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Sample records for west medinipur district

  1. Risk factors associated with default among retreatment tuberculosis patients on DOTS in Paschim Medinipur district (West Bengal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, S S; Dutt, D

    2014-07-01

    In India in 2010, 14.1% of retreatment of TB patients' treatment outcome was 'default'. Since 2002, in Paschim Midnapur District (West Bengal), it has been around 15-20%. To determine the timing, characteristics and risk factors associated with default among retreatment TB patients on DOTS. It was a case control study, conducted in six TB units (TU) of Paschim Midnapur District, which were selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected from treatment records of TUs/DTC. Data was also collected through interviews of the patients using the same pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire from 87 defaulters and 86 consecutively registered non-defaulters registered in first quarter, 2009 to second quarter, 2010. Median duration of treatment taken before default was 121 days (inter-quartile range of 64-176 days). Median number of doses of treatment taken before default was 36 (inter -quartile range of 26-63 doses). No retrieval action was documented in 57.5% cases. Retrieval was done between 0-7 days of missed doses in 29.9% cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated the following important risk factors for default at 95% confidence interval: male-sex limit: [aOR 3.957 (1.162-13.469)], alcoholic inebriation[ aOR6.076 (2.088-17.675)], distance from DOT centre [aOR 4.066 (1.675-9.872)], number of missed doses during treatment [aOR 1.849 (1.282-2.669)] and no initial home visit [aOR 10.607 (2.286 -49.221)]. In Paschim Midnapur district, default of retreatment TB occurs mostly after a few doses in continuation phase. Initial home visit, patient provider meeting, retrieval action, community-based treatment as per RNTCP guidelines are required to uplift the programme.

  2. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  3. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  4. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N.P.; Bolotov, B.M.; Gajtinov, A.Sh.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Matveeva, I.M.; Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and A zgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  5. Intra-District Disparities in Primary Education: A Case Study of Bankura District, West Bengal

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    Krishnendu Maji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of education and its response to different educational opportunities vary from one spatial unit to another depending on various factors like social, economic, cultural, and institutional. It is understood that certain regions acquire relative advancements over others in terms of human resource development and human capital formation. The key purpose of this research is to examine the intra-district disparities in primary education in Bankura District one of the districts of West Bengal. It ranks 11thamong the 19 districts of West Bengal (Human Development Report, 2007.  Overall literacy rate of the district stands at 70.26% but the district scores low in terms of female literacy rates, which is 60.05%,whereas the male literacy rate is 80.05%, which is a huge gender literacy gap of 20%. There are also regional inequalities existing at block level. Kotulpur ranks first with a literacy rate of 78.01% while Saltora occupies the bottom position with literacy rate of just 61.45% (Census of India, 2011. The level of educational development is dependent on several factors—enrolment ratio, dropout and repetition rates, pupil-teacher ratio, habitations covered by educational institutions, space-student ratio, drinking water and sanitation facilities in school, etc. In this context, the present study aims at examining the issues of intra-district disparities in educational attainment with regard to various educational amenities of Bankura district, West Bengal. Ten attributes have been selected to examine the level of development in primary education. It is clear from the study that the level of development in eastern part of the district is relatively better in comparison to other regions. Economic backwardness and physical bottlenecks continue to be major issues in western blocks.

  6. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

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    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  7. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle ... to 2212 meter above sea level (masl). Based on altitude ... for prevalence study from infinite population with 95% confidence level, 5 % of.

  8. A survey of rural poultry management in the West Mamprusi District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une enquête sur l'exploitation de volaille rurale dans le District de West Mamprusi et le District de Ga Rural du Ghana Résumé Quatre - vingt - seize ... La majorité de personnes interrogées étaient officiellement sans instruction (46 %) ou ne sont pas allées au-delà de l'école primaire (78 %). Les volailles étaient largement ...

  9. Prospecting for Groundwater in the Bawku West District of the Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integrated approach involving the Electromagnetic (EM) and Vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey methods, has been used to locate potential drilling sites to find groundwater for twenty (20) rural communities in the Bawku West District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. The EM method involved the use of the ...

  10. Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural Farmers in West-Akim District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural. Farmers in West-Akim District. Esther Yeboah Da11so-Wired11. Abstract. The study is on the rural transportation problem in Ghana and its consequences on the rural people, especially those who live in off road villages (villages that do not have access to regular transportation ...

  11. Escherichia coli as bioindicator of the groundwater quality in Palmerah District, West Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanti, M. P.; Fachrul, M. F.; Wijayanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of thie research is to determine the quality of groundwater in Palmerah District, West Jakarta (6°11’24.32”S 106°47’49.88”E) by correlation between the depth of the well and the distance of septic tank with the distribution of Escherichia coli. The presence of E. coli is measured by using the Most Probable Number method. The distribution pattern of the E. coli was processed by Surfer Program. Research was conducted in April upto July 2017. The highest amount of E. coli always found in the Jati Pulo and Palmerah sub-district which is >1100 MPN/100 ml; while the lowest amount of E. coli found in the Kemanggisan sub-district and Slipi sub-district which is <3.0 MPN/100 ml; with every samples is obtained on the condition of pH 5 - 7, DO 0.81 - 7.65, and water temperature of 26 - 34°C. Refering to the Ministry of Health Regulation No. 492 of 2010 on the requirements of drinking water quality; it is shown that the groundwater in Palmerah District is not feasible to be directly consumed. This research provides the initial information to local sanitation to the distribution pattern of E. coli within the dense residential area.

  12. Production Systems and Potential Development of Corn in West Pasaman Districts

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    Yulmar Jastra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second national food crop after rice and its role is increasing in line increase of population, livestock operations, and development of raw material corn processing industry. This research is a descriptive qualitative and quantitative as well as done in stages, namely: pre -study in order neighbor information gathering and general condition of farmers in the districts of West Pasaman, intensive desk study on the extent of data and the development of hybrid corn and all information obtained from pre -study activities; observation, field survey. This study aims to: identify systems of maize production in West Pasaman, identify potential areas of development and analysis of maize farming, Prepare Corn Development Action Programme in West Pasaman. Age maize farmers in West Pasaman between 40-60 years old, with old school for 9 years and the number of family members of farmers 5. The highest maize production in West Pasaman district occurred in 2009 amounted to 364 287 tonnes with 44 793 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.99 tonnes/ha, in 2010, a decline in production to 220 761 tonnes with a productivity of 6.3 tons /ha due to a decline in harvested area into 33 757 ha. And in 2011 the production of corn production back to normal by 286 078 tons / year with 44 360 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.50 tonnes/ha. Potential land that can be used to achieve the 142 850 ha of maize farming dominated peat and mineral soil of each area of 7,550 ha and 16,550 ha. Of corn farming can provide a gain of Rp 8,860,000,-/ha . When the period of 4 months of the corn crop corn farmer income per month is Rp 2.215.000,-

  13. Current situation of midwives in indonesia: Evidence from 3 districts in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The village midwife is a central element of Indonesia's strategy to improve maternal and child health and family planning services. Recently there has been concern that the midwives were not present in the villages to which they had been assigned. To determine the extent to which this was the case we conducted a field-based census and survey of village midwives in three districts in West Java Province, Indonesia. Findings In June 2009 we interviewed a random sample of village midwives from three districts - Ciamis, Garut and Sukabumi - in West Java Province. Trained interviewers visited all villages represented in the sample to interview the midwives. We also obtained information about the midwives and their professional activities in the last year. Thirty percent of village midwives had moved to another location in the 12 months between the end of 2008, when the sampling frame was constructed, and December 2009 when the survey was conducted; most had moved to a government health center or another village. Of those who were present, there was considerable variation between districts in age distribution and qualifications. The total number of services provided was modest, also with considerable variation between districts. The median number of deliveries assisted in the last year was 64; the amount and mix of family planning services provided varied between districts and were dominated by temporary methods. Conclusions Compared to an earlier survey in an adjacent province, the village midwives in these three districts were younger, had spent less time in the village and a higher proportion were permanent civil servants. A high proportion had moved in the previous year with most moving to a health center or another village. The decision to move, as well as the mix of services offered, seems to be largely driven by opportunities to increase their private practice income. These opportunities are greater in urban areas. As urbanization procedes the forces

  14. Groundwater quality assessment in the Krachi West District of the Volta region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfo, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Water from 20 boreholes, surface water from six locations along Lake Volta and water from three streams in the Krachi West District of the Volta Region of Ghana, were analyzed to assess the general water quality with respect to its suitability for drinking and irrigation, and to identify the sources of recharge and discharge, as well as the types of water. This was achieved through determination of PH, temperature, Eh, salinity, TDS, TSS, total hardness, turbidity, colour, conductivity, HCO 3 - ,Cl - , PO 4 3- , SO 4 2- and NO 3 - . Al, As, Ca, Mg, Hg, Fe, Mn, Na, K, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr, were also determined. As and Hg were determined by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-AAS). Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) without any chemical treatment was used for the determination of Ca, Mg and Al. The contents of Na and K were measured by flame photometry. Measurement of the levels of PO 4 3- , SO 4 2 and NO 3 - was achieved by UV-visible spectrophotometry. Titrimetry was used for the determination of total hardness, alkalinity, HCO 3 - and Cl - . Temperature, PH, Eh, conductivity, salinity, turbidity, colour, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of the waters were also assessed. The stable isotopes (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) compositions of the waters were measured using the liquid-water isotope analyzer [based on Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) via laser absorption]. Levels of major elements and anions in ranges, mg L -1 ) were: Ca [5.0-59.8], Mg [6.0-69.6], Na [2.2-43.7], K [0.6-9.5], HCO-3 - [50.0-575.5], Cl - [1.0-8.9], SO 4 2- [0.2-126.9] and NO 3 - [0.1-2.9] were all generally below their respective WHO drinking water guideline values. Levels of Al (1.7-4.2 mg/L) were higher than the WHO guideline limit of 0.2 mg/L. The concentration of Cd was below the detection limit ( 2 H (-24.6 to -12

  15. Level of Rural Development in Burdwan and Murshidabad Districts, West Bengal: A Comparative Study

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    Syfujjaman Tarafder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this research is to examine the level of attainment of rural development in the two districts—Burdwan and Murshidabad. The reasons for selecting these two districts stems from the fact that majority of the population of these two districts dwell in rural areas. The concept of rural development is comprehensive. It includes economic development of rural people through the development of productive sectors and employment associated with rural infrastructural development as well human development. Therefore, rural development includes in its domain all the aspects of human development of the rural people. The present Central as well as State Governments have undertaken different policies and plans to bring about positive changes amidst the rural people. In most cases, however, the policies and plans fail to achieve the desired level of changes in the rural areas (Desai, 1991. Although in fewer isolated cases, some success has been achieved, but overall development remains to be reached. This research, based mainly on secondary data aims to investigate the scale of progress in the two districts —Burdwan and Murshidabad of West Bengal, India, in the areas embracing social correlates of rural poverty, basic infrastructure facilities, standard of living and quality of life. The data are analysed with the help of statistical and cartographical analysis.

  16. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

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    Ghosh Sambuddha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  17. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

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    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  18. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes & assessment of vector control in two districts of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Shankar, Lokesh; Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Shankar; Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Mandal, Rakesh; Das, Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Kala-azar or visceral leishmanisis (VL) is known to be endemic in several States of India including West Bengal (WB). Only meager information is available on the vector dynamics of its vector species, Phlebotomus argentipes particularly in relation to control measure from this State. Hence, a pilot study was undertaken to assess the control strategy and its impact on vector in two endemic districts of WB, India. Two villages each from the two districts, Maldah and Burdwan, were selected for the study. Seasonal variation of sandflies was observed during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Susceptibility test of P. argentipes against DDT and bioassay on DDT sprayed wall and on long lasting insecticide nets (LN) Perma Net [®] 2.0 were conducted as per the WHO standard methods. P. argentipes density was high during March to October. Susceptibility status of P. argentipes ranged from 40 to 61.54 per cent. Bioassay test showed 57.89 per cent mortality against LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. and 50 per cent against DDT on wall within 30 min of exposure. Despite the integrated vector management approach, the sandfly population was high in the study area. The reason could be development of resistance in P. argentipes against DDT and low effectiveness of LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. The more pragmatic step will be to conduct large studies to monitor the susceptibility level in P. argentipes against DDT.

  19. Maternal and Child Health Determinants in West Manggarai District East Nusa Tenggara Province

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    Ruben Wadu Willa

    2015-03-01

    kesehatan yang sulit, ibu hamil yang memeriksa ke dukun dan tidak tersedianya rumah sakit di kabupaten serta penyakit infeksi malaria dan diare. Solusinya adalah bidang harus aktif dengan melibatkan kepala desa dalam memantau ibu hamil, perlu disediakan perahu motor dan pembangunan rumah sakit daerah.Kata kunci:kematian ibu dan anak, Manggarai BaratABSTRACTBackground: West Manggarai district in period January until July 2012. Infant mortality rate were 34 cases, stillbirths were 33 cases and maternal mortality rate was 9 cases. Methods:This research is qualitative study using Focus Group Discussion (FGD desain, cooperation with head of public health center, midwife, nutrition program manager, and public health at health department. Results:Maternal and infant mortality in Labuan Bajo public health center caused by maternal nutritional deficiency, infectious diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever, mother less attention to the baby when the baby’s ill and difficult access to health services. The problem solution is pregnant women should be regularly having antenathal care, using of mosquito nets. Need to be provided cheaper sea transport. Causes of malnutrition and undernourishment is knowledge, parenting skill and infectious diseases such as diarrhea and malaria. To overcome this problem midwife should be proactive giving counseling to families with malnutrition children under five. Maternal and infant mortality in Winekang public health center caused by not availability of hospital at district, pregnant women still seeking treatment to traditional healers, the implementation of government regulations are less strict and families often late in taking decision to be referred. The solution is health officers must always giving counseling to pregnant women and cross-sector approach to monitoring. Whereas the main cause nutritional problems is parenting behavior, infectious diseases, and not enough healthy food. Conclusion:Maternal and infant mortality caused by difficult

  20. Assessment of groundwater quality in Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anindita; Nag, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater resources of Kashipur Block, Purulia district, West Bengal has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Twenty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, major anions (CO3 2-, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, F-) and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Na+, K+). Study results reveal that the groundwater of the area is mostly acidic in nature. The trend amongst average ionic concentrations of cations and anions is Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > Fe2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3 - > CO3 2- > SO4 2- > F- respectively during the post monsoon whereas the trend for cations and anions are Mg2+ > Ca2+> Na+ > K+ > Fe and Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > F- > CO3 - in pre monsoon session, respectively. To explore the ionic toxicity of the study area, the derived parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated. The hydro geochemical data suggest that weathering of rock forming minerals along with secondary contributions from agricultural and anthropogenic sources are mainly controlling the groundwater composition of Kashipur Block, Purulia District. According to piper diagram, water samples of most of the area of the block are fresh water and in some areas sulphate rich throughout the year. All samples are distributed to central rock dominance category. Groundwater chemistry of this block is mainly controlled by the interaction existing between the litho units and the percolating water into the subsurface domain. However, the groundwater quality and suitability of this study area can be termed as good to moderate with a few exceptions which have been encountered on a local scale.

  1. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrite, Silvia; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. We selected 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening. Cases of hearing impairment were defined as those with pure-tone average ≥41 dBHL in adults and ≥35 dBHL in children in the better ear, or children under age 4 who failed the OAE test in both ears. Each case with hearing loss was examined by an ear, nose and throat nurse who indicated the main likely cause. We examined 3567 (86.9%) of 4104 eligible people. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.6). The prevalence was low in people aged 0-17 (1.1%, 0.7-1.8%) and 18-49 (1.1%, 0.5-2.6%) and then rose sharply in people aged 50+ (14.8%, 11.7-19.1%). Among cases, the majority were classified as moderate (76%), followed by severe (15%) and profound (9%). More than one-third of cases of hearing impairment were classified as unknown (37%) or conductive (37%) causes, while sensorineural causes were less common (26%). Prevalence of hearing impairment in North-West Cameroon is in line with the WHO estimate for sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of cases with known causes are treatable, with impacted wax playing a major role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  3. Commuting patterns of workers in a village of Barddhaman district, West Bengal

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    Bhaswati Mondal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commuting helps to keep balance between residence and workplace of workers. With growing accessibility and connectivity, the importance of commuting is increasing all over the world. It is becoming a major substitute to migration. In commute-studies, commute-pattern is an important chapter. It highlights commuters’ directions of movement, distance they cover, modes of transport they use, the time they take to commute, etc. Unlike the urban-based commute pattern, commute pattern in rural areas are relatively an under-researched issue. In fact, traditionally rural people are thought to carry a sedentary lifestyle. Using primary data, this study aims to explore the commute patterns of rural workers located in the village of Gandharbapur of Barddhaman district of West Bengal, India. All the commuters were found to be engaged in non-farm work. Commuters stem from two major groups. One group of commuters is accumulated farm-income induced. They possess sufficient agricultural land. Investing their surplus farm-income, they have established non-farm works. The second group of commuters is poverty-driven. They are landless poor or are marginal farmers and to escape poverty, they have slipped into these works. Located beyond the suburban area (Memari being the nearest town, most commuters commute to nearby rural areas. Due to non-availability of public transport, women commute less than men do. Regular-paid government employees commute longer than other workers commute. The article concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.

  4. Literacy Rates and its Impact on Birth Rates in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

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    Mahadeb Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equality in socio-economic component is essential for human development and social change. Educational inequality reduces economic growth and women's empowerment on the one hand and increases birth rate on the other. In population studies, it has been established that educational level is collinearly related with demographic behaviour. This study aims to investigate inequalities in literacy rates and its impact on birth rates in Nowpara-I Gram Panchayat (GP located in the Krishnagar II C.D. Block, Nadia District of West Bengal using a household survey conducted in 356 households among women aged 49 and above in triangulation with secondary data. The aim of this study is to explore the causes of the spatial inequalities in education and its effect on spatial variations in birth rates. The key finding suggest that in Nowpara-I, negative relationships exist between female education and birth rate because education has a positive impact on empowerment, late marriage, use of contraceptives and family size.

  5. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Constraints in Northern Ghana: Evidence of Farmers in Sissala West District

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    Clifford James Fagariba

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Research findings indicate that most African countries are vulnerable to climate change as a result of challenges such as poverty, weather extremes, and insufficient governmental agricultural support. For this reason, the researchers used the Sissala West District as a case study to determine factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to climate change and strategies used to avert climate change impact. A total of 330 small-scale farmers were sampled for survey and 150 key informants were used in focus group discussions. Utilizing the logistic regression model, the study indicated irregular rainfall, high temperature, weather information, and high evaporation as the factors that highly influenced farmers’ ability to adapt to climate change. A Weighted Average Index used to measure weather extremes revealed that drought and temperature had the highest level of occurrence. Furthermore, climate change adaptation strategies assessed in the study showed that agroforestry practices, drought-resistant crops, and mulching were the most preferred methods. The study concluded that farmers’ ability to adapt to climate change can be improved if the Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture intensify climate adaptation campaigns, increase access to weather information, and train farmers on adaptable strategies including, but not limited to, alternative sources of livelihood.

  6. Geochemical Study of Ampallas Geothermal Area, Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziyyah, F.; Prabowo, T. R.; Shalihin, M. G. J.; Setiawan, D. I.; Yushantarti, A.

    2016-09-01

    Ampallas is one of the areas with geothermal potential which located in Mamuju district, near from the capital city of West Sulawesi. This research was carried out to understand the characteristic of this geothermal field based on chemistry of the surface manifestation, including fluid characteristic and soil anomaly. Geothermal research in Ampallas area focused on 4 hot springs; Ampallas, Batupane, Karema, and Gantungan. With average temperature around 34 - 67°C. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8 hot springs water type is chloride - bicarbonate, which means it came from the reservoir while Batupane, Gantungan, Karema and Ampallas 5 are all bicarbonate type. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8, Karema and Gantungan hot springs fluid plotted in partial equilibrium zone while Batupane and Ampallas 5 plotted in immature water zone. It means the Ampallas hot springs (except Ampallas-5) mixed with meteoric water right after reached the equilibrium state. It is also concluded that Ampallas 5 hot springs came from the same reservoir with Batupane, but not Gantungan and Karema hot springs. The speculative resource potential of Ampallas geothermal system is estimated around 30 MWe. But if detailed geophysical method was applied the result could be more accurate.

  7. Environmental and host-related determinants of tuberculosis in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia

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    Tesema C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheru Tesema,1 Takele Tadesse,2 Mulat Gebrehiwot,2 Azanaw Tsegaw,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal4 1College of Medical and health science, Debremarkos Universitty, Debremarkos, 2Institute of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 3College of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 4Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical laboratory Science, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Each year, one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB. Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia.Methods: A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2. Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community.Results: A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31–5.76, households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.07–4.61, living space <4 m2 per person (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 2.09–4.63, a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.99–5.35, history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.35–3.12, a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07–2

  8. What Governs District Manager Decision Making? A Case Study of Complex Leadership in Dangme West District, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwamie, Aku; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Dijk, Van Han

    2015-01-01

    Management and leadership in complex health systems
    have been little addressed as contributors toward improving maternal
    and newborn health. Widespread perceptions of weak district-level
    management and leadership have encouraged capacity strengthening
    interventions with a predominant

  9. Factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, South West Ethiopia

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    Desalegn Dabaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is one of the deadly communicable diseases which claim the lives of millions in the world. Early case detection and prompt treatment cures the patients, breaks the transmission and improves the control program. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, south west Ethiopia. Method: Facility based cross sectional study design was employed in four directly observed treatment short course service providing public health centers. Three hundred eighty four patient folders were reviewed. In-depth interviews was conducted with 18 health care workers including heads of health centers, tuberculosis focal persons, clinicians, laboratory technicians, tuberculosis program coordinator and head of health office. Result: Significant number, 135(35.2% of tuberculosis suspects were not requested for microscopic examination of sputum smear, the laboratory results 21(8.4% of requested patients were not recorded in both patient folders and laboratory registers. Only 10 (4.4% of those examined and recorded were smearing positive. Participants described that the shortage and irregular supply of acid fast bacilli reagents and consumable, inadequate infrastructures, frequent electricity interruption, shortage of trained care providers, negligence of care providers, weakness of laboratory quality assurance system and poor health information use culture were major factors for low case identification. Conclusion: The resource shortage, electricity interruption, low commitment of care providers, weak quality assurance practice and poor health information use culture were major factors for low tuberculosis case identification and should be considered. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Diagnosis, Case detection, Factors

  10. Risk factors associated with default among tuberculosis patients in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nirmalya; Basu, Mausumi; Das, Sibasis; Mandal, Amitava; Dutt, Debashis; Dasgupta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The treatment outcome "default" under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) is a patient who after treatment initiation has interrupted treatment consecutively for more than 2 months. To assess the timing, characteristics and distribution of the reasons for default with relation to some sociodemographic variables among new sputum-positive (NSP) tuberculosis (TB) patients in Darjeeling District, West Bengal. A case-control study was conducted in three tuberculosis units (TUs) of Darjeeling from August'2011 to December'2011 among NSP TB patients enrolled for treatment in the TB register from 1(st) Qtr'09 to 2(nd) Qtr'10. Patients defaulted from treatment were considered as "cases" and those completed treatment as "controls" (79 cases and 79 controls). The enrolled cases and controls were interviewed by the health workers using a predesigned structured pro-forma. Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR). 75% of the default occurred in the intensive phase (IP); 54.24% retrieval action was done within 1 day during IP and 75% within 1 week during continuation phase (CP); cent percent of the documented retrieval actions were undertaken by the contractual TB program staffs. Most commonly cited reasons for default were alcohol consumption (29.11%), adverse effects of drugs (25.32%), and long distance of DOT center (21.52%). In the logistic regression analysis, the factors independently associated were consumption of alcohol, inadequate knowledge about TB, inadequate patient provider interaction, instances of missed doses, adverse reactions of anti-TB drugs, Government Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) provider and smoking. Most defaults occurred in the intensive phase; pre-treatment counseling and initial home visit play very important role in this regard. Proper counseling by health care workers in patient provider meeting is needed.

  11. Blood transfusion practice in a rural hospital in Northern Ghana, Damongo, West Gonja District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubio, Chrysantus; Tierney, Geraldine; Quaye, Theophilus; Nabilisi, James Wewoli; Ziemah, Callistus; Zagbeeb, Sr Mary; Shaw, Sandra; Murphy, William G

    2012-10-01

    Blood transfusion in rural sub-Saharan Africa presents special challenges. Transfusions are primarily given for emergencies--life-threatening blood loss or anemia; blood is usually collected from family or replacement donors; and facilities to store an adequate reserve in a hospital bank are constrained. We report the everyday and organizational practices in a medium-sized district hospital in Northern Ghana. Information and data on blood transfusion practices at West Gonja Hospital, Damongo, were available from the laboratory reports, from day books and workbooks, and from direct observation in the following four areas: blood collection and blood donors; blood donation testing; blood storage and logistics; and clinical transfusion practice, adverse events, and follow-up. The hospital serves a rural community of 86,000. In 2009, a total of 719 units of whole blood were collected, a rate of 8.36 units per 1000 population. All donors were family or replacement donors. Positivity rates for infectious disease markers were 7.5% (64/853) for hepatitis B surface antigen, 6.1% (50/819) for hepatitis C virus, 3.9% (33/846) for human immunodeficiency virus, and 4.7% (22/468) for syphilis. Supply of laboratory materials was sometimes problematic, especially for temperature-critical materials. Difficulties in sample labeling, storage of blood and laboratory supplies, and disposal of waste were also incurred by operational, material, and financial constraints. Follow-up for outcomes of transfusion is not currently feasible. The operational, demographic, and financial environment pertaining in a rural hospital in Northern Ghana differs substantially from that in which much of current blood transfusion practice and technology evolved. Considerable effort and innovation will be needed to address successfully the challenges posed. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTH PARASITES IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES IN BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    N. Shit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infestation is a major constraint of livestock and causes great economic loss to animal husbandry by the way of retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of animals to other infections. In view of the parasitism, the present study was aimed to elucidate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in cattle and buffaloes in Bankura district, West Bengal. A total of 1200 fecal samples (200 samples/ species/season were collected directly from the farmers’ end in three different seasons namely winter, summer and rainy seasons. The stool samples were examined initially by direct smear followed by sedimentation and floatation techniques within 24h of collection. All three major parasites i.e. nematode (Toxocara, Strongyloides, Strongyle and Trichuris, cestode (Moniezia and trematode (Paramphistomes and Fasciola were observed and analyzed based on the morphology of eggs. The degree of incidence was superior in buffaloes compared to the cattle irrespective of the seasonal variations. The rainy season showed the highest degree of parasitic occurrence (67.00% compared to winter (52.25 and summer (38.75% seasons. The study of species-wise incidence demonstrated a highest peak of Paramphistomes (32.17% where very few samples were positive for Trichuris sp. (2.42%. Among the sub-divisions, Bishnupur represented the maximum occurrence of helminth parasites (62.05% as compared to Bankura sadar (58.47% and Khatra (40.16%. Significantly (P<0.05 higher percent of trematode and nematodes were prevalent in Bishnupur though the same observation was manifested for cestodal infection in Khatra. It can be concluded that a favorable hot and humid condition during rainy season favors the growth of propagation of developmental stages which would be the reason of peak prevalence. It can also be focused that a micro level agro-climatic disparity may lead to the variation within the study sites.

  13. Valuing Ecotourism of a Recreational Site in Ciamis District of West Java, Indonesia

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    Endah Saptutyningsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as an alternative tourism, involves visiting natural areas in order to learn, to study or to carry out activities environmentally friendly, that is a tourism based on the nature experience which enables the economic and social development of local communities. Ecotourism encourages rural economics and provides benefits to income and employment generation. It is considered as an alternative for enhancing rural lifestyle and for leading positive changes in the distribution of income. One of the area which has ecotourism site in Indonesia is Karangkamulyan site, Ciamis District of West Java. There is a tourist attraction that not only offers natural beauty, history and cool atmosphere, it also serves as a place of education and research on the history in the field of archeology. This attraction should receive special attention from the local government so that the tourists and local people also get the benefits. Ecotourism can be classified as possessing public goods-type characteristics, and as such, welfare benefit estimates must utilize non-market valuation techniques. This study employs the travel cost method and contingent valuation method. Travel cost and contingent valuation methods are applied to the problem of estimating the potential consumer surplus available to tourists from ecotourism in Ciamis. The results are compared with contingent valuation analysis of willingness-to-pay of tourists in their current trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis. The result of travel cost method indicates that tourists’ average travel cost is estimated at no more than one hundred thousand rupiahs. The contingent valuation method concludes that the tourists’ average willingness to pay in their trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis is are about IDR 6,800 in average. 

  14. Situational analysis of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in Ahanta West District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michelle C; Best, Abigail; Cliffe, Matthew; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Batsa, Linda; Debrah, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Situational analysis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) morbidity and its management in Ahanta West, Ghana, to identify potential barrier to healthcare for LF patients. Lymphoedema and hydrocoele patients were identified by community health workers from a subset of villages, and were interviewed and participated in focus group discussions to determine their attitudes and practices towards managing their morbidity, and their perceived barriers to accessing care. Local health professionals were also interviewed to obtain their views on the availability of morbidity management services in the district. Sixty-two patients (34 lymphoedema and 28 hydrocoeles) and 13 local health professionals were included in the study. Lymphoedema patients predominantly self-managed their conditions, which included washing with soap and water (61.8%), and exercising the affected area (52.9%). Almost 65% of patients had sought medical assistance at some stage, but support was generally limited to receiving tablets (91%). Local health professionals reported rarely seeing lymphoedema patients, citing stigma and lack of provisions to assist patients as a reason for this. Almost half of hydrocoele patients (44%) chose not to seek medical assistance despite the negative impact it had on their lives. Whilst surgery itself is free with national health insurance, 63% those who had not sought treatment stated that indirect costs of surgery (travel costs, loss of earnings, etc.) were the most prohibitive factor to seeking treatment. The information obtained from this study should now be used to guide future morbidity strategies in building a stronger relationship between the local health services and LF patients, to ultimately improve patients' physical, psychological and economic wellbeing. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in Karangwangi, District of Cianjur, West Java

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    Desak Made Malini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge and usage of plant as medicinal remedy by current generation are not as extensive as previous; therefore, many rural communities with restricted modern medical access still rely on traditional medicine. This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in Karangwangi Village of Cianjur District, West Java Indonesia. This study aimed to identify plants collected for medical purposes by the local people as well as to document the local names, uses, preparation, and location of these plants. Ethno botanical data was recorded by opting people participation and key informant approach involving semi-structured interviews, group discussions and filling of questionnaires. The results showed a total of 114 medicinal plants belonging to 50 families were identified. Zingiberaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species, followed by Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae (seven species each. The most-used plant parts were leaves (51.8%, followed by stems (22.9% and the most common preparations were decoction, poultice and squeezed. Most of the plants were obtained from the house-yard and total of 30 medicinal uses were recorded. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study showed that this area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. Ethnobotanical heritage should be preserved, however, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. Further, the findings can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation for analyzing phytochemical, pharmaceutical and other biological activities for future drug discovery.

  16. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Prakash Kumar Mallick; Pradipta Paul

    2018-01-01

    Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10%...

  17. Impact of extension interventions in improving livelihood of dairy farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Suman; Garai, Sanchita; Maiti, Sanjit; Meena, B S; Ghosh, M K; Bhakat, Champak; Dutta, T K

    2017-03-01

    Livestock is a one of the major sources of livelihood for most of the small and marginal farmers in India, particularly for rural households who live in below poverty line. Extension interventions have long been seen as a key element for enabling farmers to obtain information and technologies that can improve their livelihoods. It is also recognized that extension is an important factor in promoting dairy development. Ex-post-facto cause to effect research design was applied in this study to trace out the impact of extension interventions in improving knowledge, attitude, adoption towards scientific dairy farming practices and improvement in milk production of dairy animal and income from dairying which will be resulted into improved livelihood of rural poor in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Therefore, 60 dairy farmers of experimental villages who were considered as beneficiaries and 60 dairy farmers of control villages who were considered as non-beneficiaries were selected as sample for the study. It was found that beneficiaries had significantly higher score in all the five components of livelihood improvement with its all sub components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, adoption of scientific dairy farming practices, milk production per household per day and monthly income from dairying except disease control, and marketing component of adoption. Hence, it may be concluded that extension interventions had a significant impact on improving livelihood of rural dairy farmers in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

  18. Heterogeneity in District-Level Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease during the 2013-2015 Epidemic in West Africa.

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    Fabienne Krauer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in West Africa in 2013-2015 spread heterogeneously across the three hardest-hit countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and the estimation of national transmission of EVD provides little information about local dynamics. To investigate district-level transmissibility of EVD, we applied a statistical modelling approach to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0 for each affected district and each country using weekly incident case numbers. We estimated growth rates during the early exponential phase of the outbreak using exponential regression of the case counts on the first eight weeks since onset. To take into account the heterogeneity between and within countries, we fitted a mixed effects model and calculated R0 based on the predicted individual growth rates and the reported serial interval distribution. At district level, R0 ranged from 0.36 (Dubréka to 1.72 (Beyla in Guinea, from 0.53 (Maryland to 3.37 (Margibi in Liberia and from 1.14 (Koinadugu to 2.73 (Western Rural in Sierra Leone. At national level, we estimated an R0 of 0.97 (95% CI 0.77-1.18 for Guinea, 1.26 (95% CI 0.98-1.55 for Liberia and 1.66 (95% CI 1.32-2.00 for Sierra Leone. Socio-demographic variables related to urbanisation such as high population density and high wealth index were found positively associated with R0 suggesting that the consequences of fast urban growth in West Africa may have contributed to the increased spread of EVD.

  19. The expanded program on immunization service delivery in the Dschang health district, west region of Cameroon: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ebile Akoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is the most effective intervention strategy, and the provision of vaccination at fixed posts and outreach posts is a backbone of a sustainable vaccination system in developing countries. Access to immunization services is still limited in Cameroon. Several health districts in the west region have recorded new epidemic outbreaks, including the occurrence of a wild polio virus epidemic outbreak in 2013. The aim of this study was to assess immunization service delivery in one of the largest health districts in the west region of Cameroon; the Dschang Health district. Methods It was a cross sectional study conducted in 2013, in 42 health facilities covering 18 health areas in the Dschang Health District. Data were collected with questionnaires administered to health personnel face to face and an observation grid was used to assess resources and tools. Data were entered and analyzed in Epi Info. Results A total of 42 health facilities were assessed and 77 health personnel were interviewed. Overall, 29 (69.0 % health facilities organized one vaccination session monthly, 2 (4.8 % organized an outreach within the last 3 months prior to the study, 15 (35.7 % did not have a vaccination micro plan, 24 (32.9 % health personnel had not been supervised for at least the last 6 months prior to the study, 7 (16.7 % health facilities did not have a functional refrigerator, 1 (2.4 % did not have a vaccine carrier, 23 (54.8 % did not have a means of transport (vehicle or motorcycle and 12 (28.6 % did not have an EPI guideline. The knowledge of health personnel on vaccine and cold chain management, and on diseases of the EPI under epidemiological surveillance was found to be limited. Conclusion The frequency and strategic provision of immunization services in the Dschang Health district is inadequate. Resource availability for an adequate provision of immunization services is insufficient. The knowledge of health personnel

  20. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

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    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  1. Land Use Change and Recommendation for Sustainable Development of Peatland for Agriculture: Case Study at Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts, West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyunto, Wahyunto; Supriatna, Wahyu; Agus, Fahmuddin

    2010-01-01

    Peatland is an increasingly important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon storage. Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts of West Kalimantan rely their future agricultural development on this environmentally fragile peatland because of the dominance (58% and 16% area, respectively) of this land in the two districts. A study aimed to evaluate land use changes on peatland and to develop strategies for sustainable peatland use and management for agriculture. Tim...

  2. The Discrepancy between The Programs and Disaster Management Policy in Klapanunggal District, Bogor, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspito Sari, D. A.; Listiyowati, I.; Nefianto, T.; Lasmono

    2018-03-01

    Bogor regency consists of 40 districts, 23 are prone tonatural disasters. Klapanunggal district is listed in 10 districts declared as most vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters could lead to loss of property and infrastructure damage and will affect the food security in the region. Food shortages is one example of the condition which causes food insecurity. The aim of this research is to analyze the government's food security strategy in anticipation of disaster with a case study of food insecurity in Klapanunggal district. The analysis suggested that; 1) FSVA is an appropriate program to identify food shortage areas, 2) Food Shortage Relief Program (Program Penanganan Daerah Rawan Pangan-PDRP) is the optimal efforts in reducing food shortages in the region, 3)The mismatch between FSVA indicators and Food Shortage Relief Program makes Klapanunggal district difficult in achievingfree status food-shortage. Based on the analysis, it is suggested that the implementation of Food Shortages Relief Program could be carried out based on the priority issues and implemented with integrated coordination and assistance among stakeholders. Such priority issues, integrated coordination and assistance are fully analyzed in this study.

  3. [Sanitary service of West Special Military District on the eve and in the first days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepov, A M; Ishutin, O S; Leonik, S I

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates military and political situation in the world and operational-strategic environment on the West Theater of operations on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). We analyze structure and overall condition of sanitary service of West Special Military District of the Workers and Peasants Red Army and causes of failure of mobilization, organization and deployment of military units and establishments from the beginning of aggression of Fascist Germany to the Soviet Union.

  4. Sedimentology and facies analysis of Devonian Rocks, southern district of Mackenzie, North West Territories, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer Drees, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Devonian rock succession in the southern part of the District of Mackenzie consists of interbedded evaporites and carbonates, fossiliferous carbonates and shales. Inthe study areathe Devonian succession unconformably overlies LowerPaleozoic orPrecambrian strata and thins in a northeastward

  5. Analysis of climate change impact on rainfall pattern of Sambas district, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliana Sipayung, Sinta; Nurlatifah, Amalia; Siswanto, Bambang; Slamet S, Lilik

    2018-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most important issues being discussed globally. It caused by global warming and indirectly affecting the world climate cycle. This research discussed the effect of climate change on rainfall pattern of Sambas District and predicted the future rainfall pattern due to climate change. CRU and TRMM were used and has been validated using in situ data. This research was used Climate Modelling and Prediction using CCAM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model) which also validated by in situ data (correlation= 0.81). The results show that temperature trends in Sambas regency increased to 0.082°C/yr from 1991-2014 according to CRU data. High temperature trigger changes in rainfall patterns. Rainfall pattern in Sambas District has an equatorial type where the peak occurs when the sun is right on the equator. Rainfall in Sambas reaches the maximum in March and September when the equinox occurs. The CCAM model is used to project rainfall in Sambas District in the future. The model results show that rainfall in Sambas District is projected to increase to 0.018 mm/month until 2055 so the flow rate increase 0.006 m3/month and the water balance increase 0.009 mm/month.

  6. Gold grade of epithermal gold ore at Lamuntet, Brang Rea, West Sumbawa District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, Rika; Idrus, Arifudin; TBMP, Himawan

    2017-06-01

    Lamuntet is one of gold ore mining area carried out by the Artisanal Small scale Gold Mining (ASGM) located in West Sumbawa, Indonesia. Most of the miners at this area are not the local miners but also those from other regions. Mineralization of this area is strong identified as low sulfidation epithermal system. There are two blocks of this mining location, namely, Ngelampar block with an area of 0.164 km2 and Song block with an area of 0.067 km2. This study was focused on Ngelampar block. The characteristic of epithermal system is the existence of quartz vein with comb, vuggy, and sugary texture. The aim of this research was to analyze the gold grade and other metals, such as Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. The research methods included literature study from previous researches, field work, laboratory work, and interpretation. The literature study was performed on previous researches with similar study area. The field work comprised of direct observation and sampling. Fieldwork was done for a week to obtain gold ore/vein. Sixteen samples were analyzed to obtain the grade of ore/metal. The Hg laboratory analysis was then performed on the six samples with the highest gold grade. Laboratory works were conducted at Intertek Jakarta by using Fire Assay (FA) for gold grade and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) for Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. Results of the analysis showed the range of Au was grade (0.1 ppm - 27.8 ppm), Cu was 26 ppm -1740 ppm, Pb was 101 ppm- >4000 ppm, Zn of 73 ppm- >10,000 ppm, Ag of 3 ppm -185 ppm, As was 150 ppm-6530 ppm, and Hg of 0.08 ppm - 1.89 ppm. L1 and L15 had high grade for all values (Au, Ag, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg). Gold mineralization was formed as electrum because of Ag content is higher than 20%. Associated minerals of the samples in the study area were galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite which showed the characteristic of rich base metal of Pb, Zn, and Cu at LS epithermal.

  7. 78 FR 79707 - Notice of Public Meeting, Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Boise District Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Resource Advisory Council on matters of planning and management of the Gateway West Project (sections 8 and... Interior, through the BLM, on a variety of planning and management issues associated with public land... a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS...

  8. OUTBREAK OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN FREE RANGE BUFFALO AND CATTLE GRAZING AT RIVERSIDE GRASSLAND IN MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhegic Septicaemia among free ranging buffaloes and cattle reared at the natural grassland at the embankment and surrounding area of Bhagirathi river in 3 blocks of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, postmortem examination, bacteriological study and biochemical tests. Among 154 affected animals (2.16% of total animals at risk buffalo were 85.71% and cattle were 14.28%. A total of 52 affected animals (33.76% died before starting treatment. Among the dead animals, 86.53% was buffalo and 13.46% was cattle. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by vaccination, restriction of animal movement and proper disposal of carcasses.

  9. Prevalence of snake bites in Kangar District Hospital, Perlis, west Malaysia: a retrospective study (January 1999-December 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Roshalina, R; Undan, R C

    2004-12-01

    The records of 284 snake bite cases presenting to the Kangar District Hospital, Perlis, west Malaysia, from January 1999 till December 2000 were carefully reviewed. Data on prevalence and types of snake bites, were recorded. The majority of the cases were among Malays (60.2%), followed by Chinese (16.9%), Indians (13%), and others which include Thai nationals, army personnel from Sabah and Sarawak, and foreign tourists (9.8%). A higher incidence was found in males (60.2%) and most cases were seen in the age group of 10-19 years (33%). Snake bites were more common between 2 PM and 9 PM (47.6%) and from 7 AM to 2 PM (33.4%). The snakes were positively identified in 68 cases, of which 50 were common cobras (Naja naja) (73%), 16 were Malayan pit vipers (Agkistrodon rhodostoma) (24%) and two were sea-snakes (3%).

  10. ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY SOME OF THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES OF PANCHET SOIL CONSERVATION DIVISION, BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debatri Banerjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indigenous Traditional knowledge (ITK is scientifically and culturally significant. This article focuses on the documentation of ITK of medicinal plants that are used against different diseases by the tribal people of Panchet Soil Conservation Division of Bankura district, West Bengal. A comprehensive survey was carried out between July 2014–January 2016 in 19 different locations of Panchet Soil Conservation Division. Data were obtained through semi–structured questionnaires, participant observation and plant walks with 33 respondents. A total of 12 plants belonging to 11 families were documented for 19 different disorders. Out of 12 plants 10 have been reported as new uses for the first time. It is expected that the documentation of medicinal plant knowledge will further promote bio-prospecting and pharmaceutical research.

  11. Maternal health care initiatives: Causes of morbidities and mortalities in two rural districts of Upper West Region, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sumankuuro

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities have received much attention over the years in sub-Saharan Africa; yet addressing them remains a profound challenge, no more so than in the nation of Ghana. This study focuses on finding explanations to the conditions which lead to maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities in rural Ghana, particularly the Upper West Region.Mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the medical and non-medical causes of maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities in two rural districts of the Upper West Region of Ghana. Survey questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were employed to collect data from: a 80 expectant mothers (who were in their second and third trimesters, excluding those in their ninth month, b 240 community residents and c 13 healthcare providers (2 district directors of health services, 8 heads of health facilities and 3 nurses.Morbidity and mortality during pregnancy is attributed to direct causes such urinary tract infection (48%, hypertensive disorders (4%, mental health conditions (7%, nausea (4% and indirect related sicknesses such as anaemia (11%, malaria, HIV/AIDS, oedema and hepatitis B (26%. Socioeconomic and cultural factors are identified as significant underlying causes of these complications and to morbidity and mortality during labour and the postnatal period. Birth asphyxia and traditional beliefs and practices were major causes of neonatal deaths.These findings provide focused targets and open a window of opportunity for the community-based health services run by Ghana Health Service to intensify health education and promotion programmes directed at reducing risky economic activities and other cultural beliefs and practices affecting maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  12. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from schools'…

  13. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  14. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter 2: floristic composition and vegetation structure of well-drained mixed forest and 20- and 60-year old secondary forests. Previous forest inventories predicted a general low diversity for the North-West Distr...

  15. Social Motivation And Peoples Participation In Development Of Rural Development In District Of West Of Nias Province North Sumatra

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    Sismudjito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the problem of social related to the development. Some of the province in Indonesia which is North Sumatera consisting of 8 cities and 25 districts. Most of the populated shows a number poverty are still relatively high. According to the Susenas in North Sumatera Province particulary West of Nias is the county that classified as having a number of high poverty and decrease in the number of poverty was only 1 each year. To that local governments West of Nias make the implementation of the building area shaped participative which stems from the social motivation sociated in the West of Nias. In this study formulated to the problem is the social motivation and community participation is a factor objectify the construction of underdevelopment area.This research using a combination of a quantitative approach and qualitative approach by the combined method. This method can be done in together turns even combined with starting from the framework exploration then inditifity and classifying data with sourched from the questionnaires development and depth interviews. In this research also used technique of population and research sample. Management of the data could be done by 3 statistics techniques 1 Product Moment Correlation 2 Partial Correlation 3 Analysis of the line.The result of research suggests that through the work of social motivation and community participation can positive affect towards underdeveloped area. The level of community participation appears through an increase participation degrees towards the development of underdeveloped area. The working of community participation could a achieved development in its area with shows a sense of empathy from members of society So it can be concluded that the high participation facilitate the realization of the development of underdeveloped area.

  16. Too Green to be True. IOI Corporation in Ketapang District, West Kalimantan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, I. [Aidenvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    This report reveals that the Malaysian showcase company IOI Group does not live up to its environmental promises in newly established plantations in the Ketapang district - the Indonesian part of Borneo. Glossy CSR policies, engagement in multi-stakeholder initiatives and the possession of certificates from the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil do not offer proof of IOI Group's 'green' credentials. Instead, Europe's increasing demand for palm oil in food and biofuels is leading to deforestation, breaches of environmental law and land conflicts in Asia (authors abstract)

  17. Integrated geophysical investigations for uranium : a case study from Jamiri, West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, R.; Dash, J.K.; Sethuram, S.; Tiku, K.L.; Behari, Bipan

    1991-01-01

    An integrated geophysical approach was attempted for uranium exploration in Jamiri area, Arunachal Pradesh, using the techniques of magnetic, self-potential (SP) and resistivity profiling, coupled with solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD), to delineate favourable structures controlling uranium mineralisation in phyllitic quartzites and quartzites of the Precambrian Daling formation. Three promising zones of uranium mineralisation were recognised based on integrated results from these surveys. Magnetic survey identified lithologic contacts and faults in the area. A high-order SP anomaly of -900 millivolts was observed near the contact of phyllites in the east and phyllitic quartzites in the west. A very low resistivity of 1.0 ohm.m and high SSNTD values of 120 tracks/mm 2 over a background of 20 to 30 tracks/mm 2 were also recorded near this contact. These anomalies are characteristic of a fault that channelises radon and gives low resistivities. The SP anomaly may indicate sulphide mineralisation, and hence, uranium mineralisation in this contact zone may be associated with sulphides. The phyllitic quartzites west of this contact are characterised by magnetic highs ranging from 540 to 900 gammas. Here, SP anomalies are also small closures of -80 to -100 mV. The SSNTD values range between 100 and 120 tracks/mm 2 . This rock unit (phyllitic quartzite) appears to host uranium mineralisation along with sulphides at some places where radon anomalies are high. A fault in the western portion of the area interpreted from the magnetic map separates phyllitic quartzites in the east and quartzites to its west. The faulted contact is characterised by a high SP gradient and SSNTD anomalies of 100 to 140 tracks/mm 2 . This contact may also be promising for uranium mineralisation at depth. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  18. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Baiquni, Muhammad; Ritohardoyo, Su; Setiadi, Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in th...

  19. Proximate composition of several fish from Jatigede Reservoir in Sumedang district, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, T.; Yustiati, A.; Nurhayati, A.; Mustikawati, R.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of research is to determine the nutritional contents of fishes in the Jatigede Reservoir, the research uses survey method from November 2016 to October 2017. Sample collecting is done in the Wado district and Jatigede district. Samples are identified by its species and the nutritional contents are determined. The analyzed parameter includes water content, ash content, crude fiber content, protein content, fat content and carbohydrate content. Research shows that the nutritional contents of 13 species of fish vary. The water contents ranges between 67.50 % to 77.75 %, the highest percentage found in Chana striata. Ash contents ranges between 1.25 % to 4.87 %, the highest percentage found in Rasbora argyrotaenia, Crude fiber percentage cannot be found. Protein ranges between 14.43% to 21.93 %, the highest percentage found in Chanos chanos, Fat ranges 0.72 % to 6.86 %, the highest percentage found in Hampala macrolepidota. Carbohydrate ranges between 0.12 % to 2.64 %, the highest percentage found in Osteochillus vittatus.

  20. Channel sandstone and bar morphology of the Beaufort group uranium district near Beaufort West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stear, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Sheet-like and lenticular sandstone bodies in the Lower Beaufort Group (Adelaide Subgroup) uranium district occur in megacyclic repetition as superimposed systems of ephemeral fluvial channels that display characteristics of complex lateral and vertical accretion. Channel sandstone bodies are defined on morphological grounds into two types. Sheet sandstone bodies are the commonest type and comprise the bulk of sandstone packages in arenaceous zones of megacycles. Composite sandstone sheets result from multilateral coalescence of individual sandstone bodies. Isolated lenticular sandstone units in argillaceous zones of megacycles comprise sheet and ribbon sandstone types. Multi-storeying is a prominent feature of most channel sandstone bodies and often results in local sandstone thickening. Bedforms relate to the formation of compound bars and record periods of dynamic accretion and erosion. Rarely preserved palaeosurfaces vividly illustrate the fluctuating hydrodynamic conditions that typified ephemeral fluvial sedimentation in a semi-arid environment during Lower Beaufort times

  1. Channel sandstone and bar morphology of the Beaufort group uranium district near Beaufort West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stear, W M

    1980-01-01

    Sheet-like and lenticular sandstone bodies in the Lower Beaufort Group (Adelaide Subgroup) uranium district occur in megacyclic repetition as superimposed systems of ephemeral fluvial channels that display characteristics of complex lateral and vertical accretion. Channel sandstone bodies are defined on morphological grounds into two types. Sheet sandstone bodies are the commonest type and comprise the bulk of sandstone packages in arenaceous zones of megacycles. Composite sandstone sheets result from multilateral coalescence of individual sandstone bodies. Isolated lenticular sandstone units in argillaceous zones of megacycles comprise sheet and ribbon sandstone types. Multi-storeying is a prominent feature of most channel sandstone bodies and often results in local sandstone thickening. Bedforms relate to the formation of compound bars and record periods of dynamic accretion and erosion. Rarely preserved palaeosurfaces vividly illustrate the fluctuating hydrodynamic conditions that typified ephemeral fluvial sedimentation in a semi-arid environment during Lower Beaufort times.

  2. AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) to Estimate the Pattern and Correlates of Alcohol Consumption among the Adult Population of West Bengal, India: A Community Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Arkaprabha

    2017-04-01

    Pattern of alcohol consumption substantially changed in India with in last 20 to 25 years. Excessive alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for various morbidity and mortality. So, scientific study to identify alcohol consumption patterns and its correlates will be helpful to formulate preventive strategies. To estimate the pattern of alcohol consumption and to determine its correlates, among the adult population of the state of West Bengal in India. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among the adult population of the state of West Bengal at Gram Panchayat (GP) level. Ninety-nine (n=99) adult (≥ 18 years) men and women of Guchati GP at Paschim Medinipur district, was selected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. The study participants were interviewed using a pre-designed and pre-tested schedule. It was estimated that the prevalence of low risk drinking or abstinence (Zone I) was 65.5% (95% CI 55.5% to 75.5%) and the prevalence of alcohol use in excess of low-risk (Zone II) was 17.6% (95% CI 7.6% to 27.6%), and the prevalence of harmful and hazardous drinking (Zone III) was 8.5% (95% CI 0% to 18.5%) and the prevalence alcohol dependence (Zone-IV) was 8.4% (0% to 18.4%). Logistic regression model shows that "gender" (p = 0.00) and "employment status" (p = 0.01) added significantly to the model with adjusted odds ratio of 82.27 (95% CI 18.17-372.58) and 0.13 (0.03-0.66). There is a need for comprehensive screening and treatment programme to deal with the problems of Alcohol Use Disorders among adults to achieve good health and well being for sustainable development.

  3. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in the research area is still low. The results of the combined value of the characteristic size of the hilly topography of poverty are 84 per cent and 83.7 per cent flat topography caused by low levels of income, quality of houses, agricultural land ownership, livestock ownership, ownership of valuables

  4. Childhood leukaemia in the West Berkshire and Basingstoke and North Hampshire District Health Authorities in relation to nuclear establishments in the vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Eve; Beral, Valerie; Carpenter, Lucy; Watson, Ann; Barton, Carol; Ryder, Hilary; Aston, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    These data indicate that in the two district health authorities studied there was an excess incidence of childhood leukaemia during 1972-85 in the vicinity of the nuclear establishments. In the West Berkshire and Basingstoke and North Hampshire District Health Authorities an average of 60 000 children aged 0-14 lived within a 10 km radius of a nuclear establishment each year. The normal expectation of leukaemia in these children was two cases a year, whereas the recorded incidence was three cases per year, representing one extra case of leukaemia each year among these 60 000 children. (author)

  5. Nutritional status, oral hygiene and Angular cheilitis in schoolchildren in Cianjur district, West Java

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    Fatimah Boenjamin Partakusuma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angular cheilitis is a lesion at the corner of the mouth. Clinically, it is visible as an erythema and ulceration that occasionally extend beyond the vermillion border onto the skin. Anemia in children is an issue of global nutritional problems that need attention. The objectives of the study  was to determine the association between nutritional status, oral hygiene  and angular cheilitis in elementary schoolchildren in District of Cianjur. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 349 schoolchildren in five Subdistrict of Cianjur. Angular cheilitis status was determined based on the criteria set by Ohman (1986. Anhropometric status was determined by CDC BMI-for-age percentile growth chart. Anemia status was determine by the level of hemoglobin concentration using the HemoCue device. Oral hygiene was measured by OHI-S index. Results: The prevalence of angular cheilitis, anemia, wasting and poor oral hygiene were: 62.5%, 12,6%, 20.6%, and 67.3%, respectively. There are no relationships between  anthropometric status, oral hygiene and angular cheilitis. (p> 0.05. However there is a relationship significant relationship beween anemia and angular cheilitis (p <0.05. Logistic regression test showed that anemia is a risk factor on the occurrence of angular cheilitis. Conclusion: Anemia is a factor on the occurrence of angular cheilitis in schoolchildren in Cianjur.

  6. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Dangila district, North West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Negusie, Azezu Asres

    2016-03-01

    Childbirth in a health institution has been shown to be associated with lower rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. However, about 85% of mothers in Ethiopia deliver at home. To assess factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among women who gave birth within one year prior to the study in Dangila district. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01-28, 2015. A total of 763 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaire. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Crude and adjusted Odds ratios were computed for selected variables. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistical significant. Only 18.3% of mothers gave birth at health facilities. Knowledge on danger signs [AOR=2.0, 95% CI: (1.1, 3.4)], plan to give birth at health institution [AOR=5.4, 95% CI: (3.0, 9.6)], having ANC follow up during pregnancy [AOR=12.9, 95% CI: (5.0, 33.3)] and time taken to get to a nearby health institution [AOR=5.1, 95% CI: (2.9, 9.1)] were associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Institutional delivery was very low. Knowledge about danger signs, having ANC visits, and time were factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Thus, the findings recommend repeated re-enforcement of institutional delivery service utilization through professionals. And also, the findings recommend promotion of institutional delivery service utilization through mass media.

  7. ETHNO-MEDICOBOTANY OF SOME TRIBAL COMMUNITIES OF BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi Mandal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and documentation of the status of medicinal plants and associated knowledge was conducted in Taldangra block situated at south-western part of Bankura district. Data was collected and evaluated with a questionnaire survey, semi-structured interviews, field observations and vegetation surveys. 16 medicinal plant species used to treat 40 different ailments were recorded. Leaves are the most commonly collected plant parts for medicinal purposes. Much of the ethno-medicinal knowledge is concentrated in elderly members of the community. The medicinal plants are facing threats from agricultural expansion, wood extraction and overgrazing as informed by the local authorities. Consequently, medicinal plant resources are declining with time. The study aims to assess the contribution of nonconventional medicinal plants towards community health care. A total of 62 knowledge holders from the tribal community were interviewed and medicinal uses for 16 plants were recorded. The study illustrates that medicinal plant diversity is important for community health care, which in turn, ensures conservation, awareness creation towards sustainable utilization and management of these medicinal plants diversity

  8. Potential reduction of non-residential solid waste in Sukomanunggal district West Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, I. D. A. A.; Reswari, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Sukomanunggal district a development unit 8 with the designation as a regional trade and services, industrial, education, healthcare, offices, and shopping center. The development of this region will make an increasing solid waste generation, especially waste from non-residential facilities. The aims of this research to know the potential reduction of waste source. The method used is the Likert scale questionnaire to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of non-residential facilities manager. Results from this research are the existing reduction of non-residential solid waste is 5.34%, potential reduction of the waste source is optimization of plastic and paper waste with the reduction rate up to 19,52%. The level of public participation existing amounted to 46.79% with a willingness to increase recycling efforts amounted to 72.87%. Efforts that can be developed to increase public awareness of 3R are providing three types of bins, modification of solid waste collection schedule according to a type of waste that has been sorted, the provision of the communal bin.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Darjeeling district of West Bengal

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    Sibasis Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is a significant problem both in individual as well as community level. Different studies around globe revealed that these diagnostic delays are attributed to both patient delay and health system-related delay. Aims: This study aims to assess the magnitude of delay in diagnosis and the association with sociodemographic profile among new sputum-positive pulmonary TB patients in Darjeeling district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 374 TB patients from October 2011 to March 2012 using a predesigned pretested schedule by face-to-face interview. Statistical Analysis: Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR, adjusted ORs. Results: Patient delay, health system delay and total diagnostic delay were 27 days, 20.1 days, and 20.6 days; mean delays were 23.64, 5.71, and 29.46 days, and median delays were 25, 5, and 32 days, respectively. Risk factors associated with patient delay were female gender, rural residence, illiteracy, smoking, alcohol consumption, taking two, or more alternate treatments; for health system delay were female sex, rural residence, time to reach health facility, time spent per visit; and for total diagnostic delay were female sex, alcoholism, and seeking more than two alternate treatment. Conclusions: The risk factors for delay identified may be the subject of future interventions.

  10. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

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    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  11. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  12. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  13. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  14. Respiratory Morbidity among Rice Mill Workers in an Urban Area of Burdwan District, West Bengal: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhab Ch; Naskar, Somnath; Roy, Ramaprasad; Das, Dilip Kr; Das, Soumya

    2018-01-01

    Rice mill workers constitute a special group from the perspective of occupational health. Unprotected dust exposure among them adversely affects their respiratory health, which needs to be evaluated. Adequate evidence is still lacking in many parts of India including West Bengal. Burdwan is one of the main rice-producing districts in the state with abundant rice mills. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and pattern of respiratory morbidity and associated background characteristics of rice mill workers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Burdwan municipality area during July-December 2016. Considering 44.2% prevalence, 95% confidence interval, 15% allowable error, 10% non-response, a sample of 252 directly engaged rice mill workers were selected through multistage random sampling. With prior consent, the subjects were interviewed, clinically examined, and underwent spirometry; relevant records were also reviewed using a pre-designed schedule. Any abnormal spirometry finding was considered as respiratory morbidity. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethics committee. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was 40.73% with obstructive and restrictive respiratory morbidity being 24.60% and 16.13%, respectively. Non-use of any protective measure, duration (years) of working in rice mill and average daily working hours were significant predictors of respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity is quite high in the area. Proper health education and provision of personal protective equipments need to be provided.

  15. Measuring Spatiality in Infrastructure and Development of High School Education in Hooghly District of West Bengal, India

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    Shovan Ghosh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing access and enrolment do not necessarily ensure school effectiveness or educational progress. They are, of course, other parameters of development of education, rather than being measures of standards of quality education. The present paper opts to scrutinize whether infrastructural development in schools at all ensures good educational development or not. To accomplish this, Education Infrastructural Index has been prepared through Access, Facility and Teacher Index whereas a combination of Enrollment Index and Literacy Index gave rise Educational Development Index. The study reveals that accessibility factor begets a division within rural spaces in the form of backward rural, rural and prosperous rural that manifests through the availability of the teachers and facilities. In the urban areas, wherein accessibility is not a matter of concern, facilities and teachers matter in making difference between the less developed and developed urban areas. The higher Educational Development Index at the non-rural areas indicates town- centric nature of the development of our educational system. Superimposition of the infrastructural and developmental parameters revealed that good infrastructure does not always ensure good educational achievement. In the light of these backdrops, the key purpose of this article is to measuring spatiality in infrastructure and development of high school education in Hooghly District of West Bengal, India.

  16. Application of remote sensing, GIS and MCA techniques for delineating groundwater prospect zones in Kashipur block, Purulia district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Kundu, Anindita

    2018-03-01

    Demand of groundwater resources has increased manifold with population expansion as well as with the advent of modern civilization. Assessment, planning and management of groundwater resource are becoming crucial and extremely urgent in recent time. The study area belongs to Kashipur block, Purulia district, West Bengal. The area is characterized with dry climate and hard rock terrain. The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater potential zone for the assessment of groundwater availability using remote sensing, GIS and MCA techniques. Different thematic layers such as hydrogeomorphology, slope and lineament density maps have been transformed to raster data in TNT mips pro2012. To assign weights and ranks to different input factor maps, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique has been used. The weights assigned to each factor have been computed statistically. Weighted index overlay modeling technique was used to develop a groundwater potential zone map with three weighted and scored parameters. Finally, the study area has been categorized into four distinct groundwater potential zones—excellent 1.5% (6.45 sq. km), good 53% (227.9 sq. km), moderate 45% (193.5 sq. km.) and poor 0.5% (2.15 sq. km). The outcome of the present study will help local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating proper planning and management of groundwater resources in different hydrogeological situations.

  17. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

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    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10% mortalities, despite the use of antibiotics. Acclimatization of seeds was practiced by the majority of farmers before stocking. Different feeds including slaughter-house wastes and dead poultry were supplied. Multiple stocking and harvesting were a common practice. Major problems identified were insufficient feed, disease, transport, poor seed quality and lack of financial support. The survival percentage was poor, as 88% of the farmers recorded <40–50% survival at harvest. Dropsy was the most common disease and had a significant impact on economy. Antibiotics or other aquadrugs were frequently used for treatment, although the success varied. In general, the C. gariepinus farming has helped to recycle the wastes generated in and around metropolitan Kolkata and adjacent municipalities into wealth, but it suffers from management issues and huge economic losses. This calls for immediate attention from researchers, administrators and extension personals.

  18. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  19. Hypertension, Prehypertension and Normotension among Police Personnel in a District of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Debabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti; Kumar, Pranav; Sinhababu, Apurba

    2014-11-01

    We conducted the present study to assess the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, normotension and the associated factors along with awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among police personnel in Bankura, West Bengal, India. We collected information on individual, lifestyle, service-related and anthropometric characteristics of 1817 police personnel. We also measured blood pressure (BP) and plasma glucose level of the participants. Individuals were classified as hypertensive (BP ≥ 140/ 90 mmHg), prehypertensive (BP 120-139/ 80-89 mmHg) and normotensive (BP < 120/ 80 mmHg) on the basis of BP and their prevalence were expressed in percentages. Relation of individual, lifestyle, service-related and anthropometric characteristics with hypertension and/or prehypertension was examined with binary logistic regression. Prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension and normotension are 41.9%, 42.9% and 15.2% respectively. Even one-quarter of below 40 years subjects have hypertension. Mean BP remains in the prehypertensive range. Prevalence of hypertension and mean BP increases with age. Cardiovascular risk factors show clustering in higher age and with hypertension. Older age group, male gender, abdominal obesity, diabetes and service length are positively associated with hypertension and/or prehypertension. Around 40% of hypertensive knew their status, three-quarter of aware subjects received treatment and only one-third of treated subjects have controlled BP (< 140/ 90 mmHg). High prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension, high mean BP, mean age above 40 years and clustering of other risk factors pose a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity in the current study population.

  20. The Multiplier Effect of the Gandoriah Beach Marine Tourism to the Coastal Community of Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Mazidah, Nurnaini; Nugroho, Firman; Bathara, Lamun

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted on March 25, 2016 until 11 April 2016 which is placed in Gandoriah Beach, Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province. This study aims to identify economic activities and socio-cultural as the impact of the presence of marine tourism and determine the impact of tourism activities on the beach Gandoriah to the economy of coastal communities. The method used in this research is survey method. There are 64 respondents, that consist ...

  1. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-10-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, {HCO}3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and {SO}4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( {HCO}3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( {HCO}3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality

  2. Periodontal health awareness and self-perceived halitosis among various professional students of West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh

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    Gautami S Penmetsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential part of maintaining overall health, and poor oral health can have a profound effect on the quality of life. Among the various sections of the population present in the society, professional students include a large group of population and are believed to have a better awareness pertaining to oral health than the common population. Aim: This study aims to determine the periodontal health awareness levels along with the self-perception of halitosis among the medical, pharmacy, and engineering students in the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1230 students from medical, engineering, and pharmacy professions. A self-administered 27-item structured questionnaire was used to assess periodontal health and knowledge pertaining to oral hygiene practices along with the assessment of self-perceived halitosis. Tests of the association between self-perceived halitosis and the risk factors were conducted using Chi-square test. Intergroup comparison was conducted by ANOVA and t-test. Results: Self-perceived malodor reported was 50%, 54%, and 60% by medical, pharmacy, and engineering students, respectively. The difference in the levels of overall periodontal health awareness was statistically significant among the different specialities with the highest score gained by medical students (4.1 ± 2.0, followed by the pharmacy (2.9 ± 1.6, and engineering (1.6 ± 1.3 students. Conclusions: Even though professional students do have an acceptable level of knowledge regarding oral health, the level of awareness pertaining to periodontal health in particular is lacking. Hence, there is a need to extend the horizon for oral healthcare to other professional students at an elementary level.

  3. Nicotine dependence and its correlates among the adult tobacco users in a slum of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India

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    Indranil Saha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco kills half of its users, with smoking and smokeless tobacco killing nearly 6 million people worldwide – one death every 6 s in each year. Use of tobacco over time causes a physical and psychological addiction due to the presence of nicotine. To find out the level of nicotine dependence among adult (18 years and above tobacco users and the factors responsible for it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 128 current tobacco users in an urban slum of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India. Study tools comprised of predesigned, pretested, semi-structured schedule, containing Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND questionnaire. Data were collected by interview after getting consent from the participants. Chi-square test, unpaired student t-test, ANOVA, correlation coefficient, and linear regression was calculated. SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Inc, Chicago, IL, USA. was used for analysis. Results: High level of nicotine dependence was maximally seen among increased in age group, prolonged duration of use and daily users. Age, duration of tobacco use and habit of tobacco use had a significant positive correlation with FTND score while starting age of tobacco had a significant negative correlation. Then in multivariable linear regression, starting age of tobacco use, habit of tobacco use and duration of tobacco use emerged as a significant predictor of FTND score and could explain 27.3% of total variation in FTND score. Conclusions: Suitable plan for quitting may be developed based on the FTND score of an individual, the most important determinant of quitting.

  4. Analysis of Palm Oil Production, Export, and Government Consumption to Gross Domestic Product of Five Districts in West Kalimantan by Panel Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistianingsih, E.; Kiftiah, M.; Rosadi, D.; Wahyuni, H.

    2017-04-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is an indicator of economic growth in a region. GDP is a panel data, which consists of cross-section and time series data. Meanwhile, panel regression is a tool which can be utilised to analyse panel data. There are three models in panel regression, namely Common Effect Model (CEM), Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and Random Effect Model (REM). The models will be chosen based on results of Chow Test, Hausman Test and Lagrange Multiplier Test. This research analyses palm oil about production, export, and government consumption to five district GDP are in West Kalimantan, namely Sanggau, Sintang, Sambas, Ketapang and Bengkayang by panel regression. Based on the results of analyses, it concluded that REM, which adjusted-determination-coefficient is 0,823, is the best model in this case. Also, according to the result, only Export and Government Consumption that influence GDP of the districts.

  5. Transformation of Agricultural Land for Urbanisation, Infrastructural Development and Question of Future Food Security: Cases from Parts of Hugli District, West Bengal

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    Giyasuddin Siddique

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries of the world encounter urbanisation and infrastructural development in or around the fertile tracts and the absence of any landuse plan for desired land use change has led to conversion of farmlands, which is detrimental to future food security and environmental quality. Hugli district is traditionally well known as one of the most prosperous agricultural regions of West Bengal but the district is experiencing rapid urban extension and infrastructural development towards productive agricultural land since 1991. This has caused decline in the amount of agricultural production which may be treated as an indicator of increasing threat to the long run sustainable livelihood security of the people of the whole of West Bengal. This article critically explores the transformation of agricultural (farm land because of growing rate of urbanisation and infrastructural development, which in turn poses the question of threat to food (in security. Although, this is a growing problem across the universe, this article probes the future food security questions of Hugli district, West Bengal by examining the impact of the highly intertwined indicators of urbanisation and infrastructural development on agricultural (farm land use and its effect on food security. Regression analysis, Spearman’s Ranking Correlation Coefficient, Remote Sensing technologies, Markov Chain Model, Projection of future population growth and yield rate are employed to understand the depth of the problem. The result not only shows a direct negative correlation between urban extension and agricultural areal contraction but also the supervised classification of satellite imageries shows that there is rapid change of rural land use from 1996-2016. There is no match between future population growth and future yield rate of crops and the Markov Chain Model further predicts that the cropland will decrease from 62.77% to 42.90% and the built up area will increase from 31

  6. LAND USE CHANGE AND RECOMMENDATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PEATLAND FOR AGRICULTURE: Case Study at Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts, West Kalimantan

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    Wahyunto Wahyunto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatland is an increasingly important land resource for livelihood, economic development, and terrestrial carbon storage. Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts of West Kalimantan rely their future agricultural development on this environmentally fragile peatland because of the dominance (58% and 16% area, respectively of this land in the two districts. A study aimed to evaluate land use changes on peatland and to develop strategies for sustainable peatland use and management for agriculture. Time series satellite imageries of land use and land cover, ground truthing, and statistical data of land use change were analyzed for generating the dynamics of land use changes in the period of 1986-2008. Field observation, peat sampling, and peat analyses of representative land use types were undertaken to assess peat characteristics and its agricultural suitability. The study showed that within 22 years (1986-2008, the area of peat forests in Kubu Raya and Pontianak Districts decreased as much as 13.6% from 391,902 ha to 328,078 ha. The current uses of the peatland in the two districts include oil palm plantation (8704 ha, smallholder rubber plantation (13,186 ha, annual crops (15,035 ha, mixed cropping of trees and annual crops (22,328 ha, and pineapple farming (11,744 ha. Our evaluation showed unconformity of the current uses of peatland with regulations and crops agronomic requirements such as peat thickness and maturity, rendering unsustainability. This study recommends that expansion of agriculture and plantation on peatland areas be limited over idle land within the agricultural production and conversion production forest areas. About 34,362 ha (9.7% of uncultivated log-over forest and shrubs can potentially be developed for agriculture. Peat soils with the thickness of >3 m should be allocated for conservation or forest protection due to low inherent soil fertility and high potential greenhouse gas emissions if converted for agriculture.

  7. Assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and associated factors in a Buruli ulcer endemic district in Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roch Christian; Boni, Gratien; Barogui, Yves; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Houndonougbo, Macaire; Anagonou, Esai; Agossadou, Didier; Diez, Gabriel; Boko, Michel

    2015-08-19

    Control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires multiple strategic approaches including water, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH). Buruli ulcer (BU), one of the 17 NTDs, remains a public health issue in Benin particularly in the district of Lalo. The availability of water as well as good hygiene are important for the management of Buruli ulcer particularly in the area of wound care one of the main component of the treatment of BU lesions. Given the growing importance of WASH in controlling NTDs and in order to assess the baseline for future cross-cutting interventions, we report here on the first study evaluating the level of WASH and associated factors in Lalo, one of the most BU-endemic districts in Benin. A cross-sectional study was carried to assess WASH practices and associated factors in the district of Lalo. Data were collected from 600 heads of household using structured pretested questionnaire and observations triangulated with qualitative information obtained from in-depth interviews of patients, care-givers and community members. Univariate and multivariate analysis were carried to determine the relationships between the potential associated factors and the sanitation as well as hygiene status. BU is an important conditions in the district of Lalo with 917 new cases detected from 2006 to 2012. More than 49 % of the household surveyed used unimproved water sources for their daily needs. Only 8.7 % of the investigated household had improved sanitation facilities at home and 9.7 % had improved hygiene behavior. The type of housing as an indicator of the socioeconomic status, the permanent availability of soap and improved hygiene practices were identified as the main factors positively associated with improved sanitation status. In the district of Lalo in Benin, one of the most endemic for BU, the WASH indicators are very low. This study provides baseline informations for future cross-cutting interventions in this district.

  8. 78 FR 70959 - Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Resource Advisory Council to the Boise District; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... advises the Boise District Resource Advisory Council on matters of planning and management of the Gateway... the Interior, through the BLM, on a variety of planning and management issues associated with public.... Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay...

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MAN-BITING POPULATION OF FILARIAL VECTOR Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae BETWEEN TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL AREAS OF BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL INDIA

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    G. Chandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available West Bengal, India is endemic for filariasis and the number of patients infected with bancroftian filariasis is increasing. There are no observation on the potential vector of filariasis from the tribal areas that make up considerable part in this state. This study investigate population of Cx. quinquefasciatus in tribal and non-tribal areas of Bankura district. Species composition of mosquitoes, per man-hour density, hourly densities of night biting Cx. quinquefasciatus, number of Cx. quinquefasciatus biting per man per day and per man per night. Preferential biting site and peak period of filarial transmission were recorded from both the study areas. Infection rate, infectivity rate of man-landing vector population and annual transmission potential were observed to be 0.31%, 0.00% and 0.00 in tribal areas and 0.73%, 0.23% and 359.71 in non-tribal areas respectively.

  10. INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY BUILDING OF FARMER GROUPS IN AGROFORESTRY FARMING: CASE STUDY IN CUKANGKAWUNG VILLAGE, SODONGHILIR SUBDITSRICT, TASIKMALAYA DISTRICT, WEST JAVA PROVINCE

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    Idin Saepudin Ruhimat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors that influence the institutional capacity of farmer groups, and to formulate increasing institutional capacity of farmer groups in the agroforestry farming development. Research was conducted in the Cukangkawung Village, Sodonghilir Subdistrict, Tasikmalaya District, West Java Province, from August 2015 to February 2016. Data was analyzed by using Structural Equation Modelling approach (SEM of SmartPls program. The results showed that (1 the institutional capacity of farmer group was directly influenced by dynamism level and members’ participation and indirectly influenced by role of the leader, capacity of members, extension role, external support, and characteristics of farmers, and (2 efforts to increase institutional capacity of farmer group can be done through increasing dynamism and participation of members in the activities of farmer groups.

  11. Nursing Personnel Planning for Rural Hospitals in Burdwan District, West Bengal, India, Using Workload Indicators of Staffing Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rabindra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Das; Misra, Raghu Nath; Roy, Sima; Saha, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lack of appropriate human resources planning is an important factor in the inefficient use of the public health facilities. Workforce projections can be improved by using objective methods of staffing needs based on the workload and actual work undertaken by workers, a guideline developed by Peter J. Shipp in collaboration with WHO—Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN). A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the nursing stuff requirement for the rural hospitals and provide a quantitative description of imbalances, if there is any, in the allocation at the district level during 2011. The average WISN turns out to be 0.35 for entire district, which means only 35% of the required nurses is available or 65% understaffed. So, there is an urgent need for more allocations and deployment of staff so that workload can be tackled and evenly distributed among all nursing personnel. PMID:25895199

  12. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 μg/L with maximum observed level of 3200 μg/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 μg/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  13. Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia

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    Addisu Workineh Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17 of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163 of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236 of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920 of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely.

  14. POPULATION BIOLOGY OF MUD CRAB Scylla serrata - Forsskal, 1775 IN MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM OF SUBANG DISTRICT, WEST JAVA

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    Ayu Annisa Kumalah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of population biology of mud crab Scylla serrata is necessary to analyse the population dynamics, such as growth of crabs, size distribution, mortality and exploitation rates of S. serrata. Population biology data collection was carried out from March to June 2016 at estuary and silvofishery areas of three stations (Mayangan, Tanjung Tiga and Blanakan villages. Data  were analyzed using analytical methods of FISAT-II (FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Toool IIinstruments. The results showed the growth of S. serrata male in Subang distric was positive allometric and the female was negative allometric. Growth coefficient (K ranged from 0.21 to 0.43 in the estuary and from 0.28 to 0.89 in silvofishery area. Exploitation rate in the silvofishery area has been above the maximum exploitation rate. The size distribution of S. serrata in Subang district has the highest frequency at class interval of 106-110 mm (male and of 101-105 mm. The highest abundance of mature female crabs is in May.Keywords : population biology, Scylla serrata, Subang District

  15. Implementation of Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Program (GBIB in West Waringin Kota District, Central Kalimantan Province of Indonesia

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    Kristiana Tresia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The government has launched a program of self-sufficiency in meat as an effort to overcome the shortage of beef supply to meet the needs of the community, especially when the day of religious festivities. GBIB program Implementation is expected to meet the needs of the community will be beef, as demand for beef is always soaring demand every year, especially ahead of religious festivals. To discuss and review the implementation of the program stretcher author uses the theory EDWARDS III to determine the success or failure of the implementation of the program in the district of Kota Waringin Barat. Issues to be examined are 1 the quality and quantity of resources, 2 communication and dissemination program, 3 Attitude 4 Bureaucracy. This will be the focus to see the successful implementation of the program of snapping / sync Lust and optimize of GBIB in the district of Kota Waringin. This study uses the concept of a qualitative descriptive approach with the aim of providing an overview of how the implementation of the field program and then analyzed using the theory of Edwards III. The results of this study show that: 1 Aspects of Resource (HR, Information, Privileges and amenities, some support as the support means the production of drugs / vitamins and breeding stock (straw superior adequate and well as the authority and the information available is quite good, while some aspects that do not support such as: HR, execution time, geographical conditions, transport facilities support, 2 aspect Communications (Transmission, Clarity, Consistency and Coordination strongly supports the implementation of the program GBIB is 3 aspects of attitude (attitude implementer, Support Leader, Incentives for implementing and Transparency, relatively supportive in this program, and 4 Structural Aspects of Bureaucracy (SOP and Fragmentation still do not support the implementation of the Program snapping Sexual arousal and this Artificial Insemination.

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  17. Glycoproteins in circulating immune complexes are biomarkers of patients with Indian PKDL: A study from endemic districts of West Bengal, India.

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    Priyank Jaiswal

    Full Text Available Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL occurs as dermal consequence of previous Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL infection and serves as an important reservoir for transmission of VL. Diagnosis of PKDL is often challenging for its symptomatic resemblance to other co-endemic diseases like Leprosy or Vitiligo. Parasitological examination by slit-skin smear and culture are the standard methods but lack high sensitivity. Thus, for efficient control of VL, reliable diagnostic and prognostic assay of PKDL are required.Previously, glycoproteins (9-OAcSA have been reported as promising biomarkers of Indian VL patients. However, till date, the status of glycans in Indian PKDL patients remains unexplored. Accordingly, in this study, the glyco-profile of PKDL Circulating Immune Complexes (CICs as compared to other cross diseases like Vitiligo and Leprosyhas been investigated. Further, a novel Glyco CIC assay has been developed for efficient Indian PKDL patient diagnosis.In the present study, 90 PKDL patients were enrolled from 3 VL endemic districts of West Bengal during 2015-16. Glycosylation profile of isolated CICs from sera of PKDL patients were initially analyzed through gradient SDS gel electrophoresis followed by PAS silver double staining, which revealed the presence of several glycan rich PKDL specific proteins of varying molecular weights. To further characterize the glyco-profile of acid dissociated affinity purified immuno-reactive antigens present in the CICs, glycosylation was demonstrated in these purified CIC antigens by DIG glycan differentiation kit with or without glycosidase as well as neuraminidase treatment. Diagnostic evaluation of the newly developed colorimetric Glyco CIC assay through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis revealed excellent (0.99 AUC value as compared to other conventional serodiagnostic assays like PEG CIC, Parasite ELISA (IgG and IgM. Additionally, longitudinal monitoring of 18 PKDL patients further

  18. Immunisation coverage and its determinants among children aged 12-23 months in Atakumosa-west district, Osun State Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

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    Elizabeth B. Adedire

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine immunisation (RI contributes immensely to reduction in mortality from vaccine preventable diseases (VPD among children. The Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 revealed that only 58 % of children in Osun State had received all recommended vaccines, which is far below World Health Organization (WHO target of 80 %. We therefore, assessed RI uptake and its determinants among children in Atakumosa-west district of Osun State. Methods Atakumosa-west district has an estimated population of 90,525 inhabitants. We enrolled 750 mothers of children aged 12–23 months in this cross-sectional study. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of mothers on RI, history of RI in children and factors associated with full RI uptake. A fully-immunised child was defined as a child who had received one dose of Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, three doses of Oral-Polio-Vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We tested for the association between immunisation uptake and its likely determinants using multivariable logistic regression at 0.05 level of significance and 95 % confidence Interval (CI. Results Mean ± (SD age of the mothers and children were 27.9 ± 6.1 years and 17.2 ± 4.0 months, respectively. About 94 % (703/750 of mothers had received antenatal care (ANC and 63.3 % (475 of the children possessed vaccination cards. Seventy-six percent (571/750 had good knowledge of RI and VPD. About 58 % (275/475 of children who possessed vaccination card were fully-immunised. Mothers antenatal care attendance (aOR = 3.3, 95 % CI = 1.1-8.3, maternal tetanus toxoid immunisation (aOR = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.1-10.0 access to immunisation information (aOR = 1.8, 95 % CI = 1.1-2.5 and mothers having good knowledge of immunisation (aOR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1

  19. Nutrition Habits and Health Outcomes of Breastfeeding HIV-positive mothers in the Dschang Health District, West Region Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou Sobze, Martin; Kien-Atsu, Tsi; Djeunang Dongho, Bruna; Fotso, Jimmy Roger; TiotsiaTsapi, Armand; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Ben Bechir, Sali; Pana, Augusto; Ercoli, Lucia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the different at-risk periods for mother-to-child HIV transmission that is, during pregnancy, labor and delivery and breastfeeding, much care and attention needs to be given, not only to the child as concerns its feeding options, but also to the mother. The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional habits and health outcomes of HIV-positive breastfeeding mothers in the Dschang Health District, in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out from September 2014 to February 2015, at the Dschang District Day Care Hospital. A standard questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to 56 breastfeeding HIV-positive mothers. Anthropometric parameters of the mothers were measured (weight and height), and a physical check-up performed, with examination of the mothers' conjunctiva and palms. Clinical status was determined by anemia test using the Tallquist hemoglobin test. Data collected were analyzed using Epi Info version 7.1.3.3 and Excel 2013. The mean age of participants was 33 years. Most women ate three meals per day (53.6%, n=30/56), while 26,8% (15/56) ate two. Staples (27.27%) and fruits (33.68%) were found to be the most consumed foods per week and green leafy and yellow vegetables the least consumed (13.74%). Body mass index was used to evaluate the nutritional status of participating women: 26.9% (n=14/52) were in the normal range of weight, slightly more than half were overweight (51.9%, n=27/52) and 21.2% (n=11/52) were obese. All mothers were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent CD4 count results were available for about half of the women and the mean was 293 cells/mmc (range 97-798). Physical checkup showed that 64.3% (n=36/56) and 67.9% (n=38/56) of women respectively had moderately colored conjunctiva and palms, while 10.7% (n=6/56) and 12.5% (n=7/56) respectively had pale conjunctiva and palms, considered to be clinical signs of anemia. About 74.1% (n=40

  20. A survey on Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness implementation by nurses in four districts of West Arsi zone of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Sheka Shemsi; Sendo, Endalew Gemechu

    2018-01-01

    In Ethiopia, one in 17 children dies before 1 year of age and one in 11 children dies before 5 years. Research that examines the factors influencing the implementation of the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) strategy in Ethiopia is limited. This study aimed to identify the factors compelling the execution of IMNCI by nurses in four districts of West Arsi zone of Ethiopia. A mixed-method cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2016 in West Arsi zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. A total of 185 Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)-trained registered nurses working at Under-Five Clinic were purposively chosen for the study among 291 registered nurses based at health centers and hospitals in the Arsi zone. The study was complemented by a qualitative method. More than half (57.8%) of the nurses interviewed had been trained (51.35% of them attended in-service training). The most common issues encountered in the implementation of IMCI were: lack of trained staff (56.2%), lack of essential drugs and supplies (37.3%), and irregular supportive supervision (89.2%). The qualitative data supplemented the factors that influence IMNCI implementation, including drug unavailability, lack of human resources, and lack of effective supportive supervision and follow-up visits. Therefore, interventions aiming at training nurses, with emphasis on performing supportive consistent supervision and supporting the system of health care by enhancing admittance to indispensable drugs and supplies, are recommended to help IMCI implementation.

  1. The Distribution of Culex spp (Diptera: Culicidae in Selected Endemic Lymphatic Filariasis Villages in Bandung District West Java Indonesia

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    Endang Puji Astuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Data entomologis terkait aspek bionomik dan distribusi nyamuk vektor lymphatic filariasis di Kabupaten Bandung masih sangat sedikit meskipun kabupaten ini sudah mengimplementasikan POPM Filariasis dari tahun 2009. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengindentifikasi spesies nyamuk potensial penular lymphatic filariasis dan habitatnya di wilayah endemis filariasis yaitu Kecamatan Majalaya, Kabupaten Bandung. Survei dilaksanakan selama 2 bulan yaitu September – Oktober 2013 di dua desa Kecamatan Majalaya. Kegiatannya adalah pencidukan larva (termasuk plotting habitat, salinitas, temperatur air, pH, penangkapan nyamuk dewasa menggunakan metode human landing (dalam dan luar rumah serta resting (dinding rumah dan kandang ternak. Hasil penangkapan nyamuk memperoleh enam spesies yang berhasil diidentifikasi. Culex quinquefasciatus dan Cx. tritaeniorhynchus adalah nyamuk yang dominan tertangkap dengan puncak gigitan antara jam 21.00-01.00 WIB. Terdapat lima tempat perkembangbiakan potensial yang teramati disekitar desa tersebut yang terdiri dari kolam ikan yang terbengkalai dan persawahan dengan salinitas 0‰, temperatur air 28,5-29°C, pH 6-7. Meskipun MHD dan MBR vektor filariasis yaitu Cx. quinquefasciatus di wilayah tersebut relatif rendah, penularan masih dapat terjadi karena didukung dengan kondisi lingkungan dan keberadaan nyamuk vektor tersebut di wilayah iniKata kunci: lymphatic filariasis; tempat perkembangbiakan; Cx. quinquefasciatus; kepadatan, BandungAbstract. Bandung district has been implemented mass drug administration (MDA program since 2009, but little is known about entomological data especially about bionomic aspects and distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF mosquito vectors. This study was aimed to identify potential LF mosquito species and its potential breeding sites in two LF endemic villages in Majalaya, Bandung district. The observational study was conducted in September-October 2013. Mosquito larvae were collected by a

  2. Making basic health care accessible to rural communities: a case study of Kiang West district in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanneh, Edward Saja; Hu, Allen H; Njai, Modou; Ceesay, Omar Malleh; Manjang, Buba

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on lack of access to basic health care, which is one of the hindrances to the development of the poor, and subjects them to the poverty penalty. It also focuses on contributing to the Bottom of the Pyramid in a general sense, in addition to meeting the health needs of communities where people live on less than $1 a day. Strengthened multistakeholder responses and better-targeted, low-cost prevention, and care strategies within health systems are suggested to address the health burdens of poverty-stricken communities. In this study, a multistakeholder model which includes the government, World Health Organization, United Nations Children Emergency Fund, and the Medical Research Council was created to highlight the collaborative approach in rural Gambia. The result shows infant immunization and antenatal care coverage were greatly improved which contributes to the reduction in mortality. This case study also finds that strategies addressing health problems in rural communities are required to achieve 'Millennium Development Goals'. In particular, actual community visits to satellite villages within a district (area of study) are extremely vital to making health care accessible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater systems in the Ellembelle district, Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjah, A. K. M.; Akiti, T. T.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.; Glover, E. T.

    2017-05-01

    An integrated approach based on the hydrogeochemistry and the isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater was carried out in the Ellembelle district of the Western Region of Ghana. Measurement of physical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved solutes, total hardness and conductivity), major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2- and NO3 -), and stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) in 7 rivers, 13 hand-dug wells and 18 boreholes were taken. Na+ was the dominant cation and HCO3 - was the dominant anion for both rivers and groundwater. The dominant hydrochemical facies for the rivers were Na-K-HCO3 - type while that of the groundwater (hand-dug wells and boreholes) were Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 - type. According to the Gibbs diagram, majority of the rivers fall in the evaporation-crystallization field and majority of the hand-dug wells and the boreholes fall in the rock dominance field. From the stable isotope composition measurements, all the rivers appeared to be evaporated, 60 % of the hand-dug wells and 70 % of the boreholes clustered along and in between the global meteoric water line and the local meteoric water line, suggesting an integrative and rapid recharge from meteoric origin.

  4. The Autonomous Development Strategies of Micro and Small Entrepreneurs Through Coorporate Social Responsibility in Bogor District of West Java

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    Faizal Maad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective  of this  reseach were to: (1 analyze the level of autonomous of mikro and small entreprise (SMEs entrepreneurs are empowered through Coorporate Social Responsibility (CSR; (2 analyze the dominant factors that influence autonomous of MSEs entrepreneurs  are empowered through CSR;  and (3 formulate an appropriate  a strategy  in developing autonomy of MSEs entrepreneurs through CSR. The reseach  was conduct  in the village built two companies running CSR in Bogor district involved 212  (SMEs entrepreneurs which determined from population (450 SMEs entrepreneurs by Solvin formula with level of error 5 % and drawn by cluster random sampling. Data collection was conducted from July to November 2013, and consisted  the primary and secondary data. Data analysis was simulated by using structural equation model (SEM . The results showed that the degree  of autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs is low, its core was 36.89 out of 100.00. There are three strategies that must be done to develop of  autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs through  CSR, such as; (a an increase the empowerment sustainable of MSEs entrepereneurs (b improve the quality of  the environment  supporting MSEs and (c an increase in intensity of  empowerment for MSEs entrepreneurs.

  5. CHILD FEEDING PATTERN DURING TRANSITIONAL PERIOD (6-8 MONTHS IN JONGGAT SUB DISTRICT, CENTRAL LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

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    Karina Rahmadia Ekawidyani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to assess child feeding knowledge and practice in transitional period (6-8 months, mother’s information exposure and the functioning of the health system in delivering complementary feeding programs. A cross sectional study was done to 175 children aged 6-8 months at 12 villages in Jonggat Sub-district, Lombok. Structured interview to the mothers, 24 hour recalls, and in-depth interview to the cadres of Integrated Health Posts were used throughout the study. Most mothers had poor knowledge and practice on child feeding (68.0% and 75.4%, respectively. Almost all children had received complementary food (98.9%, but only less than a half children were introduced to complementary food at the appropriate age i.e. 6 months (45.7%. Only few children had good dietary diversity i.e. ≥ 4 food type in the previous day (6.9%. More than half of the mothers (52% were exposed to information related to child feeding practice. The sources of information mostly were from health officers, cadres, mother and child health book and printed media (e.g. newspaper and magazine. The local health staff and cadres had basic knowledge on child feeding programs but the practice was not adequate. Mother’s knowledge and practice on child feeding within the transitional period in Jonggat sub-district was poor. The health system was not functioning well in delivering complementary feeding programs.Keywords: cadres, child feeding pattern, complementary feeding programsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengetahuan dan praktek pengasuhan makan pada anak selama masa transisi (6-8 bulan, sumber informasi ibu, dan keberhasilan sistem kesehatan dalam program MP-ASI. Cross sectional study dilakukan dengan subjek 175 anak usia 6-8 bulan di 12 desa di Kecamatan Jonggat, Lombok. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara terstruktur kepada ibu, food recall, dan wawancara mendalam kepada kader Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu

  6. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).

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    Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, G K

    2015-10-01

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comprehensive screening program for β-thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India, dealing with 21 137 cases.

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    Bhattacharyya, Kallol Kumar; Chatterjee, Tridip; Mondal, Ujjalendu Bikash

    2016-11-01

    We here present a report of population screening programs (January 2012-December 2015) conducted by the Thalassemia Control Unit, Imambara Sadar Hospital, Chinsurah, Hooghly in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India for prevention of thalassemia. We screened β-thalassemia (β-thal) heterozygotes and homozygotes, and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A)-β-thal compound heterozygotes. Among 21 137 cases, we found 1968 heterozygotes and 192 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. Results were evaluated with standard hematological analyses including red cell indices, hemoglobin (Hb) typing and quantification. The participants of the screening program were divided into six groups (children, pre-marriage cases, post-marital cases, family members of affected individuals, family members of carriers and pregnant women). While considering the average frequency of carriers, many reports recorded both related individuals (family members of trait and affected individuals) as well as unrelated individuals such as school children and pregnant women. These would have to be considered separately and only the unrelated individuals taken to estimate carrier frequencies in this article that would give more realistic data on carrier frequency of unrelated individuals.

  8. Application of natural isotopes for water catchment estimation for springs in Cijeruk district, Bogor Regency, West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iffatul Izza Siftianida; Agus Budhie Wijatna; Bungkus Pratikno

    2016-01-01

    Spring as a source of groundwater in Cijeruk district exploited by local people and water companies. Excessive use of water causes lack of water during dry season. Conservation of recharge areas to maintain the availability of water to supply the water demand. Determination of location recharge areas and chemical analysis of groundwater needs to be done to provide required information to conserve the recharge area. Therefore, this study aims: (1) determine the origin of groundwater, (2) determine recharge area, (3) identify facies of groundwater, and (4) identify the quality of groundwater. Sampling was done in Cijeruk, groundwater samples were collected from 10 locations that were used by water companies and local people in May 2015. The ratio of isotopes δD and δ "1"8O in water samples was measured by liquid water stable isotope analyzer LGR DLT-100 to determine the genesis of groundwater and recharge area. Hydrochemical facies analysis to determine groundwater quality. Chemical parameters used are pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), and major ions. The results showed: (a) spring origin from several sources suck as rainwater and groundwater, (b) recharge area of CJR01, CJR02, CJR03, and CJR04 located on elevation of 1988 to 2055 m.dpl, (c) recharge area of CJR06 and CJR09 on elevation 1379 - 1430 m.dpl, (d) recharge area of CJR08 and CJR07 on elevation of 811-836 m.dpl, (e) recharge area of CJR05 and CJR10, each located on elevation of 1475 m.dpl, and 1932 m.dpl, (f) the groundwater facies is Mg-HCO_3 (magnesium bicarbonate), and (g) the quality of groundwater is fresh water. (author)

  9. Arsenic and mercury levels in human hairs and nails from gold mining areas in Wassa West District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Samlafo, B.V.; Yeboah, P.O.

    2009-01-01

    Hair and nail samples obtained from inhabitants of Wassa District, a major gold mining area in Ghana, were analysed for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 11 n cm -2 s -1 using the Ghana Research Reactor. Concentration of Hg in the hairs ranged from 1.65 to 20.46 μg/g, which were below World Health Organization (WHO) recommended level of 50.00 μg/g for human hair. Mercury concentration in human nail samples ranged from 0.97 to 31.94 μg/g. Arsenic concentrations in human hairs ranged from 0.07 to 0.95 μg/g, while the levels in nail samples ranged from 0.08 to 3.90 μg/g. Generally, levels of As in the hair were less than WHO recommended value of 1.00 μg/g, however, the levels of As in 5 nail samples (FN 11 , FN 20 , FN 28 , TN 9 and TN 16 ) were above the maximum WHO value of 1.80μg/g. The measurement precision specified by the relative standard deviation was within ± 3 %. The accuracy of determination evaluated by analysing certified standard human reference material GBW 09101 was within ± 4 % of the certified value. The levels of As in hair and nail samples of the experimental group were generally higher as compared to the control subject. Similarly, Hg levels in the hair and nail samples in experimental group were also higher compared to the control subject. However, the levels of the toxic elements determined were all below WHO recommended values. (au)

  10. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal

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    Lina Bandyopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 230, 6th and 7th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. Results: The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t-test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47 to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30. To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96 to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03; Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Conclusion: Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  11. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  12. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Lina; Manjula, M; Paul, Bobby; Dasgupta, Aparajita

    2017-01-01

    First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. A total of 230, 6 th and 7 th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t -test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47) to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30). To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d) was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96) to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03); Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  13. Inventorization of some ayurvedic plants and their ethnomedicinal use in Kakrajhore forest area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soumyajit; Shaw, Rupa; Bala, Sanjay; Mazumdar, Asis

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal Plant resources of forest origin are extensively used in India for various systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Allopathy, Siddha and Ethnic etc. The tribal communities around the Kakrajhore forest in West Medinipur district of West Bengal have their own traditional knowledge based system of curing many diseases using the forest based plant resources similar to ayurveda. The forest comprises of one of the unique treasure and rich source of diversified ethno-botanical wealth and therefore extensive studies is required for proper documentation including ethnomedicinal knowledge of local tribes. The present study was initiated with an aim to inventorize the ayurvedic medicinal plant recourses and explore the traditional knowledge of tribal people of Kakrajhore forest to treat several diseases along with the sustainable management and conservation of medicinal plants. The information on the medicinal plant resources were gathered through floristic inventorization with proper sampling method in the study area (N22°42'57.05″, E86°34'58.02″) during the year 2015. For floristic inventorization the study area of 312 ha was delineated by using GPS Receiver. Then total mapped area was divided by virtual grid of 100m apart in both East-West and North-South direction to allocate 60 sample plots by random sampling. In addition to inventorization, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants found in the study area based on personal interview. Further exploration was carried out to establish linkage with Ayurveda. The present survey has identified 57 numbers of ethno-medicinal plants belonging to 39 families, used for preparing medicinal remedies. The habit of the plants includes 35% trees, 28% shrubs, 23% herbs and 14% climbers. The most frequently utilized plant parts were the Roots & Tuber roots (26%), Stem which includes Bark, Tubers, Bulb, Rhizome, Gum, Wood

  14. Some heavy metals levels in drinking water and social characteristics in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in the Amansie West district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh-Agbozo, Francis

    2009-06-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by mycobacterium ulcerans(MU). It is often associated with slow flowing or stagnant water and increase in the incidence of disease is also associated with the ecological transformation. Several risk factors have been identified and a number of transmission mechanisms suggested. However, the exact mechanism of transmission and development of Buruli ulcer through water related human activities are unknown. A study was carried out to compare concentrations of cadmium, lead and aluminium in drinking water samples and some social characteristics from endemic and non-endemic communities in the Amansie- West District of Ghana. Ninety-six drinking water sources were sampled from boreholes and hand-dug wells in the study area. The analysis of the samples showed that the average concentration of cadmium was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in endemic communities than in non-endemic communities even though all the values were below the WHO guideline values of 0.003mg/L. The average concentration of Lead and Aluminium were lower in endemic communities than in non-endemic communities, but the differences between the average concentrations were not statistically significant ( p≥ 0.95 for Lead, p≥ 0.30 for Aluminium). Aluminium concentrations in all the samples were however lower than the WHO recommended guideline value of 0.1mg/L, whilst the concentration of lead was higher than the recommended guideline value of several communities. It was therefore concluded that Cadmium, Lead and Aluminium may not contribute to the occurrence and transmission of BU. In relation to the social characteristics, the educational level was generally poorer in endemic areas than in the non-endemic areas. The endemic communities used poorer source of water which include streams and hand-dug wells, unlike non-endemic communities which had better sources of water- boreholes and pipe-borne water only. Field observation showed that people in the endemic

  15. Polymorphisms in voltage-gated sodium channel gene and susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to insecticides in three districts of northern West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moytrey; Ballav, Sudeep; Maji, Ardhendu K; Basu, Nandita; Sarkar, Biplab Chandra; Saha, Pabitra

    2018-01-01

    The control and prevention of dengue largely depends on vector control measures, environmental management, and personal protection. Dengue control programmes are facing great challenges due to development of insecticide resistance among vector mosquitoes. Information on susceptibility status to different insecticides is important for national programmes to formulate vector control strategies. We have studied the larval susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to temephos and adult susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, and 5% malathion as per WHO protocols in the northern districts of West Bengal. Polymorphisms in the VGSC gene were studied by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Ae. albopictus larval population showed sensitive [Resistance Ratio (RR99)resistance (510) to temephos at different study sites. Adult bioassay results revealed that Ae. albopictus was highly resistant to DDT [Corrected Mortality (CM) 98%), except in Dhupguri where a low level of resistance to deltamethrin (CM = 96.25%) was recorded. None of the six important kdr mutations (S953P, I975M/V, L978, V980G, F1474C, D1703Y) were found in the VGSC of studied mosquitoes, but we identified 11 synonymous and 1 non-synonymous mutation in the VGSC gene. The higher susceptibility level to deltamethrin and malathion, along with the absence of important kdr mutations indicates that these two insecticides are still effective against Ae. albopictus in the study areas. The susceptibility status of temephos should be monitored closely as low to moderate levels of resistance were observed in few sites. A similar study is recommended for monitoring and early detection of insecticide resistance in other parts of the country.

  16. Evaluation of Janani-Sishu Suraksha Karyakram in a Community Development Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, India: A Mixed Methods Approach

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    Satabdi Mitra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Government of India launched Janani-Sishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK for cost-free care during pregnancy and infancy. Objectives: To assess awareness and utilization of JSSK services, estimate expenditures incurred to avail care and find out influencing factors for implementing JSSK. Methodology: A cross-sectional evaluation study using mixed methods was conducted during April-September 2015 in Gangajalghati block of Bankura district, West Bengal. From its thirty subcentres (lots, 120 mothers and pseudo-cohort of 120 infants were selected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling. Beneficiary mothers and caregivers of infants were interviewed through house-to-house visits using semi-structured questionnaire. ANMs and ASHAs were selected by simple random sampling and involved in Focus Group Discussion. In-depth interview was conducted for Block Medical Officer of Health, Deputy CMOH-III of Bankura and Medical Superintendent cum Vice-Principal of BankuraSammilani Medical College and Hospital to explore factors of utilization. Result: Only 13.3% and 3.3% lots were acceptable for awareness and 16.7% and 13.3% for utilization for mothers and infants respectively. Overall coverage was 9.2% and 7.5% for awareness and 20.5% & 10.75% in utilization for services, while Out of Pocket Expenditure was estimated to be INR 690, 651 and 250, 545 (median, IQR for mothers and infants respectively. Indirect costs were INR 540, 618 and 300, 460. Inadequate fund flow, manpower shortage, unavailability of referral transport timely, and poor prescribing for hospital supply medicines undermine the credibility of JSSK. Conclusion: Improved IEC and supervision, adequate fund and timely transport availability would forward this flagship programme of the Government.

  17. Social network correlates of risky sexual behavior among adolescents in Bahir Dar and Mecha Districts, North West Ethiopia: an institution-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrese, Kerebih; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2018-04-11

    Behaviors established during adolescence such as risky sexual behaviors have negative effects on future health and well-being. Extant literature indicated that individual attributes such as peer pressure and substance use have impacts on healthy development of young peoples' sexual behavior. The patterns of relationships (social network structure) and the social network content (members' norm regarding sexual practice) established by adolescents' network on adolescents' risky sexual behaviors are not well investigated. This cross-sectional study assessed the roles of social networks on sexual behavior of high school adolescents in Bahir Dar and Mecha district, North West Ethiopia. Data were collected from 806 high school adolescents using a pretested anonymously self administered questionnaire. Hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The results indicated that more than 13% had risky sexual behavior. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of risky sexual behavior over individual attributes. Adolescents embedded within increasing sexual practice approving norm (AOR 1.61; 95%CI: 1.04 - 2.50), increasing network tie strength (AOR 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.19), and homogeneous networks (AOR 1.58; 95% CI: .98 - 2.55) were more likely to had risky sexual behavior. Engaging within increasing number of sexuality discussion networks was found protective of risky sexual behavior (AOR .84; 95% CI: .72 - .97). Social networks better predict adolescent's risky sexual behavior than individual attributes. The findings indicated the circumstances or contexts that social networks exert risks or protective effects on adolescents' sexual behavior. Programs designed to reduce school adolescents' sexual risk behavior should consider their patterns of social relationships.

  18. GIS based Grid overlay method versus modeling approach – A comparative study for landslide hazard zonation (LHZ in Meta Robi District of West Showa Zone in Ethiopia

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    Tarun Kumar Raghuvanshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study area is located in Meta Robi District of West Showa Zone in Oromiya Regional State in Ethiopia. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate landslide hazard zonation (LHZ by utilizing ‘Grid overlay’ and ‘GIS modeling’ approaches. Also, it was attempted to know the effectiveness of the two methods. The methodology followed was based on the analysis of past landslides in the area. For the present study six causative factors namely; slope material, slope, aspect, elevation, land use and land cover and groundwater surface traces were considered. Later, Landslide Susceptibility Index (LSI was computed based on the relative influence of causative factors on past landslides. For the ‘Grid overlay’ method a grid with cells 10 m by 10 m was overlaid over the study area and later it was geo-processed to delineate various sub-classes of each causative factor. LSI values were assigned to each sub-causative factor within each grid cell and a ‘Total Landslide Susceptibility Index’ was calculated to produce the LHZ map. For ‘GIS modeling’ the same causative factors and similar LSI values were utilized. In the case of LHZ map prepared by the ‘Grid overlay’ method about 82% of past landslides fall within ‘very high hazard’ or ‘high hazard’ zones whereas in the case of ‘GIS modeling’ about 95% of past landslides fall within ‘very high hazard’ or ‘high hazard’ zones. Finally, the validation showed that ‘GIS modeling’ produced better LHZ map. Also, ‘Grid overlay’ method is more tedious and time consuming as compared to GIS modeling.

  19. Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients from Malda district, West Bengal- A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golui, Debasis; Guha Mazumder, D N; Sanyal, S K; Datta, S P; Ray, P; Patra, P K; Sarkar, S; Bhattacharya, K

    2017-10-01

    Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients was established in Malda district of West Bengal. Out of 182 participants examined, 80 (43.9%) participants showed clinical features of arsenicosis, characterized by arsenical skin lesion (pigmentation and keratosis), while 102 participants did not have any such lesion (control). Experimental results of the twenty eight soils (own field) of the participants showed the mean Olsen extractable and total arsenic concentration of 0.206 and 6.70mgkg -1 , respectively. Arsenic concentration in rice grain ranged from 2.00 to 1260μgkg -1 with the mean value of 146μgkg -1 . The hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of As by human through consumption of rice varied from 0.03 to 3.52. HQ exceeds 1.0 for drinking water and rice grain grown in the study area in many cases. As high as 77.6% variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by the solubility-free ion activity model. Toxic limit of extractable As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard, associated with consumption of rice grain by human, was established. For example, the permissible limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.43mgkg -1 for rice cultivation, if soil pH and organic carbon content were 7.5% and 0.50%, respectively. However, the critical limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.54mgkg -1 , if soil pH and organic carbon were 8.5% and 0.75%, respectively. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of arsenic in soils with respect to soil properties and human health under modeling-framework was established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The profile and treatment outcomes of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis re-treatment cases, in a district medical college of West Bengal, India

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    Abinash Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a high tuberculosis (TB burden county like India with different regional demography, knowledge about patient profile has a pivotal role in determining and identifying the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among TB re-treatment cases. Aim: The aim was to describe the demography and clinical characteristics of TB re-treatment cases and to evaluate the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among those patients. Settings and Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out at chest medicine outdoor from February, 2011 to 2014 in a district medical college of West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Sputum smear positive re-treatment pulmonary TB patients attending our chest medicine outdoor during the 3 years study period were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics on the basis of previous treatment history and records at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up during the 8 months treatment period (Category II treatment regimen under Revised National TB Control Program. At the end of the study period, treatment outcomes were analyzed and factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were identified. Statistical Analysis: All variables were described by proportions, and differences between independent groups were compared using the Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test, as applicable. Results: Among 74 patients, re-treatment was successful in 75.7% of relapse case, 66.7% of loss to follow-up cases and 53.8% of failure cases. Re-treatment failure was higher (38.5% in treatment failure cases compare to relapse cases (10.8% and initial loss to follow-up cases (16.7%. Young age, male, unmarried, employed who work outside appears to be the risk factors for loss to follow-up. Low body mass index, treatment from the private sector, history of alcoholism, radiological cavitory lesion, larger duration of previous treatment, lesser gap from previous treatment has

  1. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarba, Edilu J.; Tola, Getachew K.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test. Result: About 126 (41.7%) cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302) were clinical and 32.8% (96/302) were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208), comprising 9.3% (112/1208), clinical and 32.8% (396/1208) subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208) of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (pmastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2%) than indigenous (15.4%), in cattle above 7 years (75%) than less than 2-6 years of age (28%) and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3%) than those with less than 4 calves (31.1%) irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (pmastitis prevalence in larger (46.6%) than smaller herds (24.2%) and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1%) and intensive (42.3%) than extensive (8.1%) management system. Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security. PMID:28507411

  2. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

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    Edilu J. Sarba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test. Results: About 126 (41.7% cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302 were clinical and 32.8% (96/302 were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208, comprising 9.3% (112/1208, clinical and 32.8% (396/1208 subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208 of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (p<0.05 higher prevalence of mastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2% than indigenous (15.4%, in cattle above 7 years (75% than less than 2-6 years of age (28% and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3% than those with less than 4 calves (31.1% irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (p<0.05 higher mastitis prevalence in larger (46.6% than smaller herds (24.2% and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1% and intensive (42.3% than extensive (8.1% management system. Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security.

  3. Community knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon: The case of Ekondotiti and Mbonge health districts in the South-west Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Njih, Irine Ngani-Nformi; Pluschke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2018-01-01

    Background Although leprosy is one of the oldest diseases known to humanity, it remains largely misunderstood. Misconceptions about leprosy lead to stigma towards people with the disease. This study aimed at exploring the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional community survey of 233 respondents aged 15–75 years, free from leprosy, and living in two rural health districts of the South-west Region of Cameroon. A questionnaire designed to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about leprosy was used. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of negative attitudes. Results About 82% of respondents had heard about, and 64.4% knew someone with leprosy. Information on leprosy was mainly from community volunteers (40.6%), friends (38.0%), and the media (24%). Only 19.7% of respondents knew the cause of leprosy, and a considerable proportion linked it to a spell (25.3%), unclean blood (15.5%) and heredity (14.6%). About 72% knew that leprosy is curable and 86.3% would advise medical treatment. Attitudes towards leprosy patients were generally negative. Only 42% would shake hands, 32.6% would share the same plate, and 28.3% and 27% respectively, would allow their child to play or marry a person with leprosy. Furthermore, only 33.9% approved of participation of leprosy patients, and 42.9% of their employment. Independent predictors of negative attitudes were: the belief that leprosy is a curse; is caused by a germ; and having seen a leprosy patient. The negative attitudes were dampened by: the beliefs that leprosy is a punishment, is hereditary and is due to poor personal hygiene. Conclusion An awareness intervention using community volunteers and the media, with information on the cause of leprosy, its clinical manifestations and curability, and sensitization messages correcting the misconceptions and beliefs regarding leprosy, could improve the community

  4. A reconnaissance Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and K-Ar study of some host rocks and ore minerals in the West Shasta Cu- Zn district, California ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, R.W.; McKee, E.H.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Zartman, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Copley Greenstone, Balaklala Rhyolite, and Mule Mountain stock in the West Shasta Cu-Zn district, California, have Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and K-Ar systematics that indicate they are a cogenetic suite of ensimatic island-arc rocks about 400 Ma. Pervasive alteration and mineralization of these rocks, for the most part, was syngenetic and the major component of the mineralizing fluid was Devonian seawater. K-Ar ages of quarz-sericite concentrates from ore horizons and Rb-Sr systematics of a few rock and ore specimens record a later thermal and mineralizing event in the district of about 260 Ma. Contamination of some rocks with pelagic sediments is indicated by the Sm-Nd data. -Authors

  5. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis in selected communities of Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts in Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia: Sero-epidemological and Leishmanin Skin Test Surveys.

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    Fitsum Bekele

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis [VL] is a debilitating parasitic disease which invariably kills untreated patients. The disease is caused by Leishmania (L. donovani or L. infantum, and transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies. VL often remains subclinical but can become symptomatic with an acute/subacute or chronic course. Globally, the Eastern Africa region is one of the main VL endemic areas. The disease is prevalent in numerous foci within Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan South Sudan, and Uganda. In Ethiopia, the Lower Omo plain is one of the many VL endemic regions.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasisin Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts of the South Omo plains where VL is becoming an emerging health problem of neglected communities.A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 between 25th of July and 14th of August. A total of 1682 individuals living in 404 households were included in the study. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from each of the participants and venous blood was also collected for the detection of antibodies to visceral leishmaniasis using Direct Agglutination Test. Leishmanin Skin Test was performed to detect the exposure to the parasite.The surveys included 14 villages located in areas where VL had been reported. In a study population of 1682 individuals, the overall positive leishmanian skin test and sero-prevalence rates respectively were 8.6% and 1.8%. A statistically significant variation in the rate of positive LST response was observed in different study sites and age groups. Positive LST response showed an increasing trend with age. The sero-prevalence rate also showed a statistically significant variation among different study sites. Higher rates of sero-prevalence were observed in children and adolescents. The LST and sero-prevalence rates in Hamar District exceeded significantly that of Banna

  7. Radiotracer technique to quantify change in filtration velocity as a measure of dilution effect by artificial recharge in an arsenic infested aquifer at Ashoknagar, Habra - II block, 24 Paragana district, West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.P.; Sharma, Suman

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotopes are frequently employed as tracers for various applications in industry, agricultural, medicine and hydrology. In hydrology, radiotracers are commonly applied to investigate several hydrological parameters of aquifers such as hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity and direction of flow etc. They impart valuable insight into the understanding of the hydrological systems. Application of radioisotopes in determination of groundwater flow velocity is now a well established technique. In this paper, groundwater filtration velocity was determined in an arsenic infested alluvium aquifer at Ashoknagar, Habra, West Bengal for determining the dilution effect due to arsenic free water. In some parts of West Bengal, generally shallow aquifers up to 80 m deep are contaminated due to geogenic arsenic. Researchers have different views about origin and mobility of arsenic in the groundwaters of West Bengal. For the removal of Arsenic from the groundwater various methods have been suggested and implemented such as ion-exchange, co-precipitation, adsorption, membrane separation and dilution etc. Dilution of the Arsenic concentration by artificial recharge of arsenic free water from the constructed pits in the contaminated aquifer is one such simple method. Efficacy of this method was studied by measuring filtration velocity in the contaminated aquifer at the Ashoknagar, Habra - II Block, North 24 Paragana district, West Bengal. Radioactive 82 Br in the form of aqueous ammonium bromide was used as a tracer to measure filtration velocity of the groundwater. Point dilution technique in a single well was applied. Filtration velocity provided relevant information about the arsenic dilution in the groundwater by the artificial recharge and its value will be used as a model parameter. (author)

  8. Reality of Educational Technology Use in Primary Level Social Studies Teaching in North West Badiya Education District Schools in Mafraq Governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menazel, Basil H.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the use of educational technology in social studies teaching and the obstacles to availability and use of educational technology in teaching social studies at schools in the North West Badiya Education Directorate in Mafraq governorate, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The study population comprised of 137 male and…

  9. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  10. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  11. Classroom organization and management for effective teaching and learning at the intermediate phase in the Mafikeng District of the North West Province / Mmapula Joyce Segatlhe

    OpenAIRE

    Segatlhe, Mmapula Joyce

    2003-01-01

    This study concerns itself with issues relating to classroom management and organisation for effective teaching and learning. The study focuses on these aspects of classroom management and organisation: What is classroom management? What is effective within the management of the classroom? What role does or should a teacher play in classroom management? What contributions do discipline and 'tasks' make to effective classroom management in the Mafikeng District? Eighteen primary...

  12. Implementation of a decentralized community-based treatment program to improve the management of Buruli ulcer in the Ouinhi district of Benin, West Africa.

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    Arnaud Setondji Amoussouhoui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, commonly known as Buruli ulcer (BU, is a debilitating neglected tropical disease. Its management remains complex and has three main components: antibiotic treatment combining rifampicin and streptomycin for 56 days, wound dressings and skin grafts for large ulcerations, and physical therapy to prevent functional limitations after care. In Benin, BU patient care is being integrated into the government health system. In this paper, we report on an innovative pilot program designed to introduce BU decentralization in Ouinhi district, one of Benin's most endemic districts previously served by centralized hospital-based care.We conducted intervention-oriented research implemented in four steps: baseline study, training of health district clinical staff, outreach education, outcome and impact assessments. Study results demonstrated that early BU lesions (71% of all detected cases could be treated in the community following outreach education, and that most of the afflicted were willing to accept decentralized treatment. Ninety-three percent were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. The impact evaluation found that community confidence in decentralized BU care was greatly enhanced by clinic staff who came to be seen as having expertise in the care of most chronic wounds.This study documents a successful BU outreach and decentralized care program reaching early BU cases not previously treated by a proactive centralized BU program. The pilot program further demonstrates the added value of integrated wound management for NTD control.

  13. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Hunter, Cynthia L; Heywood, Peter; Dibley, Michael J

    2010-10-12

    Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs) and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these services was also found, as some community members perceived

  14. Electrical Resistivity Studies Between Subarnarekha And Kansabati Rivers, Paschim Medinipur (W.B.), India: Implication To Groundwater Problems In The Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, K. P.; Jha, M. K.; Sharma, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    Various parts of the world face acute shortage of groundwater. To solve groundwater problems various approaches are followed. Interlinking of the river is one of the approaches. The southern part of the West Bengal province of India receives huge amount of rainfall (annual 1200mm). Instead of huge amount of rainfall some parts of the area are problematic for groundwater occurrence. Characterization of aquifer in this area is very important for sustainable development of water supply and artificial recharge schemes. Electrical resistivity survey was performed at regular interval from Kharagpur (north) to Subarnrekha River (south) to map the lithological variations in this area. It covers around 25 kilometers distance from Kharagpur with latitude and longitude (22°19'7.3"N 87°18'40"E) to Subarnrekha River (22°15'49.4" N 87°16'45.1" E). To locating a suitable area for artificial recharge and for the characterization of aquifers vertical electrical sounding is a robust method. Resistivity soundings were carried out with an interval of 2 to 3 kilometers. Subsurface resistivity distribution has been interpreted by using very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) global optimization technique. The study reveals that northern part of the area is problematic and does not have suitable aquifer systems. Resistivity distribution is suitable in the southern part of area and corresponds to clayey sand. Interpreted resistivity in the northern part of the area is relatively high and reveals impervious laterite layer. In southern part of the area resistivity varies between 5-10 Ohm-m at depth below 80 m. Based on the resistivity model different types of geologic units are classified and the zone of interests for aquifer has been demarcated.

  15. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...... the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  16. Obstacles in the Utilisation of Maternal Health Care Services in Murarai-II C.D. Block, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokananda Ghosh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving maternal health was one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and now it is one of the targets of 17 point Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. The utilisation of Maternal Health Care Services (MHCSs is a complex phenomenon and it is influenced by several factors, like-health care seeking behaviour of the cohorts belonging to different socio-economic and cultural background, distance of the facility centres, type and conditions of the roads including undulating surface, transportation cost, type and availability of transportation mode along with the factors related to the accountability and surveillances of the health care services. Therefore, clear understanding and discussion is needed to draw an association between MHCSs and its influential factors. The objectives of the study are to estimate the impact of accessibility on the underserved status of MHCSs and on the utilisation of MHCSs through paucity index. In addition, the study aims to evaluate the causal relationships between underserved situation and obstacle score with the paucity index of MHCS utilisation. The empirical observation unfolds that the provision and utilisation of MHCSs are strongly dependent on accessibility and distance. The situation is aggravating for proper delivery of services, which is responsible for the increasing obstacle score and paucity index, especially in remote sub- centres of Murarai-II C.D. Block of Birbhum District.

  17. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  18. Determination of Extraction Process Conditions of Gambier Catechin (Uncaria Gambier Roxb) from Solok Bio Bio Lima Puluh Kota DistrictWest Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desni Rahman, Elly; Sari, Ellyta; Burmawi; Frizka; Endah

    2018-03-01

    Catechin content is the determinant key of quality in gambier trade. The required Catechin content of gambier extracts as a herbal medicinal ingridient is greater than 90%. Mostly, Local gambier that produced by community is not uniform and low quality, thus lowering the price in the export markets. The quality improvement of gambier can be done by extraction and purification processes. This study aims to determine the best extraction process of catechin from Gambier (Uncaria Roxb) which derived from Solok Bio Bio Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatra. The research methodology includes pre purification: raw materials preparation, washing, filtration, extraction, drying and testing. Washing was done on 100 gr gambier with a variation of water at 500, 600, 700, and 800 ml, heating for an hour at a temperature of 70°C, screened, filtered, and allow to stand until a precipitate is formed, wash repeatedly, filtered, and dried. Further, extract with a solvent variation of : water, etyl acetate, heated at 70°C temperature for 1 hour, then filtered. Filtrate then thickened by using a Rotary evaporator, dried at 50°C temperature for 48 hours and analyzed. The results showed that the best conditions of the extraction process is by using a solvent etyl acetate, at a temperature of 70°C, grading 97.40% catechins.

  19. Assessment of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing factor (MIF) and GIS: a case study from Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Guin, Shirshendu; Kaur, Harjeet

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing and GIS play a vital role in exploration and assessment of groundwater and has wide application in detection, monitoring, assessment, conservation and various other fields of groundwater-related studies. In this research work, delineation of groundwater potential zone in Birbhum district has been carried out. Various thematic layers viz. geology, geomorphology, soil type, elevation, lineament and fault density, slope, drainage density, land use/land cover, soil texture, and rainfall are digitized and transformed into raster data in ArcGIS 10.3 environment as input factors. Thereafter, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique is employed where ranks and weights, assigned to each factor are computed statistically. Finally, groundwater potential zones are classified into four categories namely low, medium, high and very high zone. It is observed that 18.41% (836.86 km2) and 34.41% (1563.98 km2) of the study area falls under `low' and `medium' groundwater potential zone, respectively. Approximately 1601.19 km2 area accounting for 35.23% of the study area falls under `high' category and `very high' groundwater potential zone encompasses an area of 542.98 km2 accounting for 11.95% of the total study area. Finally, the model generated groundwater potential zones are validated with reported potential yield data of various wells in the study area. Success and prediction rate curve reveals an accuracy achievement of 83.03 and 78%, respectively. The outcome of the present research work will help the local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating better planning and management of groundwater resources in the study area in future perspectives.

  20. Development of small and medium business (SMES) of mango dodol processing to increase the added value (a case study in Ujungjaya Village, Indramayu District, West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, L.; Pardian, P.; Syamsyiah, N.; Deliana, Y.

    2018-03-01

    In the national economic development in Indonesia, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) become a priority to be developed, because SMEs can be the backbone of the populist economic system to reduce the problem of poverty. In addition, the development of SMEs is able to expand the economic base and can contribute to the increase of added value, in addition it would also serve to open employment opportunities in rural areas. Indramayu is one of the three mango production centers in West Java that face the problem that there are about 20% of the mangoes that is not worth selling. This opportunity is utilized by women who are members of KUB (Joint Business Group) to be processed into mango dodol at household scale. But this effort has not been widespread, only pioneered by a small portion of women. This study aims toobserve the driving force of women to participate in the processing of mango dodol, and whether the mango processing business to become mango dodol is profitable, also how much added value obtained. This study uses case study method with interview for data collection, participant observation and documentation study. While the data analysis technique using Hayami Value-added Method and descriptive analysis. The results revealed that the factors that affect the women’s participation in the processing of dodol is to increase family income, take advantage of spare time and take advantage of rejected mangoes. The added value obtained in mango dodol processing is Rp.50.600,00 per kilogram of input, with a value-added ratio of 52.8%. For the development of SMEs mangoes Training and socialization are needed for the good dodol processing and hygienic according to SOP (Standard Operational Procedure) from the relevant institutions, innovation in packaging, pioneering business partnerships with stores in the city of Indramayu and surrounding areas, and support financing from banks with an affordable interest rate.

  1. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Dasgupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173. Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%, followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  2. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemics of the central nervous system infections caused by West Nile virus in the territory of the South Bačka District, Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sević Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic RNA virus particle which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is sustained in arthropods within the transmission cycle between the mosquitoes and birds. Most commonly (80% of cases WNV infections are asymptomatic among people. Less than 1% of patients develop neuroinvasive forms of the disease - meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. The aim of the research is to determine most common clinical and laboratory manifestations, to emphazise the presence of comorbidities and outcomes of treatment among patients with WNV infection. Methods. This retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, evaluated 32 patients who were diagnosed with WNV infection based on clinical findings, laboratory, and serological tests. To assess statistical significance we used χ2, and t-test. Results. The study involved 22 (69% males and 10 (31% females aged from 31 to 65 years. On admission, there were 16 (50% febrile individuals, 27 (84.4% with positive meningeal signs, 17 (53.2% with pathological neurological signs, and 10 (31.3% with consciousness disorders. WNV infection was confirmed by the method enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA in all the patients, while Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR test was positive in 3 (30% of the tested patients. Cardiovascular comorbidities dominated in 7 (21.9% of the cases. Full recovery was accomplished in 87.5 % of the cases. Conclusion. The results of our study show that the absence of meningeal signs and fever on the day 7 of hospital treatment are indicators of good course and prognosis of neuroinvasive forms of WNV infection. Comorbidities do not increase the risk of disease. ELISA test is a sovereign diagnostic method. In most cases, after the administered symptomatic therapy, the complete recovery of patients was achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  4. Factors determining choice of delivery place among women of child bearing age in Dega Damot District, North West of Ethiopia: a community based cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, AlemayehuSayih; Sendo, EndalewGemechu

    2016-08-17

    In the latest report of Ethiopia Demography and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011, the Maternal Mortality Ratio was estimated at 676/100,000 live births. Most of these deaths are preventable. Increasing the proportion of women who deliver in a health facility can be an important means in reducing maternal mortality in low-income settings including Ethiopia. We aimed to identify factors determining choice of delivery place among child bearing age women. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in Dega Damot District from April- May, 2014. Mixed methods were employed in the study. Multistage sampling method was used. The primary outcome variable for this study was women who delivered their most recent baby in a health facility. Three hundred sixty one women who gave birth in the past 1 year were included in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 30.9 [SD ±6.006]. One hundred seven (29.6 %) of the respondents were in the age range of 25-29 years. In our study, the proportion of women assisted by skilled health workers during institutional delivery was 89.1 % followed by Health extension workers (8.0 %). Most women (87.4 %) who did not deliver in health facilities were assisted by families, friends or neighbors followed by Health extension workers (7.2 %), and traditional birth attendants (5.4 %), respectively. The qualitative data has described and gave an insight of the contributing factors that influence the women using the health institutions for delivery. These included: ANC attendance, Positive attitude of Health workers and complications during labor and delivery. The preference for a health facility delivery was largely due to the understanding that if complications occurred either during labor or delivery, this was the only place where they could be managed. The study revealed that women's institutional delivery service utilization in the study area is low. Based on these findings, improving the utilization of health facility for delivery

  5. Effectiveness of Tarling Cirebonan Cultural Arts as a Media to Improve Pregnant Women’s Knowledge in Cirebon District of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Maryani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal class is a program from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia for increasing pregnant women’s knowledge. Until recently, the media used in has not varied yet; thus, innovation on instructional media based on culture to complement the existing media is needed. One of the typical cultural arts of Cirebon is Tarling Cirebonan. The objective is to analyze the effectiveness of media Tarling Cirebonan to improve pregnant women’s knowledges. Methods: This was an analytic study with a quasi experimental design and a non-randomized pre-test and post-test with control group design, by making use of qualitative data. The study was conducted in Cirebon District from March to September 2014. The study sample was 80 pregnant women in Kalibuntu Health Center (40 with Cirebonan Tarling media and 40 with fl ipchart media. Research instruments included music box containing ringtone and lyrics of Tarling Cirebonan consisting of antenatal class materials, fl ipchart, questionnaires, in-depth interview and focus group discussion’s guide. Data analysis with a paired t-test and independent t-test. Result: There were signifi cant differences in score changes on pregnant women’s knowledge at pre-test and fi rst post-test and second post test with a mean difference of 1.35 and 1.70. There was a positive response from pregnant women, the husband, village midwives and society against Cirebonan Tarling media. Conclusions: There were signifi cant differences in score changes on pregnant women’s knowledge at pre-test and fi rst post-test and second post test with a mean difference of 1.35 and 1.70. There was a positive response from pregnant women, the husband, village midwives and society against Cirebonan Tarling media. Recommendation: Tarling Cirebonan Media is more effective to improve pregnant women’s knowledge than fl ipchart media, so that it can be used as an innovative media in improving pregnant women’s knowledge.

  6. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Gopal Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Aims: Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Settings and Design: Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Materials and Methods: Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based approach. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609 was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82 P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524 P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both and TT (8% and 7%, respectively were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473 a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged <30 years [OR 3.779 (1.684-6.547 P = 0.001]. However, none were carrier of heterozygous GA allele of Kolkata population as compared with 29% north Bengal tea-garden workers aged above 31 years. Conclusions: A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk

  7. Application of radiometric core data in developing correlation index for insitu gamma log and disequilibrium status across exploratory boreholes: a case study in Wahkut Block of West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreti, B.M.; Kumar, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    With the objective to affirm apparent Uranium ore zone grade/thickness with good confidence for non-coring and coring boreholes with poor core recovery, a systematic study in the mineralised coring boreholes between insitu measured gamma ray log and laboratory measured core assay has been carried out, in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. This also helps in quantifying correlation index and U disequilibrium status across the drilled boreholes and to convert apparent eU 3 O 8 grade to ore reserve (U 3 O 8 ). Study area consist of 2 sq km having 33 coring and 39 non coring boreholes with cumulative drilled depth of about 11,000 mts. On this available database, grade thickness continuity of uranium ore zone, in coring boreholes was evaluated with the criteria of minimal ore zone thickness of 1.0 mts at 100 ppm eU 3 O 8 cut-off grade. The same criteria were also extended to the core assay of drilled core. A population of 19 such simultaneous qualifying zone (borehole log and core assay) meeting the set criteria from 17 coring boreholes (average core recovery > 90%) was drawn. Study results gave grade thickness continuity index of 0.93 between radiometric core assay and borehole log with moderately strong relationship. Disequilibrium status of apparent eU 3 O 8 grade in the borehole was examined using chemically checked U 3 O 8 (β/γ) (Having high degree uranium data confidence 91%) and Ra (e) plot, after getting complete core samples radiometric and spectral gamma analysed for 14 such boreholes. Equilibrium status on this population indicates, disequilibrium in favour of parent (0.90-1.78 range) having log normal distribution and skewed to the higher side of mean 1.37 disequilibrium factor. (author)

  8. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  9. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  10. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  11. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  12. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  13. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  14. A Tapestry of Inquiry and Action: Cycle of Learning Weaves Its Way through Washington District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Harriette Thurber; Karschney, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the West Valley School District in eastern Washington. Home to almost 4,000 students, West Valley made a public commitment more than seven years ago that all students would graduate with the option to attend college. This daunting goal--made even more so by the fact that almost half of the district's high school students come from…

  15. Studies of mercury, arsenic and selenium levels in human hair, nail and blood samples from the Wassa West District of Ghana, using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samlafu, V.B.

    2011-06-01

    This study examines Arsenic, mercury and selenium levels in human hair, nail and blood samples collected from Wassa West District, a mining impacted site in contrast with Akatsi and its environs, a non-mining impacted site using INAA facility at Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1), Kwabenya, Accra. Other elements determined alongside the elements of interest were Na, K, Ca, Al, Mg, Mn, V, Cl, I, Br, Au, La, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ni and Ag. An alternative method was developed for the Preconcentration Neutron Activation Analysis using dithizone/CHCl 3 mixture as the chelating agent for very low levels of mercury and arsenic in human blood. Factors that affect dithizone complexation such as PH, and concentration were investigated. Selenium levels in all the matrices were determined by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (HGAAS) technique. Speciation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) was carried out on selected blood samples using HNO 3 /H 2 O 2 as digestion reagent. The precision of the analytical methods used were evaluated by Schewart control chart for internal quality assessment purposes. The results were within the acceptable limits of Xσ. Four certified reference materials namely GBW 09101, DOME-2, Lichen IAEA-336 and Peach leave SRM 1547 were also used to validate the analytical methods for external quality assessment. The results obtained in this work were in good agreement with the certified values. The levels of total mercury in hair ranged from 1.65 μg/g to 20.46 μg/g. Mercury in nail samples ranged from 0.97μg/g to 31.94 μg/g and blood samples ranged from 0.01μg/mL to 0.70 μg/mL in experimental subjects. Mercury levels in control subjects ranged from 0.24 μg/g to 7.15 μg/g in hair, 0.2 μg/g to 1.83 μg/g of mercury in nail and 0.01 μg/mL to 2.38 μg/mL of mercury in blood. Generally the decreasing order of accumulation of mercury in the three matrices in the experimental subjects were as follows nail > hair > blood, while the control subjects had the

  16. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  17. Characteristics of uranium districts of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium deposits are discovered in 15 ore districts of the Russian Federation. They are subdivided into four groups: Streltsovsky district with existing production centre, Stavropolsky district with depleted deposits, three prospective districts and ten reserve districts. The overview of new data on these districts is presented. Streltsovsky district with Priargunsky Production Centre include 19 molybdenum-uranium deposits of structure-bound volcanic type in caldera. The main activities in Stavropolsky district with two depleted uranium deposits are connected with restoration works and wastes rehabilitation. Except Streltsovsky district there are no more deposits in the Russian Federation prepared for uranium production. At the same time some uranium deposits of Vitimsky, Zauralsky, and West-Siberian districts are prospective for new development of production centres. They belong to the sandstone type, related to paleovalley or basal channel, and are suitable for ISL operation. The deposits of the other districts are considered to be reserve and considered unprofitable for uranium production at present and in the nearest future. The biggest of them is Aldansky district with gold-uranium deposits in potassium metasomatites in areas of Mesozoic activation of Archean cratons. Central Transbaikalsky, Yeniseisky, Yergeninsky, Onezhsky, Ladozhsky, Bureinsky, Khankaisky, Volgo-Uralsky reserve districts include mainly small-size deposits of vein, volcanic, surficial and metasomatite types with low uranium grades. (author)

  18. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  19. A first note on Japanese encephalitis virus isolation from Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Northern West Bengal.

    OpenAIRE

    V. Thenmozhi; T. Mariappan; R. Krishnamoorthy; R. Krishnamoorthi; T. Balaji; B. K. Tyagi; V. Thenmozhi

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in many parts of India including the state of West Bengal. In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973. The Culex vishnui subgroup of mosquitoes has been implicated as major vectors of JE. However in India, JE virus (JEV) has been isolated from 16 species of mosquitoes. During September 2011, JE cases were reported from four districts -Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Dinajpur and Cooch Behar of West Ben...

  20. Indoor gamma radiation dose levels in West Bengal using passive dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.G.; Sahu, S.K.; Swarnkar, M.; Takale, R.A.; Pandit, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    Geography of West Bengal, a state in eastern India, is diverse, of high peaks of Himalaya in the northern extremes to coastal regions down south, with regions such as plateau and Ganges delta intervening in between. West Bengal is only state in India where Himalayas are in the north and Sea is at the south, with both plains and plateaus covering the remaining region. West Bengal is divided into three main divisions known as the Jalpaiguri division, Burdwan division and the Presidency division. It shows the district map of West Bengal. The result of preliminary indoor gamma radiation monitoring carried out in different districts of West Bengal is given in this paper

  1. Degradação das paisagens de solos lateríticos e uso da terra no distrito de Birbhum, Bengala Ocidental, Índia / Degraded lateritic soils cape and land uses in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Jha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of lateritic environment as found in the south western and eastern Birbhum district can be considered as irresistible. Inherently poor physical and chemical status of existing lateritic soil profileand radical conversion of land uses as observed at cadastral level are the key factors of land degradation.Lateritic soilscapes are mostly affected by water erosion induced, vegetal and anthropogenic degradation attaining severe and very severe degradation status. Degraded lands in sample mouzas like Ballabhpur, Shyambati, Chawpahari Jungle, Bodakuri and Pachami account for 60.33%, 71.42%, 72.99%, 87.31% and 79.66% respectively out of their total lateritic exposures. In other words about 36.98%, 71.42%, 61.73%, 56.70% and 76.02% out of their total village areas and mostly non agricultural land use areaffected by it. Four degraded villages get the higher priority for friendly landscape conservation actions.

  2. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  3. Seroprevalence Survey of Visceral Leishmaniasis among Children up to 12 Years old and Domestic Dogs in Rural Areas of Dehloran District, Ilam Province of West Part of Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Khazaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum, is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the world. The disease is endemic in some parts of Iran. This study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence of VL among children and domestic dogs (as a reservoir of the parasite in Dehloran, west of Iran.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Dehloran County. The blood samples of 872 children up to 12 years old and 52 dogs were collected from 10 villages of Dehloran using randomly-clustered sampling method. Sera were separated from all peripheral blood samples and tested by direct agglutination test (DAT. Anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies at titers of ≥1:800 and ≥1:80 were considered as Leishmania infantum infection in human and dog, respectively.Results: In general, among 872 human samples, 1.03% of samples had anti-Leishmania antibody with 1:1600 titers and 1.26% had 1:800 titers. In addition, from 52 dog samples, 21.15% of dogs had a titer of ≥1:320 and 25% had 1:80 and 1:160 titers.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the seropositive dogs in the studied areas are considerable and L. infantum may be circulated between human and domestic dog in the studied area. Further study of isolation and molecular identification of Leishmania spp. is recommended.

  4. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  5. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  6. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  7. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  8. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  9. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  10. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-04

    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  11. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  12. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  13. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, north west of Ethiopia: a community-based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferra, Alemayehu Shimeka; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret

    2012-07-31

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. The key to reducing maternal mortality ratio and improving maternal health is increasing attendance by skilled health personnel throughout pregnancy and delivery. However, delivery service is significantly lower in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors affecting institutional delivery service utilization among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers with birth in the last 12 months during August, 2010. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 371 participants. A pre tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software. The study indicated that 12.1% of the mothers delivered in health facilities. Of 87.9% mothers who gave birth at home, 80.0% of them were assisted by family members and relatives. The common reasons for home delivery were closer attention from family members and relatives (60.9%), home delivery is usual practice (57.7%), unexpected labour (33.4%), not being sick or no problem at the time of delivery (21.6%) and family influence (14.4%). Being urban resident (AOR [95% CI] = 4.6 [1.91, 10.9]), ANC visit during last pregnancy (AOR [95% CI] = 4.26 [1.1, 16.4]), maternal education level (AOR [95%CI] =11.98 [3.36, 41.4]) and knowledge of mothers on pregnancy and delivery services (AOR [95% CI] = 2.97[1.1, 8.6]) had significant associations with institutional delivery service utilization. Very low institutional delivery service utilization was observed in the study area. Majority of the births at home were assisted by family members and relatives. ANC visit and lack of knowledge on pregnancy and delivery services were found to

  14. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, North West of Ethiopia: A community - based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teferra Alemayehu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. The key to reducing maternal mortality ratio and improving maternal health is increasing attendance by skilled health personnel throughout pregnancy and delivery. However, delivery service is significantly lower in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors affecting institutional delivery service utilization among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers with birth in the last 12 months during August, 2010. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 371 participants. A pre tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The study indicated that 12.1% of the mothers delivered in health facilities. Of 87.9% mothers who gave birth at home, 80.0% of them were assisted by family members and relatives. The common reasons for home delivery were closer attention from family members and relatives (60.9%, home delivery is usual practice (57.7%, unexpected labour (33.4%, not being sick or no problem at the time of delivery (21.6% and family influence (14.4%. Being urban resident (AOR [95% CI] = 4.6 [1.91, 10.9], ANC visit during last pregnancy (AOR [95% CI] = 4.26 [1.1, 16.4], maternal education level (AOR [95%CI] =11.98 [3.36, 41.4] and knowledge of mothers on pregnancy and delivery services (AOR [95% CI] = 2.97[1.1, 8.6] had significant associations with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusions Very low institutional delivery service utilization was observed in the study area. Majority of the births at home were assisted by family members and relatives. ANC visit and lack of

  15. Responding to Demographic Change: What Do Suburban District Leaders Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrassouba, Nagnon; Johnson, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the demographic shifts in a medium-sized school district in West Michigan and the responses developed as a result of these changes during the last two decades. Findings indicated that the district's school demographics changed from being European American to minority dominant. As a result of these changes in student population…

  16. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  17. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1998-01-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  18. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea: Mecha District, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrheal disease is widely recognized as a major cause of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. There exist variations in explanatory variables of diarrhea depending on the context of the study. Objective: To examine the effects of selected ...

  19. Groundwater Quality in the Wassa West District of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. K. Kortatsi

    keep increasing annually to the extent that groundwater is becoming the principal and sometimes the only source ..... Thus, the threat to health from methemoglobinemia and nitrosamines is very low. .... Toxicity to the brain and nervous .... Emerging trends in gold processing and some related environmental issues in Ghana.

  20. Malaria in Bulambya, Ileje district, south-west Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, this disease has devastating impact on socio-economic development, as it perpetuates poverty and enhances underdevelopment. Globally, about 550 million people are at risk of contracting malaria with an annual total of between 250-450 million clinical cases reported, and an estimate of over one ...

  1. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea: Mecha District, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify predictors of childhood diarrhea. Results: The prevalence of diarrhea among mothers and under-five children was 8.2% and 18.0%, respectively. Maternal education (AOR=5.6, 95% CI: 1.5 - 19.4), maternal history of recent diarrhea (AOR, 5.5 ...

  2. Geographic disparities in state and district policies targeting youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-10-01

    States and school districts nationwide have enacted policies targeting youth obesity, but many policies lack specific requirements or enforcement language. Geographic disparities in youth obesity could worsen if policies are weaker in areas with higher obesity prevalence. To determine if state or district policy strength varies with youth obesity prevalence across Census divisions. Policies in five domains related to nutrition and physical activity in schools were obtained from all states and nationally representative samples of 578 and 592 public school districts in the 2006-2007 and 2008-2009 school years, respectively. Policy language strength was rated on a 0-100 scale on both the state and district level. Regression models were used to determine if mean 2006-2007 strength scores, and changes in mean scores from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009, were associated with youth obesity prevalence across Census divisions. Analyses were conducted in 2010. State and district policies governing foods sold outside of school meal programs ("competitive foods") were stronger in 2006-2007 in the two divisions with the highest youth obesity prevalence (East South Central, West South Central). Furthermore, mean competitive food policy strength increased the most from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 in these divisions. The West South Central had the weakest district physical education policies in 2006-2007, however, and was the only division in which average strength of district school meal policies decreased. State and districts in Census divisions with the highest youth obesity prevalence are taking steps to restrict competitive foods in schools, but many have not targeted other policy domains as aggressively. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  4. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  5. District nursing is vital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2016-08-03

    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  6. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  7. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  8. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  9. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  10. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  11. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  12. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  13. The Relationship between Schools' Costs per Pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework Index Scores in Clark County School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Clark County School District (CCSD) asked the Western Regional Education Laboratory (REL West) to examine the relationship between spending per pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework (NSPF) index scores in the district's schools. Data were examined from three school years (2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14) and for three types of schools…

  14. Reforming health service delivery at district level in Ghana: the perspective of a district medical officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyepong, I A

    1999-03-01

    Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa face the problem of organizing health service delivery in a manner that provides adequate quality and coverage of health care to their populations against a background of economic recession and limited resources. In response to these challenges, different governments, including that of Ghana, have been considering or are in the process of implementing varying degrees of reform in the health sector. This paper examines aspects of health services delivery, and trends in utilization and coverage, using routine data over time in the Dangme West district of the Greater Accra region of Ghana, from the perspective of a district health manager. Specific interventions through which health services delivery and utilization at district level could be improved are suggested. Suggestions include raising awareness among care providers and health managers that increased resource availability is only a success in so far as it leads to improvements in coverage, utilization and quality; and developing indicators of performance which assess and reward use of resources at the local level to improve coverage, utilization and quality. Also needed are more flexibility in Central Government regulations for resource allocation and use; integration of service delivery at district level with more decentralized planning to make services better responsive to local needs; changes in basic and inservice training strategies; and exploration of how the public and private sectors can effectively collaborate to achieve maximum coverage and quality of care within available resources.

  15. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

  16. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  17. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  18. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  19. 78 FR 19195 - RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629, Respondent, Mohammad Reza (a/k...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... relationship with RH International and that BIS believes naming him as a person related to RH International... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland... International, LLC On October 18, 2012, in the U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida Tampa Division...

  20. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  1. A preliminary report of geochemical investigations in the Blackbird District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, F.C.; Hawkes, H.E.; Richmond, G.M.; Vhay, J. S.

    1953-01-01

    This paper reviews an experimental geochemical prospecting survey in the Blackbird cobalt-copper mining district. The district is in east-central Idaho, about 20 miles west-southwest of Salmon. The area is one of deeply weathered nearly flat-topped upland surfaces cut by steep-walled valleys which are tributary to the canyon of Panther Creek. Most of the area has a relatively heavy vegetative cover, and outcrops are scarce except on the sides of the steeper valleys* Because of the importance of the surficial deposits and soils and the physiographic history of the region on the interpretation of the geochemical data, a separate chapter on this subject by Gerald H. Richmond follows the following brief description of the geology of the district.

  2. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  3. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  4. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  5. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  6. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District... Ventura County. (l) Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County...

  7. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  8. A first note on Japanese encephalitis virus isolation from Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Northern West Bengal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Thenmozhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is endemic in many parts of India including the state of West Bengal. In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973. The Culex vishnui subgroup of mosquitoes has been implicated as major vectors of JE. However in India, JE virus (JEV has been isolated from 16 species of mosquitoes. During September 2011, JE cases were reported from four districts -Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Dinajpur and Cooch Behar of West Bengal (North. Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified, pooled and screened for JEV using antigen capture ELISA. Out of 279 mosquito pools tested, one pool of Cx. pseudovishnui and three pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found positive for JEV. The ELISA positive pools were further confirmed as JEV by insect bioassay (Toxo-IFA. Two pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were confirmed as JEV. This represents the first report of JEV isolation from Cx. quinquefasciatus in West Bengal.

  9. Financial Inclusion in India: A case-study of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Sadhan Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The study observes that although there has been an improvement in outreach activity in the banking sector, the achievement in respect of financial inclusion is not significant in West Bengal. An index of financial inclusion (IFI) has been developed in the study using data on three dimensions of financial inclusion. It is revealed from the index that Kolkata district leads with the highest value of IFI, while rest of the districts show a very low level of financial inclusion. This implies that...

  10. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  11. The Management of Sexual Assault Victims at Odi District Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This six-month study at Odi Hospital in the district of Mabopane in the North-West Province was undertaken to gain insight into the way in which alleged sexual assault victims experienced the treatment they received from doctors, nurses and others and how the quality of the care they received can be improved.

  12. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  13. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  14. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  15. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  16. A Tale of Two Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  17. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  18. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  19. DISTRIBUTION AND INCIDENCE LEAF DISEASES OF BANANA IN SEVERAL BANANA PRODUCTION CENTERS IN NORTH SUMATRA, WEST SUMATRA BENGKULU AND WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra, Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra, Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu, Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.

  20. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1976-01-01

    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  1. Class ranking of secondary schools in the North West province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model also provides for the construction of a step-by-step improvement plan for underperforming schools. The suggested framework was applied to 54 secondary schools in one of the four major municipal districts in the North West province of South Africa. Results are contrasted with the application of an ordinary DEA ...

  2. Registration and management of community patients with tuberculosis in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cai, J.; Wang, D.; Wang, Q.; Liang, H.; Ma, A.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the registration, management and characteristics of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in north-west China, and investigate whether patients with TB were diagnosed and treated in a timely manner.STUDY DESIGN: Health-facility-based retrospective data were collected from district

  3. 77 FR 76415 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Area is composed of Cabell and Wayne Counties and the Graham Tax District in Mason County in West... reviewing SIP submissions, EPA's role is to approve state choices, provided that they meet the criteria of... notes that it will not impose substantial direct costs on tribal governments or preempt tribal law. B...

  4. Basic school dropout in Ghana: a case study of the Amansie West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the increasing cost of education the persistent phenomenon of school dropout has become a constant worry to all stakeholders. The focus of this paper was to assess the trend of basic school dropout in Amansie West, a predominantly rural district in Ghana and to further determine the main causes and policy ...

  5. 76 FR 55541 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia: Kentucky; Ohio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Cabell and Wayne Counties in their entireties and a portion of Mason County (Graham Tax District) in West... reasonable further progress (RFP) plan, contingency measures, and other planning State Implementation Plan... Regulatory Development Section, Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, U.S...

  6. Determinants of Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship of Farmers in West Bengal : A Structural Equations Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Dutta, Subrata; Oud, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  7. Determinants of rural industrial entrepreneurship of farmers in West Bengal: A structural equations approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Dutta, S.; Oud, J.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  8. Modelling the impact of rural migration on tropical deforestation in South-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, Anton; Debonne, N.; Vanmaercke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A major driver of tropical deforestation is rural frontier migration. In this paper an attempt is made to formally describe the human-environment interactions that are manifested in a forested system experiencing a large influx of rural migrants. The Guraferda district in South-West Ethiopia was

  9. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some years ago, I discussed (Winterbottom 1959) the limits of the zoogeographical district well named by Chapin (1923) the South West Arid and extended it eastward to include the highveld grasslands of the Transvaal and Orange Free State which Chapin had excluded. Later, I (Winter- bottom 1966) considered its ...

  10. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  11. VT Data - Overlay District 20170419, Colchester

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...

  12. VT Data - Overlay District 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...

  13. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  14. Empowerment model of biomass in west java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, C.; Fitriani, N. I.; Saad, A.; Yuliah, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the search of renewable energy sources as the substitution. In West Java, biomass has potential to be developed into bio-briquette because the resources are abundant. The objectives of this research are mapping the potency of biomass as bio-briquette in West Java, and making the model of the empowerment biomass potential involving five fundamental step which are raw material, pre-processing process, conversion mechanism, products, and end user. The main object of this model focused on 3 forms which are solid, liquid, and gas which was made by involving the community component as the owner biomass, district government, academics and researcher communities, related industries as users of biomass, and the central government as the policy holders and investors as a funder. In the model was described their respective roles and mutual relationship one with another so that the bio-briquette as a substitute of fossil fuels can be realized. Application of this model will provide the benefits in renewability energy sources, environmental, socio economical and energy security.

  15. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  16. Geology and fluorspar deposits, Northgate district, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1960-01-01

    The fluorspar deposits in the Northgate district, Jackson County, Colo., are among the largest in Western United States. The mines were operated intermittently during the 1920's and again during World War II, but production during these early periods of operation was not large. Mining was begun on a larger scale in 1951, and the district has assumed a prominent position among the fluorspar producers in the United States. Within the Northgate district, Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks crop out largely in the Medicine Bow Mountains, and later sedimentary rocks underlie North Park and fill old stream valleys in the mountains. The metamorphic rocks constitute a gneiss complex that formed under progressively changing conditions of regional metamorphism. They consist principally of hornblende-plagioclase gneiss (hornblende gneiss), quartz monzonite gneiss, pegmatite, biotite-garnet-quartz-plagioclase gneiss (biotite-garnet gneiss), hornblende-biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss (hornblende-biotite gneiss) and mylonite gneiss. The igneous rocks comprise some local fine-grained dacite porphyry dikes near the west margin of the district, and a quartz monzonitic stock and associated dikes in the central and eastern parts of the district. The sedimentary rocks in the district range in age from Permian to Recent. Folded Permian and Mesozoic rocks underlie the basin of North Park, and consist in sequence from oldest to youngest, of Satanka(?) shale (0-50 feet of brick-red shale) and Forelle(?) limestone (8-15 feet of pink to light-gray laminated limestone) of Permian age, Chugwater formation of Permian and Triassic age (690 feet of red silty shale and sandstone), Sundance formation of Late Jurassic age (145 feet of sandstone containing some shale and limestone), Morrison formation of Late Jurassic age (445 feet of variegated shale and minor sandstone and limestone), Dakota group as used by Lee (1927), now considered to be of Early Cretaceous age in this area (200

  17. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  18. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  19. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  20. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  2. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  3. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  4. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  6. District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe

    2014-01-01

    We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we sh...

  7. Prevention of rock bursts at the West mine; Gebirgsschlagverhuetung auf dem Bergwerk West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braick, Helmut; Bartel, Ralf [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Bergwerk West, Kamp-Lintfort (Germany); Baltz, Ruediger [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Essen (Germany). Fachsstelle fuer Gebirgsschlagverhuetung

    2011-08-15

    An unusually comprehensive stress-relief measure to eliminate a detected rock burst hazard in the Girondelle seam at the West mine clearly shows that an increase in the stress-relief cases must also be anticipated in the seam horizons, which were regarded as relatively uncritical in the recent past. An overall depth trend is recognisable in the Ruhr district. The combination of greater depth and higher strength of the enclosing rock and the more extensive pressure-increasing factors such as working boundaries and residual pillars clearly increases the probability of critical rock stresses in the vicinity of mine workings. The system applied in the German coal mining industry to detect and eliminate critical rock stresses ensures with a correct expert procedure that rock bursts do not occur and protection of personnel can thus be ensured despite extremely difficult conditions as in the stress-relief case in the Girondelle seam. (orig.)

  8. Increasing trend of Japanese encephalitis cases in West Bengal, India - a threat to paediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Taraphdar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV as the etiologic agent from the acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases mainly amongst the children and young adults from vaccinated and non-vaccinated districts of West Bengal. Methods: For the detection of JEV, a total of 828 sera were referred from vaccinated and non vaccinated districts of West Bengal during 2005-2011. Japanese encephalitis (JE positive cases were confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR method. Results: Out of 828 cases, 245 samples were positive by ELISA method and 46 samples were positive by RT-PCR method. Out of 291 total positive cases, 162 (55.6% were below 20 years of age. Initially in 2005, JE cases were highest amongst the children and young adults (0-20 years. After vaccination, although the JE cases declined gradually in the vaccinated districts, but again from 2010, JE cases from the said age group showed an increasing trend from those districts. JE cases were also reported from other endemic zones of this state, which were still non-vaccinated. Conclusions: In West Bengal, JE cases are still predominated among children and young adults till the year 2011. Mass scale vaccination programme and investigation on the circulating strains are essentially required to find out the reasons of increasing tendency of JE cases in this state.

  9. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-28

    resume of his 5 years on the job. Jagmetti makes use of a revealing image in assessing his job. "Given the choice of attending a lecture on the global ...the Netherlands and in West Germany with Hawk and now also Patriot surface-to-air guided missiles. The Nike will be phased out within the...becomes obsolete, it should be modernized to fly for another 20-25 years. This kind of thing is very common in the navy, but it is a brand new idea

  10. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  11. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  12. Improving district heating in Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  13. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  14. Robust small area estimation of poverty indicators using M-quantile approach (Case study: Sub-district level in Bogor district)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girinoto, Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2017-03-01

    The National Socio-Economic Survey samples are designed to produce estimates of parameters of planned domains (provinces and districts). The estimation of unplanned domains (sub-districts and villages) has its limitation to obtain reliable direct estimates. One of the possible solutions to overcome this problem is employing small area estimation techniques. The popular choice of small area estimation is based on linear mixed models. However, such models need strong distributional assumptions and do not easy allow for outlier-robust estimation. As an alternative approach for this purpose, M-quantile regression approach to small area estimation based on modeling specific M-quantile coefficients of conditional distribution of study variable given auxiliary covariates. It obtained outlier-robust estimation from influence function of M-estimator type and also no need strong distributional assumptions. In this paper, the aim of study is to estimate the poverty indicator at sub-district level in Bogor District-West Java using M-quantile models for small area estimation. Using data taken from National Socioeconomic Survey and Villages Potential Statistics, the results provide a detailed description of pattern of incidence and intensity of poverty within Bogor district. We also compare the results with direct estimates. The results showed the framework may be preferable when direct estimate having no incidence of poverty at all in the small area.

  15. The spirit of democracy in the implementation of public information policy at the provincial government of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoraida, D. F.; Asmawi, A.; Anwar, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    This article analyses the implementation of Law Number 14/2008 on Public Information Disclosure on the Provincial Government of West Java. This descriptive-qualitative study presents a discussion of the spirit of democracy in the implementation of the abovem-entioned policy in West Java Province. With the theory of policy implementation and democratization, data obtains that the element of democratic spirit in the implementation of public information policy in the government of West Java is quite thick. Therefore, there must be a massification of the implementation of the law in West Java, especially its socialization to districts/cities and society in general. It was found that the democratization of the West Java Provincial Government in implementing the Act has been well received in the community. However, the lack of publicity about this Law can reduce the strength of moral messages that exist in the law to the public.

  16. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  17. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  18. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  19. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  20. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  2. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  3. Nation, Districts Step up Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

  4. Marketing Techniques for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

  5. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  6. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district 1,...

  7. VT Data - Overlay District 20170228, Richmond

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following overlay districts are included in the data:Shoreline Protection OverlayFlood Hazard OverlayDetails about these overlay districts, as well as zoning...

  8. Modeling spatial invasion of Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Jeremy P; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2017-09-07

    The 2014-2016 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest ever recorded, representing a fundamental shift in Ebola epidemiology with unprecedented spatiotemporal complexity. To understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of EVD in West Africa, we developed spatial transmission models using a gravity-model framework at both the national and district-level scales, which we used to compare effectiveness of local interventions (e.g. local quarantine) and long-range interventions (e.g. border-closures). The country-level gravity model captures the epidemic data, including multiple waves of initial epidemic growth observed in Guinea. We found that local-transmission reductions were most effective in Liberia, while long-range transmission was dominant in Sierra Leone. Both models illustrated that interventions in one region result in an amplified protective effect on other regions by preventing spatial transmission. In the district-level model, interventions in the strongest of these amplifying regions reduced total cases in all three countries by over 20%, in spite of the region itself generating only ∼0.1% of total cases. This model structure and associated intervention analysis provide information that can be used by public health policymakers to assist planning and response efforts for future epidemics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  10. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  11. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (2) changes in the relative position of existing districts with respect to onion production; (3) the... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... Districts. (a) For the purpose of selecting committee members, the following districts of the production...

  12. Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

  13. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  14. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grower districts. 982.31 Section 982.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... importance of production in each district and the number of growers in each district; (2) the geographic...

  15. Conflict Management in Declining School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; Wheaton, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Professional literature about managing conflicts associated with declining enrollments indicates the existing tension in this area. A research study shows that, while upper-middle class districts may succeed using a rational approach to decision making, lower class districts, for various reasons, may not. Special problems of urban districts are…

  16. Regional District Attorney's Offices - Alaska Department of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    District Stephen B. Wallace, District Attorney Physical Address: 204 Chief Eddie Hoffman Hwy. Bethel, AK Hours M-TH 8-4:30, F 8-12 Kenai - 3rd Judicial District Scot H. Leaders, District Attorney Trading Bay

  17. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Shallow, well- Deep alluvial Deep to moderate Mostly shallow drained, residual soils, with clay, depth... neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of the wine produced in that area. Requirements Section 4.25... Adelaida District viticultural area are hillside residual soils, which generally have shallow rooting...

  18. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  19. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  20. A Profile of the North West Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the North West. Most of the data presented are draw...

  1. Impacts of Freshwater Impoundment in the West Loch of Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    absence of applicable non-point standards, the "Yellow Book" criteria for freshwater aquatic life or domestic water supply could be applied to evaluate the...Waimalu, Waipahu, Wahiawa, and Ewa water use districts and contains the largest groundwater body on Oahu, supplying more than 50 percent of the island’s...irrigation; desalt existing brackish water supplies, and; 3 create a freshwater impoundment in West Loch. 6I I I The Board of Water Supply (BWS) and

  2. La Défense, a Unique Business District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La Défense, the main business cluster of the Paris metropolitan area, had been planned and developed under the impulse of the 1950 onwards. Situated on the historic axis in the west of the city of Paris on the territory of the suburban French State from municipalities of Puteaux and Courbevoie, the basic urban planning principles of this district are strongly influenced by the concepts of the international modern urbanism of this period. The text describes the origin and the development of the site from the project in the 1950s to the construction in the 1960s until the first economic difficulties in the 1970s. It further gives in inside in the recent developments and adjustments of the initial constructions.

  3. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... To furnish a means whereby appropriate international medical and health organisations may transmit information to medical scientists in medical institutions of West Africa and elsewhere.

  4. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an ... In fact, a study in Zambia, which discussed ... als in West Africa via pre and post didactic examinations .... teaching tools for the participants who came from a va-.

  5. Nuclear power for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Sochaski, R.O.

    1975-09-01

    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  6. Planning environmental restoration in the North Bohemian uranium district, Czech Republic: Progress report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, J.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium ores have been mined in Bohemian Massif in different mining districts i.e. in West Bohemia, Pribram region and Middle Bohemia, Rozna district and in Straz pod Ralskem district. The latter is represented by stratiform sandstone type of deposit where acid in-situ leaching has been applied as mining method since 1968. More than 4 million tons of leaching acids have been injected into the ore bearing sandstones. The district falls in an area of natural water protection in North Bohemian Cretaceous platform. A complex evaluation of negative impact of uranium mining and milling in this area has been clearly articulated in Government Decrees Nos.:366/92, 429/93, 244/95 and 170/96. A special declining regime of mining has been ordered for the implementation of which together with the Government Commission of Experts a remediation programme has been designed and put into operation in 1996. The uranium producer DIAMO a.s. prepared a Concept of Restoration of the area affected by in-situ leaching and MEGA a.s. has prepared the Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.) according to the law No.244/1992. The Ministry of the Environment issued an Environmental Impact Statement which included evaluation of the condition of mining and restoration programme because both activities will influence the environment of the district. (author)

  7. Stratigraphy of Slick Rock district and vicinity, San Miguel and Dolores Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Daniel R.; Simmons, George C.; Archbold, Norbert L.

    1968-01-01

    The Slick Rock district covers about 570 square miles in western San Miguel and Dolores Counties, in southwestern Colorado. It is at the south edge of the salt-anticline region of southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah and of the Uravan mineral belt.Deposition of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the district and vicinity was principally controlled by development of the Paradox Basin, and of Mesozoic rocks by development of a depositional basin farther west. The Paleozoic rocks generally are thickest at the northeast side of the Paradox Basin in a northwest- trending trough which seems to be a wide graben in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement rocks; Mesozoic rocks generally thicken westward and southwestward from the district.Sedimentary rocks rest on a Precambrian basement consisting of a variety of rocks, including granite and amphibolite. The surface of the Precambrian rocks is irregular and generally more than 2,000 feet below sea level and 7,000-11,000 feet below the ground surface. In the northern part of the district the Precambrian surface plunges abruptly northeastward into the trough occupying the northeast side of the Paradox Basin, and in the southern part it sags in a narrow northeasterly oriented trough. Deepening of both troughs, or crustal deformation in their vicinity, influenced sedimentation during much of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic time.The maximum total thickness of sedimentary rocks underlying the district is 13,000 feet, and prior to extensive erosion in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary it may have been as much as about 18,000 feet. The lower 5,000 feet or more of the sequence of sedimentary rocks consists of arenaceous strata of early Paleozoic age overlain by dominantly marine carbonate rocks and evaporite beds interbedded with lesser amounts of clastic sediments of late Paleozoic age. Overlying these rocks is about 4,500 feet of terrestrial clastic sediments, dominantly sandstone with lesser amounts of shale, mudstone

  8. Guidelines for District Heating Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The present guidelines contain a set of recommendations focusing on planning, installation, use and maintenance of district heating (DH) substations within district heating systems throughout Europe. The recommendations were developed in order to enable readers to develop well-functioning substations and an effective heat and domestic warm water delivery. These guidelines are intended to give the most effective overall solutions for various parts of the customer installation. The guidelines are not meant to specify the different components of the substation such as meters or heat exchangers. The guidelines deal with a wide variety of issues concerning both present systems of today and district heating systems of the future. Specific handling and maintenance recommendations are mainly focused on present modern systems but are also intended to cover the future situation as much as is feasible. For this reason, certain existing systems are not dealt with in these guidelines. For instance, these guidelines do not cover steam systems, systems with temperatures exceeding 110 deg C and pressure levels above 1.6 MPa. The guidelines include a chapter on the heat meter, as the meter and especially the meter installation is always installed simultaneously with the rest of the substation. These guidelines aim to provide best-practice and easy-to-handle recommendations for: - those who are responsible for relations between district heating utilities and customers; - those who own or maintain a building connected to the district heating network; - those who manufacture, plan, purchase, test and install substations. These guidelines do not deal with investment or cost aspects, but in general, Euroheat and Power recommends looking at the lifetime cost of all components of the substation, instead of investment costs alone. An example of this is provided in Chapter 7.8. The Guidelines were developed based on the most optimal operating principles of substations and meters

  9. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  10. Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India--a review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Chowdhury, U K; Mukherjee, S C; Mondal, B K; Paul, K; Lodh, D; Biswas, B K; Chanda, C R; Basu, G K; Saha, K C; Roy, S; Das, R; Palit, S K; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D

    2001-01-01

    Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of 50 districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal are 118,849 km2 and 104.9 million and 38,865 km2 and 42.7 million, respectively. Our current data show arsenic levels above 50 microg/ L in 2000 villages, 178 police stations of 50 affected districts in Bangladesh and 2600 villages, 74 police stations/blocks of 9 affected districts in West Bengal. We have so far analyzed 34,000 and 101,934 hand tube-well water samples from Bangladesh and West Bengal respectively by FI-HG-AAS of which 56% and 52%, respectively, contained arsenic above 10 microg/L and 37% and 25% arsenic above 50 microg/L. In our preliminary study 18,000 persons in Bangladesh and 86,000 persons in West Bengal were clinically examined in arsenic-affected districts. Of them, 3695 (20.6% including 6.11% children) in Bangladesh and 8500 (9.8% including 1.7% children) in West Bengal had arsenical dermatological features. Symptoms of chronic arsenic toxicity developed insidiously after 6 months to 2 years or more of exposure. The time of onset depends on the concentration of arsenic in the drinking water, volume of intake, and the health and nutritional status of individuals. Major dermatological signs are diffuse or spotted melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Chronic arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder. Apart from generalized weakness, appetite and weight loss, and anemia, our patients had symptoms relating to involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver, spleen, genitourinary system, hemopoietic system, eyes, nervous system, and cardiovascular system. We found evidence of arsenic neuropathy in 37.3% (154 of 413 cases) in one group and 86.8% (33 of 38 cases) in another. Most of these cases had mild and predominantly sensory neuropathy. Central nervous system involvement

  11. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  12. Data on soil PH of Barddhaman district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta Bid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PH (Puissance de Hydrogen is an essential ingredient of soil that effects on fertility and productivity of dirt. Barddhaman district is a part of Lower Gangetic Plain fully covered by alluvial soil and popularly known as ‘rice bowl of West Bengal’ owing to its lofty production. This data article provides a block level data on soil PH that is essential for further investigation of the relationship among soil ph, plant growth, plant health and productivity. This data is valuable in the field of soil geography and soil science. Soil PH data is more relevant in the ground of plant biology, agricultural geography and agricultural science. It helps to explain the acidic and alkaline nature of alluvial soil. The data consist of 195 samples (n=195 taken from the entire district. Samples have been collected from March, 2014 to March, 2015 and experimented in the laboratory. Theoretically PH value is limited within 0–14. Experiment result exemplifies the highest value 8.5 found in Khandaghosh block whereas lowest value is 4.5 and the samples which result in lowest value are gathered from 4 different blocks like Manteswar, Burdwan - II, Barabani and Salanpur.

  13. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the 2014 Ebola Epidemic in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantien A Backer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014-2016, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa experienced the largest and longest Ebola epidemic since the discovery of the virus in 1976. During the epidemic, incidence data were collected and published at increasing resolution. To monitor the epidemic as it spread within and between districts, we develop an analysis method that exploits the full spatiotemporal resolution of the data by combining a local model for time-varying effective reproduction numbers with a gravity-type model for spatial dispersion of the infection. We test this method in simulations and apply it to the weekly incidences of confirmed and probable cases per district up to June 2015, as reported by the World Health Organization. Our results indicate that, of the newly infected cases, only a small percentage, between 4% and 10%, migrates to another district, and a minority of these migrants, between 0% and 23%, leave their country. The epidemics in the three countries are found to be similar in estimated effective reproduction numbers, and in the probability of importing infection into a district. The countries might have played different roles in cross-border transmissions, although a sensitivity analysis suggests that this could also be related to underreporting. The spatiotemporal analysis method can exploit available longitudinal incidence data at different geographical locations to monitor local epidemics, determine the extent of spatial spread, reveal the contribution of local and imported cases, and identify sources of introductions in uninfected areas. With good quality data on incidence, this data-driven method can help to effectively control emerging infections.

  14. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Saguaro National Park, Tucson Mountain District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive inventory of plants and vertebrates at the Tucson Mountain District (TMD) of Saguaro National Park, Arizona. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at the district to document the presence of species within its boundaries. Park staff also carried out extensive infrared-triggered camera work for medium and large mammals from 2002-2005 and results from that effort are reported here. Our spatial sampling design for all taxa employed a combination of random and nonrandom survey sites. Survey effort was greatest for medium and large mammals and herpetofauna. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field methods, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for the district. We also provide an overview of previous survey efforts in the district. We use data from our inventory and other surveys to compile species lists and to assess inventory completeness. The survey effort for herpetofauna, birds, and medium and large mammals was the most comprehensive ever undertaken in the district. We recorded a total of 320 plant and vertebrate species, including 21 species not previously found in the district (Table 1). Based on a review of our inventory and past research at the district, there have been a total of 723 species of plants and vertebrates found there. We believe inventories for most taxonomic groups are nearly complete. Based on our surveys, we believe the native plant and vertebrate community compositions of the district are relatively intact, though some species loss has occurred and threats are increasing, particularly to herpetofauna and larger mammals. Of particular note is the relatively small number of non-native species and their low abundance in the district, which is in contrast to many nearby natural areas. Rapidly expanding development on the west, north, and east sides of

  15. Accountability in district nursing practice: key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Public trust and confidence in district nurses is essential to the nurse-patient relationship that underpins effective care and treatment. That trust and confidence has even greater focus for district nurses who care for patients in their own homes. Those patients need to be able to count on the professionalism and probity of their district nurses. The professionalism and probity of district nurses is based on their accountability, which protects the public by imposing standards on district nurses and holds them answerable for their acts and omissions. This is the first of a series of articles on accountability in district nursing practice to mark the introduction of the revised Nursing and Midwifery Code on the 31 March 2015. This month's article considers the key concepts of accountability.

  16. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  17. A good year for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, high prices on electric power have caused economic progress for the district heating companies. The price of district heating is determined by the prices of power and fuel oil. However, the government wants to remove the tax on electricity to the industry, which is the district heating companies' major group of customers, along with public buildings. This is likely to entail a great loss of income

  18. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, B.; Bauer, A.; Kraut, G.; Scherberich, F.D.

    1975-08-01

    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.) [de

  19. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  20. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (e) District 5 shall include the counties of San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Merced, Stanislaus, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara...

  1. Reinstating district nursing: A UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    As policy directives gather pace for service provision to be delivered in primary care, district nursing has not been recognised as a valuable asset to facilitate this agenda. Investment in district nursing and specialist district nursing education has fallen. This is concurrent with an ageing district nursing workforce, a lack of recruitment and growing caseloads, as district nursing adapts to meet the challenges of the complexities of contemporary healthcare in the community. The district nurse role is complex and multifaceted and includes working collaboratively and creatively to coordinate care. Redressing the shortages of specialist district nurse practitioners with increased numbers of health care support workers will not replace the skill, knowledge, experience required to meet the complex care needs of today's society. District nursing needs to be reinstated as the valuable asset it is, through renewed investment in the service, research development and in specialist practice education. To prevent extinction district nurses need to be able to demonstrate and articulate the complexities and dynamisms of the role to reinstate themselves to their commissioners as a valuable asset for contemporary practice that can meet current health and social care needs effectively. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  3. District Fiscal Policy and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.

  4. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  5. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  6. Uranium districts in South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Tukiainen, T.; Wallin, B.

    1981-01-01

    A short review is given of reconnaissance work in South Greenland. The work has demonstrated that there are areas in the Motzfeldt centre of at least 1 km 2 with continuously high radioactivity. If the uranium content of these radioactive zones are sufficiently high, then potential ore tonnages could prove to be substantial. The reconnaissance exploration has proved that uranium mineralization is widely distributed in the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq district. It is, no doubt, responsible for the high uranium values in the exploration geochemical samples. Although the size of the pitchblende occurences which have been found so far are small, the high grade of the mineralisation, the great frequency of the fracturing and the evidence for an all pervasive mineralising event over a wide area indicate that there is a good possibility of finding economic mineralisation within the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq area. The area as a whole may, perhaps, be termed a ''uranium mineral district''. As the potential targets are small, only detailed follow-up exploration will establish this. At the same time more detailed work on individual showings, and geological mapping to demonstrate the relative ages of the various petrological and mineralising events, will establish the possible origin of this uranium mineralisation. (author)

  7. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinagel, Tyler P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  8. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  9. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  10. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... District § 3.25-1 Fifth district. (a) The District Office is in Portsmouth, Va. (b) The Fifth Coast Guard District is comprised of: North Carolina; Virginia; District of Columbia; Maryland; Delaware; that part of... boundary at the shoreline at the North Carolina-South Carolina border, point located at approximately 30°55...

  11. Spread of Ebola virus disease based on the density of roads in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gomez-Barroso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available On March 23rd 2014 the World Health Organization announced that a new Ebola outbreak had appeared in West Africa involving three countries. The objective of this study was to show how a road density index (RDI could be constructed and a study of its association with Ebola cases during the outbreak. The study was carried out at the district level across the affected countries. RDI was calculated by km2 of territory as a proxy for the mobility of the population. To calculate this index, the number of km of road constructed in each district was estimated and subsequently divided by the area of each district expressed in km2. The accumulated incidence of Ebola was calculated per district. A generalised linear model with a Poisson distribution was used. The RDI varied from 0.12 to 0.84 between the districts. An RDI increase of 0.01 indicates a 3% increase in Ebola infection risk (RR is 1.03; CI 1.03-1.04. The density of the road network can influence the increased incidence of Ebola cases in the affected zone. An exhaustive mapping of the area could help the relevant organisations to manage another outbreak in the future and it could help the distribution of resources in an emergency situation.

  12. Mosquito politics: local vector control policies and the spread of West Nile Virus in the Chicago region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Carmen; Ruiz, Marilyn; McLafferty, Sara

    2010-11-01

    Differences in mosquito control practices at the local level involve the interplay of place, scale and politics. During the Chicago West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak of 2002, mosquito abatement districts represent distinct suburban clusters of human WNV cases, independent of characteristics of the local population, housing and physical environment. We examine how the contrasting actions of four districts reveal a distinct local politics of mosquito control that may have contributed to local-scale geographic differences in WNV incidence. This politics is rooted in political, economic and philosophical differences within and between administrative boundaries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indigenous West Nile virus infections in horses in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berxholi, K; Ziegler, U; Rexhepi, A; Schmidt, K; Mertens, M; Korro, K; Cuko, A; Angenvoort, J; Groschup, M H

    2013-11-01

    Serum samples collected from 167 equines of 12 districts in Albania were tested for West Nile virus-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay, using WNV lineage 1 and 2. In addition, 95 bird serum samples from Albania and 29 horse samples from Kosovo were tested in ELISA. An overall seroprevalence rate of 22% was found in horses from Albania, whereas no specific antibodies were found in the equine samples from Kosovo and the bird samples. This is the first report indicating WNV infections in animals in Albania, and the first reported seroprevalence study conducted for Kosovo. These results provide evidence for widespread infections of WNV in Albania. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Analysis of Parental Involvement and Self-Esteem on Secondary School Students in Kieni West Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairimu, Mburu Josephine; Macharia, Susan M.; Muiru, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement and the self-esteem among adolescents in secondary school students in Kieni West District in Nyeri County. It was guided by Self Determination Theory (SDT) by James William and Baumrind Theory of Parenting Styles by Diana Blumberg Baumrind. Some of the gaps identified in the…

  15. State and district policy influences on district-wide elementary and middle school physical education practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eyler, Amy; Carnoske, Cheryl; Slater, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the influence of state laws and district policies on district-wide elementary school and middle school practices related to physical education (PE) time and the percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time during PE. Multivariate, cross-sectional analysis of state laws, district wellness and PE policies, and district PE practices for school year 2010-2011 controlling for district-level urbanicity, region, size, race/ethnicity of students, and socioeconomic status and clustered on state. One hundred ninety-five public school districts located in 42 states. District-level PE coordinators for the included districts who responded to an online survey. Minutes and days of PE per week and percent time spent in MVPA during PE time. District PE coordinators reported significantly less PE time than national standards-82.9 and 189.6 minutes at the elementary school and middle school levels, respectively. Physical education was provided an average of 2.5 and 3.7 days per week, respectively; and the percentage of MVPA time in PE was 64.4% and 65.7%, respectively. At the elementary school level, districts in either states with laws governing PE time or in a state and district with a law/policy reported significantly more days of PE (0.63 and 0.67 additional days, respectively), and districts in states with PE time laws reported 18 more minutes of PE per week. At the middle school level, state laws were associated with 0.73 more days of PE per week. Neither state laws nor district policies were positively associated with percent MVPA time in PE. State laws and district policies can influence district-level PE practices-particularly those governing the frequency and duration of PE-although opportunities exist to strengthen PE-related laws, policies, and practices.

  16. Crafting Legitimacy in District-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechasseur, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Partnering across districts, schools, and other community organizations has become ubiquitous as a policy for promoting change. Despite growing attention to and scholarship on district-community partnerships, there is little examination of the organizational mechanisms involved in sustaining them. Purpose/Objectives: This study…

  17. Smallholder agricultural technology development in Soroti district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    National Agricultural Advisory and Development Services (NAADS) in Soroti district. The study shows that .... important additions are HIV/AIDS, basic principles of nutrition ... in supplying inputs to farmers and technology delivery, while the .... Table 3. Social differentiation of NAADS and FFS groups in Soroti district 2004.

  18. Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

  19. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  20. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  1. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  2. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  3. the creation of new districts in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    However, it focuses also on the financial burden that these newly created districts place on the locality and ..... Reports on one of the newly created districts paint a grim picture: “For more than 10 .... of the Consolidated Fund for such grants.80.

  4. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  5. Salaryfax for Nine Districts 1972-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the nine metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; El Paso, Texas; Memphis, Tennessee; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation…

  6. Collaborative Strategic Decision Making in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…

  7. Farmers behavior on using fertilizer in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Tomy; Renaldy, Eddy; Utami, Hesty Nurul; Sadeli, Agriani Hermita; Mahra Arari, H.; Ginanjar, Tetep; Ajeng Sesy N., P.; Fernianda Rahayu, H.; Sanjaya, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Fertilizer is one of the important materials in farming system to improve quality and quantity of harvest. Most of farmers in Indonesia using fertilizer, one of substantial fertilizer is NPK that contain of complex nutrient, there are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. There are tendency for farmers using NPK based on quality products and speed of decomposition. Nowadays, market size for NPK fertilizer has been dramatically increase and it will impact on intensify of fertilizer use. The potential requirement in marketing does not balanced with consumer behavior analysis. Meanwhile, agricultural sector (include horticulture, floriculture, bio-pharmacy and plantation) have been wieldly increase of the farming system annualy. This research is study case which is analyzed local NPK fertilizer competitive advantage compared to imported NPK fertilizer through consumer point of view towards product quality in four districts in West Java province, i.e., West Bandung, Garut, Bogor and Cianjur District with target respondents are farmers who use NPK fertilizer. NPK fertilizer qualities are based on product attributes, which are; availability, nutrient content, price, basic ingredients, form of fertilizer, speed of decomposition, label, color, type, design and size of packaging. It was analyzed using sematic differential attitude models and multi attribute attitude snake diagram model. The evaluation ranking of consumers interests towards fertilizer attribute characteristics showed that consumer intention before deciding to buy or use a NPK fertilizer will consider nutrient content, speed of decomposition, form of fertilizer and availability of products. Consumer's attitude towards all NPK fertilizer attribute quality illustrated that imported fertilizer is considered to be more positive than local fertilizer. Fertilizer companies or industries should be able to maintain their fertilizer production especially concerning nutrient content and availability of products through a

  8. Cover Crops in West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sasakawa Global 2000 — Bénin, 04 BP 1091, Cotonou, Benin ..... and West African farmers have been remarkably creative with GMCCs, developing and ...... Journal d'agriculture tropicale et de botanique appliquée, 4(5). ...... political; the best approach is therefore thought to be to accept this limitation and work with it.

  9. West Virginia's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  10. West Virginia's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  11. West Virginia's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; B.J. Butler; G.W. Cook

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  12. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and. Cellular Immune Responses. Lymphadénite Tuberculeuse: Peau Réaction d'hypersensibilité Retardée de Type et les Réponses. Immunitaires Cellulaires. E. A. G. Khalil†*, A. A. Elnour†, A. M. Musa†, ...

  13. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  14. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  15. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  16. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  17. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  18. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  19. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  20. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  1. West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  3. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  4. Sustainable residential districts : the residents' role in project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable residential districts have been realized worldwide. These districts are promoted to be efficient in the use of natural materials and sustainable energy resources. Realization of sustainable residential districts can strongly contribute to achieve environmental objectives as imposed by

  5. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  6. Greated era of volcanic front in Middle Kyushu and Western Chugoku districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hirotake; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Koyaguchi, Takehiro

    1987-10-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the era when the creation of the volcanos commenced which were extending from north-east to south west, by using the K-Ar age of volcanic rocks which were continuously distributed from middle Kyushu to San-in district and which were mainly composed of amphibole andesite. By comparing with geological map, relation with the stratigraphic order of layers at Yabakei, Himejima and Aono were considered. It was concluded that, in every place, the vocanic activities commenced much later era than creation of basement rock. It was also recognized that, by studying the relation with Phillipine Plate, deep earthquake was related with the volcanic front of south west Japan arc. (8 figs, 2 tabs, 14 refs)

  7. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  8. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  9. Mobility and Access for Off-Road Rural Farmers in West-Akim District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is on the rural transportation problem in Ghana and its consequences on the rural people, especially those who live in off road villages (villages that do not have access to regular transportation systems). The study specifically discusses the failure of the existing road transport network to provide sufficient services ...

  10. Malaria Prevalence and Vector Presence in Teluk Limau Village, Jebus District, West Bangka, Bangka Belitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Nusa Rahagus Edo Santya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria elimination in Indonesia need necessary data as a foundation for planning and implementation activities. The purpose of this study was to estimate the malaria prevalence and the presence of potential mosquito vectors. To find out malaria endemicity, blood of sampling group was examined in the study area on 24-30 November 2010. Suspected vector mosquitoes collection was carried out by human landing method on the inside and outside of the house for 12 hours from 18:00 until 06:00. Positive SD percentage from inspection reached 4.21% (18 of 428 SD. Gametocytes SD percentage reached 18.75%, where 3 of 18 positives SD has a gametocytes. Two mosquitoes Anopheles spp. found were an An. sundaicus and An. letifer. The number of An. sundaicus trapped outdoors were five, An. letifer trapped in the house were three and An. letifer trapped outdoors were eight. This result showed malaria transmission potential in the study site and malaria surveillance should be done. It is recommended to distribute insecticide-treated nets and suggest the residents not to stayed outside the house at night to often.

  11. Escherichia coli contamination of babies' food-serving utensils in a district of West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Aria; Eryando, Tris; Susanna, Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of baby's complementary food may occur with Escherichia coli from several sources including unclean utensils. We examined the relationship between socio-economic conditions, environmental factors, characteristics of food handlers and contamination of babies food-serving utensils with E. coli. The study was conducted in 21 villages of the Community Health Centre (CHC) Selayo in Indonesia. A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 142 households, which had a 6-12 month-old baby on complementary food, was chosen randomly using midwives' registration books. Respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Check-lists were used for observations. Standard laboratory methods were used for collection of specimen and confirmation of contamination with E. coli. More than half of the respondents (59.2%) used water that had high risk of contamination and 61.3% of the latrines did not meet the criteria of a healthy latrine. Waste management practices of nearly all respondents (97.9%) were below the standards set by the Ministry of Health. More than half of the respondents (68.3%) did not wash their hands with soap for 20 seconds and 52.1% did not use flowing water for washing hands. Majority of the respondents' hands (57%, 81/142) and 72.2% (104/142) of the eating utensils were found to be contaminated by E. coli. Contaminated hands of food handlers were more likely to contaminate the babies food-serving utensils (OR: 3.7; 95%CI: 1.62-8.46, p 0.002). Contamination of the hands of food handler was associated with contamination of babies food-serving utensils by E. coli. Hence, food handlers should be trained on proper hand washing methods.

  12. Fluoride in Groundwater and its Implications in West Gonja District of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Fluoride levels in groundwater may cause either enamel fluorosis or dental caries depending on their concentrations when consumed. Research has shown that an ... is useful to animals, plants and human health in small quantities at parts per ..... Ghana for making the data available for analysis. We are also thankful to the ...

  13. Choice of Malaria Care Services in Sissala West District in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utility maximizing individual, in the event of an illness, seeks help from a healthcare ... function in (5) is dependent on “medical care” prices and not on prices of “improvements in health status”. However, the .... mutually exclusive choices.

  14. The use of antenatal care in two rural districts of Upper West Region, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sumankuuro

    Full Text Available Despite decades of implementation of maternity healthcare programmes, including a focus on increasing the use of antenatal care (ANC and concomitant birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR, the uptake of ANC continues to be below expectations in many developing countries. This has attendant implications for maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rates. Known barriers to ANC use include cost, distance to health care services and forces of various socio-cultural beliefs and practices. As part of a larger study on BPCR in rural Ghana, this paper reflects on the use of ANC in the study areas from rights-based and maternal engagement theoretical perspectives, with a focus on the barriers to ANC use.Mixed methods approach was adopted to collect data from 8 study communities from individual in-depth interviews with 80 expectant mothers and 13 health care professionals, and 24 focus groups comprising 240 community members. The qualitative data followed a thematic analytical method, while the quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics.The average number of ANC visits were 3.34±1.292, and the majority of expectant mothers (71.3% enrolled for ANC at the 8th week or later, with the longest delay recorded at the 6th month of gestation. Traditional norms significantly influenced this delay. Likewise, overall use of ANC during pregnancy was shaped by cultural factors related to perceptions of pregnancy, gender-based roles and responsibilities and concerns that ANC would result in an overweighed baby and culturally inappropriate delivery at a health care facility.Greater understanding of the sociocultural barriers to ANC is essential if proposed changes in community-specific health education programs are to facilitate early commencement and increased use of ANC.

  15. Safe Injection Practices in Primary Health Care Settings of Naxalbari Block, Darjeeling District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sudip Banik; Ray, Kuntala

    2016-01-01

    Unsafe injection can transmit many diseases to patients, injection providers and healthy people of community. To find out critical steps whether executed according to recommended best practice methods, availability of equipments in health facilities for safe injection practices and some important steps of waste disposal methods. This facility-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 30 Auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM) & 27 nursing staffs (NS) to assess certain aspects of their practice while administrating injection and disposal of the disposables. Health facilities were also observed to asses necessary equipments of safe injection and waste disposal methods. Among the health workers 93.3% ANM and 100% NS took sterile syringe from sterile unopened packet, all of the study subjects washed hand before giving injection, 13.3% of ANMs and 8% of NS are fully vaccinated against Hep B, 53.3% of ANM and all NS are practices non recapping. Only 13.33% sub centres along with PHC & BPHC had at least one puncture resistant leak proof container, 86.7% sub centres, PHC are free from loose needles. Transport for off side treatment is the method of waste disposal in case of 73.3% cases sub centres, PHC & BPHC. There is need to educate, train and motivate service providers in proper methods of giving injection along with improve the adequacy of supply of required equipments.

  16. A Weather-Based Prediction Model of Malaria Prevalence in Amenfi West District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Love Darkoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of climatic variables, particularly, rainfall and temperature, on malaria incidence using time series analysis. Our preliminary analysis revealed that malaria incidence in the study area decreased at about 0.35% annually. Also, the month of November recorded approximately 21% more malaria cases than the other months while September had a decreased effect of about 14%. The forecast model developed for this investigation indicated that mean minimum (P=0.01928 and maximum (P=0.00321 monthly temperatures lagged at three months were significant predictors of malaria incidence while rainfall was not. Diagnostic tests using Ljung-Box and ARCH-LM tests revealed that the model developed was adequate for forecasting. Forecast values for 2016 to 2020 generated by our model suggest a possible future decline in malaria incidence. This goes to suggest that intervention strategies put in place by some nongovernmental and governmental agencies to combat the disease are effective and thus should be encouraged and routinely monitored to yield more desirable outcomes.

  17. The geology and mineral deposits of Tantalite Valley, Warmbad district, South West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Backstroem, J.W.

    1976-04-01

    The Tantalite Valley Complex, a poorly mineralised (Cu and Ni sulphides) body of roughly concentric peridotite-gabbroid intrusions was emplaced along a major zone of dislocation (the Tantallite Valley Lineament) into a metasedimentary sequence of migmatites and gneisses which, together with the complex, have experienced a complex metamorphic and tectonic history. A number of large mineralised pegmatites (producers of minerals of Nb, Ta, Bi, Li and Be over the past two decades), was intruded about 1000 Ma ago [af

  18. Valuing Ecotourism of a Recreational Site in Ciamis District of West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Endah Saptutyningsih; Rini Selviana

    2017-01-01

    Ecotourism, as an alternative tourism, involves visiting natural areas in order to learn, to study or to carry out activities environmentally friendly, that is a tourism based on the nature experience which enables the economic and social development of local communities. Ecotourism encourages rural economics and provides benefits to income and employment generation. It is considered as an alternative for enhancing rural lifestyle and for leading positive changes in the distribution of income...

  19. Rapidly Fatal Silicosis Among Jewellery Workers Attending a District Medical College of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchadhyayee, Prabodh; Saha, Kaushik; Saha, Indranil; Ta, Rupam Kumar; Ghosh, Santanu; Saha, Arnab; Barma, Pratik; Mitra, Mrinmoy

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis is a slowly progressive chronic occupational lung disease, developed after a prolong period of exposure to high concentration of silica dust. In this longitudinal study, we enrolled old and new silicosis patients (n=19; 8 jewellery polishers, 11 from other occupations) seen at our Pulmonary Medicine Department from June 2009 to December 2012 to document the course of illness as per their occupational exposure. Six of the eight jewellery polishing workers had developed silicosis within five years of exposure, while six of the 11 other workers with other occupational exposure had developed silicosis after exposure of 10 years or more. Mean duration of exposure was significantly less among jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers (3.4 +/- 1.7 versus 9.3 +/- 4.1; p=0.001). Mean duration of illness (months) (14.9 +/- 5.8 versus 28.5 +/- 16.5; p=0.040) were significantly less among the jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers. At the end of the study period, all eight jewellery polishing workers with silicosis had died while four of the 11 patients with other occupational exposure had died. Silicosis among jewellery polishing workers was found to be more severe and progressive compared to silicosis due to other occupational exposures, in our study.

  20. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter

  1. Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship - The Case of Bardhaman District in West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, S.

    2004-01-01

    For a living, most of the rural people in developing countries are primarily dependent on agriculture. If the farmers, who have investible surplus generated from agriculture, are interested in non-farm entrepreneurship then rural economy can find an industrial route of development. With this

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater in the Tarkwa area, Wasa west District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankey, R. K.

    2008-06-01

    The pH of the groundwater is acidic (4.3-6.7) and acidification of the groundwater is principally due to natural biogeochemical processes. Three main water types were delineated: Na-Cl (31.3%), Ca-Mg-HCO 3 (62.5%) and mixed type (6.3%) Major cation and anion concentrations dominance pattern observed in this study were generally in the order of Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO 3 > CI > SO 4 and indicated partial cationic and anionic characteristics of fresh water. The chemistry of groundwater is controlled by mineral weathering, ion exchange and to some extent precipitation. Iron and manganese were the predominant trace elements in the groundwater and contributed substantially (93.1 %) to the metal load of the groundwater. The pollution index (HPI) for the groundwater came out to be 9.82; which is far below the critical value of 100 indicating that the groundwater is not critically contaminated. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater is at present minimal. Water quality is good for the majority of the groundwater samples as the majority of samples were within the permissible drinking limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998). However the pH of the groundwater was disturbingly low. (au)

  3. Water retention techniques for vegetation establishment in TxDOT West Texas districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Water harvesting is the collection of runoff for its productive use and may aid in the germination and : establishment of vegetation seeded in the roadside. This project is a synthesis study on the feasibility and : implications of adapting water har...

  4. Factors affecting peasants’ empowerment in West Halmahera District – a case study from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aminah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development has not yet created empowered farmers in Indonesia. Most farmers living in eastern Indonesia are peasants with low access to development resources. This condition causes most of the peasants to be classified as poor citizens. This research was meant to formulate improvement strategies for empowerment of the peasants. The data were collected between March – May 2012 using the following methods: observation, interview and focus group discussion. The data was analysed using descriptive statistic and structural equation modelling (SEM and showed that: (1 the empowerment of peasants was within the lowest category for all variables, namely: the peasant characteristics, the role of the agents for development, program quality, the learning process and access to environmental support, (2 the determining factors affecting the empowerment of the peasants were: program implementation quality, the role of the agents of development, environmental access and support, the peasant characteristics, and the appropriateness of the learning process and (3 the strategy to improve empowerment of the peasants could be through corrective efforts towards program implementation quality, the role of facilitators, environmental access and support while considering the peasant characteristics and the learning process of the peasants.

  5. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Methods Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Results The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. Conclusions In comparison to previous data in 1985–87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is

  6. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Ngassam, Pierre; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Dankoni, Esther; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi

    2013-12-23

    The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. In comparison to previous data in 1985-87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of

  7. Analysis on hydrological condition for uranium ore formation in Wuerhe district, Junggar Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Quanqing; Zhang Xinke; Ren Manchuan

    2009-01-01

    Wuerhe district is located in the northwestern part of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang. It belongs to a relative quiet area without the obvious tectonic activities and obvious subsequent tectonic activization. Through the regional uranium resources evaluation on this area, the inter-bedded oxidation zone and uranium mineralization are discovered in Cretaceous. The wall rock, the recharge-runoff-discharge mechanism of groundwater, palaeo-hydrological condition, hydrological and hydrogeochemical features of groundwater are introduced briefly, the favorable uranium ore-forming segment is summarized to be located in the fore-mountain area to the west of Ke-Xia fault terrace zone. (authors)

  8. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  9. Ontario Power Authority district energy research report : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    This paper presented an analysis of the technical and economic characteristics of district energy in Ontario. The market context for district energy was evaluated, and institutional issues that may influence the future development and operation of district energy systems in Ontario were explored. Technical, economic, and environmental analyses of district energy based on different neighbourhood sizes, types, and district energy systems were presented. Three case studies were included to demonstrate real world district energy applications. A set of interviews conducted with representatives of the province's district energy supply chain was also provided in order to provide a framework for district energy opportunities and challenges within the province. 22 tabs., 16 figs.

  10. Serological and molecular survey of Leishmania parasites in apparently healthy dogs in the West Bank, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamarsheh Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is caused by Leishmania infantum in all Mediterranean countries. The Leishmania parasite is transmitted by the bite of a corresponding sand fly vector and primarily maintained in nature by wild and domestic reservoirs, including dogs, foxes and jackals. Infected dogs are the primary reservoir host in endemic regions and are the most significant risk disposing humans to infection. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of infection with Leishmania and identification of Leishmania infantum in domestic dogs in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods The infection rate among domestic dogs collected from seven districts in the Palestinian West Bank was investigated by examination of parasites in culture from the buffy coat using serological and molecular methods; based on ELISA, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and cysteine protease (CPB PCR. Results Out of 215 dogs examined for Leishmania, 36 (16.7% were positive in at least one method. Twenty three animals (11.5% were positive for Leishmania DNA, whereas, ELISA and culture revealed 16 (7.5%, and 4 (1.5% respectively. CPB-PCR on one of three culture-positive isolates revealed Leishmania infantum as the causative agent for Leishmania infection in dogs. Conclusions Our study showed that canine leishmania infection is prevalent with varying degrees in all the seven studied districts in Palestine despite the absence of human VL cases in 4 of these districts. The causative agent was confirmed to be Leishmania infantum.

  11. The development of mental hospitals in West Bengal: A brief history and changing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Ranjan

    2018-02-01

    The communication between G. S Bose and Sigmund Freud is a well-documented fact, and philosophical blend of rich cultural experiences is unique to modification of traditional psychoanalysis in the context of development of psychiatry in West Bengal. The Calcutta lunatic asylum was established at Bhowanipore, and first general hospital psychiatric unit was formed at R. G. Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Prof. Ajita Chakraborty was a pioneer to describe her struggling days in the early career and shared her views with experiences in her autobiography. The volume and quality of research work, especially in the field of epidemiology led by Dr. D. N. Nandi is worth mentioning. A jail had been converted to mental hospital which is the largest in terms of bed strength ( n = 350) at Berhampore, Murshidabad district where Kazi Nazrul Islam and Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose had spent some period as prisoner during British rules. Bankura was the first district in West Bengal to start District Mental Health program. The various nongovernmental organizations are working together in public-private partnership model or indigenous ways in tandem over years for the betterment of mental health services both at institutional and community level.

  12. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2006. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 46.06 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2005 through September 2006) was 6.91 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.97 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2006). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  13. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 39.50 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2006 through September 2007) was 13.42 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.92 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  14. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, September 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public-supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish-water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000).This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2005. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface, connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 55.19 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2004 through September 2005) was 2.00 inches above the historical cumulative average of 53.19 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2005). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District.This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year

  15. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 41.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2006 through May 2007) was 11.63 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.84 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  16. Application of remote sensing data and geographic information system (GIS) in the selection of a NPP potential site in west Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto SBS; Kurnia Anzhar; Bansyah Kironi; June Mellawati

    2015-01-01

    Potential site selection on spatial basis which applied throughout the coast of West Kalimantan has been performed by adding additional criteria compare to the criteria used in 2014. The objective of research is to get the potential site of nuclear power plants (NPP) in the coastal areas of West Kalimantan Province based on the applicable criteria. Research methods include collecting of primary data, interpretation of remote sensing data, and weighting analysis based on SIG. The research results obtained six of potential site for NPP, i e., Air Besar Village Kendawangan Sub-district Ketapang Regency (first rank), Sie Village Simpang Hilir Sub-district Kayong Regency (second rank), Sungai Kanan Village Muara Sub-district Ketapang Regency (third rank), Sungai Nanjung Village Matan Sodascorbate Ketapang Regency (fourth rank), Kendawangan Kanan Village Kendawangan Sub-district Ketapang Regency (fifth rank) dan Sungai Nanjung Village Matan Sub-district Ketapang Regency, Matang Village Paloh Sub-district, Sambas Regency (sixth rank). Analysis of land suitability showed that all potential has met the general and specific criteria, among other things because it is not a peat and far away from the settlements. (author)

  17. Morphology and Anatomy Characteristic of Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca cv. Awak in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Sunandar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the origin and center of diversity of banana. One of an edible banana in Indonesia is Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca cv. Awak . In West Kalimantan, the ripe Pisang Awak has been processed into sale (dried banana. The aims of this research were to describe the morphological and anatomical character of Pisang Awak in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this study, Pisang Awak were collected from Padang Tikar I village, Batu Ampar Sub-district, Kubu Raya district, West Kalimantan. Morphological characterizations were conducted by following the instruction on Descriptors for Banana (Musa spp. from IPGRI. The root, leaf blade, and petiole were fixed in FAA solution. Root, leaf, and petiole anatomy preparats were made by paraffin method. The lamina of Pisang Awak consisted of adaxial epidermis, two hypodermis layers, two palisade layers, spongy layer, bundle sheath cell, abaxial epidermis, laticifer. The petiole of Pisang Awak composed of three tissue systems, i.e., epidermis layer, parenchyma tissue and vascular tissue. The root of Pisang Awak consists of two epidermis layers, parenchyma and vascular cylinder. In the future, morphological and anatomical character in Pisang Awak could be applied as the basis of information for breeding programs of banana cultivars and classification.

  18. Legislative Districts, Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US Senate district showing the locations in the County of Polk, WI., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Legislative Districts dataset current as of 2007. Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US...

  19. Louisiana State House Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_house_districts_LEGIS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State House Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the next...

  20. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  1. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  2. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat...

  3. Effective team management by district nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2004-12-01

    This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working.

  4. The West Bank: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-20

    78 percent Muslim, 9.6 percent Christian, 11 percent Jewish and I percent other. The Muslim population was distributed in urban and rural aleas ...to cluster in the mountains and hill country as a refuge from depredations by Beduins in the plains. Village feuds and the pressures of Turkish tax...modern living patterns, industry, and co-merce--well developed in the coastal areas--were, by comparison, primitive in the mountainous West Bank

  5. Land use change and crop rotation analysis of a government well district in Rashda village – Dakhla Oasis, Egypt based on satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kato

    2012-12-01

    The land use change analysis showed that the extension of cultivated land was already completed by the 1980s in the North and South subdistricts, after which it spread toward the West. Because the altitude in the West subdistrict is lower than the wells, irrigation water could be distributed adequately if the condition of the irrigation channel was well maintained. The relationship between the irrigation level and plant production was not favorable in the West compared with other subdistricts. The cultivated area in the West district has been increasing since the 1970s. According to the crop rotation analysis, the different productivity of the subdistricts was caused by several factors, including the land altitude and the distance from the well, as well as other factors such as social relationships in the village.

  6. Geology and ore deposits of the Pioche district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, L.G.; Knopf, Adolph

    1932-01-01

    LOCATION AND SURFACE FEATURES The Bristol Range, Highland, and Ely Range quadrangles make up the larger part of a. rectangular area 35 miles north and south by 24 miles east and west, which lies 19 miles west of the Nevada-Utah line and about 250 miles southwest of Salt Lake City. The district lies within the Great Basin, a semiarid region of alternating mountain ranges and intermontane plains floored largely by outwash from the mountains. The plain, which slopes away from the ranges, stands between 4,700 and 6,000 feet above the sea. The Bristol and Highland Ranges, which are separated only by a low gap, form an almost continuous north-south range that rises about 2,500 feet above the highest part of the surrounding plain, to general altitudes of 8,000 to 9,000 feet, though the highest point, Highland Peak, reaches 9,395 feet. A lower range, the Ely Range, with a northwesterly trend, lies farther east and nearly in touch with the Bristol-Highland Range. The town of Pioche lies midway on the. eastern foot of the Ely Range. ROOKS OF THE PIOOHB REGION The rocks of the ranges are Paleozoic sediments, Tertiary (?) lavas and intrusive rocks, and Pliocene (?) tuffs. The Paleozoic sediments have a total thickness of nearly 18,000 feet. Over 8,000 feet of the Cambrian has been measured without reaching its base. The lowest Cambrian formation is a quartzite, of which only the upper 1,500 feet is exposed, and this is followed by 1,200 feet of shale, 400 feet of limestone, aoid 150 feet of shale. Above this second shale the upper three-fourths of the Cambrian consists of limestone and dolomitic limestone. It is in the quartzite and in the limestone interbedded in and bounding the shales that the main ore bodies of the district have been found. Above the Cambrian comes 1,795 feet of Ordovician limestone, with some interbedded dolomite and with a 50-foot quartzite a, third of the way down from the top; 75 feet of Silurian dolomite; 3,000 feet of Middle Devonian dolomite with

  7. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  8. Sacramento District History (1929-2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Willie; Asay, Laura; Davy, Barbara J; Doyle, Brian; Fast, James P; Gonzalez, Jennifer L; Layton, Debra A; Nevins, Michael J; Taylor, James H; Van Dam, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Although the Sacramento District was established in 1929, this document recaptures the legendary history from the mid-1800's and the repercussions the Central Valley endured regarding the navigation...

  9. VT Data - Overlay District 20170802, Shelburne

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:Lakeshore Conservation OverlyNeighborhood OverlayVillage Design Review OverlayVillage Core OverlayWater...

  10. NM Property Tax Districts November 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  11. NM Property Tax Districts December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  12. FOUNDING OF THE DISTRICT HOSPITAL IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Zivic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After the liberation of Nis from the Turks which took place on January 11th, 1878, there were two military hospitals: one was next to The Skull Tower and the other on the road to Leskovac and there was Islahana the civil institution which was not the forerunner of the district hospital in Nis. At first, they founded the military hospital in Nis in 1878 and then they founded The District Hospital on July 17th in 1881. The first director of the District hospital was Anton Zajicek. He is also the first graduated medical doctor in Nis. The District Hospital was situated on the left bank of the Nisava river in a private house.

  13. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  14. VT Data - Overlay District 20170407, Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay District Data is included:Design Review OverlayInstitutional Core Campus OverlayRH Density Bonus OverlayNatural Resource Protection OverlayRL...

  15. School District Finance Survey, 2013-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Education — School District Finance Survey, 2013–14 (F-33 2013–14) is a study that is part of the Common Core of Data (CCD) program; program data is available since 1989–90 at ....

  16. Solar district heating and cooling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Bava, Federico; Andersen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    and decentralized solar district heating as well as block heating. For the different technologies, the paper describes commonly adopted control strategies, system configurations, types of installation, and integration. Real‐world examples are also given to provide a more detailed insight into how solar thermal...... technology can be integrated with district heating. Solar thermal technology combined with thermally driven chillers to provide cooling for cooling networks is also included in this paper. In order for a technology to spread successfully, not only technical but also economic issues need to be tackled. Hence......Both district heating and solar collector systems have been known and implemented for many years. However, the combination of the two, with solar collectors supplying heat to the district heating network, is relatively new, and no comprehensive review of scientific publications on this topic could...

  17. District heating in Italy: Extent of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Author surveys the trend that has been established over the last two decades in the use of district heating in Italy. Comparison with the European situation reveals that Italy is lagging behind. The reason for this the Author states is the Italian public's aversion to unknown risks involved in the utilization of innovative technologies associated with cogeneration/district heating (current preference is given to autonomous methane fuelled building space heating systems), and the current opinion of some misinformed public administrations that cogeneration/district heating plants are too costly. Citing the successful campaign by the natural gas industry to promote the public acceptance of methane as a safe, readily available and competitively priced energy source, he suggests that similar efforts be made to have the public also accept cogeneration (with methane fired gas turbines)/district heating as being safe and environmentally, as well as, economically beneficial

  18. The contribution of district clinical specialist team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Tshwane District Health Services, Gauteng Department of Health, South Africa .... assurance managers conducted monthly scoring of antenatal records at delivery ... Clinical audit and health system strengthening are part of DCSTs' scope.

  19. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  20. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  1. Utilization of Yard for Vegetable Hydroponics in Serut Village, Panti Sub-District, Jember District

    OpenAIRE

    dewanti, parawita

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables as a horticultural product is a food source that is always consumed by humans daily, including in urban areas. Assorted Vegetables can be eaten raw or processed and it takes as a decoration on the food. Needs vegetables including lettuce, green pakcoy and other vegetables from day to day continues to increase. Therefore, it needs supply of vegetables from the area around the town of Jember including Serut Village, District Panti Sub-District, Jember District. Serut village has the ...

  2. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  3. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  4. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  5. Evaluation Of The Two Model Biocorridors In Soth-West Part Of Slovakia In Agricultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Debnáriková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to evaluate two different models of biocorridors in south-west part of Slovakia in intensively utilized agricultural landscape. The first biocorridor is a part of fragmented alluvial softwood forest along the Žitava’s river in its unregulated part in cadastral territory Horný Ohaj, district Vráble. This biocorridor should be the representative biocorridor by its structure and plant composition in its area. The second biocorridor is biocorridor composed by Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the village Báb, district Nitra. The research analyzes the structure of the selected biocorridors by using the methods of phytocoenology, evaluate functional integrity by monitoring of their spatial parameters in terrain and by processing maps in the AutoCAD program. At the base of phytocoenological report evaluates occurence of alien species.

  6. Review of meningitis surveillance data, upper West Region, Ghana 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuoh, Robert Domo; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Nortey, Priscilla; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Lwanga, Noora Charles; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Nuolabong, Culbert; Abdulai, Marijanatu; Wurapa, Fredrick; Afari, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The Upper West region of Ghana is within the meningitis belt. Analysis of long term surveillance data is necessary for understanding changes in the disease occurrence. We analyzed five years of surveillance data to describe by person, place and time and to determine trends in meningitis. Meningitis surveillance data from Ghana Health Service in the Upper West Region, from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Data was obtained from District-Health Information Management System and line list from the Disease Control Unit. Population figures (denominators) and rainfall data were also analyzed. Within the period 980 cases of meningitis were reported in the region, 507(52%) females and 473(48%) males. The mean age of cases was 20.1years and standard deviation 18.8 years with, 77.6 %( 761/980) cases occurring in persons aged under 30 years. Children under five years were 19.3% (190/980). Attack rates ranged from 6.1/100,000 population in the Daffiama-bussei-Issa-district to 47.5/100,000 in Jirapa. Overall case fatality rate of meningitis was 12.2% with 14deaths/100,000 population. Bacterial agents were isolated from 35% (245/702) of CSF. Majority were Streptococcus pneumonia 48.2 % ( 122/258), and N. meningitides Y/W 135 40.3% (102/258). Meningitis was found to be seasonal with peaks in the dry season. Meningitis in the region is seasonal, and showed a decreasing trend. Jirapa, Lawra, Nadowli and Wa West districts had the highest burden. Control effort of the disease should focus on vaccination against streptococcus pneumonia and N. meningitis W135 especially within crowded settlements such as boarding schools.

  7. Inventory of the tropical coral reef fishes in Wondama Bay regency, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiyani, K. D. P.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Teluk Wondama Regency is one of the areas in West Papua that is part of the Cendrawasih Bay National Park due to its potential of coral fishes. Until now, there is no thorough information that gives the potential diversities of coral fishes species can be found in the waters, and one of the attempts to find out is to carry out an inventory. Inventories were conducted from March to May 2016 in Rariei and Auri (Roon District), Numamuran (Duairi District), Nusrowi (Rumberpon District) and Waprak (Roswar District). The results of these inventories found 28 species of coral fishes in Rariei consisting of 8 genus (Balistapus, Synodus, Pentapodus, Thalassoma, Zebrasoma, Amblyglyphidodon, Chaetodon and Labroides) in Rariei, 11 genus (Abudefduf, Chaetodon, Amphiprion, Cheilinus, Dascyllus, Chromis, Parastromateus, Priacanthus, Epinephelus, Nemipterus and Lutjanus) in Namamuran, 11 genus in Nusrowi (Halichoeres, Pomacentrus, Dischistodus, Heniochus, Amblyglyphidodon, Arothron, Parupeneus, Lutjanus, Plectropomus, Epinephelus and Acanthurus), 4 genus in the waters of Waprak (Parupeneus, Pomacentrus, Chaetodon and Amblyglyphidodon) and 10 genus in Auri (Lutjanus, Pomacentrus, Amphiprion, Chaetodon, Chromis, Dascyllus, Zanclus, Halichoeres, Siganus and Amblyglyphidodon)

  8. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  10. Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2011-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2011. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 45.74 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2010 through May 2011) was 6.85 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.59 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2011). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September from 1975 through 2010. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to

  11. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  12. Epistemological failures : everyday terrorism in the west

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, Caron Eileen

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to problematize the disparate level of attention paid to similar violences globally, whereby violence against women in the developing world is seen as a security concern to the West and yet violence against women in the West is minimized or ignored. It will do this first by demonstrating that everyday violences, better known as everyday terrorism, in the West are subjugated knowledges within Terrorism Studies. To demonstrate this, Half the Sky, Sex and World Peace, and T...

  13. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  14. The Partnership Pact: Fulfilling School Districts' Research Needs with University-District Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Nicole; Weitzel, Bruce; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Naegele, Zulema; Smith, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent shift in university-district partnership models from traditional transactional partnerships, which lack a shared purpose, to transformational partnerships that are mutually beneficial to both universities and school districts. These transformational research-practice partnerships have gained popularity in the United States…

  15. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  16. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hydrologic Conditions in West-Central Florida The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2006. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 50.23 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2005 through May 2006) was 2.82 inches below the historical cumulative average of 53.05 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2006). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water

  17. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  18. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julie

    2016-08-02

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study.

  19. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...... as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...

  20. Archives: West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of ...

  1. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions To Authors Papers for submission to the West African Journal of Applied Ecology should be written in English and should not exceed 8,000 words in total ... Authors publish in the Journal with the understanding that they assign their copyright to the West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology.

  2. West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecologyis on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Other websites related to this journal are http://apps.ug.edu.gh/wajae/.

  3. West African Journal of Radiology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The West African Journal of Radiology (WAJR) is a publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. It is enlisted on AJOL (African Journals on-line). The Journal accepts for publication, original work in the science and technology of radiology, radiotherapy allied subjects, ...

  4. Biomass energy - large potential in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Changing from oil or coal to bio fuel is a high priority in all European countries. The potential for such a transition is largest in North-West Russia, where several factors point to biomass energy: large bio fuel resources, large need for heating because of the cold climate, and almost 100% coverage of district heating. Here, the largest continuous coniferous forest in Europe supplies the raw material for a considerable forest industry, including some of the biggest sawmills and paper- and cellulose factories in the world. The fraction of the timber that cannot go into this production is suitable as bio fuel. About 15% of the raw material in this industry is bark and sawdust which can be used for energy production. In addition, 10% of the biomass of the trees remains on the forest floor as twigs, treetops etc. If all this sawdust and felling waste was used to replace heating oil, the corresponding reduction of CO2 emission would amount to 25 mill m3 per year. The forest industry in Russia is currently in full production, and an increasing mass of sawdust and wood waste is accumulating in depositories that cover larger and larger areas. Depositories are often set on fire to keep down the masses; at the same time, the district heating plants are fired with expensive oil or coal. This paradoxical situation is due to the economical crises in the 1990s. Neither private companies nor the local governments could invest in bio fueled boilers. Bio fuel projects are cost-effective and easy to document and perfectly suitable for joint implementations under the Kyoto Protocol

  5. Shortage of energy increases profitability of district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand will cause the price of district heating to increase, but not to the level of the price of electricity. The cheapest heating alternative in Denmark, Norway and Sweden is district heating. In Norway, district heating is developed primarily for commercial buildings and housing cooperatives. Thirty per cent of all buildings under construction are prepared for district heating and the percentage will increase strongly in the coming time. The total net production of district heating in Norway in 2001 was 2000 GWh, which is only a small part of the total potential for district heating

  6. Nuclear power plant in the Oslofjord district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audunson, T.; Aure, J.; Billfalk, L.; Rye, H.; Thundrup, A.

    1976-01-01

    The hydrophysical investigations made in order to evaluate the suitability of the waters adjacent to two prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Outer Oslofjord district are summarised. The evaluation of the diffusion and dilution of releases of 200 and 100 m 3 /s heated by 10 0 Cin this area is also presented. The effects of an intake in the Haaoeyfjord basin is also considered. The conclusions are presented in a collective report for all prospective sites 'Thermal power plants in the Oslofjord district, recipient evaluations' (Termiske kraftverk i Oslofjordomraadet, resipientvurderinger) published by Fiskeridirektoratets Havforskningsinstitutt, Norsk Institutt for Vannforskning and Vassdrags- og Havnelaboratoriet, dated November 1975. (JIW)

  7. The district nursing service: a national treasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldman, Crystal

    2014-08-01

    District nurses are a national treasure. They are the key professionals who will enable the agenda of patients being cared for at home to be realised. They are highly trusted and valued by communities who lead and manage teams of nurses and nursing assistants expertly to deliver high-quality care in the patient's own home. In an era where the focus is now turning to the community for more care, more actions are required to increase our district nursing workforce. This article discusses the above issues in relation to recent reports on the current status of community nursing.

  8. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  9. Medical women of the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, A L

    1988-01-01

    The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578

  10. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  11. Measuring regional and district variations in the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in Ghana: challenges, opportunities and implications for maternal and newborn health policy and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Edward; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Quansah Asare, Gloria; Koram, Kwadwo A; Grobbee, Diederick; Agyepong, Irene A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the quality of health management information system (HMIS) data needed for assessment of local area variation in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) incidence and to describe district and regional variations in PIH incidence. A retrospective review of antenatal and delivery records of 2682 pregnant women in 10 district hospitals in the Greater Accra and Upper West regions of Ghana was conducted in 2013. Quality of HMIS data was assessed by completeness of reporting. The incidence of PIH was estimated for each district. Key variables for routine assessment of PIH such as blood pressure (BP) at antenatal visits, weight and height were 95-100% complete. Fundal height, gestational age and BP at delivery were not consistently reported. The incidence of PIH differed significantly between Greater Accra region (6.1%) and Upper West region (3.2%). Prevalence of obesity among pregnant women in Greater Accra region (13.9%) was significantly higher than that of women in Upper West region (2.2%). More attention needs to be given to understanding local area variations in PIH and possible relationships with urbanisation and lifestyle changes that promote obesity, to inform maternal and newborn health policy. This can be done with good quality routine HMIS data. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rural district hospitals - essential cogs in the district health system - and primary healthcare re-engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, K W D P; Couper, I

    2015-06-01

    The re-engineering of primary healthcare (PHC) is regarded as an essential precursor to the implementation of National Health Insurance in South Africa, but improvements in the provision of PHC services have been patchy. The authors contend that the role of well- functioning rural district hospitals as a hub from which PHC services can be most efficiently managed has been underestimated, and that the management of district hospitals and PHC clinics need to be co-located at the level of the rural district hospital, to allow for proper integration of care and effective healthcare provision.

  13. Farmer readiness for adopting stevia cultivation (a case study at District of Pasir Jambu, Regency of Bandung)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supyandi, D.; Sukayat, Y.; Hapsari, H.

    2018-03-01

    Recognized as a complementary for conventional sugars made from cane, coconut, corn, and palm, as well as a substitute for synthetic sweetener, recently stevia has accepted significant attention in order to fulfill increasing demand for sweeteners in Indonesia. Stevia has several advantages, among other is having 200-300 times sweetness level compared to cane sugar with low-calorie level. In Indonesia, stevia was introduced from Japan, Korea and China, and has been cultivated in several areas, among other is in West Java, particularly at District of Cikajang (Garut), District of Pangalengan (Bandung) and District of Ciwidey/Pasir Jambu (Bandung). Introducing new commodity and/or technology has usually faced constraints and sometimes rejection. However, considering the potentials and increasing demand for it, stevia cultivation widespread need to be stimulated. This paper describes several conditions of farmer community at District of Pasir Jambu in terms of their readiness to adopt stevia cultivation in their land. Community readiness model was used to guide the structure of thinking in data collection process at farmer level in order to compose possible best intervention based on farmer aspiration and condition. In addition, several references from previous research reports, journal articles as well as government reports were used to sharpen analysis of data and information collected from the field.

  14. Antiretroviral therapy programme outcomes in Tshwane district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To ascertain patient retention on ART after 5 years on treatment in one district of Gauteng Province, SA, establish the number of patients ... A retrospective cohort study of patients initiated on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between January and March .... ferred-out patients from the total of 381 leaves.

  15. States Eye Looser Rein on Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The push to give school districts greater operating flexibility--a grassroots rallying cry eclipsed in recent years by the charter school movement--is seeing a resurgence, as states seek to spur innovation that will help raise student achievement. In Georgia, Governor Sonny Perdue is proposing "performance contracts" that would free…

  16. Sustainability Profile for Urban Districts in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    urban designers to creatively improve the sustainable performance of a district" (Kortman et al, 2001). Compared to other tools for assessing urban sustainability, DPL represents a simple and flexible approach. The idea is to use a limited number of indicators based on already collected data. Once...

  17. Taking the Plunge: Districts Leap into Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Moving from a traditional desktop computing environment to a virtualized solution is a daunting task. In this article, the author presents case histories of three districts that have made the conversion to virtual computing to learn about their experiences: What prompted them to make the move, and what were their objectives? Which obstacles prove…

  18. Districts Begin Looking Harder at Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    As policymakers debate the merits of new tests and intervention strategies to improve student achievement, some districts are exploring a more basic warning sign: Are students even showing up? A growing consensus of research points to chronic absence--defined by the national policy group Attendance Counts as missing 10 percent of school or…

  19. De flora van het Urbaan district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Ton

    1999-01-01

    The urban areas in the Netherlands can be considered as a separate flora district; the so-called “Urban district”. It consists of large stony areas, with a “steppe”-like environment and a deviant climate. Characteristic for urban areas are often disturbed and trampled communities of ruderals and

  20. Report of the Fourth District Economists' Roundtable

    OpenAIRE

    Michael F. Bryan; John B. Martin

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the 1994 forecasts for real output and inflation presented by 15 members of the Fourth District Economists' Roundtable at their January 1994 meeting, highlighting the measurement of service sector prices and the role of small businesses in creating jobs.

  1. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  2. Assertiveness: making yourself heard in district nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Sally; Stewart, Fiona

    2005-06-01

    Being assertive is not the same as being aggressive. Assertiveness is a tool for expressing ourselves confidently, and a way of saying 'yes' and 'no' in an appropriate way. This article explores issues concerned with assertiveness in district nurse settings. It outlines helpful techniques to develop assertiveness, such as the broken record, fogging, negative assertion and negative inquiry.

  3. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  4. Business district streetscapes, trees, and consumer response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2005-01-01

    A multistudy research program has investigated how consumers respond to the urban forest in central business districts of cities of various sizes. Trees positively affect judgments of visual quality but, more significantly, may influence other consumer responses and behaviors. Survey respondents from all regions of the United States...

  5. District profile: the shoe fits at Northampton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-18

    An old county town that has retained its individuality through all the changes of the last three centuries, and is expanding vigorously to meet the challenge of the next--that is Northampton. The health services of the district reflect the town, and draw strength, as they always have done, from close links with the community they serve.

  6. New Attitudes Shaping Labor-District Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Back in the mid-2000s, in public and in the news media, Joseph P. Burke, then superintendent of the Springfield public schools, and Timothy T. Collins, president of the local teachers' union, often seemed to be at odds with each other. Out of the public eye, however, the two men had begun meeting regularly. When Burke left the district, the work…

  7. Challenges of decentralisation in Ghana: district assembly's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana and the various legislations on decentralisation articulate the explicit objectives of the policy which includes responsiveness to community needs. The rationale behind Ghana's decentralisation programme and the functions of the District Assemblies (DAs) therefore provide a ...

  8. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  9. Teachers Already Armed in Some Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    Shooting instructor Johnny Price looked at the teachers lined up in front of him. Mr. Price, the owner of Big Iron Concealed Handgun Training in Waco, Texas, spent two days this month training teachers and staff members from the Clifton school district in all they need to know to earn licenses to carry weapons out of sight. There is no indication…

  10. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  11. Toward 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, district heating (DH) has a key role in the national strategic energy planning. However, tighter legislation on new and future buildings requires much less heating demand which subsequently causes relative high network heat loss. This will make current DH system uneconomical co...

  12. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Districts. 947.32 Section 947.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... consideration to (1) the relative importance of new areas of production, (2) changes in the relative position of...

  13. District Stressors and Teacher Evaluation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben; Mayrowetz, David; Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Umpstead, Regina R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Federal and state policymakers in the USA have sought to better differentiate the performance of K-12 teachers by enacting more rigorous evaluation policies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether these policies are working as intended and explore whether district stressors such as funding, enrollment, and governance are…

  14. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tems of the earth atmosphere coupled system and are extreme weather ... intense low pressure systems (India Meteorological. Department (IMD) .... which is responsible for the structural damage due to TC. ..... It fails to distinguish the more prone districts .... References. BMTPC 2006 Vulnerability Atlas of India: Earthquake,.

  15. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Bohlin, F.; Hektor, B.; Hillring, B.

    2003-01-01

    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  16. 36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seashore District. 27.3 Section 27.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CAPE...' studio, for appropriate small scale home occupations as the making and selling of traditional Cape Cod...

  17. Indianapolis Plan Suggests Blueprint for Other Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    An Indianapolis-based nonprofit organization has crafted a sweeping plan for reworking the 33,000-student Indianapolis school system that would place the district under the control of the city's mayor, pare down the money spent in central administration, and give principals broad authority to hire and fire teachers. The reform plan created by the…

  18. The reliability and usability of district health information software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reliability and usability of district health information software: case studies from Tanzania. ... The District Health Information System (DHIS) software from the Health Information System ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Managing Plan Implementation in the Asante Akyem South District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Plan Implementation in the Asante Akyem South District Assembly: Capacity Issues and Challenges. ... This paper uses a case study approach to appraise the capacity of the Asante Akyem South District Assembly (AASDA) in ...

  20. Comparative study of soil physical characteristics of Jaipur district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vikram

    The present study was carried in Jaipur district of Rajasthan state to measure physical characteristics of the soil samples from different districts of Jaipur. Soils samples were taken at ..... Random field models in earth sciences. Academic. Press.

  1. Estimates of thyroid cancer incidence at district level using cancer registries data and linkage of two sources of medico-administrative data, France, 2007-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatignoux, Edouard; Decool, Elsa; Maria, Florence de; Uhry, Zoe; Remontet, Laurent; Grosclaude, Pascale; Guizard, Anne-Valerie; Delafosse, Patricia; Colonna, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Objectives - In France, cancer registries cover 20% of the population. The objective of this study was to provide estimations of thyroid cancer incidence at the administrative district level ( 'departements') over the 2007-2011 period in metropolitan France, using registries data and medico-administrative data. Methods - A medico-administrative indicator 'HUL' [Hospital union LLD] combining Hospital discharge data and health insurance data on Long Duration Diseases (LDD) was constructed. It counts the number of people with a new LDD or hospitalized for thyroid cancer. The principle of the estimation consists in adjusting HUL data at the district level by the Incidence/HUL ratio of the registry area. The accuracy of the estimations was first evaluated in the districts covered by registries by comparing estimated to observed incidence. Results - The preliminary phase of the assessment confirmed that the HUL/Incidence ratio were sufficiently accurate to provide district level estimates of thyroid cancer incidence over the whole territory. The district variability of the estimations for the 2007-2011 period was important: the 5. and 95. percentiles of the distribution of standardized incidence rates across districts were 2.8 and 7.1 for 100,000 in men, and 8.3 and 21.2 for 100,000 in women. Areas with significant over-incidence were observed in the South-East, and on the South-West coast of France compared to the national level. Conclusion - This study confirms the magnitude of geographical variability of thyroid cancer incidence between French administrative districts. It also confirms the value of cross-referencing medico-administrative data to estimate the incidence at an administrative district level. (authors)

  2. Bottleneck analysis at district level to illustrate gaps within the district health system in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka Henriksson, Dorcus; Fredriksson, Mio; Waiswa, Peter; Selling, Katarina; Swartling Peterson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Poor quality of care and access to effective and affordable interventions have been attributed to constraints and bottlenecks within and outside the health system. However, there is limited understanding of health system barriers to utilization and delivery of appropriate, high-impact, and cost-effective interventions at the point of service delivery in districts and sub-districts in low-income countries. In this study we illustrate the use of the bottleneck analysis approach, which could be used to identify bottlenecks in service delivery within the district health system. Methods: A modified Tanahashi model with six determinants for effective coverage was used to determine bottlenecks in service provision for maternal and newborn care. The following interventions provided during antenatal care were used as tracer interventions: use of iron and folic acid, intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria, HIV counseling and testing, and syphilis testing. Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in Mayuge and Namayingo districts in Uganda were used in this study. Results: Effective coverage and human resource gaps were identified as the biggest bottlenecks in both districts, with coverage ranging from 0% to 66% for effective coverage and from 46% to 58% for availability of health facility staff. Our findings revealed a similar pattern in bottlenecks in both districts for particular interventions although the districts are functionally independent. Conclusion: The modified Tanahashi model is an analysis tool that can be used to identify bottlenecks to effective coverage within the district health system, for instance, the effective coverage for maternal and newborn care interventions. However, the analysis is highly dependent on the availability of data to populate all six determinants and could benefit from further validation analysis for the causes of bottlenecks identified. PMID:28581379

  3. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  4. Biomass burning in West African savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaut, J.C.; Abbadie, L.; Lavenu, F.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter approaches the influence of West African savanna ecosystems on the regional climate by giving, as precisely as possible, the amount of volatilized elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) annually released by bush fires into the atmosphere. In spite of the relative functional similarity of West African savannas, fire behavior and effects vary with the different bioclimatic and phytogeographic zones of the region: Guinea or humid zone; Sudan or mesic zone; and, Sahel or arid zone. In order to reach an acceptable accuracy, results are given for each of the zones described and summarized for West Africa

  5. Geographic information systems for mapping the National Exam Result of Junior High School in 2014 at West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Rejito, Juli; Rosadi, Rudi; Candra Permana, Fahmi

    2017-10-01

    National Exam level of schooling is implemented by the Ministry of Education and Culture for the development of education in Indonesia. The national examinations are centrally evaluated by the National Education Standards Agency, and the expected implementation of the national exams can describe the successful implementation of education at the district, municipal, provincial, or national level. In this study, we evaluate, analyze, and explore the implementation of the national exam database of the results of the Junior High School in 2014, with the Junior High School (SMP/MTs) as the smallest unit of analysis at the district level. The method used in this study is a data mining approach using the methodology of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) using descriptive analysis and spatial mapping of national examinations. The results of the classification of the data mining process to national exams of Junior High School in 2014 using data 6,878 SMP/MTs in West Java showed that 81.01 % were at moderate levels. While the results of the spatial mapping for SMP/MTs in West Java can be explained 36,99 % at the unfavorable level. The evaluation results visualization in graphic is done using ArcGIS to provide position information quality of education in municipal, provincial or national level. The results of this study can be used by management to make decision to improve educational services based on the national exam database in West Java. Keywords: KDD, spatial mapping, national exam.

  6. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. Setting: The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. Method: This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Results: Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye and 36% (Ngamiland selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. Conclusions: The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  7. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-11-30

    Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees' personal values and goals are realised. The aim of the study was to evaluate employees' personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye) and 36% (Ngamiland) selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  8. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  9. Little Reason for Being: A Case of School District Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Pam

    In 1980, Tonnelly Central School District became the first school district in New York State to be dissolved pursuant to Section 1505 of Education Law, marking the first use of dissolution and annexation as a means by which to address the programmatic and management problems encountered in the operation of a central school district. Problems faced…

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with

  11. Profiles of Merit Pay Provisions in Ohio School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Chris; Ingle, W. Kyle

    2018-01-01

    A small number of districts in Ohio from a variety of locales have adopted merit pay provisions. Using Springer's (2009) taxonomy of teacher compensation, we analyzed compensation provisions of these districts. We asked: What are the characteristics of these districts? What criteria are used to determine merit? Who is determining who receives…

  12. Stakeholder Experiences in District-University Administrator Preparation Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzo, Karen L.; Wilson, Jacob McKinley, III

    2016-01-01

    Our qualitative study explores the lived experiences of district stakeholders in university-district leadership preparation programs. Collaborative partnerships between school districts and universities focused on developing quality school leader are a part of recent efforts to provide the field of public education with exemplary leadership. The…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  14. District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…

  15. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  16. Inventory Control of Fixed Assets by School District Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul E.

    By July 1, 1966, each school district in New York State was required to install a system of property accounting. This pamphlet provides a suggested method of property accounting to assist school districts in meeting this requirement. In addition, suggestions are made to help the districts record the information needed for fire insurance purposes.…

  17. Probabilistic Assessment of Severe Accident Consequence in West Bangka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarko; Su'ud, Zaki

    2017-07-01

    Probabilistic dose assessment for severe accident condition is performed for West Bangka area. Source-term from WASH-1400 reactor analysis is used as a conservative release scenario for 1000 MWe PWR. Seven groups of isotopes are used in the simulation based on core inventory and release fraction. Population distribution for Muntok district and the area within a 100 km radius is obtained from 2014 data. Meteorological data is provided through cyclic sampling from a database containing two-year site-specific hourly records in 2014-2015 periods. PC-COSYMA segmented plume dispersion code is used to investigate the assumed the consequence of the accident scenario. The result indicates that early or deterministic effect is important for areas close the release point while long-term or stochastic effect is related to population distribution and covers area of up to 100 km from the release point. The mean annual expected values for early mortality and late mortality for the population within 100 km radius from Muntok site are 2.38×10-4 yr -1 and 1.33×10-3 yr -1 respectively.

  18. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    D K Mukhopadhyay; S S Basu; D Roy; N Das; F Akbar; GN Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. Methods: A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/util...

  19. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  20. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  1. Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Austin Independent School District's student achievement in reading. In 2009,…

  3. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Austin Independent School District's student achievement in reading. In 2009,…

  4. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  5. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  6. 2012 OLC Lidar: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  7. 2012 OLC Lidar DEM: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  8. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials ... The agricultural sector in the 1960s provided the main source of employment, .... their fathers and mothers' occupation were majorly trading (43.3%) and trading.

  9. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  10. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  11. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  12. Haematological characteristics and performance of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length ... performance of 36 young West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was investigated in order to simulate the .... cause antibody depression, alter white blood cell counts,.

  13. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  15. IDRC in the West Bank and Gaza

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    stress. Researchers from Birzeit Univer- sity and Canada's Queen's University studied more than ... Research Institute, West Bank. The economy of ... youth. Research findings will inform the work ... Grantee: The American Near East. Refugee ...

  16. Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, globalization has put a new spin on igration, which results in greater economic opportunities for the developed ...

  17. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  18. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  19. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...... past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about...

  20. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.