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Sample records for weser river weser

  1. Meeting: salt in the Werra and Weser rivers. Measurements, consequences, future. Papers; Fachtagung: Salz in Werra und Weser. Massnahmen, Folgen, Zukunft. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The conference reviewed the results of water protection measures and the future requirements on water quality in the Werra and Weser rivers. Abandoning and modernisation of alkali mines have improved the water quality since the eighties. The conference focused on protection measures, effects in terms of water quality and diversity of species, and forecasts and measures for the future. [German] Die Fachtagung zum Thema ''Salz in Werra und Weser - Massnahmen, Folgen, Zukunft'' fasst nicht nur die bisher erreichten Erfolge und deren Auswirkung zusammen, sondern beschreibt insbesondere auch die zukuenftige Anforderung an die Wasserguete von Werra und Weser. Nachdem die Salzfracht der Fluesse durch den Kalibergbau in den 80iger Jahren den Hoechststand erreichten, konnten seit der Wiedervereinigung durch Stillegung und Modernisierungen der Salzgehalt der Gewaesser erheblich reduziert werden. Themen der Tagung waren Massnahmen zur Senkung des Salzwasseranfalls, Auswirkungen auf die Gewaesserguete und den Artenreichtum der Fluesse und Prognosen und Aktionsprogramme fuer die Zunkunft.

  2. Modelling nutrient emissions and the impact of nutrient reduction measures in the Weser river basin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Ulrike; Venohr, Markus; Kreins, Peter; Behrendt, Horst

    2008-01-01

    To implement the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) into German law, measures have to be taken to reduce the unacceptably high nutrient input into rivers. To identify the most effective measures, the sources and pathways of nutrient emissions into rivers have to be quantified. Therefore, the MONERIS model is applied, which quantifies nutrients emissions into river basins, via various point and diffuse pathways, as well as nutrient load in rivers. Most nitrogen emissions come from groundwater flow (43%), tile drainages (30%), and point sources (12%), whereas most phosphorus emissions come from groundwater flow (31%), point sources (23%), erosion (13%) and overland flow (12%). Because of their great distance from the river basin outlet, the southern sub-basins Werra and Fulda-Diemel have an 8% reduction in their nitrogen loads and a 15% and 16% reduction in their phosphorus loads, respectively. This reduction is due to retention in the main part of the river Weser. For the choice of the most effective measures, the different retention in the river is relevant. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  3. Evolution of heavy-metal profiles in river Weser Estuary sediments, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, F.; Sagemann, J.; Stenzel, F.; Schulz, H. D.

    1994-11-01

    Studies of heavy metal concentrations in porewaters and in sediments from the Weser Estuary, Germany, indicate that the depth distribution of Mn, Cd, and Cu in the solid phase is predominantly influenced by the subsurface redox regime, while Ni shows only moderate alteration. Based on solid-phase heavy metal data from eight locations in the study area, linear regressions of Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Cd on Al allowed differences between the initial metal concentration and the concentration preserved in the sediments to be predicted. We calculate that, due to early diagenetic processes, Mn is enriched to 145 percent, while Cu and Cd are depleted to 71 percent and 46 percent, respectively, of the initial metal concentration in the near-surface sediment. Maximum depletion of Cd (84 percent), Cu (68 percent), Mn (54 percent), and Ni (24 percent) concentrations in the sediment, observed at a restricted area downcore, indicate the importance of post-depositional processes to metal preservation in the sediment. Without knowledge of the quantitative effects of diagenetic reactions on the preservation of metal concentrations in sediments, the depth distribution of metals in sediment cores may be misinterpreted as the effect of human activities.

  4. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response at the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems; Sensitivitaetskartierung zur Oelbekaempfung an den Unterlaeufen von Eider, Elbe, Weser und Ems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Krasemann, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Fleischmann, J.; Krueger, D.; Luebbe, T.P.

    2007-07-01

    During this project the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems, meeting the North Sea, were evaluated with respect to their vulnerability against oil accidents. Thus a corresponding intention concerning the ''Wadden Sea'' at the German North Sea Coast could be proceeded and completed (GKSS 2007/2). The assessment of different watersides shall provide decision support for oil spill response. Only comparatively near-natural areas of river banks were incorporated, with the basic evaluation of their importance for nature conservation as well as their oil spill sensitivity. Socioeconomic characteristics have not been evaluated, but some important properties are depicted on charts by symbols. The data used for the evaluation process cover the types of biotopes, tidal flats, nesting/non-nesting birds, rare plants as well as fishes, morphological conditions of watersides and official area-categories (i.e. protected natural area). Riverine and intertidal areas are fundamentally differentiated. With respect to seasonal aspects, the evaluation was established for three different times of the year. The result of the evaluation process is the classification of the individual watersides into 4 classes of priority (for oil spill response) and 8 classes of sensitivity. The priorityclasses are depicted by colours and the sensitivity-classes by numbers on sea-charts as topographic background (scale 1:25.000). The evaluation results are delayed on printed as well as GIS-based maps, connected to a data base. The amount of very sensitive areas is higher in the estuaries of the rivers Elbe and Eider compared to Ems and Weser and shows the highest values at all rivers during spring. The evaluation procedure is automated to a large extend by use of linked tables and a decision tree of if/then-functions. The underlying structure provides for a reliable transformation of new data into the corresponding evaluation during updating processes. (orig.)

  5. Multi-isotope tracers to investigate processes in the Elbe, Weser and Ems river catchment using B, Mo, Sr, and Pb isotope ratios assessed by MC ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Reese, Anna; Zimmermann, Tristan; Prohaska, Thomas; Retzmann, Anika; Wieser, Michael E.; Zitek, Andreas; Proefrock, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Environmental monitoring of complex ecosystems requires reliable sensitive techniques based on sound analytical strategies to identify the source, fate and sink of elements and matter. Isotopic signatures can serve to trace pathways by making use of specific isotopic fingermarks or to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources. The presented work shows the potential of using the isotopic variation of Sr, Pb (as well-established isotopic systems), Mo and B (as novel isotopic system) assessed by MC ICP-MS in water and sediment samples to study aquatic ecosystem transport processes. The isotopic variation of Sr, Pb, Mo and B was determined in different marine and estuarine compartments covering the catchment of the German Wadden Sea and its main tributaries, the Elbe, Weser and Ems River. The varying elemental concentrations, the complex matrix and the expected small variations in the isotopic composition required the development and application of reliable analytical measurement approaches as well as suited metrological data evaluation strategies. Aquatic isoscapes were created using ArcGIS® by relating spatial isotopic data with geographical and geological maps. The elemental and isotopic distribution maps show large variation for different parameters and also reflect the numerous impact factors (e.g. geology, anthropogenic sources) influencing the catchment area.

  6. Channel-shoal morphodynamics in response to distinct hydrodynamic drivers at the outer Weser estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Gerald; Benninghoff, Markus; Zorndt, Anna; Winter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The interaction of tidal, wave and wind forces primarily governs the morphodynamics of intertidal channel-shoal systems. Typical morphological changes comprise tidal channel meandering and/or migration with related shoal erosion or accretion. These intertidal flat systems are likely to response to accelerated sea level rise and to potential changes in storm frequency and direction. The aim of the ongoing research project is an evaluation of outer estuarine channel-shoal dynamics by combining the analysis of morphological monitoring data with high-resolution morphodynamic modelling. A focus is set on their evolution in reaction to different hydrodynamic forcings like tides, wind driven currents, waves under fair-weather and high energy conditions, and variable upstream discharges. As an example the Outer Weser region was chosen, and a tidal channel system serves as a reference site: Availability of almost annual bathymetrical observations of an approx. 10 km long tidal channel (Fedderwarder Priel) and its morphological development largely independent from maintenance dredging of the main Weser navigational channel make this tributary an ideal study area. The numerical modelling system Delft3D (Deltares) is applied to run real-time annual scenario simulations aiming to evaluate and to differentiate the morphological responses to distinct hydrodynamic drivers. A comprehensive morphological analysis of available observations at the FWP showed that the channel migration trends and directions are persistent at particular channel bends and meanders for the considered period of 14 years. Migration trends and directions are well reproduced by one-year model simulations. Morphodynamic modelling is applied to interpolate between observations and relate sediment dynamics to different forcing scenarios in the outer Weser estuary as a whole and at the scale of local tributary channels and flats.

  7. Nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide transformations in sediments along a salinity gradient in the Weser Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael; Gieseke, Armin; de Beer, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    , a brackish water site with fluctuating salinity, and a marine site, the effects of environmental changes in nitrogen availability and salinity on microscale sediment dynamics were examined. Generally, sediment levels of intermediates were low: 1 to 25 µM NO2- and 0 to 8 µM N2O. However, significant variation......The dynamics of the nitrogen intermediates N2O and NO2- in estuarine sediments were studied along a salinity gradient in the eutrophied Weser Estuary (Germany) using microsensors for N2O, NO2-, NOx-, and O2. During dark incubations in the laboratory of sediment samples from a freshwater site...... was found in accumulation patterns and in the potential of the residing microbial community to control sediment releases of the intermediates. At fresh- and brackish water sites, NO2- production was found in the anoxic denitrification zone, and release from the sediments was effectively prevented...

  8. The impact of harbour sludge disposal on benthic macrofauna communities in the Weser estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jan; Schroeder, Alexander; Knust, Rainer; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2004-04-01

    During an open-water disposal of about 710,000 m3 of harbour sludge in the polyhaline zone of the Weser estuary, Germany, a monitoring programme was carried out to investigate the impact on benthic invertebrates. The macrofaunal communities of four sites within the disposal area and five sites in a reference area were compared after discharge. The location and extent of the potentially affected area were inferred from a morphodynamic computer model (TIMOR 3; Zanke 1998). Disposal effects were analysed by comparing species numbers, densities, diversity and faunal similarity using multivariate methods. A loss of diversity and a decline in the abundance of several species in the disposal area were measured. The species number was reduced up to 50% and important habitat structures were absent from the disposal area. Several benthic species were affected by the disposal. The importance of species such as Mytilus edulis (Mollusca) and Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta) for the diversity of the community, and the sensitivity of these species to sediment discharge are analysed. The difficulties of separating dumping effects from natural variation in a dynamic estuarine channel system are discussed.

  9. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  10. An experimental study on the mixing behavior of Ti, Zr, V and Mo in the Elbe, Rhine and Weser estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alexandre B.; Koschinsky, Andrea; Kiprotich, Joseph; Poehle, Sandra; do Nascimento, Paulo C.

    2016-03-01

    Estuaries are important interfaces between land and ocean, in which the input of trace metals into the ocean via the rivers is often significantly modified along the mixing gradient between freshwater and seawater. In the present study we have carried out mixing experiments using river water from the Rhine, the Elbe and the Weser and seawater from the North Sea with the aim of gaining more insights into the behavior of titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), vanadium (V) and molybdenum (Mo) and their distribution between dissolved and particulate forms during mixing in the estuaries. Little is known about the modification of their concentrations in estuaries and these metals increasingly enter the rivers and the ocean due to their application as so-called high-tech metals in industrial activities. Such laboratory experiments at controlled conditions allow the systematic investigation of chemical changes related to the mixing ratios, independent of further influence factors occurring in natural systems. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry was used for the analytical determination of the four metals. Although our data largely confirmed a strong particle-reactive behavior of Ti and Zr and a mostly conservative behavior of Mo, our mixing experiments revealed partial deviation from this behavior. Vanadium mostly does not follow a strict conservative mixing trend but shows both small ad- and desorption effects along the salinity transect. Also Mo shows some deviations from conservative mixing at mid-salinities. The enrichment of dissolved Ti and Zr at about 50:50 river: seawater mixtures agrees with recently published data of similar field studies and appears to be a systematic effect possibly related to charge transitions on particle surfaces or change of the dissolved metal speciation. The observed effects partly differed in experiments with filtered and non-filtered river water samples, especially for Ti and Zr, highlighting the role of riverine particulate matter for the

  11. Modelling the spatial and temporal variations of the water balance for the Weser catchment 1965 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Mauser, Wolfram

    2001-12-01

    This study describes the application of the physically based SVAT model PROMET (PRocess Oriented Model for EvapoTranspiration) in the mesoscale catchment of the Weser (Northern Germany, approx. 37,500 km 2) utilizing a 30 years time series of meteorological input data. To enable a representative analysis of the spatial and temporal variations of the water balance components, the modelization is performed continuously without re-initialization of the state variables or specific calibration. Therefore, PROMET is expanded with the one-layer snow model ESCIMO (Energy balance Snow Cover Integrated MOdel) to provide an integrated model structure for continuous simulations of the water cycle. All necessary input data fields are integrated in a four-dimensional GIS data structure with a raster grid spacing of 1 km: a DEM, soil texture information derived from digitized maps, landuse distribution computed by unmixing a time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite images and meteorological input data fields which are spatially and temporally interpolated using data provided by the standard measurement network of the German Weather Service (DWD). Spatially non-distributed physical soil and plant parameters are either derived from measurements or taken from literature. The study presents the structure of ESCIMO and its validation at the point and the catchment scale. Then, the modelled mean annual evapotranspiration, aET, as obtained by application of the linked models PROMET/ESCIMO is compared with the corresponding term ET calculated by inserting the measured precipitation and gauged runoff into the water balance equation. It is started from the assumption that for the 30 years period, the overall underground storage change Δ S is negligible. The mean annual deviation aET-ET over the 30 years period is 10.9 mm, indicating that the results represent a valid long-term description of the water balance. The patterns of the simulated water balance components are discussed with respect to

  12. Climate change and the Lower Weser region: Direct and indirect consequences of a climate change for the ecological situation in the Weser, the forelands and in the diked marshes. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Direkte und indirekte Auswirkungen eines Klimawandels auf die oekologischen Verhaeltnisse in Weser, Vorland und Binnendeichsmarschen. Teilprojekt Oekologischer Komplex. T. A: Binnenland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, D.; Schirmer, M.

    2001-03-01

    In the subproject 'Ecological Complex' within the combined project 'Climate Change and the Lower Weser Region' (KLIMU), formerly 'Case Study Weser Estuary', the ecological effects of a climate change for the Lower Weser, the tidal forelands and the marshes protected by dikes are assessed. For the description of the ecological situation of the research area the biotope types acc. to DRACHENFELS are assessed and processed using a GIS (ARC View/ARC Info), complemented by relief data, status of protection, agricultural utilization and soil parameters. When a defined future climate (climate scenario) with +55 cm sea-level, +30 cm tidal rise, increased precipitation (but with -6% in summer.) and +2.7 C mean annual temperature acts upon this landscape, the following consequences will arise (without morphological adaptation), which are described in the final report part A for the marshes and in part B for the Lower Weser and the forelands: the shallow water areas of the Lower Weser increase by 29%, tidal areas by 55% and the tidal reeds by 250%; the grassland outside the summerdikes looses it's agricultural value and decreases by 30%. CO{sub 2}- and temperature-increase will rise the biomass production of the reeds by up to 25%, the invasion of neophytes and neozoans will be accelerated. In general the conditions in the foreland will become more natural. In the marshes protected by dikes the raised temperature will promote the invasion of thermophilic species as well; raised temperature and CO{sub 2}-contents of the atmosphere will allow an increase in productivity by 25% and thus help the agriculture. The biotope types of the moist grassland will remain dominated by agriculture, areas within 2 km from the dikes will tend to become more moist, areas far from there will in parts suffer from considerable drought during summer. The reaction options of the coastal protection result in the consumption of highly valued nature-areas (e.g. for a

  13. Climate change and the Lower Weser region. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Teilprojekt: Oekologischer Komplex. T. B: Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterkamp, S.; Schirmer, M.

    2000-12-01

    The climate sensitivity of the aquatic, amphibic and terrestrial compartments of the lower Weser region was analyzed. This region, located between Bremen and Bremerhaven in northern Germany, is part of a bigger natural reserve ('Unterwesermarsch'). Vegetation and land use were mapped at the biotype level, and forecasts of changes to be expected were attempted on the basis of a regionalised climate scenario. Climate-induced changes in the topology of the headlands and in the morphology of the lower Weser river could not be taken into account. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit (Teil B: 'Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender') des Teilprojektes Oekologischer Komplex wird die Klimasensitivitaet der aquatischen, amphibischen und terrestrischen Lebensraeume der Unterweserregion analysiert. (Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen der Klimasensitivitaet der Marschen sind im Abschlussbericht des Teilprojektes Oekologischer Komplex, Teil A, Kraft and Schirmer 2000 beschrieben). Das Untersuchungsgebiet, im Norden Deutschlands zwischen Bremen und Bremerhaven gelegen, stellt den inneren Teil des Naturraumes Unterwesermarsch dar. Die Vegetation und die Nutzung des Gebietes wurde flaechendeckend auf der Ebene von Biotoptypenkartierungen erfasst. Prognosen der Flaechenbilanzen und der kuenftigen Veraenderung der Biotoptypen und der Fauna des Vorlandes und der Unterweser wurden auf der Grundlage eines regionalisierten Klimaszenarios vorgenommen. Klimabedingte Veraenderungen der Topografie der Vorlandbereiche und der Morphologie der Unterweser konnten innerhalb der vorliegenden Studie nicht beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  14. Terrace styles and timing of terrace formation in the Weser and Leine valleys, northern Germany: Response of a fluvial system to climate change and glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemann, Jutta; Lang, Jörg; Roskosch, Julia; Polom, Ulrich; Böhner, Utz; Brandes, Christian; Glotzbach, Christoph; Frechen, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    In glaciated continental basins accommodation space is not only controlled by tectonics and sea-level but also by the position of ice-sheets, which may act as a regional base-level for fluvial systems. Although the Pleistocene terrace record of major river systems in northwestern Europe has been investigated by many authors, relatively little attention has been paid to base-level changes related to glacier advance-retreat cycles and how these regional changes in base-level interacted with river catchment processes. This study provides a synthesis of the stratigraphic architecture of Middle Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terraces in the upper Weser and middle Leine valley in northern Germany and links it to glaciation, climate and base-level change. The depositional architecture of the fluvial terrace deposits has been reconstructed from outcrops and high-resolution shear wave seismic profiles. The chronology is based on luminescence ages, 230Th/U ages, 14C ages and Middle Palaeolithic archaeological assemblages. The drainage system of the study area developed during the Early Miocene. During the Pleistocene up to 170 m of fluvial incision took place. A major change in terrace style from strath terraces to cut-and-fill terraces occurred during the early Middle Pleistocene before Marine Isotope Stage MIS 12, which may correlate with climate deterioration and the onset of glaciation in northern central Europe. During this time a stable buffer zone was established within which channels avulsed and cut and filled freely without leaving these vertical confines. Climate was the dominant driver for river incision and aggradation, whereas the terrace style was controlled by base-level changes during ice-sheet growth and decay. A major effect of glacio-isostatic processes was the post-Elsterian re-direction of the River Weser and River Leine. The Middle Pleistocene fluvial terraces are vertically stacked, indicating a high aggradation to degradation ratio, corresponding

  15. Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes: economic evolution and spatial modelling of the damage potential in the lower Weser region; Risiko einer Kuestenregion bei Klimaaenderung: Oekonomische Bewertung und raeumliche Modellierung des Schadenspotentials in der Unterweserregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiese, M.; Leineweber, B.

    2001-07-01

    An accelerated increase of the sea-level causes the coastal protection to change from an absolute necessity (coastal protection at any price) to a decision problem due to empty public cash boxes. In order to guarantee an efficient distribution of the scarce financial means the most urgent coastal protection investments must be assessed by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The benefit of a coastal protection measure corresponds to the avoided damage in case of failure (''if the flood comes''). Taking into account equal conditions extension measures must be carried out where the damage potential to the hinterland is the highest. The part of the project ''Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes: Economic evaluation and spatial modelling of the damage potential in the Lower Weser region Bremerhaven - Butjadingen - Land Wursten'' worked on by the Department of Economic Geography of the Geographic Institute of the University Hanover, is supposed to assess the ''protected values'' located behind the dike, evaluate the monetary value and develop a spatial model. The obtained protected values, which are related with damage functions, indicate the damage potential that would have to be expected in case of flooding. The results of this project are incorporated in the research project ''Risks of a coastal region in case of climate changes'' that is carried out by the Franzius Institute for water construction and coastal engineering in cooperation with the Department of Economic Geography. (orig.) [German] Ein beschleunigter Meeresspiegelanstieg macht den Kuestenschutz angesichts leerer oeffentlicher Kassen zunehmend von einer Unbedingtheit (Kuestenschutz um jeden Preis) zu einem Entscheidungsproblem. Um eine effiziente Allokation der knappen Mittel zu gewaehrleisten, sind die vordringlichsten Kuestenschutzinvestitionen mit Hilfe von Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen zu ermitteln. Dabei entspricht

  16. Nitric oxide turnover in permeable river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Frank; Stief, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2014-01-01

    We measured nitric oxide (NO) microprofiles in relation to oxygen (O2) and all major dissolved N-species (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide [N2O]) in a permeable, freshwater sediment (River Weser, Germany). NO reaches peak concentrations of 0.13 μmol L-1 in the oxic zone and is consumed...... in the oxic-anoxic transition zone. Apparently, NO is produced by ammonia oxidizers under oxic conditions and consumed by denitrification under microoxic conditions. Experimental percolation of sediment cores with aerated surface water resulted in an initial rate of NO production that was 12 times higher than...

  17. 'It suits us well'. The Weser-Stadion at Bremen gets an unusual solar power supply system; 'Das passt zu uns'. Das Bremer Weser-Stadion erhaelt eine ungewoehnliche Solarstromanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, R.

    2008-06-15

    Not all of the fans of German premier league football club Werder Bremen may like it, but the new solar system can well compete with any other solar system, not just in football arenas. Modules with about 1 MW capacity are being installed and will be integrated architecturally in the walls and roof of the arena. (orig.)

  18. Sustainable investment for Bremen. swb. Weserkraftwerk under construction; Nachhaltiges Investment fuer Bremen. swb. Weserkraftwerk im Entstehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    The new hydroelectric power plant on the Weser river is not only an important milestone in the sustainability strategy 2020 of swb AG but also a construction project that is unique in Europe. The world's biggest tidal power plant, on the Bremen Weser weir, will be commissioned in late 2011. The construction of the plant is a sign that swb takes renewable energy seriously, especially in its home region.

  19. Ecotoxicological sediment survey of large German rivers; Oekotoxikologische Sedimentkartierung der grossen Fluesse Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duft, M.; Tillmann, M. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst., Abt. Oekologie und Evolution

    2003-05-01

    In this project, a nation-wide, ecotoxicologically-based sediment survey was carried out. For this purpose, a total of about 200 sediment samples from 12 selected large German rivers (Danube, Elbe, Ems, Main, Mosel, Neckar, Neisse, Odra, Rhine, Ruhr, Saar and Weser) were analysed with regard to abiotic parameters (heavy metals, PAH, organic carbon content, particle size) and also by means of two biological test systems with benthic invertebrates (nematode test with the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and chironomid test with the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius). Subsequently, this comprehensive data set was analysed statistically. By means of an iterative method, a five-stage, statistically-derived assessment concept which is founded on the results of the biological tests, was developed following the EU water framework directive. In general, the classification with the nematode test turned out to be the more sensitive method. A principal component analysis and correlations showed that the parameters of both biotests provide different information which suggests a combined use of both tests. Correlations also indicate a connection of biotest results and abiotic parameters (organic carbon content, particle size and heavy metal contamination). (orig.) [German] Im Projekt wurde eine bundesweite oekotoxikologische Sedimentkartierung grosser Fliessgewaesser durchgefuehrt. Dazu wurden insgesamt etwa 200 Sedimentproben aus 12 ausgewaehlten grossen Fluessen Deutschlands (Donau, Elbe, Ems, Main, Mosel, Neckar, Neisse, Oder, Rhein, Ruhr, Saar und Weser) auf ihre abiotischen Parameter (Schwermetalle, PAK, organischer Kohlenstoffgehalt, Korngroesse) hin analysiert sowie mit zwei biologischen Testverfahren mit benthischen Invertebraten (Nematodentest mit dem Fadenwurm Caenorhabditis elegans und Chironomidentest mit der Zuckmuecke Chironomus riparius) untersucht. Dieses umfangreiche Datenmaterial wurde anschliessend statistisch ausgewertet und mit Hilfe eines iterativen

  20. Testing of highly stressed floor anchoring bolts in river dams for unterwater cracks; Pruefung hochbeanspruchter Sohlverankerungslaschen in Wehranlagen auf Rissanzeigen unter Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimche, Wilfried; Bruchwald, Oliver; Zwoch, Stefan; Bach, F. Wilhelm [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Kolbusch, Rudolf [KWE Ingenieurbuero, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In the context of tests of floor anchoring bolts of the Petershagen and Drakenburg Weser river dams that were ordered by the Verden water and river transport authority, an eddy current test method was developed and tested successfully in the specific test conditions. The test unit comprised two hermetically sealed, miniaturized eddy current difference probes with premagnetisation for surface and radius testing in orthogonal tracks in order to ensure 100 percent inspection of all floor anchoring bold surfaces accessible from outside. The underwater inspection was carried out in the form of manual scans with hand-held units operated by a diver-engineer, while coordination, data recording and analysis were carried out by another inspection engineer on board a river barge. [German] Im Zuge der vom Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Verden in Auftrag gegeben Pruefung von Sohlverankerungslaschen unter Wasser auf Rissanzeigen in den Weserwehren Petershagen und Drakenburg wurde ein an die Pruefbedingungen angepasstes Wirbelstrom-Pruefsystem entwickelt und erfolgreich eingesetzt. Zum Einsatz kamen dabei zwei hermetisch geschlossene, miniaturisierte Wirbelstromdifferenzsensoren mit Vormagnetisierung fuer die Flaechen- und Radienpruefung in orthogonalen Spuren um die geforderte 100%-Pruefung aller von aussen zugaenglichen Oberflaechen der Sohlverankerungslaschen zu gewaehrleisten. Die Pruefung unter Wasser erfolgte handgefuehrt in Scantechnik, ausgefuehrt durch einen Pruefingenieur als Taucher, waehrend die Koordination, Messwertaufnahme und erste Bewertung durch einen weiteren Pruefingenieur an Bord einer Barke ueber Wasser erfolgte.

  1. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals - such as the rare earth elements (REE) - have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile as biomarkers of pollution in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from German rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, F; Kammann, U; Wagner, C; Hanel, R

    2012-02-01

    In the light of the alarming decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) population, there is an urgent need to define ecological indicators for eel habitat quality. Due to an increasing shortage of glass eels available for local stock enhancement, the decision of whether restocking is a valuable management tool to increase high-quality silver eel escapement to the sea needs to be evaluated. Organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are among the major threats to fish in their habitat. Therefore, the aim of the investigation presented here was to examine metabolites of PAHs in eel bile as one possible marker for habitat quality. In total, 170 yellow eels were collected in the rivers Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Havel, Schlei, Eider, Trave, Warnow, Peene, Uecker, and Oder in 2009. PAH metabolites in eel bile were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Metabolites of pyrene and phenanthrene were investigated. Concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel bile varied significantly between several rivers, with the highest mean concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene in eel bile from the river Trave (2421 and 632 ng/ml). Moreover, huge differences in the ratio of 1-hydroxypyrene to 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, with the highest mean value in eel bile from the river Ems (7.43) and the lowest mean value in eel bile from the river Uecker (0.70), indicate different sources of PAH contamination. A comparative analysis of PAH-metabolite contamination of eels in different river systems is seen as a first step toward a classification of freshwater habitats for restocking purposes.

  3. Rare earth elements in the aragonitic shell of freshwater mussel Corbicula fluminea and the bioavailability of anthropogenic lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium in river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merschel, Gila, E-mail: g.merschel@jacobs-university.de; Bau, Michael

    2015-11-15

    High-technology metals — such as the rare earth elements (REE) — have become emerging contaminants in the hydrosphere, yet little is known about their bioavailability. The Rhine River and the Weser River in Germany are two prime examples of rivers that are subjected to anthropogenic REE input. While both rivers carry significant loads of anthropogenic Gd, originating from contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging, the Rhine River also carries large amounts of anthropogenic La and lately Sm which are discharged into the river from an industrial point source. Here, we assess the bioavailability of these anthropogenic microcontaminants in these rivers by analyzing the aragonitic shells of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Concentrations of purely geogenic REE in shells of comparable size cover a wide range of about one order of magnitude between different sampling sites. At a given sampling site, geogenic REE concentrations depend on shell size, i.e. mussel age. Although both rivers show large positive Gd anomalies in their dissolved loads, no anomalous enrichment of Gd relative to the geogenic REE can be observed in any of the analyzed shells. This indicates that the speciations of geogenic and anthropogenic Gd in the river water differ from each other and that the geogenic, but not the anthropogenic Gd is incorporated into the shells. In contrast, all shells sampled at sites downstream of the industrial point source of anthropogenic La and Sm in the Rhine River show positive La and Sm anomalies, revealing that these anthropogenic REE are bioavailable. Only little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to dissolved REE and their general ecotoxicity, but considering that anthropogenic Gd and even La have already been identified in German tap water and that anthropogenic La and Sm are bioavailable, this should be monitored and investigated further. - Highlights: • Corbicula fluminea shells are bioarchives of dissolved geogenic REE in

  4. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in river and wastewater in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achten, Christine; Kolb, Axel; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Seel, Peter; Gihr, Regine

    2002-09-01

    An overview of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations in German river water (315 samples) and wastewater (82 samples) is given. In the agglomerated area of Frankfurt/M, several samples of surface water, wastewater, and industrial effluents were analyzed for its MTBE content from 1999 to 2001. MTBE was analyzed by a combination of headspace-solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Rhine and Main water concentrations of MTBE in the lower parts of the rivers were approximately 250 ng/L and 200 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations increased from the upper parts of the rivers to its mouths. Water from the Elbe, Neckar, and Weser rivers showed lower MTBE concentrations, and the ether was not detected in the Danube river. Generally, higher MTBE concentrations were detected at urban agglomerations compared to rural areas. Small urban creeks without significant industrial input showed MTBE concentrations of approximately 50 ng/L, and it was hardly detectable in small rural creeks. Higher MTBE concentrations in river water were correlated with increased concentrations of the oxygenate measured in precipitation. Most MTBE concentrations in river water fell in the range of 50-200 ng/L (32%), 10-50 ng/L (28%), and 200-1000 ng/L (26%). MTBE concentrations in German surface water and air are 3-17 times lower compared to Californian data. Wastewater samples from influents of two sewage plants showed MTBE concentrations of approximately 100-300 ng/L, and a loading of 2-37 kg/a was calculated. An eliminated MTBE percentage of roughly 30-35% of MTBE in the plants was estimated. Industrially influenced samples of river water or public wastewater and industrial effluents showed MTBE concentrations of up to 2267 ng/L and 28 microg/L, respectively. This input has not been considered before because only 1.5% of the produced amount of MTBE in Germany is used for industrial processes, but it should not be neglected because MTBE is very

  5. Riverine input of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the coastal pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Everaarts, J.M.

    of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It deals with an in-depth analysis of pollution of the coastal ecosystem around the Netherlands, U.K. and Germany due to inputs of contaminants from the rivers namely, Elbe, Weser, Ems Ijssel, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames...

  6. Hydropower and Water Framework Directive. Appendix 1; Wasserkraftnutzung und Wasserrahmenrichtlinien. Anhang 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration is the first appendix to the environmental research plan of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) on ''Hydropower and Water Framework Directive''. This appendix contains a description of the locations in the tributaries of the German river Weser.

  7. RegionRegenerativ in the Western Weser uplands - presentation of a future-oriented energy and waste management concept; RegionRegenerativ Westliches Weserbergland - Vorstellung eines zukunftsweisenden Energie- und Abfallwirtschaftkonzeptes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, S. [Fachhochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Technischer Umweltschutz; Nacke, O. [ARCHEA GmbH, Hess. Oldendorf (Germany); Nelles, M.

    2002-07-01

    In the past years the realisation that the Earth's fossil energy energy resources are not inexhaustible has speeded up explorations of the scope of renewable energy resources. In this context biogas technology is becoming an option of increasing significance. Its greatest potential lies in agriculture, which in Germany accounts for 86% of the total biogas potential. In addition to this there is also a substantial potential for biogas production from industrial and municipal wastes. [German] Die Erkenntnis der Endlichkeit fossiler Energietraeger hat insbesondere in den letzten Jahren zu einer verstaerkten Beschaeftigung mit den Moeglichkeiten einer regenerativen Energiegewinnung gefuehrt. Die Biogastechnologie stellt eine Alternative dar, die in diesem Zusammenhang zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnt. Die groessten Potenziale liegen in der Landwirtschaft; in Deutschland sind dies ca. 86% des gesamten Biogaspotenzials. Darueber hinaus bestehen jedoch erhebliche Potenziale in der Biogaserzeugung aus industriellen und kommunalen Abfaellen. (orig.)

  8. Symbiosis of aesthetics and efficiency. Klimahaus {sup registered} Bremerhaven 8 Ost sets new standards for architecture and technology; Symbiose aus Inhalt und Verpackung. Klimahaus {sup registered} Bremerhaven 8 Ost setzt neue Massstaebe fuer Architektur und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumer, Wolfgang [Klimahaus Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany); Kessling, Wolfgang; Oberdorf, Christian [Transsolar Energietechnik GmbH (Germany); Matzel, Martin [ACD Communication GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    From outside, the Klimahaus {sup registered} Bremerhaven 8 Ost looks like a cloud or a ship. The building houses an information centre with a floor space of nearly 12,000 square meters in the new Bremerhaven district of ''Havenwelten'', between the old harbour and the dyke of the outer Weser river. Facts and phenomena on climate and climate protection are presented inside the building. With its unique concept, the Klimahaus {sup registered} sets new architectural standards. (orig.)

  9. Global thermal pollution of rivers from thermoelectric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, C. E.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Pfister, S.

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide riverine thermal pollution patterns were investigated by combining mean annual heat rejection rates from power plants with once-through cooling systems with the global hydrological-water temperature model variable infiltration capacity (VIC)-RBM. The model simulates both streamflow and water temperature on 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution worldwide and by capturing their effect, identifies multiple thermal pollution hotspots. The Mississippi receives the highest total amount of heat emissions (62% and 28% of which come from coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants, respectively) and presents the highest number of instances where the commonly set 3 °C temperature increase limit is equalled or exceeded. The Rhine receives 20% of the thermal emissions compared to the Mississippi (predominantly due to nuclear power plants), but is the thermally most polluted basin in relation to the total flow per watershed, with one third of its total flow experiencing a temperature increase ≥5 °C on average over the year. In other smaller basins in Europe, such as the Weser and the Po, the share of the total streamflow with a temperature increase ≥3 °C goes up to 49% and 81%, respectively, during July-September. As the first global analysis of its kind, this work points towards areas of high riverine thermal pollution, where temporally finer thermal emission data could be coupled with a spatially finer model to better investigate water temperature increase and its effect on aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Development and practical testing of an action plan for the environmentally compatible use of hydropower; Erarbeitung und Praxiserprobung eines Massnahmenplanes zur oekologisch vertraeglichen Wasserkraftnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The use of rivers for generating electric power and the efforts to conserve important ecological habitats mark a classic conflict between two different aims of society. While passing hydropower plants migrating fish risk injuries and death. This affects the development of fish populations, particularly of diadromous fish populations in river basins. The aim of this study was to find conditions for serving a self sustaining fish population in the Weser basin. The influence of the river continuity and the quality of spawning and nursery habitats were varied. The survival rates of the diadromous species salmon and eel were modeled on the basis of literature data and additional data from own investigations. A self-reproducing salmon population would require the upstream and downstream passibility at each obstacle. Especially the protection at hydropower plants in the tributaries is of major importance. In addition, the hydro-morphological conditions of the spawning habitats have to be improved and further losses (such as predation or fishing) must be decreased. The survival rate of 40%, required by the EC Regulation on European eel can be achieved by the establishment of upstream continuity at all sites and by protective measures at the hydropower plants in the tributaries of the Weser. (orig.)

  11. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Ralf; Kreins, Peter; Tetzlaff, Björn; Wendland, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We used the interdisciplinary model network AGRUM [corrected] to predict the actual mean nitrate concentration in percolation water at the scale of the Weser river basin (Germany) using an area differentiated (100 m x 100 m) approach. AGRUM [corrected] combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ for assessing the nitrate leaching from the soil. For areas showing predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water above the European Union (EU) groundwater quality standard of 50 mg NO3-N/L, effective agri-environmental reduction measures need to be derived and implemented to improve groundwater and surface water quality by 2015. The effects of already implemented agricultural policy are quantified by a baseline scenario projecting the N-surpluses from agricultural sector to 2015. The AGRUM [corrected] model is used to estimate the effects of this scenario concerning groundwater and surface water pollution by nitrate. From the results of the model analysis the needs for additional measures can be derived in terms of required additional N-surplus reduction and in terms of regional prioritization of measures. Research work will therefore directly support the implementation of the Water Framework Directive of the European Union in the Weser basin.

  12. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater based on a coupled agroeconomic - hydro(geo)logic model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, F.

    2010-12-01

    The fundamental objectives of the European Union-Water Framework Directive and the EU Groundwater Directive are to attain a good status of water and groundwater resources in the member states of the EU by 2015. For river basins, whose good status cannot be guaranteed by 2015, catchment wide operational plans and measurement programs have to be drafted and implemented until 2009. In the river basin district Weser, Germany, which comprises a catchment area of ca. 49.000 km2, the achievement of the good status is unclear, or rather unlikely for 63% of the groundwater bodies. Inputs from diffuse sources and most of all nitrate losses from agriculturally used land have been identified as the main reasons for exceeding the groundwater threshold value for nitrate (50 mg/l) and for failing the good qualitative status of groundwater. The achievement of good qualitative status of groundwater bodies entails a particular challenge as the complex ecological, hydrological, hydrogeological and agro-economic relationships have to be considered simultaneously. We used an interdisciplinary model network to predict the nitrogen intakes into groundwater at the regional scale using an area differentiated approach. The model system combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses from agriculture and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ/WEKU for describing the reactive nitrate transport in the soil-groundwater system. In a first step the model is used to analyze the present situation using N surpluses from agriculture for the year 2003. In many region of the Weser basin, particularly in the northwestern part which is characterized by high livestock densities, predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water exceed the EU groundwater quality standard of 50 mg/L by far. In a second step the temporal and spatial impacts of the common agricultural policy (CAP) of the EU, already implemented agri-environmental measures of the Federal States and the expected

  13. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  14. Decadal Evolution of Wadden Sea morphology, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Markus; Winter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Wadden Sea features tidal channels and intertidal flats whose evolution is highly driven by hydrodynamic conditions in various time and length scales, from short single storms to long term sea level rise. Meso-scale (multi decadal) evolution of channel shoal systems in the German part of the Wadden Sea is quantified by geoprocessing of time-series of digital elevation models (DEMs). The temporal trend of channel-shoal hypsometries is analysed. Preliminary results for the Outer Weser tidal flats show a clear trend of sediment accretion. In contrast, subtidal areas tend to erode. This pattern is consistent for the whole Outer Weser estuary, which indicates an overall steepening of tidal channels. As the Outer Weser estuary is not necessarily representative for the whole German Bight coast with its diverse geomorphologic settings, the method is applied to the larger German Bight.

  15. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, R.; Kreins, P.; Tetzlaff, B.; Wendland, F.

    2009-04-01

    The fundamental objectives of the European Union-Water Framework Directive and the EU Groundwater Directive are to attain a good status of water and groundwater resources in the member states of the EU by 2015. Following the implementation time table, the EU member States carried out a review about the qualitative and quantitative status for all river basins in the EU. For river basins, whose good status cannot be guaranteed by 2015, catchment wide operational plans and measurement programs are to be drafted and implemented until 2009. In the river basin district Weser, Germany, which comprises a catchment area of ca. 49.000 km2, the achievement of the good status is unclear, or rather unlikely for 63% of the groundwater bodies. Inputs from diffuse sources and most of all nitrogen losses from agriculturally used land have been identified as the main reasons for exceeding the groundwater threshold value for nitrate (50 mg/l) and for failing the „good qualitative status" of groundwater in 2015. For this reason the drafting and implementation of measurement programs in the Weser basin are primarily focused on nitrate. The achievement of good qualitative status of groundwater bodies entails a particular challenge especially for large river basins as the complex ecological, hydrological, hydrogeological and agro-economic relationships have to be considered simultaneously. Integrated large scale agroeconomic- hydrologic models are powerful tools to analyze the actual pollution loads and "hot spot" areas and to predict the temporal and spatial effects of reduction measures. We used the interdisciplinary model network REGFLUD to predict the nitrogen intakes into groundwater and the nitrogen losses to surface waters by different pathways at the regional scale using an area differentiated approach. The model system combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses from agriculture and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ/WEKU for describing the

  16. Formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes in an estuarine turbidity zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Marius; Schrottke, Kerstin; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes were investigated in the Weser Estuary, North Sea, Germany, based on hydroacoustic measurements. Near-bed suspension layers were found to consist of a suspension of large mud flocs of variable concentration, ranging from...... 25 g/L below the lutocline to 70 g/L at the river bed, whereas the gelling concentration was below 70 g/L. Sites of fluid mud formation coincided with the location of the estuarine turbidity zone during slack water. On average, near-bed density gradients were initially observed in dune troughs 1.2 h...... before slack water, and all fluid mud layers were entrained 2.3 h after slack water. No shear instabilities occurred until 1.8 h after slack water. While the flow was oriented in the dune direction, rapid entrainment was related to the development of the turbulent flow field behind dunes and is explained...

  17. Tree-Rings, Timbers and Trees: A dendrochronological survey of the 14th-century cog, Doel 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haneca, Kristof; Daly, Aoife

    2014-01-01

    In 2000, the remains of a cog, Doel 1, were found in Doel, Belgium. Wood species identification of all ship timbers and smaller elements was performed. European oak was the dominant species, followed by alder that was used for the fairings. In total 150 ring-width series were recorded. The constr......In 2000, the remains of a cog, Doel 1, were found in Doel, Belgium. Wood species identification of all ship timbers and smaller elements was performed. European oak was the dominant species, followed by alder that was used for the fairings. In total 150 ring-width series were recorded....... The construction date was set at AD 1325/26 and the timbers proved to originate from forests along the rivers Elbe and Weser. For the bottom strakes a strict symmetrical layout was observed. The keel plank was hewn from a trunk with a slightly earlier felling date. Repairs were performed with high-quality boards...

  18. Integrated HSE management system of RWE Dea AG; Integriertes HSE-Managementsystem der RWE Dea AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbauer, W. [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The core competences of RWE Dea AG are exploration and production of natural gas and petroleum. RWE Dea has more than 100 years of experience in drilling and production. It has foreign interests in Norway, Britain, Egypt, Libya, Kazakhstan, Poland and Denmark, some of which are worked in cooperation with competent partners. In Germany, RWE Dea focuses on natural gas exploration and production in Niedersachsen between the Elbe and Weser rivers, the development of the Mittelplate offshore field on the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein, and the operation of large-volume underground natural gas storage caverns in Bavaria. As its activities are related to health, safety and environment, RWE Dea developed a special management system for these aspects. (orig.)

  19. Occurrence and distribution of triclosan in the German Bight (North Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zhiyong [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Institute of Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststrasse 1, D-21335 Lueneburg (Germany)], E-mail: zhiyong.xie@gkss.de; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Floeser, Goetz; Caba, Armando [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ruck, Wolfgang [Institute of Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststrasse 1, D-21335 Lueneburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The potential of triclosan (TCS) acting as an endocrine disruptor has led to growing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment. In this study, seawater samples were collected from the German Bight during sampling campaigns conducted with the German research ships Gauss and Ludwig Prandtl. TCS was determined both in the dissolved phase and in the suspended particulate matters with concentrations ranging 0.8-6870 pg L{sup -1} and <1-95 pg L{sup -1}, respectively. High concentrations of TCS were present in the estuaries of the Elbe and the Weser, indicating significant input of TCS by the river discharge. The correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) between the dissolved concentration and salinity was 0.79 for the data obtained from the Gauss cruise, showing an obvious declining trend from the coast to the open sea. - Investigation with coastal survey reveals distribution of triclosan in marine waters.

  20. Modelling the active site properties of dopamine b-hydroxylase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    reduced species to the oxidized complex in air is shown below. The oxalate anion in the catalytically active complex is generated from the dehydroascorbic acid by hydrolytic ring rupture followed by oxidation of 2,3-diketo-1-gluconic acid. References. 1. Abolmaali B, Taylor H V and Weser U 1998 Struct. Bonding 91 91. 2.

  1. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den

  2. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  3. The Influence of Clusters on the Competitiveness of Hog Production: The Example of Northwestern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Deimel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the northwestern part of Germany (Weser-Ems region has come to focus on intensive pork production. This has led to public outrage about the disposal of biological waste, farmers’ complaints about the high cost of leasing land, soaring risks of animal diseases, and the decreasing popularity of intensive animal husbandry. However, despite these problems, due to a beneficial cluster structure, the region is a successful market participant. To shed some light on the relationship between network relationships in clusters and competitiveness, an empirical survey was undertaken to compare this pork-intensive region with non–pork-intensive regions. Bi- and multivariate analyses reveal a better access to knowledge and information on the part of farmers in the Weser-Ems region as well as a higher regional competitiveness. As a result, the cluster region characterized by intensive hog production is economically more successful.

  4. [Regional coordination of paediatric oncological care in northwestern Lower Saxony, Germany--network funded by health insurance companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H L; Blanke, J-G; Bonse, B; Bosse, H; Erkel, J; Gitmans, R; Kolb, R; Krull, F; Langlitz, J; Liebner, T; Löning, L; Mokross, C; Niekrens, C; Schüler, D; Wessel, V; Wosnitza, A P

    2010-11-01

    The cure rates in pediatric oncology have been substantially improved due to standardized treatment strategies and centralization of therapy. Close clinical and hematological monitoring is mandatory for patients between periods of chemotherapy for early detection and treatment of therapy-related complications such as infections. This results in frequent and time-consuming outpatient examinations for the patient and family at the oncological center in order to evaluate clinical condition and hematological findings. In widespread regions such as the Weser-Ems area in northwest Lower Saxony, Germany, the long distances between patients' home and the oncological center lead to higher risks and impairment of quality of life (QoL) for the patients and their families. Accordingly, in 2001 pediatric hospitals and practices, patient care services and patients' support groups in Weser-Ems founded a network (Verbund PädOnko Weser-Ems). The "Verbund PädOnko" aims at coordinated, high-quality regional outpatient patient treatment in order to reduce risks of long-distance transports to reach the oncological center. Since 2005 a newly established mobile care team realized 1 443 home visits covering a total of 150 300 km. Since 2007 the network has been funded by health insurance organisations. Internal and external benchmarking was performed showing that the rate of short term inpatient treatments were reduced. Treatment quality was assured and the QoL of the patients and their families was improved through the work of the network. The "Verbund PädOnko Weser-Ems" network represents a promising prototype model for the regional coordination of outpatient treatment and care of patients with rare diseases in wide spread areas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Fokko Hattermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study is to quantify the impacts of climate change on hydrology in the large river basins in Germany (Rhine, Elbe, Danube, Weser and Ems and thereby giving the range of impact uncertainty created by the most recent regional climate projections. The study shows mainly results for the A1B SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario scenario by comparing the reference period 1981–2010 and the scenario periods 2031–2060 and 2061–2090 and using climate projections of a combination of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs and 12 Regional Climate Models (RCMs as climate driver. The outcome is compared against impacts driven by a more recent RCP (Representative Emission Pathways scenario by using data of a statistical RCM. The results indicate that more robust conclusions can be drawn for some river basins, especially the Rhine and Danube basins, while diversity of results leads to higher uncertainty in the other river basins. The results also show that hydrology is very sensitive to changes in climate and effects of a general increase in precipitation can even be over-compensated by an increase in evapotranspiration. The decrease of runoff in late summer shown in most results can be an indicator for more pronounced droughts under scenario conditions.

  6. Circumboreal diatom Navicula streckerae Lange-Bert. & Witk., especially on lineolae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukushima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Navicula streckerae was recorded in two locations of northern Germany and the Arctic Ocean. According to the findings of this taxon from Lake Khovsgol (Mongolia and Kamchatka (Russia by our investigations, this taxon distributed northward from latitude 50°N. on the Eurassian Continent and is considered to be a circumboreal diatom. This taxon is divided into three types, namely the Arctic Ocean type, the Weser River type and the Kinzig River type according to the valve morphology. In this study we compare these three types in the samples from Europe and Kamchatka focusing on the valve form and sizes. Though the density of lineolae composing striae is one of the important characteristics to classify the species, there are few records of this point. We investigate this point in detail in the specimens from Europe and Kamchatka. Consequentry the two extreme values, short striae forming the cental area and the area including Voigt discontinuities, should be excluded when measuring the density of lineolae to obtain a stable value.

  7. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  8. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  9. Concentration of heavy metals in brook trout in comparison to aquatic plants and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Rady, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977 the heavy metal content of river water, fishes (Salmo trutta fario), three aquatic plants (Cladophora glomerata, Potamogeton pectinatus, Zannichellia palustris), one river-bank plant (Phalaris arundinacea), and sediments (clay fraction) taken from the River Leine, up and downstream of Goettingen, were determined. Galvanic-bath sewage containing heavy metals caused an increase (11-60%) in the concentration of nine elements in the water. The average level of heavy metals in the river water corresponded to that of the Ems, Elbe and Weser, but was lower than that of the Neckar, Rhine and Danube. It was also below the European Community Guidelines (1975) on the quality of water used for the artificial recharging of ground water. River water upstream of the city has been used for this recharging for many years. There is a good correlation between the metal content in the investigated samples and in the water. In the muscles, only Cd, Co and Mn, in the liver Cd, Co, Cr. Hg, Mn and Zn, and in the total fish Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Zn had increased significantly. In contrast to all other elements, Cr shows the highest concentration in the muscles. A previous accumulation of Cr in the liver is not a prerequisite for the accumulation in the muscles. Mercury shows the highest accumulation in the muscles, apparently because of the high retention rate of this element. Muscles also are a good monitor for this element. The impact of heavy metals on the Leine water was reflected in aquatic plants, which showed an increase in concentration up to 95-fold (according to metal or plant) - but not in river-bank plants. C. glomerata has the remarkable capability of accumulating all ten elements. Since P. arundinacea cannot reflect the different load of heavy metals it is therefore less suitable as a biological monitor for these metals.

  10. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Asiatic Soc. o/Bengal., 55:322-343.1886. C F Oldham. The Saraswati and the lost river of the Indian desertJ. R. Asiatic. Soc., 34:49-76. 1893. S C Sharma. The description of rivers in the Rigveda, The Geographical. Observer, 10:79-85. 1974.

  11. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...... policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... and natural scientists and Chinese hydropower companies (to name a few). The paper maps different actors’ framing of the issue to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of hydropower policymaking in China, as well as map the local consequences of global policymaking about large hydropower...

  12. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - www.freshmon.eu) and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the

  13. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. River Piracy Saraswati that Disappeared. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 19-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/05/0019-0028. Author Affiliations.

  14. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  15. Properties of active tidal bedforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Lefebvre, Alice; Becker, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Bedforms of various shapes and sizes are ubiquitous in tidal channels, inlets and estuaries. They constitute a form roughness which has a large scale effect on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport of coastal environments. It has been shown that this form roughness can be expressed in terms...... of the lee side slope of bedforms. This study compiles data on the topography and hydraulics of compound dunes from different settings in the German Bight to discuss implications of a critical lee slope in tidal environments with reversing flow. Data from the Weser estuary is used to exemplify and quantify...

  16. Stackers active in the stockyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Stockyards - and the stacker/reclaimer - have a central function in moving coal, serve as a holding area between processing and transshipment and enable both buyer and seller to balance out fluctuations in supply. The article reviews developments by major suppliers in the handling equipment sector - Schade in Germany, PHB Weserhutte based in Spain, the German-based Weser Engineering and Krupp Foerdertechnik, Metso Minerals in the UK (formerly Strachan and Henshaw and then Svedala Industri), Italy's Techint Compagnia Tecnica Internazionale (TIT), and Voest Alpine Materials Handling. 2 figs.

  17. Taking stock of coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    Turnkey contracts have the potential to allow blue chip equipment manufacturers opportunities to improve the overall efficiency of stockyard management. Taim Weser has secured a contract to supply two stockyard machinery systems for a 3800 m euro expansion of the Repsol YPF Cartegena Refinery in Spain's Murcia region. ThyssenKrupp Fordertechnik (TKF) has handed over the coal handling plant at the 3 x 700 mw Jimah power station in Malaysia, following a similar turnkey contract undertaken for the Tanjung-Bin power plant project. 3 figs.

  18. Organochlorine residues analysed in invertebrates of the Dutch Wadden Sea by two methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, G.; Ernst, W.; Goerke, H.; Duinker, J. C.; Hillebrand, M. T. J.

    Two laboratories analysed 12 organochlorine compounds in the same and parallel samples of 3 invertebrate species ( Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Crangon crangon) obtained from the western Dutch Wadden Sea in 1976. The two different analytical methods used resulted in very similar mean residue levels. These levels deviated in only 2 out of 16 cases by more than 50%. The PCB levels predominated with 20 to 100 ng·g -1, and were higher than those of the same species from the Weser estuary, Germany. The other compounds ranged generally below 6 ng·g -1.

  19. Hochwasser und Sturzfluten an Flüssen in Deutschland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Bormann, Helge; Bürger, Gerd; Haberlandt, Uwe; Hattermann, Fred; Heistermann, Maik; Huang, Shaochun; Kolokotronis, Vassilis; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Menzel, Lucas; Meon, Günter; Merz, Bruno; Meuser, Andreas; Paton, Eva Nora; Petrow, Theresia

    Flusshochwasser werden in lokale und plötzliche Sturzfluten und in Hochwasser an größeren Flüssen unterschieden. Für verschiedene Hochwasserindikatoren und Flusseinzugsgebiete ergeben sich erhebliche Unterschiede, wobei sowohl überwiegend aus Regen als auch überwiegend aus Schmelzwasser gespeiste Hochwasserereignisse betrachtet werden. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit finden Hochwasserereignisse an Rhein, Elbe, Weser und Ems sowie die Entwicklung von Sturzfluten infolge von Extremniederschlägen kurzer Dauer, wobei die Beobachtungen und Trends zu Modellierungsergebnissen in Beziehung gesetzt werden. Auch die Notwendigkeit von Anpassungsmaßnahmen aufgrund überwiegend positiver Trends wird diskutiert.

  20. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  1. The value of knowing better - Losses from natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.; Galarraga, I.,; Garrido, A.; Interwies, E.; van Bers, C.; Vandenberghe, V.; Farinosi, F.; Foudi, S.; Görlitz, S.; Hernández-Mora, N.; Gil, M.; Grambow, C.

    2012-04-01

    In a highly emotional speech delivered last year after a series of strikes, Julia Gilbert, the Australian PM, noted that Australia has watched in horror as day after day a new chapter in natural disaster history has been written. And so did the whole world. 2011 went on to become the costliest year in terms of natural hazard losses in the recent history, with the total costs topping 380 billion US dollars. Almost a half of the insured losses were caused by a single event - the Fukushima Dai'ichi nuclear power plant accident triggered by a tsunami that followed an earthquake of MW 6.6 (Richer 9.0) magnitude. The Fukushima disaster has taught a costly lesson, once again: What you least expect, happens. The estimates of losses inflicted by natural hazards are, to put it mildly, incomplete and hardly representative of the ripple effects on regional and global economy, and the wider effects on social fabric, wellbeing and ecosystems that are notoriously difficult to monetise. The knowledge of the full magnitude of losses is not an end in itself. The economics of disasters is an emerging academic field, struggling to uncover the patterns of vulnerability to natural hazards, and provide insights useful for designing effective disaster risk reduction measures and policies. Yet the costly lessons learned are often neglected. In this paper we analyse selected significantly damaging events caused by hydrometeorological and climatologic events (floods and droughts) in four river basins/countries: Ebro/Spain, Po/Italy, Weser/Germany and Scheldt/Flanders-Belgium. Our analysis is focussed on identifying the gaps in reported damage estimates, and conducting additional original research and assessment that contribute to filling those gaps. In the case of drought, all the reference cases except the Ebro refer to the exceptionally hot and dry summer 2003. The drought event examined in the Ebro river basin is the prolonged period of deficient precipitation between 2004 and 2008. The

  2. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false White River, Arkansas Post Canal... White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark... apply to: (1) Waterways. White River between Mississippi River and Arkansas Post Canal, Ark.; Arkansas...

  3. Chemical contaminants in the Wadden Sea: Sources, transport, fate and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laane, R. W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. D.; Gandrass, J.; Vorkamp, K.; Köhler, A.; Larsen, M. M.; Strand, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Wadden Sea receives contaminants from various sources and via various transport routes. The contaminants described in this overview are various metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) and various organic contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lindane (hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-HCH)). In addition, information is presented about other and emerging contaminants such as antifouling biocides (e.g. TBT and Irgarol), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), poly- and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). Special attention is given to biogeochemical processes that contribute to the mobilization of contaminants in the surface sediments of the Wadden Sea. Finally, the effects on organisms of contaminants are reviewed and discussed. The main source of contaminants in the Wadden Sea are the rivers Rhine (via de Dutch coastal zone), Elbe and Weser. The Wadden Sea is not a sink for contaminants and adsorbed contaminants are transported from east to west. The surface sediments of the Wadden Sea are an important source for contaminants to the water above. The input and concentration of most contaminants have significantly decreased in water, sediments, organisms (e.g., mussel, flounder and bird eggs) in various parts of the Wadden Sea in the last three decades. Remarkably, the Cd concentration in mussels is increasing the last decades. In recent decades, the effects of contaminants on organisms (e.g., flounder, seal) have fallen markedly. Most of the affected populations have recovered, except for TBT induced effects in snails. Little is known about the concentration and effects of most emerging contaminants and the complex environmental mixtures of contaminants. It is recommended to install an international coordinated monitoring programme for contaminants and their effects in the whole Wadden Sea and to identify the chemical contaminants that really cause the effect.

  4. Large-scale derived flood frequency analysis based on continuous simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, Viet; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Guse, Björn; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing need for spatially consistent flood risk assessments at the regional scale (several 100.000 km2), in particular in the insurance industry and for national risk reduction strategies. However, most large-scale flood risk assessments are composed of smaller-scale assessments and show spatial inconsistencies. To overcome this deficit, a large-scale flood model composed of a weather generator and catchments models was developed reflecting the spatially inherent heterogeneity. The weather generator is a multisite and multivariate stochastic model capable of generating synthetic meteorological fields (precipitation, temperature, etc.) at daily resolution for the regional scale. These fields respect the observed autocorrelation, spatial correlation and co-variance between the variables. They are used as input into catchment models. A long-term simulation of this combined system enables to derive very long discharge series at many catchment locations serving as a basic for spatially consistent flood risk estimates at the regional scale. This combined model was set up and validated for major river catchments in Germany. The weather generator was trained by 53-year observation data at 528 stations covering not only the complete Germany but also parts of France, Switzerland, Czech Republic and Australia with the aggregated spatial scale of 443,931 km2. 10.000 years of daily meteorological fields for the study area were generated. Likewise, rainfall-runoff simulations with SWIM were performed for the entire Elbe, Rhine, Weser, Donau and Ems catchments. The validation results illustrate a good performance of the combined system, as the simulated flood magnitudes and frequencies agree well with the observed flood data. Based on continuous simulation this model chain is then used to estimate flood quantiles for the whole Germany including upstream headwater catchments in neighbouring countries. This continuous large scale approach overcomes the several

  5. The near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 - A graphical representation of the main results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Elmer, Florian; Trieselmann, Werner; Kreibich, Heidi; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Dransch, Doris; Wenzel, Friedemann; Zschau, Jochen; Merz, Bruno; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Bessel, Tina; Fohringer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Central European flood of June 2013 is one of the most severe flood events that have occurred in Central Europe in the past decades. All major German river basins were affected (Rhine, Danube, and Elbe as well as the smaller Weser catchment).In terms of spatial extent and event magnitude, it was the most severe event at least since 1950. Within the current research focus on near real time forensic disaster analysis, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) assessed and analysed the multiple facets of the flood event from the beginning. The aim is to describe the on-going event, analyse the event sources, link the physical characteristics to the impact and consequences of the event and to understand the root causes that turn the physical event into a disaster (or prevent it from becoming disastrous). For the near real time component of this research, tools for rapid assessment and concise presentation of analysis results are essential. This contribution provides a graphical summary of the results of the CEDIM-FDA analyses on the June 2013 flood. It demonstrates the potential of visual representations for improving the communication and hence usability of findings in a rapid, intelligible and expressive way as a valuable supplement to usual event reporting. It is based on analyses of the hydrometeorological sources, the flood pathways (from satellite imagery, data extraction from social media), the resilience of the affected regions, and causal loss analysis. The prototypical representation of the FDA-results for the June 2013 flood provides an important step in the development of graphical event templates for the visualisation of forensic disaster analyses. These are intended to become a standard component of future CEDIM-FDA event activities.

  6. The record of climatic change in the geological archives of shallow marine, coastal, and adjacent lowland areas of Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, G.; Petzelberger, B. E. M.; Scholz-Böttcher, B. M.; Streif, H.

    2003-01-01

    The record of climatic change in shallow marine, coastal, and adjacent lowland areas has been investigated by three different approaches. A mass balance study focused on the interaction between sea-level rise and Holocene sediment accumulation in the coastal lowland area between the Ems and Weser rivers on the German North Sea coast. This region, which comprises various sedimentary environments, such as barrier islands, sheltered and open tidal flats, bay flats, and estuaries, is highly suitable for such quantitative studies, which can be used to create a model for general mass transport and accumulation processes connected with transgressions over coastal lowlands. An integrated geochemical and microfacies study was made to assess the response of shallow marine, intertidal, and limnic-semiterrestrial environments to the climate-controlled Holocene sea-level rise. The factors controlling the development of various palaeoenvironments were estimated from the distribution of biomarkers, major and trace elements, diatoms, foraminifera and sedimentary structures observed at high resolution in core sections. These data complement those of conventional geological, lithostratigraphical, archaeological and geobotanical investigations. The extensive raised bogs which occur in the Pleistocene hinterland, adjacent to the coastal zone, provided an excellent opportunity to examine peat formation in response to climatic changes in the past. On the basis of a large number of 14C-age determinations special attention was paid to the onset and regional expansion of raised bogs in this region and to the question of whether or not the formation of raised bog peat started synchronously in one or in a series of different phases.

  7. Nitrogen Accumulation in Forests. Exposure Monitoring by Mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Pesch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is still little information on nitrogen (N accumulation in forests contrasting with the crucial importance of N in forest ecosystems. This work analyzes the N bioaccumulation in mosses from forested areas from Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia (two of 16 federal states of Germany, the Weser Ems Region (part of Lower Saxony, and the Euro Region Nissa (covering the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland. The studies involved samples collected from 190 sites between 1998 and 2005. Different spatial scales and regional differences in land use were chosen to assess the factors affecting N bioaccumulation in forested areas. A continuous reduction of N bioaccumulation was found from Lower Saxony (a region where agriculture is most predominant to North Rhine-Westphalia (mostly urban. The Weser Ems Region (an agricultural region showed a higher N concentration in mosses than the Euroregion Nissa (a former industrial region. Statistical analyses performed at the different spatial scales revealed that the areas showing greater agricultural and livestock spatial densities favor N bioaccumulation in mosses. N concentration in mosses was moderately correlated with the N concentration in the leaves and needles of the surrounding trees. No significant relationships were found regarding the crown density of forest trees or N deposition estimations from a combination of atmospheric models and deposition measurements.

  8. Artificial structures in sediment-dominated estuaries and their possible influences on the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Markus A; Scholle, Jörg; Teschke, Katharina

    2014-08-01

    Artificial substrates are omnipresent today in most estuaries mostly in form of massive rip-rap used for groynes and jetties. In the Weser estuary, Germany, 60% of the shoreline is covered with such artificial substrates while, natural rocky substrate is lacking, as in all Wadden Sea estuaries. This large quantity of artificial substrates may be colonized by a benthic hard-substrate community which differs from the local natural soft-substrate assemblage. In this study we examined species compositions, abundances, biomass, and numbers of species of subtidal benthic communities on groynes and in the natural habitat, the sediment, along the salinity gradient of the Weser estuary. Species composition changed on both substrates significantly with salinity and was also significantly different between the substrates. In a comparison with the sediment, the groynes did not provide any benefit for non-indigenous nor for endangered species in terms of abundance, biomass, and number of species, but represent habitats with higher total abundances and biomass; though some non-indigenous species even occurred exclusively on groynes. In particular, groynes supported filter-feeding organisms which play an important role by linking benthic and pelagic food webs. The dominance of the suspension feeders affects crucial estuarine ecosystem services and may have important implications for the estuarine management by altering the estuarine ecological quality status. Hence, artificial substrates should be considered in future conservation planning and in ecological quality monitoring of the benthic fauna according to the European Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. River pollution control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiff, M.J

    1980-01-01

    Readers will gain an insight into the problems of other countries, particularly those with trans-frontier rivers, the measures adopted to improve river quality, and how the World Health Organization...

  10. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  11. Illinois River NWFR HMP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Illinois River National Wildlife and Fish Refuges Complex stretches along 124 miles of the Illinois River in west central Illinois. The Complex includes three...

  12. Iowa's Sovereign Meandered Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This data set depicts Iowa's Meandered Rivers. These rivers are deemed sovereign land & therefore require any person wishing to conduct construction activities...

  13. Measuring River Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  14. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  15. Rivers: Nature's Wondrous Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David L.

    Rivers play a vital role in the life of the planet. They provide water for wildlife, plant life, and people, and they help to fertilize fields where corn and other crops grow. But how were these rivers made? This children's book takes readers/students on a journey down a river from its source at the top of a mountain to its mouth where it meets…

  16. Evolution of river dolphins.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, H.; Caballero, S.; Collins, A. G.; Brownell, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The world's river dolphins (Inia, Pontoporia, Lipotes and Platanista) are among the least known and most endangered of all cetaceans. The four extant genera inhabit geographically disjunct river systems and exhibit highly modified morphologies, leading many cetologists to regard river dolphins as an unnatural group. Numerous arrangements have been proposed for their phylogenetic relationships to one another and to other odontocete cetaceans. These alternative views strongly affect the biogeog...

  17. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...... to illustrate hydropolitics in praxis, because the political future of this particular area in many respects affects the sustainable future of the Jordan River Basin and the entire Levant....

  18. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  19. Modelling river dune development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Weerts, H.J.T.; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Ritsema, I.L; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Os, A.G.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Since river dunes influence flow resistance, predictions of dune dimensions are required to make accurate water level predictions. A model approach to simulate developing river dunes is presented. The model is set-up to be appropriate, i.e. as simple as possible, but with sufficient accuracy for

  20. Evolution of river dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H; Caballero, S; Collins, A G; Brownell, R L

    2001-03-07

    The world's river dolphins (Inia, Pontoporia, Lipotes and Platanista) are among the least known and most endangered of all cetaceans. The four extant genera inhabit geographically disjunct river systems and exhibit highly modified morphologies, leading many cetologists to regard river dolphins as an unnatural group. Numerous arrangements have been proposed for their phylogenetic relationships to one another and to other odontocete cetaceans. These alternative views strongly affect the biogeographical and evolutionary implications raised by the important, although limited, fossil record of river dolphins. We present a hypothesis of river dolphin relationships based on phylogenetic analysis of three mitochondrial genes for 29 cetacean species, concluding that the four genera represent three separate, ancient branches in odontocete evolution. Our molecular phylogeny corresponds well with the first fossil appearances of the primary lineages of modern odontocetes. Integrating relevant events in Tertiary palaeoceanography, we develop a scenario for river dolphin evolution during the globally high sea levels of the Middle Miocene. We suggest that ancestors of the four extant river dolphin lineages colonized the shallow epicontintental seas that inundated the Amazon, Paraná, Yangtze and Indo-Gangetic river basins, subsequently remaining in these extensive waterways during their transition to freshwater with the Late Neogene trend of sea-level lowering.

  1. Nipigon River landslide, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishna, H.S.; Lau, K.C.

    1992-11-24

    On April 23, 1990, a landslide occurred on the east bank of the Nipigon River in Ontario, 8 km downstream from the Alexander Generating Station. A study was initiated to assess the impact of river level fluctuations caused by the hydropower plant operation on the downstream banks of the river. A detailed geotechnical investigation and field study of river drawdown effects on the riverbank slopes were performed. A final analysis of the failure is presented which shows that the high groundwater conditions and soft soils present in the area led to the massive landslide. The impact of the river level fluctuations on the slope stability was found to be minor compared to that of the high groundwater conditions that were produced by the rapid thaw of snow and infiltration in the recharge area. 15 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  3. Mixing in a river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernath, L.; Menegus, R.L.; Ring, H.F.

    1956-05-09

    Many rivers are burdened with tributary streams of warm water and/or liquid wastes containing dissolved or suspended matter. The warm water and waste matter mix thoroughly with the river water some distance downstream from the point of entry of the tributary, but near the point of entry there may be high local temperatures or concentrations of waste. It is often necessary to know the local temperatures or concentrations of waste. The authors have used a formula for computing the turbulent mixing that takes place in such a situation; this formula fits quite well in the case of one Southern river.

  4. Towards an integrated view of benthic and pelagic processes in the southern North Sea (German Bight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus; Neumann, Andreas; Naderipour, Celine

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea can be classified as a semi-enclosed shelf on the western-European continent. Atlantic influences are mainly through the Fair Isle current Channel in the North, and through the Strait of Dover in the South. An anti-clockwise circulation prevails, driven by mainly semi-diurnal tides and winds. The German Bight is located in the south-eastern part of the North Sea, and is strongly influenced by continental rivers. The outflow from the rivers Scheldt, Maas and Rhine is carried towards the German Bight with the residual currents. The German rivers Ems, Weser and Elbe directly debouche into the German Bight. On the shallow shelf, the water column is completely mixed by tidal forces and wind, largely preventing downward flux of particles and instead fostering temporary deposition and resuspension, which influences benthic mineralization. Hence, complex interactions between pelagic and benthic processes occur. Previous budget calculations indicate that the nutrient inventory has to be processed several times to support observed primary production, and, depending on water depth; only 10-20% remineralisation occurs in sediments of the German Bight whereas about 50% of organic matter is remineralised in the sediments of the shallow Wadden Sea. In this presentation, we use in-situ and ex-situ field data on pelagic and benthic oxygen respiration and benthic nutrient fluxes to assess the intense mineralization activity in the German Bight, the partitioning of benthic and pelagic processes and the factors influencing organic matter mineralization. Measurements of pelagic oxygen respiration based on Winkler titration, in-situ benthic oxygen uptake measurements based on flux-chamber landers and ex-situ incubations of intact sediment cores revealed that benthic remineralisation rates are about an order of magnitude smaller than pelagic rates, in agreement with previous budget estimates. Both benthic and pelagic oxygen respiration show a strong seasonality; with higher

  5. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  6. The Carmans River Story

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this study, undertaken as an independent project at Bellport High School, the authors have attempted to provide a historical description of the Carmans River area...

  7. Management recommendations: Bear River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional...

  8. River research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research programme for river ecosystems is described. The scope of the programme needs to include basic descriptions of a systems and biota, the testing and development of functional theory...

  9. Russian River Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis and summary of progress toward achieving the interim management objectives for the Russian River during the 1979 season. Additionally,...

  10. Connecticut River Hydrologic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, T. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Connecticut River basin possesses some characteristics that make it unique for studying hydrologic issues that transcend scale. The watershed was first dramatically altered through natural processes (glaciation) and then heavily impacted by human stresses (dams, deforestation, acid precipitation/deposition), only to exhibit recent decades of return to a more natural state (reforestation, land conservation, stream restoration, pollution abatement, and dam removal). The watershed is sufficiently north to be classified as a cold region. More specifically to hydrology, the watershed exhibits the spectrum of flooding problems: ice dams, convective storms, hurricanes, rain on melting snow, and low pressure systems. The 28,000 square kilometer Connecticut River Watershed covers one third of the states of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The >640-km long rivers' headwaters start on the Canadian border at the Fourth Connecticut Lake, and flows southward to discharge in Long Island sound. The lower 100 km of river are tidally influenced. The Connecticut River is responsible for 70 % of the freshwater inflow to Long Island Sound. The Connecticut River is a sixth order stream that exhibits a dendritic pattern in an elongated scheme. This setting therefore affords many first and second order streams in almost parallel fashion, flowing west or east towards the central Connecticut River spine. There are 38 major tributaries to the mainstem Connecticut River, and 26 of these tributaries drain greater than 250 square kilometers. There is in excess of 30,000 km of perennially flowing stream length in the watershed. For more information, see: http://www.unh.edu/erg/connho/

  11. The rivers of civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  12. Wind River: A Wild and Scenic River Analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wind River meets the criteria for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Subject to valid existing rights, the minerals in Federal lands which...

  13. The Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image shows the passage of the Colorado River through several southwestern states. The river begins, in this image, in Utah at the far upper right, where Lake Powell is visible as dark pixels surrounded by the salmon-colored rocks of the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado flows southwest through Glen Canyon, to the Glen Canyon Dam, on the Utah-Arizona border. From there it flows south into Arizona, and then turns sharply west where the Grand Canyon of the Colorado cuts through the mountains. The Colorado flows west to the Arizona-Nevada (upper left) border, where it is dammed again, this time by the Hoover Dam. The dark-colored pixels surrounding the bend in the river are Lake Mead. The river flows south along the border of first Nevada and Arizona and then California and Arizona. The Colorado River, which begins in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado, empties into the Gulf of California, seen at the bottom center of this image.

  14. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook...

  15. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms near the head of the river to take care...

  16. Sedimentary and geochemical conditions in the "Helgoland Mud Area" (SE North Sea) during the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    North Sea via the Elbe and Weser rivers.

  17. Understanding trans-basin floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Zimmer, J.; Thieken, A. H.; Merz, B.

    2009-04-01

    Trans-basin floods are extreme events occurring on a regional scale and across catchment boundaries. They are the consequence of highly complex and inextricably linked processes involving atmospheric conditions, runoff generation and concentration in the catchment, and in-channel wave propagation. To understand trans-basin floods the dynamics of these processes have to be analysed over a range of temporal scales including preconditioning factors, like monthly anomalies of climatic conditions; initial factors, such as the immediate flood producing weather system or the catchment state on a daily scale and maintaining factors, such as persistent regimes determining the progression of a flood event. These mechanisms can be understood by analysing past events. Therefore a set of trans-basin events was developed for a period of 51 years (1952-2002) analysing time series of daily mean discharge at 170 gauges of rivers in the central European basins Elbe, Danube, Rhine, Weser and Ems. A novel indicator including both the spatial extent of the event as well as the magnitude of the discharges in the rivers allows comparing events with respect to their severity. Reanalysis data (i.e. ECMWF ERA-40 and NCEP Reanalysis I) were used to examine the general circulation patterns during the events. Further, a high-quality dataset of daily precipitation for over 2300 stations in Germany was used to trace the water supply of the events on all the three temporal scales. Several atmospheric parameters, such as water vapour content or temperature anomalies, were derived for the affected flooding area to serve as possible indicators common to a majority of the events. The causative general circulation patterns could be grouped into three types with 1) more or less zonally progressing baroclinic disturbances within the planetary frontal zone, 2) zonal flow retarded by a quasi-stationary air mass boundary (blocking situation to the East) and 3) slowly moving cut-off lows with abundant meso

  18. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  19. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    of Dissonance in Nature Restoration’, Journal of Landscape Architecture 2/2014: 58-67. Danish Nature Agency (2005), Skjern Å: Ådalens historie. De store projekter. Det nye landskab og naturen. På tur i ådalen [The Skjern River: The History of the River Delta. The Big Projects. The New Landscape and Nature......In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... history and more openness towards constant change. In this approach the idea of palimpsest as metaphor for the cultural landscape plays an important role. Rather than being an obstacle for the restoration of nature, the historical layer following the comprehensive cultivation project from the 1960s...

  20. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  1. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  2. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  3. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  4. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  5. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  6. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  7. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  8. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  9. Two Pontic rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes; Jensen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    The accounts of the landscape around the Iris (Yeşilirmak) and the Thermodon (Terme) given by ancient authors are diverse and often contradictory. The Periegesis of the World by Dionysius of Alexandria, a didactic poem written in the early IInd c. A.D., established an image of the two rivers...... that does not correspond to their actual characteristics. A closer study reveals that Dionysius, or possibly his source, has confused the two: the river which he describes as the Thermodon is in fact the Iris, and vice versa. This mistake was not realized by later translators (Avienus, late IVth c. A...

  10. Nowitna River goose survey, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial goose survey of the upper Nowitna River and a river-floating goose brood survey of the upper Nowitna River were conducted May 27th through July 5th of...

  11. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models for ...... for river geometries are formulated and a coupling between hydraulic computational methods and numerical reliability methods is presented....

  12. Geomorphic classification of rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Buffington; D. R. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, environmental legislation and a growing awareness of historical human disturbance to rivers worldwide (Schumm, 1977; Collins et al., 2003; Surian and Rinaldi, 2003; Nilsson et al., 2005; Chin, 2006; Walter and Merritts, 2008) have fostered unprecedented collaboration among scientists, land managers, and stakeholders to better understand,...

  13. The River Rock School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereaux, Teresa Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the small Appalachian community of Damascus, Virginia, used private subscriptions and volunteer labor to build a 15-classroom school made of rocks from a nearby river and chestnut wood from nearby forests. The school building's history, uses for various community activities, and current condition are described. (SV)

  14. Discover the Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bordering on the Fantastic. As the longest river on earth, the Nile passes through 10 countries. Presented through a wide range of activities and a winning array of games, it's also unsurpassed at taking young minds into exploring the world of water, as well as natural and man made wonders.

  15. Laboratory Alluvial Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, O.; Abramian, A.; Seizilles, G.; Lajeunesse, E.

    2015-12-01

    By which physical mechanisms does a river select its shape and size? We investigate this question using small laboratory rivers formed by laminar flows.In its simplest form, this experiment consists in a flow of glycerol over a uniform layer of plastic sediments. After a few hours, a channel forms spontaneously, and eventually reaches a stable geometry. This equilibrium state corresponds accurately to the force balance proposed by Henderson (1961).If we impose a sediment discharge at the inlet of the experiment, the river adjusts to this boundary condition by widening its channel. Observation suggests that this new equilibrium results from the balance between gravity, which pulls the entrained grains towards the center of the channel, and bedload diffusion, which returns them towards the banks. This balance explains why experimental rivers get wider and shallower as their sediment load increases.However, to test quantitatively this theory against observation, we need to evaluate independently the effect of transverse slope on bedload transport. We propose to use an instability generated by bedload diffusion to do so.

  16. River Out of Edenl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. River Out of Eden Darwin Goes Digital: Old View, New Metaphor. J A Santosh. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 104-106. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. communities of rivers, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daily by noise pollution and other health hazards. They drink from the very rivers and rivulets which have been polluted by petroleum extracts making development difficult. The sum total of all development objectives is to make life more meaningful and allow the people feel the impact of the “new dawn" of development.

  18. River Pollution: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  19. The Mtata River estuary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-02-28

    Feb 28, 1989 ... A survey of the fish fauna of Transkei estuaries. Part Three: The Mtata River estuary. E.E. Plumstead* and J.F. Prinsloo. Department of Zoology, University of Transkei, Private Bag X1 001, Unitra, Umtata, Republic of Transkei. H.J. Schoonbee. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, P.O. Box 524, ...

  20. The Hudson River estuary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levinton, J.S; Waldman, J.R

    2006-01-01

    ... emphasis on important issues specific to the Hudson, such as the effect of power plants and high concentrations of PCBs. The chapters are written by specialists at a level that is accessible to students, teachers, and the interested layperson. The Hudson River Estuary is a unique scientifi c biography of a major estuary, with relevance to the s...

  1. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  2. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-07

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  3. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    , the concentrations were no higher in willow than in the poplar clones. Shoot diameter significantly affected fuel quality with thin shoots generally having higher ash mass fraction and element concentrations than thicker shoots. In conclusion, fuel quality of SRC biomass may be improved by selecting appropriate......The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots...... in terms of dry matter (DM) mass fraction, total ash mass fraction and concentration of 14 ash-related elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Zn). Clone significantly affected DM and ash mass fraction and concentration of 11 of the 14 elements, site affected concentration of 7 elements...

  4. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  5. Geomorphology and River Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARY BRIERLEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering-dominated practices, visible in a "command and control" outlook on natural systems, have induced enormous damage to the environment. Biodiversity losses and declining provision of ecosystem services are testimony to the non-sustainable outcomes brought about by such practices. More environmentally friendly approaches that promote a harmonious relationship between human activities and nature are required. Moves towards an "ecosystem approach" to environmental management require coherent (integrative scientific guidance. Geomorphology, the study of the form of the earth, provides a landscape template with which to ground this process. This way of thinking respects the inherent diversity and complexity of natural systems. Examples of the transition toward such views in environmental practice are demonstrated by the use of science to guide river management, emphasising applications of the River Styles framework.

  6. Re: Soviet river diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jas O.

    The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

  7. The river research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available reference to the ecological needs of aquatic ecosystems. No acknowledgement of any social or economic cost for the degradation of aquatic ecosystems as a result of water abstraction is made in the Commission's report except for certain nature reserves... for water means that all our substantial river systems will be subject to water regulation and abstraction and to the introduction of pollutants. Conservation management therefore becomes an exercise in mitigation. The principal tools are, legislation...

  8. Evaluation of ship-based sediment flux measurements by ADCPs in tidal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Grünler, Steffen; Winter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In the past decades acoustic backscatter calibration developed into a frequently applied technique to measure fluxes of suspended sediments in rivers and estuaries. Data is mainly acquired using single-frequency profiling devices, such as ADCPs. In this case, variations of acoustic particle properties may have a significant impact on the calibration with respect to suspended sediment concentration, but associated effects are rarely considered. Further challenges regarding flux determination arise from incomplete vertical and lateral coverage of the cross-section, and the small ratio of the residual transport to the tidal transport, depending on the tidal prism. We analyzed four sets of 13h cross-sectional ADCP data, collected at different locations in the range of the turbidity zone of the Weser estuary, North Sea, Germany. Vertical LISST, OBS and CTD measurements were taken very hour. During the calibration sediment absorption was taken into account. First, acoustic properties were estimated using LISST particle size distributions. Due to the tidal excursion and displacement of the turbidity zone, acoustic properties of particles changed during the tidal cycle, at all locations. Applying empirical functions, the lowest backscattering cross-section and highest sediment absorption coefficient were found in the center of the turbidity zone. Outside the tidally averaged location of the turbidity zone, changes of acoustic parameters were caused mainly by advection. In the turbidity zone, these properties were also affected by settling and entrainment, inducing vertical differences and systematic errors in concentration. In general, due to the iterative correction of sediment absorption along the acoustic path, local errors in concentration propagate and amplify exponentially. Based on reference concentration obtained from water samples and OBS data, we quantified these errors and their effect on cross-sectional averaged concentration and sediment flux. We found that

  9. Management effects on greenhouse gas emissions from a fen covered with riverine silt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Melanie; Gatersleben, Peter; Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2017-04-01

    Drainage is necessary to use peatlands for conventional agriculture, but this practice causes high emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The effect of hydrological conditions and management on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from "true" peat soils is relatively well examined, but there is little data on GHG emissions from organic soils covered with mineral soil. Such a cover may either be man-made to improve the trafficability of the fields or natural, e.g. due to the deposition of riverine silt. Such mineral covers are widespread in North-Western Germany and other regions with intensively used peatlands. Here, we aim to evaluate the effect of management, water table depth and properties of the mineral cover on the emissions of CO2, N2O and methane (CH4). As the majority of peatlands in North-Western Germany, the study area is used as grassland. The area is artificially drained and intensively used (4 to 5 cuts per year, annual nitrogen fertilisation of 112 to 157 kg/ha). The fen peat with a thickness of 0.6 to 1.50 m is covered by riverine silt deposited by the river Weser. Six measurement sites have been chosen to represent typical agricultural management, soil properties and hydrological conditions of one hydrological management unit. The sites differ in the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of the riverine silt (4 - 15 % SOC), the occurrence of a ploughed horizon as well as water and agricultural management. We use static closed chambers to measure CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes. CO2 measurement campaigns using transparent and opaque chambers and a portable IRGA take place every third or fourth week depending on season. CH4 and N2O samples are taken every second week and, in addition, on the first, third and seventh day after fertilizer application. Samples are analyzed by gas chromatography. First results show negligible CH4 fluxes due to low groundwater levels. Total N2O emissions reflected mainly the different fertilizer

  10. Decommissioning of Wuergassen NPP - work on the reactor service floor; Rueckbau des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen - Arbeiten auf der Reaktorbedienungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, A.; Winnefeld, M. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen, Beverungen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wuergassen NPP (KWW) is located on the River Weser, some 50 km north of Kassel. It is a single unit boiling water reactor with an installed electrical generation capacity of 670 MW. The plant was constructed by AEG between 1968 and 1971 and went into operation in late 1971. Wuergassen NPP generated a total of 73 billion kWh of electricity during its period of commercial operation. Cracks were discovered in the core shroud of the reactor pressure vessel while carrying out inspection work during the annual scheduled refuelling outage in 1994. As a result of this, the plant was shut down, Various alternatives as to how to proceed further where evaluated within one year. PreussenElektra AG, the operator at the time, ultimately decided to finally shut the plant down in 1995 and to immediately begin with the decommissioning. Several independent of each other phases have been planned for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The plant components are to be dismantled beginning with the non and low contaminated parts up to the more concentrated or activated installations. The whole decommissioning has been divided into a total of six phases. Theses phases are roughly depicted in fig. 1. Now that the Ministry of Economy and Small Business, Energy and Transport for the State of North Rhine Westphalia has granted permission for phases 1 to 5, all work within the framework of the direct decommissioning of Wuergassen Nuclear Power Plant can be carried out. There are at the present time approximately 500 people actively working on site. This number is made up of about 170 staff from E.ON Kernkraft GmbH and some 330 employees from outside contractors. The decommissioning tasks presented here describe the work that has been carried out in the area of the reactor service floor and specifically in the proximity of the reactor vessel. Therefore, particular requirements were necessary for the technology employed, as well as for the importance of practical radiation protection

  11. Rehabilitating China's largest inland river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqing; Chen, Yaning; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xia, Yang

    2009-06-01

    Wetlands are particularly important for conserving China's biodiversity but riparian wetlands in the Tarim River basin in western China have been reduced by 46% during the last 3 decades. The world's largest habitat for Populus euphratica, which is in the Tarim River basin, significantly shrank. To protect and restore the deteriorated ecosystems along the Tarim River and its associated wetlands, China's government initiated a multimillion dollar river restoration project to release water from upper dams to the dried-up lower reaches of the Tarim River starting in 2000. We monitored the responses of groundwater and vegetation to water recharge in the lower reaches of the river from 2000 to 2006 by establishing nine 1000-m-long transects perpendicular to the river at intervals of 20-45 km along the 320-km river course below the Daxihaizi Reservoir, the source of water conveyance, to Lake Taitema, the terminus of the Tarim River. Water recharges from the Daxihaizi Reservoir to the lower reaches of the Tarim River significantly increased groundwater levels and vegetation coverage at all monitoring sites along the river. The mean canopy size of the endangered plant species P. euphratica doubled after 6 years of water recharge. Some rare migrating birds returned to rest on the restored wetlands in summer along the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The biggest challenge facing decision makers, however, is to balance water allocation and water rights between agricultural and natural ecosystems in a sustainable way. A large number of inhabitants in the Tarim Basin depend on these limited water resources for a living. At the same time, the endangered ecosystems need to be protected. Given the ecological, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical realities in the Tarim Basin, adaptive water policies and strategies are needed for water allocation in these areas of limited water resources. ©2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Natural transformation in river epilithon.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, H. G.; Day, M.J.; Fry, J. C.; Stewart, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural transformation was demonstrated in unenclosed experiments incubated in river epilithon. Strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were transformed to prototrophy by either free DNA (lysates) or live donor cells. The sources of transforming DNA and recipient culture were immobilized on filters, secured to stones, and incubated midstream in the river. The transfer frequency generally increased with temperature. No transfer was detected in the river Taff below 10 degrees C. The age of the r...

  13. ENGINEER SUPPORT OF RIVER CROSSINGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The author discusses the basic missions of engineer support in forcing rivers from a drive, following planned preparations, and under special...conditions. Practical recommendations are made with respect to organizing engineer support in forcing rivers and the characteristics of crossing means is described. (Author)

  14. Niagara River Toxics Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2007 Progress Report of the Niagara River Toxics Management Plan (NRTMP) summarizes progress made by the four parties in dealing with the 18 “Priority Toxics” through reductions in point and non-point sources to the Niagara River.

  15. Morphodynamics: Rivers beyond steady state

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Church, M; Ferguson, R. I

    2015-01-01

    .... River morphodynamics—an expression of bed material erosion, transport, and deposition—is the study of these interactions, the outcome of which is river morphology, hence it is appropriate to consider together advances in understanding bed material transport and morphodynamics. Over the past half century, Water Resources Research has been a significan...

  16. Geomorphology and River Dynamics of the Lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges. Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005-07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36-37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36-37 during average flow periods. The U.S. Geological Survey's Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  17. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  18. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  19. River-Based Experiential Learning: the Bear River Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the

  20. PCBs in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulated contaminants of great environmental concern. PCB is a tracer of wastewater, stormwater and CSOs inputs; PCBs contamination of fish is a main environmental concern for the Harlem River. PCBs in the Harlem River are from combined sewer overflows (CSOs), stormwater runoff, wastewater, as well as upper Hudson GE (General Electric at Fort Edward)'s release. PCBs affect human health mostly from contaminated fish consumption. Many research focused on PCBs in the Hudson River and New York/New Jersey Harbor. However, PCBs source, transport and environmental impact in the Harlem River-a natural straight that connects the Hudson River and the East River, had not been well studied. In this research, water sample were collected from the Harlem River and analyzed PCBs by HR GC/MS (High resolution gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer). Preliminary results showed that certain PCBs congeners in the water column. Results also indicated that nutrients (phosphorus and ammonia) as well as bacteria levels exceeded EPA standards: Total phosphorus-10μg/L, total nitrogen-0.38mg/L; E.Coli-126 MPN/100ml, Enterococcus- 104MPN/100ml, Fecal Coliform-200 MPN/100ml. This research is under process, and more results could give further detail in near future. This research will help improve water quality of the Harlem River, improve environmental health and raise environmental awareness.SO tank Nutrient and bacterial levels of selected sites in the Harlem RiverCSO: Combined Sewer OverflowWWTP: Waste Water Treatment Plant

  1. 29 CFR 1917.126 - River banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false River banks. 1917.126 Section 1917.126 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.126 River banks. (a) This section applies to temporary installations or temporary operations near a river bank. (b) Where working surfaces at river banks slope so...

  2. Clinch River project: Sediment contaminants in the Lower Clinch River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment samples from three mainstem and seven tributary sites in the Clinch River Basin were analyzed for 21 organochlorine compounds, 19 metals, total volatile...

  3. A Review of Integrated River Basin Management for Sarawak River

    OpenAIRE

    Kuok K. Kuok; Sobri Harun; Po-Chan Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Sarawak River was a life-sustaining water source for the residents in Kuching City and surrounding areas. Raw water is treated at Batu Kitang Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP) that supplies more than 98% of the total water production in Kuching City. The raw water supply to BKWTP is not adequate to meet the ever increasing water demand. In order to overcome this problem, four projects had been implemented along Sarawak River for managing and securing water&#...

  4. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  5. Haw River sediment quality assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents an evaluation of chemical contaminants in, and toxicity of, sediments collected from impoundments created by dams on the Haw River in Alamance...

  6. Umpqua River Oregon Geologic Floodplain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  7. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  8. Arkansas River Water Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the legal elements, hydrologic analysis, objectives, and water levels related to the Arkansas River and the management of it.

  9. Braden River - Aerial Topographic Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of the Braden River area, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and...

  10. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set...

  11. Togiak River sportfishing studies, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nearly three thousand angler days of effort was estimated to have been spent on the Togiak River in 1984. Effort was clearly dominated by the professional guiding...

  12. Upper Yukon River, Alaska, a wild and scenic river analysis: Preliminary draft: Chapters IV and V

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Yukon River, Alaska, possesses values which qualify it for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. The Upper Yukon River and its immediate...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: RVRMILES (River Mile Marker Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for river miles along the Hudson River. Vector lines in this data set represent river mile markers. This data set...

  14. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  15. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    an integrated analysis across different spatial scales. To fulfil the objectives of the ClimAware project, the following modelling methodology was implemented. Starting from a European modelling approach of water availability and use based on the WaterGAP3 model, the changes in the hydrologic regimes and water use of different sectors were analysed. Subsequently three case studies were used to investigate the impacts of CC at a regional scale. Regional models from three different countries and focusing on three types of water management issues were developed: • Hydromorphology (Eder basin, Germany): By using different scenarios, the influence of CC on the hydromorphological characteristics of the River Weser according to the WFD was evaluated and proposals for implementation were given. The objective was to examine, on typical river sections, how the WFD objectives can be implemented under CC constraints. • Dam management (Seine basin, France): Water management on the River Seine for water supply and flood alleviation is partly based on the management of artificial reservoirs. The case study developed scenarios linking the impact of CC on water resources and the expected change on the uses and on the management of the system. • Agricultural water use (Apulia region, Italy): In this region, economic and demographic changes cause an increase in the demand for good-quality municipal and industrial water. Besides, changes in the agricultural practices increase the demand for water in the agricultural sector. Since water is scarce in this region, the study focuses on the agricultural sector, which has the largest water saving potential. The final assessment comprises a cross-scale integration between the European and regional modelling frameworks in order to facilitate knowledge transfer and to help establishing sustainable and integrated water resources management plans.

  16. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  17. Physical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  18. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  19. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  20. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  1. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  2. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  3. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  4. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Grabs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  5. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  6. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  7. Sprague River Oregon Built Features 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  8. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  9. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  10. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  11. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  12. Lower Duck River Mussel Survey and Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Duck River flows 290 miles through several major ecoregions before entering the impounded main stem Tennessee River at Sycamore Landing, Tennessee, adjacent to...

  13. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  14. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  15. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Built Features 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  18. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  19. An expanded role for river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan P. Benstead; David S. Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of stream and river area have relied on observations at coarse resolution. Consideration of the smallest and most dynamic streams could reveal a greater role for river networks in global biogeochemical cycling than previously thought.

  20. A stochastic model of river discharge fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livina, V.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Kizner, Z.; Strygin, V.; Bunde, A.; Havlin, S.

    2003-12-01

    We study the daily river flow fluctuations of 30 international rivers. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis, we study the correlations in the magnitudes of river flow increments (volatilities), and find power-law correlations in volatilities for time scales less than 1 year; these correlations almost disappear for time scales larger than 1 year. Using surrogate data test for nonlinearity, we show that correlations in the magnitudes of river flow fluctuations are a measure for nonlinearity. We propose a simple nonlinear stochastic model for river flow fluctuations that reproduces the main scaling properties of the river flow series as well as the correlations and periodicities in the magnitudes of river flow increments. According to our model, the source of nonlinearity observed in the data is an interaction between a long-term correlated process and the river discharge itself.

  1. Chemical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  2. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  3. Minnesota Wild and Scenic River Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — District boundaries for wild, scenic, and recreational rivers designated under the Minnesota State Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. Includes portions of the Minnesota...

  4. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  5. ALWAYS A RIVER - SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON THE OHIO RIVER AND WATER GRADES K - 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    This curriculum was developed as a significant component of the project, Always a River: The Ohio River and the American Experience, a six-state collaboration devoted to exploring the historical and cultural development of the Ohio River. The Always a River project is being joint...

  6. Many rivers to cross: Cross border co-operation in river management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, J.A.; Wiering, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    River basin management is a key concept in contemporary water policy. Since the management of rivers is best designed and implemented at the scale of the river basin, it seems obvious that we should not confine ourselves to administrative or geographical borders. In other words, river basin

  7. 78 FR 17087 - Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race, on Saturday, March 23, 2013. The special local regulation is... waterway of the United States during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race. On March 23... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River...

  8. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012...

  9. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  10. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank is...

  11. The science and practice of river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  12. Water quality of the Modder River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koning

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial patterns in the Modder River system, the influence of Botshabelo's sewage outflow’ on the water quality of the river, as well as the presence of any toxic compounds were determined. The Modder and Klein Modder Rivers do not follow distinctive seasonal patterns in terms of chemical parameters.

  13. The Nile River and Egyptian Foreign Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percent of the territory fall within the Nile River basin (FAO 1997). The percentage of. Egypt's population in the Nile River basin accounts for more than 85 ..... Kagera, which flows into Lake Victoria, recognised the equitable utilisation of the river in such a way that would not jeopardise the interests of other fluvial states. Third,.

  14. Forms of Nutrients in Rivers Flowing into Lake Chaohu: A Comparison between Urban and Rural Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient inputs from rivers play an important role in lake eutrophication. To compare the forms characteristics of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N in rivers flowing through rural and urban areas, water samples were collected seasonally from five urban rivers and six rural rivers flowing to Lake Chaohu, China. Higher total phosphorus (TP, particulate phosphorus (PP, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP, and dissolved nonreactive phosphorus (DNP concentrations and SRP/TP percentages were observed in urban rivers than in rural rivers, and PP/TP and DNP/TP ratios were lower in urban rivers than in rural rivers. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN and all N forms other than dissolved organic nitrogen (DON were significantly higher in urban rivers than in rural rivers. NH4+/TN levels were higher in urban rivers, whereas PN/TN and DON/TN ratios were significantly lower in urban rivers compared with rural rivers. NO3−/TN and NO2−/TN levels were similar between the two groups of rivers. TP, BD-P, and NaOH-P levels in urban river surface sediments were significantly higher than those in rural rivers. NaOH-P/TP ratios were significantly elevated in urban rivers, whereas HCl-P/TP and Res-P/TP ratios were significantly lower compared with rural rivers. Urban rivers have transferred large quantities of NH4+ and SRP into Lake Chaohu, resulting in higher TP and TN levels and NH4+/TN and SRP/TP ratios. Decreasing the input of NH4+ and SRP into urban rivers is a high priority for mitigating eutrophication and algal blooms in Lake Chaohu.

  15. from cross river estuary, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U,F1,:1.,U_ rt as so. 75 $00 o 25 so 15 109 i. FIG. 3: VARIATION IN STOMACH FULLNESS OF PELLONULA Ieonesis FROM CROSS. RIVER ESTUARY, NIGERIA WITH SEXES, SIZES AND SEASONS. Results on ontogenetic diet composition shows that LSG ate more preyfishes and ants than. 886 while 886 ate ,more ...

  16. Colloids in the River Inn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In the light of an increasing number of technical applications using nanoparticles and reports of adverse effects of engineered nanoparticles, research on the occurrence and stability of particles in all compartments has to be intensified. Colloids in river water represent the geologic setting, environmental conditions, and the anthropogenic use in its catchment. The river not only acts as a sink for nanoparticles but also as the source term due to exchange in the hyporheic zone and in bank filtration setups. The concentration, size distribution and elemental composition of particles in the River Inn were studied from the source in the Swiss Alps to the river mouth at Passau from 2008 to 2014. Samples were collected after each tributary from a sub-catchment and filtered on site using a new filtration device for gentle filtration. The elemental composition was determined after acid digestion with ICP/MS. SEM/EDX analysis provided morphological and elemental information for single particles. A complementary chemical analysis of the river water was performed to assess the geochemical stability of individual particles. As presented at EGU 2014, particles in the upper, rural parts mainly reveal changes in the geological setting of the tributary catchments. Not unexpectedly, particles originating from crystalline rocks, were more stable than particles originating from calcareous rocks. Anthropogenic and industrial influences increase in the lower parts. This went together with a change of the size distribution, an increase of the number of organic particles, and a decrease of the microfauna. Interestingly, specific leisure activities in a sub-catchment, like extensive downhill skiing, manifest itself in the particle composition. This general setting was validated in last year's sampling campaigns. An interesting change in on site parameters and hydrochemical composition was seen during all sampling campaigns at an inflow from the valley Kaunertal, Austria. Therefore

  17. MICROPHYTOBENTHOS IN THE SUTLA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sutla river is a river along Croatian/Slovenian border. Its length is about 91 km, out of which 89 km in Croatia. Microphytobenthos investigations have been performed at six locations along the Sutla river on Croatian territory. Samples were collected from specific areas of characteristic habitats. Beside sample collection, basic physico–chemical parameters were measured: water temperature, pH values and quantity of water dissolved oxygen. Water temperature changed depending on air temperature and the depth of the river, ranging from 5.1ºC to 6.3ºC. pH values were between 7.77 and 8.14, and dissolved oxygen concentrations (mg/L O2 at the six locations ranged between 8.6 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L. Quantitative microphytobenthos composition comprised 87 microphythic species belonging to the systematic groups of Bacteriophyta, Cyanobacteria and Chrysophyta (Bacillariophyceae and Xanthophyceae. The most numerous group were the diatoms or Bacillariophyceae (76 species or 88.3%, with dominance of the species of the genera Achnanthes, Cocconeis, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Navicula, Nitzschia and Surirella. The group Cyanobacteria was represented with relatively small number of species (9 species or 10%, with the dominance of filamentous algae belonging to the genus Phormidium. From the total number of the determined microphytobenthic species, 73 species or 84% were indicators of saprobity. Most of them were beta–mezosaprobic indicators. Based on the indicator values of determined microphytobenthic species at six investigated locations, P–B saprobity index was in the range from 1.8 to 2.0. These values suggested that the water at the investigated part of the Sutla river belonged to the second class of Croatian Water Quality Directive.

  18. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  19. Trace Elements in River Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  20. Maple River Subbasin, Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    officials report no anticipated problems with their water supply. Erosion Problems Wind erosion is prevalent over most of the subbasin. Cultivated ...fully investigated. Wastewater Management The Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission (1977) reported high fecal coliform counts and a fecal coliform ...of the subbasin’s land area is under cultivation , and another 6.6 percent is devoted to pasture. The major crops grown in the subbasin are

  1. Isotopic geochemistry of Panama rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Russell S.; Worner, Gerhard; Pribil, Michael; Kern, Zoltan; Forizs, Istvan; Lyons, W. Berry; Gardner, Christopher B.; Goldsmith, Steven T.

    2015-01-01

    River water samples collected from 78 watersheds rivers along a 500-km transect across a Late Cretaceous-Tertiary andesitic volcanic arc terrane in west-central Panama provide a synoptic overview of riverine geochemistry, chemical denudation, and CO2 consumption in the tropics. D/H and 18O/16O relationships indicate that bedrock dissolution of andesitic arc crust in Panama is driven by water-rock interaction with meteoric precipitation as it passes through the critical zone, with no evidence of a geothermal or hydrothermal input. Sr-isotope relationships suggest a geochemical evolution for Panama riverine waters that involves mixing of bedrock pore water with water having 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7037-0.7043 and relatively high Sr-contents with waters of low Sr content that enriched in radiogenic Sr that are diluted by infiltrating rainfall to variable extents.

  2. Resilience of river flow regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Gianluca; Basso, Stefano; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-08-06

    Landscape and climate alterations foreshadow global-scale shifts of river flow regimes. However, a theory that identifies the range of foreseen impacts on streamflows resulting from inhomogeneous forcings and sensitivity gradients across diverse regimes is lacking. Here, we derive a measurable index embedding climate and landscape attributes (the ratio of the mean interarrival of streamflow-producing rainfall events and the mean catchment response time) that discriminates erratic regimes with enhanced intraseasonal streamflow variability from persistent regimes endowed with regular flow patterns. Theoretical and empirical data show that erratic hydrological regimes typical of rivers with low mean discharges are resilient in that they hold a reduced sensitivity to climate fluctuations. The distinction between erratic and persistent regimes provides a robust framework for characterizing the hydrology of freshwater ecosystems and improving water management strategies in times of global change.

  3. A river runs through it

    OpenAIRE

    F P J G Lafeber

    2010-01-01

    A river runs through it is een waar gebeurd verhaal over twee jongens, Norman en Paul, die in het begin van de 20ste eeuw opgroeiden in landelijk Montana (Amerika). Norman is in zijn jeugd een gereserveerde persoonlijkheid, terwijl Paul een rebelse ondeugd is. Beiden hebben echter een grote liefde voor vliegvissen. Het verhaal, gedeeltelijk autobiografisch, is geschreven in 1976 door Norman Maclean1. Er is geen Nederlandse vertaling. Wel is het boek in 1992 verfilmd onder regie van Robert Red...

  4. River Ehen and tributaries SSSI

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    This is the River Ehen and Tributaries SSSI consultation Protocol for the Environment Agency with English Nature, produced in 1998. The Protocol is intended to provide for consistency of approach, to clarify responsibilities and help to streamline the statutory consultation and consenting procedures in which both organisations are involved. It provides guiding principles on the approach to management issues. Based on the operations likely to damage the special interest (OLDSI) which forms par...

  5. Saving the Mekong River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Houba, Harold; Pham Do, Kim Hang; Zhu, Xueqin

    2011-01-01

    The Mekong River (MR) is shared by six countries: China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Over the years there have been both conflict and cooperation on managing the water resources to meet population growth, climate change and the desire for economic development. Currently, the MR Committee (MRC) has weak policy instruments. This paper exploits an axiomatic bargaining approach to examine how China and the MRC might negotiate effective joint management. We investigate what wel...

  6. A Family By Yellow River

    OpenAIRE

    China Central Television (CCTV)

    2005-01-01

    A 63 minutes film produced by CCTV. It is only for education and non-commercial purpose. With thanks to Documentary Research Committee, of the Chinese Broadcasting and Television Academy. This filmed 5 years' record of a small village community, namely Lijiashan (Li's Mountains) of Qikou, Shanxi Province, might serve as an illustration for a profoundly changing rural China. A town in the valley of the Yellow River, Qikou lies culturally in the heartland of the vast yellowish land. It used ...

  7. Resilience of river flow regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Botter, G.; Basso, S.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape and climate alterations foreshadow global-scale shifts of river flow regimes. However, a theory that identifies the range of foreseen impacts on streamflows resulting from inhomogeneous forcings and sensitivity gradients across diverse regimes is lacking. Here, we derive a measurable index embedding climate and landscape attributes (the ratio of the mean interarrival of streamflow-producing rainfall events and the mean catchment response time) that discriminates erratic regimes with...

  8. Floquet theory of river ecomorphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagni, Matteo; Perona, Paolo; Camporeale, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Most of world population lives close and depends on freshwaters and related ecosystems. As dramatic consequence, 48% of all rivers worldwide are hydrologically altered. Although mankind lives by and controls river systems since millennia, a complete physically-based understanding of the links among the various processes involved still remains elusive. Three fundamental aspects control the physical state of natural rivers: flow stochasticity, sediment transport and vegetation dynamics. The present work tries to shed light on the bonds among these processes, following a temporal flow for the river dynamics. During a particularly extreme flood event any previous ecomorphological pattern is erased by the flow. However, sediment transport triggers the formation of migrating bedforms, called free bars. Through a nonlinear analysis, with center manifold projection, a long analytical expression is obtained for the bars amplitude, thus completely defining bars geometry in the parameters space. Once the formative event is extinguished, the flow rate decreases and the recently formed bars can partially emerge from water. At this point vegetation develops over the bare bars depending on flow stochasticity. As a realistic model for the flow stochasticity the compound Poisson process is considered. However, in order to make the computation analytically feasible, the stochastic time series for the discharge is replaced with an equivalent periodic one, obtained as a sequence of a typical average event of the stochastic series. In this manner, the new periodic streamflow signal, preserves the same statistical properties of its stochastic correspondent. The periodic equation for the vegetation dynamics can thus be spatially solved through Floquet theory, gaining which portion of the bar is asymptotically colonised by vegetation. In conclusion, this is the first theoretical work linking the trend of the vegetated area with the flow parameters, and confirming that high flow

  9. Raft River geoscience case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenc, M.R.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.; Russell, B.F.; Skiba, P.A.; Strawn, J.A.; Tullis, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Site has been evaluated over the past eight years by the United States Geological Survey and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as a moderate-temperature geothermal resource. The geoscience data gathered in the drilling and testing of seven geothermal wells suggest that the Raft River thermal reservoir is: (a) produced from fractures found at the contact metamorphic zone, apparently the base of detached normal faulting from the Bridge and Horse Well Fault zones of the Jim Sage Mountains; (b) anisotropic, with the major axis of hydraulic conductivity coincident to the Bridge Fault Zone; (c) hydraulically connected to the shallow thermal fluid of the Crook and BLM wells based upon both geochemistry and pressure response; (d) controlled by a mixture of diluted meteoric water recharging from the northwest and a saline sodium chloride water entering from the southwest. Although the hydrogeologic environment of the Raft River geothermal area is very complex and unique, it is typical of many Basin and Range systems.

  10. How do atmospheric rivers form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The term atmospheric river is used to describe corridors of strong water vapor transport in the troposphere. Filaments of enhanced water vapor, commonly observed in satellite imagery extending from the subtropics to the extratropics, are routinely used as a proxy for identifying these regions of strong water vapor transport. The precipitation associated with these filaments of enhanced water vapor can lead to high impact flooding events. However, there remains some debate as to how these filaments form. In this study we analyse the transport of water vapor within a climatology of wintertime North Atlantic extratropical cyclones. Results show that atmospheric rivers are formed by the cold front which sweeps up water vapor in the warm sector as it catches up with the warm front. This causes a narrow band of high water vapor content to form ahead of the cold front at the base of the warm conveyor belt airflow. Thus, water vapor in the cyclone's warm sector, and not long-distance transport of water vapor from the subtropics, is responsible for the generation of filaments of high water vapor content. A continuous cycle of evaporation and moisture convergence within the cyclone replenishes water vapor lost via precipitation. Thus, rather than representing a direct and continuous feed of moist air from the subtropics into the centre of a cyclone (as suggested by the term atmospheric river), these filaments are, in-fact, the result of water vapor exported from the cyclone and thus they represent the footprints left behind as cyclones travel polewards from subtropics.

  11. THE IMPACT OF URBAN RIVER VALLEY LAND USE AND MORPHOLOGICAL CONDITION FOR RIVER VEGETATION IN RIVER BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marek Hamerla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the results of research about the relationship between hydromorphological condition and share of plants in river bed. Assessment, made in urbanized and heavy industry part of Upper Silesia, provide proof of strong relation between land use, land cover in river valley and type of river vegetation. Moreover, the relationship between hydromorphological indicators and groups of plants was defined.

  12. The Upper Mississippi River System—Topobathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jayme M.; Hanson, Jenny L.; Sattler, Stephanie R.

    2017-03-23

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), the navigable part of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, is a diverse ecosystem that contains river channels, tributaries, shallow-water wetlands, backwater lakes, and flood-plain forests. Approximately 10,000 years of geologic and hydrographic history exist within the UMRS. Because it maintains crucial wildlife and fish habitats, the dynamic ecosystems of the Upper Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries are contingent on the adjacent flood plains and water-level fluctuations of the Mississippi River. Separate data for flood-plain elevation (lidar) and riverbed elevation (bathymetry) were collected on the UMRS by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program. Using the two elevation datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) developed a systemic topobathy dataset.

  13. Rare earth elements in river waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  14. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  15. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Open River 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  16. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    further downstream before merging with the Agua Fria River. 6 Site Geology 2.08 The geological formations present within the project area consist...channel and tributary wash deposits. The older Quaternary alluvium also includes the usually thin spotty veneer of residual soil and slope wash found on...that post magmatic hydrothermal alteration may have been caused by residual aqueous-gaseous fluids rising through the intergranular pore spaces in the

  17. Protecting and Enhancing River and Stream Continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Scott D.; Bowden, Alison; Graber, Brian

    2007-01-01

    As long linear ecosystems, rivers and streams are particularly vulnerable to fragmentation. There is growing concern about the role of road crossings – and especially culverts – in altering habitats and disrupting river and stream continuity. The River and Stream Continuity Project began in the year 2000 with a startup grant from the Massachusetts Watershed Initiative. The University of Massachusetts took the lead in convening a group of people from a variety of agencies and organizations who...

  18. Ecological management of urban rivers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Hou, Xin; Xu, Yiping

    2017-03-01

    At present, China's urban river is widespread with serious pollution, poor water quality, poor water mobility and other issues. In this article, we analyzed the root causes of urban river water environment problems systematically, then puts forward the ways to solve the problems, which including implement the "river length system", strengthen the control of pollution sources, persist in ecological concepts, establish long-term mechanism and strengthen publicity and education.

  19. Monitoring river discharge with remotely sensed imagery using river island area as an indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Feng; Cai, Xiaobin; Li, Wenbo; Xiao, Fei; Li, Xiaodong; Du, Yun

    2012-01-01

    River discharge is an important parameter in understanding water cycles, and consistent long-term discharge records are necessary for related research. In practice, discharge records based on in situ measurement are often limited because of technological, economic, and institutional obstacles. Satellite remote sensing provides an attractive alternative way to measure river discharge by constructing an empirical rating curve between the parameter provided by remote sensing techniques and simultaneous ground discharge data. River width is a popular parameter for constructing the empirical curve, since change in river discharge can be represented by a change in river width. In some rectangular channels, however, river width does not change significantly with river discharge, so an alternative parameter is necessary. We analyze a novel technique using river island area as an indicator of discharge. A river island often has a flat terrain, and its area decreases with higher discharge. This technique is validated by three river islands in the Yangtze River in China. All 61 remotely sensed images acquired by the HuanJing (HJ) satellites from 2009 to 2010 were correlated with corresponding in situ discharge of the nearby Zhicheng hydrological station. The performance of fitted curves for inferring river discharge is validated using 36 HJ images taken in 2011, and the influence of remotely sensed imagery and river islands is discussed. All three river islands can be used as indicators of river discharge, although their performances are much different. For the river island with the best result, the mean accuracy of the estimates is less than 10% of the observed discharge, and all relative errors are within 20%, validating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Forms of Nutrients in Rivers Flowing into Lake Chaohu: A Comparison between Urban and Rural Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; Shiguang Shao; Cheng Liu; Tingting Xu; Chengxin Fan

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient inputs from rivers play an important role in lake eutrophication. To compare the forms characteristics of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in rivers flowing through rural and urban areas, water samples were collected seasonally from five urban rivers and six rural rivers flowing to Lake Chaohu, China. Higher total phosphorus (TP), particulate phosphorus (PP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and dissolved nonreactive phosphorus (DNP) concentrations and SRP/TP percentages were observ...

  1. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  2. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  3. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  4. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  5. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  6. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  7. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  8. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  9. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  10. Bathymetric surveys of the Neosho River, Spring River, and Elk River, northeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Shelby L.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2017-09-26

    In February 2017, the Grand River Dam Authority filed to relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The predominant feature of the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project is Pensacola Dam, which impounds Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees (locally called Grand Lake) in northeastern Oklahoma. Identification of information gaps and assessment of project effects on stakeholders are central aspects of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process. Some upstream stakeholders have expressed concerns about the dynamics of sedimentation and flood flows in the transition zone between major rivers and Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees. To relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the hydraulic models for these rivers require high-resolution bathymetric data along the river channels. In support of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand River Dam Authority, performed bathymetric surveys of (1) the Neosho River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, (2) the Spring River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, and (3) the Elk River from Noel, Missouri, to the Oklahoma State Highway 10 bridge near Grove, Oklahoma. The Neosho River and Spring River bathymetric surveys were performed from October 26 to December 14, 2016; the Elk River bathymetric survey was performed from February 27 to March 21, 2017. Only areas inundated during those periods were surveyed.The bathymetric surveys covered a total distance of about 76 river miles and a total area of about 5 square miles. Greater than 1.4 million bathymetric-survey data points were used in the computation and interpolation of bathymetric-survey digital elevation models and derived contours at 1-foot (ft) intervals. The minimum bathymetric-survey elevation of the Neosho

  11. Upstream control of river anastomosis by sediment overloading, upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, Bart; Lavooi, Eva; de Haas, Tjalling; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Smith, Derald G.

    2017-01-01

    Anastomosing rivers, systems of multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins, constitute a major category of rivers for which various sedimentary facies models have been developed. While the sedimentary products of anastomosing rivers are relatively well-known, their genesis is still

  12. Upstream control of river anastomosis by sediment overloading, upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, A.; Lavooi, E.; Haas, de Tjalling; Kleinhans, M.G.; Smith, D.G.

    2017-01-01

    Anastomosing rivers, systems of multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins, constitute a major category of rivers for which various sedimentary facies models have been developed. While the sedimentary products of anastomosing rivers are relatively well-known, their genesis is still

  13. River-tide dynamics : Exploration of nonstationary and nonlinear tidal behavior in the Yangtze River estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, L.; Van der Wegen, M.; Jay, D.A.; Matte, P.; Wang, Z.B.; Roelvink, J.A.; He, Q.

    2015-01-01

    River-tide dynamics remain poorly understood, in part because conventional harmonic analysis (HA) does not cope effectively with nonstationary signals. To explore nonstationary behavior of river tides and the modulation effects of river discharge, this work analyzes tidal signals in the Yangtze

  14. 76 FR 75543 - Missisquoi River Technologies; Missisquoi River Hydro LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed November 16, 2011, Missisquoi River Technologies informed the... issued June 29, 1989,\\1\\ has been transferred to Missisquoi River Hydro LLC. The project is located on the Missisquoi River in Orleans County, Vermont. The transfer of an exemption does not require...

  15. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On March 26, 2013, we published a notice... River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor in Charleston, SC. The race will consist of approximately 500 swimmers. The race will commence at Daniel Island Pier, transit south in the Wando River, crossing the...

  16. 76 FR 24914 - Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River... Marketing (JEM), Including On-Site Lease Workers From Serenity Staffing, Accountemps, Silicon Valley, and... Assistance on January 28, 2011, applicable to workers of Digital River Education Services, Inc., a division...

  17. River Platform for Monitoring Erosion (RIPLE) in mountainous rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielin, Yoann; Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Geay, Thomas; Hauet, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    The RIPLE platform has been developed to allow a continuous monitoring at high temporal frequency ( 10 min) of water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers. The scientific context of this development is defined as follows: (i) the simultaneous measurements of water discharge, bedload, suspension load and river bed topography contribute to the establishment of comprehensive mass balance at the catchment scale; (ii) measurements of the physical properties of fine sediments (size, shape, composition) provide information on the spatial origin of sediments within the catchment, the conditions for erosion and sedimentation processes within the river and the potential to transport other substances such as nutrients, metals, microorganisms. For the design of the platform, priority has been given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness. The basic prototype of the platform integrates the following instruments: water level and surface velocity radars, turbidimeters, conductivity probe, hydrophone, cameras, automatic water sampler and depth sounder. Other instruments are progressively integrated, such as the SCAF (system characterizing the sediment's settling velocity), an acoustic Doppler profiler and a spectrophotometer. A wireless telecommunication has been set up to allow remote interactions with the platform and data transmission. The RIPLE platform has been designed to facilitate its use and maintenance: user interface allowing data monitoring and remote configuration, sending alerts (SMS, mail) according to programmed conditions, flexibility of on-site installation and energy autonomy allowing to easily move the platform from one site to another site. In September 2016, the RIPLE platform was installed on a bridge across the Romanche river at Bourg d'Oisans (45.1159 °N, 6.0135 °E) for a testing period. After a presentation of the architecture of the platform, the first results derived from in situ measurements are discussed: the intercomparison of surface

  18. Large River Monitoring Forum Fish Assemblage Database 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Large River Monitoring Forum compiled fish assemblage data for five large rivers in the U.S. as a part of a coordinated effort to compare and contract river...

  19. River classification is important for reporting ecological status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River classification is important for reporting ecological status and for the general ecological management of river systems by partitioning natural variability. A priori river classification by abiotic variables and validation of classifications obtained.

  20. Consequence Analyses Following Potential Savannah River Site Hydrological Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Postulated accidental release of radiological material to surface water bodies on the Savannah River Site and the resulting downstream contamination of the Savannah River pose a potential threat to downstream river users.

  1. An Assessment of River Resources for Louisiana Coastal Land Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    35 Table 4.2: Listing of existing Mississippi River diversions below Natchez (from...600,000 cfs. 37 Table 4.2: Listing of existing Mississippi River diversions below Natchez (from Andrus (2007)). Diversion River Mile (above

  2. Flood of August 24–25, 2016, Upper Iowa River and Turkey River, northeastern Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, S. Mike; O'Shea, Padraic S.

    2018-02-05

    Major flooding occurred August 24–25, 2016, in the Upper Iowa River Basin and Turkey River Basin in northeastern Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region. About 8 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 4 p.m., August 24, at Decorah, Iowa, and about 6 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 7 a.m., August 24, at Cresco, Iowa, about 14 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa. A maximum peak-of-record discharge of 38,000 cubic feet per second in the Upper Iowa River at streamgage 05388250 Upper Iowa River near Dorchester, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at six locations along the Upper Iowa River between State Highway 26 near the mouth at the Mississippi River and State Highway 76 about 3.5 miles south of Dorchester, Iowa, a distance of 15 river miles. Along the profiled reach of the Turkey River, a maximum peak-of-record discharge of 15,300 cubic feet per second at streamgage 05411600 Turkey River at Spillville, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 1–2 percent. A maximum peak discharge of 35,700 cubic feet per second occurred on August 25, 2016, along the profiled reach of the Turkey River at streamgage 05411850 Turkey River near Eldorado, Iowa, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at 11 locations along the Turkey River between County Road B64 in Elgin and 220th Street, located about 4.5 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa, a distance of 58 river miles. The high-water marks were used to develop flood profiles for the Upper Iowa River and Turkey River.

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Upper Mississippi River: Transport, processing, and effects on the river ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Richardson, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) can be organized into the following categories: (1) Long-term changes in nutrient concentrations and export, and their causes; (2) Nutrient cycling within the river; (3) Spatial and temporal patterns of river nutrient concentrations; (4) Effects of elevated nutrient concentrations on the river; and (5) Actions to reduce river nutrient concentrations and flux. Nutrient concentration and flux in the Mississippi River have increased substantially over the last century because of changes in land use, climate, hydrology, and river management and engineering. As in other large floodplain rivers, rates of processes that cycle nitrogen and phosphorus in the UMR exhibit pronounced spatial and temporal heterogeneity because of the complex morphology of the river. This spatial variability in nutrient processing creates clear spatial patterns in nutrient concentrations. For example, nitrate concentrations generally are much lower in off-channel areas than in the main channel. The specifics of in-river nutrient cycling and the effects of high rates of nutrient input on UMR have been less studied than the factors affecting nutrient input to the river and transport to the Gulf of Mexico, and important questions concerning nutrient cycling in the UMR remain. Eutrophication and resulting changes in river productivity have only recently been investigated the UMR. These recent studies indicate that the high nutrient concentrations in the river may affect community composition of aquatic vegetation (e. g., the abundance of filamentous algae and duckweeds), dissolved oxygen concentrations in off-channel areas, and the abundance of cyanobacteria. Actions to reduce nutrient input to the river include changes in land-use practices, wetland restoration, and hydrological modifications to the river. Evidence suggests that most of the above methods can contribute to reducing nutrient concentration in

  4. Coastal river plumes: Collisions and coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Farnsworth, Katherine L.

    2017-02-01

    Plumes of buoyant river water spread in the ocean from river mouths, and these plumes influence water quality, sediment dispersal, primary productivity, and circulation along the world's coasts. Most investigations of river plumes have focused on large rivers in a coastal region, for which the physical spreading of the plume is assumed to be independent from the influence of other buoyant plumes. Here we provide new understanding of the spreading patterns of multiple plumes interacting along simplified coastal settings by investigating: (i) the relative likelihood of plume-to-plume interactions at different settings using geophysical scaling, (ii) the diversity of plume frontal collision types and the effects of these collisions on spreading patterns of plume waters using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and (iii) the fundamental differences in plume spreading patterns between coasts with single and multiple rivers using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Geophysical scaling suggests that coastal margins with numerous small rivers (watershed areas 100,000 km2). When two plume fronts meet, several types of collision attributes were found, including refection, subduction and occlusion. We found that the relative differences in pre-collision plume densities and thicknesses strongly influenced the resulting collision types. The three-dimensional spreading of buoyant plumes was found to be influenced by the presence of additional rivers for all modeled scenarios, including those with and without Coriolis and wind. Combined, these results suggest that plume-to-plume interactions are common phenomena for coastal regions offshore of the world's smaller rivers and for coastal settings with multiple river mouths in close proximity, and that the spreading and fate of river waters in these settings will be strongly influenced by these interactions. We conclude that new investigations are needed to characterize how plumes interact offshore of river mouths to better

  5. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga river where Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

  6. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Fish diseases in coastal rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.

    1984-10-01

    Fish diseases have been used as pollution indicators in surface water for about 15 years. The complex interdependences between pathogens, fish, and a multitude of environmental parameters make data evaluation difficult and may lead to misinterpretations. The effects of the natural environment are found to be more important than pollutant effects. To give an example: In a number of fish species, disease rates were highest not in the strongly polluted stretch of river near Hamburg but in the estuarine region where pollutant concentrations are comparatively low but salt content fluctuations are high.

  8. Hydrogeological investigations of river bed clogging at a river bank filtration site along the River Warta, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybyłek Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available River bank filtration (RBF is a system that enriches groundwater resources by induced infiltration of river water to an aquifer. Problematic during operation of RBF systems is the deterioration of infiltration effectiveness caused by river bed clogging. This situation was observed in the Krajkowo well field which supplies fresh water to the city of Poznań (Poland during and after the long hydrological drought between the years 1989 and 1992. The present note discusses results of specific hydrogeological research which included drilling of a net of boreholes to a depth of 10 m below river bottom (for sediment sampling as well as for hydrogeological measurements, analyses of grain size distribution and relative density studies. The results obtained have allowed the recognition of the origin of the clogging processes, as well as the documentation of the clogged parts of the river bottom designated for unclogging activities.

  9. Hydrogeological investigations of river bed clogging at a river bank filtration site along the River Warta, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Jan; Dragon, Krzysztof; Kaczmarek, Piotr Michał Jan

    2017-12-01

    River bank filtration (RBF) is a system that enriches groundwater resources by induced infiltration of river water to an aquifer. Problematic during operation of RBF systems is the deterioration of infiltration effectiveness caused by river bed clogging. This situation was observed in the Krajkowo well field which supplies fresh water to the city of Poznań (Poland) during and after the long hydrological drought between the years 1989 and 1992. The present note discusses results of specific hydrogeological research which included drilling of a net of boreholes to a depth of 10 m below river bottom (for sediment sampling as well as for hydrogeological measurements), analyses of grain size distribution and relative density studies. The results obtained have allowed the recognition of the origin of the clogging processes, as well as the documentation of the clogged parts of the river bottom designated for unclogging activities.

  10. River geomorphology and fish barriers affect on spatial and temporal patterns of fish assemblages in the Niobrara River, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Niobrara River in northern Nebraska traverses the heart of the Great Plains with portions of the river protected under the National Wild and Scenic River system...

  11. The Vaal river catchment: Problems and research needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braune, E

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available . THE VAAL RIVER SYSTEM The V a a l River r i s e s on the western slopes of the Drakensberg escarpment and flows about 900 km west-south-west across the i n t e r io r plateau t o join the Orange River near Douglas (Figure 11. The major t r i b u t a... Allemanskraal Erf en is Bloemhof Vaalharts Spitskop Rustfontein Krugersdrif t Tierpoort Kalkfontein Douglas Weir V a a l River Nuwe jaarssprui t Vaal River Vaal River Mooi Renoster Sand Vet V a a l River Vaal River Harts Modder Modder...

  12. Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local

  13. Compromised Rivers: Understanding Historical Human Impacts on Rivers in the Context of Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wohl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A river that preserves a simplified and attractive form may nevertheless have lost function. Loss of function in these rivers can occur because hydrologic and geomorphic processes no longer create and maintain the habitat and natural disturbance regimes necessary for ecosystem integrity. Recognition of compromised river function is particularly important in the context of river restoration, in which the public perception of a river's condition often drives the decision to undertake restoration as well as the decision about what type of restoration should be attempted. Determining the degree to which a river has been altered from its reference condition requires a knowledge of historical land use and the associated effects on rivers. Rivers of the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains in the United States are used to illustrate how historical land uses such as beaver trapping, placer mining, tie drives, flow regulation, and the construction of transportation corridors continue to affect contemporary river characteristics. Ignorance of regional land use and river history can lead to restoration that sets unrealistic goals because it is based on incorrect assumptions about a river's reference condition or about the influence of persistent land-use effects.

  14. Environmental flow for Monsoon Rivers in India: The Yamuna River as a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Vikram; Singh, Diwan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the flows of Monsoon Rivers in India that will permit the river to perform all its natural functions. About 80% of the total flow for Indian rivers is during the monsoon and the remaining 20% is during the non monsoon period. By carrying out a case study of the river Yamuna in Delhi we find that at least 50% of the virgin monsoon (July to September) flow is required for the transport of the full spectrum of soil particles in the river sediment. A similar flow is needed for adequate recharge of the floodplain aquifers along river. For the non monsoon period (October to June) about 60% of the virgin flow is necessary to avoid the growth of still water algae and to support river biodiversity.

  15. River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.; Boldt, Justin A.

    2018-01-16

    Natural river channels continually evolve and change shape over time. As a result, channel evolution or migration can cause problems for bridge structures that are fixed in the flood plain. A once-stable bridge structure that was uninfluenced by a river’s shape could be encroached upon by a migrating river channel. The potential effect of the actively meandering Wabash River on the Interstate 64 Bridge at the border with Indiana near Grayville, Illinois, was studied using a river migration model called RVR Meander. RVR Meander is a toolbox that can be used to model river channel meander migration with physically based bank erosion methods. This study assesses the Wabash River meandering processes through predictive modeling of natural meandering over the next 100 years, climate change effects through increased river flows, and bank protection measures near the Interstate 64 Bridge.

  16. Industrial pollution and the management of river water quality: a model of Kelani River, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Asha; Wijeratne, E M S; White, Ben; Hailu, Atakelty; Pandit, Ram

    2017-08-19

    Water quality of the Kelani River has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka due to the high cost of maintaining drinking water standards and the market and non-market costs of deteriorating river ecosystem services. By integrating a catchment model with a river model of water quality, we developed a method to estimate the effect of pollution sources on ambient water quality. Using integrated model simulations, we estimate (1) the relative contribution from point (industrial and domestic) and non-point sources (river catchment) to river water quality and (2) pollutant transfer coefficients for zones along the lower section of the river. Transfer coefficients provide the basis for policy analyses in relation to the location of new industries and the setting of priorities for industrial pollution control. They also offer valuable information to design socially optimal economic policy to manage industrialized river catchments.

  17. Modelling morphodynamic evolution of river dunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van den Berg, J.; Termes, A.P.P.; Ferreira, Rui M.L.

    2006-01-01

    River dunes influence the hydraulic roughness and water levels in rivers. Especially during floods the interplay between dunes and the flow field could become significant. Therefore, it is desired to forecast the dimensions of dunes during such extreme and unsteady flood events. At present it is not

  18. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers (SR...

  19. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M

    1999-06-09

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is focused primarily on support of the national defense, nonproliferation, and environmental cleanup. SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program.

  20. Experiments on sediment pulses in mountain rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Cui; T. E. Lisle; J. E. Pizzuto; G. Parker

    1998-01-01

    Pulses of sediment can be introduced into mountain rivers from such mechanisms as debris flows, landslides and fans at tributary confluences. These processes can be natural or associated with the activities of humans, as in the case of a pulse created by sediment derived from timber harvest or the removal of a dam. How does the river digest these pulses?

  1. 33 CFR 117.971 - Neches River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.971 Neches River. (a) The draw of the Kansas City... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neches River. 117.971 Section 117..., providing 13 feet of vertical clearance above mean high tide. This bridge will open on signal. (1) Mariners...

  2. 33 CFR 117.989 - Trinity River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trinity River. 117.989 Section 117.989 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.989 Trinity River. The draws of the Union...

  3. River System Behaviour Effects on Flood Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Van Mierlo, M.C.L.M.; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  4. Advances in understanding river-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Philip; Therrien, René; Renard, Philippe; Simmons, Craig T.; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks

    2017-09-01

    River-groundwater interactions are at the core of a wide range of major contemporary challenges, including the provision of high-quality drinking water in sufficient quantities, the loss of biodiversity in river ecosystems, or the management of environmental flow regimes. This paper reviews state of the art approaches in characterizing and modeling river and groundwater interactions. Our review covers a wide range of approaches, including remote sensing to characterize the streambed, emerging methods to measure exchange fluxes between rivers and groundwater, and developments in several disciplines relevant to the river-groundwater interface. We discuss approaches for automated calibration, and real-time modeling, which improve the simulation and understanding of river-groundwater interactions. Although the integration of these various approaches and disciplines is advancing, major research gaps remain to be filled to allow more complete and quantitative integration across disciplines. New possibilities for generating realistic distributions of streambed properties, in combination with more data and novel data types, have great potential to improve our understanding and predictive capabilities for river-groundwater systems, especially in combination with the integrated simulation of the river and groundwater flow as well as calibration methods. Understanding the implications of different data types and resolution, the development of highly instrumented field sites, ongoing model development, and the ultimate integration of models and data are important future research areas. These developments are required to expand our current understanding to do justice to the complexity of natural systems.

  5. A concise history of Dutch river floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Langen, A.

    2000-01-01

    Based on a brief account of 1,000 years of river floods and flood management in the Dutch Rhine delta, it is argued that vulnerability to river floods depends on the complex interaction of economics, institutions, politics and, to a limited extent, climate. Response functions and thresholds for

  6. Thinking big: linking rivers to landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan O’Callaghan; Ashley E. Steel; Kelly M. Burnett

    2012-01-01

    Exploring relationships between landscape characteristics and rivers is an emerging field, enabled by the proliferation of satellite date, advances in statistical analysis, and increased emphasis on large-scale monitoring. Landscapes features such as road networks, underlying geology, and human developments, determine the characteristics of the rivers flowing through...

  7. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge...

  8. Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson

    2013-01-01

    The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...

  9. Volatilization of Benzene in a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dunlop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a volatile organic compound: when it contaminates a river, some of the substance will evaporate as it flows through. We examine the volumetric flow rate to find how volatilization affects the concentration levels of benzene as the substance flows through several consecutive sections of a river, using a specific example to illustrate the general method.

  10. The Nile River and the Riparian States

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An acceptable legal regime to manage the Nile River and its drainage system for equitable intra-and inter- state econo-political and socio-cultural utilisation remains a major challenge. For many decades after independence, particularly since the 1980s, the Nile River riparian states have engaged in numerous bilateral and ...

  11. 33 CFR 117.803 - Niagara River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Niagara River. 117.803 Section 117.803 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.803 Niagara River. The draw of the...

  12. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  13. 33 CFR 117.417 - Ohio River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ohio River. 117.417 Section 117.417 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.417 Ohio River. The draw of the Southern Railway...

  14. Vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the size of the population. A 'ke-ri ke-chi' playback call enticed three different calls from Orange River Francolins that can be used for management purposes, including the 'ke-ri ke-chi', cacophony and female calls. These three calls can be used to locate Orange River Francolins, determine dispersion, habitat preferences, ...

  15. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

    This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

  17. 33 CFR 117.139 - White River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false White River. 117.139 Section 117.139 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.139 White River. (a) The draws of the St. Louis...

  18. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in European rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export nutrients to coastal waters. Excess nutrient export may result in harmful algal blooms and hypoxia, affecting biodiversity, fisheries, and recreation. The purpose of this study is to quantify for European rivers (1) the extent to which N and P loads exceed levels that minimize the

  19. Conservation status of Colorado River cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; R. Nick Schmal; Thomas W. Kohley; Victoria G. Leonard

    1996-01-01

    Though biologists recognize that populations of Colorado River cutthroat trout have declined, the magnitude of the loss remains unquantified. We obtained information from state and federal biologists and from state databases to determine the current distribution and status of populations of Colorado River cutthroat trout. Recent population extinctions have been...

  20. Preface to the volume Large Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Abad, Jorge D.

    2018-02-01

    The study and knowledge of the geomorphology of large rivers increased significantly during the last years and the factors that triggered these advances are multiple. On one hand, modern technologies became more accessible and their disseminated usage allowed the collection of data from large rivers as never seen before. The generalized use of high tech data collection with geophysics equipment such as acoustic Doppler current profilers-ADCPs, multibeam echosounders, plus the availability of geospatial and computational tools for morphodynamics, hydrological and hydrosedimentological modeling, have accelerated the scientific production on the geomorphology of large rivers at a global scale. Despite the advances, there is yet a lot of work ahead. Good parts of the large rivers are in the tropics and many are still unexplored. The tropics also hold crucial fluvial basins that concentrate good part of the gross domestic product of large countries like the Parana River in Argentina and Brazil, the Ganges-Brahmaputra in India, the Indus River in Pakistan, and the Mekong River in several countries of South East Asia. The environmental importance of tropical rivers is also outstanding. They hold the highest biodiversity of fluvial fauna and alluvial vegetation and many of them, particularly those in Southeast Asia, are among the most hazardous systems for floods in the entire world. Tropical rivers draining mountain chains such as the Himalaya, the Andes and insular Southeast Asia are also among the most heavily sediment loaded rivers and play a key role in both the storage of sediment at continental scale and the transference of sediments from the continent to the Ocean at planetary scale (Andermann et al., 2012; Latrubesse and Restrepo, 2014; Milliman and Syvitski, 1992; Milliman and Farsnworth, 2011; Sinha and Friend, 1994).

  1. Trends in the occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guang-guo.ying@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao Jianliang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Jifeng [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Wang Li; Yang Bin; Liu Shan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-07-15

    The occurrence of four classes of 17 commonly used antibiotics (including fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and macrolides) was investigated in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Higher concentrations were detected for most antibiotics in the sediments of the Hai River than in the sediments of the other rivers. Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline in the three rivers were most frequently detected with concentrations up to 5770, 1290, 653 and 652 ng/g, respectively. High frequencies and concentrations of the detected antibiotics were often found in the downstream of large cities and areas influenced by feedlot and fish ponds. Good fitted linear regression equations between antibiotic concentration and sediment physicochemical properties (TOC, texture and pH) were also found, indicating that sediment properties are important factors influencing the distribution of antibiotics in the sediment of rivers. - Highlights: > Presence of four classes of commonly used antibiotics in the river sediments. > Higher concentrations in the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River. > Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline most frequently detected. > High antibiotic concentrations often found in the downstream of large cities. > River sediments are an important reservoir of antibiotics. - Higher concentrations of selected antibiotics were determined in the sediments of the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River.

  2. A Random-Walk-Model for heavy metal particles in natural waters; Ein Random-Walk-Modell fuer Schwermetallpartikel in natuerlichen Gewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollschlaeger, A.

    1996-12-31

    The presented particle tracking model is for the numerical calculation of heavy metal transport in natural waters. The Navier-Stokes-Equations are solved with the Finite-Element-Method. The advective movement of the particles is interpolated from the velocities on the discrete mesh. The influence of turbulence is simulated with a Random-Walk-Model where particles are distributed due to a given probability function. Both parts are added and lead to the new particle position. The characteristics of the heavy metals are assigned to the particules as their attributes. Dissolved heavy metals are transported only by the flow. Heavy metals which are bound to particulate matter have an additional settling velocity. The sorption and the remobilization processes are approximated through a probability law which maintains the proportionality ratio between dissolved heavy metals and those which are bound to particulate matter. At the bed heavy metals bound to particulate matter are subjected to deposition and erosion processes. The model treats these processes by considering the absorption intensity of the heavy metals to the bottom sediments. Calculations of the Weser estuary show that the particle tracking model allows the simulation of the heavy metal behaviour even under complex flow conditions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das vorgestellte Partikelmodell dient zur numerischen Berechnung des Schwermetalltransports in natuerlichen Gewaessern. Die Navier-Stokes-Gleichungen werden mit der Methode der Finiten Elemente geloest. Die advektive Bewegung der Teilchen ergibt sich aus der Interpolation der Geschwindigkeiten auf dem diskreten Netz. Der Einfluss der Turbulenz wird mit einem Random-Walk-Modell simuliert, bei dem sich die Partikel anhand einer vorgegebenen Wahrscheinlichkeitsfunktion verteilen. Beide Bewegungsanteile werden zusammengefasst und ergeben die neue Partikelposition. Die Eigenschaften der Schwermetalle werden den Partikeln als Attribute zugeordnet. Geloeste Schwermetalle

  3. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  4. River-tide dynamics: Exploration of nonstationary and nonlinear tidal behavior in the Yangtze River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Leicheng; van der Wegen, Mick; Jay, David A.; Matte, Pascal; Wang, Zheng Bing; Roelvink, Dano; He, Qing

    2015-05-01

    River-tide dynamics remain poorly understood, in part because conventional harmonic analysis (HA) does not cope effectively with nonstationary signals. To explore nonstationary behavior of river tides and the modulation effects of river discharge, this work analyzes tidal signals in the Yangtze River estuary using both HA in a nonstationary mode and continuous wavelet transforms (CWT). The Yangtze is an excellent natural laboratory to analyze river tides because of its high and variable flow, its length, and the fact that there are do dams or reflecting barriers within the tidal part of the system. Analysis of tidal frequencies by CWT and analysis of subtidal water level and tidal ranges reveal a broad range of subtidal variations over fortnightly, monthly, semiannual, and annual frequencies driven by subtidal variations in friction and by variable river discharges. We employ HA in a nonstationary mode (NSHA) by segregating data within defined flow ranges into separate analyses. NSHA quantifies the decay of the principal tides and the modulation of M4 tide with increasing river discharges. M4 amplitudes decrease far upriver (landward portion of the estuary) and conversely increase close to the ocean as river discharge increases. The fortnightly frequencies reach an amplitude maximum upriver of that for over tide frequencies, due to the longer wavelength of the fortnightly constituents. These methods and findings should be applicable to large tidal rivers globally and have broad implications regarding management of navigation channels and ecosystems in tidal rivers.

  5. Operational river ice forecasting on the Peace River : managing flood risk and hydropower production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasek, M. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Friensenhan, E. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Granson, W. [Alberta Environment, Peace River, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the procedures used jointly by Alberta Environment and BC Hydro to manage the water flows on the Peace River. The Alberta-British Columbia Joint Task Force on Peace River Ice (JTF) was concerned with the coordination of break-up ice observations along the river as well as ice jam flooding at the Town of Peace River (TPR), resulting from an induced dynamic break-up on the Smoky River, a main tributary of the Peace River. The TPR is the largest community that can be most affected by ice jams on river. As such, river ice processes on the river are monitored and subject to operational procedures of the JTF. These operating procedures are organized into 3 separate sequential phases, notably freeze-up procedures, mid-winter procedures, and break-up procedures. In April 2007, the ice break-up season on the Peace River and Smoky River, was particularly challenging as record high snow cover led to a dynamic break-up of these two streams. Costs due to reduced hydropower production were documented. This paper highlighted the main decision points for mitigation and presented the recommendations that improve mitigation efforts with benefits to both the flood prone community and the power utility. This paper revealed that forecasting the start of control flow by predicting the arrival of the ice front using the Comprehensive River Ice Simulation System Project (CRISSP) model was largely successful. Further work is underway to define the accuracy of forecasting the start of control flow using CRISSP, as accuracy of temperature forecasts appears to be the major uncertainty. The JTF was able to make successful recommendations for flow reductions. However, the need for an accurate hydrologic model for the Smoky River as well as other inflows between Peace Canyon and the TPR was emphasized. 4 refs., 31 figs.

  6. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-02-01

    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  7. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  8. River Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-08-01

    This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and hydraulic parameters and input values that will be used in river modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed by PNNL for DOE. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. The module is based on the legacy code for the Modular Aquatic Simulation System II (MASS2), which is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged model that provides the capability to simulate the lateral (bank-to-bank) variation of flow and contaminants. It simulates river hydrodynamics (water velocities and surface elevations), sediment transport, contaminant transport, biotic transport, and sediment-contaminant interaction, including both suspended sediments and bed sediments. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River. MASS2 requires data on the river flow rate, downstream water surface elevation, groundwater influx and contaminants flux, background concentrations of contaminants, channel bathymetry, and the bed and suspended sediment properties. Stochastic variability for some input parameters such as partition coefficient (kd) values and background radionuclide concentrations is generated by the Environmental Stochastic Preprocessor. River flow is randomized on a yearly basis. At this time, the conceptual model does not incorporate extreme flooding (for example, 50 to 100 years) or dam removal scenarios.

  9. Visualization of Flow Alternatives, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Heuser, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Background The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) 'Missouri River Master Water Control Manual' (Master Manual) review has resulted in consideration of many flow alternatives for managing the water in the river (COE, 2001; 1998a). The purpose of this report is to present flow-management alternative model results in a way that can be easily visualized and understood. This report was updated in October 2001 to focus on the specific flow-management alternatives presented by the COE in the 'Master Manual Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement' (RDEIS; COE, 2001). The original version (February 2000) is available by clicking here. The COE, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Missouri River states, and Missouri River basin tribes have been participating in discussions concerning water management of the Missouri River mainstem reservoir system (MRMRS), the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project, and the Kansas River reservoir system since 1986. These discussions include general input to the revision of the Master Manual as well as formal consultation under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act. In 2000, the FWS issued a Biological Opinion that prescribed changes to reservoir management on the Missouri River that were believed to be necessary to preclude jeopardy to three endangered species, the pallid sturgeon, piping plover, and interior least tern (USFWS, 2000). The combined Missouri River system is large and complex, including many reservoirs, control structures, and free-flowing reaches extending over a broad region. The ability to assess future impacts of altered management scenarios necessarily involves complex, computational models that attempt to integrate physical, chemical, biological, and economic effects. Graphical visualization of the model output is intended to improve understanding of the differences among flow-management alternatives.

  10. An assessment of water quality of Angaw River in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality of the Angaw river were investigated at three different locations on the river. A range of water quality variables were measured in the river over a period of 12 months. The river was characterized by high ionic content. Relatively higher levels of ionic constituents occurred at ...

  11. 18 CFR 725.7 - Regional or river basin planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Responsibilities § 725.7 Regional or river basin planning. (a) In agreements between river basin commissions or other regional planning sponsors and the Council for the preparation and revision of regional and river... representing the river basin commission or regional planning sponsor shall certify to the Council that the...

  12. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  13. Water quality of the Modder River, South Africa | Koning | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Modder River is a relatively small river in the central region of the Free State Province, South Africa and has a mean annual runoff of 184 x 106m3. Botshabelo is a city, which has developed in the catchment area of the river, and its sewage outflows are discharged into the Klein Modder, a tributary of the Modder River.

  14. 76 FR 7837 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... December 1, 2010, the date that Big Rivers integrated its transmission facilities with the Midwest... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 4, 2011, Big Rivers Electric Corporation (Big Rivers) filed a notice of cancellation of its Second...

  15. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ohio River Valley. 9.78... River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ohio River Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Ohio River Valley...

  16. Hydraulics and morphology of mountain rivers; literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, J.

    1993-01-01

    Present knowledge on fluvial processes in mountain rivers should be expanded to enable the development of projects dealing with mountain rivers or mountain-river catchment areas. This study reviews research on hydraulic and morphological features of mountain rivers. A major characteristic of

  17. Projected future runoff of the Breede River under climate change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Breede River is the largest river in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and as such, is a key resource for a variety of activities within the region. It is this significance of the river that prompted a study into the impact of climate change on future runoff in the river and hence, the potential impacts a projected change ...

  18. Radon in water of Shu river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Kuyanova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The values of radon and its daughter products in water of Shu River valley have been received, using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The radon concentration naturally increases in investigated water samples downstream the Shu River, reaching the maximum value in the Tashutkolsky basin. The radon and its daughter products in a human body of 15 % are in soft tissues have been calculated by a mathematical modeling method. The annual dose from radon and its daughter products calculated by a mathematical modeling method received by the residents living in Shu river valley is 0,03 mSv/year.

  19. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  20. Microbial cyanide sensor for monitoring river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebukuro, K; Miyata, A; Cho, S J; Nomura, Y; Chang, S M; Yamauchi, Y; Hasebe, Y; Uchiyama, S; Karube, I

    1996-07-18

    A microbial cyanide sensor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for monitoring a river water is described. This sensor is based on the inhibition of S. cerevisiae's respiration by cyanide. This sensor is a reactor type flow system and composed of two oxygen electrodes and a reactor which contains S. cerevisiae immobilized beads. The S. cerevisiae's respiration activity is measured using the oxygen electrodes. The sensor showed a linear response in the range from 0 to 15 microM and maintained stable response for 9 days at ambient temperature. The sensor was optimized for the monitoring of river water and was applied to river water analysis.

  1. Characterization of the Zymoetz river rock avalanche

    OpenAIRE

    Boultbee, Nichole Leanne

    2005-01-01

    On June 8, 2002, the Pacific Northern Gas pipeline in the Zymoetz River valley was severed over a distance of tens of meters by a large debris flow. The event initiated as a rock avalanche in Glen Falls Creek, a tributary of the 6 3 Zymoetz River. The rock avalanche involved I XI 0 m of volcaniclastic bedrock, and travelled through a complex flow path, to finally deposit a large fan in the main Zymoetz River. Approximately half of the debris volume was deposited in the cirque basin at the hea...

  2. Raft River Geothermal Aquaculture Experiment. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Rose, F.L.; Kent, J.C.; Watson, L.R.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1979-08-01

    Channel catfish, tilapia and Malaysian prawns were cultured directly in geothermal water for approximately seven months at the Department of Energy, Raft River Geothermal Site, to evaluate the organisms throughout a grow-out cycle. Parameters evaluated included survival, growth, bioaccumulation of metals and fluoride, collagen synthesis, and bone calcium levels. Growth at Raft River was slightly lower than at a companion commercial facility at Buhl, Idaho, but was attributed to facility differences rather than an adverse impact of geothermal water. No significant differences were recorded between Raft River and Buhl fish for bone calcium or collagen concentrations. No significant accumulation of heavy metals by fish or prawns was recorded.

  3. Old River Control Complex Sedimentation Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In an alluvial river, the transport of sediment is tied very closely to the reservoir of sediment available in the sediment bed. Therefore, the...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 8 Old River Control Complex Sedimentation Investigation Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL TR-15-8 June 2015 Old River Control Complex Sedimentation Investigation Ronald E. Heath, Gary L. Brown

  4. Vaal River catchment: problems and research needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braune, E

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available can be divided into four zones on the basis of water quality problems ie the Vaal Dam, the Barrage, the Bloemhof and the Douglas weir subcatchments. In general, the best quality water is found in the catchment of Vaal Dam and quality deteriorates... - 2. THE VAAL RIVER SYSTEM The Vaal River rises on the western slopes of the Drakensberg escarpment and flows about 900 km west-south-west across the interior plateau to join the Orange River near Douglas (Figure 1). The major tributaries...

  5. Count of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), River Temperature, and River Height in the Pilgrim River, Nome, Alaska, 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset is the daily count of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) passing through a fish counting weir on the Pilgrim River from 2003 to 2014. Also, included in...

  6. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements......Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study...... to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available...

  7. The river and the rocks: The geologic story of Great Falls and the Potomac River Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John Calvin; Sigafoos, Robert Sumner; Fisher, George Wescott

    1980-01-01

    The Great Falls of the Potomac River has figured prominently in the purposes of men since prehistoric time. Long before John Smith reached the falls in 1609, groups of Indians from East and West met at this great river barrier to trade and perform ceremonies in honor of the spirit of the "Roaring Waters". As early as 1754, George Washington visualized the Potomac River as an important avenue of trade and communication with the interior.

  8. 78 FR 59237 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of Weymouth Fore River in the vicinity of the Fore River Bridge (Mile 3.5) between Weymouth and Quincy, MA. This rule will place temporary speed, wake, and entry restrictions on vessels during bridge replacement operations. This rule is necessary to provide for the safety of life in the vicinity of the Fore River Bridge during its construction.

  9. Phenomena and characteristics of barrier river reaches in the middle and lower Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xingying; Tang, Jinwu

    2017-06-01

    Alluvial river self-adjustment describes the mechanism whereby a river that was originally in an equilibrium state of sediment transport encounters some disturbance that destroys the balance and results in responses such as riverbed deformation. A systematic study of historical and recent aerial photographs and topographic maps in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) shows that river self-adjustment has the distinguishing feature of transferring from upstream to downstream, which may affect flood safety, waterway morphology, bank stability, and aquatic environmental safety over relatively long reaches downstream. As a result, it is necessary to take measures to control or block this transfer. Using the relationship of the occurrence time of channel adjustments between the upstream and downstream, 34 single-thread river reaches in the MLYR were classified into four types: corresponding, basically corresponding, basically not corresponding, not corresponding. The latter two types, because of their ability to prevent upstream channel adjustment from transferring downstream, are called barrier river reaches in this study. Statistics indicate that barrier river reaches are generally single thread and slightly curved, with a narrow and deep cross-sectional morphology, and without flow deflecting nodes in the upper and middle parts of reaches. Moreover, in the MLYR, barrier river reaches have a hydrogeometric coefficient of {}1.2‱, a silty clay content of the concave bank {>}{9.5}%, and a median diameter of the bed sediment {>}{0.158} mm. The barrier river reach mechanism lies in that can effectively centralise the planimetric position of the main stream from different upstream directions, meaning that no matter how the upper channel adjusts, the main stream shows little change, providing relatively stable inflow conditions for the lower reaches. Regarding river regulation, it is necessary to optimise the benefits of barrier river reaches; long river

  10. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande Ronde...

  11. 33 CFR 207.360 - Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the United States. 207.360 Section 207.360 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.360 Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the...

  12. 33 CFR 162.80 - Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest passes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest passes. 162.80 Section 162.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.80 Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest...

  13. 33 CFR 207.200 - Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest Passes; use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest Passes; use, administration, and navigation. 207.200 Section... DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.200 Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and...

  14. River Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2004-08-01

    Beginning in fiscal year 2003, the DOE Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support the 2004 Composite Analysis. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of Heavy metals of river sediment from the main rivers at Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.; Hoffman, D.; MacAlister, J.; Ishiga, H.

    2008-12-01

    Trinity River is one of the biggest rivers which flows through Dallas and Fort Worth two big cities of USA and are highly populated. Trinity river drains into the Gulf of Mexico. Sediment samples collected from various points along the upper and lower streams were subjected to content analysis and elution analysis (using liquate (flow) out test) on the heavy metals like Cd, CN, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, Ni, Zn and Cu from the river sediment for the purpose of environment assessment. A total of 22 sample points were identified from upper stream to lower stream and samples were collected such that almost the whole stream length of Trinity River is covered. Results show that heavy metal content through out the river stream is below the recommended limits posing no immediate environmental threat. However, the experimental results show clear impact of human population in bigger cities on heavy metal concentrations in the river sediments as compared to smaller cities with low human population. It could be seen from the analysis that all the heavy metals show relatively high content and high elution value in Dallas and Fort Worth. As we move away from the big cities, the value of content and elution of sediment decreased by natural dilution effect by the river. And we also present the data of the Colorado and San Antonio rivers.

  16. Detection of major river bed changes in the River Ebro (north-eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, R.; Torrent, J.; Roquero, C.

    1973-01-01

    The application or ERTS-1 data to determine the major river bed changes of the Ebro River in northeastern Spain is discussed. Image quality was good enough to permit a clear identification of the river course and bands MSS 5 and 7 proved to be the most useful for this purpose. Reflectance for band 5 was high due to the high sediment content of the water and sufficed to identify the river. Features like bodies of water related to old channels and depressions were only apparent in band 7.

  17. Contribution of River Mouth Reach to Sediment Load of the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the sediment gain and loss in the river mouth reach of the Yangtze River by considering sediment load from the local tributaries, erosion/accretion of the river course, impacts of sand mining, and water extraction. A quantitative estimation of the contribution of the river mouth reach to the sediment load of the Yangtze River was conducted before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003. The results showed that a net sediment load loss of 1.78 million ton/yr (Mt/yr occurred from 1965 to 2002 in the study area. The contribution of this reach to the sediment discharge into the sea is not as high as what was expected before the TGD. With impoundment of the TGD, channel deposition (29.90 Mt/yr and a net sediment loss of 30.89 Mt/yr occurred in the river mouth reach from 2003 to 2012. The river mouth reach has acted as a sink but not a source of sediment since impoundment of the TGD, which has exacerbated the decrease in sediment load. Technologies should be advanced to measure changes in river channel morphology, as well as in water and sediment discharges at the river mouth reach.

  18. 78 FR 42972 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on the John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on the John Day River, Oregon AGENCY: Bureau... (River Mile 157) to Tumwater Falls (River Mile 10) stretch of the John Day River, between Service Creek, Oregon, and the confluence of the John Day River and the Columbia River, Oregon. The John Day River...

  19. Onset in-river conductivity sonde data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Onset HOBO Model U24-01 in-river sondes were deployed to measure water temperature and electrical conductivity at each of the ISCO sampling sites at 5 min intervals....

  20. Advanced separations at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.; McCabe, D.

    1996-10-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams that are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials that must be treated to remove the radioactivity (cesium, strontium, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide, metal ions).

  1. SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA SPECIES IN RIVER WATER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of four Salmonella strains in river water microcosms was monitored using culturing techniques, direct counts, whole cell hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and resuscitation techniques via the direct viable count method and flow cytrometry. Plate counts of...

  2. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  3. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : Refuge Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document lists the objectives of Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Topics outlined in this plan include wildlife-wildlands interpretation,...

  4. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  5. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  6. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.R. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of waste, restoration of the environment, and the development of industry in and around the site.

  7. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  8. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  9. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  10. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  11. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  12. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  13. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  14. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  15. Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

  16. DNR 100K Lakes and Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Polygons representing hydrographic features (lakes, ponds, some rivers, and open water areas) originating from the USGS 1:100,000 (100K)DLG (Digital Line Graph)...

  17. Ecological flow requirements for South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This document contains the proceedings of a workshop which was convened to debate the ecological flow requirements of South African rivers. Topics which are discussed include the influence of weirs and impoundments, the quantity requirements...

  18. Parker River NWR : Revised Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains revisions to the 1978 Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Hunt Management Plan. Refuge hunters must obtain a permit to use the hunting...

  19. Savannah River Site environmental data for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents data from Savannah River Site routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. An attempt also has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs.

  20. Offshore extension of Gomati river, Dwarka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Naik, D.K.; Ganesan, P.; Moraes, C.

    information. Attempts have been made to identify the submerged extension of Gomati River by diving inspection and based on the results obtained such as findings like stone and iron anchors, circular bastions, etc. While many features reported earlier...

  1. Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River

    CERN Document Server

    Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

  2. Raft River geoscience case study: appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenc, M.R.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.; Russell, B.F.; Skiba, P.A.; Strawn, J.A.; Tullis, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    The following are included in these appendices: lithology, x-ray analysis, and cores; well construction data; borehole geophysical logs; chemical analyses from wells at the Raft River geothermal site; and bibliography. (MHR)

  3. Trace metal pollution in Umtata River

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-04-02

    Apr 2, 2002 ... Dissolved trace metals, i.e Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined in ..... River Catchment Preliminary Framework for the Development of an ... FRIES J and GETROST H (1977) Organic Reagents for Trace Analysis.

  4. Middle Mississippi River Sturgeon Preliminary Contaminants Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We examined the health of forty-one wild caught sturgeon from a reach of the Mississippi River with an organochlorine consumption advisory and a reference site. The...

  5. Contaminant levels in the Sudbury River, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge sits astride the Concord and Sudbury Rivers in portions of the towns of Bedford, Billerica, Lincoln, Carlisle, Concord, and...

  6. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  7. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  8. Anthropogenic impacts on global organic river pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. To implement integrated water

  9. Little River NWR Inventory and Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Little River National Wildlife Refuge is a step-down from the Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Forest Habitat Management...

  10. Savannah River Technology Center, monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This is the monthly report to detail the research currently being conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center. The areas of research are in Tritium, Seperation processes, Environmental Engineering, and Waste Management.

  11. Columbia River ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data...

  12. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Reconnaisance Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    .... The report describes studies of alternative measures for flood control in the American River Watershed predicated on the assumption that Auburn Dam as previously authorized will not be constructed...

  13. Using river locks to teach hydrodynamic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L; Silva, Enisvaldo C; Rios, Márcio L; Silva, Anderson A P

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the use of a river lock as a non-formal setting for teaching Q2 hydrodynamical concepts is proposed. In particular, we describe the operation of a river lock situated at the Sobradinho dam, on the S\\~ao Francisco River (Brazil). A model to represent and to analyse the dynamics of river lock operation is presented and we derive the dynamical equations for the rising of the water column as an example to understand the Euler equation. Furthermore, with this activity, we enable the integration of content initially introduced in the classroom with practical applications, thereby allowing the association of physical themes to content relevant in disciplines such as history and geography. In addition, experiences of this kind enable teachers to talk about the environmental and social impacts caused by the construction of a dam and, consequently, a crossover of concepts has been made possible, leading to more meaningful learning for the students.

  14. Columbia River ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Wildlife Refuges, National Forests, and State Parks for the Columbia River area. Vector polygons in this data set...

  15. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  16. Gammaridean amphipods in the Columbia River Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, R.L.; Higley, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution, abundance, and habitat preference of the amphipods Corophium salmonis, C. spinicorne, and Anisogammarus confervicolus were studied in the Columbia River estuary as part of baseline research during 1974 to 1976. A figure is presented showing densities of two species at selected stations in the Columbia River. Studies were also conducted on changes in faunal composition and substrate texture existing across an intertidal mudflat on the southwest shore of Youngs Bay. (HLW)

  17. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanka G. Hristeva; Gana M. Gecheva; Karin Pall

    2015-01-01

    Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type), mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The...

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FROM THE DNIESTER RIVER TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gladchi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results obtained in the framework of the project 09.832.08.06A. The role of the tributaries on formation of the Dniester river water and the study of the waters quality of sources / fountains in the catchment area of the Dniester river as sources of water supply and for irrigation in the State Program, Scientific Researches and of the management of waters quality.

  19. THE RIVER BASIN APPROACH IN TOURISM PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Agita Slara

    2005-01-01

    The article describes advantages and disadvantages in tourism planning, using the river basins as background territory and borders. Tourism development planning is taking place according administrative territorial borders till nowadays in Latvia and in other tourism destinations in abroad. According tourist and visitor needs and environmental friendly approach it is more appropriate to use river basins in tourism planning. Tourists are not interested in administrative borders, but in qualitat...

  20. Morphology of Tigris River within Baghdad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the morphology of the River Tigris within Baghdad City. Although huge volumes of sediment are being trapped in recently constructed headwater reservoirs, the number of islands in the Tigris at Baghdad is increasing. The debris of bridges destroyed in the wars of 1991 and 2003 and their subsequent reconstruction have enhanced the development of these islands. As a consequence the ability of the river to carry the peaks of flood waters has been reduced. This has led to potential increase of flooding in parts of the city.

    The bed of the River Tigris has been surveyed on three occasions (1976, 1991, and 2008. The most recent survey was conducted by the Ministry of Water Resources, extended 49 km from the Al-Muthana Bridge north Baghdad to the confluence with the Diyala River south Baghdad. It yielded cross-section profiles at 250 m intervals. The data are used to predict the maximum flood capacity for the river using the one-dimensional hydraulic model for steady flow "HEC-RAS" modeling. Calibration of the model was carried out using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km of the reach and the last 10 yr of observation at the Sarai Baghdad gauging station.

    The model showed a significant predicted reduction in the current river capacity below that which the river had carried during the floods of 1971 and 1988. The three surveys conducted on the same reach of the Tigris indicated that the ability of the river to transport water has decreased.

  1. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  2. River network routing on the NHDPlus dataset

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cédric,; Maidment, David,; Niu, Guo-Yue; Yang, Zong-Liang; Habets, Florence; Eijkhout, Victor

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The mapped rivers and streams of the contiguous United States are available in a geographic information system (GIS) dataset called National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus). This hydrographic dataset has about 3 million river and water body reaches along with information on how they are connected into net- works. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) provides stream- flow observations at about 20 thousand gauges located on theNHDP...

  3. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  4. Ecological state of the river Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul'zhamal Tulemisova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the ecological state of the Ural River at the present stage. Hydrochemical regime of the reservoir is an important indicator to regulating the number of water resources. As the Ural River is the transboundary reservoir, it is prone to contamination from various areas in the upper and middle reaches. Monitoring of the ecological state of the Ural River showed the presence of anthropogenic pollution. The hydrochemical regime of the reservoir is subject to changes in seasonal variations in water composition. In spring, with flood waters, the main pollution enters the river, however in other seasons, the quality of water leaves much to be desired. In autumn, in comparison with the spring, both alkalinity and salinity increased. The reservoir is prone to contamination with nitrites in almost all seasons of the year from 0.05 to 0.20 mg/dm3 (December, 2016. In the lower reaches of the Ural River, the content of readily oxidizable organic compounds ranges from 3.2 mg/dm3 (winter to 7.36 mg/dm3 (autumn. The content of boron exceeds the maximum permissible concentration 1-3 times. Environmental monitoring conducted in different periods of the year showed a constant source of pollution flow into the reservoir, which was increased in the flood period. Concentrations of nitrite, boron and petroleum products in the Ural River exceed their permitted values at the point in the end of Uralsk city. The results of the research confirm that the source of the contamination of Ural River is its confluent Ilek River originating from Aktobe Oblast.

  5. New River Valley Agriculture & Agritourism Strategic Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Martha A.; Scott, Kelli H.

    2017-01-01

    This strategic plan discusses plans for improving the marketing of agritourism and agribusiness in the New River Valley (Floyd, Giles, Montgomery and Pulaski Counties), and potentially increasing community wealth while improving the access to local crops and products. Includes Planning for an Agricultural Future in Giles, Montgomery, and Pulaski Counties: An Agricultural Regional Assessment, prepare for the New River Valley Agricultural & Agritourism Project Management Team by Matson Consu...

  6. Interoperability challenges in river discharge modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schlummer, Manuela; Andres, Volker; Jirka, Simon; Looser, Ulrich; Mladek, Richard; Pappenberger, Florian; Strauch, Adrian; Utech, Michael; Zsoter, Ervin

    2014-05-01

    River discharge is a critical water cycle variable, as it integrates all the processes (e.g. runoff and evapotranspiration) occurring within a river basin and provides a hydrological output variable that can be readily measured. Its prediction is of invaluable help for many water-related areas such as water resources assessment and management, as well as flood protection and disaster mitigation. Observations of river discharge are very important for the calibration and validation of hydrological or coupled land, atmosphere and ocean models . This requires the use of data from different scientific domains (Water, Weather, etc.). Typically, such data are provided using different technological solutions and formats. This complicates the integration of new hydrological data sources into application systems. Therefore, a considerable effort is often spent on data access issues instead of the actual scientific question. In the context of the FP7 funded project GEOWOW (GEOSS Interoperability for Weather, Ocean and Water), the "River Discharge" use scenario was developed in order to combine river discharge observations data from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC) database and model outputs produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) predicting river discharge based on weather forecast information. In this presentation we describe interoperability solutions which were adopted in order to address the technological challenges of the "River Discharge" use scenario: 1) Development of a Hydrology Profile for the OGC SOS 2.0 standard; 2) Enhancement of the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) to support the use scenario: 2.1) Develop new interoperability arrangements for GRDC and ECMWF capacities; 2.2) Select multiple time series for comparison. The development of the above functionalities and tools aims to respond to the need of Water and Weather scientists to assess river discharge forecasting models.

  7. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the River Idrijca (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics of the River Idrijca, Slovenia, where the world’s second largest mercury (Hg mine is located, were investigated. The River Idrijca, a typical steep mountain river has an HCO3- - Ca2+ - Mg2+ chemical composition. Its Ca2+/Mg2+ molar ratio indicates that dolomite weathering prevails in the watershed. The River Idrijca and its tributaries are over saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. The pCO2 pressure is up to 13 times over atmospheric pressure and represents a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. δ18O values in river water indicate primary control from precipitation and enrichment of the heavy oxygen isotope of infiltrating water recharging the River Idrijca from its slopes.The δ13 CDIC values range from −10.8 to −6.6 ‰ and are controlled by biogeochemical processes in terrestrial environments and in the stream: 1 exchange with atmospheric CO2, 2 degradation of organic matter, 3 dissolution of carbonates, and 4 tributaries. The contributions of these inputs were calculated according to steady state equations and are estimated to be -11 %: 19 %: 31 %: 61 % in the autumn and 0 %: 6 %: 9 %: 35 % in the spring sampling seasons.

  8. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  9. Climate change characteristics of Amur River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-lan YU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually severe weather is occurring more frequently due to global climate change. Heat waves, rainstorms, snowstorms, and droughts are becoming increasingly common all over the world, threatening human lives and property. Both temperature and precipitation are representative variables usually used to directly reflect and forecast the influences of climate change. In this study, daily data (from 1953 to 1995 and monthly data (from 1950 to 2010 of temperature and precipitation in five regions of the Amur River were examined. The significance of changes in temperature and precipitation was tested using the Mann-Kendall test method. The amplitudes were computed using the linear least-squares regression model, and the extreme temperature and precipitation were analyzed using hydrological statistical methods. The results show the following: the mean annual temperature increased significantly from 1950 to 2010 in the five regions, mainly due to the warming in spring and winter; the annual precipitation changed significantly from 1950 to 2010 only in the lower mainstream of the Amur River; the frequency of extremely low temperature events decreased from 1953 to 1995 in the mainstream of the Amur River; the frequency of high temperature events increased from 1953 to 1995 in the mainstream of the Amur River; and the frequency of extreme precipitation events did not change significantly from 1953 to 1995 in the mainstream of the Amur River. This study provides a valuable theoretical basis for settling disputes between China and Russia on sustainable development and utilization of water resources of the Amur River.

  10. Computational Modeling of Pollution Transmission in Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaie, Abbas; Haghiabi, Amir Hamzeh

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of river pollution contributes to better management of water quality and this will lead to the improvement of human health. The advection dispersion equation (ADE) is the government equation on pollutant transmission in the river. Modeling the pollution transmission includes numerical solution of the ADE and estimating the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (LDC). In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for numerical modeling of the pollution transmission in rivers. It is related to use both finite volume method as numerical method and artificial neural network (ANN) as soft computing technique together in simulation. In this approach, the result of the ANN for predicting the LDC was considered as input parameter for the numerical solution of the ADE. To validate the model performance in real engineering problems, the pollutant transmission in Severn River has been simulated. Comparison of the final model results with measured data of the Severn River showed that the model has good performance. Predicting the LDC by ANN model significantly improved the accuracy of computer simulation of the pollution transmission in river.

  11. Morphological convergence in 'river dolphin' skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Charlotte E; Cooper, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Convergent evolution can provide insights into the predictability of, and constraints on, the evolution of biodiversity. One striking example of convergence is seen in the 'river dolphins'. The four dolphin genera that make up the 'river dolphins' ( Inia geoffrensis, Pontoporia blainvillei, Platanista gangetica and Lipotes vexillifer ) do not represent a single monophyletic group, despite being very similar in morphology. This has led many to using the 'river dolphins' as an example of convergent evolution. We investigate whether the skulls of the four 'river dolphin' genera are convergent when compared to other toothed dolphin taxa in addition to identifying convergent cranial and mandibular features. We use geometric morphometrics to uncover shape variation in the skulls of the 'river dolphins' and then apply a number of phylogenetic techniques to test for convergence. We find significant convergence in the skull morphology of the 'river dolphins'. The four genera seem to have evolved similar skull shapes, leading to a convergent morphotype characterised by elongation of skull features. The cause of this morphological convergence remains unclear. However, the features we uncover as convergent, in particular elongation of the rostrum, support hypotheses of shared feeding mode or diet and thus provide the foundation for future work into convergence within the Odontoceti.

  12. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  13. The Mechanics of River Avulsions on Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Vamsi; Chadwick, Austin; Hassenruck-Gudipati, Hima; Lamb, Michael

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are highly dynamic, often fan-shaped depositional systems that form when rivers drain into a standing body of water. They host over a half billion people worldwide and are currently under threat of drowning and destruction by relative sea-level rise, subsidence, and anthropogenic interference. Many river deltas develop planform fan shapes through avulsions, whereby major river channel shifts occur via "channel jumping" about a persistent spatial node, thus determining their fundamental length scale. Emerging theories suggest that the size of deltas is set by backwater hydrodynamics; however, these ideas are difficult to test on natural deltas, which evolve on centennial to millennial timescales. Here, using physical experiments coupled with observations of the dynamics of modern deltaic evolution, we show that deltas grow through successive deposition of lobes that maintain a constant size that scales with backwater hydrodynamics. The preferential avulsion node in our experiments is a consequence of multiple river floods and Froude-subcritical flows that produce persistent nonuniform flows and a peak in net channel deposition within the backwater zone of the coastal river. Moreover, because the backwater hydrodynamics are controlled by the downstream boundary condition of constant sea level, the backwater-mediated avulsion sites translate seaward in step with shoreline progradation. In contrast, experimental deltas without multiple floods produce flows with uniform velocities and delta lobes that lack a characteristic size. Results have broad applications to sustainable management of deltas and for decoding their stratigraphic record on Earth and Mars.

  14. Statistical dynamics of early river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ping; Hao, Rui; Huo, Jie

    2012-10-01

    Based on local erosion rule and fluctuations in rainfall, geology and parameters of a river channel, a generalized Langevin equation is proposed to describe the random prolongation of a river channel. This equation is transformed into the Fokker-Plank equation to follow the early evolution of a river network and the variation of probability distribution of channel lengths. The general solution of the equation is in the product form of two terms. One term is in power form and the other is in exponent form. This distribution shows a complete history of a river network evolving from its infancy to “adulthood”). The infancy is characterized by the Gaussian distribution of the channel lengths, while the adulthood is marked by a power law distribution of the channel lengths. The variation of the distribution from the Gaussian to the power law displays a gradual developing progress of the river network. The distribution of basin areas is obtained by means of Hack's law. These provide us with new understandings towards river networks.

  15. Using array seismology to quantify river physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert, F.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic ground motion measurements nearby rivers are sensitive to bedload sediment transport and turbulent fluid flow operating at river beds, both of which are major control on fluvial erosion but yet remain poorly known due to lacking observations. Seismic observations thus provide a valuable opportunity to improve our understanding of fluvial dynamics and its control on crustal erosion. However, although recently proposed theoretical frameworks provided solid grounds to link fluvial processes with seismic signal properties, a better understanding of river physics from seismic signals needs investigating turbulent flow and bedload seismic source functions from direct field observations. Here we use seismic array processing to invert river seismic source force functions and discuss the various river mechanisms that control properties of the seismic wave field. We report new seismic measurements conducted under various flow conditions at two mountain rivers with drastically different geometries: the narrow (1 m), steep ( 5 to 15%) and shallow flows ( 10 to 40 cm deep) of the Les Bossons River (Chamonix, French Alps), and the much wider ( 50 m), gentler ( 1 to 2%) and deeper flows ( 2 to 4 m deep) of the Kali Gandaki River (Lete, Nepal Himalayas). At these sites, we invert for ground velocity structure and river seismic source characteristics from the analysis of both impulsive arrivals and the continuous noise field. We report distinct spectral and directional properties between the sediment transport and the turbulent flow sources. We relate source force characteristics to physical components of sediment transport and turbulent flow dynamics such as mainly the directionality of grain impacts and the associated grain transport modes (saltation, rolling, sliding), as well as the directionality of fluid forces applied on river bed grains and the respective drag, lift and cross stream forces. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such physics of bedload

  16. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  17. Restoration strategies for river floodplains along large lowland rivers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijse, A.D.; Coops, H.; Staras, M.; Jans, L.H.; Van Geest, G.J.; Grift, R.E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Oosterberg, W.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. Most temperate rivers are heavily regulated and characterised by incised channels, aggradated floodplains and modified hydroperiods. As a consequence, former extensive aquatic /terrestrial transition zones lack most of their basic ecological functions. 2. Along large rivers in Europe and North

  18. Restoration strategies for river floodplains along large lowland rivers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijse, A.D.; Coops, H.; Staras, M.; Jans, L.H.; Geest, van G.; Grift, R.E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Oosterberg, W.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. Most temperate rivers are heavily regulated and characterised by incised channels, aggradated floodplains and modified hydroperiods. As a consequence, former extensive aquatic/terrestrial transition zones lack most of their basic ecological functions. 2. Along large rivers in Europe and North

  19. Global river temperatures and sensitivity to atmospheric warming and changes in river flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Weedon, G.P.; Kabat, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of both air temperature and river discharge changes on daily water temperatures for river stations globally. A nonlinear water temperature regression model was adapted to include discharge as a variable in addition to air temperature, and a time lag was

  20. Bank retreat study of a meandering river reach case study : River Irwell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran, R.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.

    2010-01-01

    Lack of data is often considered a limitation when undertaking morphological studies. This research deals with morphological studies of small rivers experiencing bank erosion processes when only limited data are available. A reach of the meandering gravel-bed river Irwell (United Kingdom) is taken

  1. River flow modeling using artificial neural networks in Kapuas river, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Henny; Suripin, Suharyanto

    2017-11-01

    Kapuas River is located in the province of West Kalimantan. Kapuas river length is 1,086 km and river basin areas about 100,000 Km2. The availability of river flow data in the Long River and very wide catchments are difficult to obtain, while river flow data are essential for planning waterworks. To predict the water flow in the catchment area requires a lot of hydrology coefficient, so it is very difficult to predict and obtain results that closer to the real conditions. This paper demonstrates that artificial neural network (ANN) could be used to predict the water flow. The ANN technique can be used to predict the incidence of water discharge that occurs in the Kapuas River based on rainfall and evaporation data. With the data available to do training on the artificial neural network model is obtained mean square error (MSE) 0.00007. The river flow predictions could be carried out after the training. The results showed differences in water discharge measurement and prediction of about 4%.

  2. Development west coast Taiwan: Redesign coastal area between Da’an River and Dajia River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, B.; Eelkema, M.; Smith, M.; Van To, P.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. In the year 2004 there was a flooding in an area between Da'an River and Dajia River in Taichung County, Taiwan. The flooding was caused by outlets which were clogged up, thus lacking the capacity to discharge the amount of rainwater that the typhoon caused into the sea. A

  3. An Evaluation of River Health for the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxi Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive socioeconomic activities in the Weihe River region have caused severe ecosystem degradation, and the call for the recovery and maintenance of the river health has drawn great attention. Based on the connotation of river health, previous research findings, and status quo of the Weihe River ecosystem, in this study, we developed a novel health evaluation index system to quantitatively determine the health of the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province. The river in the study area was divided into five reaches based on the five hydrological gauging stations, and appropriate evaluation indices for each river section were selected according to the ecological environmental functions of that section. A hybrid approach integrating analytic hierarchy process (AHP and a fuzzy synthetic evaluation method was applied to measure the river health. The results show that Linjiancun-Weijiabao reach and Weijiabao-Xianyang reach are in the “moderate” level of health and Lintong-Huaxian reach and downstream of Huaxian reach are in the “poor” health rating, whereas Xianyang-Lintong reach is in the “sick” rating. Moreover, the most sensitive factors were determined, respectively, for each reach from upper stream to lower stream in the study area.

  4. Canoeing the Murray River (Australia) as Environmental Education: A Tale of Two Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2004-01-01

    The Murray River, lying at the heart of Australia's largest catchment, is used extensively in outdoor education programs in south-eastern Australia. Since European settlement the river's ecological health has declined considerably due to activities such as damming for irrigation and clearing of native vegetation. Colonial notions of how the river…

  5. Molybdenum, vanadium, and uranium weathering in small mountainous rivers and rivers draining high-standing islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher B.; Carey, Anne E.; Lyons, W. Berry; Goldsmith, Steven T.; McAdams, Brandon C.; Trierweiler, Annette M.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers draining high standing islands (HSIs) and small mountainous rivers (SMRs) are known to have extremely high sediment fluxes, and can also have high chemical weathering yields, which makes them potentially important contributors to the global riverine elemental flux to the ocean. This work reports on the riverine concentrations, ocean flux, and weathering yields of Molybdenum (Mo), Vanadium (V), and Uranium (U) in a large number of small but geochemically important rivers using 338 river samples from ten lithologically-diverse regions. These redox-sensitive elements are used extensively to infer paleo-redox conditions in the ocean, and Mo and V are also important rock-derived micronutrients used by microorganisms in nitrogen fixation. Unlike in large river systems, in which dissolved Mo has been attributed predominately to pyrite dissolution, Mo concentrations in these rivers did not correlate with sulfate concentrations. V was found to correlate strongly with Si in terrains dominated by silicate rocks, but this trend was not observed in primarily sedimentary regions. Many rivers exhibited much higher V/Si ratios than larger rivers, and rivers draining young Quaternary volcanic rocks in Nicaragua had much higher dissolved V concentrations (mean = 1306 nM) than previously-studied rivers. U concentrations were generally well below the global average with the exception of rivers draining primarily sedimentary lithologies containing carbonates and shales. Fluxes of U and Mo from igneous terrains of intermediate composition are lower than the global average, while fluxes of V from these regions are higher, and up to two orders of magnitude higher in the Nicaragua rivers. Weathering yields of Mo and V in most regions are above the global mean, despite lower than average concentrations measured in some of those systems, indicating that the chemical weathering of these elements are higher in these SMR watersheds than larger drainages. In regions of active boundaries

  6. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.

    2005-01-01

    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  7. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  8. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  9. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Crooked and Red Rivers : Annual Report, 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs were virtually eliminated until the dam was removed in 1962. To complicate the problem, upstream spawning and rearing habitats were severely impacted by dredge and hydraulic mining, road building, timber harvest, and over-grazing. Fish habitat improvement projects under the above contract are being carried out in two major tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River. Both the Red River and the Crooked River projects began in 1983 and will be completed in 1990. 12 figures., 1 tab.

  10. Characterizing seston in the Penobscot River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseck, Shannon L; Li, Yaqin; Sunila, Inke; Dixon, Mark; Clark, Paul; Lipsky, Christine; Stevens, Justin R; Music, Paul; Wikfors, Gary H

    2017-10-01

    The Penobscot River Estuary is an important system for diadromous fish in the Northeast United States of American (USA), in part because it is home to the largest remnant population of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the country. Little is known about the chemical and biological characteristics of seston in the Penobscot River Estuary. This study used estuarine transects to characterize the seston during the spring when river discharge is high and diadromous fish migration peaks in the Penobscot River Estuary. To characterize the seston, samples were taken in spring 2015 for phytoplankton identification, total suspended matter (TSM), percent organic TSM, chlorophyll a, particle size (2 μm-180 μm), particulate carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The estuarine profiles indicate that TSM behaved non-conservatively with a net gain in the estuary. As phytoplankton constituted only 1/1000 of the particles, the non-conservative behavior of TSM observed in the estuary was most likely not attributable to phytoplankton. Particulate carbon and nitrogen ratios and stable isotope signals indicate a strong terrestrial, allochthonous signal. The seston in the Penobscot River Estuary was dominated by non-detrital particles. During a short, two-week time period, Heterosigma akashiwo, a phytoplankton species toxic to finfish, also was detected in the estuary. A limited number of fish samples, taken after the 2015 Penobscot River Estuary bloom of H. akashiwo, indicated frequent pathological gill damage. The composition of seston, along with ichthyotoxic algae, suggest the need for further research into possible effects upon resident and migratory fish in the Penobscot River Estuary. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Suitability Evaluation on River Bank Filtration of the Second Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixue; Ye, Xueyan; Du, Xinqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Second Songhua River is the biggest river with the most economic value in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, with the rapid development of economy, water resources and water environment problem is getting prominent, including surface water pollution and over exploitation of groundwater resources, etc. By means of bank filtration, the Second Songhua River basin might realize the combined utilization of regional groundwater and surface water, and thus has important significance for the guarantee of water demand for industrial and agricultural production planning in the basin. The following steps were adopted to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration nearby the Scond Songhua River : Firstly, in order to focus on the most possible area, the evaluation area was divided based on the aspects of natural geographical conditions and hydraulic connection extent between river water and groundwater. Second, the main suitability indexes including water quantity, water quality, interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resource, and nine sub-indexes including hydraulic conductivity, aquifer thickness, river runoff, the status of groundwater quality, the status of surface water quality, groundwater hydraulic gradient, possible influence zone width of surface water under the condition of groundwater exploitation, permeability of riverbed layer and groundwater depth were proposed to establish an evaluation index system for the suitability of river bank filtration. Thirdly, Combined with the natural geography, geology and hydrogeology conditions of the Second Songhua River basin, the ArcGIS technology is used to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration in the study area is divided into five grades. The evaluation index system and evaluation method established in this article are applicable to the Second Songhua

  12. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  13. Smartphone for measuring river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Lüthi, Beat; Philippe, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Smartphones have become powerful and have extended their capacities including different types of sensors. These capabilities make them very interesting for its applications in water management. We have developed a new mobile device application for open-channel flow measurements. This app can be used to determine the flow in e.g. rivers, artificial channels, irrigation ditches, furrows, etc. The smartphone app computes the runoff by analysing a few seconds of a movie that is recorded using the smartphone camera. The runoff is calculated from the estimated water level, surface velocity and from prior knowledge on the channel geometry. The water level is determined by the separation line of image segments with and without optical flow. Via calibration of the smartphone camera position this separation line is mapped to a water level. The surface velocity is calculated using a modified method of the standard Particle Image Velocimetry method. Among the key characteristics of the method is the fact that no tracer particles are needed. There are two flavours of the app. In the first one, all the measurements are taken using the available sensors in the mobile device and all the calculations are made making only use of the device. Three results are given back: the water level, the average surface velocity and discharge. This information can be sent via SMS. In the second one, the movie is send to a central computer where more detailed calculations are made, like fine camera calibration, camera stabilization tuning, definition of the region of interest, the sub-windows for the velocity analysis can be changed, different algorithms can be chosen, etc. It also generates more detailed results. Using smartphones, measurements can be made at much lower cost, since there is no need of permanent installations, which also makes it possible to take measurements in any place.

  14. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  15. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  16. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  17. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  18. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in it and the level of contamination with sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular depend on the contamination level with sediments. The author proposes a method of estimation of anthropogenic load on rivers. The paper analyses the calculation results of the value of anthropogenic load on different rivers of Russia.

  19. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  20. Evaluation of kinetic energy in flowing rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, T. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Hydraulics Centre

    2008-07-01

    New methods of evaluating the kinetic energy in rivers were discussed. Developed by the National Research Council's Canadian Hydraulics Centre, the numerical models were designed to generate hydrographs of river flow from dams; accommodate power density anomalies caused by the presence of islands in a river; and assess mean kinetic power rates. This presentation provided details of a simulation of 6 turbines located in close proximity to each other. The model was used to calculate velocity fields downstream of the turbines as well as changes in water surface elevation due to power production by the 6 75 kW turbines. Turbine power extraction and kinetic power in the upstream cross-section was assessed. The model showed that the turbines extracted 9 per cent of the river's 17,000 kW of estimated energy potential. The turbines were modelled by considering the porosity of the numerical elements at the location of the turbine and extracting known quantities of energy from the flow. The model was also used to calculate new hydrodynamics of the whole region with the turbines in place by assuming that energy was extracted over the entire depth of the location. The presentation included detailed charts of rivers modelled during the study. tabs., figs.

  1. Effects of human activities on the ecological processes of river biofilms in a highly urbanized river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many anthropogenic disturbances and their effects of aquatic ecosystem are difficult to quantify in urbanized rivers. In past, specific taxa analysis of community structure was a common approach in river health monitoring studies. However, it is still difficult to understand stream ecosystem integrity without considering ecosystem processes. The complex species composition and metabolism of a river biofilm have the capacity to interact and/or modulate their surrounding environment. Because of their short life cycles, species richness, and worldwide distribution, structure and function of river biofilm communities are sensitive to change in environmental conditions. Therefore, biofilms are widely used as early warning systems of water pollution for water quality monitoring studies. In this study, we used river biofilms as a bioindicator by examining their extracellular enzyme activities and photosynthesis efficiency to understand human activities on the ecological processes of river ecosystem in a highly urbanized river. We sampled four sites along the Keelung River, Taiwan, based on different intensities of anthropogenic disturbances including water pollution index, population densities, land use types and types of stream habitats. Two study sites are heavily influenced by human activities and the others are not. The activities of extracellular enzymes within the biofilm play an important function for organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. We measured seven extracellular enzyme activities (β-d-glucosidase, phosphatase, leucine-aminopeptidase, sulfatase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase) to examine specific enzyme activity changes at four study sites monthly. In addition, relative proportion of each extracellular enzyme activity on total enzyme activities was calculated in order to examine the relationship between functional biofilm profiles and different urban intensities. Among four study sites, leucine-aminopeptidase and esterase

  2. Removal of river embankments and the modelled effects on river-floodplain hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clilverd, Hannah; Thompson, Julian; Heppell, Kate; Sayer, Carl; Axmacher, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The channelization and embankment of rivers has led to major ecological degradation of aquatic habitats worldwide. River restoration, which often includes the removal of previously constructed barriers between a river and its floodplain, is now being widely used to create favourable hydrological conditions for target species or processes. However the effects of river restoration on hydraulic and hydrological processes are complex, and are often difficult to determine due to the infrequency of long-term monitoring programmes before and after restoration works. To examine the hydrological impacts of embankment removal under a variety of possible hydrological conditions, we developed coupled hydrological/hydraulic models of pre-embankment and post-embankment conditions at a wet grassland meadow in Norfolk, UK using the MIKE-SHE/MIKE 11 system. Groundwater hydrology and climate were monitored between 2007 and 2010 with river inflows being provided from an upstream gauging station. The embanked model was calibrated and validated with observed groundwater data for two consecutive 12-month periods, after which the restored topography was applied to the model and validated for a subsequent 12-month period. The restored model was then run for the same period as the embanked model (i.e. with the same river inflow, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration data) to remove interannual climate variability and enable a direct comparison between models. Modelled groundwater levels compared well with piezometer observations and reproduced the observed rapid groundwater response to high magnitude rainfall and river flow events. Removal of the embankments resulted in frequent localised flooding at the river edge, widespread floodplain inundation at flows greater than 1.9 m3 sec-1, as well as higher groundwater levels and greater subsurface storage. Restoration had only a minor effect on flood peak attenuation (maximum 5% flood peak reduction), likely due to the small size of

  3. Navigation Conditions at Gray's Landing Locks and Dam, Monongahela River; Hydraulic Model Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wooley, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    The Monongahela River (Figure 1) is formed by the confluence of the Tygart Valley and West Fork Rivers at Fairmont, WV, and flows in a northerly direction joining with the Allegheny River at Pittsburgh, PA, to form the Ohio River...

  4. Coherence between coastal and river flooding along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Warrick, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Water levels around river mouths are intrinsically determined by sea level and river discharge. If storm-associated coastal water-level anomalies coincide with extreme river discharge, landscapes near river mouths will be flooded by the hydrodynamic interactions of these two water masses. Unfortunately, the temporal relationships between ocean and river water masses are not well understood. The coherence between extreme river discharge and coastal water levels at six California river mouths across different climatic and geographic regions was examined. Data from river gauges, wave buoys, and tide gauges from 2007 to 2014 were integrated to investigate the relationships between extreme river discharge and coastal water levels near the mouths of the Eel, Russian, San Lorenzo, Ventura, Arroyo Trabuco, and San Diego rivers. Results indicate that mean and extreme coastal water levels during extreme river discharge are significantly higher compared with background conditions. Elevated coastal water levels result from the combination of nontidal residuals (NTRs) and wave setups. Mean and extreme (>99th percentile of observations) NTRs are 3–20 cm and ∼30 cm higher during extreme river discharge conditions, respectively. Mean and extreme wave setups are up to 40 cm and ∼20–90 cm higher during extreme river discharge than typical conditions, respectively. These water-level anomalies were generally greatest for the northern rivers and least for the southern rivers. Time-series comparisons suggest that increases in NTRs are largely coherent with extreme river discharge, owing to the low atmospheric pressure systems associated with storms. The potential flooding risks of the concurrent timing of these water masses are tempered by the mixed, semidiurnal tides of the region that have amplitudes of 2–2.5 m. In summary, flooding hazard assessments for floodplains near California river mouths for current or future conditions with sea-level rise should include the temporal

  5. Delimitation of permanent protected areas of rivers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Silvia S.; Namikawa, Laércio M.; de F. Oliveira, João. R.; Rosim, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a methodology to determine the permanent protected areas (PPA) of the the riverbanks. The amount of protected area depends on the river width and the size of each property which have a river running through or by it, as stated in the Brazilian forest code law. The rules are: 30 meters for rivers up to 10 meters wide, 50m for rivers 10 to 50m wide, 100m for rivers 50 to 200m wide, 200m for rivers 200 to 600m wide, and 500m, to rivers wider than 600m. The steps to determine the PPA buffer along the river are (1) construction of the triangular grid (TIN) that constitutes the basis for the calculation of the central axis of the river; (2) definition of the points representing the central axis of the river, called skeletonization; (3) definition of the river width; (4) calculation of the buffer for each river segment. PPA is defined by overlaying the river protected area polygon with the property polygon. A PPA area of a property can be reduced according to its size and according to public improvements like roads, permanent protected areas, for example. At the end the area to be preserved in a property is delimited.

  6. Anthropogenic Influence on the Dynamics of the River Lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis Landings in the River Daugava Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzaks, Janis; Abersons, Kaspars

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the Daugava hydro power station (HPS) cascade has significantly transformed Latvia's largest river the Daugava, reducing its importance in the natural reproduction of anadromous fish species. Currently in Latvia, as well as in other Baltic Sea countries, the river lamprey catch is decreasing, whereas the landings in the river Daugava have tended to increase. The dynamics of the river lamprey landings show the possible redistribution of lamprey stocks between the rivers Gauja and the Daugava. Possibly, this is a result of anthropogenic influence and changes in the river lamprey resource management may be necessary in the future.

  7. Floodplain methylmercury biomagnification factor higher than that of the contiguous river (South River, Virginia USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Michael C., E-mail: newman@vims.edu [College of William and Mary - VIMS, P.O. Box 1346, Rt. 1208 Greate Rd., Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Xu Xiaoyu, E-mail: xiaoyu@vims.edu [College of William and Mary - VIMS, P.O. Box 1346, Rt. 1208 Greate Rd., Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Condon, Anne, E-mail: anne_condon@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife, 6669 Short Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061 (United States); Liang Lian, E-mail: liang@cebam.net [Cebam Analytical, Inc., 18804 North Creek Parkway, Suite 110, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Mercury biomagnification on the South River floodplain (Virginia, USA) was modeled at two locations along a river reach previously modeled for methylmercury movement through the aquatic trophic web. This provided an opportunity to compare biomagnification in adjoining trophic webs. Like the aquatic modeling results, methylmercury-based models provided better prediction than those for total mercury. Total mercury Food Web Magnification Factors (FWMF, fold per trophic level) for the two locations were 4.9 and 9.5. Methylmercury FWMF for the floodplain locations were higher (9.3 and 25.1) than that of the adjacent river (4.6). Previous speculation was not resolved regarding whether the high mercury concentrations observed in floodplain birds was materially influenced by river prey consumption by riparian spiders and subsequent spider movement into the trophic web of the adjacent floodplains. Results were consistent with a gradual methylmercury concentration increase from contaminated floodplain soil, to arthropod prey, and finally, to avian predators. - Highlights: > First comparison of methylmercury biomagnification in adjacent river/land food webs. > Methylmercury increased more rapidly in the terrestrial, than the aquatic, food web. > Methylmercury increased gradually from soil, to prey, and, to avian predators. - Higher methylmercury biomagnification on South River floodplain than the associated river likely explain high mercury in floodplain birds.

  8. Seasonal variability of Crvena river water mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization of water and its content in Crvena River so far have not been studied. Water sampling was conducted from April 2008 - May 2009. Total mineralization is relatively low, which is consistent with the dominant lithological structure (Permian red sandstone. Dry residue contains Ca2+ ion, with the increased participation of SiO2. During the observational period it is clearly expressed seasonal effect. It is reflected not in the direct but the indirect impact. Based on the ratio of individual ions a model is determined for estimation of water flow at the confluence of the Crvena River in Nisava River. It could be applied to other drainage basins that have not been studied so far.

  9. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  10. River plastic emissions to the world's oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; van der Zwet, Joost; Damsteeg, Jan-Willem; Slat, Boyan; Andrady, Anthony; Reisser, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Plastics in the marine environment have become a major concern because of their persistence at sea, and adverse consequences to marine life and potentially human health. Implementing mitigation strategies requires an understanding and quantification of marine plastic sources, taking spatial and temporal variability into account. Here we present a global model of plastic inputs from rivers into oceans based on waste management, population density and hydrological information. Our model is calibrated against measurements available in the literature. We estimate that between 1.15 and 2.41 million tonnes of plastic waste currently enters the ocean every year from rivers, with over 74% of emissions occurring between May and October. The top 20 polluting rivers, mostly located in Asia, account for 67% of the global total. The findings of this study provide baseline data for ocean plastic mass balance exercises, and assist in prioritizing future plastic debris monitoring and mitigation strategies.

  11. ICHTHYOFAUNA OF A PART OF SAVA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrila Habeković

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a personal research from 1991-1994 the ichthyofauna structure of the part of the Sava river upstream from Zagreb on the section from Podsused to Gradna mouth is presented. The data are being compared with the results of the research of this part of the Sava river before constructing the Krško nuclear power plant. The ichthyological samples were taken seasonally, on various water levels and temperatures of the Sava river. A qualitative and quantitive structure of the fish communities was identified (Tabels 1 to 7. The researched area is populated by fish of the transitional-plain type of the open waters, which means it belongs to the typical barbel region with all the related fish species. The most numerous is the Cyprinidae family, dominated by the chub species (Leuciscus cephalus L.. Around thirty species and subspecies of fish and Cyclostomata populates the area.

  12. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  13. [Nutrients Input Characteristics of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River During the "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-xue; Ma, Ying-qun; Qin, Yan-wen; Zou, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Overall 20 surface water samples were collected from the Yangtze River, the Wangyu River and the Gonghu Bay (Lake Taihu) to clarify the pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus during 2 sample stages of "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River" in August and December of 2013 respectively. The results showed that the mass concentrations of NO2- -N, NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and TN in the Gonghu Bay were lower than those of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. However, there was higher level of DON content in the Gonghu Bay than that of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River. The percentages of various N species showed that NO3- -N was the major N species in the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. TP contents in samples collected from the Yangtze River displayed a constant trend compared with the Wangyu River. However, the percentages of various P species were different with each other during the 2 water transfer processes. Mass concentrations of DON and TP in surface water in August were higher than those in December and the contents of NO3- -N and TDP were lower in August than those in December. In general, NO3- -N and TPP were the main N and P species in Wangyu River from the Yangtze River. NO3- -N, PO4(3-) -P and TPP were the main N and P species in Gonghu Bay from Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes.

  14. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  15. Morphodynamic river processes and techniques for assessment of channel evolution in Alpine gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formann, E.; Habersack, H. M.; Schober, St.

    2007-10-01

    Over the past 10 years many restoration projects have been undertaken in Austria, and river engineering measures such as spur dykes and longitudinal bank protection, which imposed fixed lateral boundaries on rivers, have been removed. The EU-Life Project "Auenverbund Obere Drau" has resulted in extensive restoration on the River Drau, aimed to improve the ecological integrity of the river ecosystem, to arrest riverbed degradation, and to ensure flood protection. An essential part of the restoration design involved the consideration of self-forming river processes, which led to new demands being imposed on river management. This paper illustrates how model complexity is adapted to the solution and evaluation of different aspects of river restoration problems in a specific case. Point-scale monitoring data were up-scaled to the whole investigation area by means of digital elevation models, and a scaling approach to the choice of model complexity was applied. Simple regime analysis methods and 1-D models are applicable to the evaluation of long-term and reach-scale restoration aims, and to the prediction of kilometre-scale processes (e.g. mean river bed aggradation or degradation, flood protection). 2-D models gave good results for the evaluation of hydraulic changes (e.g. transverse flow velocities, shear stresses, discharges at diffluences) for different morphological units at the local scale (100 m-10 m), and imposed an intermediate demand on calibration data and topographic survey. The study shows that complex 3-D numerical models combined with high resolution digital elevation models are necessary for detailed analysis of processes (1 m-0.01 m), but not for the evaluation of the restoration aims on the River Drau. In conclusion, model choice (complexity) will depend on both lower limits (determined by the complexity of processes to be analysed) and upper limits (field data quality and process understanding for numerical models).

  16. Sediment regime constraints on river restoration - An example from the lower Missouri river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.; Blevins, D.W.; Bitner, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Dammed rivers are subject to changes in their flow, water-quality, and sediment regimes. Each of these changes may contribute to diminished aquatic habitat quality and quantity. Of the three factors, an altered sediment regime is a particularly unyielding challenge on many dammed rivers. The magnitude of the challenge is illustrated on the Lower Missouri River, where the largest water storage system in North America has decreased the downriver suspended-sediment load to 0.2%–17% of pre-dam loads. In response to the altered sediment regime, the Lower Missouri River channel has incised as much as 3.5 m just downstream of Gavins Point Dam, although the bed has been stable to slightly aggrading at other locations farther downstream. Effects of channel engineering and commercial dredging are superimposed on the broad-scale adjustments to the altered sediment regime.The altered sediment regime and geomorphic adjustments constrain restoration and management opportunities. Incision and aggradation limit some objectives of flow-regime management: In incising river segments, ecologically desirable reconnection of the floodplain requires discharges that are beyond operational limits, whereas in aggrading river segments, small spring pulses may inundate or saturate low-lying farmlands. Lack of sediment in the incising river segment downstream of Gavins Point Dam also limits sustainable restoration of sand-bar habitat for bird species listed under the Endangered Species Act. Creation of new shallow-water habitat for native fishes involves taking sediment out of floodplain storage and reintroducing most or all of it to the river, raising concerns about increased sediment, nutrient, and contaminant loads. Calculations indicate that effects of individual restoration projects are small relative to background loads, but cumulative effects may depend on sequence and locations of projects. An understanding of current and historical sediment fluxes, and how they vary along the river

  17. Impacts of Colville River dynamics on river navigability near Nuiqsut, Alaska: 1955-present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, M. A.; Panda, S. K.; Prakash, A.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate-driven changes in river systems are challenging access to ecosystem services such as access to traditional hunting grounds and other subsistence food sources on the North Slope of Alaska. This work studies the dynamics of the Colville River and assesses the impacts on traditional harvest practices and subsistence travel of the Native community of Nuiqsut. Recent reports from Nuiqsut residents indicate accelerated changes in the environment, limiting river travel and their ability to harvest subsistence food. This study explores how channel migration, gravel bars, and bank erosion have evolved since the 1950s, and their impact on water depth and navigability. In an area of ice-rich permafrost, warmer summer temperatures exacerbate lateral bank erosion, resulting in river siltation. The study focuses on selected key areas south of Nuiqsut that have shown significant change in river geomorphology. Since 1955, some areas proximate to ice wedge exposures show channel migration in excess of 1 km. Panchromatic aerial photography acquired by US Geological Surveys in the mid 1950s, color infrared aerial photography from 1979 and 1982 acquired by the Alaska High Altitude Photography (AHAP) mission, and high resolution satellite images from Digital Globe, Inc. were used in this study. We mapped water, vegetation, and gravel/non-vegetated classes to identify risk areas for river navigability. River bathymetry was also mapped using a multispectral ratio-based water depth retrieval algorithm to identify problem sites for boat travel. Remote sensing products and analyses were validated with field data for mapping risk areas along the river. This study has the potential to be implemented on a larger scale for predictive mapping to aid river navigation. Findings from this study will provide insight whether recent changes are anomalies, or if they are part of a directional trend that will require local adaptation.

  18. Land protection plan : Bear River Watershed Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is establishing a conservation area for the Bear River watershed in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. The Bear River Watershed...

  19. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  20. Simulating the discharge of the Mandovi River, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SupritKumar; Shankar, D.

    Simulation studies are carried out to estimate the discharge of the Mandovi River, Goa. The Mandovi River catchment area includes the slopes of the Sahyadris, where estimates of precipitation are not available. A multivariate interpolation scheme...

  1. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  2. Environmental contaminants in aquatic resources from the Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Columbia River is an important resource for fish and wildlife, and a number of National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) were established along the river to protect...

  3. Special report of Horsefeldt-White River patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a patrol made by horseback and pack train from the headwaters of the copper River across the upper drainage to the Tanana River and terminating on...

  4. UMRS LTRMP 2010/11 LCU Mapping -- Open River South

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Aerial photographs for Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010...

  5. The Marketing of River Forwarding and Freight Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgeta Modiga

    2015-01-01

    River forwarding and freight contain, on the one hand, the movement of goods on the river and on the other hand, services related to handling, storage, issuance of documents and payment of all rendered services...

  6. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  7. The Mystic River Watershed Initiative Steering Committee Purpose and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mystic River Watershed Initiative (MRWI) works to improve water quality and public access to open spaces in the Mystic River watershed. The MRWI Steering Committee meets regularly to discuss key issues and priority actions related to this initiative.

  8. Pesticide residues in four rivers running through an intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sediments from four rivers running through sugarcane plantations in Kilimanjaro Tanzania. The aim was to assess the levels of pesticide contamination as the rivers are important sources of domestic water in the area. Water samples were ...

  9. AFSC/ABL: Movements of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, relatively pristine river basin. A total of...

  10. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  11. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  12. Automatic River Network Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderal, E. N.; Valcarcel, N.; Delgado, J.; Sevilla, C.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES) has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI) within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network) and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network), and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files), and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS), which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri) and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  13. River Flow Regimes and Effective Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, S.; Sprocati, R.; Frascati, A.; Marani, M.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of effective discharge is widespread in geomorphology and river engineering and restoration. For example, it is used to design the most stable channel configuration, to estimate sedimentation rate and lifespan of reservoirs and to characterize the hydrologic forcing in models studying long-term evolution of rivers. Accordingly, the effective discharge has been the focus of countless empirical, theoretical and numerical studies, which found it to vary among catchments as a function of climate, landscape and river morphology, type of transport (dissolved, suspended or bedload), and of streamflow variability. The heterogeneity of the effective discharge values observed in different catchments challenges a thorough understanding of its pivotal drivers, and a consistent framework which explains observations carried out in different geographic areas is still lacking. In the present work, the observed diversity is explained in terms of the underlying heterogeneity of river flow regimes, by linking effective discharge to attributes of the sediment rating curve and to streamflow variability, as resulting from climatic and landscape drivers. An analytic expression of the effective ratio (i.e. the ratio between effective discharge and mean streamflow) is provided, which captures observed values of effective discharge for suspended sediment transport in a set of catchments of the continental United States. The framework disentangles hydrologic and landscape controls on effective discharge, and highlights distinct effective ratios of persistent and erratic hydrologic regimes (respectively characterized by low and high flow variability), attributable to intrinsically different streamflow dynamics. Clusters of river catchments characterized by similar streamflow dynamics can be identified. The framework provides an opportunity for first-order estimates of effective discharge in rivers belonging to different areas, based on the type of flow regime.

  14. AUTOMATIC RIVER NETWORK EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Maderal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network, and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files, and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS, which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  15. The problem of salt waters and its influence on the rivers in the Odra river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdziorz, A.; Lach, R.; Korczak, K.; Pluta, I.; Niedziocha, Z.; Dziewulski, M.; Lach, H.; Filipek, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Water Protection

    1997-12-31

    Coal mining in the Odra and Wisla river basins in Poland gives rise to salination of the rivers Olza, Klodnica, Ruda and Nacyna, and Bierawka. This causes problems in use of river water for drinking water, for irrigation and for industrial applications and causes corrosion of water facilities. The paper discusses the water pollution due to mine drainage in the Odra basin and then reviews methods to reduce this (by desalination, hydrotechnological methods, hydrogeological methods (recirculation and deep roll injection), and mining methods). 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Boat-based river bathymetry and stream velocity on the upper Willamette River, Oregon, Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Greg D.; Wellman, Roy E.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2017-01-01

    River bathymetry and stream velocity measurements were collected in March 2015 along the upper Willamette River, Oregon, between Eugene and Corvallis. These surveys were collected over a small range of discharges using a real time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) on a motorboat while transecting at various cross sections along the river. These datasets were collected for equipment calibration and validation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. This is one of multiple survey datasets that will be released for this effort.

  17. Bathymetry of the Hong and Luoc River Junction, Red River Delta, Vietnam, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Toan, Duong Duc; Thanh, Mung Dinh; Shimizu, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Water Resources University in Hanoi, Vietnam, conducted a bathymetric survey of the junction of the Hong and Luoc Rivers. The survey was done to characterize the channel morphology of this delta distributary network and provide input for hydrodynamic and sediment transport models. The survey was carried out in December 2010 using a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global positioning system. A bathymetric map of the Hong and Luoc River junction was produced which was referenced to the datum of the Trieu Duong tide gage on the Luoc River.

  18. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  19. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  20. Evolution Of International Governmental Organisations Concerning Danube River

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Jura

    2014-01-01

    The international rivers are water courses that separate or cross the territories of several states and which are navigable up to discharging in the sea. The Congress of Vienna (1815) sets forth certain principles of the regime of navigation on European international rivers and the notion of international rivers. The Conference of Berlin (1885) institutes the freedom of navigation on the rivers Congo and Niger. During the Conference of Barcelona (1921) a convention and a by-law we...

  1. Facilitation between woody and herbaceous plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in temperate European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresoglou, Stavros D; Wulf, Monika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2017-02-01

    In late-successional environments, low in available nutrient such as the forest understory, herbaceous plant individuals depend strongly on their mycorrhizal associates for survival. We tested whether in temperate European forests arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) woody plants might facilitate the establishment of AM herbaceous plants in agreement with the mycorrhizal mediation hypothesis. We used a dataset spanning over 400 vegetation plots in the Weser-Elbe region (northwest Germany). Mycorrhizal status information was obtained from published resources, and Ellenberg indicator values were used to infer environmental data. We carried out tests for both relative richness and relative abundance of herbaceous plants. We found that the subset of herbaceous individuals that associated with AM profited when there was a high cover of AM woody plants. These relationships were retained when we accounted for environmental filtering effects using path analysis. Our findings build on the existing literature highlighting the prominent role of mycorrhiza as a coexistence mechanism in plant communities. From a nature conservation point of view, it may be possible to promote functional diversity in the forest understory through introducing AM woody trees in stands when absent.

  2. Tritium as a Tracer for the Discrimination of Water Bodies in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerjürgens, Jens; Badewien, Thomas; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Zielinski, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Tritium (3H) in the atmosphere has declined to natural levels, after above ground nuclear weapon tests ended five decades ago. Currently tritium is present in the marine environment of the North Sea mainly due to liquid discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants (NRP) in La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) and different nuclear power plants (NPP) discharging their effluent to the English Channel or directly into the North Sea. This work deals with seawater samples collected in the German Bight in October 2014 onboard the research vessel Heincke that were analyzed for tritium activity concentration. The major research question of this study is the characterization of different water masses due to their tritium activity concentration. Tritium activity concentration in the coastal area is very high compared to samples taken in the central German Bight. Especially samples from the estuaries of the Elbe, Weser and Ems show high tritium activity concentrations. In correlation with salinity values, riverine freshwater masses were discriminated from oceanic influenced water masses. Activity concentrations from the coastal areas to the central bight are characterized by an exponentially decreasing gradient. It is shown that tritium can be utilized as a tracer for the discrimination of riverine freshwater from oceanic water masses.

  3. Simplifying dynamic river water quality modelling: A case study of inorganic nitrogen dynamics in the Crocodile River (South Africa).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deksissa, T

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available of river flow versus concentration of inorganic nitrogen in the downstream section of the river was also examined in order to identify the main source and critical time for nitrate pollution....

  4. Shorelines of the Central Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (Hulahula River to the Colville River) used in shoreline change analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes shorelines from 63 years ranging from 1947 to 2010 for the north coast of Alaska between the Hulahula River and the Colville River. Shorelines...

  5. Acoustic Backscatter of the Sacramento River, from the Feather River to Knights Landing, California in February 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the data release presents acoustic backscatter data collected on February 1, 2011, in the Sacramento River from the confluence of the Feather River to...

  6. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix D: Natural River Drawdown Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  7. LBA-ECO LC-02 Tributary Coordinates, Acre River, Tri-national River Basin: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides coordinates for points at the mouth of tributaries of the Acre River in the Tri-national River Basin in South America. Three Global...

  8. LBA-ECO LC-02 Tributary Coordinates, Acre River, Tri-national River Basin: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides coordinates for points at the mouth of tributaries of the Acre River in the Tri-national River Basin in South America. Three Global...

  9. Spatial distribution of trace element of Ala river's sediments, Akure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial distribution of trace element of Ala river's sediments, Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. ... Ife Journal of Science ... Abstract. Thirty six river sediment samples were collected from Ala River, Akure, and were analysed by ICP-MS for 14 chemical elements including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, As, U, Th, Sr, Cd, V, La, and Cr. The ...

  10. Evaluation of Pollutant Loads: Organic and Inorganic in River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grab water samples were collected from the outlet of the River into River Benue, twice a month in three replications for a period of eight months (April November, 2002) using sterilized one-litre plastic bottles. The entire depth of the river was covered by submerging the bottles several times across the vertical depth.

  11. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  12. Investigation of the Hydrological Quality of Ethiope River Watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface and groundwater resources of the Ethiope river watershed have been investigated for its hydrological and quality characteristics. The results indicate that Ethiope River is perennial and fed by groundwater seepages, precipitation and surface run-off from adjacent areas. The lowest discharge rate of the river is ...

  13. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX... temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119...

  14. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section ``Participant Vessel'' means...

  15. Impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on fish communities of river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of petroleum activities on the fish community of River Areba, a small rainforest river, in Niger Delta, Southern Nigeria were studied for one year, January to December, 2002. Two stations within the river stretch were studied; one close to the area of petroleum activities was marked as station 1 while the other 5.30 ...

  16. Towards a classification of Tanzanian rivers: a bioassessment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River classification is important for reporting ecological status and for the general ecological management of river systems by partitioning natural variability. A priori river classification by abiotic variables and validation of classifications obtained using aquatic macroinvertebrates from reference sites for selected Tanzanian ...

  17. RIVERS AND PORTS IN TRANSPORT HISTORY OF CAMEROON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Abstract. In direct contrast to Europe, Asia and North America, Africa has very few navigable rivers. This paper focuses on the preponderant role played by water transport in the form of rivers and ports during the colonial period. Although not blessed with much navigable rivers and natural deep ports, the Colonial ...

  18. Challenges, developments and perspectives in intermittent river ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although more than half the world's river networks comprise channels that periodically cease to flow and dry [intermittent rivers (IRs)], river ecology was largely developed from and for perennial systems. Ecological knowledge of IRs is rapidly increasing, so there is a need to s...

  19. Assessement of information resources of public libraries in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Rivers State provide adequate information resources for users, awareness of resources provided by public libraries in Rivers State is low, inadequate funding, high cost of information resources are some of the problems faced by public libraries in Rivers State. Some recommendations were made for improvement.

  20. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  1. 76 FR 37039 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Passaic River, Harrison, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Passaic River, Harrison... across the Passaic River, mile 5.0, at Harrison, New Jersey. The owner of the bridge has requested relief... Amtrak Dock Bridge, mile 5.0, across the Passaic River, at Harrison, New Jersey, has a vertical clearance...

  2. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of River Kaduna and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River Kaduna is one of the major sources of water to the inhabitants of the communities around the river and also to fish farmers while College of Agriculture and Animal Science Dam (CAAS) is used for fish farming and also for domestic purpose. The study was carried out to assess Physicochemical Parameters of River ...

  3. 78 FR 15293 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is... swing span of the BNSF Railway Bridge across the Columbia River at Vancouver, WA will be disabled and...

  4. H-ADCP discharge monitoring of a large tropical river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Sassi, M.G.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    River flow can be continuously monitored through velocity measurements with an acoustic Doppler current profiler, deployed horizontally at a river bank (H-ADCP). This approach was adopted to obtain continuous discharge estimates at two cross-sections in the River Mahakam, i.e. at an upstream station

  5. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM), Gravimetric ...

  6. 33 CFR 162.150 - Maumee Bay and River, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maumee Bay and River, Ohio. 162... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.150 Maumee Bay and River, Ohio. (a) In Maumee Bay (lakeward of Maumee River Lighted Buoy 49(L/L No. 770)), no vessel greater than...

  7. 76 FR 60732 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Navesink (Swimming) River, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Navesink (Swimming) River, NJ AGENCY... the Oceanic Bridge at mile 4.5 across the Navesink (Swimming) River between Oceanic and Locust Point...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Oceanic Bridge, across the Navesink (Swimming) River, mile 4.5...

  8. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... Fear River. (a) The draw of the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge, at mile 1.0, at Wilmington, North Carolina... across the Cape Fear River. (2) The draw shall be left in the open position to vessels and will only be...

  9. 77 FR 57022 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ AGENCY: Coast..., and the S35 bridge, mile 0.9, all of which are across the Shark River (South Channel), at Avon Township, NJ. This deviation is necessary to facilitate stringer replacement on the Shark River railroad...

  10. 78 FR 3836 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ AGENCY: Coast... which are across the Shark River (South Channel), at Avon Township, NJ. This deviation is necessary to facilitate machinery replacement on the Shark River railroad bridge. This temporary deviation will allow the...

  11. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    River Son, draining diverse lithologies in the subtropical climate of the peninsular sub-basin of the Ganga basin, is one of the major tributaries of the Ganga River. The chemistry of major ions in the surface water of the Son River was studied in detail to determine various source(s) and processes controlling its water ...

  12. Aspects of the physicochemical properties of Shadawanka River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes observed in the physicochemical properties of the river were attributed to rainfall, flow regimes and surface run-off from catchment areas within a military barrack. The study revealed that the river receives low input of organic pollutant. This suggests that the river is not polluted and hence not stressful to aquatic ...

  13. Development of river sediment monitoring in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Mlakar, Marina; Maldini, Krešimir

    2017-04-01

    Establishment of regular river sediment monitoring, in addition to water monitoring, is very important. Unlike water, which represents the current state of a particular watercourse, sediment represents a sort of record of the state of pollution in the long run. Sediment monitoring is crucial to gain a real insight into the status of pollution of particular watercourses and to determine trends over a longer period of time. First scientific investigations of river sediment geochemistry in Croatia started 1989 in the Krka River estuary [1], while first systematic research of a river basin in Croatia was performed 2005 in Kupa River drainage basin [2]. Up to now, several detailed studies of both toxic metals and organic pollutants have been conducted in this drainage basin and some other rivers, also Croatian scientists participated in river sediment research in other countries. In 2008 Croatian water authorities (Hrvatske Vode) started preliminary sediment monitoring program, what was successfully conducted. In the first year of preliminary program only 14 stations existed, while in 2014 number of stations increased to 21. Number of monitored watercourses and of analysed parameters also increased. Current plan is to establish permanent monitoring network of river sediments throughout the state. The goal is to set up about 80 stations, which will cover all most important and most contaminated watercourses in all parts of the country [3]. Until the end of the year 2016, regular monitoring was conducted at 31 stations throughout the country. Currently the second phase of sediment monitoring program is in progress. At the moment parameters being determined on particular stations are not uniform. From inorganic compounds it is aimed to determine Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, Zn and As on all stations. The ratio of natural concentrations of those elements vs. anthropogenic influence is being evaluated on all stations. It was found that worse situation is with Ni, Hg and Cr, who

  14. 2011 UMRS Color Infrared Aerial Photo Mosaic - Mississippi River, Open River North North

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) partnered with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Region 3 to collect...

  15. 2011 UMRS Color Infrared Aerial Photo Mosaic - Mississippi River, Open River North South

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) partnered with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Region 3 to collect...

  16. 2011 UMRS Color Infrared Aerial Photo Mosaic - Mississippi River, Open River North Middle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) partnered with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Region 3 to collect...

  17. Core Competences of River Ports: Case Study of Pearl River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hui Lisa Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the sound development of ASEAN, more and more attention is paid to hub ports that support cargo and information flows in this marine region. However there are few studies on river and feeder ports. To fill this gap, this study takes a river port as an example to illustrate how to utilize the Balanced Scorecard for evaluating the Core Competences of river and feeder ports. Core competences are helpful for terminal operators when focusing on core strategies, core business and core products / services development for resource limitation. The business pattern which regards core competences as a foundation is beneficial for terminal operators to achieve sustainable competitive advantages. A questionnaire survey has been conducted. The Cronbach alpha method confirms testing reliability of the questionnaire. Study results reveal that two core competences are “capabilities of valuing employee and organization improvement” and “national and municipal government support” for a river port.

  18. Environmental Contaminants in River Otter (Lontra canadensis) Collected from the Willamette River, Oregon, 1996-99

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willamette River originates in the Cascade Mountains southeast of Eugene, Oregon and makes a 300 mile northward journey through the Willamette Valley, joining...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. Proposal: Tennessee River and Lower Duck River Mussel Survey and Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provide the Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) with baseline data on freshwater mussel communities found within the lower 24 miles of the Duck River and the...

  1. 2011 UMRS Color Infrared Aerial Photo Mosaic - Mississippi River, Open River South South

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) partnered with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Region 3 to collect...

  2. 1989-91 Aquatic Habitats - Upper Mississippi River System - Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  3. Towards Biological Restoration of Tehran Megalopolis River Valleys- Case Study: Farahzad River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Nafishe; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Akhani, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Towards biological restoration of Tehran megalopolis river-valleys: case study Farahzad river 1Nafiseh Samadi, 2OveisTorabi, 3Hossein Akhani 1Mahsab Shargh Company, Tehran ,Iran, nafiseh19@gmail.com 2 Mahsab Shargh Company, Tehran ,Iran, weg@tna-co.com 3Department of Plant Sciences, Halophytes and C4 Research Laboratory, School of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Tehran, PO Box 14155-6455, Tehran, Iran, akhani@khayam.ut.ac.ir Tehran is located in northcentral parts of Iran on the alluvium of southern Alborz Mountains. Seven rivers originated from the highlands of N Tehran run inside and around the city. Many of these river valleys have been deformed by a variety of urban utilizations such as garden, building, canal, park, autobahn etc. Tehran with more than eight million populations suffered from adverse environmental conditions such as pollution and scarcity of natural habitats for recreational activities. Ecological restoration of altered river valleys of Tehran is one of the priorities of Tehran municipality started as a pilot project in Farahzad river. Intensive disturbance, conversion into various urban utilization, illegal building construction, waste water release into the river, garbage accumulation, artificial park constructions and domination of invasive species have largely altered the river. Parts of the river located in Pardisan Nature Park was studied before its complete deformation into a modern park. The riparian vegetation consisted of Tamarix ramosissima and Salix acmophylla shrubs with large number of aquatic and palustric plants. The norther parts of the river still contain semi-natural vegetation which change into patchy and intensive degraded habitats towards its southern parts. In northern parts of valley there are old gardens of Morus alba and Juglans regia, and planted trees such as Plataneus oreientalis and Acer negundo. Salix acmophylla, Fraxinus excelsior and Celtis caucasica are native species growing on river margin or

  4. Influence of hyporheic flow and geomorphology on temperature of a large, gravel-bed river, Clackamas River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vol. 22 Hydrological Processes

    2008-01-01

    The hyporheic zone influences the thermal regime of rivers, buffering temperature by storing and releasing heat over a range of timesscales. We examined the relationship between hyporheic exchange and temperature along a 24-km reach of the lower Clackamas River, a large gravel-bed river in northwestern Oregon (median discharge = 75·7 m3/s;...

  5. Control options for river water improvement: a case study of TDS and inorganic nitrogen in the Crocodile river (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deksissa, T

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple conceptual dynamic river water quality model, the effects of different basin-wide water quality management options on downstream water quality improvements in a semi-arid river, the Crocodile River (South Africa) were investigated...

  6. 33 CFR 334.180 - Patuxent River, Md.; restricted areas, U.S. Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas, U.S. Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md. 334.180 Section 334.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.180 Patuxent River, Md.; restricted areas, U.S. Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md...

  7. 76 FR 62301 - Safety Zone; Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race, New River, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River... Esplanade Park to the Henry Kinney Tunnel, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the Rotary Club of Fort... (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race, New River, Fort...

  8. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance zonation in urban rivers using multivariate analysis: Implications for river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ram Devi Tachamo; Shah, Deep Narayan

    2013-08-01

    River pollution has tremendously increased in the major cities of South Asia, where the rivers have become a repository for domestic, agricultural, municipal and industrial wastes. This study presents the evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage as a means of assessing ecological status, determining different disturbance zones and identifying environmental variables and stressors that deteriorate the river ecosystem. In total, 20 sites in 36-km stretch of the main stem of the Bagmati River and 7 sites on its tributaries were selected for sampling in the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons during the time period 2008-2010. The Ganga River System Biotic Score (GRSbios) index was applied to determine the ecological status. The ecological status of the different Bagmati River stretches ranged from reference (Class 1) to extremely polluted (Class 5). We identified three types of disturbance zones along the river, ranging from minimally polluted to extremely polluted. A river corridor survey was conducted to identify any river stressing factors, revealing a sharp deterioration of the river from upstream to downstream with increasing concentrations of chloride and ortho-phosphate phosphorus. Effluents and Activities and Facilities were found to be the major stressing factors to the river ecosystem. The information gained should help water managers find the most time-efficient and cost-effective measures to address river degradation.

  9. My River My Home: Both Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, S. L.; Janmaat, A.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B.; Holmes, R. M.; King, S.; Bertrand, K.

    2014-12-01

    The University of the Fraser Valley has been researching the water chemistry of the Fraser River since 2009 as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory coordinated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. The Global Rivers Observatory is advancing our understanding of how climate change, deforestation, and other disturbances are impacting river chemistry and land-ocean linkages. This knowledge is vital for tracking the health of Earth's watersheds and predicting how Earth's water and chemical cycles will change in the future. The Global Rivers Observatory also promotes the communication of science to the general public. In September 2013, the My River My Home art and science exhibit opened at the Fraser River Discovery Centre, New Westminster, BC. The exhibit is a global exchange of artwork created by children living along the rivers being studied by the Global Rivers Observatory scientists. The exhibit is intended to inspire young students to develop an awareness of the environment and the importance of rivers. Scientists from UFV, WHOI, and WHRC worked together with the Fraser River Discovery Centre on the science communication aspects of the display and to develop hands-on science activities looking at different aspects of river water quality. The exhibition has led to the creation of My River My Home, An Activity Kit for Educators about the sustainability of the Fraser River. The kit is being offered through the Fraser River Discovery Centre and deals with issues such as the importance of water, water quality, and encouraging a global perspective. The resource kit was classroom tested by several teachers, and four UBC teacher candidates worked on incorporating teacher suggestions into the kit. The resource kit will be available on-line at the end of September 2014 and contains inquiry based activities suitable for a variety of educational levels.

  10. Modelling qualitative knowledge for strategic river management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Judith

    2009-01-01

    In decision making processes on strategic river management, use of models is not as great as the research efforts in the field of model application might suggest they could be. Both the fact that the development of many models remains restricted to readily available data and pre-existing models,

  11. Microplastics profile along the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Thomas; Hauk, Armin; Walter, Ulrich; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics result from fragmentation of plastic debris or are released to the environment as pre-production pellets or components of consumer and industrial products. In the oceans, they contribute to the ‘great garbage patches’. They are ingested by many organisms, from protozoa to baleen whales, and pose a threat to the aquatic fauna. Although as much as 80% of marine debris originates from land, little attention was given to the role of rivers as debris pathways to the sea. Worldwide, not a single great river has yet been studied for the surface microplastics load over its length. We report the abundance and composition of microplastics at the surface of the Rhine, one of the largest European rivers. Measurements were made at 11 locations over a stretch of 820 km. Microplastics were found in all samples, with 892,777 particles km -2 on average. In the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, a peak concentration of 3.9 million particles km -2 was measured. Microplastics concentrations were diverse along and across the river, reflecting various sources and sinks such as waste water treatment plants, tributaries and weirs. Measures should be implemented to avoid and reduce the pollution with anthropogenic litter in aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Mouth Bar Formation in Yangtze River Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2002-01-01

    The periodic shifting of the bifurcation point of the North Channel and South Channel of the Yangtze river is very important in the estuary. The North Channel is bifurcated from the South Branch by cutting a channel through the submerged sandbanks. Once a bifurcation channel is formed, the

  13. LOGISTICS OF ECOLOGICAL SAMPLING ON LARGE RIVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this document are to provide an overview of the logistical problems associated with the ecological sampling of boatable rivers and to suggest solutions to those problems. It is intended to be used as a resource for individuals preparing to collect biological dat...

  14. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. A Case Study of the Volta River

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    2003-05-19

    May 19, 2003 ... Ghana; and degraded lowland evergreen forest in south-eastern Ghana and Togo. The vegetation ..... biome-specific data (Olson et al., 2001). Using the methods of ... Vegetation characteristic of the Volta river watershed and its tributaries calculated from daily measurements collected by the vegetation ...

  16. The Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the…

  17. 33 CFR 117.739 - Passaic River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... signal if at least one hour advance notice is given to the drawtender at Upper Hack Bridge mile 6.9, across the Hackensack River at Secaucus, N.J. In the event the HX drawtender is at the Lower Hack Bridge...

  18. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Flooding Capability for River-based Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Calhoun, Donna [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Centroid Labs., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anderson, S. Danielle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casteneda, Cody [Boise State Univ., ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the initial investigation into modeling and simulation tools for application of riverine flooding representation as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluations. The report provides examples of different flooding conditions and scenarios that could impact river and watershed systems. Both 2D and 3D modeling approaches are described.

  20. The Trinity River Greenway: A Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    the Chisolm Trail. In the 1870’s, the advent of the railroads and building of the stockyards led to Fort Worth’s fame as "Cowtown". The mansions of...animals and flowers as a contrast to theirp lperesoure unete and steel environs Thus, fields of weeds and brush revegetated mine areas and the river