2012–2013 and profile of Dinkes 2012, conducted during 6 (six months 2013 in Puskesmas Kamoning and Tambelangan. The data were analyzed descriptively and statistically using Chi Square test. result: The socio-economic factors: 35.5% mother’s education mostly elementary school graduates. 29.4 % didn’t graduate from elementary school. The majority of their husband (39.2% work as farm worker with income less than 1 million rupiah per month. The maternal factors: the average age between 21 until 34 years old (70.6%. The age of marriage mostly under 17 years old (41.1% and most of them (31.4% have their first pregnancy in the age between 18 until 21 years old. The most pregnant women (54.9% ate 3 times/day. 70.6% pregnant women with CED suffered from anemia; 66.7% of them took irow tablets every day. conclusion:economic factors social conditions associated with the incidence of maternal CED husband is education and maternal work status, whereas maternal factors are gestational age, hemoglobin levels in the blood and consumption of iron pills. recommendation:Areas programme and sectorce, should be involved to reduce the CED prevalence.

  12. West African Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Radiology is an annual publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. ... clinical case reports, discoveries and engineering design/fabrication reports related to any branch of imaging modalities, Radiotherapy and allied subjects. ... Table of Contents. Articles ...

  13. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. Objectives: This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-meth- ods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses ...

  14. Incidence of Banana Bunchy Top Disease in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Nurhayati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana Bunchy Top Disease (BBTD is the most economically important virus disease of bananas. The disease is widespread in Asia and South Pacific regions. In Indonesia, it was first reported in 1979 in the regency of Bandung in West Java, and now becoming widespread in several growing areas. A survey on disease incidence was conducted in five main banana growing districts in the provinces of West Java and Banten. BBTD was prevalent in four of five main banana growing districts with disease incidence varied from 0 to 38.6%. Most of the local cultivars grown was infected with various level of intensity. Cultivars Muli, Nangka, Raja, Kepok and Ambon were among the cultivars infected. ELISA confirmed that banana bunchy top virus is the causal pathogen and showed the relative susceptibility of the cultivars. Most of growers was not aware of the disease and tended to keep the infected banana. Some growers cut the infected pseudostem, but did not uproot the stem, allowing the disease to develop into the new plantings.

  15. Decreasing paediatric prescribing errors in a district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, A L; Britland, A; Naylor, R J

    2008-04-01

    In paediatric inpatients, medication errors occur as frequently as 1 in 4.2 drug orders, with up to 80% of these being prescribing errors. The children's unit of a district general hospital in West Yorkshire, UK. Prescribing errors and preventable adverse drug events (1) The introduction of a junior doctor prescribing tutorial. (2) The introduction of a bedside prescribing guideline. The introduction of the junior doctor prescribing tutorial decreased the prescribing errors by 46%. The introduction of a bedside prescribing guideline did not decrease prescribing errors but may have been helpful to those doctors unable to attend a prescribing tutorial. By investing time and providing appropriate written resources, we have been able to reduce our paediatric prescribing errors on the children's ward by almost half.

  16. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  17. Data on soil PH of Barddhaman district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta Bid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PH (Puissance de Hydrogen is an essential ingredient of soil that effects on fertility and productivity of dirt. Barddhaman district is a part of Lower Gangetic Plain fully covered by alluvial soil and popularly known as ‘rice bowl of West Bengal’ owing to its lofty production. This data article provides a block level data on soil PH that is essential for further investigation of the relationship among soil ph, plant growth, plant health and productivity. This data is valuable in the field of soil geography and soil science. Soil PH data is more relevant in the ground of plant biology, agricultural geography and agricultural science. It helps to explain the acidic and alkaline nature of alluvial soil. The data consist of 195 samples (n=195 taken from the entire district. Samples have been collected from March, 2014 to March, 2015 and experimented in the laboratory. Theoretically PH value is limited within 0–14. Experiment result exemplifies the highest value 8.5 found in Khandaghosh block whereas lowest value is 4.5 and the samples which result in lowest value are gathered from 4 different blocks like Manteswar, Burdwan - II, Barabani and Salanpur.

  18. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  19. A preliminary survey on parasitic occurrence in indigenous climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1972 from West Bengal state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudev Mandal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the parasitic infestations of Anabas testudineus (A. testudineus collected from three different fish producing districts of West Bengal state in India. Methods: A total number of 75 specimens of A. testudineus were collected from different floodplain areas of West Bengal, India. These specimens were examined for parasites using established techniques after measuring basic morphometric parameters. Results: A total 165 individual of 20 parasites (13 ectoparasites and 7 endoparasites belonging to 7 phyla were recorded from 64 infected A. testudineus. Among the observed parasites, 8 were protozoan including 3 ciliates; 2 monogenic trematodes, 2 strigeidid trematodes, 1 nematode, 3 crustaceans, 3 myxozoans and 1 echinorhynchus acanthocephalan parasites. The quantitative abundance of parasites were highest in gill (37% followed by body outer layer (35% and intestine (28%. District wise quantitative count of parasites in different investigated organ from A. testudineus revealed that North 24 Parganas is highly infected followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest prevalence (% and mean abundance of parasitic occurrence was observed in North 24 Parganas followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest mean intensity was found at West Midnapore followed by North 24 Parganas and East Midnapore. Conclusions: Especially West Bengal state of India, inland culture and capture fishery mainly rural based and operated by poor farmers. Developing right kind of interventions and management practice can prevent adverse impact of diseases and assist poor farmers for sustainable production.

  20. Geographic distribution of vestibular schwannomas in West Scotland between 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulley, Lisa; Sawada, Michael; Hinther, Kelsey; Ko, Ya-Tung Iris; Crowther, John A; Kontorinis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Although the natural history of vestibular schwannomas (VS) has been previously studied, few studies have investigated associated epidemiological factors, primarily because of the lack of large available cohorts. The objective of this study was to perform a multi-scale geographical analysis of the period prevalence of VS in West Scotland from 2000 to 2015. Adults diagnosed with sporadic VS were identified through the National Health Services of West Scotland database and geocoded to the unit postcode. To assess whether the cohort of VS cases could be pooled into a period prevalence measure, the locations of VS cases were analyzed by sex using Cross-L and Difference-K functions. VS period prevalence was examined at two aggregate spatial scales: the postcode district and a coarser scale of NHS Health Boards. The spatial structure of period prevalence within each level of spatial aggregation was measured using univariate global and local Moran's I. Bivariate local Moran's I was used to examine the between-scale variability in period prevalence from the postcode district level to the NHS Health Boards levels. Prior to spatial autocorrelation analyses, the period prevalence at the postcode district was tested for stratified spatial heterogeneity within the NHS Health Boards using Wang's q-Statistic. A total of 512 sporadic VS were identified in a population of over 3.1 million. Between 2000 and 2015, VS period prevalence was highest within the NHS Health Boards of Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Ayrshire and Arran and the Western Isles. However, at the NHS scale, period prevalence exhibited no spatial autocorrelation globally or locally. At the district scale, Highland exhibited the most unusual local spatial autocorrelation. Bivariate local Moran's I results indicated general stability of period prevalence across the postcode district to Health Boards scales. However, locally, some postcode districts in Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Ayrshire and Arran exhibited unusually low

  1. district.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dujardin B, Haelterman E, Van Damme W, Kegels G. The adequacy of one sputum smear for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Pubi Hlth 1997; 87: 1234-1235. 16. Narain R, Nair SS, Naganna К, Chandrasekhar P, Ramanatha Rao G, Lai P. Problems in defining a "case" of pulmonary tuberculosis in prevalence ...

  2. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  3. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  4. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how...

  5. Structural setting of Neoproterozoic mineralization, Asmara district, Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebreab, Woldai; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Solomon, Semere

    2009-12-01

    Late Neoproterozoic collision between East and West Gondwana concentrated transpressional deformation in the juvenile crust of the Nubian Shield in Eritrea along at least two steep, curvilinear crustal-scale belts, the Augaro-Adobha Belt (AAB) and the Asmara-Nakfa Belt (ANB). Volcanosedimentary rocks dominantly metamorphosed at greenschist-facies conditions characterize the belts. Each of these belts comprises a complex network of syn-metamorphic shear-fold structures. Steep strike-slip shear zones and accompanying vertical to steeply plunging folds dominated the latest phase of deformation. Quartz vein-hosted gold ± sulphide type and volcanic-hosted massive sulphide type deposits and occurrences are either deformed or hosted by these steep shear zones and folds. The deposits are broadly grouped into three major mineral districts, Asmara, Augaro and Bisha. The Asmara district, the main focus of this study, is located where the southern part of the Asmara-Nakfa Belt changes in strike from NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE. Combined field, micro-structural, and magnetic fabric studies are conducted in the sheared host rocks of a series of the mineral deposits and/or occurrences of the Asmara mineral district. These combined studies revealed that the Asmara area was subjected to a transpressional deformation accommodated in a complex and curved flower structure. Both the quartz vein and massive sulphide types of deposits are sheared, folded and generally spatially associated. The ore-bearing quartz veins are often concentrated along dilatant-extensional en-echelon fracture arrays in reverse and normal sense shear zones, and they either cut through or structurally overlie, the massive sulphide deposits. The massive sulphides that formed at the same time as the Neoproterozoic volcanosedimentary rocks were later deformed and metamorphosed with them. This study, along with previous investigations, further implies that the Asmara area represents an intra-arc, palaeo-oceanic trough or

  6. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16, 2012...

  7. Faunal diversity of Satara District, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Sayyed

    2016-01-01

    Satara District of Maharashtra State is a part of northern Western Ghats and Deccan Plateau biogeographic zones.  The data on various faunal groups was collected from the extensive study carried out during the period between 2007 and 2010, covering different parts of the district.  The present study reports faunal diversity of the district with 677 species under 150 families belonging to 11 different groups.  Overall, the district has substantial faunal diversity.  Out of the total species, 9...

  8. Lowex-fernwaerme; multilevel district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, A.; Rhein, M.; Wirths, A.; Robbi, S.; Gross, S.; Richter, W.; Knorr, M.

    2008-09-15

    In this paper district heating systems from the generator to the consumer are examined and it is presented an overview on possibilities and effects caused by lowering the flow and the return temperature to improve the efficiency of district heating. The main interest contains an optimization tool for production planning of district heating generators. As main next step the simulation model will be parameterised by the load curves, figure lines and technical restrictions that each subtopic came and is coming up with. This will enable the user to asses the functionality, efficiency and economical effects of a decreasing exergy level within a new or existing district heating system.

  9. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  10. Reinstating district nursing: A UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    As policy directives gather pace for service provision to be delivered in primary care, district nursing has not been recognised as a valuable asset to facilitate this agenda. Investment in district nursing and specialist district nursing education has fallen. This is concurrent with an ageing district nursing workforce, a lack of recruitment and growing caseloads, as district nursing adapts to meet the challenges of the complexities of contemporary healthcare in the community. The district nurse role is complex and multifaceted and includes working collaboratively and creatively to coordinate care. Redressing the shortages of specialist district nurse practitioners with increased numbers of health care support workers will not replace the skill, knowledge, experience required to meet the complex care needs of today's society. District nursing needs to be reinstated as the valuable asset it is, through renewed investment in the service, research development and in specialist practice education. To prevent extinction district nurses need to be able to demonstrate and articulate the complexities and dynamisms of the role to reinstate themselves to their commissioners as a valuable asset for contemporary practice that can meet current health and social care needs effectively. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  12. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  13. Features of the Socio-Economic Development of the Western Аreas of the West Kazakhstan Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimov Miras Amangeldievich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study changes in the distribution of population of West Kazakhstan oblast. This is reflected in the change of territorial concentration of population in the region. The distribution of population areas was detected by the factor of territorial concentration of population. Despite the high natural increase in the western areas of the region, the population migrates to the northern areas of the West Kazakhstan oblast and Uralsk. The Western areas of the West Kazakhstan oblast include Bokeyordinsky, Zhangalinsky, Zhanibeksky and Kaztalovsky districts. The statistical method was used when analyzing the volume of industrial production, retail trade, investment in fixed assets, the sown area of crops and commissioning the total housing area. The study showed that the western areas are lagging behind the northern areas of the region in terms of socio-economic development. From the western areas, only Zhangalinsky district in 2012 did not change the coefficient of the territorial concentration of the population in comparison with 2007. In Zhangalinsky district large breeding farms were kept, thus creating a number of jobs. The district has a gas pipeline Central Asia - Center, as well as gas compressor station that creates high-paying jobs.

  14. Dynamics of Fluvial Regime and its impact on the population displacement in the Gangetic Plain of West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Suraj; Sen, Anjan

    2017-04-01

    River bank erosion is one of the major natural hazards in India. Basically it is a natural phenomenon, but the role of anthropogenic factor to trigger the problem is undeniable. In West Bengal, river bank erosion in Ganga River has become an acute problem in Malda and Murshidabad districts. In Musrshidabad district alone, more than 350 Km2 land has been lost in the past four decades and more than 80000 persons have been displaced in the entire state of West Bengal. The trigger for such large scale erosional work has been both natural as well as anthropogenic. Ganga River in West Bengal flows through an underdeveloped river channel, leading to frequent changes in the course of the river that further cause riverbank erosion along the riparian zones of the river. The construction of Farakka Barrage in Malda district in 1975 has only exacerbated the problem, causing siltation and associated erosional processes. The present work deals with the social impacts of the physical process of erosion, and primarily focuses on the migration pattern of uprooted communities of Malda and Murshidabad districts. The study uses Landsat Images and SRTM DEM to assess the changes in the course of Ganga River and primary survey to discern the present and future trends of migration in the affected areas, and concludes with an assessment of the social-ecological-landscape relationships in a region undergoing large scale physical as well as demographic change. Keywords: River Bank Erosion, Ganga River, Farakka Barrage, Landsat, SRTM DEM, Migration

  15. Anthropological District. Notes for an anthropological study of the industrial districts

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Fontefrancesco

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses industrial district theory as objects of anthropological enquiry. Providing a review of the history of studies in industrial anthropology and industrial district theory, the articles explores extended case method and in the multi-sited ethnography as viable methodologies to make industrial district an object of anthropological research practice and epistemology.

  16. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinagel, Tyler P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  17. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for...

  18. A New Kind of School District: How Local Leaders Can Create Charter Districts. The Nuts & Bolts of Charter Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bryan

    This short paper discusses the advantages of and outlines key design issues for creating charter districts. The design issues are divided into three categories representing the three central elements of the environment the districts are trying to create for their schools: the opportunity to perform, incentives to perform, and capacity to perform.…

  19. Performance of participatory and non-participatory farmers of integrated crop management project at Pirganj upazila under Thakurgaon district

    OpenAIRE

    Sumy, M.C; Halim, M.A; Hasan, M.R; Begum, M.R

    2009-01-01

    This study examines technical efficiency between Participatory & Non- Participatory farmers under Integrated Crop Management project (ICM) in the north-west region of Bangladesh. Sixty farmers of which 30 participatory & 30 non-participatory were selected following stratified random sampling technique from four villages under pirganj upazila in Thakurgaon district. ICM project participatory farmers received higher net returns than the non-participatory farmers from selected crop production. P...

  20. State and district policy influences on district-wide elementary and middle school physical education practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eyler, Amy; Carnoske, Cheryl; Slater, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the influence of state laws and district policies on district-wide elementary school and middle school practices related to physical education (PE) time and the percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time during PE. Multivariate, cross-sectional analysis of state laws, district wellness and PE policies, and district PE practices for school year 2010-2011 controlling for district-level urbanicity, region, size, race/ethnicity of students, and socioeconomic status and clustered on state. One hundred ninety-five public school districts located in 42 states. District-level PE coordinators for the included districts who responded to an online survey. Minutes and days of PE per week and percent time spent in MVPA during PE time. District PE coordinators reported significantly less PE time than national standards-82.9 and 189.6 minutes at the elementary school and middle school levels, respectively. Physical education was provided an average of 2.5 and 3.7 days per week, respectively; and the percentage of MVPA time in PE was 64.4% and 65.7%, respectively. At the elementary school level, districts in either states with laws governing PE time or in a state and district with a law/policy reported significantly more days of PE (0.63 and 0.67 additional days, respectively), and districts in states with PE time laws reported 18 more minutes of PE per week. At the middle school level, state laws were associated with 0.73 more days of PE per week. Neither state laws nor district policies were positively associated with percent MVPA time in PE. State laws and district policies can influence district-level PE practices-particularly those governing the frequency and duration of PE-although opportunities exist to strengthen PE-related laws, policies, and practices.

  1. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  2. New Mexico's Very Small School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Doug

    The report addresses characteristics and concerns of New Mexico's 19 smallest school districts with a 1981-82 average daily membership ranging from 262 to 60 students. Information was gathered from a Public School Finance Division questionnaire sent to the 19 superintendents; from a December 1981 meeting with 10 of the smallest districts; from…

  3. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  4. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  5. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  6. Collaborative Strategic Decision Making in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…

  7. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  8. Crafting Legitimacy in District-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechasseur, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Partnering across districts, schools, and other community organizations has become ubiquitous as a policy for promoting change. Despite growing attention to and scholarship on district-community partnerships, there is little examination of the organizational mechanisms involved in sustaining them. Purpose/Objectives: This study…

  9. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  10. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  11. Faunal diversity of Satara District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sayyed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Satara District of Maharashtra State is a part of northern Western Ghats and Deccan Plateau biogeographic zones.  The data on various faunal groups was collected from the extensive study carried out during the period between 2007 and 2010, covering different parts of the district.  The present study reports faunal diversity of the district with 677 species under 150 families belonging to 11 different groups.  Overall, the district has substantial faunal diversity.  Out of the total species, 94 are recorded as endemic species, 35 species are listed as threatened under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and 38 species are listed in the different schedules of Indian Wildlife (Protection Act 1972 (as amended up to 2013.  The information on geographical distribution pattern of mammalian species in the district is also provided. 

  12. Solar district heating and cooling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Bava, Federico; Andersen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Both district heating and solar collector systems have been known and implemented for many years. However, the combination of the two, with solar collectors supplying heat to the district heating network, is relatively new, and no comprehensive review of scientific publications on this topic could...... be found. Thus, this paper summarizes the literature available on solar district heating and presents the state of the art and real experiences in this field. Given the lack of a generally accepted convention on the classification of solar district heating systems, this paper distinguishes centralized...... and decentralized solar district heating as well as block heating. For the different technologies, the paper describes commonly adopted control strategies, system configurations, types of installation, and integration. Real‐world examples are also given to provide a more detailed insight into how solar thermal...

  13. Spin systems and Political Districting Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C.-I [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 111 (China)]. E-mail: cichou@faculty.pccu.edu.tw; Li, S.-P. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.

  14. EPA Recognizes Charleston County School District for Reducing Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Charleston County School District for the District's achievements in reducing food waste. The District cultivated one of the state's first student-driven commercial compostin

  15. 7 CFR 906.121 - Reestablishment of districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN... districts of the production area specified in § 906.20 Districts are reestablished as a single district comprising the entire production area. ...

  16. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  17. Risk Factors for Obesity and Overfat among Primary School Children in Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambondo, George; Sartorius, Benn

    2018-02-02

    Associated childhood obesity risk factors are not well established in developing countries such as Zimbabwe and this information is essential for tailored intervention development. This study aimed to identify prominent risk factors for overweight/obese and overfat/obese among primary school children of Mashonaland West Province in Zimbabwe. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage random cluster sampling approach (30 × 30). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was employed and identified the risk factors for overweight/obese and overfat/obese. A total of 974 participants were enrolled in the study. Prominent significant risk factors of overweight/obese after multivariable adjustment were higher socio-economic households; parental diabetes status; and living in Makonde, Zvimba, Sanyati or Mhondoro-Ngezi district as opposed to Hurungwe district. Risk factors for overfat/obese that remained statically significant were children in urban areas (aOR = 3.19, 95% CI: 2.18-4.66, p = 0.000), being one child in a household, and parents who have diabetes mellitus. Living in Makonde, Sanyati, and Zvimba district remained associated with overfat/obese compared to Hurungwe district. This study has identified prominent proximal determinants of overweight/obese and overfat/obese among primary school children in Zimbabwe, to better assist policy guidance. Aggressive education on good nutrition activities should be tailored and targeted to most affected urban areas within high-risk districts.

  18. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul

    2009-08-25

    Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%). The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18%) were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the baseline malaria prevalence and summaries of the data collected are provided along with the

  19. Sparse district-heating in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district

  20. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  1. Analysis of Parental Involvement and Self-Esteem on Secondary School Students in Kieni West Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairimu, Mburu Josephine; Macharia, Susan M.; Muiru, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement and the self-esteem among adolescents in secondary school students in Kieni West District in Nyeri County. It was guided by Self Determination Theory (SDT) by James William and Baumrind Theory of Parenting Styles by Diana Blumberg Baumrind. Some of the gaps identified in the…

  2. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  3. Arbovirus infections and viral haemorrhagic fevers in Uganda: a serological survey in Karamoja district, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F; Gonzalez, J P; Mercier, E; Helynck, B; Larouze, B; Hannoun, C

    1989-01-01

    Sera collected in May 1984 from 132 adult residents of Karamoja district, Uganda, were examined by haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibodies against selected arboviruses, namely Chikungunya and Semliki Forest alphaviruses (Togaviridae); dengue type 2, Wesselsbron, West Nile, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses (Flaviviridae); Bunyamwera, Ilesha and Tahyna bunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Sicilian sandfly fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae); and by immunofluorescence tests against certain haemorrhagic fever viruses, Lassa fever arenavirus (Arenaviridae), Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Zaïre and Marburg filoviruses (Filoviridae), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever nairovirus and Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). Antibodies against Chikungunya virus were the most prevalent (47%), followed by flavivirus antibodies (16%), which were probably due mainly to West Nile virus. No evidence of yellow fever or dengue virus circulation was observed. A few individuals had antibodies against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses, suggesting that these viruses all circulate in the area.

  4. FLYPAPER EFFECTS ANOMALY OF WEST PAPUA CAPITAL PUBLIC EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen Anthon Pentury

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In fiscal decentralization, local governments should be able to provide public service facilities for all communities. This study aims to determine the existence of flypaper effect in the total capital public expenditure and capital expenditure on education, health and infrastructure in districts in West Papua, 2003-2006. Tools of analysis used is panel data regression. The General Allocation Fund (DAU, the Special Allocation Fund (DAK and the Special Autonomy Fund (DOK partially and simultaneously have positive impact on total capital spending and capital expenditure in education, health, and infrastructure. It is also indicated the anomaly of flypaper effect in DAU, DAK, and DOK.Keywords: Flypaper effect, anomaly, fiscal decentralization, capital expendituresJEL classification numbers: H50, H75

  5. Indigenous West Nile virus infections in horses in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berxholi, K; Ziegler, U; Rexhepi, A; Schmidt, K; Mertens, M; Korro, K; Cuko, A; Angenvoort, J; Groschup, M H

    2013-11-01

    Serum samples collected from 167 equines of 12 districts in Albania were tested for West Nile virus-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay, using WNV lineage 1 and 2. In addition, 95 bird serum samples from Albania and 29 horse samples from Kosovo were tested in ELISA. An overall seroprevalence rate of 22% was found in horses from Albania, whereas no specific antibodies were found in the equine samples from Kosovo and the bird samples. This is the first report indicating WNV infections in animals in Albania, and the first reported seroprevalence study conducted for Kosovo. These results provide evidence for widespread infections of WNV in Albania. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall. Figlar & Noot. in West Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, northeastern India: re-collection and implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aabid Hussain Mir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall. Figlar & Noot. [= Michelia lanuginosa Wall.], a rare tree species of Meghalaya, is restricted to the West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya.  The species was considered to have become extinct from the state.  The present paper reports a recent re-collection of the species from four locations in the West Khasi Hills after a lapse of almost 100 years.  In addition, the population structure, regeneration status and the threat to the species are also discussed so as to develop effective strategies for its conservation.  

  7. Farmers behavior on using fertilizer in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Tomy; Renaldy, Eddy; Utami, Hesty Nurul; Sadeli, Agriani Hermita; Mahra Arari, H.; Ginanjar, Tetep; Ajeng Sesy N., P.; Fernianda Rahayu, H.; Sanjaya, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Fertilizer is one of the important materials in farming system to improve quality and quantity of harvest. Most of farmers in Indonesia using fertilizer, one of substantial fertilizer is NPK that contain of complex nutrient, there are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. There are tendency for farmers using NPK based on quality products and speed of decomposition. Nowadays, market size for NPK fertilizer has been dramatically increase and it will impact on intensify of fertilizer use. The potential requirement in marketing does not balanced with consumer behavior analysis. Meanwhile, agricultural sector (include horticulture, floriculture, bio-pharmacy and plantation) have been wieldly increase of the farming system annualy. This research is study case which is analyzed local NPK fertilizer competitive advantage compared to imported NPK fertilizer through consumer point of view towards product quality in four districts in West Java province, i.e., West Bandung, Garut, Bogor and Cianjur District with target respondents are farmers who use NPK fertilizer. NPK fertilizer qualities are based on product attributes, which are; availability, nutrient content, price, basic ingredients, form of fertilizer, speed of decomposition, label, color, type, design and size of packaging. It was analyzed using sematic differential attitude models and multi attribute attitude snake diagram model. The evaluation ranking of consumers interests towards fertilizer attribute characteristics showed that consumer intention before deciding to buy or use a NPK fertilizer will consider nutrient content, speed of decomposition, form of fertilizer and availability of products. Consumer's attitude towards all NPK fertilizer attribute quality illustrated that imported fertilizer is considered to be more positive than local fertilizer. Fertilizer companies or industries should be able to maintain their fertilizer production especially concerning nutrient content and availability of products through a

  8. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  9. Louisiana State House Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_house_districts_LEGIS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State House Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the next...

  10. Malaria Prevalence and Vector Presence in Teluk Limau Village, Jebus District, West Bangka, Bangka Belitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Nusa Rahagus Edo Santya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria elimination in Indonesia need necessary data as a foundation for planning and implementation activities. The purpose of this study was to estimate the malaria prevalence and the presence of potential mosquito vectors. To find out malaria endemicity, blood of sampling group was examined in the study area on 24-30 November 2010. Suspected vector mosquitoes collection was carried out by human landing method on the inside and outside of the house for 12 hours from 18:00 until 06:00. Positive SD percentage from inspection reached 4.21% (18 of 428 SD. Gametocytes SD percentage reached 18.75%, where 3 of 18 positives SD has a gametocytes. Two mosquitoes Anopheles spp. found were an An. sundaicus and An. letifer. The number of An. sundaicus trapped outdoors were five, An. letifer trapped in the house were three and An. letifer trapped outdoors were eight. This result showed malaria transmission potential in the study site and malaria surveillance should be done. It is recommended to distribute insecticide-treated nets and suggest the residents not to stayed outside the house at night to often.

  11. Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural Farmers in West-Akim District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is on the rural transportation problem in Ghana and its consequences on the rural people, especially those who live in off road villages (villages that do not have access to regular transportation systems). The study specifically discusses the failure of the existing road transport network to provide sufficient services ...

  12. Evaluating India's national rural employment guarantee scheme : The case of Birbhum districts, West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dey (Subhasish)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe world's biggest Employment Guarantee Programme, India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) has been in operation in rural India since February 2006. In principle, the scheme is a self-targeted programme designed to provide 100 days of employment to rural households

  13. Escherichia coli contamination of babies' food-serving utensils in a district of West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Aria; Eryando, Tris; Susanna, Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of baby's complementary food may occur with Escherichia coli from several sources including unclean utensils. We examined the relationship between socio-economic conditions, environmental factors, characteristics of food handlers and contamination of babies food-serving utensils with E. coli. The study was conducted in 21 villages of the Community Health Centre (CHC) Selayo in Indonesia. A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 142 households, which had a 6-12 month-old baby on complementary food, was chosen randomly using midwives' registration books. Respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Check-lists were used for observations. Standard laboratory methods were used for collection of specimen and confirmation of contamination with E. coli. More than half of the respondents (59.2%) used water that had high risk of contamination and 61.3% of the latrines did not meet the criteria of a healthy latrine. Waste management practices of nearly all respondents (97.9%) were below the standards set by the Ministry of Health. More than half of the respondents (68.3%) did not wash their hands with soap for 20 seconds and 52.1% did not use flowing water for washing hands. Majority of the respondents' hands (57%, 81/142) and 72.2% (104/142) of the eating utensils were found to be contaminated by E. coli. Contaminated hands of food handlers were more likely to contaminate the babies food-serving utensils (OR: 3.7; 95%CI: 1.62-8.46, p 0.002). Contamination of the hands of food handler was associated with contamination of babies food-serving utensils by E. coli. Hence, food handlers should be trained on proper hand washing methods.

  14. Rapidly Fatal Silicosis Among Jewellery Workers Attending a District Medical College of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchadhyayee, Prabodh; Saha, Kaushik; Saha, Indranil; Ta, Rupam Kumar; Ghosh, Santanu; Saha, Arnab; Barma, Pratik; Mitra, Mrinmoy

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis is a slowly progressive chronic occupational lung disease, developed after a prolong period of exposure to high concentration of silica dust. In this longitudinal study, we enrolled old and new silicosis patients (n=19; 8 jewellery polishers, 11 from other occupations) seen at our Pulmonary Medicine Department from June 2009 to December 2012 to document the course of illness as per their occupational exposure. Six of the eight jewellery polishing workers had developed silicosis within five years of exposure, while six of the 11 other workers with other occupational exposure had developed silicosis after exposure of 10 years or more. Mean duration of exposure was significantly less among jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers (3.4 +/- 1.7 versus 9.3 +/- 4.1; p=0.001). Mean duration of illness (months) (14.9 +/- 5.8 versus 28.5 +/- 16.5; p=0.040) were significantly less among the jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers. At the end of the study period, all eight jewellery polishing workers with silicosis had died while four of the 11 patients with other occupational exposure had died. Silicosis among jewellery polishing workers was found to be more severe and progressive compared to silicosis due to other occupational exposures, in our study.

  15. Water retention techniques for vegetation establishment in TxDOT West Texas districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Water harvesting is the collection of runoff for its productive use and may aid in the germination and : establishment of vegetation seeded in the roadside. This project is a synthesis study on the feasibility and : implications of adapting water har...

  16. Landslide Zonation at the Budong-Budong Watershed, Central Mamuju District of West Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar S Solle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are as  follows: first, to investigate the contributing parameters induced land sliding in the Budong-Budong watershed, and second, to construct landslide susceptibility zonation map.  In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP based on Geographical Information System (GIS methods was used to produce map of landslide susceptibility. In this study area, more than 50% of total area were classified high (H to very high (VH  susceptibility landslide zone.  Mean while, 12% of total area were classified as  moderate (M  and remaining were classified as  low (L to very low (VL susceptibility landslide zone. Almost area of Budong-Budong Wetershed were classified as VH and H susceptibility landslide zone underlying by Talaya (Tmtv, Lamasi (Toml and Latimojong (Kls Formation on the steep slope land.

  17. The use of antenatal care in two rural districts of Upper West Region, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sumankuuro

    Full Text Available Despite decades of implementation of maternity healthcare programmes, including a focus on increasing the use of antenatal care (ANC and concomitant birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR, the uptake of ANC continues to be below expectations in many developing countries. This has attendant implications for maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rates. Known barriers to ANC use include cost, distance to health care services and forces of various socio-cultural beliefs and practices. As part of a larger study on BPCR in rural Ghana, this paper reflects on the use of ANC in the study areas from rights-based and maternal engagement theoretical perspectives, with a focus on the barriers to ANC use.Mixed methods approach was adopted to collect data from 8 study communities from individual in-depth interviews with 80 expectant mothers and 13 health care professionals, and 24 focus groups comprising 240 community members. The qualitative data followed a thematic analytical method, while the quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics.The average number of ANC visits were 3.34±1.292, and the majority of expectant mothers (71.3% enrolled for ANC at the 8th week or later, with the longest delay recorded at the 6th month of gestation. Traditional norms significantly influenced this delay. Likewise, overall use of ANC during pregnancy was shaped by cultural factors related to perceptions of pregnancy, gender-based roles and responsibilities and concerns that ANC would result in an overweighed baby and culturally inappropriate delivery at a health care facility.Greater understanding of the sociocultural barriers to ANC is essential if proposed changes in community-specific health education programs are to facilitate early commencement and increased use of ANC.

  18. Reactive lesions of oral cavity: A survey of 100 cases in Eluru, West Godavari district

    OpenAIRE

    Bina Kashyap; P Sridhar Reddy; Nalini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Reactive lesions of the oral cavity are associated with injuries of soft tissue and have high prevalence rates and different involvement patterns in different parts of the world. This study reviews the pathogenesis and analyzes demographic data, histopathological features and compares the clinico-pathologic profiles of the diseases to those previously reported. Materials and Methods: Patient records of the Department of Oral Pathology during one and half year period were reviewed for dia...

  19. Reactive lesions of oral cavity: A survey of 100 cases in Eluru, West Godavari district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kashyap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Reactive lesions of the oral cavity are associated with injuries of soft tissue and have high prevalence rates and different involvement patterns in different parts of the world. This study reviews the pathogenesis and analyzes demographic data, histopathological features and compares the clinico-pathologic profiles of the diseases to those previously reported. Materials and Methods:Patient records of the Department of Oral Pathology during one and half year period were reviewed for diagnosis of oral connective tissue reactive hyperplastic lesion. Data including the area involved and the type of lesion were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and ANOVA test. Results:100 cases (mean age 36 years, male:female ratio 1:2 matched study criterion. The most common affected site was mandibular anterior region and buccal mucosa and the most common lesion was pyogenic granuloma and focal fibrous hyperplasia. All the lesions were more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. PGCG was seen to be equally distributed in males and females. Conclusion: Reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral connective tissue are more common in females and the majority of the lesions occur in gingiva. This study supports previous assertions that PG and FFH may occur on any oral mucosal site with special preference for the mandibular anterior gingiva and buccal mucosa while PGCG and POF occur exclusively on the mandibular gingiva.

  20. A case study of the Kassena- Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Ghana Journal of Geography Vol. 8(2), 2016. 31 have had secondary school education or higher. Education is considered fundamental to the respondents' understanding of local governance and conflicts and strategies to manage them at the local level. Nearly seven out of ten (67.3%) were working in the informal sector ...

  1. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN ONLINE SHOPPING: A STUDY ON ONE HUNDRED CONSUMERS IN NADIA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Suhas; Roy, Swapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Online shopping has been becoming increasingly popular.  The economics behind online shopping is almost similar to the traditional offline shopping. However, the risks involved in it vary to some extent. The marketing communication and the shopping environment present in online shopping are different. These differences brought in some changes in the attitudes of the traders involved both in online and offline shopping spaces. The objective of the present paper is to primarily review the way i...

  2. District Education Offices in French-Speaking West Africa: Autonomy, Professionalism and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grauwe, Anton; Lugaz, Candy

    2007-01-01

    Decentralization occupies a prominent place on the policy agenda at international level and, within many countries, at national level. It regularly forms part of an overall package of reform of the public service, which has been summarized under the concept of "new public management" (Pollitt & Bouckaert, 2000). This package also…

  3. District-heating system, La Grande, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The area suggested for district heating feasibility study encompassed slightly over 400 acres extending north and south from the geographic center of the city. This district was subdivided into 8 areas, which include the Grande Ronde Hospital, Eastern Oregon State College, La Grande school district, one institutional area, one commercial area and three residential areas. Basic space heating loads developed for the various areas after a survey by county personnel and computation using a computer program form the basis for this economic feasibility study.

  4. West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  6. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  7. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 31, No. 1 January–March, 2012. Departments of *Community Health, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria, †Community Medicine, University College. Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria ...... (Okada) crashes in Benin City, Nigeria. Prehosp Disaster Med 2009 Jul–Aug;. 24: 356–9 .

  8. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    _ WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. CLINI CAL PRA CTI CE. Pain Management inAdult Acute Sickle Cell Pain Crisis: A Viewpoint. Chagriner la direction dans la crise de douleur de cellule de faucille adulte: un point de Vue . E. Udezue*, E. HerreraT. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: The acute pain crisis of sickle cell ...

  9. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  10. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  11. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  12. Metamorphic Rocks in West Irian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegen, van der G.

    1971-01-01

    Low-grade metamorphics of West Irian occur to the east of Geelvink Bay associated with two narrow belts of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks which represent ophiolitic suites of an eugeosynclinical development beginning in Early Mesozoic time. In both of these belts there are indications of

  13. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  14. Africa, Sociocultural Overviews: West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an overview of social worlds, values, and material and nonmaterial cultures of the region south of the Sahara from Mauritania to Cameroon. Attention is paid, in particular, to modes of social solidarity and the cultural dynamics of community formation in West African settings.

  15. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI ...

  16. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  17. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Mots-clés: maladie de Parkinson, l'homocystéine, le Nigeria, la gravité, le handicap. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND:Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) is as a long- term sequelum of levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. (PD). Information on its frequency and ...

  18. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  19. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be a form of reversal to childhood.11. Among the American Indians dementia is considered to be a ..... to stigma.15. The Hausa- Fulani communities are found in many countries of the West-. African sub-region and cultural and religious inclinations are similar. It is thus reasonable to speculate that the findings of this study ...

  20. Arthurdale: Homesteading in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, Deanna

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the history of the first subsistence community founded under the National Industrial Recovery Act during the Great Depression. Arthurdale, West Virginia, provided unemployed workers with rural homes on small plots where they could grow food and supply other needs through part-time industrial employment. A progressive community school…

  1. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Mots-clés: dyspepsie, gastrite, ulcère duodénal, sensibilité, spécificité. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Increasing endoscopy workload in open- access services necessitates adoption of appropriateness criteria to check abuse and improve yield. OBJECTIVE: ...

  2. Geology and ore deposits of the Pioche district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, L.G.; Knopf, Adolph

    1932-01-01

    LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES The Bristol Range, Highland, and Ely Range quadrangles make up the larger part of a. rectangular area 35 miles north and south by 24 miles east and west, which lies 19 miles west of the Nevada-Utah line and about 250 miles southwest of Salt Lake City. The district lies within the Great Basin, a semiarid region of alternating mountain ranges and intermontane plains floored largely by outwash from the mountains. The plain, which slopes away from the ranges, stands between 4,700 and 6,000 feet above the sea. The Bristol and Highland Ranges, which are separated only by a low gap, form an almost continuous north-south range that rises about 2,500 feet above the highest part of the surrounding plain, to general altitudes of 8,000 to 9,000 feet, though the highest point, Highland Peak, reaches 9,395 feet. A lower range, the Ely Range, with a northwesterly trend, lies farther east and nearly in touch with the Bristol-Highland Range. The town of Pioche lies midway on the. eastern foot of the Ely Range. ROOKS OF THE PIOOHB REGION The rocks of the ranges are Paleozoic sediments, Tertiary (?) lavas and intrusive rocks, and Pliocene (?) tuffs. The Paleozoic sediments have a total thickness of nearly 18,000 feet. Over 8,000 feet of the Cambrian has been measured without reaching its base. The lowest Cambrian formation is a quartzite, of which only the upper 1,500 feet is exposed, and this is followed by 1,200 feet of shale, 400 feet of limestone, aoid 150 feet of shale. Above this second shale the upper three-fourths of the Cambrian consists of limestone and dolomitic limestone. It is in the quartzite and in the limestone interbedded in and bounding the shales that the main ore bodies of the district have been found. Above the Cambrian comes 1,795 feet of Ordovician limestone, with some interbedded dolomite and with a 50-foot quartzite a, third of the way down from the top; 75 feet of Silurian dolomite; 3,000 feet of Middle Devonian dolomite with

  3. Serological and molecular survey of Leishmania parasites in apparently healthy dogs in the West Bank, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania infantum in all Mediterranean countries. The Leishmania parasite is transmitted by the bite of a corresponding sand fly vector and primarily maintained in nature by wild and domestic reservoirs, including dogs, foxes and jackals. Infected dogs are the primary reservoir host in endemic regions and are the most significant risk disposing humans to infection. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of infection with Leishmania and identification of Leishmania infantum in domestic dogs in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods The infection rate among domestic dogs collected from seven districts in the Palestinian West Bank was investigated by examination of parasites in culture from the buffy coat using serological and molecular methods; based on ELISA, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and cysteine protease (CPB) PCR. Results Out of 215 dogs examined for Leishmania, 36 (16.7%) were positive in at least one method. Twenty three animals (11.5%) were positive for Leishmania DNA, whereas, ELISA and culture revealed 16 (7.5%), and 4 (1.5%) respectively. CPB-PCR on one of three culture-positive isolates revealed Leishmania infantum as the causative agent for Leishmania infection in dogs. Conclusions Our study showed that canine leishmania infection is prevalent with varying degrees in all the seven studied districts in Palestine despite the absence of human VL cases in 4 of these districts. The causative agent was confirmed to be Leishmania infantum. PMID:22937916

  4. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 41.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2006 through May 2007) was 11.63 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.84 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  5. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 39.50 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2006 through September 2007) was 13.42 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.92 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  6. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any other...

  7. Land use change and crop rotation analysis of a government well district in Rashda village – Dakhla Oasis, Egypt based on satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kato

    2012-12-01

    The land use change analysis showed that the extension of cultivated land was already completed by the 1980s in the North and South subdistricts, after which it spread toward the West. Because the altitude in the West subdistrict is lower than the wells, irrigation water could be distributed adequately if the condition of the irrigation channel was well maintained. The relationship between the irrigation level and plant production was not favorable in the West compared with other subdistricts. The cultivated area in the West district has been increasing since the 1970s. According to the crop rotation analysis, the different productivity of the subdistricts was caused by several factors, including the land altitude and the distance from the well, as well as other factors such as social relationships in the village.

  8. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  9. FOUNDING OF THE DISTRICT HOSPITAL IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Zivic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After the liberation of Nis from the Turks which took place on January 11th, 1878, there were two military hospitals: one was next to The Skull Tower and the other on the road to Leskovac and there was Islahana the civil institution which was not the forerunner of the district hospital in Nis. At first, they founded the military hospital in Nis in 1878 and then they founded The District Hospital on July 17th in 1881. The first director of the District hospital was Anton Zajicek. He is also the first graduated medical doctor in Nis. The District Hospital was situated on the left bank of the Nisava river in a private house.

  10. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  11. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  12. VT Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Districts is established by a municipality around an area that requires public infrastructure to encourage public and private real...

  13. Hammond Sanitary District Clean Water Act Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hammond Sanitary District (HSD), located in Hammond, Indiana, serves over 170,000 customers in the City of Hammond and Town of Munster, and also provides wastewater treatment to the customer communities of Highland, and Griffith.

  14. Moving Women Up the District Ladder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merri Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    ..., was clearly moving on a fast track. [...]when her husband, who works in educational technology in another Ohio district, spotted a promotional notice on the AASA website about the association's upcoming Women's Leadership Consortium...

  15. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... line from the northeast corner of Solano County to the town of Rio Vista. (d) El Dorado District... includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey County, Santa Clara County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz...

  16. School District Finance Survey, 2013-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Education — School District Finance Survey, 2013–14 (F-33 2013–14) is a study that is part of the Common Core of Data (CCD) program; program data is available since 1989–90 at ....

  17. NM Property Tax Districts November 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  18. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    could reach up to 20% with utilisation of solar energy as supplement energy source in traditional fossil fuel based district heating systems. In this work, the performance of hybrid district energy system for a particular location will be analysed. For performance analysis, mathematical model...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...... sources that can complement each other on daily and yearly basis and reduce negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In district heating systems, hybridisation could be performed through utilisation of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Potential of fuel and emission reduction...

  19. Narrative Report Fergus Falls Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Wetlands Complex outlines District accomplishments for FY 1974. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  20. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  1. 7 CFR 906.20 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER... determining the basis for selecting producer committee members the following districts of the production area...

  2. Minnesota Wild and Scenic River Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — District boundaries for wild, scenic, and recreational rivers designated under the Minnesota State Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. Includes portions of the Minnesota...

  3. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  4. In defiance of Duverger: The class cleavage and the emergence of district-level multiparty systems in western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At its core, Duverger’s Law, which holds that the number of viable parties in first-past-the-post systems should not exceed two, applies primarily at the district level. While the number of parties nationally may exceed two, district-level party system fragmentation should not. A growing body of research, however, shows that district-level party system fragmentation can indeed exceed two in first-past-the-post systems. This piece addresses the fundamental tension between Duverger’s Law and recent scholarship on district-level party systems. I explore whether the major alternative explanation for party system fragmentation – the social cleavage approach – can explain violations of Duverger’s Law. Testing this argument in several west European elections prior to the adoption of proportional representation, I find evidence favouring a social cleavage explanation: with the expansion of the class cleavage, the average district-level party system eventually came to violate the two-party predictions associated with Duverger’s Law. This suggests that, in defiance of Duverger, greater levels of social cleavage diversity may produce multiparty systems even in first-past-the-post systems.

  5. West Europe Report, No. 2138.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-05

    83) 35 FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SPD’s Roth on Unemployment , Economic Growth (Wolfang Roth Interview; VORWAERTS, 7 Apr 83) 36 FINLAND... Unemployment Plagues District Impact of Strike, by Segundo Marino Comment Assesses Vigo Strike as Means to Job Creation (Editorial; EL PAIS, 16 Apr 83...30 Mar 83) 88 Stalinist Press Organ Defends Right To Exist (Editorial; TIEDONANTAJA, 30 Mar 83) 89 Soviet, Finnish Youth Friendship

  6. District heating substations - design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-12-15

    These technical regulations for district heating substations are sector-wide regulations for the Swedish district heating sector, describing the design, installation, use and maintenance of substations. If a district heating substation is to operate in the best possible way, the building's space heating and domestic hot water systems must comply with the requirements in these regulations and with those issued by public authorities. These regulations also describe aspects that must be considered when substations need to be replaced. The use then of correct values for the building energy requirements ensures that the new substation will be properly matched to its duties. These regulations are intended for use by: - those responsible for contacts between the district heating supplier and the customer. - those who own, operate and/or administer a building or facility that is heated by district heating. - those who design, manufacture, purchase, test or install substations. It is recommended that enquiries should refer to the Swedish District Heating Association's technical regulations when specifying requirements. The procurement criteria described in these regulations should be applied when evaluating tenders

  7. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltero Victor Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  8. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  9. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple...

  10. West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Yılmaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

  11. Evaluation Of The Two Model Biocorridors In Soth-West Part Of Slovakia In Agricultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Debnáriková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to evaluate two different models of biocorridors in south-west part of Slovakia in intensively utilized agricultural landscape. The first biocorridor is a part of fragmented alluvial softwood forest along the Žitava’s river in its unregulated part in cadastral territory Horný Ohaj, district Vráble. This biocorridor should be the representative biocorridor by its structure and plant composition in its area. The second biocorridor is biocorridor composed by Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the village Báb, district Nitra. The research analyzes the structure of the selected biocorridors by using the methods of phytocoenology, evaluate functional integrity by monitoring of their spatial parameters in terrain and by processing maps in the AutoCAD program. At the base of phytocoenological report evaluates occurence of alien species.

  12. District Paid Insurance Programs in California School Districts 1977-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California School Boards Association, Sacramento.

    This publication presents 1977-78 data on employee insurance programs provided by 1,078 California school districts and county offices of education that responded to a statewide survey conducted by the California State Department of Education. Individual school districts are listed alphabetically within categories according to the type of district…

  13. What Do Effective District Leaders Do? Strategies for Evaluating District Leadership. Policy Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Katie; Yoder, Nick

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the Common Core State Standards and teacher evaluation reform, school leaders increasingly look to district leaders for support, coaching, and leadership. District leaders--superintendents, assistant or area superintendents, specialists, principal supervisors, and school business administrators--can hold varying and multiple roles…

  14. Blue Valley School District: Kansas District Extends Growth Measurement to the Early Grades, Experiences Measurable Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Blue Valley, the fourth largest school district in Kansas, covers 91 square miles. More than 20,000 K-12 students attend its 34 schools ( five high schools, nine middle schools, and 20 elementary schools). Of the district's students, 8% qualify for free and reduced lunch and about 3% are English Language Learners. Blue Valley began using Measures…

  15. Review of meningitis surveillance data, upper West Region, Ghana 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuoh, Robert Domo; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Nortey, Priscilla; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Lwanga, Noora Charles; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Nuolabong, Culbert; Abdulai, Marijanatu; Wurapa, Fredrick; Afari, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The Upper West region of Ghana is within the meningitis belt. Analysis of long term surveillance data is necessary for understanding changes in the disease occurrence. We analyzed five years of surveillance data to describe by person, place and time and to determine trends in meningitis. Meningitis surveillance data from Ghana Health Service in the Upper West Region, from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Data was obtained from District-Health Information Management System and line list from the Disease Control Unit. Population figures (denominators) and rainfall data were also analyzed. Within the period 980 cases of meningitis were reported in the region, 507(52%) females and 473(48%) males. The mean age of cases was 20.1years and standard deviation 18.8 years with, 77.6 %( 761/980) cases occurring in persons aged under 30 years. Children under five years were 19.3% (190/980). Attack rates ranged from 6.1/100,000 population in the Daffiama-bussei-Issa-district to 47.5/100,000 in Jirapa. Overall case fatality rate of meningitis was 12.2% with 14deaths/100,000 population. Bacterial agents were isolated from 35% (245/702) of CSF. Majority were Streptococcus pneumonia 48.2 % ( 122/258), and N. meningitides Y/W 135 40.3% (102/258). Meningitis was found to be seasonal with peaks in the dry season. Meningitis in the region is seasonal, and showed a decreasing trend. Jirapa, Lawra, Nadowli and Wa West districts had the highest burden. Control effort of the disease should focus on vaccination against streptococcus pneumonia and N. meningitis W135 especially within crowded settlements such as boarding schools.

  16. District heating in Italy; Genesi ed evoluzione del district heating in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, E. [Milan Politecnico (Italy). Dip. di energetica

    1998-12-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives. [Italiano] La legge istitutiva del monopolio elettrico ha di fatto impedito il district heating associato alla cogenerazione di elettricita`, mentre le leggi tese a contrastare gli effetti delle crisi energetiche lo hanno reso possibile ad opera delle aziende municipali: un certo sviluppo si e` verificato, seppure ben al di sotto delle possibili potenzialita`. L`articolo analizza i motivi di questo rallentato sviluppo, riporta i dati del district heating e ne proietta le previsioni lungo gli obiettivi del Protocollo di Kyoto.

  17. Prevalence of Toxocara canis in Dogs, North West Bank of Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of Toxocara canis in local districts in North West Bank of Palestine. Fecal samples from 132 dogs were collected in Nablus, Tulkarm, and Jenin cities from September 2008 to April 2009 and examined for T. canis eggs with the floating technique. The overall infection rate of toxocariasis in dogs was 36.4%. The dogs less than 6 months old showed higher infection rates than those older than 12 months (P=0.04). Vigorous interventions are necessary, such as routine coprological examinations of dogs and prescription of anthelmintics to infected dogs. PMID:21738276

  18. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  19. The pollen stratigraphy of late Quaternary lake sediments of South-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Michael; Funder, Svend Visby

    1974-01-01

    Pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating of lake sediment cores from four localities in the Frederikshab district, South-West Greenland, provide a chronology of vegetation changes in the area since c. 10000 B.P. An initial pioneer phase with the early development of some heath communities is followed...... composition of the vegetation however is influenced by immigration phenomena, with the appearance of many species lagging behind the attainment of their climatic thresholds. Detailed consideration is given to the possibility of Alnus crispa being present as a scrub component during the climatic optimum....

  20. Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasitic infestation in ornamental fishes of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mandira; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2017-06-01

    The communication, dealing with the prevalence of protozoan parasites of the ornamental fish of West Bengal. During the study more than five hundred fish have been examined from five districts namely, Nadia, Hooghly, Howrah, North 24-pargana and South 24-pargana of West Bengal during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season. The study reveals that the intensity of infection is more in case of ciliate parasites. The highest ectoparasitic infection has been recorded during post-monsoon season, i.e. from November to February, followed by the pre-monsoon period while the lowest infection was recorded during monsoon i.e. from July to October which may lead to the conclusion that environmental factors are responsible for spreading infection.

  1. Sustainability Profile for Urban Districts in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

      The paper concerns the development of sustainability profiles for districts in Copenhagen. This work is currently being carried out by the Danish Building Research Institute, the Technical University of Copenhagen, and the municipality of Copenhagen. The aim of the project is to develop a first...... model for sustainability profiles for districts in Copenhagen that includes environmental, social and environmental indicators. The work is strongly inspired by the Dutch model 'DPL' (Dutch acronym for Duurzaamheid Prestatie voor een Locatie, ‘Sustainability-Profile for Districts'), which has been quite...... interest of the municipality. This allows a DPL-assessment to be carried out rather smoothly, and thus increase the use amongst municipalities. The DPL-assessment does not provide any 'scientific' correctness, but must be seen as a model open for interpretations and discussions of the local sustainability...

  2. Making Use of District and School Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. Parke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how districts can better use their extensive student databases and other existing data to explore questions of interest. School districts are required to maintain a wealth of student information in electronic data systems and other formats. The meaningfulness of the data depends to a large degree on whether they can understand the information and use it to guide their efforts. The considerations and guidelines presented here are organized into six components which include identifying the broad area, creating specific questions, roles and trust, sample and methodology, presentation of results, and outcomes and further directions. Two examples are used throughout the paper to illustrate each component. One is from a study of high school mathematics in an urban school district, the other is from a teacher-initiated effort to better understand students' perceptions of their middle school. Recommendations are offered throughout for encouraging effective data use in decision-making.

  3. Planning analyses for geothermal district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Karkheck, J.

    1979-12-01

    Methodology and data bases are described which can provide a comprehensive planning assessment of the potential for geothermal district heating in any US market. This economic systems model encompasses life-cycle costing over a period of rising competitive fuel prices, it addresses the expansion and financing of a district system over time, and it includes an overall optimization of system design. The elemental area for all analyses is the census tract, for which published data allow estimation of residential and commercial heating demands, building retrofit requirements, and competitive fuel consumption and cost. A system type design, an appropriate hot water district piping system, and costing of heat supply is performed for groups of contiguous tracts in any urban market. Groups are aggregated, in decreasing benefit to cost order, to achieve optimal systems. A specific application for Salt Lake City, Utah, is also described.

  4. A targeted investigation to demonstrate the freedom of West Timor from HPAI H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulu, Petrus Malo; Robertson, Ian D; Geong, Maria

    2018-02-01

    In early 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus caused major outbreaks of disease in poultry in Indonesia. The disease was first reported in West Timor in eastern Indonesia in the same year, resulting in the death of approximately one hundred chickens from both commercial and backyard farms; however no evidence of disease has subsequently been reported in West Timor since 2007. A targeted survey was undertaken in 2013 in 2 districts of West Timor. Three hundred village and commercial poultry (292 chickens and 8 Muscovy ducks) from 10 villages and 5 live bird markets (LBMs) were sampled between August and October 2013. Swabs of the cloaca and trachea of the sampled birds were tested using the Anigen ® Rapid Test (Bionote). All samples were negative on testing (0%; 95%CI: 0.0-1.2%). From these results it was concluded with a high level of confidence (100%, 95%CI: 99.988, 100) that this population is not infected, and these results, along with a lack of clinical evidence of disease, support the conclusion that West Timor was free from HPAI infection at the time of the survey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  6. Adoption law: a district nurse's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-04-01

    The Government wants to see a large rise in the use of adoption as a means of giving children a secure, loving and permanent home. Guidance coming into effect from April calls for a more pragmatic approach to adoption placements, and calls for the active promotion of the adoption process by health and social care professionals. District nurses will encounter people interested in becoming prospective adopters, but who are unsure if their background or lifestyle makes them eligible. It is essential that district nurses have a working understanding of the guidance and provisions of the Adoption and Children Act 2002 to confidently advise others about adoption and clarify any issues raised.

  7. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  8. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  9. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....... analysed for heavy metals, organochlorines, stable isotopes and DNA. The obtained results of metal concentrations and DNA were included in the existing database, whereas no previous data on organochlorines and stable isotopes in West Greenland narwhals existed. The metal and POP concentrations and stable...

  10. An analysis of community use policies in Missouri school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Swaller, Erin M

    2012-04-01

    Joint use or community use policies are state-, district-, or school-level policies that allow for shared use of space or facilities between a school and a city or private organization. For this study, we (1) created an inventory of community use policies within Missouri school districts; (2) analyzed the policies for content, and (3) identified district characteristics that predict the presence of a community use policy. A coding tool was developed to assess the content of collected policies. Descriptors of 515 districts was gathered from the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education website. The policies were collected via district website or phone/e-mail contact and coded. Frequency of variables and a logistic regression to predict district presence of policy were computed. Of the 515 districts in Missouri, 375 had a community use policy. Most (216) came from a policy template from the Missouri School Boards' Association or Missouri Consultants for Education (115). Only 42 districts had unique community use policies. Large or medium-sized districts were more likely to have a policy than small districts. Districts with higher percentage of students qualifying for free/reduced lunch were less likely to have a policy. Making changes to the 2 main resource templates have the potential to improve many district community use policies. Future efforts should focus on increasing policies and implementation in low resource and small districts. More research is needed on implementation and evaluation of community use policies. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  11. The uranium-bearing nickel-cobalt-native silver deposits in the Black Hawk district, Grant County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillerman, Elliot; Whitebread, Donald H.

    1953-01-01

    The Black Hawk (Bullard Peak) district, Grant County, N. Mex., is 21 miles by road west of Silver City. From 1881 to 1893 more than $1,000,000.00 of high-grade silver ore is reported to have been shipped from the district. Since 1893 there has been no mining in the district except during a short period in 1917 when the Black Hawk mine was rehabilitated. Pre-Cambrian quartz diorite gneiss, which contains inclusions of quartzite, schist, monzonite, and quartz monzonite, is the most widespread rock in the district. The quartz diorite gneiss is intruded by many pre-Cambrian and younger rocks, including diorite granite, diabase, monzonite porphyry and andesite and is overlain by the Upper Cretaceous Beartooth quartzite. The monzonite porphyry, probably of late Cretaceous or early Tertiary age, forms a small stock along the northwestern edge of the district and numerous dikes and irregular masses throughout the district. The ore deposits are in fissure veins that contain silver, cobalt, and uranium. The ore minerals, which include native silver, niccolite, millerite, skutterudite, nickel skutterudite, bismuthinite, pitchblende, and sphalerite, are in a carbonate gangue in narrow, persistent veins, most of which trend northeasterly. Pitchblende has been identified in the Black Hawk and the Alhabra deposits and unidentified radioactive minerals were found at five other localities. The deposits that contain the radioactive minerals constitude a belt 600 to 1,500 feet wide that trends about N. 45° E., and is approximately parallel to the southeastern boundary of the monzonite porphyry stock. All the major ore deposits are in the quartz diorite gneiss in close proximity to the monzonite porphyry. The ore deposits are similar to the deposits at Great Bear Lake, Canada, and Joachimstahl, Czechoslovakia.

  12. Measuring regional and district variations in the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in Ghana: challenges, opportunities and implications for maternal and newborn health policy and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Edward; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Quansah Asare, Gloria; Koram, Kwadwo A; Grobbee, Diederick; Agyepong, Irene A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the quality of health management information system (HMIS) data needed for assessment of local area variation in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) incidence and to describe district and regional variations in PIH incidence. A retrospective review of antenatal and delivery records of 2682 pregnant women in 10 district hospitals in the Greater Accra and Upper West regions of Ghana was conducted in 2013. Quality of HMIS data was assessed by completeness of reporting. The incidence of PIH was estimated for each district. Key variables for routine assessment of PIH such as blood pressure (BP) at antenatal visits, weight and height were 95-100% complete. Fundal height, gestational age and BP at delivery were not consistently reported. The incidence of PIH differed significantly between Greater Accra region (6.1%) and Upper West region (3.2%). Prevalence of obesity among pregnant women in Greater Accra region (13.9%) was significantly higher than that of women in Upper West region (2.2%). More attention needs to be given to understanding local area variations in PIH and possible relationships with urbanisation and lifestyle changes that promote obesity, to inform maternal and newborn health policy. This can be done with good quality routine HMIS data. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. FTM-West : fuel treatment market model for U.S. West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew Kramp; Henry Spelter; Ken Skog; Dennis Dykstra

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents FTM–West, a partial market equilibrium model designed to project future wood market impacts of significantly expanded fuel treatment programs that could remove trees to reduce fire hazard on forestlands in the U.S. West. FTM–West was designed to account for structural complexities in marketing and utilization that arise from unconventional size...

  14. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Monroe County for the...: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted for the Key West...

  15. Inventory of Endangered Plants, Saint Louis District,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    of this Report 3 Location of the Study Area 4 Objective 4 Endangered Species of the St. Louis District 5 Price’s Groundnut ( Apios priceana Robinson) 5...decurrens, Apios priceana, Synandra hispidula, Cypripedium candidum, Platanthera flava, Platanthera leucophaea, Platanthera peramoena, Muhlenbergia X...Illinois Apios priceana - Price’s Groundnut - Illinois Lespedeza leptostachya - Prairie Bush-clover - Illinois Petalostemum folios,-m - Prairie

  16. Demand side management for smart district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Big, Oovidiu; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    between 25% and 35%. By making the light renovation, the heating system needs a minimum supply water temperature of 58ºC in order to cover the thermal comfort. Through extensive renovation, the supply water temperature could be reduced to 50ºC which makes it possible to transform the District Heating...

  17. Hidalgo School District Supports All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Thad R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the Hildago (Texas) Independent School District, in partnership with the University of Texas-Pan American, the University of Texas System, the Communities Foundation of Texas/Texas High School Project, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, promised that all of its students would earn college credits before graduating from high…

  18. Load Management in District Heating Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smooth operation of district heating system will avoid installation of expensive peak heat boilers, improve plant partial load performance, increase the system redundancy for further network expansion and improve its resilience to ensure security of supply during severe heating seasons. The peak...

  19. Strengthening Health Management in Districts and Provinces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This publication should be sub-titled 'a facilitator's handbook', as it is essentially a set of guidelines for implementing a training programme on health management. The programme is designed primarily to improve the skills and capacity of district health mana9ement teams (DHMTs), and uses a 'problem-solving' approach.

  20. Arbitrage Interest Rules and School District Borrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Ward

    1989-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 limited the ability of school districts to borrow money through the sale of tax-exempt bonds and then invest bond issue proceeds at interest rates higher than those paid on the bonds. Discusses practical considerations and public policy ramifications. (MLF)

  1. District heating substations. Performance, operation and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollerstrand, J.

    1997-09-01

    This thesis work is concerned with the efficient layout and operation of substations, i.e. those district heating (DH) system units which connect the network and internal building heating systems, such as radiator heating systems and domestic hot water distribution networks. The ambition was to make realistic investigations closely related to practical technologies within the field

  2. SYSTEM IN ADAMI TULU DISTRICT; ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maturity of host on seasonal dynamics in relative density of helminthes ova in Rift Valley goats ... The study was conducted in Adami Tulu district, which is located at 160 km south of Addis ..... Shoa: A case study from Zway area. Result of a ...

  3. A case study of Slaya District, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-08-02

    Aug 2, 2007 ... Key words: Coping mechanisms, cultural violence against widows, guardianship institution, HIV/AIDS, professional cleansers, sexual cleansing rite. RÉSUMÉ ... district leading at 32% (NASCOP, 2005). Despite recent data that ... the coping mechanisms that are employed by widows. The paper ends with a ...

  4. Energy Management. A Guide for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Association of School Boards, Winneconne.

    A successful energy management program in a single school or a school district requires an energy audit or survey. The audit identifies how much energy is being consumed, as well as where it is going. Furthermore, it shows opportunities for energy conservation. The walk-through energy conservation survey is the method that has the best prospect…

  5. New Attitudes Shaping Labor-District Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Back in the mid-2000s, in public and in the news media, Joseph P. Burke, then superintendent of the Springfield public schools, and Timothy T. Collins, president of the local teachers' union, often seemed to be at odds with each other. Out of the public eye, however, the two men had begun meeting regularly. When Burke left the district, the work…

  6. 7 CFR 915.11 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 915.11 Section 915.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order...

  7. Contraceptive prevalence in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current CPR in the district was found to be 12.3 % (22.5% in the urban kebele and 5.2% in the rural kebeles) and most women (64.2%) used injectable contraceptives. A total of 144 (46.6%) women who had ever used contraceptives have discontinued taking contraceptives. Of those women who had never used ...

  8. School Districts Can Stretch the School Dollar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Many districts continue to face budget challenges of historic proportions. Decisions made in the coming months will carry significant repercussions for years to come. The path of least resistance is to slash budgets in ways that erode schooling. In this scenario, important reforms are left behind, overall services are diminished, innovations are…

  9. Determinants of perinatal mortality in Marondera district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Labor complications, belonging to apostolic sect, having a home delivery, maternal HIV infection, low birth weight and antenatal care booking were independently associated with perinatal mortality. Health worker training in emergency management of obstetric and neonatal care was initiated. Marondera District ...

  10. Taking the Plunge: Districts Leap into Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Moving from a traditional desktop computing environment to a virtualized solution is a daunting task. In this article, the author presents case histories of three districts that have made the conversion to virtual computing to learn about their experiences: What prompted them to make the move, and what were their objectives? Which obstacles prove…

  11. Toward 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, district heating (DH) has a key role in the national strategic energy planning. However, tighter legislation on new and future buildings requires much less heating demand which subsequently causes relative high network heat loss. This will make current DH system uneconomical co...

  12. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Districts. 959.24 Section 959.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Counties of Val Verde, Frio, Kinney, Uvalde, Medina, Maverick, Zavala, Dimmit, and La Salle in the State of...

  13. Challenges of decentralisation in Ghana: district assembly's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana and the various legislations on decentralisation articulate the explicit objectives of the policy which includes responsiveness to community needs. The rationale behind Ghana's decentralisation programme and the functions of the District Assemblies (DAs) therefore provide a ...

  14. The Micropolitics of School District Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Lars G.; Blase, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This case study of school district educational reform in the United States adds to the knowledge base of macropolitics of federal, state and local governing bodies and private sector agencies in formulating educational policies: It also contributes to our understanding the microplitics of policy implementation. Middle managers' political…

  15. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  16. HOUSEHOLD SURVEY OF INJURIES IN A KENYAN DISTRICT E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-05-05

    May 5, 2000 ... common during team sports in the school environment. Violence such as fights ... analysing the chain of events leading to an injury but may, ... health facilities and by the District Health Management Team in Kiambu. District.

  17. Madison Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report, calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Madison Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins by describing...

  18. Waubay Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Waubay Wetland Management District outlines district accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Litchfield Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  20. [Narrative report for calendar year 1978 : Waubay Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Waubay Wetland Management District outlines district accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  1. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins by...

  2. [Waubay Wetland Management District: Narrative report - Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Waubay Wetland Management District outlines district accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. Studies of adaptive traits of Bali cattle in Buleleng district, Bali and Barru district, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritonang, S. B.; Yuniati, R.; Abinawanto, Imron, M.; Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-05-01

    Bali cattle have high adaptability, so the distribution area is spread across Indonesia. These studies aimed to determine the effect of environmental factors on physiology performance of Bali cattle in Buleleng district and Barru district. Skin and rectal temperature and respiration rate within a minute were measured in cattle across 5-days. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light intensity were measured as environmental factors. Our findings suggest that environmental factors between the two districts were different (pBPM, whereas in Barru it was 22-28 BPM. Our results indicate that the changes in environmental conditions affect changes in the cattle physiology profile in each district. Thus, Bali cattle have adaptability towards a variety of environmental conditions.

  4. Bottleneck analysis at district level to illustrate gaps within the district health system in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka Henriksson, Dorcus; Fredriksson, Mio; Waiswa, Peter; Selling, Katarina; Swartling Peterson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Poor quality of care and access to effective and affordable interventions have been attributed to constraints and bottlenecks within and outside the health system. However, there is limited understanding of health system barriers to utilization and delivery of appropriate, high-impact, and cost-effective interventions at the point of service delivery in districts and sub-districts in low-income countries. In this study we illustrate the use of the bottleneck analysis approach, which could be used to identify bottlenecks in service delivery within the district health system. A modified Tanahashi model with six determinants for effective coverage was used to determine bottlenecks in service provision for maternal and newborn care. The following interventions provided during antenatal care were used as tracer interventions: use of iron and folic acid, intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria, HIV counseling and testing, and syphilis testing. Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in Mayuge and Namayingo districts in Uganda were used in this study. Effective coverage and human resource gaps were identified as the biggest bottlenecks in both districts, with coverage ranging from 0% to 66% for effective coverage and from 46% to 58% for availability of health facility staff. Our findings revealed a similar pattern in bottlenecks in both districts for particular interventions although the districts are functionally independent. The modified Tanahashi model is an analysis tool that can be used to identify bottlenecks to effective coverage within the district health system, for instance, the effective coverage for maternal and newborn care interventions. However, the analysis is highly dependent on the availability of data to populate all six determinants and could benefit from further validation analysis for the causes of bottlenecks identified.

  5. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It

  6. West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecologyis on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Other websites related to this journal are http://apps.ug.edu.gh/wajae/.

  7. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic and Chukchi. In: La dynamique et la culture inuit. /Nicole Tersis et Michèle Terrien (eds.) p. 151-175. Kristoffersen, Lars (1991) Verbal derivation and inflection in a functional grammar of West Greenlandic. Magisterkonferens, Københavns Universitet...

  8. Archives: West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of ...

  9. West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # West Nile virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Home Prevention Prevención y control Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment ...

  10. West Nile Virus: Symptoms and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # West Nile virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Home Prevention Prevención y control Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment ...

  11. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  12. Developing district health systems in the rural Transvaal Issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Close attention needs to be given to districtlevel health management, the complementary roles of district and regional health authorities, working relationships and accountability among professional staff from different disciplines, involvement of the community in a district health authority and the district health system as an ...

  13. Increased Services to Small School Districts. Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    The Arizona Department of Education (ADE) is seeking better ways to deliver appropriate services to small districts, since many ADE services tend to be of most benefit to larger districts. Small school districts in Arizona often have great distances between schools, personnel filling multiple roles, special budgetary constraints, limited range of…

  14. Rapid trachoma assessment in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was thus conducted to assess the prevalence estimate of trachoma and its risk factors in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross sectional Rapid Assessment of Trachoma was conducted using a WHO guideline. Six sub-districts were selected from Kersa District based on primary ...

  15. Educational Program Master Plan for San Mateo Community College District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo Community Coll. District, CA.

    In 1974, the San Mateo Community College District (SMCCD) organized a District Master Planning Committee (DMPC), which was charged with outlining a planning program for the District which would be responsive to individual and community needs. The DMPC was comprised of student, staff, and community representatives, and was aided by a District…

  16. San Mateo Community College District Administrative Reorganization Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo Community Coll. District, CA.

    This report proposes a comprehensive reorganization plan for the multi-campus San Mateo Community College District. Because of changing student characteristics and needs, requirements mandated by the state and federal governments, and financial constraints, it is felt that the district should seek district-wide comprehensiveness rather than…

  17. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  18. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  19. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-11-30

    Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees' personal values and goals are realised. The aim of the study was to evaluate employees' personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye) and 36% (Ngamiland) selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  20. ECOHEATCOOL Work Package 4. Guidelines for assessing the efficiency of district heating and district cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Sven [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)] (and others)

    2006-07-01

    The main purpose with this report have been to present an overall quantification of the benefits of expanded use of district heating in Europe. This quantification is based on the definition and description of the European heat market during 2003 presented in the preceding report from Work Package 1. The target area covers 32 countries, including the EU25 member states, four accession countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Turkey), and three EFTA countries (Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland). The main source for statistical information was the IEA Energy Balances and 2003 was chosen as the reference year for the analyses. The quantification of the overall benefits with district heating is introductory supported by descriptions of: The fuel and heat supply to district heating systems during 2003; The five major strategic heat source options for district heating; Institutional and market barriers for district heating; Projections for future district heat sales; and The fuel and heat supply to district heating systems are dominated by the use of heat from CHP plants, corresponding to 68 % of all district heat generated. The renewable part in the district heat supply (14 %) is also higher than the corresponding fraction (7%) in the overall primary energy supply. Hereby, the European district heating systems have together succeeded to fulfil the EU ambition of a 12 % renewable share in 2010. The total share of renewables and heat retrieved from other activities amounted to 78 % for all heat generated, proving that the European district heating systems are in general successful in avoiding direct heat only generation with fossil fuels. The five major strategic heat source options were identified as combined heat and power (CHP), waste incineration, industrial surplus heat, geothermal heat, and combustible renewables such as biomass. The total available potential for these resources are about 200 times higher than the current district heat deliveries and about 20 times

  1. Narrative report for calendar year 1972 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1972. The report begins by giving a...

  2. The Feasibility of Development of Social Capital-Based Ecotourism in West Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildan Wildan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the tourism feasibilty of West Lombok for the development of social capital based ecotourism, which include: the development of tourism; identification of possible conflicts; Stakeholders’ perspective on ecotourism; the involvement of local community; identification of market segments; and relevant social capital of West Lombok for the development of ecotourism. Feasibility studies conducted through surveys in Sekotong District involving all tourism stakeholders who were selected purposily. Data were collected using guided interview, focus group discussions, observation, and documents review. The data were then analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that tourism in Sekotong District is not well developed due to unclear government programs. This is also caused by the lack of synergy between government and the community or local residents. Additionally, there has not been any positive response of tourists regarding the tourism atmosphere in the region, due to the safety factor, the environment, and attitudes and behavior of some people towards Travelers. Economic impact of tourism on the local community is still limited due to the fact that they are not fully involved in tourism development. The result of FGD emphasizes on the importance of paying attention on principles of sustainable development, such as social capital-based development by involving local communities.

  3. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  4. Promoting Excellence: "Good to Great", NYC's District 2, and the Case of a High-Performing School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares two celebrated studies--New York City Community School District 2 (Elmore & Burney, 1999), and "Good to Great" (Collins, 2001), which examined sustained success in American corporations--to the case of a single high-performing school district. The question of interest concerns how school districts achieve and…

  5. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  6. Barriers to quality patient care in rural district hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Eygelaar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently barriers exist in delivering quality health care. This study aimed to investigate such barriers in the eight rural district hospitals of the West Coast Winelands Region, three type A and five type B hospitals. A quantitative descriptive design was applied which included the total population of nursing staff (n = 340 working at the time of data collection. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed with a response rate of 82%.Reliability of the instrument was verified using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and a pilot study. The validity, specifically construct and content validity, were assured by means of an extensive literature review, pilot study and use of experts. Ethics approval was obtained from the relevant stakeholders.Results showed that 272 participants (97% disagreed that provision of staff was adequate, with staff above 40 years of age more likely to disagree (p = <0.01. A statistically significant association was shown between availability of doctors and staff not being able to cope with emergencies (p = <0.01. Most participants (n =212; 76% indicated that they were not receiving continuing education, with the registered nurses more likely to disagree (χ² test, p = 0.02. Participants in both hospital types A (n = 131; 82% and B (n = 108; 91% also disagreed that provision of equipment and consumables was adequate.The research showed that inadequacies relating to human resources, professional development, consumables and equipment influenced the quality of patient care. Urgent attention should be given to the problems identified to ensure quality of patient care in rural hospitals.

  7. Healthy Schools Initiative: Implementation Study in Four San Mateo County School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Lisa; Sanchez, Monika; Strobel, Karen; Duong, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The Sequoia Healthcare District (SHD), in collaboration with four local school districts--Belmont-Redwood Shores School District (BRSSD), Redwood City School District (RCSD), San Carlos School District (SCSD), and Sequoia Union High School District (SUHSD)--launched the Healthy Schools Initiative (HSI) in August 2010. This three-year initiative is…

  8. Exploring the ethos of district nursing, 1885-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    The history of district nursing in Australia explored in this paper reveals a continuity in the essential values held by district nurses for over a century. These nurses practised holistic, family-centred nursing from the very origins of district nursing service. The events surrounding the establishment of Community Health Centres in the 1970s challenged district nurses to reconsider their role, while at the same time reconfirming their essential ethos. These values that underpinned district nursing practice and challenges to these values are examined in this paper.

  9. Geographic information systems for mapping the National Exam Result of Junior High School in 2014 at West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Rejito, Juli; Rosadi, Rudi; Candra Permana, Fahmi

    2017-10-01

    National Exam level of schooling is implemented by the Ministry of Education and Culture for the development of education in Indonesia. The national examinations are centrally evaluated by the National Education Standards Agency, and the expected implementation of the national exams can describe the successful implementation of education at the district, municipal, provincial, or national level. In this study, we evaluate, analyze, and explore the implementation of the national exam database of the results of the Junior High School in 2014, with the Junior High School (SMP/MTs) as the smallest unit of analysis at the district level. The method used in this study is a data mining approach using the methodology of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) using descriptive analysis and spatial mapping of national examinations. The results of the classification of the data mining process to national exams of Junior High School in 2014 using data 6,878 SMP/MTs in West Java showed that 81.01 % were at moderate levels. While the results of the spatial mapping for SMP/MTs in West Java can be explained 36,99 % at the unfavorable level. The evaluation results visualization in graphic is done using ArcGIS to provide position information quality of education in municipal, provincial or national level. The results of this study can be used by management to make decision to improve educational services based on the national exam database in West Java. Keywords: KDD, spatial mapping, national exam.

  10. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  11. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  12. Malaria Prevalence in Endemic Districts of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and ...

  13. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Ritchey Creek in Section 3 of Township 8 North, Range 6 West, Mount Diablo Base and Meridian; (3) Then west southwest along Ritchey Creek approximately 2.2 miles to the point where it intersects the...

  14. District nursing practice for the death of patients subject to deprivation of liberty safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-02-01

    The Chief Coroner of England and Wales has issued guidance to coroners on whether the death of a person subject to a deprivation of liberty safeguard should be subject to an inquest. The guidance was issued in response to the tenfold increase in people being made subject to the safeguards since the Supreme Court's decision in Cheshire West and Chester Council v P [2014]. It is the Chief Coroner's view that all deaths where a person is subject to a deprivation of liberty safeguard or Court of Protection welfare order allowing a deprivation of liberty must be investigated by the coroner with an inquest held. This article considers the impact of the Chief Coroner's guidance on district nurse practice. It discusses whether a person subject to a deprivation of liberty safeguard is in state detention and whether an inquest is necessary in every case.

  15. Emerging roles and competencies of district and sub-district pharmacists: a case study from Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Hazel; Lehmann, Uta; Butler, Nadine

    2015-11-24

    District and sub-district pharmacist positions were created during health sector reform in South Africa. High prevalence of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and increasing chronic non-communicable diseases have drawn attention to their pivotal roles in improving accessibility and appropriate use of medicines at the primary level. This research describes new roles and related competencies of district and sub-district pharmacists in Cape Town. Between 2008 and 2011, the author (HB) conducted participatory action research in Cape Town Metro District, an urban district in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, partnering with pharmacists and managers of the two government primary health care (PHC) providers. The two providers function independently delivering complementary PHC services across the entire geographic area, with one provider employing district pharmacists and the other sub-district pharmacists. After an initiation phase, the research evolved into a series of iterative cycles of action and reflection, each providing increasing understanding of district and sub-district pharmacists' roles and competencies. Data was generated through workshops, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with pharmacists and managers which were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was carried out iteratively during the 4-year engagement and triangulated with document reviews and published literature. Five main roles for district and sub-district pharmacists were identified: district/sub-district management; planning, co-ordination and monitoring of pharmaceuticals; information and advice; quality assurance and clinical governance; and research (district pharmacists)/dispensing at clinics (sub-district pharmacists). Although the roles looked similar, there were important differences, reflecting the differing governance and leadership models and services of each provider. Five competency clusters were identified: professional pharmacy practice; health system and public health

  16. Biostratigraphy and foraminiferal Assemblages of the West Siberian Albian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobina, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    New data of the Biostratigraphy and Albian foraminiferal assemblages from the sections of newly drilled wells in the Yamal peninsula have been obtained. This territory is assigned by the author to the Northern palaeobiogeographical district, the southern border of which goes along the latitudinal flow of the Ob River. The most diverse Albian foraminiferal assemblages have been discovered in the section of borehole 50 of the Malyginskaya area as well as in the sections of borehole 124 of the West-Tambeiskaya, boreholes, 201, 205 of the North-Tambeiskaya areas. Somewhat similar Albian foraminiferal assemblages were earlier studied by the author in 10 sections of the boreholes of the Samatlor area in the latitudinal Ob River Region. The Middle Albian assemblage is the most stable and diverse in its specific respect. It was discovered not only in the identified sections in the Yamal wells but also southwards in the earlier explored areas. The Albian foraminiferal species of the Yamal peninsula are illustrated in 5 photos and 1 drawing.

  17. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-12-31

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994.

  18. Procedures for selecting and buying district heating equipment. Sofia district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this Final Report, prepared for the project `Procedures for Selecting and Buying DistRict Heating Equipment - Sofia District Heating Company`, is to establish an overview of the activities accomplished, the outputs delivered and the general experience gained as a result of the project. The main objective of the project is to enable Sofia District Heating Company to prepare specifications and tender documents, identify possible suppliers, evaluate offers, etc. in connection with purchase of district heating equipment. This objective has been reached by using rehabilitation of sub-stations as an example requested by Sofia DH. The project was originally planned to be finalized end of 1995, but due to the extensions of the scope of work, the project has been prolonged until end 1997. The following main activities were accomplished: Preparation of a detailed work plan; Collection of background information; Discussion and advice about technical specifications and tender documents for sub-station rehabilitation; Input to terms of reference for a master plan study; Input to technical specification for heat meters; Collection of ideas for topics and examples related to dissemination of information to consumers about matters related to district heating consumption. (EG)

  19. Characteristics of Joint Use Agreements in School Districts in the United States: Findings From the School Health Policies and Practices Study, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Joint use or shared use of public school facilities provides community access to facilities for varied purposes. We examined a nationally representative sample of school districts in the United States to identify characteristics associated with having a formal joint use agreement (JUA) and with the kinds of uses to which JUAs apply. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study. The response rate for the module containing questions about formal JUAs was 60.1% (N = 630). We used multivariate logistic regression models to examine the adjusted odds of having a formal JUA and χ2 analyses to examine differences in district characteristics associated with the uses of the JUA. Results Among the 61.6% of school districts with a formal JUA, more than 80% had an agreement for the use of indoor and outdoor recreation facilities; other uses also were identified. JUAs were more common in urban than rural areas, in large than small school districts, and in the West compared with the Midwest, South, and Northeast. Conclusion In many districts, school facilities appear to be an untapped resource for community members. Formal JUAs provide an opportunity for shared use while addressing issues of liability, cost, and logistics. PMID:25880769

  20. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.