Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maalampi, Jukka [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics
2008-07-01
This book is an entertaining and formula-free presentation of modern physics from the 19th century to present. The life of Albert Einstein and his scientific works are drawn as red fathom through the text. The author explains central terms and results of modern physics in populary-scientific form from the historical perspective. To the reader in humorous form an imagination is mediated how modern physics has been developed. We learn from the exciting effects of the ether, we hear from faraday and magnetic needles, from Maxwell's prediction of the electromagnetic waves, from heinrich Hertz and from the photoelectric effect. Was the Michelson-Morley experiment a measurement success or an unsuccess? Why has Einstein abandoned the ether? How has Einstein in the miraculous year 1905 revolutionated physics and why he has begged Newton for excusement? Exist atoms? What is motion? What is light and what is to be understood under ''now'' and ''here''? Light deviation or non-deviation? How act the tidal forces? And above all: How has Einstein answered these questions. We meet Poincare, Lorentz and Hilbert, Boltzmann and Bohr, Minkowski, Planck, de Broglie, Hubble and Weyl, Gamow, Hahn and Meitner, Kapiza and Landau, Fermi and many other famous scientists. What had Eddington against Chandrasekhar and what had Einstein against black holes? Why should space tourists and dream tourists make holiday not on the Loch Ness but on the safe side of a black hole? Why inveighed Pauli against Einstein? Is the concern with the atomic-bomb formula right? Smeared matter, big bang and cosmic background radiation, gravitational waves and double pulsars, the cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe are further themes, which keep the reader in breath and let no mental vacuum arise. [German] Das Buch ist eine unterhaltsame und formelfreie Darstellung der modernen Physik vom 19. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. Das Leben Albert Einsteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1979-01-01
In a single year, 1905, Albert Einstein made several dramatic contributions to physics. He deduced the true nature of Brownian motion (doing much to underline the molecular and atomic nature of matter), he demonstrated the particle nature of light in a way which was accessible to experimental investigation (the work for which he received the Nobel prize) and, most dramatically of all, he conceived the special theory of relativity
Dieks, D.G.B.J.
In het jaar 1905 publiceerde Albert Einstein een reeks artikelen die een omwenteling voor de wetenschap betekende. En toch bleef Einstein een kind van zijn tijd, van een eeuw die in het teken stond van dynamo’s, raderen en stoommachines.
Albert Einstein memorial lectures
Mechoulam, Raphael; The Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities
2012-01-01
This volume consists of a selection of the Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures presented annually at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Delivered by eminent scientists and scholars, including Nobel laureates, they cover a broad spectrum of subjects in physics, chemistry, life science, mathematics, historiography and social issues. This distinguished memorial lecture series was inaugurated by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities following an international symposium held in Jerusalem in March 1979 to commemorate the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth. Considering that Einstein's interests, activities and influence were not restricted to theoretical physics but spanned broad fields affecting society and the welfare of humankind, it was felt that these memorial lectures should be addressed to scientists, scholars and erudite laypersons rather than to physicists alone.
Fölsing, Albrecht
1997-01-01
Albert Einstein's achievements are not just milestones in the history of science; decades ago they became an integral part of the twentieth-century world in which we live. Like no other modern physicist he altered and expanded our understanding of nature. Like few other scholars, he stood fully in the public eye. In a world changing with dramatic rapidity, he embodied the role of the scientist by personal example. Albrecht Folsing, relying on previously unknown sources and letters, brings Einstein's "genius" into focus. Whereas former biographies, written in the tradition of the history of science, seem to describe a heroic Einstein who fell to earth from heaven, Folsing attempts to reconstruct Einstein's thought in the context of the state of research at the turn of the century. Thus, perhaps for the first time, Einstein's surroundings come to light.
Albert einstein - Illustrated biography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugimoto, K.
1990-01-01
A genius of science, but also a great-hearted man who fought his convictions all his life long. That is the Albert Einstein s portrait what draw the documents collected in this book: photographies, talks, letters and narrations, sometimes unpublished. With evidences and anecdotes is drawn a surprising personality of a man full of humor and originality who made his mark, as nobody else, in this tumultuous century. (N.C.)
Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.
Weisskopf, Victor Frederick; CERN. Geneva
1979-01-01
A socially engaged scientist by V. F. WEISSKOPF. On the origin of the Einstein-Russell statement on nuclear weapon by H. S. BURHOP. This week, we pay homage to Albert Einstein, the giant of twentieth-century physics born exactly 100 years ago on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. At the height of his career, Einstein made a whole series of monumental contributions to physics, including the elaborate theories of special and general relativity which revolutionized human thought and marked a major breakthrough in our understanding to the Universe. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is one of the twin pillars of understanding which allow us here at CERN to study the behaviour of the tiniest components of matter. The development of quantum mechanics took the combined efforts of some of the greatest scientists the world has known, while relativity was developed almost single-handed by Einstein. The centenary of his birth is being commemorated all over the world. Exhibitions and symposia are being organized, books...
Amati, Daniele; Weisskopf, Victor Frederick; CERN. Geneva
1979-01-01
The scientist and his work by D. AMATI and S. FUBINI. A socially engaged scientist by V. F. WEISSKOPF. This week, we pay homage to Albert Einstein, the giant of twentieth-century physics born exactly 100 years ago on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. At the height of his career, Einstein made a whole series of monumental contributions to physics, including the elaborate theories of special and general relativity which revolutionized human thought and marked a major breakthrough in our understanding to the Universe. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is one of the twin pillars of understanding which allow us here at CERN to study the behaviour of the tiniest components of matter. The development of quantum mechanics took the combined efforts of some of the greatest scientists the world has known, while relativity was developed almost single-handed by Einstein. The centenary of his birth is being commemorated all over the world. Exhibitions and symposia are being organized, books published, postage stamps is...
Albert Einstein: A Biographical Sketch
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Albert Einstein: A Biographical Sketch. Maja Winteler-Einstein. Reflections Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 111-120. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0111-0120 ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, S.M.W.
1990-09-01
''The life of Albert Einstein has a dramatic quality that does not rest exclusively on his theory of relativity. The extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering developments of the twentieth century: the rise and fall of Nazi Germany, the birth of nuclear weapons, and the birth of zionism (and Israel). Their impact on Einstein's genius combined to drive him into a contact with the affairs of the world for which Einstein had little taste''. This article is the result of my lecture delivered at ICTP on 17 August, 1990 before a knowledgable audience that included scientists from many countries including the third world countries. This one and half hour lecture was organised by Dr. A.M. Hamende and Dr. H.R. Dalafi. 10 refs
Albert Einstein:. Opportunity and Perception
Yang, Chen Ning
2013-05-01
The year 1905 has been called Albert Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." It was during that year that he caused revolutionary changes in man's primordial concepts about the physical world: space, time, energy, light and matter. How could a 26-year-old clerk, previously unknown, cause such profound conceptual changes, and thereby open the door to the era of modern scientific technological world? No one, of course, can answer that question. But one can, perhaps, analyze some factors that were essential to his stepping into such a historic role...
Albert Einstein, un hombre universal
Arias Arroyo, Gladys
2014-01-01
Albert Einstein, famoso por su teoría de la relatividad, que cambió toda las concepciones previas sobre la gravitación, el cosmos, la geometría y en general toda la ciencia moderna. Además de ser un genio científico, fue un gran humanista, partidario de la convivencia pacífica entre los pueblos, gran defensor de la libertad individual y del progreso. A pesar de que en su infancia y juventud tropezó con más inconvenientes que ventajas, tuvo la gran habilidad de conectar sus innegables dotes na...
Mileva Maric Einstein vivre avec Albert Einstein
Milentijevic, Radmila
2013-01-01
Radmila Milentijevic n’est pas la première à écrire sur les relations entre le génial Albert Einstein et sa première épouse et précieuse collaboratrice durant ses années de recherches, la scientifique serbe Mileva Maric. Mais c’est la première fois qu’un ouvrage traite de cette idylle, puis de ce drame familial qui a duré près de cinquante années, sous une forme quasiment poétique, si rare dans l’historiographie scientifique.Professeur émérite d’histoire à l’université de New York, l’auteur propose ici une monographie riche et vivante, dévoilant une face cachée d’Albert Einstein, et faisant de sa compagne une figure historique de premier plan en même temps qu’un personnage romanesque dont le destin tragique ne laissera aucun lecteur indifférent.
Albert Einstein and 20th century's physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zajac, R.
1979-01-01
Albert Einstein's teaching and his three fundamental works are discussed dealing with the molecular theory of heat applied to the motion of suspended particles in liquids at rest, the photoelectric effect, and the theory of relativity. Albert Einstein's impact on contemporary physics is evaluated. (J.P.)
Albert Einstein and the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlickova, E.
1975-01-01
A bibliography is presented of Albert Einstein's works, listing his correspondence, biographical literature, articles on A. Einstein published in Czech journals, principal relativity theory monographs and popular, historical and philosophical publications. The bibliographical records are listed alphabetically. Most references give the abbreviations of libraries where the publications are available. (J.P.)
Albert Einstein's Magic Mountain: An Aarau Education*
Hunziker, Herbert
2015-03-01
For economic reasons, the electrotechnical factory J. Einstein & Cie. (co-owned by Albert Einstein's father Hermann) had to be closed in the summer of 1894. While Albert's parents emigrated to Italy to build a new existence, he remained in Munich to complete his studies at the Gymnasium. Left behind, however, he had a difficult time with what he considered the rigid educational practices at the Munich Luitpold-Gymnasium and quit without a diploma. The present article discusses Einstein's richly winding path to the Aargau Cantonal School (Switzerland), especially its history and educational philosophy during the time of his stay in Aarau. There, Einstein met some outstanding teachers, who could serve him as models of scholars and human beings. In spite of Einstein's distinct independence of mind, these personalities may well have had a significant influence on the alignment of his inner compass.
Conversations With Albert Einstein. II
Shankland, R. S.
1973-01-01
Discusses Einstein's views on the role of Michelson-Morley, Fizeau, and Miller experiments in the development of relativity and his attitude toward the theories of new quantum mechanics. Indicates that Einstein's opposition to quantum mechanics is beyond dispute. (CC)
[Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].
Cervantes Castro, Jorge
2011-01-01
The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.
Albert Einstein, guide spirituel du CERN
Sandraz, Raphaël
2005-01-01
The year 2005, proclaimed "World year of Physics" by UNESCO, dedicates the 100th anniversary of the theory of relativity and the 50th anniversary of the death of his discoverer: Albert Einstein. The CERN in Geneva applies every day his theories (1 page)
Albert Einstein the roads to pacifism
Anta, Claudio Giulio
2017-01-01
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is universally known as the father of the theory of relativity; however, he was also one of the most eminent pacifists of the first half of the twentieth century. Through his active, pragmatic and nuanced breed of pacifism, he sought to confront the dilemmas and problems of his time.
Physics Today, 1979
1979-01-01
Celebrates the centennial of Einstein's birth with an eight-page pictorial biography and two special articles: (1) Einstein the catalyst; and (2) Unitary field theories. His special and general theories of relativity and his contributions to quantum physics and other topics are also presented. (HM)
Albert Einstein, Cosmos and Religion
Djokovic, V.; Grujic, P.
2007-06-01
We consider Einstein's attitude regarding religious as such, from both cosmological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective was made, with the emphasis on ethnic and religious background. It turns out that the great scientist was neither atheist nor believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might stick to him in this respect would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological aspect) and agnosticism (epistemological aspect). His ideas on divine could be considered as a continuation of line traced by Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed Greek Stoics and (Neo-) Platonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. It turns out that Einstein's both scientific (rational aspects) and religious (intuitive aspects) thinking were deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture. His striving to unravel the secrets of the universe and the roots of cosmological order resembles much the ancient ideas of the role of knowledge in fathoming the divine as such, as ascribed to Gnostics.
Albert Einstein, cosmos and religion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doković V.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We consider Einstein's attitude regarding religious as such, from both cosmological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective was made, with the emphasis on ethnic and religious background. It turns out that the great scientist was neither atheist nor believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might stick to him in this respect would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological aspect and agnosticism (epistemological aspect. His ideas on divine could be considered as a continuation of line traced by Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed Greek Stoics and (Neo- Platonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. It turns out that Einstein's both scientific (rational aspects and religious (intuitive aspects thinking were deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture. His striving to unravel the secrets of the universe and the roots of cosmological order resembles much the ancient ideas of the role of knowledge in fathoming the divine as such, as ascribed to Gnostics. .
New Information about Albert Einstein's Brain.
Falk, Dean
2009-01-01
In order to glean information about hominin (or other) brains that no longer exist, details of external neuroanatomy that are reproduced on endocranial casts (endocasts) from fossilized braincases may be described and interpreted. Despite being, of necessity, speculative, such studies can be very informative when conducted in light of the literature on comparative neuroanatomy, paleontology, and functional imaging studies. Albert Einstein's brain no longer exists in an intact state, but there are photographs of it in various views. Applying techniques developed from paleoanthropology, previously unrecognized details of external neuroanatomy are identified on these photographs. This information should be of interest to paleoneurologists, comparative neuroanatomists, historians of science, and cognitive neuroscientists. The new identifications of cortical features should also be archived for future scholars who will have access to additional information from improved functional imaging technology. Meanwhile, to the extent possible, Einstein's cerebral cortex is investigated in light of available data about variation in human sulcal patterns. Although much of his cortical surface was unremarkable, regions in and near Einstein's primary somatosensory and motor cortices were unusual. It is possible that these atypical aspects of Einstein's cerebral cortex were related to the difficulty with which he acquired language, his preference for thinking in sensory impressions including visual images rather than words, and his early training on the violin.
Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein and Franz Joseph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1983-01-01
Under the Emperor Francis Joseph (1848-1916) the natural sciences were less weIl supported in Austria than in other countries of Europe. This is explained by the fact that the German speaking middle classes accepted the preeminence of the feudal forces with their antiscientific attitude. The reason for this readiness to subordination was that those middle classes feIt threatened in their relatively favourable situation by Slavs and Latins. Francis Joseph was the typical representative of the aristocracy. Personally, he did his duty conscientiously and was not corrupt, but progressive ideas and scientific thought were alien to him. From his desk he treated Boltzmann benevolently, but he had no wish to meet personally the greatest mind of the Empire or in any respect to ask his views. Another famous subject of the Emperor, Albert Einstein, was apparently ignored altogether. The structural weakness of Austria, due to the national problems, led to immobilism in her scientific life, but also, up to a point, to tolerance. The impression of Victor Adler on Einstein is considered in this historical context. (author) [de
Albert Einstein and the problem of unification of fundamental interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arodz, H.
1986-01-01
Albert Einstein's attempts to construct a unified field theory of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions are presented and commented from the standpoint of the present day physics. 16 refs. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broda, E.
1983-07-01
Under the Emperor Francis Joseph (1848-1916) the natural sciences were less weIl supported in Austria than in other countries of Europe. This is explained by the fact that the German speaking middle classes accepted the preeminence of the feudal forces with their antiscientific attitude. The reason for this readiness to subordination was that those middle classes feIt threatened in their relatively favourable situation by Slavs and Latins. Francis Joseph was the typical representative of the aristocracy. Personally, he did his duty conscientiously and was not corrupt, but progressive ideas and scientific thought were alien to him. From his desk he treated Boltzmann benevolently, but he had no wish to meet personally the greatest mind of the Empire or in any respect to ask his views. Another famous subject of the Emperor, Albert Einstein, was apparently ignored altogether. The structural weakness of Austria, due to the national problems, led to immobilism in her scientific life, but also, up to a point, to tolerance. The impression of Victor Adler on Einstein is considered in this historical context. (author) [German] Die Naturwissenschaften wurden in Österreich unter Franz Joseph (1848-1916) weniger gefördert als in anderen Staaten Europas. Dies wird darauf zurückgeführt, daß das deutschsprechende Bürgertum sich mit der Vorherrschaft der feudalen Kräfte abfand, die nicht wissenschafts-freundlich waren. Für die Bereitschaft zur Unterordnung unter die Feudalen war maßgebend, daß das deutschsprechende Bürgertum sich durch Slawen und Romanen in seiner relativen Vorzugsstellung bedroht sah. Franz Joseph war der typische Repräsentant des konservativen Feudalismus. Er war persönlich pflichtbewußt und integer, doch waren ihm fortschrittliche Gedanken und wissenschaftliche Denkweise fremd. Boltzmann behandelte er von seinem Schreibtisch aus wohlwollend, doch hegte er keinen Wunsch, den größten Geist seines Reiches persönlich kennen zu lernen oder ihn in
Albert Einstein and LD: An Evaluation of the Evidence.
Thomas, Marlin
2000-01-01
This article refutes claims that Albert Einstein had a learning disability and argues the claim derives its force not from evidence but from belief that the greatest among us suffer from some impairment and from desire to enhance the status of a marginalized group by including exceptional individuals. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle
Lande, Alfred
1974-01-01
Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)
Albert Einstein: Radical Pacifist and Democrat
Jayaraman, T.
We draw attention here to the radical political grounding of Einstein's pacifism. We also drescribe some less commonly known aspects of his commitment to civil liberties, particularly in the context of the anti-l hysteria and anti-racism current in the United States of the late 1940s and 1950s. We also examine briefly his views on socialism.
Albert Einstein, the human side glimpses from his archives
Einstein, Albert; Hoffmann, Banesh
2013-01-01
Modesty, humor, compassion, and wisdom are the traits most evident in this illuminating selection of personal papers from the Albert Einstein Archives. The illustrious physicist wrote as thoughtfully to an Ohio fifth-grader, distressed by her discovery that scientists classify humans as animals, as to a Colorado banker who asked whether Einstein believed in a personal God. Witty rhymes, an exchange with Queen Elizabeth of Belgium about fine music, and expressions of his devotion to Zionism are but some of the highlights found in this warm and enriching book.
Revolution in 7 parts: Albert Einstein and the others.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, E.
2005-01-01
Between 1925 and 1935 a new physics was born: quantum physics. This physics was the fruit of imagination, creativity and boldness of a handful of physicists. This book pays tribute to 7 of them: Georges Gamow, Albert Einstein, Paul Dirac, Ettore Majorana, Wolfgang Pauli, Paul Ehrenfest and Erwin Schroedinger. The author describes the talents and contributions of each one and shows the slow but sure path towards the creation of quantum physics
The world-line. Albert Einstein and modern physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maalampi, Jukka
2008-01-01
This book is an entertaining and formula-free presentation of modern physics from the 19th century to present. The life of Albert Einstein and his scientific works are drawn as red fathom through the text. The author explains central terms and results of modern physics in populary-scientific form from the historical perspective. To the reader in humorous form an imagination is mediated how modern physics has been developed. We learn from the exciting effects of the ether, we hear from faraday and magnetic needles, from Maxwell's prediction of the electromagnetic waves, from heinrich Hertz and from the photoelectric effect. Was the Michelson-Morley experiment a measurement success or an unsuccess? Why has Einstein abandoned the ether? How has Einstein in the miraculous year 1905 revolutionated physics and why he has begged Newton for excusement? Exist atoms? What is motion? What is light and what is to be understood under ''now'' and ''here''? Light deviation or non-deviation? How act the tidal forces? And above all: How has Einstein answered these questions. We meet Poincare, Lorentz and Hilbert, Boltzmann and Bohr, Minkowski, Planck, de Broglie, Hubble and Weyl, Gamow, Hahn and Meitner, Kapiza and Landau, Fermi and many other famous scientists. What had Eddington against Chandrasekhar and what had Einstein against black holes? Why should space tourists and dream tourists make holiday not on the Loch Ness but on the safe side of a black hole? Why inveighed Pauli against Einstein? Is the concern with the atomic-bomb formula right? Smeared matter, big bang and cosmic background radiation, gravitational waves and double pulsars, the cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe are further themes, which keep the reader in breath and let no mental vacuum arise [de
Paul Ehrenfest, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein: Colleagues and Friends
Klein, Martin J.
2010-09-01
In May 1918 Paul Ehrenfest received a monograph from Niels Bohr in which Bohr had used Ehrenfest's adiabatic principle as an essential assumption for understanding atomic structure. Ehrenfest responded by inviting Bohr, whom he had never met, to give a talk at a meeting in Leiden in late April 1919, which Bohr accepted; he lived with Ehrenfest, his mathematician wife Tatyana, and their young family for two weeks. Albert Einstein was unable to attend this meeting, but in October 1919 he visited his old friend Ehrenfest and his family in Leiden, where Ehrenfest told him how much he had enjoyed and profited from Bohr's visit. Einstein first met Bohr when Bohr gave a lecture in Berlin at the end of April 1920, and the two immediately proclaimed unbounded admiration for each other as physicists and as human beings. Ehrenfest hoped that he and they would meet at the Third Solvay Conference in Brussels in early April 1921, but his hope was unfulfilled. Einstein, the only physicist from Germany who was invited to it in this bitter postwar atmosphere, decided instead to accompany Chaim Weizmann on a trip to the United States to help raise money for the new Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Bohr became so overworked with the planning and construction of his new Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen that he could only draft the first part of his Solvay report and ask Ehrenfest to present it, which Ehrenfest agreed to do following the presentation of his own report. After recovering his strength, Bohr invited Ehrenfest to give a lecture in Copenhagen that fall, and Ehrenfest, battling his deep-seated self-doubts, spent three weeks in Copenhagen in December 1921 accompanied by his daughter Tanya and her future husband, the two Ehrenfests staying with the Bohrs in their apartment in Bohr's new Institute for Theoretical Physics. Immediately after leaving Copenhagen, Ehrenfest wrote to Einstein, telling him once again that Bohr was a prodigious physicist, and again
Einstein's cosmos how Albert Einstein's vision transformed our understanding of space and time
Kaku, Michio
2004-01-01
Few figures loom as large as Albert Einstein in our contemporary culture. It is truly remarkable that a man from such humble beginnings, an unemployed dreamer without a future or a job, who was written off by his professors as a hopeless loser, could to dare to scale the heights he reached. In this enlightening book Michio Kaku reasseses Einstein's work by centering on his three great theories - special relativity, general relativity and the Unified Field Theory. The first yielded the equation E =mc which is now such a fixture in our culture that it is practically a ubiquitous slogan. But the subsequent theories led to the Big Bang theory and have changed irrevocably the way we perceive time and space. Michio Kaku gives a new, refreshing look at the pioneering work of Einstein, giving a more accurate portrayal of his enduring legacy than previous biographies. As today's advanced physicists continue their intense search to fulfill Einstein's most cherished dream, a 'theory of everything', he is recognised as a...
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2012-01-01
Albert Einstein accepted a “special” visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation
Albert Einstein and his mentor Max Talmey. The seventh Charles B. Snyder Lecture.
Ravin, J G
1997-01-01
While he was a student at the Munich medical school, Max Talmey strongly influenced the education of Albert Einstein. Their association occurred during five years of Einstein's second decade. They lost contact for many years after each left Munich. Talmey emigrated to the United States and practiced medicine, mainly ophthalmology, in New York City. He made significant contributions to medicine, to the popularization of Einstein's work, and to the development of international languages. The relationship of Talmey and Einstein was rekindled when Einstein visited and later moved to the United States.
Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.
Ne'eman, Yuval
1979-01-01
Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)
The Influence of Ernst Mach and Ludwig Boltzmann on Albert Einstein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1979-01-01
This document, written by Engelbert Broda in 1979, analyses the influence of Ernst Mach and Ludwig Boltzmann on Albert Einstein. Broda describes how Einstein and his scientific thinking benefited from Mach’s criticism on classical mechanics and its basic concepts like absolute time and absolute space. This criticism encouraged Einstein in the time he worked on his special relativity. On the other side Broda writes about the influence of Ludwig Boltzman, an atomist, whose scientific work and research prepared the ground for Einsteins work on the quantum-structure of electromagnetic radiation or the discovery of the photoelectric effect. (nowak)
The legacy of Albert Einstein a collection of essays in celebration of the Year of Physics
2007-01-01
This indispensable volume contains a compendium of articles covering a vast range of topics in physics which were begun or influenced by the works of Albert Einstein: special relativity, quantum theory, statistical physics, condensed matter physics, general relativity, geometry, cosmology and unified field theory. An essay on the societal role of Einstein is included. These articles, written by some of the renowned experts, offer an insider's view of the exciting world of fundamental science. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Einstein and the Search for Unification (625 KB). Contents: Einstein and
[ISO 9002 at the Center of Pediatric Intensive Care at the Albert Einstein Israeli Hospital].
Gé Lacerda, D P; Rocha, M L; Santos, R P
2000-01-01
This study shows the process of implementation of a quality program in Pediatric Intensive Therapy Center of "Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein" which resulted in the certification of this service for the Standards ISO 9002/94. It points out the nurse's role as a leader in this process.
The Gendering of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie in Children's Biographies: Some Tensions
Wilson, Rachel E.; Jarrard, Amber R.; Tippins, Deborah J.
2009-01-01
Few twentieth century scientists have generated as much interest as Albert Einstein and Marie Currie. Their lives are centrally depicted in numerous children's biographies of famous scientists. Yet their stories reflect interesting paradoxes and tacit sets of unexplored sociocultural assumptions about gender in science education and the larger…
Tauschinsky, A.; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2008-01-01
Op 29 april 1922 gaf Albert Einstein een lezing voor de Nederlandse Natuurkundige Vereniging op het Natuurkundig Laboratorium aan de Plantage Muidergracht te Amsterdam. Hij deed er verslag van een experiment dat hij zo’n zes maanden eerder had voorgesteld en dat zou hebben moeten uitmaken of licht
Albert Einstein's 1916 Review Article on General Relativity
Sauer, Tilman
2004-01-01
The first comprehensive overview of the final version of the general theory of relativity was published by Einstein in 1916 after several expositions of preliminary versions and latest revisions of the theory in November 1915. A historical account of this review paper is given, of its prehistory, including a discussion of Einstein's collaboration with Marcel Grossmann, and of its immediate reception.
Reflections The Early life of Albert Einstein: Seeking the Mature ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Einstein's formal education began in Munich when he was enrolled in the Luitpold. Gymnasium in ... To quote from his address: " .. in modern times, the Greeks and. Romans are .... and instruction. It was a freedom traditional at Aarau and,.
Albert Einstein for beginners. 12. enl. and rev. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karamanolis, Stratis
2008-01-01
He was called the most important jew since the birth of Christus. Others however believed however he has came like no other nearer to the gods. Thought is Albrt Einstein, the scientific work of him and especially his relativity theory has the world changed radically both in scientific and in political regard. The present 12th extended and strongly revised edition of the book, which came out firstly above 20 years ago and until today thousands of readers - young and old - has always enthused, describes not only the relativity theory but also the role, which Einstein played in the development of the first atomic bomb. A short biographical part mediates to the reader also something about the man Einstein
Albert Einstein's Personal Papers: A Physics Teaching Resource.
Derman, Samuel
2000-01-01
Presents the concept of using Einstein the man as a way of generating interest in the study of physics among students. Finds that it provides an instantly recognizable face for science, thus a gateway to the subject through the discussion of the man. (Author/CCM)
The collected papers of Albert Einstein. Volume 2. The Swiss years: Writings, 1900-1909
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stachel, J.; Cassidy, D.C.; Renn, J.; Schulmann, R.
1989-01-01
This second volume of the papers of Albert Einstein chronologically presents published articles, unpublished papers, research and lecture notes, reviews, and patent applications for the period 1900-1909 during which time Einstein had a two-year period of short-term employment and a permanent position at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. There are 62 published documents reproduced. The writings of this period deal with seven general themes: molecular forces, the foundation of statistical physics, the quantum hypothesis, determining molecular dimensions, Brownian movement, the theory of relativity, and the electrodynamics of moving media. The book also presents all available letters written by Einstein along with all significant letters sent to him and many important third-party letters written about him. The editors have added substantial introduction and a set of eight editorial notes that place Einstein's writings within their immediate scientific context. Footnotes to Einstein texts designed to illuminate the sources of scientific problems that Einstein confronted and the ideas and techniques with which he addressed them have been added by the editors. A comprehensive index to Einstein's early writings is provided
Implementing competency based admissions at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
Kerrigan, Noreen; Akabas, Myles H; Betzler, Thomas F; Castaldi, Maria; Kelly, Mary S; Levy, Adam S; Reichgott, Michael J; Ruberman, Louise; Dolan, Siobhan M
2016-01-01
The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein) was founded in 1955 during an era of limited access to medical school for women, racial minorities, and many religious and ethnic groups. Located in the Bronx, NY, Einstein seeks to educate physicians in an environment of state-of-the-art scientific inquiry while simultaneously fulfilling a deep commitment to serve its community by providing the highest quality clinical care. A founding principle of Einstein, the basis upon which Professor Einstein agreed to allow the use of his name, was that admission to the student body would be based entirely on merit. To accomplish this, Einstein has long used a 'holistic' approach to the evaluation of its applicants, actively seeking a diverse student body. More recently, in order to improve its ability to identify students with the potential to be outstanding physicians, who will both advance medical knowledge and serve the pressing health needs of a diverse community, the Committee on Admissions reexamined and restructured the requirements for admission. These have now been categorized as four 'Admissions Competencies' that an applicant must demonstrate. They include: 1) cocurricular activities and relevant experiences; 2) communication skills; 3) personal and professional development; and 4) knowledge. The purpose of this article is to describe the process that resulted in the introduction and implementation of this competency based approach to the admission process.
Heinrich ZANGGER (1874-1957. El hombre que salvó la vida de Albert Einstein
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julio Montes-Santiago
2012-03-01
Full Text Available El profesor de la Universidad de Zurich, Heinrich Zangger (1874-1957, es recordado principalmente por haber sido compañero y amigo de Albert Einstein. La abundante correspondencia entre ambos revela esclarecedores aspectos del pensamiento científico de Einstein. Sin embargo, es menos conocido que en varias ocasiones salvó la vida del físico (rescatándole de una intoxicación por monóxido de carbono o suministrándole alimentos durante las penurias de la I Guerra Mundial y veló por las necesidades económicas y de salud del resto de la familia de Einstein: su primera mujer Mileva y sus hijos Hans Albert y Eduard. Pero además Zangger fue un hombre extraordinario que merece ser recordado también por sus aportaciones pioneras en el campo de las enfermedades profesionales como la silicosis o la intoxicación por plomo, sobre la Medicina de catástrofes, por sus estudios forenses y de Derecho sanitario, así como por su labor humanitaria con la Cruz Roja.
Falk, Dean; Lepore, Frederick E; Noe, Adrianne
2013-04-01
Upon his death in 1955, Albert Einstein's brain was removed, fixed and photographed from multiple angles. It was then sectioned into 240 blocks, and histological slides were prepared. At the time, a roadmap was drawn that illustrates the location within the brain of each block and its associated slides. Here we describe the external gross neuroanatomy of Einstein's entire cerebral cortex from 14 recently discovered photographs, most of which were taken from unconventional angles. Two of the photographs reveal sulcal patterns of the medial surfaces of the hemispheres, and another shows the neuroanatomy of the right (exposed) insula. Most of Einstein's sulci are identified, and sulcal patterns in various parts of the brain are compared with those of 85 human brains that have been described in the literature. To the extent currently possible, unusual features of Einstein's brain are tentatively interpreted in light of what is known about the evolution of higher cognitive processes in humans. As an aid to future investigators, these (and other) features are correlated with blocks on the roadmap (and therefore histological slides). Einstein's brain has an extraordinary prefrontal cortex, which may have contributed to the neurological substrates for some of his remarkable cognitive abilities. The primary somatosensory and motor cortices near the regions that typically represent face and tongue are greatly expanded in the left hemisphere. Einstein's parietal lobes are also unusual and may have provided some of the neurological underpinnings for his visuospatial and mathematical skills, as others have hypothesized. Einstein's brain has typical frontal and occipital shape asymmetries (petalias) and grossly asymmetrical inferior and superior parietal lobules. Contrary to the literature, Einstein's brain is not spherical, does not lack parietal opercula and has non-confluent Sylvian and inferior postcentral sulci.
Travel diaries of Albert Einstein Far East, Palestine, and Spain, 1922-1923
Einstein, Albert
2018-01-01
In the fall of 1922, Albert Einstein, along with his then-wife, Elsa Einstein, embarked on a five-and-a-half-month voyage to the Far East and Middle East, regions that the renowned physicist had never visited before. Einstein's lengthy itinerary consisted of stops in Hong Kong and Singapore, two brief stays in China, a six-week whirlwind lecture tour of Japan, a twelve-day tour of Palestine, and a three-week visit to Spain. This handsome edition makes available, for the first time, the complete journal that Einstein kept on this momentous journey. The telegraphic-style diary entries--quirky, succinct, and at times irreverent―record Einstein's musings on science, philosophy, art, and politics, as well as his immediate impressions and broader thoughts on such events as his inaugural lecture at the future site of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, a garden party hosted by the Japanese Empress, an audience with the King of Spain, and meetings with other prominent colleagues and statesmen. Entries also contain...
About Time. Physics, Philosophy and the Battle Between Albert Einstein and Henri Bergson
Frank, Adam
The historical relationship between physics and philosophy has had many famous high and low points. The two function best when both can challenge and support each other. In this talk I explore the famous debate between Albert Einstein and Henri Bergson over the nature of time. While history rightly judged Einstein to have won the debate in terms of relativity, there were deeper aspects of Bergsons critique that remain unappreciated. We will explore the different ways philosophy approaches the issue of time. In particular, we will look at the Continental Schools\\x9D, such as Phenomenology, which brings a unique perspective to the debate lying outside the traditional approach of physicists. From this perspective questions related to the act of being an observer, its essential subjective nature and the proper context of physics can be explored.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.
This document contains the text of the "Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994" (S. 2104) along with related analysis. The bill establishes a Department of Energy (DOE) fellowship program for math and science teachers that provides them opportunities to work at DOE labs in order to enhance coordination and…
Brunner, A
2009-03-01
Albert Einstein, the genius--this aspect often has been noted. A neglected aspect is Einstein's role as student and teacher. For this reason, Einstein's notes have been looked at once again. The selected original quotes are composed into the format of a fictive dialogue. The original context and coherence of his comments have thereby been respected carefully.
Potters, Jan; Leuridan, Bert
2017-05-01
This article concerns the way in which philosophers study the epistemology of scientific thought experiments. Starting with a general overview of the main contemporary philosophical accounts, we will first argue that two implicit assumptions are present therein: first, that the epistemology of scientific thought experiments is solely concerned with factual knowledge of the world; and second, that philosophers should account for this in terms of the way in which individuals in general contemplate these thought experiments in thought. Our goal is to evaluate these assumptions and their implications using a particular case study: Albert Einstein's magnet-conductor thought experiment. We will argue that an analysis of this thought experiment based on these assumptions - as John Norton (1991) provides - is, in a sense, both misguided (the thought experiment by itself did not lead Einstein to factual knowledge of the world) and too narrow (to understand the thought experiment's epistemology, its historical context should also be taken into account explicitly). Based on this evaluation we propose an alternative philosophical approach to the epistemology of scientific thought experiments which is more encompassing while preserving what is of value in the dominant view.
The Legacy of Albert Einstein: A Collection of Essays in Celebration of the Year of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straumann, Norbert
2007-01-01
During the 'World Year of Physics' much has been written on the epoch-making 1905 papers of Albert Einstein and his later great contributions to physics. Why another book on the enormous impact of Einstein's work on 20th-century physics? The short answer is that the present collection of 13 relatively short essays on the legacy of Einstein by outstanding scientists is very pleasant to read and should be of interest to physicists of all branches. Beside looking back, most articles present later and topical developments, whose initiation began with the work of Einstein. During the year 2005, the growing recognition among physicists, historians, and philosophers of Einstein's revolutionary role in quantum theory was often emphasized. It is truly astonishing that most active physicists were largely unaware of this before. Fortunately, the article 'Einstein and the quantum' by V Singh puts the subject in perspective and describes all the main steps, beginning with the truly revolutionary 1905 paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and ending with Einstein's extension of the particle-wave duality to atoms and other particles in 1924-1925. The only point which, in my opinion, is not sufficiently emphasized in the discussion of the 1916-1917 papers on absorption and emission of radiation is the part on the momentum transfer in each elementary process. Einstein's result that there is a directed recoil hν/c-also for spontaneous emission-in complete contrast to classical theory, was particularly important to him. I enjoyed reading the articles on Brownian motion (S Majumdar), Bose-Einstein condensation (N Kumar) and strongly correlated electrons (T Ramakrishnan), which are all written for non-experts. Connected with Einstein's most lasting work-general relativity-there are two articles on cosmology. The one by J Narlikar gives a brief historical account of the development that was initiated by the 1917 paper of Einstein. S Sarkar's essay emphasizes the remarkable recent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros
2005-03-01
Full Text Available This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.
Lanetzki, Camila Sanches; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Cardim; Bass, Lital Moro; Abramovici, Sulim; Troster, Eduardo Juan
2012-01-01
This study outlined the epidemiological profiles of patients who were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Center at Albert Einstein Israelite Hospital during 2009. Data were retrospectively collected for all patients admitted to the PICC during 2009. A total of 433 medical charts were reviewed, and these data were extracted using the DATAMARTS System and analyzed using the statistical software package STATA, version 11.0. There were no statistically significant differences in regards to patient gender, and the predominant age group consisted of patients between the ages of 1 to 4 years. The average occupancy rate was 69.3% per year, and there was a greater number of admissions during April, August, and October. The average length of stay at the hospital ranged from 9.7 to 19.1 days. Respiratory diseases were the main cause for admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Center, and the mortality rate of the patients admitted was 1.85%. Respiratory diseases were the most common ailment among patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Center, and the highest mortality rates were associated with neoplastic diseases.
Winterberg, Friedwardt
2008-04-01
It was Albert Einstein who for the first time changed our view of the universe to be a non-euclidean curved space-time. And it was Wernher von Braun who blazed the trail to take us into this universe, leaving for the first time the gravitational field of our planet earth, with the landing a man on the moon the greatest event in human history. Both these great physicists did this on the shoulders of giants. Albert Einstein on the shoulders of his landsman, the mathematician Bernhard Riemann, and Wernher von Braun on the shoulders of Goddard and Oberth. Both Einstein and von Braun made a Faustian pact with the devil, von Braun by accepting research funds from Hitler, and Einstein by urging Roosvelt to build the atom bomb (against Hitler). Both of these great men later regretted the use of their work for the killing of innocent bystanders, even though in the end the invention of nuclear energy and space flight is for the benefit of man. Their example serves as a warning for all of us. It can be formulated as follows: ``Can I in good conscience accept research funds from the military to advance scientific knowledge, for weapons developed against an abstract enemy I never have met in person?'' Weapons if used do not differentiate between the scientist, who invented these weapons, and the non-scientist.
Grundmann, Siegfried
Referring to the Straus-Herrmann correspondence, we deal only with one aspect of the ``political Einstein'': his attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin (who were in the past sometimes called the ``classics of Marxism-Leninism''). Einstein revered Marx, but condemned Stalin as a criminal. He also resisted attempts to be misused by representatives of ``dialectic materialism''.
Kapon, Shulamit
2014-11-01
This article presents an analysis of a scientific article written by Albert Einstein in 1946 for the general public that explains the equivalence of mass and energy and discusses the implications of this principle. It is argued that an intelligent popularization of many advanced ideas in physics requires more than the simple elimination of mathematical formalisms and complicated scientific conceptions. Rather, it is shown that Einstein developed an alternative argument for the general public that bypasses the core of the formal derivation of the equivalence of mass and energy to provide a sense of derivation based on the history of science and the nature of scientific inquiry. This alternative argument is supported and enhanced by variety of explanatory devices orchestrated to coherently support and promote the reader's understanding. The discussion centers on comparisons to other scientific expositions written by Einstein for the general public. © The Author(s) 2013.
Anderson, Belinda J; Herron, Patrick D; Downie, Sherry A; Myers, Daniel C; Milan, Felise B; Olson, Todd R; Kligler, Ben E; Sierpina, Victor S; Kreitzer, Mary Jo
2012-01-01
The growing popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), of which estimated 38% of adults in the United States used in 2007, has engendered changes in medical school curricula to increase students' awareness of it. Exchange programs between conventional medical schools and CAM institutions are recognized as an effective method of interprofessional education. The exchange program between Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein, Yeshiva University) and Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY) is in its fifth year and is part of a broader relationship between the schools encompassing research, clinical training, interinstitutional faculty and board appointments, and several educational activities. The Einstein/PCOM-NY student education exchange program is part of the Einstein Introduction to Clinical Medicine Program and involves students from Einstein learning about Chinese medicine through a lecture, the experience of having acupuncture, and a four-hour preceptorship at the PCOM outpatient clinic. The students from PCOM learn about allopathic medicine training through an orientation lecture, a two-and-a-half-hour dissection laboratory session along side Einstein student hosts, and a tour of the clinical skills center at the Einstein campus. In the 2011/2012 offering of the exchange program, the participating Einstein and PCOM students were surveyed to assess the educational outcomes. The data indicate that the exchange program was highly valued by all students and provided a unique learning experience. Survey responses from the Einstein students indicated the need for greater emphasis on referral information, which has been highlighted in the literature as an important medical curriculum integrative medicine competency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
What about Albert Einstein? Using Biographies to Promote Students' Scientific Thinking
Fingon, Joan C.; Fingon, Shallon D.
2009-01-01
Who hasn't heard of Einstein? Science educators everywhere are familiar with Einstein's genius and general theory of relativity. Students easily recognize Einstein's image by his white flyaway hair and bushy mustache. It is well known that Einstein was a brilliant physicist and an abstract thinker who often used his creativity and imagination in…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiefer, Claus (ed.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2015-07-01
The year 2015 marks not only the centenary anniversary around the general relativity theory, but also the octogenary anniversary around one of the most effective works of theoretical physics: The work of Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen (EPR) from the year 1935 reprinted and commented here. In the commented edition present here not only the historical context and the effect history of this work are drawn after in detail but also the effects on modern research and the still discussed theoretical foundations of quantum theory. Reprinted are beyond the German translation of the EPR work also the translation of Bohr's subsequent work with the same title from the same year as well Einstein's article for the journal Dialectica written 1948 in German.
Smith, Peter D
2003-01-01
Albert Einstein re-wrote the textbooks of science in 1905: physics since has been little more than a series of footnotes to the theories of a 26-year-old patent-office clerk. Einstein's science and emotional life come together in this vivid portrait of a rebellious and contradictory figure, a pacifist whose legendary equation E=mc2 opened scientists' eyes to the terrible power within every atom. 'To punish me for my contempt for authority,' he lamented, 'Fate has made me an authority myself.'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iordache, Dan-Alexandru
2005-01-01
As in the period of creation of the 'monumental' works of A. Einstein (1905-1920, mainly), when many outstanding physicists [theoreticians, inclusively, as Albert Einstein (alumni of the Polytechnics from Geneva), as Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac, Alexandru Proca (alumni of Bucharest Polytechnics), et al., finished their academic studies to different Polytechnics Universities, presently many students of technical Universities obtained (as high-school students) some outstanding results in the Physics field. Particularly, the leadership of the Faculty of Control Systems and Computers of the Bucharest University has found that 'the best students in their divisions are winners at the Physics Olympics Contests'. These students and many of their colleagues (those with special scientific aptitudes) want to know more details about the most difficult scientific creation of Albert Einstein: the Gravitation Theory. Taking into account that the Einstein's Gravitation Theory is particularly difficult (from mathematical point of view, especially), and the duration of the Physics study in our technical universities is so restricted (totally 42 to 98 teaching hours, depending on the technical division profile), we have to answer to the question: what elements of the Einstein's gravity theory could be presented in frame of Physics courses taught in our technical universities? After accomplishing our analysis, we concluded as possible and useful - for the scientific training of the best students 'engineers' - the assimilation of the following elements of the Einstein's gravity theory: - The time and space concepts in the Einstein's gravitation theory, in connection with the equation of electromagnetic waves in ideal media and - eventually - in relation with the Larmor's theory of the electrical dipole radiation [which needs the expressions in curvilinear coordinates of the gradient and divergence (the main elements of the mathematical theory of fields)]; - The applications of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiefer, Claus
2015-01-01
The year 2015 marks not only the centenary anniversary around the general relativity theory, but also the octogenary anniversary around one of the most effective works of theoretical physics: The work of Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen (EPR) from the year 1935 reprinted and commented here. In the commented edition present here not only the historical context and the effect history of this work are drawn after in detail but also the effects on modern research and the still discussed theoretical foundations of quantum theory. Reprinted are beyond the German translation of the EPR work also the translation of Bohr's subsequent work with the same title from the same year as well Einstein's article for the journal Dialectica written 1948 in German.
The Epistemic Virtues of the Virtuous Theorist: On Albert Einstein and His Autobiography
van Dongen, J.; van Dongen, J.; Paul, H.
2017-01-01
Albert Einstein’s practice in physics and his philosophical positions gradually reoriented themselves from more empiricist towards rationalist viewpoints. This change accompanied his turn towards unified field theory and different presentations of himself, eventually leading to his highly
In Albert's shadow the life and letters of Mileva Marić, Einstein's first wife
2003-01-01
Through previously unpublished letters written to her best friend over 30 years, this collection offers an intimate portrait of Einstein's first wife and a troubled marriage that ended in divorce and depression.
The Creative Power of Formal Analogies in Physics: The Case of Albert Einstein
Gingras, Yves
2015-01-01
In order to show how formal analogies between different physical systems play an important conceptual work in physics, this paper analyzes the evolution of Einstein's thoughts on the structure of radiation from the point of view of the formal analogies he used as "lenses" to "see" through the "black box" of Planck's…
Colombo, Jorge A
2018-06-01
Assertions regarding attempts to link glial and macrostructural brain events with cognitive performance regarding Albert Einstein, are critically reviewed. One basic problem arises from attempting to draw causal relationships regarding complex, delicately interactive functional processes involving finely tuned molecular and connectivity phenomena expressed in cognitive performance, based on highly variable brain structural events of a single, aged, formalin fixed brain. Data weaknesses and logical flaws are considered. In other instances, similar neuroanatomical observations received different interpretations and conclusions, as those drawn, e.g., from schizophrenic brains. Observations on white matter events also raise methodological queries. Additionally, neurocognitive considerations on other intellectual aptitudes of A. Einstein were simply ignored.
An outline of Albert Einstein's contribution to quantum theory up to 1925
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gjoetterud, K.
1979-01-01
Einstein's paper of 1905 in which he introduces the concept of light quanta, or photons, and which was mentioned as the basis of his Nobel Prize in 1920, is discussed. His discussion of the static coutent in Planck's Radiation Law and his comments on Bohr's atom model are also treated. His work on the quantum theory of radiation is treated at more length and his comments on the direction of radiation processes are quoted. Finally brief mention is made of his contributions in quantum statistics and the quantum theory of the solid state. (JIW)
Lepore, Frederick E.; Noe, Adrianne
2013-01-01
Upon his death in 1955, Albert Einstein’s brain was removed, fixed and photographed from multiple angles. It was then sectioned into 240 blocks, and histological slides were prepared. At the time, a roadmap was drawn that illustrates the location within the brain of each block and its associated slides. Here we describe the external gross neuroanatomy of Einstein’s entire cerebral cortex from 14 recently discovered photographs, most of which were taken from unconventional angles. Two of the photographs reveal sulcal patterns of the medial surfaces of the hemispheres, and another shows the neuroanatomy of the right (exposed) insula. Most of Einstein’s sulci are identified, and sulcal patterns in various parts of the brain are compared with those of 85 human brains that have been described in the literature. To the extent currently possible, unusual features of Einstein’s brain are tentatively interpreted in light of what is known about the evolution of higher cognitive processes in humans. As an aid to future investigators, these (and other) features are correlated with blocks on the roadmap (and therefore histological slides). Einstein’s brain has an extraordinary prefrontal cortex, which may have contributed to the neurological substrates for some of his remarkable cognitive abilities. The primary somatosensory and motor cortices near the regions that typically represent face and tongue are greatly expanded in the left hemisphere. Einstein’s parietal lobes are also unusual and may have provided some of the neurological underpinnings for his visuospatial and mathematical skills, as others have hypothesized. Einstein’s brain has typical frontal and occipital shape asymmetries (petalias) and grossly asymmetrical inferior and superior parietal lobules. Contrary to the literature, Einstein’s brain is not spherical, does not lack parietal opercula and has non-confluent Sylvian and inferior postcentral sulci. PMID:23161163
Albert Einstein, visto desde la filosofía, en el año internacional de la física
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Monserrat Puchades
2012-05-01
Full Text Available En el año 1905 aparecieron una serie de artículos de Albert Einstein en quese contenían ya algunas de sus decisivas aportaciones a la ciencia física.Este annus mirabilis sólo es comparable quizá en la historia de la física a otroannus mirabilis, de 1665 a 1666, en que Isaac Newton estableció las bases delcálculo integral, la ley de la gravitación y la teoría de los colores. [...
Goldberg, Gary L; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Einstein, Mark H; Smith, Harriet O; Anderson, Patrick S; Fields, Abbie L
2006-05-01
To review the trends, modifications and results of 103 consecutive total pelvic exenterations (TPE) performed at the Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine from 1987 to 2003. All patients who underwent TPE from January 1987 to December 2003 were included. The medical record, complications, follow-up, clinical status and demographic information were entered in a database. The procedure performed, the method of urinary diversion, colonic diversion, pelvic floor support and vaginal reconstruction were documented. Surviving patients were surveyed regarding their satisfaction with the urinary diversion, the vaginal reconstruction and their sexual function since the surgery. 103 pts were identified. Indications for TPE were recurrent cancers of the cervix (95), endometrium (2), colon and rectum (5), vulva (1). Overall 5-year survival was 47%. 5-year survival for pts with recurrent cervix cancer was 48%. Six pts (6%) recurred >5 years after the TPE. 14 pts (14%) had ureteral anastomotic leaks (no difference between ileal conduit 9/65 (14%) versus 5/38 (13%) continent conduit (P = 0.92). 34 pts (89%) with continent conduits were "continent." 14 pts (17%) had wound complications. 4 pts (4%) had parastomal hernias. 5/11 (46%) pts who had a low rectal reanastomosis developed recurrence in the pelvis. 21/39 (54%) of pts with continent conduits would choose an ileal conduit if they had the option again. Long-term renal function was similar in pts with ileal and continent conduits. Mesh of any type for pelvic floor reconstruction is associated with infection and bowel/urinary fistulas. VRAM flaps for neovagina fill the pelvic dead space, reduce the risk of fistulas and 20/36 pts (55%) are sexually active. Our overall 5-year survival is encouraging, and modifications in surgical technique have improved the reconstructive phase. Low rectal anastomoses at TPE adversely affects survival. Many of our pts with continent urinary diversions would not choose
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Einstein. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 111-120 Reflections. Albert Einstein: A Biographical Sketch · Maja Winteler-Einstein · More Details Fulltext PDF ...
Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando
2006-02-01
The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein's ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood's very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky's proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today's perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein's achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Some experiments change the face of a subject, and some experiments do that many times over. Albert Michelson built his interferometer in order to determine the effect of Earth's rotation on the speed of light. The null result supported the crucial assumption in Einstein's special theory of relativity and was the final nail in the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1979-01-01
This text was written by Engelbert Broda in 1979 and is about Albert Einstein and his relation to Austria. This text is split in different sections which are amongst others: Einstein und Mach; Einstein und Boltzmann; Positivism, Atoms and Relativity; Einstein as an Austrian professor; Einstein’s visits to Austria; Einstein and Viennese friends; Einstein and Friedrich Adler; Einstein and the Austrian mentality; (nowak)
Science Scope, 2006
2006-01-01
This article deals with a pale blue sculpture entitled "A New World View", as an homage to the most famous scientist in modern history, Albert Einstein. It has 32 bas-relief squares composed of glass and steel that represent one aspect of the life and legacy of Albert Einstein. Images of children's faces peer out from behind the glass squares,…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João Carlos de Campos Guerra
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of genetic polymorphism incoagulation factors in thromboembolic disease in patients withclinical suspicion of thrombosis. Methods: A retrospective casecollection was performed searching all patients with clinicalsuspicion of thrombosis who were submitted to coagulation factoranalysis at the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from November2003 to April 2004. We included 260 patients, 118 male and 142female, mean age of 46 years. Prothrombin mutation and Leiden Vfactor were evaluated with multiplex PCR. Protein C, S and lupusanticoagulant were studied in coagulation assays. AntithrombinIII was studied by chromogenic assay. Anticardiolipin was evaluatedthrough an immunoenzymatic method and homocysteine by animmunometric method. Results: Factor V Leiden was found in 22cases (8.3 %, one homozygote and 21 heterozygotes. Prothrombinmutation was found in 18 cases (6.8%, one homozygote and 17heterozygotes. Forty cases with genetic alteration showed 34 caseswith thrombosis (85%, 29 venous thrombosis and 4 arterialthrombosis. One hundred and seven patients were tested foranticardiolipin antibodies: 21 were anticardiolipin antibody positives(19.6%, and 15 of them had IgG antibodies, 3 IgM and 3 IgA. Sixteenof the 21 patients had thrombosis, 11 venous thrombosis and 5arterial thrombosis. Lupus anticoagulant was found in two patients,both with thrombosis. There was only one case ofhyperhomocystinemia, with thrombosis. Protein C, protein S andantithrombin III deficiencies were found in 63 cases (12%. Out of31 cases with thrombosis (49,2 %, 26 cases had venous thrombosisand 5 had arterial thrombosis. Conclusion: Thromboembolicdisease is clearly associated with genetic factors but there isconsensus its cause is multifactorial. Genetic alterations, however,should be studied when there is clinical evidence of thrombosis,at least in young patients.
Scheinberg, Morton; Goldenberg, José; Feldman, Daniel P; Nóbrega, João Luiz
2008-08-01
We determined, in our surrounding environment, the proportion of patients being treated with infliximab who required a therapeutic scheme escalation (an infliximab dose increase surpassing the level of 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks and/or a decrease on the current between infusions' interval). This was a study of the retrospective analysis of data from the 41 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving an infliximab therapy at the Albert Einstein Israelita Hospital, from January 2001 up to December 2005. A questionnaire was applied to these patients, assessing their clinical and laboratory data, adverse events, and individual information regarding the infliximab administration. Therapeutic dose information was available in 68% (28/41) of the RA patients, with 46% of these (13/28) receiving a dose increase, and 30% (8/27) experiencing a shortening of the between infusions' interval. The average final infliximab dose (4.21 mg/kg) was significantly greater than their average initial dose (3.29 mg/kg). The average time intervals between the initial and final infusions, though shortened, were not significantly different. A proportion of 73% (30/41) of these patients demonstrated improvement in at least one of the assessed clinical parameters, and 50% of these patients (15/30) experienced a dose increase, while 20% (6/30) experienced shortening of the between treatments' interval. A total of 20% (8/41) of the original patients experienced adverse events. Although infliximab is effective in the control of RA, dose adjustment and/or shortening of the between treatments' interval is frequently required.
Francischetti, Ivo M B; Szymanski, James; Rodriguez, Daniel; Heo, Moonseong; Wolgast, Lucia R
2017-08-01
Survival of patients on ECMO has remained stable in every population. Laboratory values predictors of survival are required to improve patient care. Clinical Looking Glass software was used to assess Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) of patients at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center (2007-2014). Our population comprises of 166 adults and was divided in survivors and non-survivors, within 30days. Indications for ECMO were cardiac (65%), respiratory (25%) and infectious diseases (<10%). Eighty six patients (51.8%) survived the procedure. Gender, body weight, ejection fraction, diastolic blood pressure, and socio-economic status did not differ among survivors and non-survivors. In contrast, younger patients (45yo vs 55yo, p=0.0001) and higher systolic blood pressure (115mmHg vs 103mmHg, p=0.025) have favorable outcome. Univariate analysis shows that pre-cannulation values for creatinine (p=0.0003), chloride (p=0.009), bicarbonate (p=0.015) and pH (p=0.03) have prognostic value. Post-cannulation aPTT, pH, platelet and lymphocyte counts also have discriminative power. Notably, multiple logistic regressions for Multivariate Analysis identified chloride (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.02-1.13; p=0.004), pH (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.89-5.9; p<0.0001) and aPTT (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.976-0.998; p=0.024) as independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. These results imply that pre-existing renal conditions and hemostatic dysregulation contribute to poor outcome. Finally, patients on VV-ECMO have increase odds of survival (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.06-3.34; p=0.029). Laboratory markers identified herein may guide the management of patients on ECMO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krajniak, Wiktor
2014-01-01
The purpose of this article is the analyses of discussion between Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg in the period 1925-1927. Their disputes, relating to the sources of scientific knowledge, its methods and the value of knowledge acquired in this way, are part of the characteristic for the European science discourse between rationalism and empirism. On the basis of some sources and literature on the subject, the epistemological positions of both scholars in the period were reconstructed. This episode, yet poorly known, is a unique example of scientific disputes, whose range covers a broad spectrum of methodological problems associated with the historical development of science. The conducted analysis sheds some light on the source of popularity of logical empirism in the first half of the 20th century. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the neopositivist ideas which reflect Heisenberg's research program, being the starting point for the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The main assumption of logical empirism, concerning acquisition of scientific knowledge only by means of empirical procedures and logical analysis of the language of science, in view of the voiced by Einstein arguments, bears little relationship with actual testing practices in the historical aspect of the development of science. The criticism of Heisenberg's program, carried out by Einstein, provided arguments for the main critics of the neopositivist ideal and contributed to the bankruptcy of the idea of logical empirism, thereby starting a period of critical rationalism prosperity, arising from criticism of neopositivism and alluding to Einstein's ideas.
Campanelli, M.; Rezzolla, L.
2007-06-01
Traditionally, frontiers represent a treacherous terrain to venture into, where hidden obstacles are present and uncharted territories lie ahead. At the same time, frontiers are also a place where new perspectives can be appreciated and have often been the cradle of new and thriving developments. With this in mind and inspired by this spirit, the Numerical Relativity Group at the Albert Einstein Institute (AEI) organized a `New Frontiers in Numerical Relativity' meeting on 17 21 July 2006 at the AEI campus in Potsdam, Germany. It is an interesting historical remark that the suggestion of the meeting was first made in the late summer of 2005 and thus at a time that for many reasons has been a turning point in the recent history of numerical relativity. A few months earlier (April 2005) in fact, F Pretorius had announced the first multi-orbit simulations of binary black holes and computed the waveforms from the inspiral, merger and ring-down (`Numerical Relativity', Banff International Research Station, Banff, Canada, 16 21 April 2005). At that time, the work of Pretorius served as an important boost to the research in this field and although no other group has yet adopted the techniques he employed, his results provided the numerical relativity community with clear evidence that the binary black hole problem could be solved. A few months later (November 2005), equally striking results were presented by the NASA Goddard and Texas/Brownsville groups, who also reported, independently, multi-orbit evolutions of binary black holes using numerical techniques and formulations of the Einstein equations which were markedly distinct from those suggested by Pretorius (`Numerical Relativity 2005', Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD, USA, 2 4 November 2005). A few months later other groups were able to repeat the same simulations and obtain equivalent results, testifying that the community as a whole had reached comparable levels of maturity in both the numerical
Herwig Schopper Einstein's Legacy
Schneegans, Susan
2005-01-01
"Last June, the United Nations declared 2005 the International Year of Physics and invited UNESCO to take the lead in celebrating the hundreth anniversary of Albert Einstein's legandary articles on relativisty, quantum theory and Brownian motion" (3 pages)
Lisle, John
2016-01-01
Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.
Kox, A.J.; Sauer, T.; Kormos Buchwald, D.; Hirschmann, R.; Moses, O.; Aronin, B.; Stolper, J.
2009-01-01
This index volume provides quick access to the most authoritative compilation of documents and information concerning Einstein's work and correspondence for the first half of his life. It offers readers a Cumulative Index to the first ten volumes of the collected papers, the first complete
Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.
Hines, Terence
2014-07-01
The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bicak, J.
1979-01-01
A commemorative publication is submitted issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's centenary remembering Einstein's sojourn and work in Prague. In addition to the article Ueber den Einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes the publications contains the author's preface to the Czech edition of his Theory, the list of studies written by Einstein while in Prague, an assay on the great physicist's life and work, and extracts from the memoires of Philipp Frank published under the title Einstein, His Life and Times. (L.O.)
Calaprice, Alice; Schulmann, Robert
2015-01-01
This is the single most complete guide to Albert Einstein’s life and work for students, researchers, and browsers alike. Written by three leading Einstein scholars who draw on their combined wealth of expertise gained during their work on the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, this authoritative and accessible reference features more than one hundred entries and is divided into three parts covering the personal, scientific, and public spheres of Einstein’s life. An Einstein Encyclopedia contains entries on Einstein’s birth and death, family and romantic relationships, honors and awards, educational institutions where he studied and worked, citizenships and immigration to America, hobbies and travels, plus the people he befriended and the history of his archives and the Einstein Papers Project. Entries on Einstein’s scientific theories provide useful background and context, along with details about his assistants, collaborators, and rivals, as well as physics concepts related to his work. Coverage o...
Einstein's enigma or black holes in my bubble bath
Vishveshwara, C V
2006-01-01
A funny rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein''s theory of general relativity and black-hole physics.
2003-01-01
For the first time scientists have succeeded in measuring the speed of gravity. They took advantage of a rare alignment of Jupiter against a far-off quasar to measure the fundamental constant described by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity (2 pages).
Ryder, L. H.
1987-01-01
Discusses the history of scientific thought in terms of the theories of inertia and absolute space, relativity and gravitation. Describes how Sir Isaac Newton used the work of earlier scholars in his theories and how Albert Einstein used Newton's theories in his. (CW)
Examining the Enigmatic Einstein
Khoon, Koh Aik
2007-01-01
Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…
Einstein: A Historical Perspective
Kormos-Buchwald, Diana
2015-04-01
In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.
Tesnier, Grégory
2005-01-01
2005 has been delcared "Year of Physics" by UNESCO and ONU to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the theory of relativity, elaborated by Einstein (who lived in Bern). To hon. Einstein, an historical comic strip has been published (1 page)
Einstein, Albert
2009-01-01
His name is synonymous with ""genius,"" but these essays by the renowned physicist and scholar are accessible to any reader. In addition to outlining the core of relativity theory in everyday language, Albert Einstein presents fascinating discussions of other scientific fields to which he made significant contributions. The Nobel Laureate also profiles some of history's most influential physicists, upon whose studies his own work was based.Assembled during Einstein's lifetime from his speeches and essays, this book marks the first presentation to the wider world of the scientist's accomplishme
Stachel, John
2002-01-01
John Stachel, the author of this collection of 37 published and unpublished articles on Albert Einstein, has written about Einstein and his work for over 40 years. Trained as a theoretical physicist specializing in the theory of relativity, he was chosen as the founding editor of The Collected papers of Albert Einstein 25 years ago, and is currently Director of the Boston University Center for Einstein Studies. Based on a detailed study of documentary evidence, much of which was newly discovered in the course of his work, Stachel debunks many of the old (and some new) myths about Einstein and offers novel insight into his life and work. Throughout the volume, a new, more human picture of Einstein is offered to replace the plaster saint of popular legend. In particular, a youthful Einstein emerges from the obscurity that previously shrouded his early years, and much new light is shed on the origins of the special and general theories of relativity. Also discussed in some detail are Einstein's troubled relatio...
Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary
van Calmthout, Matijn
2016-01-01
A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.
Einstein's Legacy, at the Globe
2005-01-01
One-hundred years on, Albert Einstein's theories continue to fuel the daily work of physicists. From research into gravity waves to the quest for grand unification in physics, today's researchers have not finished with the legacy of the most famous and iconic physicist of the 20th Century.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærsgaard, Poul Søren
2010-01-01
Liste med relevant information om den franske forfatter og Nobelprismodtager Albert Camus - fremstillet i forbindelse med 50-året for forfatterens død og i forbindelse med en konference om forfatteren på Syddansk Universitet......Liste med relevant information om den franske forfatter og Nobelprismodtager Albert Camus - fremstillet i forbindelse med 50-året for forfatterens død og i forbindelse med en konference om forfatteren på Syddansk Universitet...
CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal
2006-01-01
On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.
Einstein a hundred years of relativity
Robinson, Andrew
2015-01-01
"The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility … The fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle." --Albert Einstein, 1936 Albert Einstein's universal appeal is only partially explained by his brilliant work in physics, as Andrew Robinson demonstrates in this authoritative, accessible, and richly illustrated biography. The main narrative is enriched by twelve essays by well-known scientists, scholars, and artists, including three Nobel Laureates. The book presents clearly the beautiful simplicity at the heart of Einstein's greatest discoveries, and explains how his ideas have continued to influence scientific developments such as lasers, the theory of the big bang, and "theories of everything." Einstein's life and activities outside of science are also considered, including his encounters with famous contemporaries such as Chaplin, Roosevelt, and Tagore, his love of music, and his troubled family life. The book recognizes that Einstein's striking originality was expressed in many ways, from hi...
Einstein's Years in Switzerland
Plendl, Hans S.
2005-11-01
Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.
The Routledge guidebook to Einstein's relativity
Trefil, James
2015-01-01
Albert Einstein, one of the most prolific scientists of the twentieth century, developed the theory of relativity which was crucial for the advancement of modern physics. Young Einstein identified a paradox between Newtonian Mechanics and Maxwell's equations which pointed to a flawed understanding of space and time by the scientists of the day. In Relativity, Einstein presents his findings using a minimal amount of mathematical language, but the text can still be challenging for readers who lack an extensive scientific background.The Routledge Guidebook to Einstein's Relativity expands on and
[Albert Schweitzer and psychoanalysis].
Noth, Isabelle
2009-01-01
The correspondence between Albert Schweitzer and Oskar Pfister, published in 2006, reveals Schweitzer's strong interest in psychoanalysis. That Schweitzer, ethicist, theologian and missionary doctor, would show such appreciation for psychoanalysis to which the Zurich pastor had introduced him is not immediately self-evident. This article indicates three points of congruence which may explain the connectivity between Schweitzer's thinking and psychoanalysis.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1985 Honorary. Cotton, Prof. Frank Albert. Date of birth: 9 April 1930. Date of death: 20 February 2007. Last known address: Department of Chemistry, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, U.S.A..
Einstein une biographie dessinée
Maier, Corinne
2015-01-01
« Je m'appelle Albert Einstein. En voulant comprendre l'univers, j'ai libéré des forces de destruction terrifiantes. Mais il faut continuer à chercher le grand secret du cosmos. » Albert Einstein (1879-1955) est un immense génie devenu, sans le vouloir, une star de la science. Avec ses théories de la relativité restreinte puis de la relativité générale, il a radicalement transformé nos vies. Voici le récit de son existence passionnée et de ses contributions fondamentales.
Calaprice, Alice
2005-01-01
Albert Einstein was an exceptional human being. Perhaps nothing reflects the breadth and scope of his brilliance, his interests, and his influence better than his publications -- more than six hundred scientific papers, books, essays, reviews, and opinion pieces. Einstein began publishing in March 1901 with a scientific work that appeared in the German journal Annalen der Physik when he was twenty-two; the last publication was an editorial in the journal Common Cause which appeared a few months before his death in 1955. In the fifty-four-year interval, his published work ranged widely over relativity theory and quantum physics, nationalism, Judaism, war, peace, and education. Indeed, Einstein's literary output was so abundant that even many of his most informed admirers are not familiar with all of it. The Einstein Almanac takes a look at Einstein's year-by-year output, explaining his three-hundred most important publications and setting them into the context of his life, science, and world history. Concentr...
Physics before and after Einstein
Capria, M Mamone
2005-01-01
It is now a century ago that one of the icons of modern physics published some of the most influential scientific papers of all times. With his work on relativity and quantum theory, Albert Einstein has altered the field of physics forever. It should not come as a surprise that looking back at Einstein''s work, one needs to rethink the whole scope of physics, before and after his time. This books aims to provide a perspective on the history of modern physics, spanning from the late 19th century up to today. It is not an encyclopaedic work, but it presents the groundbreaking and sometimes provocative main contributions by Einstein as marking the line between ''old'' and ''new'' physics, and expands on some of the developments and open issues to which they gave rise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silber Marcelo
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Determinaram-se os valores hematológicos (Hb, Ht, VCM, HCM, CHCM, reticulócitos e as concentrações séricas de ferro e ferritina no sangue de cordão umbilical de recém-nascidos (RN no Hospital Albert Einstein. A amostra continha 32 RN de termo (T e 30 RN pré-termo (PT. Os RN apresentavam-se clinicamente sadios, sendo excluídos os que apresentaram intercorrências clínicas ou no momento do parto. O sangue foi colhido por punção da veia umbilical até 5 minutos após a dequitação e encaminhado ao laboratório de patologia clínica para processamento laboratorial. Os valores hematológicos encontram-se mais elevados no grupo de RNT em relação ao grupo de RNPT (p<0,05. Ajustando-se um modelo de regressão logística múltipla, o Ht tem valor preditivo para a prematuridade, observando-se uma relação inversamente proporcional entre o valor do Ht e a idade gestacional.
From the Classroom to Washington: Einsteins on Education Reform
Hughes, Kent H., Ed.; Byers, Elizabeth A., Ed.
2010-01-01
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was delighted to host a group of current and former Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellows as they celebrated the 20th anniversary of the fellowship program. Outstanding math and science teachers in America's K-12 schools, the Einstein Fellows spend a year (or sometimes two) working on…
Albert Londe positions autochromistes
Boulouch, Nathalie
2005-01-01
"L'autochromie amènera fatalement une révolution complète dans la photographie d'amateur. Celui qui en aura essayé ne voudra plus rien faire d'autre." Albert Londe, Le Chasseur français, 1909. En octobre 1909, Le Chasseur français publie la dernière "chronique photographique" d'Albert Londe (1858-1917). Celui qui animait les pages de "l'organe de tous les sports et de la vie en plein air" se retire en saluant les frères Lumière pour leur dernière découverte, la plaque autochrome: "...
Einstein and solid-state physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aut, I.
1982-01-01
A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too
Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.
Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao
2014-10-01
Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain.
Einstein's daughter the search for Lieserl
Zackheim, Michele
1999-01-01
A thoroughly gripping and groundbreaking investigation into the mysterious fate of Albert Einstein's illegitimate daughter. Albert Einstein fell in love with Mileva Maric, the woman who would become his first wife, when they were students at the Zurich Polytechnic Institute. When Maric conceived a child out of wedlock, she went home to her family in Serbia to have the child. Lieserl Maric Einstein was born in 1902. Though Einstein and Maric married the following year, Lieserl was left in the care of her grandparents and never became a part of the Einstein family. In fact, her very existence was unknown until the recent discovery of a cache of letters between Einstein and Maric. The final reference to Lieserl comes in a September 1903 letter, when, at the age of approximately eighteen months, she simply disappears. What happened to Einstein's daughter is the most potent mystery to emerge from the mythology that surrounds one of the century's legendary figures, owing in large part to the careful and apparent...
Oberheim, Eric
2016-06-01
Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend promote incommensurability as a central component of their conflicting accounts of the nature of science. This paper argues that in so doing, they both develop Albert Einstein's views, albeit in different directions. Einstein describes scientific revolutions as conceptual replacements, not mere revisions, endorsing 'Kant-on-wheels' metaphysics in light of 'world change'. Einstein emphasizes underdetermination of theory by evidence, rational disagreement in theory choice, and the non-neutrality of empirical evidence. Einstein even uses the term 'incommensurable' specifically to apply to challenges posed to comparatively evaluating scientific theories in 1949, more than a decade before Kuhn and Feyerabend. This analysis shows how Einstein anticipates substantial components of Kuhn and Feyerabend's views, and suggests that there are strong reasons to suspect that Kuhn and Feyerabend were directly inspired by Einstein's use of the term 'incommensurable', as well as his more general methodological and philosophical reflections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity (5-8 April 2005)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braginsky, Vladimir B
2005-01-01
As part of the celebration of the World Year of Physics, the Conference 'Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity' was held in Golm, near Potsdam, Germany, on April 5-8, 2005. The Conference was organized by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (also known as the Albert Einstein Institute), which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2005. Conference participants discussed progress made in theoretical and experimental research during the 100 years since the publication of Einstein's famous papers in 1905, the year which has gone down in history as 'Albert Einstein's ANNUS MIRABILIS'. (annus mirabilis. physics of our days)
Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.
Bennett, Charles L
2005-02-11
Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics.
A student's guide to Einstein's major papers
Kennedy, Robert E
2012-01-01
Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...
[Albert Bandura and his work].
Guerrin, Brigitte
2012-03-01
The Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura (1925) author of the concept of self-efficacy is still not much known of nurses. This article offers an outline of his biography and his work. Theories of Albert Bandura provide a positive, dynamic relationship with the agentivity human control over events that affect their existence. The concept of vicarious learning, self-efficacy and agency can enrich nursing research.
Einstein: His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on the World
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sessler, A.
2005-01-01
The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights)
Einstein His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on the World
Sessler, Andrew M
2005-01-01
The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights).
Jerome, Fred
2005-01-01
Nearly fifty years after his death, Albert Einstein remains one of America's foremost cultural icons. A thicket of materials, ranging from scholarly to popular, have been written, compiled, produced, and published about his life and his teachings. Among the ocean of Einsteinia-scientific monographs, biographies, anthologies, bibliographies, calendars, postcards, posters, and Hollywood films-however, there is a peculiar void when it comes to the connection that the brilliant scientist had with the African American community. Nowhere is there any mention of his close relationship with Pa
How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity
Martinez, Alberto
2013-04-01
I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.
On the role of the Michelson–Morley experiment: Einstein in Chicago
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2009-01-01
This article discusses new material, published in volume 12 of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, that addresses Einstein’s knowledge of the Michelson–Morley experiment prior to 1905: in a lecture in Chicago in 1921, Einstein referred to the experiment, mentioned when he came upon it and
Weinstein, Galina
2012-01-01
I discuss Albert Einstein's 1914 review paper, "The Formal Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity" from two points of view: the main elements in the paper that appear to have led to the downfall of the Einstein-Grossman theory; and the elements that seem to have inspired Einstein during October 1915 to reformulate the 1914 Einstein-Grossmann theory in the form of the November 1915 and the 1916 General Theory of Relativity. First paper among three papers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspect, A.; Grangier, Ph.; Bouchet, F.R.; Brunet, E.; Derrida, B.; Cohen-Tannoudji, C.; Dalibard, J.; Laloe, F.; Damour, Th.; Darrigol, O.; Pocholle, J.P.
2005-01-01
The most important contributions of Einstein involve 5 fields of physics : the existence of quanta (light quanta, stimulated radiation emission and Bose-Einstein condensation), relativity, fluctuations (Brownian motion and thermodynamical fluctuations), the basis of quantum physics and cosmology (cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe). Diverse and renowned physicists have appreciated the development of modern physics from Einstein's ideas to the knowledge of today. This book is a collective book that gathers their work under 7 chapters: 1) 1905, a new beginning; 2) from the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen's article to quantum information (cryptography and quantum computers); 3) the Bose-Einstein condensation in gases; 4) from stimulated emission to the today's lasers; 5) Brownian motion and the fluctuation-dissipation theory; 6) general relativity; and 7) cosmology. (A.C.)
Albert Keding zum 65. Geburtstag
Pietsch, Torsten
2014-01-01
Herr Albert Keding beging am 2. März 1997 seinen 65. Geburtstag. Er wurde in Schreitlacken, Kreis Samland (Ostpreußen) geboren, wo seine Eltern einen Landwirtschaftsbetrieb besaßen. Dort wurde das Interesse des Jubilars zur Landwirtschaft geweckt. So besuchte Albert Keding später in Dassow-Lütgenhof (Mecklenburg) eine Fachschule für Landwirtschaft, wo er seine Vorliebe für Gräser entdeckte. An diese Ausbildung schloss sich ein Landwirtschaftsstudium an der Martin-Luther-Universität in Halle a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, B.
1986-01-01
This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein
Einstein on Race and Racism, presented by Fred Jerome and Rodger Taylor
Jerome, Fred; Taylor, Rodger
2007-10-01
It is little-known that physicist Albert Einstein strongly held the view that ``Racism is America's worst disease.'' Einstein was active in the fight against racism from the 1930's until his death in 1955. Included among his friends were a number of important Afro-American figures, including the educator W.E.B. DuBois, the actor and basso profundo singer Paul Robeson, and the soprano Marian Anderson. Based on the authors' work ``Einstein on Race and Racism.''
Reassessing the Ritz-Einstein debate on the radiation asymmetry in classical electrodynamics
Frisch, Mathias; Pietsch, Wolfgang
2016-08-01
We investigate the debate between Walter Ritz and Albert Einstein on the origin and nature of the radiation asymmetry. We argue that Ritz's views on the radiation asymmetry were far richer and nuanced than the oft-cited joint letter with Einstein (Ritz & Einstein, 1909) suggests, and that Einstein's views in 1909 on the asymmetry are far more ambiguous than is commonly recognized. Indeed, there is strong evidence that Einstein ultimately came to agree with Ritz that elementary radiation processes in classical electrodynamics are non-symmetric and fully retarded.
Calder, Nigel
1979-01-01
This brilliantly written book unlocks the astounding implications of Einstein's revolutionary theories on the nature of science, time and motion. It far surpasses any previous explanation of Relativity for laymen.
Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nicolas
2013-04-01
The Gravity Group at Montana State University (MSU) hosted Celebrating Einstein, a free public arts and multimedia event celebrating Einstein and his ideas in Bozeman, Montana April 2-6, 2013. The products of our efforts are now available to any party interested in hosting a similar event. Celebrating Einstein is a truly interdisciplinary effort including art, film, dance, music, physics, history, and education. Events included a black hole immersive art installation, a series of public talks by physicists, and Einstein lessons in the public schools leading up to a live free public multimedia performance including a professional dance company, a live interview with a renowned physicist, and an original score composed for the MSU student symphony to be performed with an original film produced by the Science and Natural History film program at MSU. This project is funded by the Montana Space Grant Consortium, Montana State University, and the National Science Foundation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winterflood, A.H.
1980-01-01
In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)
Einstein's physics atoms, quanta, and relativity : derived, explained, and appraised
Cheng, Ta-Pei
2013-01-01
Many regard Albert Einstein as the greatest physicist since Newton. What exactly did he do that is so important in physics? We provide an introduction to his physics at a level accessible to an undergraduate physics student. All equations are worked out in detail from the beginning. Einstein's doctoral thesis and his Brownian motion paper were decisive contributions to our understanding of matter as composed of molecules and atoms. Einstein was one of the founding fathers of quantum theory: his photon proposal through the investigation of blackbody radiation, his quantum theory of photoelectri
Lomnitz, C.
2007-05-01
What does Einstein have to do with subduction? Good question. Peaceful Lake Budi, lying at the heart of an Indian reservation in the Deep South of Chile, had subsided by two meters in the 1960 mega-thrust earthquake. This unique South American salt lake was hiding an awful secret: it was actually an oxbow, not a lake. But Einstein had realized in 1926 that meanders are natural freaks. Rivers will not flow uphill, yet - he claimed - they don't flow down the path of steepest descent either. This anomaly was put at the doorstep of a weak Coriolis Force. Thus Einstein problematized the dilemma of the earth sciences. How can a non-force produce margin-parallel compression in a convergent margin where extension is expected? In fact, where does the energy for meander formation come from? Good question . . . Even Wikipedia knows that Coriolis is not a “force” but an “effect”. So is the obliquity of plate convergence in subduction. Where did Einstein err, and where was he a pioneer? Coastal ablation plus alternating subsidence and emergence in giant earthquakes may yield an answer. Einstein, A. (1926). Die Ursache der Maeanderbildung der Flusslaeufe und das sogenannte Baersche Gesetz, Naturwissenschaften, 14, fascicle II.
PEMIKIRAN PENDIDIKAN MORAL ALBERT BANDURA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qumruin Nurul Laila
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Albert Bandura dilahirkan pada tanggal 4 Desember 1925 di Mundare, sebuah kota kecil di barat daya Alberta, Kanada, sekitar 50 mil sebelah timur Edmonton. Berasal dari keluarga keturunan Eropa Timur. Ayahnya dari Krakow Polandia dan ibunya dari Ukraina. Pada tahun 1952 Albert Bandura menikah dengan Virginia Varns dan dikaruniai dua orang anak, Mary dan Carol. Bandura belajar bersama Robert Sears, salah satu perintis teori belajar sosial lainnya dan mengambil gelar diplomanya dari University of British Columbia dan gelar kesarjanaan psikologinya dari University of Iowa. Karena reputasinya, pada tahun 1974 dia dipercaya menjabat sebagai Presiden Asosiasi Psikologi Amerika (APA. Sebagai ahli dibidang psikologi, dia percaya bahwa proses transfer keilmuan atau pendidikan, tak lepas dari norma-norma moral yang berlaku di masyarakat hingga nilai-nilai dari norma tersebut diejawantahkan dalam prilaku siswa sehari-hari. Atas dasar asumsi tersebut, maka teori pembelajaran Albert Bandura disebut sosial kognitif karena proses kognitif dalam diri individu memegang peranan dalam pembelajaran, sedangkan pembelajaran terjadi karena adanya pengaruh lingkungan sosial. Proses tahapan-tahapan dalam pembelajaran social kognitif meliputi: Tahap perhatian (attentional phase, Tahap penyimpanan dalam ingatan (retention phase, Tahap reproduksi (reproduction phase dan tahap motivasi (motivation phase. Teori pembelajaran sosial ini menekankan kepada proses bagaimana anak-anak belajar norma-norma kemasyarakatan. Jika pesan yang disampaikan bersifat positif, anak-anak menerimanya dengan baik dan pengaruh lainnya adalah sama positifnya, maka anak itu akan cenderung untuk membesar dengan nilai-nilai yang baik. Begitu juga sebaliknya.
Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb
Rife, Patricia
2005-03-01
Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).
Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.
van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J
2010-06-18
Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.
The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions
Illy, József
2012-01-01
Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...
Einstein before Israel Zionist icon or iconoclast?
Rosenkranz, Ze’ev
2011-01-01
Albert Einstein was initially skeptical and even disdainful of the Zionist movement, yet he affiliated himself with this controversial political ideology and today is widely seen as an outspoken advocate for a modern Jewish homeland in Palestine. What enticed this renowned scientist and humanitarian, who repeatedly condemned nationalism of all forms, to radically change his views? Was he in fact a Zionist? Einstein Before Israel traces Einstein's involvement with Zionism from his initial contacts with the movement at the end of World War I to his emigration from Germany in 1933 in the wake of Hitler's rise to power. Drawing on a wealth of rare archival evidence--much of it never before published--this book offers the most nuanced picture yet of Einstein's complex and sometimes stormy relationship with Jewish nationalism. Ze'ev Rosenkranz sheds new light on Einstein's encounters with prominent Zionist leaders, and reveals exactly what Einstein did and didn't like about Zionist beliefs, objectives, and methods...
Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2015-09-01
We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the early 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplified relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.
De Sitter en Einstein. ‘Het lijkt mij dat Einstein hier een vergissing begaan heeft’
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Guichelaar
2016-10-01
Full Text Available De Sitter and EinsteinWillem de Sitter’s interest in gravity was based on his work on celestial mechanics, in particular on the four big moons of Jupiter. His work on cosmology was based on the general theory of relativity of Albert Einstein. De Sitter published in 1917, on request of Arthur Eddington to inform the English astronomers, a series of four articles in The Observatory and the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Einstein developed his own cosmological models, containing mass. De Sitter found a different solution and described a universe without mass. Einstein could not accept De Sitter’s model and they ‘fought out’ two controversies in their correspondence. In theend Einstein had to confess De Sitter was mainly right in his criticisms. In 1932 Einstein and De Sitter published an article on a new model, the so-called Einstein-De Sitter Model of the universe. So, De Sitter was able to do fundamental work in classical celestial mechanics as well as in the new cosmological theories.
Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar
2008-01-01
Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…
Rowe, David E; Schulmann, Robert
2013-01-01
The most famous scientist of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein was also one of the century's most outspoken political activists. Deeply engaged with the events of his tumultuous times, from the two world wars and the Holocaust, to the atomic bomb and the Cold War, to the effort to establish a Jewish homeland, Einstein was a remarkably prolific political writer, someone who took courageous and often unpopular stands against nationalism, militarism, anti-Semitism, racism, and McCarthyism. In Einstein on Politics, leading Einstein scholars David Rowe and Robert Schulmann gather Einstein's m
76 FR 11789 - Albert Poet: Debarment Order
2011-03-03
...] Albert Poet: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... FD&C Act) permanently debarring Albert Poet, MD from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application. We base this order on a finding that Dr. Poet...
Einstein: His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on theWorld
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sessler, A.
2005-07-30
The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights).
Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar
2008-10-01
Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity.1-4 The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a constant velocity.5 Einstein showed an intriguing fact that the usual law of reflection would not hold in the case of a uniformly moving mirror, that is, the angles of incidence and reflection of the light would not equal each other. Later on, it has been shown that the law of reflection at a moving mirror can be obtained in various alternative ways,6-10 but none of them seems suitable for bringing this interesting subject into the high school classroom.
Hertz, P.
2003-03-01
The Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) theme within NASA's Office of Space Science seeks to explore and understand the dynamic transformations of energy in the Universe - the entire web of biological and physical interactions that determine the evolution of our cosmic habitat. This search for understanding will enrich the human spirit and inspire a new generation of explorers, scientists, and engineers. To that end, NASA's strategic planning process has generated a new Roadmap to enable those goals. Called "Beyond Einstein", this Roadmap identifies three science objectives for the SEU theme: (1) Find out what powered the Big Bang; (2) Observe how black holes manipulate space, time, and matter; and (3) Identify the mysterious dark energy pullingthe Universe apart. These objectives can be realized through a combination of large observatories (Constellation-X, LISA), moderate sized, PI-led missions (the Einstein Probes), and a contuinuing program of technology development, research and analysis, and education/public outreach. In this presentation, NASA's proposed Beyond Einstein Program will be described. The full Roadmap is available at http://universe.nasa.gov/.
Secrets of the old one Einstein, 1905
Bernstein, Jeremy
2006-01-01
In March 1905, at approximately eight week intervals, the Editor of the noted German physics journal, Annalen der Physik, received three hand-written manuscripts from a relatively unknown patent examiner in Bern, Switzerland. This patent examiner was the twenty-six year old Albert Einstein and the three papers would set the agenda for twentieth century physics. A fourth short paper was received in September 1905 and contained Einstein's derivation of the formula E=mc^2. These papers changed our lives in the twentieth century and beyond. While to a professional physicist the mathematics in these papers are quite straight forward, the ideas behind them are not. In fact, none of Einstein's contemporaries fully understood what he had done. In SECRETS OF THE OLD ONE: Einstein, 1905, renowned science writer Jeremy Bernstein makes these ideas accessible to a general reader with a limited background in mathematics. After reading this book, you will understand why 1905 is often designated as Einstein's miracle year.
Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe
Nussbaumer, Harry
2014-02-01
In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.
Relativity and Gravitation : 100 Years After Einstein in Prague
Ledvinka, Tomáš; General Relativity, Cosmology and Astrophysics : Perspectives 100 Years After Einstein's Stay in Prague
2014-01-01
In early April 1911 Albert Einstein arrived in Prague to become full professor of theoretical physics at the German part of Charles University. It was there, for the first time, that he concentrated primarily on the problem of gravitation. Before he left Prague in July 1912 he had submitted the paper “Relativität und Gravitation: Erwiderung auf eine Bemerkung von M. Abraham” in which he remarkably anticipated what a future theory of gravity should look like. At the occasion of the Einstein-in-Prague centenary an international meeting was organized under a title inspired by Einstein's last paper from the Prague period: "Relativity and Gravitation, 100 Years after Einstein in Prague". The main topics of the conference included: classical relativity, numerical relativity, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology, quantum gravity, experimental aspects of gravitation, and conceptual and historical issues. The conference attracted over 200 scientists from 31 countries, among them a number of leading experts in ...
Foster, Brian
2008-09-01
This is a remarkable and, at times, bewilderingly diverse volume. Consisting of 20 essays that represent the proceedings of a conference held in 2005 in Berlin, Germany, during the International Year of Physics, it offers insights into Einstein's influence on a swathe of human activity. In the introduction the distinguished editors make some remarkable claims for the book, calling it "an unique attempt" and saying that "there is no better introduction to...string theory", while the first essay states "Not since Newton's Principia..." Clearly this is a volume that aspires to high standards.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Těšínská, Emilie
2015-01-01
Roč. 60, č. 3 (2015), s. 239-254 ISSN 0032-2423 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : general theory of relativity * Albert Einstein * history of science * Viktor Trkal Subject RIV: AB - History
Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis
Stuewer, Roger H.
2005-05-01
The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.
Einstein, la luz, el espacio-tiempo y los cuantos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Barbero G., J.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The study of light, its nature and properties was a central topic in the works of Albert Einstein. This paper discusses the role of light in the formulation of special relativity, in particular as a tool to provide operational definitions of the basic kinematic concepts. It also discusses the role of light in understanding general relativity and ends by briefly considering its quantum behaviour.El estudio de la luz, su naturaleza y sus propiedades ocupó un lugar central en los trabajos de Albert Einstein. En este artículo se discute el papel de la luz en la formulación de la relatividad especial, en particular como instrumento para la definición operacional de las magnitudes cinemáticas básicas, se muestra su importancia para la comprensión de la relatividad general y, por último, se considera brevemente su comportamiento cuántico.
From the Berlin "Entwurf" Field Equations to the Einstein Tensor III: March 1916
Weinstein, Galina
2012-01-01
I discuss Albert Einstein's 1916 General Theory of Relativity. I show that in Einstein's 1916 review paper, "the Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity", he derived his November 25, 1915 field equations with an additional term on the right hand side involving the trace of the energy-momentum tensor (he posed the condition square root -g=1) using the equations he presented on November 4, 1915. Series of papers: Final paper.
Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishveshwara, C.
2006-01-01
Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)
Einstein's strugges with quantum theory a reappraisal
Home, Dipankar
2007-01-01
Einstein’s Struggles with Quantum Theory: A Reappraisal by Dipankar Home and Andrew Whitaker provides a detailed account of Albert Einstein’s thinking in regard to quantum physics. Until recently, most of Einstein’s views on quantum physics were dismissed and even ridiculed; some critics even suggested that Einstein was not able to grasp the complexities of the formalism of quantum theory and subtleties of the standard interpretation of this theory known as the Copenhagen interpretation put forward by Niels Bohr and his colleagues. But was that true? Modern scholarship argues otherwise, insist Drs. Home and Whitaker, who painstakingly explain the questions Einstein raised as well as offer a detailed discussion of Einstein’s position and major contributions to quantum theory, connecting them with contemporary studies on fundamental aspects of this theory. This unique book presents a mathematical as well as a non-mathematical route through the theories, controversies, and investigations, making the disc...
Ritz, Einstein, and the Emission Hypothesis
Martínez, Alberto A.
. Just as Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity was gaining acceptance around 1908, the young Swiss physicist Walter Ritz advanced a competing though preliminary emission theory that sought to explain the phenomena of electrodynamics on the assumption that the speed of light depends on the motion of its source. I survey Ritz's unfinished work in this area and review the reasons why Einstein and other physicists rejected Ritz's and other emission theories. Since Ritz's emission theory attracted renewed attention in the 1960s, I discuss how the earlier observational evidence was misconstrued as telling against it more conclusively than actually was the case. Finally, I contrast the role played by evidence against Ritz's theory with other factors that led to the early rejection of his approach.
How were the Hilbert-Einstein equations discovered?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, Anatolii A; Mestvirishvili, Mirian A; Petrov, Vladimir A
2004-01-01
The ways in which Albert Einstein and David Hilbert independently arrived at the gravitational field equations are traced. A critical analysis is presented of a number of papers in which the history of the derivation of the equations is viewed in a way that 'radically differs from the standard point of view'. The conclusions of these papers are shown to be totally unfounded. (from the history of physics)
Obituary: Albert G. Petschek, 1928-2004
Colgate, Stirling A.; Petschek, Rolfe G.; Libersky, Larry D.
2005-12-01
Albert G. Petschek died suddenly 8 July 2004. He enjoyed good health and was very active professionally and personally until his death. He was highly respected, particularly in theoretical physics, for his deep, broad-ranging analytical powers, which resulted in contributions to nuclear physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, quantum mechanics, and quantum computing. Albert was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1928. His extended family left Czechoslovakia when its sovereignty was threatened by Germany in 1938 and settled throughout the Western Hemisphere. Albert's father, a banker, settled in Scarsdale, near New York City. Albert graduated from White Plains High School and obtained his BS from MIT in a program accelerated during World War II. While getting his masters degree at the University of Michigan, Albert met his wife, Marilyn, also a physics masters student. In 1953, Albert obtained his PhD from the University of Rochester working with Robert Marshak on aspects of nuclear theory, and joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), then Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Soon thereafter, Albert's younger brother, Harry, also became a PhD physicist. Harry is now well known in plasma physics for reconnection theory. At Los Alamos, Albert worked closely with Carson Mark, Marshall Rosenbluth, and Conrad Longmire designing the first thermonuclear weapons. His derivation of several radiation diffusion solutions, later published as LAMS 2421, remains a classic in its field, as does work on nuclear theory done with Baird Brandow and Hans Bethe during a sabbatical at Cornell in 1961. Bethe was a frequent visitor to Los Alamos and a close friend. A devoted family man, Albert also valued Los Alamos as a safe, stimulating environment for raising an active family. Like many of the scientists at Los Alamos, Albert enjoyed its ready access to outdoor activities such as hiking and skiing. Albert often combined his passions for intellectual activity and the outdoors
Albert Camus´ "Katk" / Ott Ojamaa
Ojamaa, Ott, 1926-1996
2010-01-01
Arvustus: Camus, Albert. Katk : romaan / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Henno Rajandi ; eessõna: Ott Ojamaa. Tallinn : Ajalehtede-Ajakirjade Kirjastus, 1963. (Loomingu raamatukogu ; 1963, 43/46 (311/314))
Range, Shannon K'doah; Mullins, Jennifer
This teaching guide introduces a relativity gyroscope experiment aiming to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. An introduction to the theory includes the following sections: (1) "Spacetime, Curved Spacetime, and Frame-Dragging"; (2) "'Seeing' Spacetime with Gyroscopes"; (3)…
Going to School with Madame Curie and Mr. Einstein: Gender Roles in Children's Science Biographies
Owens, Trevor
2009-01-01
One of the first places children encounter science and scientists is children's literature. Children's books about science and scientists have, however, received limited scholarly attention. By exploring the history of children's biographies of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, the two most written about scientist in children's literature, this…
Gutfreund, Hanoch
2017-01-01
First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein's The Meaning of Relativity offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of relativity. The work would go on to become a monumental classic, printed in numerous editions and translations worldwide. Now, The Formative Years of Relativity introduces Einstein's masterpiece to new audiences. This beautiful volume contains Einstein's insightful text, accompanied by important historical materials and commentary looking at the origins and development of general relativity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jurgen Renn provide fresh, original perspectives, placing Einstein's achievements into a broader context for all readers. In this book, Gutfreund and Renn tell the rich story behind the early reception, spread, and consequences of Einstein's ideas during the formative years of general relativity in the late 1910s and 1920s. They show that relativity's meaning changed radically throughout the nascent years of it...
Einstein's opponents the public controversy about the theory of relativity in the 1920s
Wazeck, Milena
2014-01-01
This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.
Plan de mejoramiento para la gestión administrativa del Colegio Alberto Einstein
Núñez Zambrano, Eliana Leticia
2006-01-01
En el primer capítulo de esta investigación se expone un diagnóstico del Colegio Alberto Einstein abarcando temas como la misión, visión, una breve biografía de Albert Einstein, el científico judío alemán más brillante del siglo XX que fue homenajeado con el Premio Novel de Física, un hombre pacífico, muy creativo, inteligente y humanitario. Se expondrá la historia de cómo fue creado el Colegio Alberto Einstein, conoceremos el organigrama estructural, la cultura organizacion...
Einstein's Annalen Papers: The Complete Collection 1901 - 1922
Renn, Jürgen
2005-05-01
In 1905, Einstein's Annus Mirabilis, Albert Einstein made three discoveries concerning the foundations of nature which form the basis of his fame as a physicist. These revolutionary papers on the light-quantum hypothesis, Brownian motion, and special relativity, were published in the journal "Annalen der Physik". All three are now established as pillars of modern science and its applications in technology and are an indispensable part of the modern world. This volume presents some of the most significant original papers which Albert Einstein ever wrote. It includes the facsimiles of the three revolutionary papers of 1905. In addition it contains papers which show the consequences of the ground-breaking ideas of these seminal papers from E=mcÂ² to the quantum theory of specific heats. It also features Einstein's first exposition of his new general theory of relativity. Introducing the original German papers the science historians Jürgen Renn (MPI for the History of Science, Berlin), David C. Cassidy (Hofstra University, Hempstead), Michel Janssen (University of Minnesota), and Robert Rynasiewicz (John Hopkins University) complement and comment the collection with topical articles.
Thermodynamics in Einstein's thought
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, M.J.
1983-01-01
The role of the thermodynamical approach in the Einstein's scientific work is analyzed. The Einstein's development of a notion about statistical fluctuations of thermodynamical systems that leads him to discovery of corpuscular-wave dualism is retraced
Einstein's philosophy of physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seeger, R.J.
1979-01-01
Sources of Einstein's philosophical ideas are discussed. Einstein was indebted to Mach and Poincare, and espoused more or less a logical empiricism. He looked upon Nature as real, rational, and understandable, at least to an extent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, A.P.
1979-01-01
The subject is divided as follows: part 1, reminiscences (of Einstein and his life, by various authors); part 2, Einstein and his work (includes accounts of special and general relativity, gravitation, the development of quantum physics and concepts of space and time); part 3, Einstein's letters; part 4, Einstein's writings (including accounts of electrodynamics of moving bodies, general relativity, method of theoretical physics and an elementary derivation of the equivalence of mass and energy). (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tananbaum, H.
1990-01-01
The presentations at the 10th Anniversary Einstein Symposium and the articles in this book cover a wide variety of scientific topics describing some of the important advances and discoveries made with the Einstein Observatory. The breadth and depth of science carried out with Einstein has made it essentially impossible to cover fully individual subdisciplines in single review talks and papers. Some of the major Einstein highlights are summarized and the scientific prospects for AXAF are assessed. (author)
Einstein today; Einstein aujourd'hui
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aspect, A.; Grangier, Ph. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique a Orsay, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouchet, F.R. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 75 - Paris (France); Brunet, E.; Derrida, B. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France); Cohen-Tannoudji, C. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France); Dalibard, J.; Laloe, F. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel. UMR 8552 (ENS, UPMC, CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Damour, Th. [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 91 - Bures sur Yvette (France); Darrigol, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Groupe Histoire des Sciences Rehseis, 75 - Paris (France); Pocholle, J.P. [Thales Research et Technology France, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2005-07-01
The most important contributions of Einstein involve 5 fields of physics : the existence of quanta (light quanta, stimulated radiation emission and Bose-Einstein condensation), relativity, fluctuations (Brownian motion and thermodynamical fluctuations), the basis of quantum physics and cosmology (cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe). Diverse and renowned physicists have appreciated the development of modern physics from Einstein's ideas to the knowledge of today. This book is a collective book that gathers their work under 7 chapters: 1) 1905, a new beginning; 2) from the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen's article to quantum information (cryptography and quantum computers); 3) the Bose-Einstein condensation in gases; 4) from stimulated emission to the today's lasers; 5) Brownian motion and the fluctuation-dissipation theory; 6) general relativity; and 7) cosmology. (A.C.)
Biographical sketch: Albert P. Iskrant, MA, FAPHA.
Brand, Richard A
2010-07-01
This biographical sketch on Albert P. Iskrant corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: The Etiology of Fractured Hips in Females, available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1267-y . The article can also be accessed on the American Journal of Public Health web site at http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/485 .
Biographical Sketch: Albert P. Iskrant, MA, FAPHA
Brand, Richard A.
2010-01-01
This biographical sketch on Albert P. Iskrant corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: The Etiology of Fractured Hips in Females, available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1267-y. The article can also be accessed on the American Journal of Public Health web site at http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/485.
2260-IJBCS-Article-Prof Trokourey Albert
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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Datché TRAORE1,2, A.S.M. ABDELAZIZ2, Yapi S. BROU1 and Albert TROKOUREY1*. 1 Laboratoire ... preparation by simple mixing a modifier with the paste. ..... copper mixed chelate complexation. An. Univ. ... electrode modified with iron (II).
Albert Memmi in the Era of Decolonization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keally McBride
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This essay considers the reception of Albert Memmi's Decolonization and the Decolonized. Memmi himself observed that it is much harder to be a writer about postcolonialism than colonialism. Why would this be true? What can we learn about the difficutlies of postcolonial philosophizing and the politics of decolonization through this publication of Memmi's?
Hess, Karl
2014-01-01
All modern books on Einstein emphasize the genius of his relativity theory and the corresponding corrections and extensions of the ancient space-time concept. However, Einstein's opposition to the use of probability in the laws of nature and particularly in the laws of quantum mechanics is criticized and often portrayed as outdated. The author of Einstein Was Right! takes a unique view and shows that Einstein created a ""Trojan horse"" ready to unleash forces against the use of probability as a basis for the laws of nature. Einstein warned that the use of probability would, in the final analys
Einstein solvmanifolds and the pre-Einstein derivation
Nikolayevsky, Y.
2008-01-01
An Einstein nilradical is a nilpotent Lie algebra, which can be the nilradical of a metric Einstein solvable Lie algebra. The classification of Riemannian Einstein solvmanifolds (possibly, of all noncompact homogeneous Einstein spaces) can be reduced to determining, which nilpotent Lie algebras are Einstein nilradicals and to finding, for every Einstein nilradical, its Einstein metric solvable extension. For every nilpotent Lie algebra, we construct an (essentially unique) derivation, the pre...
Einstein's Cosmos (German Title: Einsteins Kosmos)
Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Dick, Wolfgang R.
The different contributions of the present volume illuminate the interaction between Einstein and his colleagues when the foundations of modern cosmology were laid: First, the relativistic effects in the solar system, the gravitational redshift in the solar spectrum, and Einstein's relations with Freundlich and Eddington. Second, the cosmological models of Einstein, de Sitter, Friedmann, and Lemaître, which were discussed controversely till the end of the 1920s. Other scientists have also widened or critically questioned Einstein's insight and knowledge: Schwarzschild, Selety, Silberstein, and Mandl, whose life and work is discussed in separate articles. In those days, politics more than ever in history had influenced the lifes of scientists. Therefore, some comments on the ``political cosmos'' that has influenced decisively Einstein's life are also given. A special role in popularizing Einstein's world view was played by Archenhold Observatory in Berlin. A list of Einstein memorial places and a bibliographic list conclude the present book. All papers are written in German, and have English abstracts.
[Lambarene 25 years after Albert Schweitzer].
Munz, W
1993-04-27
The author, who lived with Albert Schweitzer during the last four years of the doctor's life, and who worked as a physician in Lambarene for ten years, tells about the evolution of the Gabonese Republic and the Lambarene Hospital since 1961. The actual medical importance of the hospital as well as the spiritual response Schweitzer still finds today among Africans are described. And: Africa, too, has a message for us.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cullwick, E.G.
1979-01-01
Einstein published his Special Theory of Relativity in 1905 and in 1915 his General Theory which predicted the bending of light rays passing near the sun. This prediction was apparently confirmed experimentally in 1919 bringing Einstein popular acclaim. Einstein's work is reviewed and the question of whether he was in fact first in the field is examined with especial reference to the work of Maxwell, Lorentz and Poincare. (U.K.)
The ultimate quotable Einstein
2011-01-01
Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein's Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein's life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson's authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice.
Bruno, Galileo, Einstein: The Value of Myths in Physics
Martinez, Alberto
2015-03-01
Usually, historical myths are portrayed as something to be avoided in a physics classroom. Instead, I will discuss the positive function of myths and how they can be used to improve physics education. First, on the basis of historical research from primary sources and significant new findings about the Catholic Inquisition, I will discuss how to use the inspirational story of Giordano Bruno when discussing cosmology. Next, I will discuss the recurring story about Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Finally, I will discuss how neglected stories about the young Albert Einstein can help to inspire students.
Astronomical and Cosmological Symbolism in Art Dedicated to Newton and Einstein
Sinclair, R.
2013-04-01
Separated by two and a half centuries, Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) had profound impacts on our understanding of the universe. Newton established our understanding of universal gravitation, which was recast almost beyond recognition by Einstein. Both discovered basic patterns behind astronomical phenomena and became the best-known scientists of their respective periods. I will describe here how artists of the 18th and 20th centuries represented the achievements of Newton and Einstein. Representations of Newton express reverence, almost an apotheosis, portraying him as the creator of the universe. Einstein, in a different age, is represented often as a comic figure, and only rarely do we find art that hints at the profound view of the universe he developed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zalewski, Kacper
2000-01-01
The effect of Bose-Einstein correlations on multiplicity distributions of identical pions is discussed. It is found that these correlations affect significantly the observed multiplicity distributions, but Einstein's condensation is unlikely to be achieved, unless 'cold spots', i.e. regions, where groups of pions with very small relative momenta are produced, occur in high energy heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1980-01-01
In the first part of this book a historical review of Einstein life and works are presented. In the second part papers about different aspects of quantum mechanics are given. The third part is devoted to a round table on Einstein, Podolski and Rosen paradox [fr
Fox, Karen C
2004-01-01
Einstein was the twentieth century's most celebrated scientist - a man who developed the theory of relativity, revolutionised physics and became an iconic genius in the popular imagination. Essays range from the reasonably scientific including the theory of relativity, to the odd and engaging, such as Einstein's brain, his favourite jokes and films.
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
Grube, Dirk Martin
2002-01-01
In this article, it is argued that Hans Albert's criticism of Christianity is stronger than the logical positivist as well as the classical, e.g. Feuerbachian, criticism, since it rests on less questionable presuppositions. Other than those other forms of criticism, it does not presuppose an
Medical research at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital.
Issifou, Saadou; Adegnika, Ayola A; Lell, Bertrand
2010-03-01
Built in 1981, the Medical Research Unit is located at the campus of the Albert Schweitzer Hospital. The main scientific activities of this research unit lie on clinical research focusing on antimalarial drugs and vaccines, and basic studies on pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Since 2002 the Medical Research Unit has experience in organising and hosting high quality training in clinical research in collaboration with the Vienna School of Clinical Research and other partners. For the future, this unit is involved as a key partner in the Central African Network on Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria (CANTAM) consortium playing a central role for the excellence in clinical research in Central Africa.
Heilbron, John
2005-03-01
As an editor of the Annalen der Physik, Max Planck published Einstein's early papers on thermodynamics and on special relativity, which Planck probably was the first major physicist to appreciate. They respected one another not only as physicists but also, for their inspired creation of world pictures, as artists. Planck helped to establish Einstein in a sinecure at the center of German physics, Berlin. Despite their differences in scientific style, social life, politics, and religion, they became fast friends. Their mutual admiration survived World War I, during which Einstein advocated pacifism and Planck signed the infamous Manifesto of the 93 Intellectuals supporting the German invasion of Belgium. It also survived the Weimar Republic, which Einstein favored and Planck disliked. Physics drew them together, as both opposed the Copenhagen Interpretation; so did common decency, as Planck helped to protect Einstein from anti-semitic attacks. Their friendship did not survive the Nazis. As a standing secretary of the Berlin Academy, Planck had to advise Einstein to resign from it before his colleagues, outraged at his criticism of the new Germany from the safety of California, expelled him. Einstein never forgave his old friend and former fellow artist for not protesting publicly against his expulsion and denigration, and other enormities of National Socialism. .
Albert and Erwin: decline and fall
Weaire, Denis
2015-04-01
More than a century has passed since quantum theory began to pose teasing questions about how we interpret our world. Books abound that offer alternative views of the problems the theory raises, and Einstein's Dice and SchrÃ¶dinger's Cat is another.
Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life
Rud, A. G.
2010-01-01
"Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education" is the first book devoted to the study of the thought and deeds of Albert Schweitzer in relation to education. Schweitzer's life and work offer both inspiration and timely insights for educational thought and practice in the twenty-first century. Focusing on Schweitzer's central thought,…
Little Albert from the Viewpoint of Abnormal Psychology Textbook Authors.
LeUnes, Arnold
1983-01-01
Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert and conditioned emotional reactions is unquestionably a classic in psychology. Observations are made on what authors of 27 college textbooks in abnormal psychology have to say or not to say about Little Albert. (RM)
Dr. Albert Carr--Science Educator 1930-2000
Lopez, Leslie
2013-01-01
The very first issue of "Educational Perspectives" was published in October of 1962. Dr. Albert Carr wrote one of the inaugural essays on the topic of current developments in science education, and he went on to write several other articles for the journal. This article shares why Dr. Albert Carr's colleagues remember him for his…
[The last days of Albert Schweitzer].
Wjst, Matthias
2015-12-01
Schweitzer was one of the leading physicians of the last century. He overcame not only the boundaries of humanities and natural sciences, but also the boundaries of Europe and Africa. He has become a symbol of humanity. But the person of Albert Schweitzer was almost in danger of disappearing behind it. "My hair starts to turn gray. My body begins to feel the exertions I have undertaken, and the burden of the years". This is how the 56-year-old Schweitzer ended his autobiography "Out of my life and thought" in 1931. Even 50 years after Schweitzer's death in 1965, there is still no coherent scientific reappraisal of his work. Part of the posthumous manuscripts was published in recent years in a critical edition, including first biographies that are no longer considered as hagiography, as they would have been in the contemporary literature. The legacy, however, is scattered. Much of the correspondence and the library are located in Schweitzer's former house in Gunsbach in Alsace. The manuscripts are mainly stored in the Central Library Zurich, but also in the Syracuse University New York, while the personal bequest is in the hands of his family or collectors. This presentation is part of a biographical approach and depicts the last weeks in the life of Albert Schweitzer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Einstein's statistical mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baracca, A; Rechtman S, R
1985-08-01
The foundation of equilibrium classical statistical mechanics were laid down in 1902 independently by Gibbs and Einstein. The latter's contribution, developed in three papers published between 1902 and 1904, is usually forgotten and when not, rapidly dismissed as equivalent to Gibb's. We review in detail Einstein's ideas on the foundations of statistical mechanics and show that they constitute the beginning of a research program that led Einstein to quantum theory. We also show how these ideas may be used as a starting point for an introductory course on the subject.
Einstein's statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baracca, A.; Rechtman S, R.
1985-01-01
The foundation of equilibrium classical statistical mechanics were laid down in 1902 independently by Gibbs and Einstein. The latter's contribution, developed in three papers published between 1902 and 1904, is usually forgotten and when not, rapidly dismissed as equivalent to Gibb's. We review in detail Einstein's ideas on the foundations of statistical mechanics and show that they constitute the beginning of a research program that led Einstein to quantum theory. We also show how these ideas may be used as a starting point for an introductory course on the subject. (author)
Einstein Ring in Distant Universe
2005-06-01
population. The far away lensed galaxy, however, is extremely active, having recently experienced bursts of star formation. It is a compact galaxy, 7,000 light-years across. "Because the gravitational pull of matter bends the path of light rays, astronomical objects - stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters - can act like lenses, which magnify and severely distort the images of galaxies behind them, producing weird pictures as in a hall of mirrors", explains Chris Lidman (ESO), co-discover of the new cosmic mirage. In the most extreme case, where the foreground lensing galaxy and the background galaxy are perfectly lined up, the image of the background galaxy is stretched into a ring. Such an image is known as an Einstein ring, because the formula for the bending of light, first described in the early twentieth century by Chwolson and Link, uses Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Gravitational lensing provides a very useful tool with which to study the Universe. As "weighing scales", it provides a measure of the mass within the lensing body, and as a "magnifying glass", it allows us to see details in objects which would otherwise be beyond the reach of current telescopes. From the image, co-worker David Valls-Gabaud (CFHT), using state-of-the-art modelling algorithms, could deduce the mass of the galaxy acting as a lens - it is almost one million million suns. More information The paper describing this research has been published as a Letter to the Editor in Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 436, L21-L25 ("Discovery of a high-redshift Einstein ring", by R.A. Cabanac, D. Valls-Gabaud, A.O. Jaunsen, C. Lidman, and H. Jerjen). The paper is available for download in PDF format from the A&A web site.
Einstein y la filosofía del siglo XX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sánchez Ron, José Manuel
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The philosophical influences that helped Albert Einstein to build the special relativity theory are studied as his philosophical opinions changed as time passed to adapt to the content of his physics: this characteristic was particularly notorious in connection with the general theory of the relativity. The reception of Einstein’s relativity in the Philosophy World is studied too, first of all in the German-speaking world (Schlick, Cassirer, Reichenbach, Carnap y Popper, next in the British one (Russell, idealism versus realism, then in the US (Bridgman, operationalism and also in the Spanish world (Ortega y Gasset.Se analizan las influencias filosóficas que ayudaron a Albert Einstein en la construcción de la teoría de la relatividad especial, y cómo sus opiniones filosóficas cambiaron con el tiempo para adecuarlas al contenido de su física, un rasgo que es especialmente notorio con relación a la teoría general de la relatividad. Asimismo, se considera la recepción de la relatividad einsteiniana en el mundo filosófico; primero en el de habla alemana (los casos, especialmente, de Schlick, Cassirer, Reichenbach, Carnap y Popper, británico (Russell, idealismo versus realismo, estadounidense (operacionalismo, Bridgman y español (Ortega y Gasset.
Damour, Thibault
2006-01-01
It is well known that Einstein founded twentieth-century physics with his work on relativity and quanta, but what do we really know about these ground breaking ideas? How were they discovered? What should we retain today from the conceptual upheavals he initiated? Through a selection of concrete scenes taken from Einstein's life, the author offers a view into the formation of his theories, as well as reminders of the day-to-day applications of his ideas. Simultaneously the reader is lead through a reflection on their philosophical impact: How should we think of time according to the theory of relativity, which removes any meaningful "now" and shows that twins can have different ages? How should we think of reality when quantum theory predicts that spatially separated objects nevertheless remain connected through Einstein's notion of "entanglement," which has recently been verified through scientific observation? This book puts readers in Einstein's place, allowing them to share some of those particular moment...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gekman, O.
1982-01-01
The brief essay of the development of the main ideas of relativistic cosmology is presented. The Einstein's cosmological work about the Universe - ''Cosmological considerations in connection with the general relativity theory'' - gave the basis to all further treatments in this field. In 1922 A. Friedman's work appeared, in which the first expanding Universe model was proposed as a solution of the Einstein field equations. The model was spherically closed, but its curvature radius was a function of time. About 1955 the searches for anisotropic homogeneous solutions to Einstein field equation began. It turned out that isotropic cosmological models are unstable in general. The predominant part of them transform to anisotropic at insignificant breaking of isotropy. The discovery of isotropic background cosmic radiation in 1965, along with the Hubble low of the Universe expansion, served as the direct confirmation of cosmology based on the Einstein theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.
1985-01-01
Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)
Policing epistemic deviance: Albert Von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll(1).
Sommer, Andreas
2012-04-01
Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862-1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862-1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an 'occult complex'. Moll's analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll's treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll.
Interview with Albert Ziegler about Gifted Education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marilena Z. Leana-Tascilar
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Prof. Albert Ziegler is the chair of Educational Psychology and Research on Excellence at the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg and one of the most productive and cited academicians in gifted education in Europe and also all over the world. Prof. Ziegler has contributed different theories about gifted education and education in general. One of his well-known theories is The Actiotope Model of Giftedness and the 7-Step-Cycle of Self-Regulated Learning. Since last year I had the chance to be with him and his colleagues in Germany, thus I decided to share with you the interview that we had about his theories and his recommendations for Turkey.
Fernandes, Juliana Folloni; Kerbauy, Fabio Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Andreza Alice Feitosa; Kutner, Jose Mauro; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Stape, Adalberto; Troster, Eduardo Juan; Zamperlini-Netto, Gabriele; Azambuja, Alessandra Milani Prandini de; Carvalho, Bruna; Dorna, Mayra de Barros; Vilela, Marluce Dos Santos; Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares; Cunha, Jose Marcos; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda Maria; Hamerschlak, Nelson
2011-06-01
To report the experience of a tertiary care hospital with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with primary immunodeficiencies. Seven pediatric patients with primary immunodeficiencies (severe combined immunodeficiency: n = 2; combined immunodeficiency: n = 1; chronic granulomatous disease: n = 1; hyper-IgM syndrome: n = 2; and IPEX syndrome: n = 1) who underwent eight hematopoietic stem cell transplants in a single center, from 2007 to 2010, were studied. Two patients received transplants from HLA-identical siblings; the other six transplants were done with unrelated donors (bone marrow: n = 1; cord blood: n = 5). All patients had pre-existing infections before hematopoietic stem cell transplants. One patient received only anti-thymocyte globulin prior to transplant, three transplants were done with reduced intensity conditioning regimens and four transplants were done after myeloablative therapy. Two patients were not evaluated for engraftment due to early death. Three patients engrafted, two had primary graft failure and one received a second transplant with posterior engraftment. Two patients died of regimen related toxicity (hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome); one patient died of progressive respiratory failure due to Parainfluenza infection present prior to transplant. Four patients are alive and well from 60 days to 14 months after transplant. Patients' status prior to transplant is the most important risk factor on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplants in the treatment of these diseases. Early diagnosis and the possibility of a faster referral of these patients for treatment in reference centers may substantially improve their survival and quality of life.
NYPIRG Petition to Object to Yeshiva University's Albert Einstein College of Medicane Title V Permit
This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.
Falk, Dean
2016-06-20
Fossil and comparative primatological evidence suggest that alterations in the development of prehistoric hominin infants kindled three consecutive evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) trends that, ultimately, paved the way for the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In the earliest trend, infants' development of posture and locomotion became delayed because of anatomical changes that accompanied the prolonged evolution of bipedalism. Because modern humans have inherited these changes, our babies are much slower than other primates to reach developmental milestones such as standing, crawling, and walking. The delay in ancestral babies' physical development eventually precipitated an evolutionary reversal in which they became increasing unable to cling independently to their mothers. For the first time in prehistory, babies were, thus, periodically deprived of direct physical contact with their mothers. This prompted the emergence of a second evo-devo trend in which infants sought contact comfort from caregivers using evolved signals, including new ways of crying that are conserved in modern babies. Such signaling stimulated intense reciprocal interactions between prehistoric mothers and infants that seeded the eventual emergence of motherese and, subsequently, protolanguage. The third trend was for an extreme acceleration in brain growth that began prior to the last trimester of gestation and continued through infants' first postnatal year (early "brain spurt"). Conservation of this trend in modern babies explains why human brains reach adult sizes that are over three times those of chimpanzees. The fossil record of hominin cranial capacities together with comparative neuroanatomical data suggest that, around 3 million years ago, early brain spurts began to facilitate an evolutionary trajectory for increasingly large adult brains in association with neurological reorganization. The prehistoric increase in brain size eventually caused parturition to become exceedingly difficult, and this difficulty, known as the "obstetrical dilemma", is likely to constrain the future evolution of brain size and, thus, privilege ongoing evolution in neurological reorganization. In modern babies, the brain spurt is accompanied by formation and tuning (pruning) of neurological connections, and development of dynamic higher-order networks that facilitate acquisition of grammatical language and, later in development, other advanced computational abilities such as musical or mathematical perception and performance. The cumulative evidence suggests that the emergence and refinement of grammatical language was a prime mover of hominin brain evolution.
The Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship: Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Practice
Milbourne, Jeff; Wheeler, Sam
2017-02-01
In an ideal world, education policy and practice would exist as parts of a coherent system. Effective practice would inform policy and that policy would, in turn, promote the tenets of effective practice at the local, state, and national levels. Policymakers and practitioners would collaborate and, by extension, have familiarity and respect for one another's perspective. Unfortunately, our current education system is a far cry from the ideal, a fact that we as practitioners know all too well.
Confusion and Clarification: Albert Einstein and Walther Nernst's Heat Theorem, 1911-1916
Kox, A.J.
2006-01-01
This paper discusses the early history of Walther Nernst's Heat Theorem and the first stages of its development into the Third Law of Thermodynamics. In addition to published papers, informal discussions were important in shaping the understanding of the meaning and validity of the Theorem. Special
Il était sept fois la révolution Albert Einstein et les autres...
Klein, Etienne
2008-01-01
Certaines révolutions sont lentes et ne font pas couler de sang. Entre 1925 et 1935, la physique a connu un tel bouleversement : les atomes, ces petits grains de matière découverts quelques années plus tôt, n'obéissaient plus aux lois de la physique classique. Il fallait en inventer de nouvelles, penser autrement la matière. Une décennie d'effervescence créatrice, d'audace, de tourments, une décennie miraculeuse suffit à un petit nombre de physiciens, tous jeunes, pour fonder l'une des plus belles constructions intellectuelles de tous les temps : la physique quantique, celle de l'infiniment petit, sur laquelle s'appuie toujours la physique actuelle. Originaux, déterminés, attachants, pathétiques parfois, ces hommes ont en commun d'avoir été, chacun à sa façon, des génies. Dispersés aux quatre coins de l'Europe, à Cambridge, Copenhague, Vienne, Göttingen, Zurich ou Rome, ils se rencontraient régulièrement et s'écrivaient souvent. Leurs travaux se faisaient écho, suscitant l'admiration...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliana Folloni Fernandes
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: To report the experience of a tertiary care hospital withallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children withprimary immunodeficiencies. Methods: Seven patients with primaryimmunodeficiencies (severe combined immunodeficiency: n = 2;combined immunodeficiency: n = 1; chronic granulomatous disease:n = 1; hyper-IgM syndrome: n = 2; and IPEX syndrome: n = 1who underwent eight hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTin a single center, from 2007 to 2010, were studied. Results: Twopatients received transplants from HLA-identical siblings; the othersix transplants were done with unrelated donors (bone marrow: n= 1; cord blood: n = 5. All patients had pre-existing infectionsbefore hematopoietic stem cell transplants. One patient receivedonly anti-thymocyte globulin prior to transplant, three transplantswere done with reduced intensity conditioning regimens and fourtransplants were done after myeloablative therapy. Two patientswere not evaluable for engraftment due to early death. Three patientsengrafted, two had primary graft failure and one received a secondtransplant with posterior engraftment. Two patients died of regimenrelated toxicity (hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome; one patient died of progressive respiratory failure due to Parainfluenza infection diagnosed prior to transplant. Four patients are alive and well from 60 days to 14 months after transplant. Conclusion: Patients’ status prior to transplant is the most important risk factor on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplants in the treatment of these diseases. Early diagnosis and the possibility of a faster referral of these patients for treatment in reference centers may substantially improve their survival and quality of life.
ISO 9002 no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrico do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denise Pourrat Dal Gé Lacerda
2000-06-01
Full Text Available A implantação do programa de qualidade no CTI-P, do HIAE, iniciou em Jan/96, visando melhoria contínua da assistência à criança e família e o desenvolvimento profissional. Utilizamos como ferramenta a Norma ISO 9002/94, que necessitou ser interpretada para a realidade hospitalar. Definimos o cronograma de trabalho, a política de qualidade norteada pela missão da Instituição e consolidada na finalidade de trabalho do serviço. Atendendo aos vinte itens da Norma, procedemos a documentação, através da elaboração do Manual da Qualidade, da revisão e padronização de rotinas e procedimentos. A equipe multiprofissional foi sensibilizada e envolvida a participar de todo o processo de implantação e avaliação do programa de Qualidade. Em Mar/98, após auditoria pela British Standards Institution foi conferido ao CTI-P - HIAE certificado ISO 9002. Ressaltamos a importância do papel do enfermeiro como líder em todo este processo. Cabe à equipe o desafio permanente da manutenção do programa de qualidade.
Nuclear Heuristics: Selected Writings of Albert and Roberta Wohlstetter
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zarate, Robert; Sokolski, Henry
2009-01-01
This publication is an edited volume of Albert and Roberta Wohlstetters' key writings relating to nuclear proliferation and national security affairs, with commentaries by the Wohlstetters' colleagues and students...
Kim, Y. S.
2006-01-01
It is said that Einstein's conceptual base for the theory of relativity was the philosophy formulated by Immanuel Kant. Then, is it possible to see how Kant played a role in Einstein's thinking without reading Kant's books? This question arises because it is not possible for physicists to read Kant's writings. Yes, it is possible if we use the method of physics. It is known also that Kant's mode of thinking was profoundly affected by the geography of Koenigsberg where he spent eighty years of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gioia, I.M.
1990-01-01
Since the early times after the launch of the Einstein Observatory, systematic studies of serendipitous Einstein x-ray sources have been carried out by several observers with interests in both galactic and extragalactic astronomy. The majority of these studies were not surveys in the strict sense of the word: in several cases no analyses requiring flux completeness were performed. However, these systematic searches for sources added much to our knowledge of the behaviour in the X-ray domain of the different classes of astronomical objects and in many instances led to the study of their properties at different wavebands. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stabell, R.
1979-01-01
Einstein applied his gravitation theory to a universe model with positively curved space in 1917. In order to maintain a static universe he introduced the cosmological constant, which in the light of later nonstatic universe models, he described as his life's greatest mistake. The best known such model is the Einstein-de Sitter model, which is here discussed in some detail. The 'big bang' theory is also discussed leading to the cosmic background radiation. The early phase of the 'big bang' cosmology, the first ten seconds, and the first minutes are discussed, leading to the transparent stage. (JIW)
Ceremony marking Einstein Year
2005-01-01
Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.
Holonomy of Einstein Lorentzian manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galaev, Anton S
2010-01-01
The classification of all possible holonomy algebras of Einstein and vacuum Einstein Lorentzian manifolds is obtained. It is shown that each such algebra appears as the holonomy algebra of an Einstein (resp. vacuum Einstein) Lorentzian manifold; the direct constructions are given. Also the holonomy algebras of totally Ricci-isotropic Lorentzian manifolds are classified. The classification of the holonomy algebras of Lorentzian manifolds is reviewed and a complete description of the spaces of curvature tensors for these holonomies is given.
Pere Albert: Barcelona Canon, Royal Advocate, Feudal Theorist
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kagay, Donald K.
2002-06-01
Full Text Available In this article, the life and career of one of Catalonia's greatest medieval legists is discussed. Using notarial and court documentation, the author explores the work of Pere Albert as judge and advocate. The Customs of Catalonia and other of Pere Albert's treatises form the basis for the review of the legist's career as a theorist in feudal law. The basis for this article is the collection of documents pertaining to Pere Albert, which the author includes in an appendix.
En este artículo se estudia la vida y la carrera de uno de los jurisconsultos medievales más importantes de Cataluña. Utilizando la documentación notarial y judicial, el autor analiza la labor de Pere Albert como juez y abogado. ElsCostums de Catalunya y otros tratados de Pere Albert constituyen la base para el estudio de la carrera del jurisconsulto, como teórico en ley feudal y real. El artículo se basa en una colección de documentos originales relativos a Pere Albert, que el autor incluye en un apéndice.
The Media of Relativity: Einstein and Telecommunications Technologies.
Canales, Jimena
2015-07-01
How are fundamental constants, such as "c" for the speed of light, related to the technological environments that produce them? Relativistic cosmology, developed first by Albert Einstein, depended on military and commercial innovations in telecommunications. Prominent physicists (Hans Reichenbach, Max Born, Paul Langevin, Louis de Broglie, and Léon Brillouin, among others) worked in radio units during WWI and incorporated battlefield lessons into their research. Relativity physicists, working at the intersection of physics and optics by investigating light and electricity, responded to new challenges by developing a novel scientific framework. Ideas about lengths and solid bodies were overhauled because the old Newtonian mechanics assumed the possibility of "instantaneous signaling at a distance." Einstein's universe, where time and space dilated, where the shortest path between two points was often curved and non-Euclidean, followed the rules of electromagnetic "signal" transmission. For these scientists, light's constant speed in the absence of a gravitational field-a fundamental tenet of Einstein's theory-was a lesson derived from communication technologies.
The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy.
Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nosanchuk, Murphy D; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Carvalho, Antonio C Campos de; Weiss, Louis M; Spray, David C; Tanowitz, Herbert B
2015-01-01
A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries.
[Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].
Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer
2007-01-01
Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor.
Albert Schweitzer: a patient with writer's cramp.
Tacik, P; Schrader, C; Weber, E; Dressler, D
2012-06-01
Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) the world-famous philosopher, theologian, concert organist, musicologist, philanthropist and winner of the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize suffered throughout most of his life from severe and painful muscle cramps in his right upper extremity which were triggered exclusively by handwriting. They led to tonic finger flexion and wrist extension and produced slow and clumsy handwriting of a reduced character size. Other motor functions including Schweitzer's highly skilful and famous organ playing were not affected. Inheritance from his mother is likely. Schweitzer applied several coping strategies including a specific holding pattern for pens, usage of special pens, avoidance of handwriting and slowing of handwriting. With all these features Schweitzer presents as a classical case of action-specific dystonia in the form of a simple tonic writer's cramp. Interestingly, Schweitzer never received a medical diagnosis, although writer's cramp had already been identified and described as a medical condition. Impairment of his handwriting but not his organ playing may give insight into the multifactorial aetiology of writer's cramp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prince Albert II of Monaco visits CERN
2009-01-01
With a strong curiosity for the work of CERN, HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco visited CMS and the CERN Control Centre on 2 September. "The Prince is interested in and sensitive to what CERN is doing. Monaco is closely linked to France, which is an important member of CERN. He wishes to express his help to the scientific community in every trip. He wants to meet scientists and to be really personally involved," explained Francois Chantrait, Head of the Press Service of the Prince’s Palace. CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer welcomed the Prince of Monaco to Point 5 with a presentation about CERN before they descended 100 metres underground to see the CMS experiment. Although the detector was closed up for test runs, he was able to see its grand scale as well as look at some of the intricate sample parts exhibited by CMS Spokesperson, Jim Virdee. The Prince wrote in the CERN Visitors’ Book that he perceives a realisation of promisin...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roos, Matts
1980-11-01
Einstein locality imples that spacelike separated coherent quantum systems do not interfere, and that all interferences must propagate with at most the speed of light. It then follows that the reaction e + e - →K 0 antiK 0 must yield some Ksub(s)Ksuu(s) decays in apparent violation of P and C conservation. (author)
2011-03-01
ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
absolute zero. These ideas had ... Everybody is talking about Bose-Einstein condensation. This discovery ... needed if we want to find the probability distribution of the x- ... Boltzmann took two approaches to the problem, both of them deep and ...
Atkinson, David
2005-01-01
The Michelson-Morley experiment suggests the hypothesis that the two-way speed of light is constant,and this is consistent with a more general in variance than that of Lorentz. On adding the requirement that physical laws have the same form in all inertial frames, as Einstein did, the transformation
Einstein's greatest mistake abandonment of the aether
Deutsch, Sid
2006-01-01
If a child wants proof, we can think of 10 different ways to show that we are surrounded by air, but we are, of course, normally unaware that we live at the bottom of an “ocean” of air. It is claimed, in this book, that we are unaware, similarly, that we are surrounded by an atmosphere of aether. There is one major difference, however: We have not been able to detect the aether. Nevertheless, the aether provides a solution to the following mystery: How can light, or any electromagnetic wave, travel for billions of years across the vastness of the Universe, without losing any energy? The answer is that the Universe is filled with a light-transmitting medium, The Aether. The proof that there is an aether is the subject of the present book. An intriguing…exploration of a fringe scientific theory. Luminiferous aether—or "light-bearing aether," a theory first postulated by Isaac Newton in the 18th century, later refined by James Clerk Maxwell in the 19th century and ultimately replaced by Albert Einstein'...
Policing Epistemic Deviance: Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Albert Moll1
Sommer, Andreas
2012-01-01
Shortly after the death of Albert von Schrenck-Notzing (1862–1929), the doyen of early twentieth century German para psychology, his former colleague in hypnotism and sexology Albert Moll (1862–1939) published a treatise on the psychology and pathology of parapsychologists, with Schrenck-Notzing serving as a prototype of a scientist suffering from an ‘occult complex’. Moll’s analysis concluded that parapsychologists vouching for the reality of supernormal phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis and materialisations, suffered from a morbid will to believe, which paralysed their critical faculties and made them cover obvious mediumistic fraud. Using Moll’s treatment of Schrenck-Notzing as an historical case study of boundary disputes in science and medicine, this essay traces the career of Schrenck-Notzing as a researcher in hypnotism, sexology and parapsychology; discusses the relationship between Moll and Schrenck-Notzing; and problematises the pathologisation and defamation strategies of deviant epistemologies by authors such as Moll. PMID:23002296
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giannetto, E [Dipartimento di Fisica ' A Volta' , via A Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)
2007-07-20
Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conte (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein 'those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within A la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: 'time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannetto, E
2007-01-01
Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conte (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein 'those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within A la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: 'time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour
Little Albert's alleged neurological impairment: Watson, Rayner, and historical revision.
Digdon, Nancy; Powell, Russell A; Harris, Ben
2014-11-01
In 2012, Fridlund, Beck, Goldie, and Irons (2012) announced that "Little Albert"-the infant that Watson and Rayner used in their 1920 study of conditioned fear (Watson & Rayner, 1920)-was not the healthy child the researchers described him to be, but was neurologically impaired almost from birth. Fridlund et al. also alleged that Watson had committed serious ethical breaches in regard to this research. Our article reexamines the evidentiary bases for these claims and arrives at an alternative interpretation of Albert as a normal infant. In order to set the stage for our interpretation, we first briefly describe the historical context for the Albert study, as well as how the study has been construed and revised since 1920. We then discuss the evidentiary issues in some detail, focusing on Fridlund et al.'s analysis of the film footage of Albert, and on the context within which Watson and Rayner conducted their study. In closing, we return to historical matters to speculate about why historiographical disputes matter and what the story of neurologically impaired Albert might be telling us about the discipline of psychology today.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jou, David
2007-12-01
Full Text Available We study Einstein’s contributions to thermodynamics and statistical physics and their influence on some fields of physics which have led to current studies on complexity. We focus our attention on the use of fluctuations and entropy as a common framework for light and matter, whcich leds him to some of his fundamental contributions (phtoelectric effect, Brownian motion, specific heat of solids, stimulated light emission, Bose-Einstein condensation. We underline some aspects of Einstein’s research style: extrapolations, analogies, simplifications. We underline the relationship between light and matter as a common link of his researches in statistical physics.Presentamos las contribuciones de Einstein a la termodinámica y la mecánica estadística y su resonancia en ramas de la física que han conducido hasta la consideración actual de lo complejo. Nos referimos especialmente al uso de las fluctuaciones y de la entropía como marco común y nexo de unión entre luz y materia, que le conducen a algunas de sus aportaciones fundamentales (efecto fotoeléctrico, movimiento browniano, calor específico de los sólidos, emisión estimulada de la luz, condensación de Bose-Einstein. Consideramos también algunas facetas del estilo de investigación de Einstein, que se manifiestan con especial claridad en este campo: extrapolaciones, analogías, simplificaciones. Destacamos especialmente la importancia de la relación entre luz y materia en sus investigaciones.
Simplifications of Einstein supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrara, S.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.
1979-01-01
Using a new symmetry of the Einstein supergravity action and defining a new spin connection, the axial-vector auxiliary field cancels in the gauge action and in the gauge algebra. This explains why in some models a first-order formalism with minimal coupling of the spin connection and tensor calculus agree, while in other models only the tensor calculus gives the correct result but torsion does not
Durrani, Matin
2008-07-01
A new postgraduate centre for maths and computer science is set to open in the Nigerian capital of Abuja this month as part of an ambitious plan to find the "next Einstein" in Africa. The centre will provide advanced training to graduate students from across Africa in maths and related fields. It will seek to attract the best young African scientists and nurture their talents as problem-solvers and teachers.
Einstein the searcher his work explained from dialogues with Einstein
Moszkowski, Alexander
2014-01-01
This volume, first published in 1921, presents a series of portraits of Einstein, thus offering glimpses in the character and private reflections of the man who changed the course of modern science. Intended neither as a biography, nor as a résumé of Einsteinian physics, Einstein: The Searcher instead focusses on Einstein's relationship with the scientific project as he himself conceived it, and so is still of contemporary significance for those puzzled by the spirit of scientific enquiry.
[Interculturality in the medical practice of Dr. Albert Schweitzer].
Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Ruiz-Llanos, Adriana
2004-01-01
Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was a young and promising German who at age 29 decided to undertake the profession of Medical Doctor at the University of Strassburg after finishing a career in musical studies in Paris (1899) and obtaining in Berlin a doctoral degree in Philosophy and Theology. Surprisingly, Albert Schweitzer, despite his comfortable life in Europe, decided in 1913 to practice his medical career in a remote and small Equatorial African country. He devoted nearly 50 years of his life caring for the Black population at Lamaberene, where he built a hospital. In this paper, we attempt to develop some theoretical aspects related with interculturality in the medical practice of Dr. Albert Schweitzer. We begin by considering certain sociocultural variables in hospitals that give care to patients with cultural characteristics that are substantially different from those of the health care personnel who organize, administer, and execute medical functions.
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a
[The meeting of Einstein with Cajal (Madrid, 1923): a lost tide of fortune].
Montes-Santiago, J
The year 2005 was the centennial year of the Albert Einstein's transcendental works that changed forever the humans thoughts on the universe. It is also celebrated the 50th anniversary of his death. It was proclaimed 'World Year of Physics' and a multiplicity of celebrations have exhaustively analyzed Einstein's cardinals contributions. However, among these, the meeting of Einstein with another titanic of science, Santiago Ramon y Cajal, has passed some unnoticed. In this study the circumstances of this meeting are evoked. The parallelisms between the lives of both prominent figures awarded with the Nobel Prize are highlighted. They are the 'classic' authors most widely cited in the current scientific literature. The events and persons who made possible that shining but forgotten interview are detailed. Such a meeting took place in Madrid, on the occasion of the Einstein's trip to Spain in 1923. That travel exceeded his primary scientific nature, reaching the category of a social phenomenon and was widely covered by the printed mass media at that time. Finally, the curious coincidence of the invocation of Cajal's theories to justify the genius of the German physicist nearly 75 years after their meeting is mentioned. Although it was a brief meeting and the circumstances surrounding it largely unknown, it produced a great impression to Einstein and constitutes a supreme instant in the history of the 20th century.
Bohr's Electron was Problematic for Einstein: String Theory Solved the Problem
Webb, William
2013-04-01
Neils Bohr's 1913 model of the hydrogen electron was problematic for Albert Einstein. Bohr's electron rotates with positive kinetic energies +K but has addition negative potential energies - 2K. The total net energy is thus always negative with value - K. Einstein's special relativity requires energies to be positive. There's a Bohr negative energy conflict with Einstein's positive energy requirement. The two men debated the problem. Both would have preferred a different electron model having only positive energies. Bohr and Einstein couldn't find such a model. But Murray Gell-Mann did! In the 1960's, Gell-Mann introduced his loop-shaped string-like electron. Now, analysis with string theory shows that the hydrogen electron is a loop of string-like material with a length equal to the circumference of the circular orbit it occupies. It rotates like a lariat around its centered proton. This loop-shape has no negative potential energies: only positive +K relativistic kinetic energies. Waves induced on loop-shaped electrons propagate their energy at a speed matching the tangential speed of rotation. With matching wave speed and only positive kinetic energies, this loop-shaped electron model is uniquely suited to be governed by the Einstein relativistic equation for total mass-energy. Its calculated photon emissions are all in excellent agreement with experimental data and, of course, in agreement with those -K calculations by Neils Bohr 100 years ago. Problem solved!
Einstein algebras and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, M.
1992-01-01
A purely algebraic structure called an Einstein algebra is defined in such a way that every spacetime satisfying Einstein's equations is an Einstein algebra but not vice versa. The Gelfand representation of Einstein algebras is defined, and two of its subrepresentations are discussed. One of them is equivalent to the global formulation of the standard theory of general relativity; the other one leads to a more general theory of gravitation which, in particular, includes so-called regular singularities. In order to include other types of singularities one must change to sheaves of Einstein algebras. They are defined and briefly discussed. As a test of the proposed method, the sheaf of Einstein algebras corresponding to the space-time of a straight cosmic string with quasiregular singularity is constructed. 22 refs
How Einstein changed the world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boudenot, J.C.
2005-01-01
This book allows the reader to understand in a simple but detailed way the importance of the work of Einstein and its implications in the physics of today. The author first draws a biography of Einstein, then outlines the knowledge of physics at the beginning of the twentieth century, then describes the major contributions of Einstein to the brownian motion, the mass-energy equivalence, relativity and the notion of quantum, and ends by showing that the life-long Einstein's quest for a unitarian theory is still a present-day issue. (A.C.)
Einstein's Third Paradise%爱因斯坦的第三乐园
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gerald Holton
2005-01-01
@@ Ⅰ Historians of modern science have good reasons to be grateful to Paul Arthur Schilpp, professor of philosophy and Methodist clergyman but better known as the editor of a series of volumes on" Living Philosophers", including several on scientist-philosophers. His motto was:"The asking of questions about a philosopher's meaning while he is alive." And to his everlasting credit, he persuaded Albert Einstein to do what he had resisted all his years: to sit down to write, in 1946 at age sixty-seven, an extensive autobiography-forty-five pages long in print.
Einstein's genius club the true story of a group of scientists who changed the world
Feldman, Burton
2011-01-01
As World War II wound down and it became increasingly clear that the Allies would emerge victorious, Albert Einstein invited three close friends-all titans of contemporary science and philosophy-to his home at 112 Mercer Street in Princeton, New Jersey, to discuss what they loved best-science and philosophy. His guests were the legendary philosopher and pacifist, Bertrand Russell; the boy wonder of quantum physics, Wolfgang Pauli; and the brilliant logician, Kurt Gödel. Their casual meetings took place far from the horrific battlefields of the war and the (then) secret lair of exp
Einstein's creative thinking and the general theory of relativity: a documented report.
Rothenberg, A
1979-01-01
A document written by Albert Einstein has recently come to light in which the eminent scientist described the actual sequence of his thoughts leading to the development of the general theory of relativity. The key creative thought was an instance of a type of creative cognition the author has previously designated "Janusian thinking," Janusian thinking consists of actively conceiving two or more opposite or antithetical concepts, ideas, or images simultaneously. This form of high-level secondary process cognition has been found to operate widely in art, science, and other fields.
Einstein and Picasso . The art of science and the science of art
CERN. Geneva
2011-01-01
Almost simultaneously, in the first decade of the 20th century Albert Einstein discovered relativity and Pablo Picasso cubism. How - and why? This fascinating story involves their often turbulent personal lives; the high drama of their struggles to achieve new ideas in the face of opposition from contemporaries; and the unlikely sources for their creative leaps, ignored by everyone else. To fully understand what happened involves coming to grips with wide-ranging questions such as: Are there similarities in creativity between artists and scientists? What do artists and scientists mean by 'aesthetics' and 'beauty'? Can we unravel creativity at its highest level?
A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; Mitton, Simon
2015-01-01
We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein’s steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi...
Fritzsch, Harald
2014-01-01
This book provides a broad introduction into the field of particle physics for the general reader through virtual discussions among prominent physicists, Albert Einstein, Murray Gell-Mann, Issac Newton and a modern physicists. Matter is composed of quarks and electrons. The electrons interact with the atomic nuclei by the exchange of photons. The forces between the quarks are generated by the exchange of gluons, which leads to the confinement of the quarks. The weak bosons provide the weak forces among the leptons and quarks. The book is suitable for non-experts in physics. Readership: General readers, students and researchers in physics.
On the discovery of the gravitational field equations by Einstein and Hilbert: new materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vizgin, Vladimir P
2001-01-01
This article describes the history of discovery of the equations of gravitational field by Albert Einstein and David Hilbert in November 1915. The proof sheet of Hilbert's lecture report, made on 20 November 1915 and published in March 1916, rediscovered in 1997 in the archive of the university of Goettingen, throws new light on the history of this discovery. We also discuss the early history of the general theory of relativity that led to the expression of the general covariant equations of gravitational field. (from the history of physics)
Grundmann, Siegfried
2004-01-01
In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern. Siegfried Grundmann's thorough study of Einstein's participation on a committee of the League of Nations, based on archival research in Geneva, is also new. This book outlines Einstein's image in politics and German science policy. It covers the period from his appointment as a researcher in Berlin to his fight abroad against the "boycott of German science" after World War I and his struggle at home against attacks on "Jewish physics" of which he was made...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sebestyen, A.
1980-11-01
It is shown that a consequent treatment of local Lorentz invariance and of the group of translations as a gauge symmetry group necessarily leads to theories in which torsion has no place. It is also shown that the requirement of symmetry under Lorentz gauge tranformations leads to the emergence of the conventional √-gR additive term, responsible for the effects of gravitation, in the Lagrangian. It is thus proved that Einstein's general relativity is a unique consequence of the requirements of invariance under translations and Lorentz transformations. (author)
Rereading Albert B. Lord's The Singer of Tales . Revisiting the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Access to a fresh set of video-recordings of Sesotho praise-poetry made in the year 2000 enabled the author to revisit his adaptation of Albert Lord's definition of the formula as a dynamic compositional device that the oral poet utilizes during delivery. The basic adaptation made in 1983 pertains to heroic praises (dithoko tsa ...
76 FR 66072 - Albert Ronald Cioffi: Debarment Order
2011-10-25
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0159] Albert Ronald Cioffi: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kenny Shade...
GERAKAN MESSIANISTIK ALBERT DIETZ DI SEMARANG TAHUN 1918
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Nurhasanah
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Gerakan Messianistik Albert Dietz di Semarang merupakan salah satu gerakan sosial yang terjadi pada awal abad XX. Didalamnya sangat kental dengan unsur-unsur keagamaan dan dipimpin oleh seorang yang memiliki latar belakang pendidikan tinggi lulusan Europeesch Lagere School (ELS Gerakan Messianistik yang dipimpin oleh Albert Dietz terjadi di Dukuh Kenangkan desa Bergaskidul Onderdistrik Lemahbang, Distrik Ungaran Afdeeling Salatiga, Semarang. Latar belakang kondisi sosial, ekonomi, dan budaya masyarakatnya mayoritas sebagai masyarakat agraris. Kondisi ekonomi yang sulit serta keterbelakangan dalam pendidikan membuat masyarakat mudah terpengaruh untuk terlibat dalam gerakan sosial. Hal ini juga berhubungan dengan pola pikir masyarakat yang bersifat tradisional.Dilihat dari tipologi gerakan yang dilakukannya, Albert Dietz dapat dikategorikan sebagai pemimpin gerakan yang memiliki kharisma cukup besar di hadapan pengikutnya. Dalam gerakannya tersebut, ia cenderung memilih menjadi dukun dengan menggunakan cara-cara yang berhubungan dengan kekuatan supranatural dan ilmu mistik. Sebagai seorang lulusan ELS, hal ini merupakan suatu kontradiksi kemungkinan besar ini tidak terlepas dari latar belakang kehidupan kerohaniannya. Pendidikan informal yang diberikan oleh ibunya sangat memperhatikan kehidupan tradisional budaya jawa, yang mengakibatkan diri Albert Dietz diwarnai oleh nilai-nilai yang terkandung dalam tradisi Jawa tersebut.
Albert Shanker and the Future of Teacher Unions
Kahlenberg, Richard D.
2008-01-01
"Tough Liberal," a book penned by the author of this article, traces the life of Albert Shanker (1928-1997) chronologically from birth to death. Shanker was the longtime head of the United Federation of Teachers (UFT) in New York City (1964-1986) and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) nationally (1974-1997). "Tough Liberal" recounts the…
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
Rencontre donnée par John Ellis et Fiami. Partez à la découverte de la physique avec un auteur de bande dessinée qui vous fera découvrir six étapes cruciales de l’histoire de la connaissance, en compagnie de son héros Albert Einstein. Après ce voyage littéraire, un physicien du CERN vous expliquera les enjeux de la physique aujourd’hui, plus de 100 ans après Einstein.
Einstein and the "Crucial" Experiment
Holton, Gerald
1969-01-01
Examines the widespread view that it was the crucial Michelson-Morley experiment that led Einstein to formulate the special relativity theory. From Einstein's writings, evidence is presented that no such direct genetic connection exists. The author suggests that the historian of science must resist the experimenticist's fallacy of imposing a…
Solutions of Einstein's field equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomonaga, Y [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education
1978-12-01
In this paper the author investigates the Einstein's field equations of the non-vacuum case and generalizes the solution of Robertson-Walker by the three dimensional Einstein spaces. In Section 2 the author shortly generalizes the dynamic space-time of G. Lemetre and A. Friedmann by a simple transformation.
Einstein's first paper on relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwartz, H.M.
1977-01-01
Because of its exceptional significance in the history of great ideas in science, Einstein's first paper on relativity, especially its first part, deserves a more careful translation into English than presently exists. A new and annotated translation of this first part is presented here, together with a brief discussion of certain aspects of Einstein's paper
Einsteins of the future on a visit to CERN?
2005-01-01
The five pupils of the Gymnasium Appenzell high school who won a visit to CERN. In 1896 a 17-year-old named Albert Einstein joined ETH Zurich. Here, he was to spend the next four years building the foundation for his brave new vision of the physical world. Fast-forward almost 110 years and on 17 June 2005, ETH Zurich's Department of Physics organized a “Night of Physics”, a special event open to the public. This formed part of a series of activities at ETH to celebrate its 150th anniversary, as well as the World Year of Physics. It gave thousands of visitors a chance to experience the excitement of doing experiments, learning about Einstein's breakthroughs, visiting world-class labs or observing galaxies through high-quality telescopes. Amongst these were about five-hundred high school students from all over German-speaking Switzerland, who participated in a physics competition. They were highly motivated to win, not least because of the first prize: a trip to CERN! The winners visited CERN on the 21st S...
Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies
Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric
2006-11-01
This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.
Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)
Hinshaw, Gary
2004-01-01
I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.
Einstein-Rosen gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astefanoaei, Iordana; Maftei, Gh.
2001-01-01
In this paper we analyse the behaviour of the gravitational waves in the approximation of the far matter fields, considering the indirect interaction between the matter sources and the gravitational field, in a cosmological model based on the Einstein-Rosen solution, Because the properties of the gravitational waves obtained as the solutions of Einstein fields equations (the gravitational field equations) are most obvious in the weak gravitational fields we consider here, the gravitational field in the linear approximation. Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, we calculate in the null-tetradic base (e a ), the spin coefficients, the directional derivates and the tetradic components of Ricci and Weyl tensors. From the Einstein field equations we obtained the solution for b(z, t) what described the behaviour of gravitational wave in Einstein-Rosen Universe and in the particular case, when t → ∞, p(z, t) leads us to the primordial gravitational waves in the Einstein-Rosen Universe. (authors)
Einstein's idealism and a new kind of space research
Popov, M. A.
In 1935, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen made an attempt to imagine quantum experimental nonsense or some impossible experiment (EPR-experiment) in order to justify their local realism in physics. However, in the mid-1960s, John Bell showed that it is possible to realize this kind of nonsense in laboratory. Today, when EPR-refutation of local realism is routine in modern experimental physics (Clauser and Freedman [1972]; Aspect, Dalibard and Roger [1982]; Zeilinger et al. [1998]), we must; nevertheless, remark that Albert Einstein was not always a realist. As is known, in his Special Relativitz A. Einstein introduced some pure idealistic principle which K. Godel developed in famous "Remark about the relationship between Relativity theorz and Idealistic Philosophy" (1949). Kurt Godel for the first time showed an existence of special-relativistic solipsism, assuming that objective simultaneity in experimental science "loses its objective meaning". Correspondingly, there is only subjective simultaneity, that is provable by calculations with the finite velocity of light and astronomical observations. In particular, this space solipsism means that when we observe the sun, we can see only what happend on Sun 8.33 minutes ago; in other words, we percieve only certain sensations or a certain collections of ideas of the past, but not the present. Similarly, when astronomers observe galaxies estimated to be two billion light years from the Earth, they see these galaxies as they were two billion light years ago not as they are Now. Thus, in accordance with this, we may await that in this context for some pairs of astronomical objects we cannot prove they exist NOW. Moreover, this new kind of space research could be connected with introduction of the Cognitive Dark Matter, or, what is associated with manifold of the large-scale events of the Universe as a whole which are realizing Now, beyond consciousness of the observers-humans. Because we cannot know
Suzuki, Yoichiro
2005-01-01
A tiny neutrino mass is a clue to the physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. The primary cosmic rays, mostly protons, are created and accelerated to the relativistic energy in supernova remnants. They traverse the universe and reach the earth. The incoming primary cosmic rays interact with the earth's atmosphere to produce secondary particles, which subsequently decay into neutrinos, called atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrinos have shown the evidence of the finite neutrino masses through the phenomena called neutrino oscillations. Neutrinos are detected by large detectors underground like, for example, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND. Those detectors use large photomultiplier tubes, which make use of the photo-electric effect to convert photons created by the interaction of neutrinos to electrons to form electric pulses. Neutrinos are therefore created and detected by "Einstein" and have step forward beyond the current physics. Neutrinos may also carry a hit to the ori...
The Einstein tensor characterizing some Riemann spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1993-07-01
A formal definition of the Einstein tensor is given. Mention is made of how this tensor plays a role of expressing certain conditions in a precise form. The cases of reducing the Einstein tensor to a zero tensor are studied on its merit. A lucid account of results, formulated as theorems, on Einstein symmetric and Einstein recurrent spaces is then presented. (author). 5 refs
Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2014-09-01
We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.
Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Regularly Einstein's equations can be reduced to a wave form (linearly dependent from the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. As shown here, the origin of the problem is that one uses the general covariant theory of measurement. Here the wave form of Einstein's equations is obtained in the terms of Zelmanov's chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer's time line and spatial section. The obtained equations depend on solely the second derivatives even if gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. The correct linearization proves: the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaidya, P.C.
1978-01-01
The metric for the standard static Einstein model of the universe can be expressed in coordinates for which a congruence of spacelike world lines of the model will be twisting. A method of 'shifting the twist' has been devised by which the twist on spacelike world lines is shifted onto the timelike world lines. The model universe then becomes Goedel's model. A combined Einstein-Goedel model containing a parameter epsilon is obtained. Switching epsilon from +1 to -1 will effect the shift of twist in the world lines and lead from the Einstein model to the Goedel model. (author)
Einstein: The Gourmet of Creativity.
Greenberg, Joel
1979-01-01
Reports a psychiatrist's analysis of Einstein's personal account of how he developed the theory of relativity. The psychiatrist cites Janusian thinking, actively conceiving two or more opposite concepts simultaneously, as a characteristic of much creative thought in general. (MA)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesic, Peter
2003-01-01
Einstein was the first to discuss and resolve the 'twin paradox', which in 1905 he did not consider paradoxical and treated as a consequence of lack of simultaneity. He maintained this view until at least 1914. However, in 1918 Einstein brought forward arguments about accelerated frames of reference that tended to overshadow his initial resolution. His earlier arguments were gradually rediscovered during the subsequent controversy about this 'paradox'
The NASA Beyond Einstein Program
White, Nicholas E.
2006-01-01
Einstein's legacy is incomplete, his theory of General relativity raises -- but cannot answer --three profound questions: What powered the big bang? What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? and What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The Beyond Einstein program within NASA's Office of Space Science aims to answer these questions, employing a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and complementary approaches towards shared science goals. The Beyond Einstein program has three linked elements which advance science and technology towards two visions; to detect directly gravitational wave signals from the earliest possible moments of the BIg Bang, and to image the event horizon of a black hole. The central element is a pair of Einstein Great Observatories, Constellation-X and LISA. Constellation-X is a powerful new X-ray observatory dedicated to X-Ray Spectroscopy. LISA is the first spaced based gravitational wave detector. These powerful facilities will blaze new paths to the questions about black holes, the Big Bang and dark energy. The second element is a series of competitively selected Einstein Probes, each focused on one of the science questions and includes a mission dedicated resolving the Dark Energy mystery. The third element is a program of technology development, theoretical studies and education. The Beyond Einstein program is a new element in the proposed NASA budget for 2004. This talk will give an overview of the program and the missions contained within it.
EDITORIAL: Squeeze transformation and optics after Einstein
Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel
2005-12-01
With this special issue, Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics contributes to the celebration of the World Year of Physics held in recognition of five brilliant papers written by Albert Einstein in 1905. There is no need to explain to the readers of this journal the content and importance of these papers, which are cornerstones of modern physics. The 51 contributions in this special issue represent current trends in quantum optics —100 years after the concept of light quanta was introduced. At first glance, in his famous papers of 1905, Einstein treated quite independent subjects—special relativity, the nature and statistical properties of light, electrodynamics of moving bodies and Brownian motion. We now know that all these phenomena are deeply related, and these relations are clearly shown in many papers in this issue. Most of the papers are based on the talks and poster contributions from participants of the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'05), which took place in Besançon, France, 2-6 May, 2005. This was the continuation of a series of meetings, originating with the first workshops organized by Professor Y S Kim at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in 1991 and by Professor V I Man'ko at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow in 1992. One of the main topics of ICSSUR'05 and this special issue is the theory and applications of squeezed states and their generalizations. At first glance, one could think that this subject has no relation to Einstein's papers. However, this is not true: the theory of squeezed states is deeply related to special relativity, as far as it is based on the representations of the Lorentz group (see the paper by Kim Y S and Noz M E, S458-S467), which also links the current concepts of entanglement and decoherence with Lorentz-covariance. Besides, studies of the different quantum states of light imply, after all, the study of photon (or photo
Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.
1992-01-01
A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.
Golden, Aaron; McLellan, Andrew S; Dubin, Robert A; Jing, Qiang; O Broin, Pilib; Moskowitz, David; Zhang, Zhengdong; Suzuki, Masako; Hargitai, Joseph; Calder, R Brent; Greally, John M
2012-01-01
Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies and their diverse applications in genomics and epigenomics research have yielded enormous new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of the human genome. The biggest hurdle remains the magnitude and diversity of the datasets generated, compromising our ability to manage, organize, process and ultimately analyse data. The Wiki-based Automated Sequence Processor (WASP), developed at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (hereafter Einstein), uniquely manages to tightly couple the sequencing platform, the sequencing assay, sample metadata and the automated workflows deployed on a heterogeneous high performance computing cluster infrastructure that yield sequenced, quality-controlled and 'mapped' sequence data, all within the one operating environment accessible by a web-based GUI interface. WASP at Einstein processes 4-6 TB of data per week and since its production cycle commenced it has processed ~ 1 PB of data overall and has revolutionized user interactivity with these new genomic technologies, who remain blissfully unaware of the data storage, management and most importantly processing services they request. The abstraction of such computational complexity for the user in effect makes WASP an ideal middleware solution, and an appropriate basis for the development of a grid-enabled resource - the Einstein Genome Gateway - as part of the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) program. In this paper we discuss the existing WASP system, its proposed middleware role, and its planned interaction with XSEDE to form the Einstein Genome Gateway.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaksch, D
2003-01-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state, collective excitations, thermodynamics, and vortices as well as mixtures of BECs and the Josephson effect in BEC. Finally, the last three chapters deal with topics of more recent interest like BEC in optical lattices, low dimensional systems, and cold Fermi gases. The book is well written and in fact it provides numerous useful and important relations between the different properties of a BEC and covers most of the aspects of ultracold weakly interacting atomic gases from the point of view of condensed matter physics. The book contains a comprehensive introduction to BEC for physicists new to the field as well as a lot of detail and insight for those already familiar with this area. I therefore recommend it to everyone who is interested in BEC. Very clearly however, the intention of the book is not to provide prospects for applications of BEC in atomic physics, quantum optics or quantum state engineering and therefore the more practically oriented reader might sometimes wonder why exactly an equation is
[Albert Reder Ritter von Schellmann (1826-1904)].
Schmidt, G; Holubar, K
1990-01-01
Albert Reder von Schellmann (1826-1904) was an important syphilidologist of the Vienna Medical School in the second half of the nineteenth century. He went in for the dualistic concept of the origin of syphilis and ulcer caused by soft chancre. In 1870 - Reder became head of a third dermato-syphilidologic department in the "Josephinum" in Vienna, where military surgeons got their medical education. At the same time the two full professorships of dermatosyphilidology in the Vienna General Hospital were held by Ferdinand von Hebra (1816-1880) and Carl Ludwig Sigmund von Ilanor (1810-1883).
Remembering Albert deutsch, an advocate for mental health.
Weiss, Kenneth J
2011-12-01
Albert Deutsch, journalist, advocate for the mentally ill, and honorary APA Fellow died 50 years ago. Author of The Mentally Ill in America and The Shame of the States, he believed in the obligation of individuals and institutions to advocate for patients. In 1961, he was in the midst of a vast project to assess the state of the art in psychiatric research. This article recalls aspects of Deutsch's life and work and places him in the historical context of individuals who have shown great compassion for disabled persons.
Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzeszkowski, H.H.v.; Treder, H.J.
1984-01-01
The paper concerns Einstein's general relativity, wave mechanics and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations. The principle of equivalence and its association with both wave mechanics and quantum gravity, is discussed. (U.K.)
Exact Solutions for Einstein's Hyperbolic Geometric Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Chunlei
2008-01-01
In this paper we investigate the Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow and obtain some interesting exact solutions for this kind of flow. Many interesting properties of these exact solutions have also been analyzed and we believe that these properties of Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow are very helpful to understanding the Einstein equations and the hyperbolic geometric flow
Einstein for Schools and the General Public
Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch
2006-01-01
In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…
Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure
Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank
2009-01-01
This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...
Finding Little Albert: A Journey to John B. Watson's Infant Laboratory
Beck, Hall P.; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary
2009-01-01
In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article…
Psychology's Lost Boy: Will the Real Little Albert Please Stand Up?
Griggs, Richard A.
2015-01-01
This article is concerned with the recent debate about the identity of psychology's lost boy-Little Albert, the infant subject in Watson and Rayner's classic experiment on fear conditioning. For decades, psychologists and psychology students have been intrigued by the mystery of Albert's fate. Now two evidentiary-based solutions to…
Child Care Information Exchange, 1994
1994-01-01
Profiles Chuck Larson and Steve Albert, each of whom directs a multi-site child care organization in Hawaii. Larson directs Rainbow School, dedicated to the idea that learning is a natural, joyful accomplishment of living. Albert directs Seagull School, responding to the early educational needs of Hawaii's diverse community by offering affordable,…
'Trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce': Albert Moll's critique of occultism.
Wolffram, Heather
2012-04-01
In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin's most prominent occultists, the plaintiff--the medium's husband--argued that Moll's use of terms such as 'trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce' in reference to Vollhardt's phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll's putative affront to the medium--of which he was eventually acquitted--was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who--parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists--was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff-Moll trial as a means of examining Moll's critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany's occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll.
Un lugar entre la tierra y las estrellas. Luces y sombras en la Torre Einstein
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Guridi García
2011-10-01
Full Text Available
The Einstein Tower was built in 1921 at the Telegraphsberg in Potsdam with an unique purpose: the empirical demonstration (or refutation of the basis for the Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein.
Established already from its origen as a monument that time has consolidated as the icon of an emerging Modernity, the Einstein Tower is at the same time the story of a triple failure: Its explicit objective was never met (concluding results were never arrived at, its location was inadequate (the main observatory was transferred afterwards; first to Lucerne, and later to the Teide mountain, and, on the personal and architectural side, it proved a point of inflection for the career of Erich Mendelsohn, even though it gave him fame and recognition. This article describes this first project not so much as the start of a professional career, but rather as the necessary closure to a path initiated with his war drawings.
A building almost entirely devoid of openings which springs up from the ground in order to follow the trajectory of an object 150 million kilometers away with its only eye. A scientific program, where human presence is reduced to a minimum (even today in order to protect the sofisticated equipment. The Einstein Tower is above all a fixed telescope mounted on a building. Its biggest contribution, a horizontal spectrographic laboratory halfburied beneath the main vertical support of the tower, is due to its promoter, Professor Erwin Finlay- Freundlich. This astrophysicist knew how to orchestrate an entire media campaign associated to the recent prestige of Albert Einstein, who never worked in the tower (but who did not hesitate to have a picture taken next to it.
Initially conceived as a mere technical container, the young Mendelsohn soon established that the project for the Einstein Tower, limited in practice to the design of an outer covering shell the interior (there was strongly conditioned to the requirements set by
Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation
Ferrari, Loris
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…
BOOK REVIEW: Once Upon Einstein
Giannetto, E.
2007-07-01
Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conté (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein `those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within À la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: `time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour
Einstein boundary conditions for the 3+1 Einstein equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frittelli, Simonetta; Gomez, Roberto
2003-01-01
In the 3+1 framework of the Einstein equations for the case of a vanishing shift vector and arbitrary lapse, we calculate explicitly the four boundary equations arising from the vanishing of the projection of the Einstein tensor along the normal to the boundary surface of the initial-boundary value problem. Such conditions take the form of evolution equations along (as opposed to across) the boundary for certain components of the extrinsic curvature and for certain space derivatives of the three-metric. We argue that, in general, such boundary conditions do not follow necessarily from the evolution equations and the initial data, but need to be imposed on the boundary values of the fundamental variables. Using the Einstein-Christoffel formulation, which is strongly hyperbolic, we show how three of the boundary equations up to linear combinations should be used to prescribe the values of some incoming characteristic fields. Additionally, we show that the fourth one imposes conditions on some outgoing fields
Albert Ross Tilley: The legacy of a Canadian plastic surgeon.
Mowbrey, Kevin
2013-01-01
The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the 'Guinea Pig Club'. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. As one of the founding fathers of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, Tilley's work was instrumental in establishing the specialty and ensured its prosperity for years to come. Serving in the capacity of leader, educator and innovator, Tilley remains one of Canada's most decorated physicians, and his body of work encompasses contributions to the medical field that remain significant and beneficial to patient care to this day.
The Einstein Center for Epigenomics: studying the role of epigenomic dysregulation in human disease.
McLellan, Andrew S; Dubin, Robert A; Jing, Qiang; Maqbool, Shahina B; Olea, Raul; Westby, Gael; Broin, Pilib Ó; Fazzari, Melissa J; Zheng, Deyou; Suzuki, Masako; Greally, John M
2009-10-01
There is increasing interest in the role of epigenetic and transcriptional dysregulation in the pathogenesis of a range of human diseases, not just in the best-studied example of cancer. It is, however, quite difficult for an individual investigator to perform these studies, as they involve genome-wide molecular assays combined with sophisticated computational analytical approaches of very large datasets that may be generated from various resources and technologies. In 2008, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, USA established a Center for Epigenomics to facilitate the research programs of its investigators, providing shared resources for genome-wide assays and for data analysis. As a result, several avenues of research are now expanding, with cancer epigenomics being complemented by studies of the epigenomics of infectious disease and a neuroepigenomics program.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy in the Hospital Albert Schweitzer District of Haiti.
Fett, James D; Carraway, Robert D; Dowell, Duane L; King, Mary Etta; Pierre, Ronald
2002-05-01
This report details current epidemiologic information on peripartum cardiomyopathy in 1 district of Haiti and represents the initial report of an ongoing investigation that addresses potential etiologic and prognostic factors. Another goal is to alert the medical community of what appears to be a high-incidence area. A detailed peripartum cardiomyopathy registry has been implemented to include a review of case records from 1994 to 2000 and subsequently to identify new cases from February 1, 2000, to July 1, 2001. The Hospital Albert Schweitzer District of Haiti is a 600-square mile area with approximately 258,000 population served by a hospital, an associated clinic, and outlying health centers. There are approximately 7740 live births annually. This report details epidemiologic information on the HAS District peripartum cardiomyopathy patients including incidence, mortality rate, complications, and prognostic factors. There were 47 confirmed patients (retrospective cohort, 20 patients; prospective cohort, 27 patients), which was approximately 1 case per 400 live births (compared with an incidence of 1 case per 3000 to 4000 live births in the United States). There were 4 deaths (14% of 29 patients with follow-up), and 7 complications (pulmonary embolism, 1 case; hemiplegia, 1 case; subsequent deterioration of heart function, 5 cases). The prognosis for subsequent pregnancy was 4 of 5 cases (80%) of recurrent congestive heart failure. Peripartum cardiomyopathy appears to be relatively common in the Hospital Albert Schweitzer District of Haiti. A core group of patients is identified for ongoing epidemiologic and immunohematologic investigation of risk factors and potential etiologic factors.
Einstein's impact on theoretical physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.N.
1983-01-01
There occurred in the early years of this century three conceptual revolutions that profoundly changed Man's understanding of the physical universe: the special theory of relativity (in 1905), the general theory of relativity (1915) and quantum mechanics (1925). Einstein personally was responsible for the first two of these revolutions, and influenced and helped to shape the third. But it is not about his work in these conceptual revolutions that he writes about here. Much has been written about that work already. Instead, he discusses, in general terms, Einstein's insights on the structure of theoretical physics and their relevance to the development of physics in the second half of this century. He divides the discussion into four sections which are, of course, very much related
Discrete Bose-Einstein spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas
2001-03-01
The Bose-Einstein energy spectrum of a quantum gas, confined in a rigid cubic box, is shown to become discrete and strongly dependent on the box geometry (size L), temperature, T and atomic mass number, A at , in the region of small γ=A at TV 1/3 . This behavior is the consequence of the random state degeneracy in the box. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the total energy does not obey the conventional law any longer, but a new law, which depends on γ and on the quantum gas fugacity. This energy law imposes a faster decrease to zero than it is classically expected, for γ→0. The lighter the gas atoms, the higher the temperatures or the box size, for the same effects in the discrete Bose-Einstein regime. (author)
Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amendola, Luca; Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi
2011-01-01
We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric g μν =C(R)g μν with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.
Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity
Dvali, Gia
2010-01-01
We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...
Einstein's Jury The Race to Test Relativity
Crelinsten, Jeffrey
2006-01-01
Einstein's Jury is the dramatic story of how astronomers in Germany, England, and America competed to test Einstein's developing theory of relativity. Weaving a rich narrative based on extensive archival research, Jeffrey Crelinsten shows how these early scientific debates shaped cultural attitudes we hold today. The book examines Einstein's theory of general relativity through the eyes of astronomers, many of whom were not convinced of the legitimacy of Einstein's startling breakthrough. These were individuals with international reputations to uphold and benefactors and shareholders to p
Boltzmann, Einstein, Natural Law and Evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1980-01-01
Like Boltzmann, Einstein was a protagonist of atomistics. As a physicist, he has been called Boltzmann's true successor. Also in epistemology, after overcoming the positivist influence of Mach, Einstein approached Boltzmann. Any difference between Boltzmann's realism, or even materialism, and Einstein's pantheism may be merely a matter of emphasis. Yet a real difference exists in another respect. Boltzmann explained man's power of thinking and feeling, his morality and his esthetic sense, on an evolutionary, Darwinian, basis. In contrast, evolution had no role in Einstein's thought, though Darwin was accepted by him. This lack of appreciation of the importance of evolution is now attributed to socio-political factors. (author)
Absurd ja lootus Albert Camus' lühiproosas / Aivar Kull
Kull, Aivar, 1955-
2004-01-01
Arvustus: Camus, Albert. Pagendus ja kuningriik : kogutud lühiproosa / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Triinu Tamm, Krista Vogelberg, Tanel Lepsoo, Henno Rajandi. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 78-79
Karja, Stepan
1995-01-01
Vastukaja : Raud, Valda; Raud, Anu. Vastuseks Stepan Karja artiklile 'Kuidas sai kirjanik Mart Raud endale kirjanik Albert Kivikase maja' // Postimees, 1995, 18.apr., lk.7 ; Rebane, Ilme. Alati on raske loobuda armsaks saanud elupaigast // Postimees, 1995, 25.mai, lk.6
Einstein and the quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pais, A.
1979-01-01
The following topics are discussed: The light-quantum hypothesis and its gradual evolution into the photon concept. Early history of the photoelectric effect. The theoretical and experimental reasons why the resistance to the photon was stronger and more protracted than for any other particle proposed to date. Einstein's position regarding the Bohr--Kramers--Slater suggestion, the last bastion of resistance to the photon. Einstein's analysis of fluctuations around thermal equilibrium and his proposal of a duality between particles and waves, in 1909 for electromagnetic radiation (the first time this duality was ever stated) and in January 1925 for matter (prior to quantum mechanics and for reasons independent of those given earlier by de Broglie). His demonstration that long-known specific heat anomalies are quantum effects. His role in the evolution of the third law of thermodynamics. His new derivation of Planck's law in 1917 which also marks the beginning of his concern with the failure of classical causality. His role as one of the founders of quantum statistics and his discovery of the first example of a phase transition derived by using purely statistical methods. His position as a critic of quantum mechanics. Initial doubts on the consistency of quantum mechanics (1926--1930). His view maintained from 1930 until the end of his life: quantum mechanics is logically consistent and quite successful but it is incomplete. His attitude toward success. His criterion of objective reality. Differences in the roles relativity and quantum theory played in Einstein's life. His vision regarding quantum theory in the context of a unified field theory. His last autobiographical sketch, written a few months before his death, concluding with a statement about the quantum theory, a subject to which (by his own account) he had given more thought than even to general relativity
Ultraviolet divergences of Einstein gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goroff, M.H.
1986-01-01
The author discuss a two-loop calculation showing that the S matrix of Einstein's theory of gravity contains nonrenormalizable ultraviolet divergences in four dimension. The author discusses the calculation in both background field and normal field theory. The author describes a new method for dealing with ghost fields in gauge theories by combining them with suitable extensions of the gauge fields in higher dimensions. The author shows how using subtracted integrals in the calculation of higher loop graphs simplifies the calculation in the background field method by eliminating the need for mixed counterterms. Finally, the author makes some remarks about the implications of the result for supergravity theories
Physician-assisted dying: thoughts drawn from Albert Camus' writing.
Bozzaro, Claudia
2018-03-20
Physician-assisted dying (assisted suicide and euthanasia) is currently an intensely discussed topic in several countries. Despite differences in legislation and application, countries with end-of-life laws have similar eligibility criteria for assistance in dying: individuals must be in a hopeless situation and experience unbearable suffering. Hopelessness, as a basic aspect of the human condition, is a central topic in Albert Camus' philosophical work The Myth of Sisyphus, which addresses the question of suicide. Suffering in the face of a hopeless situation, and the way doctors approach this suffering, is the topic of his novel The Plague, which describes the story of a city confronted with a plague epidemic. In this paper, I draw philosophical and ethical conclusions about physician-assisted dying based on an analysis of central concepts in the work of Camus-specifically, those treated in The Myth of Sisyphus and The Plague. On the basis of my interpretation of Camus' work, I argue that hopelessness and unbearable suffering are useless as eligibility criteria for physician-assisted dying, given that they do not sufficiently elucidate where the line should be drawn between patients who should to be eligible for assistance and those who should not.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy: Albert Crewe's vision and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Murfitt, Matthew F.; Dellby, Niklas
2012-01-01
Some four decades were needed to catch up with the vision that Albert Crewe and his group had for the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) in the nineteen sixties and seventies: attaining 0.5 Å resolution, and identifying single atoms spectroscopically. With these goals now attained, STEM developments are turning toward new directions, such as rapid atomic resolution imaging and exploring atomic bonding and electronic properties of samples at atomic resolution. The accomplishments and the future challenges are reviewed and illustrated with practical examples. -- Highlights: ► TV-rate STEM imaging of heavy atoms is demonstrated. ► DNA sequencing by STEM dark field imaging should be possible at a rate of 10 6 bases/s. ► Individual silicon atom impurities in graphene are imaged atom-by-atom. ► Single atoms of nitrogen and boron incorporated in graphene are imaged spectroscopically. ► Bonding of individual atoms can be probed by analyzing the fine structures of their EEL spectra.
Heretic or rebel? The heresy trial of Albert Geyser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wim Dreyer
2016-11-01
Full Text Available During September 1961, a charge of heresy was laid against New Testament scholar and antiapartheid activist Prof. A.S. (Albert Geyser. The charge was brought by three senior theological students of the University of Pretoria. They accused Geyser of interpreting Philippians 2 in such a way that it undermined the church’s doctrine of Christ’s pre-existence. The heresy trial started on 24 October 1961 under massive public interest. The trial lasted 6 months and the proceedings covered 2672 typed pages. Reporters of 25 national and international newspapers attended the trial. The heresy trial caused widespread international condemnation of what was regarded as an orchestrated attempt to get rid of Geyser, because of his public and radical opposition to apartheid. In this contribution, Geyser’s theological critique of apartheid as well as his conviction of heresy is discussed. The proceedings of the trial, minutes of the moderature, media coverage and Geyser’s publications serve as primary sources. It concludes with a critical evaluation of Geyser’s theology and his role as a public theologian.
A concepção do tempo em Bergson e sua relação com a teoria da relatividade de Einstein
Daniel Siqueira Pereira
2008-01-01
A presente dissertação trata da relação entre o conceito de tempo tal como foi pensado pelo filósofo francês Henri Bergson (1859-1941) e pelo físico alemão Albert Einstein (1879-1955). Ambos foram contemporâneos e tiveram a chance de confrontar suas opiniões discordantes sobre a natureza do tempo. Em seu polêmico ensaio Duração e Simultaneidade (1922), Bergson expôs sua teoria sobre tempo, pensado enquanto duração, já levando em conta a teoria da relatividade de Einstein. O ob...
Correspondence passed between Einstein and Schroedinger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balibar, F.
1992-01-01
The main points of the 26 year long correspondence between Einstein and Schroedinger are reviewed: from the de Broglie thesis and the Bose-Einstein statistics to the Schroedinger equation (1925-1926); from the EPR paradox to the cat parable (1935); a complete collaboration on unitary theories
New details emerge from the Einstein files
Overbye, D
2002-01-01
For many years the FBI spied on Einstein. New details of this surveilance are emerging in "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist," by Fred Jerome, who sued the government with the help of the Public Citizen Litigation Group to obtain a less censored version of the file (1 page).
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, S.M.
1980-01-01
The celebrated arguments of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen claiming that quantum mechanics cannot be a complete theory are reviewed. Recent research climaxed by Bell's theorem shows that Einstein's locality or ''no telepathy'' postulate conflicts with quantum theory. It adds a new dimension to the paradox by catapulting the problem from the domain of metaphysics into that of experimental physics. (auth.)
Einstein in love a scientific romance
Overbye, Dennis
2000-01-01
At its height, Einstein's marriage to Mileva was an extraordinary one - a colleague and often fierce adversary, Mileva was brilliantly matched with the scientific genius. Dennis Overbye seeks to present this scientific romance in a vivid light, telling the private story of the young Einstein.
Books on Einstein--Collectors' Delight
Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Abd-Shukor, R.; Yatim, Baharudin; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Daud, Abdul Razak; Samat, Supian
2009-01-01
A survey of thirteen books on Einstein is presented. Its gives an idea on how much is written about the man and how frequent are the publications. The year 2005 saw the most publications. It is the centenary for the Miraculous Year. Interestingly some books can just sustain their readers' interest with just words. Einstein comes alive with the…
What Einstein Can Teach Us about Education
Hayes, Denis
2007-01-01
People are more likely to associate Einstein with complex scientific theories and mathematical calculations than with education theory. In fact, Einstein's own experiences of schooling and his reflections on the meaning of life and the significance of education are profound and oddly relevant to the situation that pertains in England today. It is…
Einstein as a Missionary of Science
Renn, Jürgen
2013-01-01
The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed…
Buchi neri nel mio bagno di schiuma l’enigma di Einstein
Vishveshwara, C V
2008-01-01
"Le bolle stavano turbinando tutto intorno a me e massaggiavano il mio corpo ... Mentre me la godevo in questo fantastico bagno di bolle, i miei occhi si fecero pesanti e mi lasciaii trasportare in un dormiveglia sublimamente estatico". Così inizia l’incontro di Alfie con una vasca da bagno eccezionale e rivelatrice, acquistata da un vicino misterioso di nome Al. L’Enigma di Einstein, ovvero buchi neri nel mio bagno di schiuma, racconta la storia della teoria della gravitazione, dai suoi primordi fino agli ultimi sviluppi in astrofisica, focalizzandosi sulla teoria della relatività generale di Albert Einstein e sulla fisica dei buchi neri. Tramite conversazioni avvincenti e diagrammi scarabocchiati su tovaglioli di carta, si susseguono a ruota i rudimenti della relatività, dello spazio-tempo e di molti aspetti della fisica moderna. In scenette narrate con abilità pedagogica e notevole talento letterario, il lettore s’imbatterà nelle lezioni informali che un astrofisico cosmopolita tiene al suo amic...
Bruns, Donald
2016-05-01
In 1919, astronomers performed an experiment during a solar eclipse, attempting to measure the deflection of stars near the sun, in order to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity. The experiment was very difficult and the results were marginal, but the success made Albert Einstein famous around the world. Astronomers last repeated the experiment in 1973, achieving an error of 11%. In 2017, using amateur equipment and modern technology, I plan to repeat the experiment and achieve a 1% error. The best available star catalog will be used for star positions. Corrections for optical distortion and atmospheric refraction are better than 0.01 arcsec. During totality, I expect 7 or 8 measurable stars down to magnitude 9.5, based on analysis of previous eclipse measurements taken by amateurs. Reference images, taken near the sun during totality, will be used for precise calibration. Preliminary test runs performed during twilight in April 2016 and April 2017 can accurately simulate the sky conditions during totality, providing an accurate estimate of the final uncertainty.
Keel, William C
2006-01-01
The insights of relativity have illuminated a century of astronomical discovery, often going beyond the phenomena that Einstein lived to see. This book shows, in nonmathematical ways, how deeply these ways of viewing the Universe have informed our interpretations of it, and how many of the amazing discoveries of these decades have made sense only as part of Einstein's universe. The author brings together the ways in which we see the bizarre effects of relativity played out on a cosmic scale. None of this is particularly new to practicing astronomers, but much has yet to be seen outside technical journals. The presentation avoids mathematics (except for the most famous equation in all of physics!), and is designed to be accessible to the interested public. Gravitational lenses, the visible effects of light-travel delays, the search for black holes, the ways relativity in atomic nuclei makes stars shine, are all treated. In many cases, some of the principals are still alive and provided new commentary on the di...
Saving Space and Time: The Tractor That Einstein Built
2006-01-01
In 1984, NASA initiated the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) program to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity, hypotheses about the ways space, time, light, and gravity relate to each other. To test these predictions, the Space Agency and researchers at Stanford University developed an experiment that would check, with extreme precision, tiny changes in the spin direction of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite orbiting at a 400-mile altitude directly over the Earth s poles. When the program first began, the researchers assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to control the attitude of the GP-B spacecraft accurately. At that time, the best GPS receivers could only provide accuracy to nearly 1 meter, but the GP-B spacecraft required a system 100 times more accurate. To address this concern, researchers at Stanford designed high-performance, attitude-determining hardware that used GPS signals, perfecting a high-precision form of GPS called Carrier-Phase Differential GPS that could provide continuous real-time position, velocity, time, and attitude sensor information for all axes of a vehicle. The researchers came to the realization that controlling the GP-B spacecraft with this new system was essentially no different than controlling an airplane. Their thinking took a new direction: If this technology proved successful, the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were ready commercial markets. They set out to test the new technology, the "Integrity Beacon Landing System," using it to automatically land a commercial Boeing 737 over 100 times successfully through Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. The thinking of the researchers shifted again, from automatically landing aircraft, to automating precision farming and construction equipment.
A centennial gift from Einstein
Oswalt, T. D.
2017-06-01
The 1919 detection of the apparent displacement of background stars near the edge of the eclipsed Sun's disk provided one of the first convincing proofs of Einstein's theory of general relativity (1, 2). Almost 100 years later, Sahu et al. report on page 1046 of this issue the first measurement of the gravitational deflection of starlight by a star other than the Sun (3). Using the superior angular resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), they measured shifts in the apparent position of a distant background star as a nearby dense stellar remnant called a white dwarf passed almost in front of it in 2014. Because of the relative distances involved, the deflections they observed were about 1000 times smaller than those seen in 1919, but also in agreement with general relativity theory.
Einstein wrote back my life in physics
Moffat, John W
2012-01-01
John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,
Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzeszkowski, H. von; Treder, H.
1982-01-01
We dicusss the meaning and prove the accordance of general relativity, wave mechanics, and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations themselves. Firstly, we have the problem of the influence of gravitational fields on the de Broglie waves, which influence is in accordance with Einstein's weak principle of equivalence and the limitation of measurements given by Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. Secondly, the quantization of the gravitational fields is a ''quantization of geometry.'' However, classical and quantum gravitation have the same physical meaning according to limitations of measurements given by Einstein's strong principle of equivalence and the Heisenberg uncertainties for the mechanics of test bodies
Einstein pictures the x-ray sky
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartline, B.K.
1979-01-01
The second High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-2, Einstein) is revolutionizing x-ray astronomy just as its namesake revolutionized physics. Earlier x-ray observatories, including HEAO-1, were designed to scan the sky for x-ray emitters. With Einstein, the challenge has shifted from discovering x-ray sources to understanding the processes producing the x-rays. But having 500 times the sensitivity of previous detectors, Einstein makes more than its share of discoveries, too. For example, it sees distant quasars and clusters of galaxies that can barely be detected by the largest optical telescopes
Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.
Jacobson, Ted
2016-05-20
A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.
On some classes of super quasi-Einstein manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozguer, Cihan
2009-01-01
Quasi-Einstein and generalized quasi-Einstein manifolds are the generalizations of Einstein manifolds. In this study, we consider a super quasi-Einstein manifold, which is another generalization of an Einstein manifold. We find the curvature characterizations of a Ricci-pseudosymmetric and a quasi-conformally flat super quasi-Einstein manifolds. We also consider the condition C ∼ .S=0 on a super quasi-Einstein manifold, where C ∼ and S denote the quasi-conformal curvature tensor and Ricci tensor of the manifold, respectively.
Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.
Chandrasekhar, S.
1979-01-01
This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)
Covariant Conformal Decomposition of Einstein Equations
Gourgoulhon, E.; Novak, J.
It has been shown1,2 that the usual 3+1 form of Einstein's equations may be ill-posed. This result has been previously observed in numerical simulations3,4. We present a 3+1 type formalism inspired by these works to decompose Einstein's equations. This decomposition is motivated by the aim of stable numerical implementation and resolution of the equations. We introduce the conformal 3-``metric'' (scaled by the determinant of the usual 3-metric) which is a tensor density of weight -2/3. The Einstein equations are then derived in terms of this ``metric'', of the conformal extrinsic curvature and in terms of the associated derivative. We also introduce a flat 3-metric (the asymptotic metric for isolated systems) and the associated derivative. Finally, the generalized Dirac gauge (introduced by Smarr and York5) is used in this formalism and some examples of formulation of Einstein's equations are shown.
Vortex sorter for Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whyte, Graeme; Veitch, John; Courtial, Johannes; Oehberg, Patrik
2004-01-01
We have designed interferometers that sort Bose-Einstein condensates into their vortex components. The Bose-Einstein condensates in the two arms of the interferometer are rotated with respect to each other through fixed angles; different vortex components then exit the interferometer in different directions. The method we use to rotate the Bose-Einstein condensates involves asymmetric phase imprinting and is itself new. We have modeled rotation through fixed angles and sorting into vortex components with even and odd values of the topological charge of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates in a number of states (pure or superposition vortex states for different values of the scattering length). Our scheme may have applications for quantum information processing
Bose-Einstein condensation and crystallization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suetoe, A.
2008-01-01
The paper describes history and state of art theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and crystallization as cases of breaking continuous symmetries. Emphasizes that these problems have not been solved exactly. (TRA)
Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation
Proukakis, Nick P.; Snoke, David W.; Littlewood, Peter B.
2017-04-01
Foreword; List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Universality and Bose-Einstein condensation: perspectives on recent work D. W. Snoke, N. P. Proukakis, T. Giamarchi and P. B. Littlewood; 2. A history of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen T. Greytak and D. Kleppner; 3. Twenty years of atomic quantum gases: 1995-2015 W. Ketterle; 4. Introduction to polariton condensation P. B. Littlewood and A. Edelman; Part II. General Topics: Editorial notes; 5. The question of spontaneous symmetry breaking in condensates D. W. Snoke and A. J. Daley; 6. Effects of interactions on Bose-Einstein condensation R. P. Smith; 7. Formation of Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Davis, T. M. Wright, T. Gasenzer, S. A. Gardiner and N. P. Proukakis; 8. Quenches, relaxation and pre-thermalization in an isolated quantum system T. Langen and J. Schmiedmayer; 9. Ultracold gases with intrinsic scale invariance C. Chin; 10. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase of a driven-dissipative condensate N. Y. Kim, W. H. Nitsche and Y. Yamamoto; 11. Superfluidity and phase correlations of driven dissipative condensates J. Keeling, L. M. Sieberer, E. Altman, L. Chen, S. Diehl and J. Toner; 12. BEC to BCS crossover from superconductors to polaritons A. Edelman and P. B. Littlewood; Part III. Condensates in Atomic Physics: Editorial notes; 13. Probing and controlling strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using ultracold quantum gases I. Bloch; 14. Preparing and probing chern bands with cold atoms N. Goldman, N. R. Cooper and J. Dalibard; 15. Bose-Einstein condensates in artificial gauge fields L. J. LeBlanc and I. B. Spielman; 16. Second sound in ultracold atomic gases L. Pitaevskii and S. Stringari; 17. Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates N. G. Parker, A. J. Allen, C. F. Barenghi and N. P. Proukakis; 18. Spinor-dipolar aspects of Bose-Einstein condensation M. Ueda; Part IV. Condensates in Condensed Matter Physics: Editorial notes; 19. Bose-Einstein
Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalman, G.
1997-01-01
This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations
Development of Einstein's general theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, B.K.
1980-01-01
Starting from Poincare's Lorentz-invariant theory of gravity formulated in 1906, development of Einstein's general theory of relativity during 1906-1916 is discussed. Three stages in this development are recognised. In the first stage during 1907-1914, Einstein tried to extend the relativity principle of uniform motion to the frames in non-uniform motion. For this purpose, he introduced the principle of equivalence which made it possible to calculate the effect of homogeneous gravitational field on arbitrary physical processes. During the second stage comprising years 1912-1914 overlapping the first stage, Einstein and Grossmann were struggling to translate physical postulates into the language of the absolute differential calculus. In the period 1915-1916, Einstein formulated the field equations of general relativity. While discussing these developmental stages, theories of gravitation formulated by Abraham, Nordstroem and Mie are also discussed. (M.G.B.)
Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalman, G.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.
On the stability of the Einstein universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soares, I.D.
1983-01-01
It is shown sthat the Einstein Universe is stable by a large class of exact perturbations, which are made starting from a detailed exam of the topology of the model, and which include perturbations of the type considered by Lemaitre. The problem is reduced to the one-dimensional motion of a particle, in a potential well whose minimum corresponds to the configuration of the Einstein Universe. (Author) [pt
Stationary axisymmetric Einstein--Maxwell field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catenacci, R.; Diaz Alonso, J.
1976-01-01
We show the existence of a formal identity between Einstein's and Ernst's stationary axisymmetric gravitational field equations and the Einstein--Maxwell and the Ernst equations for the electrostatic and magnetostatic axisymmetric cases. Our equations are invariant under very simple internal symmetry groups, and one of them appears to be new. We also obtain a method for associating two stationary axisymmetric vacuum solutions with every electrostatic known
String Theory has Einstein's dream come true?
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
After having outlined the difficulties that Einstein and others have encountered in trying to unify our understanding of macroscopic/classical and microscopic /quantum physics, I will explain in simple terms how the latest particle theory revolution, string theory, may finally offer a surprisingly simple realization of these long-standing dreams. Einstein thought that his difficulties stemmed from a clash between the classical and the quantum. Yet, paradoxically, superstrings appear to realize his dream thanks to -and not against- quantum mechanics.
Radiating Kerr particle in Einstein universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaidya, P.C.; Patel, L.K.
1989-01-01
A generalized Kerr-NUT type metric is considered in connection with Einstein field equations corresponding to perfect fluid plus a pure radiation field. A general scheme for obtaining the exact solutions of these field equations is developed. Two physically meaningful particular cases are investigated in detail. One gives the field of a radiating Kerr particle embedded in the Einstein universe. The other solution may probably represent a deSitter-like universe pervaded by a pure radiation field. (author). 7 refs
Gravitational curvature: an introduction to Einstein's theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frankel, T.
1979-01-01
The basic aspects of general relativity are presented from a geometric point of view. The content of the book is well indicated by chapter headings: aspects of special relativity, clocks and gravitational potential, a heuristic derivation of Einstein's equations, the geometry of Einstein's equations, the Schwarzschild solution, the classical motion of a continuum, the relativistic equations of motion, light rays and Fermat's principle, electromagnetism in three-space and Minkowski space, electromagnetism in general relativity, the interior solution, and cosmology. 28 figures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez-Bermejo, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Edificio Departamental II, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: benito.hernandez@urjc.es; Marco-Blanco, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Edificio Departamental II, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain); Romance, M. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Edificio Departamental II, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)
2009-02-23
Estimates for the efficiency of a tree are derived, leading to new analytical expressions for Barabasi-Albert trees efficiency. These expressions are used to investigate the dynamic behaviour of such networks. It is proved that the preferential attachment leads to an asymptotic conservation of efficiency as the Barabasi-Albert trees grow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez-Bermejo, B.; Marco-Blanco, J.; Romance, M.
2009-01-01
Estimates for the efficiency of a tree are derived, leading to new analytical expressions for Barabasi-Albert trees efficiency. These expressions are used to investigate the dynamic behaviour of such networks. It is proved that the preferential attachment leads to an asymptotic conservation of efficiency as the Barabasi-Albert trees grow
History and perspectives of medical research at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon
Ramharter, Michael; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Grobusch, Martin P.; Winkler, Stefan; Graninger, Wolfgang; Krishna, Sanjeev; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Lell, Bertrand; Missinou, Michel A.; Mavoungou, Elie; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.
2007-01-01
In 1913 Albert Schweitzer founded one of the first modern hospitals in Africa dedicated to the health of the local population. The Albert Schweitzer Hospital is located in Lambaréné, a small town in Gabon. In 1981 a research department--the Medical Research Unit--was established with the aim to
Einstein model for elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, N.K.
1975-01-01
A group theoretical model unifying a space-time group (E) and an internal symmetry group (I) for strongly interacting particles is worked out. The space-time group is the one that pertains to the group of motions of static Einstein cosmological model implying the symmetry of the group E = O 4 logical operation of multiplication R. With the use of Gueret and Vigier prescription, the left coset R logical operation of multiplication O 4 is identified with the internal symmetry group I = U 1 β logical operation of multiplication (SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2)) contains SU(4). The complete dynamical group (D) is then found to be D = E logical operation of multiplication I = (O logical operation of multiplication R) logical operation of multiplication U 1 β logical operation of multiplication (SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2) contains SO(4,2). Physically useful representations of the space-time group (E) are worked out by solving the eigenvalue problem of Laplace-Beltmi operator. The internal quantum numbers are prescribed in accordance with the SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2) model of Nakamura and Sato. A general mass formula is derived and its use for known baryons and mesons is discussed. (author)
Zeeman en Einstein. Meeslepende metingen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ad Maas
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Zeeman and EinsteinThis article discusses an early example of interferometric, experimental research related to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. This research concerned two series of experiments on the velocity of light in moving media, conducted between 1914 and 1921 by the Amsterdam physicist Pieter Zeeman. With the first of these series, on the velocity of light in moving water, Zeeman obtained an important result that validated the so called ‘dispersion term’ of the formula for the velocity of light in moving media. Less clear is the scientific objective of the second series, in which Zeeman measured the velocity of light in moving solid media. It seems that Zeeman’s interest in this second series was triggered mainly by the technical challenges posed by these experiments. In this way, they reveal the increasing tendency of Zeeman’s later research to be led by technical and experimental challenges, rather than by the actual scientific developments.
Stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1986-01-01
We determine a one-parameter family of covariant Langevin equations for the metric tensor of general relativity corresponding to DeWitt's one-parameter family of supermetrics. The stochastic source term in these equations can be expressed in terms of a Gaussian white noise upon the introduction of a stochastic tetrad field. The only physically acceptable resolution of a mathematical ambiguity in the ansatz for the source term is the adoption of Ito's calculus. By taking the formal equilibrium limit of the stochastic metric a one-parameter family of covariant path-integral measures for general relativity is obtained. There is a unique parameter value, distinguished by any one of the following three properties: (i) the metric is harmonic with respect to the supermetric, (ii) the path-integral measure is that of DeWitt, (iii) the supermetric governs the linearized Einstein dynamics. Moreover the Feynman propagator corresponding to this parameter is causal. Finally we show that a consistent stochastic perturbation theory gives rise to a new type of diagram containing ''stochastic vertices.''
Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity
Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank
2012-09-01
The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balibar, F. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)
1992-12-31
The main points of the 26 year long correspondence between Einstein and Schroedinger are reviewed: from the de Broglie thesis and the Bose-Einstein statistics to the Schroedinger equation (1925-1926); from the EPR paradox to the cat parable (1935); a complete collaboration on unitary theories.
Visions of Savage Paradise : Albert Eckhout, Court Painter in Colonial Dutch Brazil
Brienen, Rebecca Parker
2006-01-01
Visions of Savage Paradise is the first major book-length study of the Dutch artist Albert Eckhout to be published since 1938. This book, which draws extensively on the author's doctoral dissertation, examines the fascinating works of art produced by Eckhout while he was court painter in Dutch
Cholera management and prevention at Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Haiti.
Ernst, Silvia; Weinrobe, Carolyn; Bien-Aime, Charbel; Rawson, Ian
2011-11-01
In October 2010, Hopital Albert Schweitzer Haiti treated some of the first patients with cholera in Haiti. Over the following 10 months, a strategic plan was developed and implemented to improve the management of cases at the hospital level and to address the underlying risk factors at the community level.
Quest for consistency, symmetry and simplicity - The legacy of Albert Tarantola
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosegaard, Klaus
2011-01-01
his career in astrophysics, and later in his life he wrote several papers and books on physics and probability, including new formulations of fluid dynamics, elasticity theory, global positioning, and scientific inference. Albert possessed a unique combination of exceptional skills and remarkable...
Albert Memmi and Audre Lorde: Gender, Race, and the Rhetorical Uses of Anger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria del Guadalupe Davidson
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Feminists, like members of other oppressed groups, are likely to embrace many aspects of Albert Memmi’s profound analysis of domination and oppression. Even though feminists can find common cause with Memmi in many respects, nevertheless they are likely to find themselves at odds with what Memmi says and does not say about women.
Chenoweth, Eric
2013-01-01
Albert Shanker (1928-1997) is known mainly for his successful struggle to obtain collective bargaining for teachers, his leadership of teacher unions, and his championship of education reform. Shanker built large and powerful city, state, and national unions of teachers and other public employees that still stand as models both for union democracy…
Albert J. Beveridge as Imperialist and Progressive: The Means Justify the End.
Carlson, A. Cheree
1988-01-01
Describes Senator Albert Jerimiah Beveridge as a leader in two early twentieth-century movements: imperialism and progressivism. Indicates that Beveridge's success demonstrates the possibility that rhetors can adapt to changes in the rhetorical situation without surrendering their personal convictions. (JK)
Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up
2008-07-01
Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin
The Chevreton tensor and Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes conformal to Einstein spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergqvist, Goeran; Eriksson, Ingemar
2007-01-01
In this paper, we characterize the source-free Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes which have a trace-free Chevreton tensor. We show that this is equivalent to the Chevreton tensor being of pure radiation type and that it restricts the spacetimes to Petrov type N or O. We prove that the trace of the Chevreton tensor is related to the Bach tensor and use this to find all Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with a zero cosmological constant that have a vanishing Bach tensor. Among these spacetimes we then look for those which are conformal to Einstein spaces. We find that the electromagnetic field and the Weyl tensor must be aligned, and in the case that the electromagnetic field is null, the spacetime must be conformally Ricci-flat and all such solutions are known. In the non-null case, since the general solution is not known on a closed form, we settle by giving the integrability conditions in the general case, but we do give new explicit examples of Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes that are conformal to Einstein spaces, and we also find examples where the vanishing of the Bach tensor does not imply that the spacetime is conformal to a C-space. The non-aligned Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with vanishing Bach tensor are conformally C-spaces, but none of them are conformal to Einstein spaces
Approximate radiative solutions of the Einstein equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuusk, P.; Unt, V.
1976-01-01
In this paper the external field of a bounded source emitting gravitational radiation is considered. A successive approximation method is used to integrate the Einstein equations in Bondi's coordinates (Bondi et al, Proc. R. Soc.; A269:21 (1962)). A method of separation of angular variables is worked out and the approximate Einstein equations are reduced to key equations. The losses of mass, momentum, and angular momentum due to gravitational multipole radiation are found. It is demonstrated that in the case of proper treatment a real mass occurs instead of a mass aspect in a solution of the Einstein equations. In an appendix Bondi's new function is given in terms of sources. (author)
Static Einstein--Maxwell field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.
1979-01-01
The static Einstein--Maxwell field equations are investigated in the presence of both electric and magnetic fields. The sources or bodies are assumed to be of finite size and to not affect the connectivity of the associated space. Furthermore, electromagnetic and metric fields are assumed to have reasonable differentiabilities. It is then proved that the electric and magnetic field vectors are constant multiples of one another. Moreover, the static Einstein--Maxwell equations reduce to the static magnetovac case. If, furthermore, the variational derivation of the Einstein--Maxwell equations is assumed, then both the total electric and magnetic charge of each body must vanish. As a physical consequence it is pointed out that if a suspended magnet be electrically charged then it must experience a purely general relativistic torque
Restricted gravity: Abelian projection of Einstein's theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Y.M.
2013-01-01
Treating Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group, we decompose the gravitational connection Γμ into the restricted connection made of the potential of the maximal Abelian subgroup H of Lorentz group G and the valence connection made of G/H part of the potential which transforms covariantly under Lorentz gauge transformation. With this we show that Einstein's theory can be decomposed into the restricted gravity made of the restricted connection which has the full Lorentz gauge invariance which has the valence connection as gravitational source. The decomposition shows the existence of a restricted theory of gravitation which has the full general invariance but is much simpler than Einstein's theory. Moreover, it tells that the restricted gravity can be written as an Abelian gauge theory,
Partially massless graviton on beyond Einstein spacetimes
Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Hinterbichler, Kurt; von Strauss, Mikael
2017-06-01
We show that a partially massless graviton can propagate on a large set of spacetimes which are not Einstein spacetimes. Starting from a recently constructed theory for a massive graviton that propagates the correct number of degrees of freedom on an arbitrary spacetime, we first give the full explicit form of the scalar constraint responsible for the absence of a sixth degree of freedom. We then spell out generic conditions for the constraint to be identically satisfied, so that there is a scalar gauge symmetry which makes the graviton partially massless. These simplify if one assumes that spacetime is Ricci symmetric. Under this assumption, we find explicit non-Einstein spacetimes (some, but not all, with vanishing Bach tensors) allowing for the propagation of a partially massless graviton. These include in particular the Einstein static Universe.
Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions
Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.
2007-12-01
We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.
Modified Einstein and Navier–Stokes Equations
Bulyzhenkov, I. É.
2018-05-01
The appearance of inertial rest mass-energy is associated with the kinematic slowing-down of time and with the vortex state of the elementary massive space with zero integral of its kinetic and potential energies. An analog of the Einstein equation is found for moving densities of a non-empty metric space in the concept of the Einstein-Infeld material field. The vector consequences of this tensor equation for a metric medium of overlapping elementary carriers of continuous mass-energies allow us to modify the Navier-Stokes equation under inertial motion of the matter of the nonlocal field in the nonrelativistic limit. The nonlocality of massenergy generates kinematic accelerations of feedback to Newtonian acceleration, which impedes asymptotic divergence of energy fluxes. Stabilization of inertial media by dynamic Bernoulli pressure corresponds to nonlocal self-organization of Einstein-Infeld non-empty space and invalidates Newtonian localization of masses in empty space.
Einstein and interpretation of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashlyun, F.
1982-01-01
The main problems of the quantum theory, the basis of which was laid by Planck in 1900 as a result of the discovery of elementary quantum of action, are examined. The most important Einstein contributions to the quantum theory are enumerated. The Einstein work about the light quanta, proved wave-particle dualism, stated one of the most complicated problems to the physics. The work on the specific heat capacity of solids shows that the quantum theory should be beyond the limits of the narrow range of the problems on black radiation. The works on the equilibrium of radiation have convincingly demonstrates statistical character of the radiation processes and have marked the way to Heizenberg form of the quantum mechanics. Einstein generalized the idea of wave-particle dualism to the ordinary gas. It helped to prepare the Schroedinger form of quantum mechanics
Modified Einstein and Navier-Stokes Equations
Bulyzhenkov, I. É.
2018-05-01
The appearance of inertial rest mass-energy is associated with the kinematic slowing-down of time and with the vortex state of the elementary massive space with zero integral of its kinetic and potential energies. An analog of the Einstein equation is found for moving densities of a non-empty metric space in the concept of the Einstein-Infeld material field. The vector consequences of this tensor equation for a metric medium of overlapping elementary carriers of continuous mass-energies allow us to modify the Navier-Stokes equation under inertial motion of the matter of the nonlocal field in the nonrelativistic limit. The nonlocality of massenergy generates kinematic accelerations of feedback to Newtonian acceleration, which impedes asymptotic divergence of energy fluxes. Stabilization of inertial media by dynamic Bernoulli pressure corresponds to nonlocal self-organization of Einstein-Infeld non-empty space and invalidates Newtonian localization of masses in empty space.
Fermilab | Science | Questions for the Universe | Einstein's Dream of
newsletter Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces In this Section: Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces Are there dream of an ultimate explanation for everything from the tiniest quanta of particle physics to the
Einstein and general relativity: historical perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandrasekhar, S.
1978-01-01
The place of Einstein in 20th-century physics is discussed. The basic ideas that led Einstein to his theory of gravitation by the sheer power of speculative thought are described in the most general terms. The prediction of the bending of starlight by the Sun and the eclipse expedition of 1919 are recounted. The author feels that ''the general theory of relativity is incredibly rich in its content;...one finds a glittering face at almost every turn.'' The prediction of black holes by general relativity is noted
Resonances for coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haroutyunyan, H.L.; Nienhuis, G.
2004-01-01
The properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a two-well potential can be manipulated by periodic modulation of the potential parameters. We study the effects arising from modulating the barrier height and the difference in well depth. At certain modulation frequencies the system exhibits resonances, which may show up in an enhancement of the tunneling rate between the wells. Resonances can be used to control the particle distribution over the wells. Some of the effects occurring in the two-well system also arise for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice
Mathematical implications of Einstein-Weyl causality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borchers, H.J.; Sen, R.N.
2006-01-01
The present work is the first systematic attempt at answering the following fundamental question: what mathematical structures does Einstein-Weyl causality impose on a point-set that has no other previous structure defined on it? The authors propose an axiomatization of Einstein-Weyl causality (inspired by physics), and investigate the topological and uniform structures that it implies. Their final result is that a causal space is densely embedded in one that is locally a differentiable manifold. The mathematical level required of the reader is that of the graduate student in mathematical physics. (orig.)
Actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, D.D.
1982-01-01
Problems of actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation are lightened. The great Einstein theory of gravitation is shown to remain a reliable base of understanding of modern physical world pattern and its inevitable further inexhaustible precising. The main GRT difficulties are enumirated: determination of reference systems, presence of singularities in the theory, absence of consistent determination of the gravity energy, impossibility of accounting the relations between atomic, gravitational and cosmological characteristics. The attention is paid to gauge, twistor problems and to unified interaction theory. The great contribution of the soviet science in the theory of gravitation is stressed
Beyond Einstein: Exploring the Extreme Universe
Barbier, Louis M.
2005-01-01
This paper will give an overview of the NASA Universe Division Beyond Einstein program. The Beyond Einstein program consists of a series of exploratory missions to investigate some of the most important and pressing problems in modern-day astrophysics - including searches for Dark Energy and studies of the earliest times in the universe, during the inflationary period after the Big Bang. A variety of new technologies are being developed both in the science instrumentation these missions will carry and in the spacecraft that will carry those instruments.
Bohr vs. Einstein: Fortolkning af kvantemekanikken
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Wade, Andrew Christopher James
2013-01-01
Siden 1913, da Bohr fremlagde sin kvantemekaniske model for atomet, har fysikere diskuteret, hvordan kvan- temekanikken skal fortolkes. Specielt aktive i denne diskussion var Bohr og Einstein, som havde modstridende opfattelser af, hvordan kvantemekanikken skulle forstås. Kan katte være både...... levende og døde på samme tid? Kan vi teleportere partikler mellem Månen og Jorden? Disse spørgsmål, og mange flere, forsøgte Bohr og Einstein at besvare, og det vil vi ligeledes i denne artikel....
Buick, Otto; Falcon, Pat; Alexander, G.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2013-03-01
Einstein[Dover(03)] critical-slowing-down(CSD)[Pais, Subtle in The Lord; Life & Sci. of Albert Einstein(81)] is Siegel CyberWar denial-of-access(DOA) operations-research queuing theory/pinning/jamming/.../Read [Aikido, Aikibojitsu & Natural-Law(90)]/Aikido(!!!) phase-transition critical-phenomenon via Siegel DIGIT-Physics (Newcomb[Am.J.Math. 4,39(1881)]-{Planck[(1901)]-Einstein[(1905)])-Poincare[Calcul Probabilités(12)-p.313]-Weyl [Goett.Nachr.(14); Math.Ann.77,313 (16)]-{Bose[(24)-Einstein[(25)]-Fermi[(27)]-Dirac[(1927)]}-``Benford''[Proc.Am.Phil.Soc. 78,4,551 (38)]-Kac[Maths.Stat.-Reasoning(55)]-Raimi[Sci.Am. 221,109 (69)...]-Jech[preprint, PSU(95)]-Hill[Proc.AMS 123,3,887(95)]-Browne[NYT(8/98)]-Antonoff-Smith-Siegel[AMS Joint-Mtg.,S.-D.(02)] algebraic-inversion to yield ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-statistics (BEQS) with ZERO-digit Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION(BEC) ``INTERSECTION''-BECOME-UNION to Barabasi[PRL 876,5632(01); Rev.Mod.Phys.74,47(02)...] Network /Net/GRAPH(!!!)-physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh(1881)-Polya(21)-``Anderson''(58)-Siegel[J.Non-crystalline-Sol.40,453(80)
Einstein and a century of time
Raine, D. J.
2005-09-01
In a world overabundant in information, a subject is defined by its iconography. Physics is the falling apple, the planetary atom, the laser, the mushroom cloud and the image of the later Einstein - images that represent, respectively, gravity, atomic theory, quantum theory, mass-energy and the scientist who had a hand in all four. It is therefore appropriate that World Year of Physics is called Einstein Year in the UK. Of course one can argue that progress in science depends on the contributions of many people; that there are other geniuses in physics, even some colourful personalities. Nevertheless there are fundamental reasons why Einstein's early achievements stand out even in their company. When at last the thought came to him that 'time itself was suspect', Einstein had found a new insight into the nature of the physical universe. It is this: that the universal properties of material objects tell us about the nature of space and time, and it is through these properties, not philosophical logic or common sense, that we discover the structure of spacetime. The later Einstein turned this successful formula on its head and sought to use the properties of spacetime to define those of material objects, thereby seeking to abolish matter entirely in favour of geometry. Before I introduce this special feature of European Journal of Physics I will say a few words about what is not here. Like all great geniuses Einstein can be seen as the climax of what went before him and the initiation of what was to follow. Looking back we can see the influence of Mach's positivism, according to which the role of science is to relate observations to other observations; hence only observations can tell us what is 'real'. But Einstein also grew up with the family electromechanical businesses, which testifies to the reality of the Maxwellian electromagnetic fields: thus only theory can tell us what is real! As is well known, Einstein himself refused to accept the full consequences of
On Einstein's kinematics and his derivation of Lorentz transformation equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulati, Shobha; Gulati, S.P.
1981-01-01
Recently the present authors have claimed that Einstein's historic derivation of 1905 of Lorentz transformation equations is a 'howler' - a correct result achieved through some incorrect steps. In the present contribution, this howler is fully resolved. Incidently, Einstein's kinematical considerations are found to be void of any new definitional elements or conventionality as unjustifiably claimed by Einstein and some other scientists. (author)
Ethic and Evolution in Boltzmann's and Einstein's Thought
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1980-01-01
In physics and to a large extent in epistomology, Einstein was the natural successor to Boltzmann. But while Boltzmann was an ardent evolutionist, Einstein cared little for biology. Boltzmann applied Darwinian principles also to ethics, but remained aloof from politics. In contrast, Einstein's morality, though expressed in magnificent and selfless activity, lacked a firm theoretical basis. (author)
Ethic and Evolution in Boltzmann's and Einstein's Thought
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broda, E.
1980-07-01
In physics and to a large extent in epistomology, Einstein was the natural successor to Boltzmann. But while Boltzmann was an ardent evolutionist, Einstein cared little for biology. Boltzmann applied Darwinian principles also to ethics, but remained aloof from politics. In contrast, Einstein's morality, though expressed in magnificent and selfless activity, lacked a firm theoretical basis. (author)
Conceptual Development of Einstein's Mass-Energy Relationship
Wong, Chee Leong; Yap, Kueh Chin
2005-01-01
Einstein's special theory of relativity was published in 1905. It stands as one of the greatest intellectual achievements in the history of human thought. Einstein described the equivalence of mass and energy as "the most important upshot of the special theory of relativity" (Einstein, 1919). In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of the…
Einstein 1905-1955: His Approach to Physics
Damour, Thibault
We review Einstein's epistemological conceptions, and indicate their philosophical roots. The particular importance of the ideas of Hume, Kant, Mach, and Poincaré is highlighted. The specific characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics are underlined. Lastly, we consider the practical application of Einstein's methodological principles to the two theories of relativity, and to quantum theory. We emphasize a Kantian approach to quantum theory.
Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik
Fiami
2005-01-01
Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.
You err, Einstein.. Newton, Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman discuss quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsch, Harald
2008-01-01
Harald Fritzsch and his star physicists Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman explain the central concept of nowadays physics, quantum mechanics, without it nothing goes in modern world. And the great Isaac newton puts the questions, which all would put
Some Einstein spaces and their global properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siklos, S.T.C.
1981-01-01
The global structure of a class of Einstein spaces is investigated. These spaces have algebraically special Weyl tensors and contain homogeneous hypersurfaces. It is found that they display simple examples of a variety of interesting configuration involving horizons and singularities. (author)
Einstein and Infeld, Seen Through Their Correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stachel, J.
1999-01-01
On the basis of material in the Einstein Archive and Infeld's writings, the story of their relationship between 1920 and 1955 is reconstructed. While the scientific side of their early contacts and later collaboration is discussed, the major emphasis is placed on the development of their personal relations, and their comments on various social, cultural and political questions. (author)
The Excellence of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation.
Dirac, P. A. M.
1979-01-01
This article is adapted from a presentation made in 1978 at the symposium on the Impact of Modern Scientific Ideas on Society organized by UNESCO in Ulm, West Germany. It discusses Einstein's theory of gravitation and how it started a new line of activity for physicists. (HM)
Einstein's lessons for energy accounting in LCA
Frischknccht, Rolf; Heijungs, Reinout; Hofstetter, Patrick
1998-01-01
The role and meaning of accounting for energy, including feedstock energy, is reviewed in connection to Einstein's special theory of relativity. It is argued that there is only one unambiguous interpretation of the term energy-content: The one that corresponds to mc2. The implications for life cycle
Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
some detail how Einstein evolved this theory and get a glimpse of his unique ... The Principle of Relativity: The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. .... ing on the railway platform will see them occur at different places. However ...
Conformal anomalies and the Einstein field equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godazgar, Hadi [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Meissner, Krzysztof A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Nicolai, Hermann [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2017-04-28
We compute corrections to the Einstein field equations which are induced by the anomalous effective actions associated to the type A conformal anomaly, both for the (non-local) Riegert action, as well as for the local action with dilaton. In all cases considered we find that these corrections can be very large.
On Einstein's opponents, and other crackpots
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2010-01-01
Einsteins Gegner: Die öffentliche Kontroverse um die Relativitätstheorie in den 1920er Jahren, Milena Wazeck. Campus Verlag, pp. 429, EUR 39.90. ISBN: 978-3593389141 “This world is a strange madhouse. Currently, every coachman and every waiter is debating whether relativity theory is correct. Belief
The Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation
Freundlich, Erwin; Brose, Translated by Henry L.; Einstein, Preface by Albert; Turner, Introduction by H. H.
2011-06-01
Introduction; 1. The special theory of relativity as a stepping-stone to the general theory of relativity; 2. Two fundamental postulates in the mathematical formulation of physical laws; 3. Concerning the fulfilment of the two postulates; 4. The difficulties in the principles of classical mechanics; 5. Einstein's theory of gravitation; 6. The verification of the new theory by actual experience; Appendix; Index.
Compton's Kinematics and Einstein - Ehrenfest's radiation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barranco, A.V.; Franca, H.M.
1988-09-01
The Compton Kinematic relations are obtained from entirely classical arguments, that is, without the corpuscular concept of the photon. The calculations are nonrelativistic and result from Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory modified in order to introduce the effects of the classical zero-point fileds characteristic of Stochastic Electrodynamics. (author) [pt
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170
A Lopez - TS/CE
2005-01-01
The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE
Skyrmion physics in Bose-Einstein ferromagnets
Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2001-01-01
We show that a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate has not only line-like vortex excitations, but in general, also allows for pointlike topological excitations, i.e., skyrmions. We discuss the thermodynamic stability and the dynamic properties of these skyrmions for both spin-1/2 and
Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
picture books for children. Supurna Sinha ... no contact with other contemporary great thinkers. This isolation ... do not remember if I knew of it at all when I wrote my first paper .... words of R S Shankland: "I asked Professor Einstein how long.
Bose-Einstein correlations between kaons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akesson, T.; Batley, R.; Breuker, H.; Dam, P.; Eidelman, S.; Fabian, C.W.; Frandsen, P.; Goerlach, U.; Heck, B.; Hilke, H.J.; Jeffreys, P.; Kalinovsky, A.; Kesseler, G.; Lans, J. van der; Lindsay, J.; Markou, A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Nielsen, B.S.; Olsen, L.H.; Rosselet, L.; Rosso, E.; Rudge, A.; Schindler, R.; Willis, W.J.; Witzeling, W.; Albrow, M.G.; Cockerill, D.; Evans, W.M.; Gibson, M.; Hiddleston, J.; MacCubbin, N.A.; Williamson, J.; Benary, O.; Dagan, S.; Lissauer, D.; Oren, Y.; Boeggild, H.; Botner, O.; Dahl-Jensen, E.; Dahl-Jensen, I.; Damgaard, G.; Hansen, K.H.; Hooper, J.; Moeller, R.; Brody, H.; Frankel, S.; Frati, W.; Molzon, W.; Vella, E.; Zajc, W.A.; Burkert, V.; Carter, J.R.; Cecil, P.; Chung, S.U.; Gordon, H.; Ludlam, T.; Winik, M.; Woody, C.; Cleland, W.E.; Kroeger, R.; Sullivan, M.; Thompson, J.A.
1985-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations between identical charged kaons are observed in αα, pp, and panti p collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The average radial extension of the K-emitting region is found to be (2.4+-0.9) fm. (orig.)
Type III Einstein-Yang-Mills solutions
Fuster, A.; Holten, van J.W.
2005-01-01
Exact solutions of Einstein equations have always attracted much attention. It is somewhat surprising to find exact solutions of such nonlinear equations. Many of them were collected in the by now classic book by Kramer et al. which has recently been revised [1]. Among others one finds the
Einstein Slew Survey: Data analysis innovations
Elvis, Martin S.; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan F.; Fabbiano, G.
1992-01-01
Several new methods were needed in order to make the Einstein Slew X-ray Sky Survey. The innovations which enabled the Slew Survey to be done are summarized. These methods included experimental approach to large projects, parallel processing on a LAN, percolation source detection, minimum action identifications, and rapid dissemination of the whole data base.
The Einstein All-Sky Slew Survey
Elvis, Martin S.
1992-01-01
The First Einstein IPC Slew Survey produced a list of 819 x-ray sources, with f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -10) erg/sq cm s and positional accuracy of approximately 1.2 feet (90 percent radius). The aim of this program was to identify these x-ray sources.
Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants
Seward, Frederick D.
1990-01-01
This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.
Exact solutions of Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell equations in higher-dimensional spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Dianyan; Beijing Univ., BJ
1988-01-01
The D-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric and Reissner-Nordstrom-de-Sitter metric are derived directly by solving the Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell equations. The D-dimensional Kerr metric is rederived by using the complex coordinate transformation method and the D-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter metric is also given. The conjecture about the D-dimensional metric of a rotating charged mass is given at the end of this paper. (author)
Schechter, Clyde B; Near, Aimee M; Jayasekera, Jinani; Chandler, Young; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S
2018-04-01
The Georgetown University-Albert Einstein College of Medicine breast cancer simulation model (Model GE) has evolved over time in structure and function to reflect advances in knowledge about breast cancer, improvements in early detection and treatment technology, and progress in computing resources. This article describes the model and provides examples of model applications. The model is a discrete events microsimulation of single-life histories of women from multiple birth cohorts. Events are simulated in the absence of screening and treatment, and interventions are then applied to assess their impact on population breast cancer trends. The model accommodates differences in natural history associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) biomarkers, as well as conventional breast cancer risk factors. The approach for simulating breast cancer natural history is phenomenological, relying on dates, stage, and age of clinical and screen detection for a tumor molecular subtype without explicitly modeling tumor growth. The inputs to the model are regularly updated to reflect current practice. Numerous technical modifications, including the use of object-oriented programming (C++), and more efficient algorithms, along with hardware advances, have increased program efficiency permitting simulations of large samples. The model results consistently match key temporal trends in US breast cancer incidence and mortality. The model has been used in collaboration with other CISNET models to assess cancer control policies and will be applied to evaluate clinical trial design, recurrence risk, and polygenic risk-based screening.
Standing together in troubled times unpublished letters by Pauli, Einstein, Franck and others
2017-01-01
This captivating book is a story of the friendship between a genius physicist Wolfgang Pauli and Charlotte Houtermans whose career in physics was not as glamorous. They met in the late 1920s in Germany, at the very onset of the quantum era and personally knew all the major players in the emergent quantum world that was very much part of central Europe: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Denmark and Switzerland. And Charlotte was a student at Göttingen that was right at the heart.Caught between two evils — Soviet Communism and German National Socialism — she would have probably perished if it were not for the brotherhood of physicists: Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli, Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Robert Oppenheimer and many other noted scientists who tried to save friends and colleagues (either leftist sympathizers or Jews) who were in mortal danger of being entrapped in a simmering pre-WWII Europe.Using newly discovered documents from the Houtermans family archive: twenty three Pauli's letters to Charlott...
Piecewise linear manifolds: Einstein metrics and Ricci flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schrader, Robert
2016-01-01
This article provides an attempt to extend concepts from the theory of Riemannian manifolds to piecewise linear (p.l.) spaces. In particular we propose an analogue of the Ricci tensor, which we give the name of an Einstein vector field . On a given set of p.l. spaces we define and discuss (normalized) Einstein flows. p.l. Einstein metrics are defined and examples are provided. Criteria for flows to approach Einstein metrics are formulated. Second variations of the total scalar curvature at a specific Einstein space are calculated. (paper)
Pioneering figures in medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin--inventor of the oral polio vaccine.
Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A
2005-01-01
Over ten years after his death, the Sabin oral vaccine continues its profound influence on public health throughout the world. The annual incidence of polio has fallen dramatically since its introduction, with more than 300,000 lives being spared each year and an annual global saving in excess of 1 billion US dollars. In many ways, the development of an effective oral vaccine and its subsequent regulation by the World Health Organization can serve as a model for medical researchers. Our review describes the contribution of Albert Sabin as a medical researcher, and how his vaccine had a profound impact on the global reduction of polio infections. As many different factors influenced health-care last century, we describe Sabin's involvement with respect to prevailing scientific paradigms and public health issues of the time. Our paper also outlines the basic epidemiology of poliovirus and the historical development of an effective vaccine, both with and without Albert Sabin.
Albert Memmi: retrato de un extranjero. Crisis de identidad y creación literaria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Carlos Marco Vega
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Albert Memmi’s first autobiographical novel, called La statue de sel, was published in 1953. Born in a Jewish family, Memmi grows up in Tunisia at a time where this Muslim majority country was still a French protectorate. Growing up in such an exceptional environment causes him a serious identity crisis. At 35, Memmi realizes that only literature can help him understand his place in the world. In this paper, we would like to analyze the feeling of strangeness Albert Memmi grew up with, paying special attention to his books: La statue de sel and the Portrait du colonisé, an essay published in 1957 as a theoretical complement to the novel.
ALBERT, HANS, Racionalismo crítico. Por Juan A. Estrada
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan A. Estrada
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Autor: Hans Albert (2002 Editorial: Síntesis, Madrid, 238 pp. Desde su tratado sobre la razón crítica, Albert no ha cesado de precisar su concepción filosófica, desde un diálogo constante con Popper y respondiendo a las diversas críticas de la hermenéutica y la fenomenología, de la teoría crítica y de la misma teología. En este volumen ofrece varios trabajos con el subtítulo de «Cuatro capítulos para una sátira del pensamiento ilusorio», precedida de un denso y buen prólogo de Ángeles J. Perona.
Evaluating North American Electric Grid Reliability Using the Barabasi-Albert Network Model
Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian
2004-01-01
The reliability of electric transmission systems is examined using a scale-free model of network structure and failure propagation. The topologies of the North American eastern and western electric networks are analyzed to estimate their reliability based on the Barabasi-Albert network model. A commonly used power system reliability index is computed using a simple failure propagation model. The results are compared to the values of power system reliability indices previously obtained using s...
Albert Schweitzer se etiese gesigseinder: Eerbied vir en dankbaarheid teenoor die lewe
Botha, Pieter JJ
2015-01-01
In the search for relevant theology, especially in the context of the ethical and moral challenges facing contemporary South Africa, the theology/philosophy of religion of Albert Schweitzer can play an important role. Aspects of Schweitzer's deliberations are briefly discussed under three topics: ethical mysticism, the centrality of life and the responsibility associated with living. The famous statement, "reverence for life" as summary for Schweitzer's thinking is embedded in profound and co...
Lestari, Sri
2016-01-01
Child rearing in family has various purposes, among of them is to build child’s character. The evidence shows that character strengths are positively related to the individual’s well‐ being and happiness. Albert Bandura proposed self‐sanction mechanism model to regulate moral behavior by giving physical sanction and verbal reprimand. As child grows, the child need parental guiding to understand standards of conduct and to learn about social sanction. If child can function s...
On the number of subgraphs of the Barabasi-Albert random graph
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryabchenko, Aleksandr A; Samosvat, Egor A [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region, Russian Frderation (Russian Federation)
2012-06-30
We study a model of a random graph of the type of the Barabasi-Albert preferential attachment model. We develop a technique that makes it possible to estimate the mathematical expectation for a fairly wide class of random variables in the model under consideration. We use this technique to prove a theorem on the asymptotics of the mathematical expectation of the number of subgraphs isomorphic to a certain fixed graph in the random graphs of this model.
On the number of subgraphs of the Barabási-Albert random graph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryabchenko, Aleksandr A; Samosvat, Egor A
2012-01-01
We study a model of a random graph of the type of the Barabási-Albert preferential attachment model. We develop a technique that makes it possible to estimate the mathematical expectation for a fairly wide class of random variables in the model under consideration. We use this technique to prove a theorem on the asymptotics of the mathematical expectation of the number of subgraphs isomorphic to a certain fixed graph in the random graphs of this model.
Entretien avec l'économiste Albert Berry | CRDI - Centre de ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
13 oct. 2010 ... Selon ce qu'a révélé en 2002 une enquête très médiatisée de la maison ... par le CRDI en Amérique latine ont achevé il y a peu une étude de deux ans ... Écoutez Albert Berry parler des dangers qui guettent une économie ...
Einstein-Rosen 'bridge' needs lightlike brane source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guendelman, Eduardo; Kaganovich, Alexander; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana
2009-01-01
The Einstein-Rosen 'bridge' wormhole solution proposed in the classic paper (Einstein and Rosen (1935) ) does not satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations at the wormhole throat. We show that the fully consistent formulation of the original Einstein-Rosen 'bridge' requires solving Einstein equations of bulk D=4 gravity coupled to a lightlike brane with a well-defined world-volume action. The non-vanishing contribution of Einstein-Rosen 'bridge' solution to the right-hand side of Einstein equations at the throat matches precisely the surface stress-energy tensor of the lightlike brane which automatically occupies the throat ('horizon straddling') - a feature triggered by the world-volume lightlike brane dynamics.
Albert Hofmann and Steve Myers honoured by the University of Geneva
2001-01-01
Albert Hofmann (top) and Steve Myers (bottom) receive the title of Doctor Honoris Causa from the hands of Maurice Bourquin, Rector of the University of Geneva and President of CERN Council. In front of Geneva University's crowded auditorium, Albert Hofmann and Steve Myers received title of Doctor Honoris Causa last Friday 8 June. The two members of CERN thereby received the University's highest distinction. This honour comes in recognition of their careers in the service of accelerator physics and their essential contribution to the success of LEP. Steve Myers joined CERN in August 1972 to work as engineer-in charge of the Intersecting Storage Rings collider (ISR). He was responsible for the acceleration by phase displacement of the high intensity beams to 31 GeV/c. He also worked on many other topics, notably the beam-beam effect in the ISR. Albert Hofmann arrived at CERN from the Cambridge Electron Accelerator (CEA) near Boston, USA, in 1973 - already with an excellent reputation as accelerato...
A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssen, Michel
2013-01-01
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2–5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which
Einstein, Albert
1967-01-01
Nello stato magmatico della fisica novecentesca Albert Einstein è il nucleo solido, la roccia stabilmente configurata che sta al centro. Di qui la sua posizione di "classico", come testimonia al più alto livello questa esposizione della teoria della relatività. Una teoria che ha segnato un vero mutamento di paradigma, non solo in campo scientifico: la potenza teorica dell'equivalenza relativistica massa-energia ha trovato, come sappiamo, la sua tragica verifica a Hiroshima, nel terrificante potenziale distruttivo della bomba atomica. Oggi, a oltre un secolo dalla originaria formulazione einsteiniana, è la comprensione della "relatività della relatività" che vuol essere perseguita. A introdurre il lettore a questa nuova dimensione provvede un'antologia di scritti di quegli autori che fondarono la scienza fisico-matematica classica e ne avviarono l'evoluzione in senso relativistico.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maik Hollinger
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Nowadays Albert Einstein is the archetype of a scientist. His world fame has its roots in the revolutionary corroboration of his general theory of relativity during the sun eclipse in May 1919 and the eventual presentation of the obtained results. Having a strong resonance in the scientific community as well as in public, the coverage in the press can be traced back to be the main factor that shaped Einstein’s picture in the past – reverberating even today. The political situation immediately after the First World War puts this episode in the history of science in a setting where many insights into the interactions between science, politics, the press and international relations at the shift from 1919–1920 can be found.
It's about time understanding Einstein's relativity
Mermin, N David
2005-01-01
In It's About Time, N. David Mermin asserts that relativity ought to be an important part of everyone's education--after all, it is largely about time, a subject with which all are familiar. The book reveals that some of our most intuitive notions about time are shockingly wrong, and that the real nature of time discovered by Einstein can be rigorously explained without advanced mathematics. This readable exposition of the nature of time as addressed in Einstein's theory of relativity is accessible to anyone who remembers a little high school algebra and elementary plane geometry. The book evolved as Mermin taught the subject to diverse groups of undergraduates at Cornell University, none of them science majors, over three and a half decades. Mermin's approach is imaginative, yet accurate and complete. Clear, lively, and informal, the book will appeal to intellectually curious readers of all kinds, including even professional physicists, who will be intrigued by its highly original approach.
Taming the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation.
Harte, Abraham I
2014-12-31
Many of the technical complications associated with the general theory of relativity ultimately stem from the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation. It is shown here that an appropriate choice of dynamical variables may be used to eliminate all such nonlinearities beyond a particular order: Both Landau-Lifshitz and tetrad formulations of Einstein's equation are obtained that involve only finite products of the unknowns and their derivatives. Considerable additional simplifications arise in physically interesting cases where metrics become approximately Kerr or, e.g., plane waves, suggesting that the variables described here can be used to efficiently reformulate perturbation theory in a variety of contexts. In all cases, these variables are shown to have simple geometrical interpretations that directly relate the local causal structure associated with the metric of interest to the causal structure associated with a prescribed background. A new method to search for exact solutions is outlined as well.
Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anglin, J. R.; Ketterle, W.
2003-01-01
The early experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three longstanding goals. First, cooling of neutral atoms into their motional state, thus subjecting them to ultimate control, limited only by Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Second, creation of a coherent sample of atoms, in which all occupy the same quantum states, and the realization of atom lasers - devices that output coherent matter waves. And third, creation of gaseous quantum fluid, with properties that are different from the quantum liquids helium-3 and helium-4. The field of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases has continued to progress rapidly, driven by the combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical advances. The family of quantum degenerate gases has grown, and now includes metastable and fermionic atoms. condensates have become an ultralow-temperature laboratory for atom optics, collisional physics and many-body physics, encompassing phonons, superfluidity, quantized vortices, Josephson junctions and quantum phase transitions. (author)
Einstein metrics and Brans-Dicke superfields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marques, S.
1988-01-01
It is obtained here a space conformal to the Einstein space-time, making the transition from an internal bosonic space, constructed with the Majorana constant spinors in the Majorana representation, to a bosonic ''superspace,'' through the use of Einstein vierbeins. These spaces are related to a Grassmann space constructed with the Majorana spinors referred to above, where the ''metric'' is a function of internal bosonic coordinates. The conformal function is a scale factor in the zone of gravitational radiation. A conformal function dependent on space-time coordinates can be constructed in that region when we introduce Majorana spinors which are functions of those coordinates. With this we obtain a scalar field of Brans-Dicke type. 11 refs
Generalization of Einstein's gravitational field equations
Moulin, Frédéric
2017-12-01
The Riemann tensor is the cornerstone of general relativity, but as is well known it does not appear explicitly in Einstein's equation of gravitation. This suggests that the latter may not be the most general equation. We propose here for the first time, following a rigorous mathematical treatment based on the variational principle, that there exists a generalized 4-index gravitational field equation containing the Riemann curvature tensor linearly, and thus the Weyl tensor as well. We show that this equation, written in n dimensions, contains the energy-momentum tensor for matter and that of the gravitational field itself. This new 4-index equation remains completely within the framework of general relativity and emerges as a natural generalization of the familiar 2-index Einstein equation. Due to the presence of the Weyl tensor, we show that this equation contains much more information, which fully justifies the use of a fourth-order theory.
Scattering amplitudes in N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity
Chiodaroli, Marco; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu
2015-01-01
We expose a double-copy structure in the scattering amplitudes of the generic Jordan family of N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories in four and five dimensions. The Maxwell-Einstein supergravity amplitudes are obtained through the color/kinematics duality as a product of two gauge-theory factors; one originating from pure N=2 super-Yang-Mills theory and the other from the dimensional reduction of a bosonic higher-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory. We identify a specific symplectic frame in four dimensions for which the on-shell fields and amplitudes from the double-copy construction can be identified with the ones obtained from the supergravity Lagrangian and Feynman-rule computations. The Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories are obtained by gauging a compact subgroup of the isometry group of their Maxwell-Einstein counterparts. For the generic Jordan family this process is identified with the introduction of cubic scalar couplings on the bosonic gauge-theory side, which th...
Scattering amplitudes in N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiodaroli, Marco; Günaydin, Murat; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu
2015-01-01
We expose a double-copy structure in the scattering amplitudes of the generic Jordan family of N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories in four and five dimensions. The Maxwell-Einstein supergravity amplitudes are obtained through the color/kinematics duality as a product of two gauge-theory factors; one originating from pure N=2 super-Yang-Mills theory and the other from the dimensional reduction of a bosonic higher-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory. We identify a specific symplectic frame in four dimensions for which the on-shell fields and amplitudes from the double-copy construction can be identified with the ones obtained from the supergravity Lagrangian and Feynman-rule computations. The Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories are obtained by gauging a compact subgroup of the isometry group of their Maxwell-Einstein counterparts. For the generic Jordan family this process is identified with the introduction of cubic scalar couplings on the bosonic gauge-theory side, which through the double copy are responsible for the non-abelian vector interactions in the supergravity theory. As a demonstration of the power of this structure, we present explicit computations at tree-level and one loop. The double-copy construction allows us to obtain compact expressions for the supergravity superamplitudes, which are naturally organized as polynomials in the gauge coupling constant.
Einstein gravity emerging from quantum weyl gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zee, A.
1983-01-01
We advocate a conformal invariant world described by the sum of the Weyl, Dirac, and Yang-Mills action. Quantum fluctuations bring back Einstein gravity so that the long-distance phenomenology is as observed. Formulas for the induced Newton's constant and Eddington's constant are derived in quantized Weyl gravity. We show that the analogue of the trace anomaly for the Weyl action is structurally similar to that for the Yang-Mills action
Genuine Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering
He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.
2013-12-01
We develop the concept of genuine N-partite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. This nonlocality is the natural multipartite extension of the original EPR paradox. Useful properties emerge that are not guaranteed for genuine multipartite entangled states. In particular, there is a close link with the task of one-sided, device-independent quantum secret sharing. We derive inequalities to demonstrate multipartite EPR steering for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and Gaussian continuous variable states in loophole-free scenarios.
Time symmetry and the Einstein paradox
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa de Beauregard, O.
1977-01-01
The characteristic difference between the paleoquantal calculation (addition of partial probabilities) and the neoquantal one (addition of partial amplitudes) for the correlation of photon polarizations in cascade transitions is derived in terms of elementary trigonometry. This deliberate use of simple formulae aims at a transparent rendering of the change in paradigm required by the so-called EPR paradox (which is truly the 1927 Einstein paradox), namely that 1) the two photons do not possess polarizations of their own when leaving the source C, but borrow one later, when interacting with the analysers L and N; 2) the die is thus not cast at C, but later, at L and N; 3) the correlation between the measurements at L and N is tied through C, in their common past. The tight connection between this ''Einstein nonseparability'' and the nonlocality in Feynman's ''theory of positrons'' is demonstrated through an analysis of the e + e - annihilation into two photons. Thus the Einstein paradox corresponds, in the ''new wavelike probability calculus'', to the Loschmid and Zermelo sort of paradox in the old probability calculus. That is, it contrasts the intrinsic time symmetry existing at the elementary level to the factlike macroscopic time asymmetry. The discussion deliberately by-passes the hidden-variable problem, the model in this being Einstein's by-passing of the mechanical aether when proposing special relativity. It is believed today, like in 1905, the problem is tayloring the wording after the (operationally good) mathematics. Moreover, that the change in paradigm, which is needed, comes through a victory of formalism over modelism. (author)
Bose-Einstein correlation in Landau's model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hama, Y.; Padula, S.S.
1986-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlation is studied by taking an expanding fluid given by Landau's model as the source, where each space-time point is considered as an independent and chaotic emitting center with Planck's spectral distribution. As expected, the correlation depends on the relative angular positions as well as on the overall localization of the measuring system and it turns out that the average dimension of the source increases with the multiplicity N/sub ch/
Bose-Einstein condensation of paraxial light
Klaers, J.; Schmitt, J.; Damm, T.; Vewinger, F.; Weitz, M.
2011-01-01
Photons, due to the virtually vanishing photon-photon interaction, constitute to very good approximation an ideal Bose gas, but owing to the vanishing chemical potential a (free) photon gas does not show Bose-Einstein condensation. However, this is not necessarily true for a lower-dimensional photon gas. By means of a fluorescence induced thermalization process in an optical microcavity one can achieve a thermal photon gas with freely adjustable chemical potential. Experimentally, we have obs...
Cosmic censorship in quantum Einstein gravity
Bonanno, A.; Koch, B.; Platania, A.
2017-05-01
We study the quantum gravity modification of the Kuroda-Papapetrou model induced by the running of the Newton’s constant at high energy in quantum Einstein gravity. We argue that although the antiscreening character of the gravitational interaction favours the formation of a naked singularity, quantum gravity effects turn the classical singularity into a ‘whimper’ singularity which remains naked for a finite amount of advanced time.
Sasaki-Einstein Manifolds and Volume Minimisation
Martelli, D; Yau, S T; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James; Yau, Shing-Tung
2006-01-01
We study a variational problem whose critical point determines the Reeb vector field for a Sasaki-Einstein manifold. This extends our previous work on Sasakian geometry by lifting the condition that the manifolds are toric. We show that the Einstein-Hilbert action, restricted to a space of Sasakian metrics on a link L in a Calabi-Yau cone M, is the volume functional, which in fact is a function on the space of Reeb vector fields. We relate this function both to the Duistermaat-Heckman formula and also to a limit of a certain equivariant index on M that counts holomorphic functions. Both formulae may be evaluated by localisation. This leads to a general formula for the volume function in terms of topological fixed point data. As a result we prove that the volume of any Sasaki-Einstein manifold, relative to that of the round sphere, is always an algebraic number. In complex dimension n=3 these results provide, via AdS/CFT, the geometric counterpart of a-maximisation in four dimensional superconformal field theo...
Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McManus, Ryan; Lombriser, Lucas; Peñarrubia, Jorge, E-mail: ryanm@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: jorpega@roe.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2016-11-01
The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar field profile, one can then further evaluate whether these limits can be attributed to a genuine screening effect. For illustration, we apply the analysis to both a cubic galileon and a chameleon model as well as to Brans-Dicke theory. Finally, we emphasise that the scaling method also provides a natural approach for performing post-Newtonian expansions in screened regimes.
Einstein and the history of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, D.; Stachel, J.
1989-01-01
This book is a collection of essays by the authors and other people that deal with scientific opinions that led Einstein and his contemporaries to their views of general relativity. Some of the essays explore Einstein's passage from the special theory through a sequence of gravitational theories to the discovery of the field equations of the grand theory in November 1915. Two other essays discuss Einstein's public and private exchanges with Max Abraham and Tullio Levi-Civita in 1913 and 1914. A sympathetic picture of H.A. Lorentz's reaction to the general theory of relativity is included, and a careful and insightful essay on the early understanding of the Schwarzschild-Droste solution to the field equations of general relativity is presented. One paper presents a discussion on the state of the enterprise of general relativity between 1925 and 1928, and a short essay details the history of steps toward quantum gravitational through canonical quantization. A discussion of the history of derivations of the geodesic equation of motion from the field equation and conservation laws of the general theory is presented. The early history of geometrical unified field theories is included
Einstein's Gravity and Dark Energy/Matter
Sarfatti, J
2003-01-01
Should Einstein's general relativity be quantized in the usual way even though it is not renormalizable the way the spin 1/2 lepto-quark - spin 1 gauge force boson local field theories are? Condensed matter theorists using P.W. Anderson's "More is different" approach, consistent with Andrei Sakharov's idea of "metric elasticity" with gravity emergent out of quantum electrodynamic zero point vacuum fluctuations, is the approach I take in this paper. The QED vacuum in globally-flat Minkowski space-time is unstable due to exchange of virtual photons between virtual electrons and positron "holes" near the -mc2 Fermi surface well inside the 2mc2 energy gap. This results in a non-perturbative emergence of both Einstein's gravity and a unified dark energy/dark matter w = -1 exotic vacuum zero point fluctuation field controlled by the local macro-quantum vacuum coherent field. The latter is a Bose-Einstein condensate of virtual off-mass-shell bound electron-positron pairs. The dark matter exotic vacuum phase with pos...
Bose-Einstein condensation of paraxial light
Klaers, J.; Schmitt, J.; Damm, T.; Vewinger, F.; Weitz, M.
2011-10-01
Photons, due to the virtually vanishing photon-photon interaction, constitute to very good approximation an ideal Bose gas, but owing to the vanishing chemical potential a (free) photon gas does not show Bose-Einstein condensation. However, this is not necessarily true for a lower-dimensional photon gas. By means of a fluorescence induced thermalization process in an optical microcavity one can achieve a thermal photon gas with freely adjustable chemical potential. Experimentally, we have observed thermalization and subsequently Bose-Einstein condensation of the photon gas at room temperature. In this paper, we give a detailed description of the experiment, which is based on a dye-filled optical microcavity, acting as a white-wall box for photons. Thermalization is achieved in a photon number-conserving way by photon scattering off the dye molecules, and the cavity mirrors both provide an effective photon mass and a confining potential-key prerequisites for the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. The experimental results are in good agreement with both a statistical and a simple rate equation model, describing the properties of the thermalized photon gas.
Implementação do protocolo TRS-398 para feixes de elétrons no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodrigues Laura Natal
2006-01-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A fim de simplificar a utilização das tabelas correspondentes aos fatores de qualidade no TRS-398 da International Atomic Energy Agency na calibração cruzada da câmara de placas paralelas por comparação com uma câmara cilíndrica calibrada em um feixe de elétrons de qualidade Qcross, é introduzida uma energia intermediária e arbitrária Qint na qual a câmara de placas paralelas deverá ser calibrada. O objetivo deste trabalho consiste em avaliar a escolha desta energia intermediária. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Uma câmara de placas paralelas da Scanditronix, modelo NACP-02, e uma câmara PTW Markus foram calibradas em dois aceleradores lineares da Varian, Clinac 2100C e Clinac 23EX, nas energias de 16 e 20 MeV, respectivamente. Como câmara de referência foi utilizada uma câmara da Nuclear Enterprises, modelo 2571, previamente calibrada em termos de Dw no Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, para um feixe de 60Co. RESULTADOS: Os fatores de calibração N D,w assim obtidos apresentam uma variação de 0,07%, o que pode ser considerado desprezível. Os valores de dose absorvida na água determinados no Clinac 2100C para uma Qint de 16 MeV apresentam uma variação de 0,04% para a menor energia (4 MeV e de 2,6% para a maior energia (16 MeV, em relação ao protocolo TRS-381. Já para uma Qint de 20 MeV, as variações observadas são de 1,3% e 3,5%. Por outro lado, as doses determinadas no Clinac 23EX para as Qint de 16 MeV e de 20 MeV são de 1,9% e 2,0% e de 2,8% e 3,0%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A escolha de Qint não é tão crítica assim, principalmente quando não de dispõem de feixes de elétrons que tenham na prática um valor de R50 exatamente igual a 7,5 g.cm-2.
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This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.
Rolnik, Eran J
2010-12-01
Few chapters in the historiography of psychoanalysis are as densely packed with trans-cultural, ideological, institutional, and moral issues as the coming of psychoanalysis to Jewish Palestine--a geopolitical space which bears some of the deepest scars of twentieth-century European, and in particular German, history. From the historical as well as the critical perspective, this article reconstructs the intricate connections between migration, separation and loss, continuity and new beginning which resonate in the formative years of psychoanalysis in pre-state Israel.
On solutions of Einstein and Einstein-Yang-Mills equations with (maximal) conformal subsymmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinzinkayo, S.; Demaret, J.
1985-01-01
The maximal subgroups of the conformal group (which have in common as a subgroup the group of pure spatial rotations) are considered as isometry groups of conformally flat space-times. The corresponding cosmological solutions of Einstein's field equations are identified. For each of them, the possibility is investigated that it could be generated by an SU(2) Yang-Mills field built, via the Corrigan-Fairlie-'t Hooft-Wilczek ansatz, from a scalar field identical with the square root of the conformal factor defining the space-time metric tensor. In particular, the Einstein cosmological model can be generated in this manner, but in the framework of strong gravity only, a micro-Einstein universe being then viewed as a possible model for a hadron. (author)
Einstein's Materialism and Modern Tests of Quantum Mechanics
Vigier, J. P.
After a presentation of Einstein's and Bohr's antagonistic point of view on the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics an illustration of their conflicting positions in the particular case of Young's double slit experiment is presented. It is then shown that in their most recent form (i. e. time dependent neutron interferometry) these experiments suggest (if one accepts absolute energymomentum conservation in all individual microprocesses) that Einstein was right in the Bohr-Einstein controversy.Translated AbstractEinsteins Materialismus und heutige Tests der QuantenmechanikNach einer Darstellung von Einsteins und Bohrs antagonistischen Standpunkten in der Interpretation der Quantenmechanik werden ihre widersprüchlichen Positionen im speziellen Fall des Youngschen Doppelspaltexperiments dargestellt. Es wird dann gezeigt, daß diese Experimente in ihrer neuesten Form (d. h. zeitabhängige Neutroneninterferometrie) Einstein in der Bohr-Einsteinkontroverse recht gaben (wenn man absolute Energie-Impulserhaltung bei allen individuellen Mikroprozessen annimmt).
Construction of Einstein-Sasaki metrics in D≥7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.; Vazquez-Poritz, J. F.
2007-01-01
We construct explicit Einstein-Kaehler metrics in all even dimensions D=2n+4≥6, in terms of a 2n-dimensional Einstein-Kaehler base metric. These are cohomogeneity 2 metrics which have the new feature of including a NUT-type parameter, or gravomagnetic charge, in addition to..' in addition to mass and rotation parameters. Using a canonical construction, these metrics all yield Einstein-Sasaki metrics in dimensions D=2n+5≥7. As is commonly the case in this type of construction, for suitable choices of the free parameters the Einstein-Sasaki metrics can extend smoothly onto complete and nonsingular manifolds, even though the underlying Einstein-Kaehler metric has conical singularities. We discuss some explicit examples in the case of seven-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki spaces. These new spaces can provide supersymmetric backgrounds in M theory, which play a role in the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence
Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehlers, Juergen
2007-01-01
'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten-well documented, well written, and fascinating to read-describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers-Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others-working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as the
Exact solutions of Einstein and Einstein-scalar equations in 2+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Virbhadra, K.S.
1995-01-01
A nonstatic and circularly symmetric exact solution of the Einstein equations (with a cosmological constant Λ and null fluid) in 2 + 1 dimensions is given. This is a nonstatic generalization of the uncharged spinless Bandos Teitelboim Zanelli (BTZ) metric. For Λ = 0, spacetime is though not flat, the Kretschmann invariant vanishes. The energy, momentum, and power output for this metric are obtained. Further a static and circularly symmetric exact solution of the Einstein-massless scalar equations is given, which has a curvature singularity at r=0 and the scalar field diverges at r=0 as well as at infinity. (author). 12 refs
Solitons, gauge theories and the 'great Einstein theorem'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dresden, M.; Chen, S.F.
1976-01-01
A field theory is said to be of 'Einstein type' if it has the property that the field equations imply the equations of motion. It is known that general relativity is of Einstein type, it is demonstrated here that the Yang-Mills gauge theory is of Einstein type. The relationship between the singularities in the solutions of the field equations and soliton type is analyzed. (Auth.)
A class of exact solutions to the Einstein field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goyal, Nisha; Gupta, R K
2012-01-01
The Einstein-Rosen metric is considered and a class of new exact solutions of the field equations for stationary axisymmetric Einstein-Maxwell fields is obtained. The Lie classical approach is applied to obtain exact solutions. By using the Lie classical method, we are able to derive symmetries that are used for reducing the coupled system of partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. From reduced differential equations we have derived some new exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations. (paper)
Classes of general axisymmetric solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krori, K.D.; Choudhury, T.
1981-01-01
An exact solution of the Einstein equations for a stationary axially symmetric distribution of mass composed of all types of multipoles is obtained. Following Ernst (1968), from this vacuum solution the corresponding solution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations is derived. A solution of Einstein-Maxwell fields for a static axially symmetric system composed of all types of multipoles is also obtained. (author)
Interactions of Ultracold Impurity Particles with Bose-Einstein Condensates
2015-06-23
AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0141 INTERACTIONS OF ULTRACOLD IMPURITY PARTICLES WITH BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES Georg Raithel UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final...SUBTITLE Interactions of ultracold impurity particles with Bose- Einstein Condensates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0453 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Interactions of ultracold impurity particles with Bose- Einstein Condensates Contract/Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0453 Reporting Period: 8/15/2010 to 2/14
Folster, Jason P; Campbell, Davina; Grass, Julian; Brown, Allison C; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Joseph, Lavin A; Plumblee, Jodie R; Walker, Carrie; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Whichard, Jean M
2015-05-01
Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Although most Salmonella infections are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment of invasive salmonellosis is critical. The primary antimicrobial treatment options include fluoroquinolones or extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and resistance to these antimicrobial drugs may complicate treatment. At present, S. enterica is composed of more than 2,600 unique serotypes, which vary greatly in geographic prevalence, ecological niche, and the ability to cause human disease, and it is important to understand and mitigate the source of human infection, particularly when antimicrobial resistance is found. In this study, we identified and characterized 19 S. enterica serotype Albert isolates collected from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States during 2005 to 2013. All five isolates from nonhuman sources were obtained from turkeys or ground turkey, and epidemiologic data suggest poultry consumption or live-poultry exposure as the probable source of infection. S. enterica serotype Albert also appears to be geographically localized to the midwestern United States. All 19 isolates displayed multidrug resistance, including decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Turkeys are a likely source of multidrug-resistant S. enterica serotype Albert, and circulation of resistance plasmids, as opposed to the expansion of a single resistant strain, is playing a role. More work is needed to understand why these resistance plasmids spread and how their presence and the serotype they reside in contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Spectroscopy of dark soliton states in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bongs, K; Burger, S; Hellweg, D; Kottke, M; Dettmer, S; Rinkleff, T; Cacciapuoti, L; Arlt, J; Sengstock, K; Ertmer, W
2003-01-01
Experimental and numerical studies of the velocity field of dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates are presented. The formation process after phase imprinting as well as the propagation of the emerging soliton are investigated using spatially resolved Bragg spectroscopy of soliton states in Bose-Einstein condensates of 87 Rb. A comparison of experimental data to results from numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation clearly identifies the flux underlying a dark soliton propagating in a Bose-Einstein condensate. The results allow further optimization of the phase imprinting method for creating collective excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sri Lestari
2016-06-01
being and happiness. Albert Bandura proposed self‐sanction mechanism model to regulate moral behavior by giving physical sanction and verbal reprimand. As child grows, the child need parental guiding to understand standards of conduct and to learn about social sanction. If child can function self‐sanction mechanism, child is expected be able to evaluate his conduct right or wrong. The functioning of behavior moral regulation is an important part in developing child’s character. The strength and weakness of model and the application of this model in Indonesian context will be discussed.
El lugar de la persuasión en sociedades degradadas: sobre Albert Speer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ángela Uribe
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper I try to contrast the sense of the term "persuasion", as defined by Aristotle in his Rhetoric, with the sense of the term "fascination", proposed by Hannah Arendt in her Origins of Totalitarianism. I illustrate such contrast through references to the relationship between Albert Speer and Adolf Hitler. By considering the use of the two terms and the references, I reach a conclusion that shows why, in what I call "degraded social orders", there is no place for rhetoric.
Evolution of egoism on semi-directed and undirected Barabási-Albert networks
Lima, F. W. S.
2015-05-01
Through Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of the four strategies: Ethnocentric, altruistic, egoistic and cosmopolitan in one community of individuals. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and semi-directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We study the Hammond-Axelrod (HA) model on undirected and semi-directed BA networks for the asexual reproduction case. With a small modification in the traditional HA model, our simulations showed that egoism wins, differently from other results found in the literature where ethnocentric strategy is common. Here, mechanisms such as reciprocity are absent.
Biohistorical materials and contemporary privacy concerns-the forensic case of King Albert I.
Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Bekaert, Bram; Baumers, Maarten; Wenseleers, Tom; Deforce, Dieter; Borry, Pascal; Decorte, Ronny
2016-09-01
The rapid advancement of technology in genomic analysis increasingly allows researchers to study human biohistorical materials. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the privacy of the donor's living relatives and the negative impact they might experience from the (public) availability of genetic results, even in cases of scientific, forensic or historical relevance. This issue has become clear during a cold case investigation of a relic attributed to Belgian King and World War I-hero Albert I who died, according to the official version, in a solo climbing accident in 1934. Authentication of the relic with blood stains assigned to the King and collected on the place where his body was discovered is recognised as one of the final opportunities to test the plausibility of various conspiracy theories on the King's demise. While the historical value and current technological developments allow the genomic analysis of this relic, publication of genetic data would immediately lead to privacy concerns for living descendants and relatives of the King, including the Belgian and British royal families, even after more than 80 years. Therefore, the authentication study of the relic of King Albert I has been a difficult exercise towards balancing public research interests and privacy interests. The identification of the relic was realised by using a strict genetic genealogical approach including Y-chromosome and mitochondrial genome comparison with living relatives, thereby limiting the analysis to genomic regions relevant for identification. The genetic results combined with all available historical elements concerning the relic, provide strong evidence that King Albert I was indeed the donor of the blood stains, which is in line with the official climbing accident hypothesis and contradicts widespread 'mise-en-scène' scenarios. Since publication of the haploid data of the blood stains has the potential to violate the privacy of living relatives, we opted for
MUROS ABSURDOS E CONDIÇÃO HUMANA NA OBRA DE ALBERT CAMUS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrícia Oliveira Machado
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Albert Camus descreve a condição humana como sendo contingente, frágil e absurda, para isso ele utiliza a noção de “muros absurdos”, que são situações que enfrentamos e contra as quais não podemos escapar. Se a princípio, a morte, a velhice, a desumanidade parecem experiências banais, no pensamento camusiano, elas se revelam como possibilidade de tomada de consciência do absurdo de nossa condição. Palavras-chave: absurdo; condição humana; consciência.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan
1989-01-01
A one-to-one correspondence is established between the static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations and the stationary solutions of the Einstein-vacuum equations, that enables one to directly write down a solution for the one from a known solution of the other, and conversely, by a simple transcription. The directness of the correspondence is achieved by writing the metric for static Einstein-Maxwell space-times in a coordinate system and a gauge adapted to the two-centre problem and the metric for stationary Einstein-vacuum space-times in a coordinate system and a gauge adapted to black holes with event horizons. (author)
New Einstein-Sasaki and Einstein spaces from Kerr-de Sitter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvetic, M.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Page, Don N.
2009-01-01
In this paper, which is an elaboration of our results in Phys. Rev. Lett. 95:071101, 2005 (hep-th/0504225), we construct new Einstein-Sasaki spaces L p,q,r 1 ,...,r n-1 in all odd dimensions D = 2n+1 ≥ 5. They arise by taking certain BPS limits of the Euclideanised Kerr-de Sitter metrics. This yields local Einstein-Sasaki metrics of cohomogeneity n, with toric U(1) n+1 principal orbits, and n real non-trivial parameters. By studying the structure of the degenerate orbits we show that for appropriate choices of the parameters, characterised by the (n+1) coprime integers (p,q,r 1 ,...,r n-1 ), the local metrics extend smoothly onto complete and non-singular compact Einstein-Sasaki manifolds L p,q,r 1 ,...,r n-1 . We also construct new complete and non-singular compact Einstein spaces Λ p,q,r 1 ,...,r n in D = 2n+1 that are not Sasakian, by choosing parameters appropriately in the Euclideanised Kerr-de Sitter metrics when no BPS limit is taken.
Unified Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories in five dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenaydin, Murat; Zagermann, Marco
2003-01-01
Unified N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories (MESGTs) are supergravity theories in which all the vector fields, including the graviphoton, transform in an irreducible representation of a simple global symmetry group of the Lagrangian. As was established long time ago, in five dimensions there exist only four unified Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories whose target manifolds are symmetric spaces. These theories are defined by the four simple euclidean Jordan algebras of degree three. In this paper, we show that, in addition to these four unified MESGTs with symmetric target spaces, there exist three infinite families of unified MESGTs as well as another exceptional one. These novel unified MESGTs are defined by non-compact (minkowskian) Jordan algebras, and their target spaces are in general neither symmetric nor homogeneous. The members of one of these three infinite families can be gauged in such a way as to obtain an infinite family of unified N = 2 Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories, in which all vector fields transform in the adjoint representation of a simple gauge group of the type SU(N,1). The corresponding gaugings in the other two infinite families lead to Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories coupled to tensor multiplets. (author)
Lattice solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.
2003-01-01
We systematically study the properties of lattice solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates with either attractive or repulsive atom interactions. This is done, by exactly solving the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of a periodic potential. We find new families of lattice soliton solutions that are characterized by the position of the energy eigenvalue within the associated band structure. These include lattice solitons in condensates with either attractive or repulsive atom interactions that exist in finite or semi-infinite gaps, as well as nonlinear modes that exhibit atomic population cutoffs
Einstein-Yang-Mills-Lorentz black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Gigante Valcarcel, Jorge [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)
2017-12-15
Different black hole solutions of the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills equations have been well known for a long time. They have attracted much attention from mathematicians and physicists since their discovery. In this work, we analyze black holes associated with the gauge Lorentz group. In particular, we study solutions which identify the gauge connection with the spin connection. This ansatz allows one to find exact solutions to the complete system of equations. By using this procedure, we show the equivalence between the Yang-Mills-Lorentz model in curved space-time and a particular set of extended gravitational theories. (orig.)
Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.
2001-01-01
When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)
Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2001-07-01
When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Complex Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianconi, Ginestra; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo
2001-01-01
The evolution of many complex systems, including the World Wide Web, business, and citation networks, is encoded in the dynamic web describing the interactions between the system's constituents. Despite their irreversible and nonequilibrium nature these networks follow Bose statistics and can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Addressing the dynamical properties of these nonequilibrium systems within the framework of equilibrium quantum gases predicts that the 'first-mover-advantage,' 'fit-get-rich,' and 'winner-takes-all' phenomena observed in competitive systems are thermodynamically distinct phases of the underlying evolving networks
An exact solution in Einstein-Cartan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roque, W.L.
1982-01-01
The exact solution of the field equations of the Einstein-Cartan theory is obtained for an artificial dust of radially polarized spins, with spherical symmetry and static. For a best estimation of the effect due the spin, the energy-momentum metric tensor is considered null. The gravitational field dynamics is studied for several torsion strengths, through the massive and spinless test-particle moviment, in particular for null torsion Schwarzschild solutions is again obtained. It is observed that the gravitational effects related to the torsin (spin) sometimes are attractives sometimes are repulsives, depending of the torsion values and of the test-particle position and velocity. (L.C.) [pt
Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld Gravity
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Kim Jin Young
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new approach to construct wormholes without introducing exotic matters in Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity with a cosmological constant. Contary to the conventional approach, the throat is located at the place where the solutions can be joined smoothly. The metric and its derivatives are continuous so that the exotic matters are not needed there. The exoticity of the energy-momentum tensor is not essential to sustain the wormhole. We also present a method to check the stability of wormholes in the new approach.
Bose-Einstein condensation in real space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valencia, J.J.; Llano, M. de; Solis, M.A.
2004-01-01
We show how Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) occurs not only in momentum space but also in coordinate (or real) space. Analogies between the isotherms of a van der Waals classical gas of extended (or finite-diameter) identical atoms and the point (or zero-diameter) particles of an ideal BE gas allow concluding that, in contrast with the classical case, the volume per particle vanishes in the pure BE condensate phase precisely because the boson diameters are zero. Thus a BE condensate forms in real space without exhibiting a liquid branch as does the classical gas. (Author)
Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aumayr, F.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ; Lee, W.
1991-02-01
Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A-coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of an argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high-intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs
Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aumayr, F.; Lee, W.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.
1991-03-01
Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A- coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high- intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs
Neutrino fields in Einstein-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.B.
1981-01-01
The spin-coefficient formalism presented elsewhere is here applied to classical neutrino fields in Einstein-Cartan theory. It is shown that the neutrino current vector is tangent to an expansion-free null geodesic congruence with constant and equal twist and shear, which vanish if and only if the congruence is a repeated principal null congruence of the gravitational field. The geodesics are both extremals and autoparallels. All exact solutions for the case of pure radiation fields are obtained, and it is shown that the only possible ghost solutions have a plane wave metric. (author)
The simplest group of Einstein supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogievetsky, V.I.; Sokatchev, E.S.
1979-01-01
The simplest supergroup of Einstein supergravity is considered. It is the complex supergroup of general coordinate transformations in left- and right-handed chiral conjugated superspaces restricted by the condition of left- and right- supervolume-preservation. The real part of the vector coordinate of the superspace is identified with the space-time coordinate xsup(m) and the imaginary one, with the axial gravitational superfield Hsup(m) (x, theta, anti theta). The transformations of the field components of Hsup(m) are studied in detail. The approach described is the geometrical basis of the so-called ''tensor calculus''
Internal Einstein spaces and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coquereaux, R.
1984-01-01
We first define a generalised gauge invariant Yang-Mills Lagrangian: the Killing metric -Ksub(αβ) on the group is replaced by a more general metric hsub(αβ)(x); the field hsub(αβ)(x) -a scalar from the space time point of view- is then covariantly coupled to the gauge field Asub(μ)sup(α) and is also self-coupled via a natural scalar potential (no parameters). Non trivial saddle points of this scalar potential, correspond to non standard Einstein metrics on the group C. the associated shifts lead to an entirely computable mass spectrum for the gauge field
Einstein and the Changing Worldviews of Physics
Lehner, Christoph; Schemmel, Matthias
2012-01-01
This volume reviews conceptual conflicts at the foundations of physics now and in the past century. The focus is on the conditions and consequences of Einstein's pathbreaking achievements that sealed the decline of the classical notions of space, time, radiation, and matter, and resulted in the theory of relativity. Particular attention is paid to the implications of conceptual conflicts for scientific views of the world at large, thus providing the basis for a comparison of the demise of the mechanical worldview at the turn of the 20th century with the challenges presented by cosmology at the
Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965: Fiction and Historical Reconstruction in Movies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio CARRERAS PANCHÓN
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The 1952 Nobel Peace Prize granted to Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965 meant not only an acknowledgement of his altruistic work in Africa but also implied his development into a global public figure. His influence covered a wide range of fields (theologian, philosopher, musician, physician. In the context of the cold war and the menace of a nuclear war, he advocated for a universal concept of ethics and the “Reverence for life”. His life was very soon object of dramatisations, both in film and theatre plays, often openly apologetically. Following the decolonization and the fall of real socialism, his figure has been revisited in a number of films. However, many of these modern dramatisations tend to focus on thencurrent concerns and disregard the contradictions and limitations of Albert Schweitzer. The biopic is a genre where the freedom of scriptwriters and directors prevail, and where those specific events that may be most appealing to the public are emphatically portrayed. The documentary film, intended to enhance the image of the person, has given way to other approaches, where a number of Schweitzer acquaintances provide a more clear and corroborated picture of his complex personality.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
R.B. Ruthven
konstitutive Dimension sichtbar wird?“ (S. 1). Die empirische Grundlage der. Untersuchung bilden 136 Parlamentsreden (von 1963 bis 2000), 216 Artikel aus dem Magazin Stern (1968 bis 2000) sowie die Online-Korpora des Instituts für. Deutsche Sprache in Mannheim und das Leipziger Online-Wortschatzlexikon. Im 1.
Einstein's Unification: General Relativity and the Quest for Mathematical Naturalness
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2002-01-01
The aim of the thesis has been to understand Einstein's development and see the historical coherence in his later attitude in physics. The lesson we learned has been straightforward: the key that unlocks the later Einstein lies in the road by which he arrived at the field equations of general
[Photoeffects, Einstein's light quanta and the history of their acceptance].
Wiederkehr, Karl Heinrich
2006-01-01
It is generally supposed, that the discovery of the efficacy-quantum by Planck was the impetus to Einstein's hypothesis of lightquanta. With its help Einstein could explain the external light-electrical effect. But even years before Einstein had worked at the photoeffect and already made experiments on it. For that reason the article gives a short survey about the history of the lightelectric effects. Lenard's basical work about the release of the photoelectrons is dealt with in detail, without which Einstein would scarcely have found his lightquanta. Furthermore it is shown how difficult it was for the physicists to give up--at least partially--the traditional view of the undulation-nature of light, and how they searched to explain the great energies of the photoelectrons. On the other side it is set forth how Einstein's formula of lightquanta was gradually confirmed. The tragical development of Einstein's personal relations with Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard are briefly described. Stark was one of the few who supported Einstein's ideas at the beginning. Only with the Compton-effect, which could only be quantitatively interpreted by means of lightquanta and the special theory of relativity 1923, the way was free for the general acceptance of the lightquanta. Einstein did not agree to the obtained dualism of undulation and corpuscle; he had a different solution in mind about the fusion of the two forms of appearance of light.
Optical absorption in a degenerate Bose-Einstein gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yip, S.K.
2002-01-01
We develop a theory on optical absorption in a dilute Bose-Einstein gas at low temperatures. This theory is motivated by the Bogoliubov theory of elementary excitations for this system, and takes into account explicitly the modification of the nature and dispersion of elementary excitations due to Bose-Einstein condensation. Our results show important differences from existing theories
Validity of the Einstein Relation in Disordered Organic Semiconductors
Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Koster, L. J. A.; Blom, P. W. M.
2011-01-01
It is controversial whether energetic disorder in semiconductors is already sufficient to violate the classical Einstein relation, even in the case of thermal equilibrium. We demonstrate that the Einstein relation is violated only under nonequilibrium conditions due to deeply trapped carriers, as in
Calculation of thermodynamic properties of finite Bose-Einstein systems
Borrmann, P.; Harting, J.D.R.; Mülken, O.; Hilf, E.
1999-01-01
We derive an exact recursion formula for the calculation of thermodynamic functions of finite systems obeying Bose-Einstein statistics. The formula is applicable for canonical systems where the particles can be treated as noninteracting in some approximation, e.g., like Bose-Einstein condensates in
Superenergy tensors in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garecki, J.
1981-01-01
In this paper we study systematically a generalization of the notion of ''superenergy tensors'' which has been introduced previously in the framework of the General Theory of Relativity on the Einstein-Cartan Theory of Gravitation. It is shown, by means of expansion in the normal coordinate system that the generalization is analytically simple only for the Einstein formulation of conservation laws. (author)
On an uncorrelated jet model with Bose-Einstein statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilic, N.; Dadic, I.; Martinis, M.
1978-01-01
Starting from the density of states of an ideal Bose-Einstein gas, an uncorrelated jet model with Bose-Einstein statistics has been formulated. The transition to continuum is based on the Touschek invariant measure. It has been shown that in this model average multiplicity increases logarithmically with total energy, while the inclusive distribution shows ln s violation of scaling. (author)
Halpern, Paul
2015-01-01
Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger were friends and comrades-in-arms against what they considered the most preposterous aspects of quantum physics: its indeterminacy. Einstein famously quipped that God does not play dice with the universe, and Schrödinger is equally well known for his thought experiment about the cat in the box who ends up “spread out” in a probabilistic state, neither wholly alive nor wholly dead. Both of these famous images arose from these two men’s dissatisfaction with quantum weirdness and with their assertion that underneath it all, there must be some essentially deterministic world. Even though it was Einstein’s own theories that made quantum mechanics possible, both he and Schrödinger could not bear the idea that the universe was, at its most fundamental level, random. As the Second World War raged, both men struggled to produce a theory that would describe in full the universe’s ultimate design, first as collaborators, then as competitors. They both ultimately failed...
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
Einstein, cientista e filósofo?
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Michel Paty
1993-12-01
Full Text Available A física, como prática filosófica, designa a escolha de ângulo de abordagem sob o qual é possível perceber características fundamentais da física. Assumimos que os papéis do físico e do filósofo não são tão demarcados e que a tarefa do físico é inseparavelmente enunciar a significação dos conceitos, estabelecendo sua identificação lógico-matemática, e ligá-los à experiência. Nesta perspectiva, a análise da atividade de Einstein, especialmente o exame da gênese da teoria da Relatividade restrita e das significações nos conceitos e enunciados da Relatividade restrita e geral nos leva à afirmação da tese expressa no epíteto Einstein filósofo. Para este percurso foi necessário então a crítica da corrente filosófica - Círculo de Viena - aparentemente mais próxima da atividade einsteniana, mas que só o tomou como referência na condição de físico. Em especial é analisada, e recusada, a tese de Reichenbach da separação entre o contexto de justificativa - ao qual se aplica a análise filosófica - e o contexto de descoberta - relegado exclusivamente ao campo da psicologia. Para esta crítica buscamos, nos processos de descoberta, não uma rígida estrutura lógica mas a noção mais ampla de racionalidade.Physics as philosophical practice points out the option of an approach which enables us to perceive fundamental features of physics. We maintain that the physicist and the philosopher play roles not so disjuncted and that the physicist's task is as much to enunciate the meaning of the concepts, establishing its logical and mathematic identification, as to link them to experience. With this point of view we analyze Einstein's activity with emphasis on the rise of Special Relativity Theory and the meaning of the concepts of Special and General Relativity. This analysis carries us to the thesis expressed in the title Einstein, philosopher. To this way we have needed to criticize that philosophical movement
Janssen, Michel
2013-12-01
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lampe, Wolfgang [NLA Niedersachsen, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rueckbrodt, Kai [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)
2010-06-15
There is a vague consensus that the wire rope can be designated as the most sustainable invention from the mining industry in Harz mountains. Such wire ropes are not to be excluded any longer from the today's life. These ropes really seem quite self-evident not only in the mining industry. The name of the Mining Councillor Wilhelm August Julius Albert inseparably is connected with wire ropes. The development of the first, in Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Federal Republic of Germany) successfully used wire rope consisting of iron wires succeeded to him. The year 2009 is the 175th anniversary of the invention of wire ropes. In 2009, the mountain city Clausthal-Zellerfeld evoked this anniversary with a week-long festival. At 22nd and 23th July1834, two wire ropes consisting of iron wires with a length of 605 m were put into operation for the first time at the 408 m deep pit Caroline in Clausthal-Zellerfeld. Instead of the past belt conveyors or hemp ropes, the new hoisting ropes proved to be a great success so that other pits also were retrofitted, accordingly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frittelli, Simonetta; Gomez, Roberto
2004-01-01
We show how the use of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor as a set of boundary conditions relates to the propagation of the constraints, for two representations of the Einstein equations with vanishing shift vector: the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation, which is ill posed, and the Einstein-Christoffel formulation, which is symmetric hyperbolic. Essentially, the components of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor that act as nontrivial boundary conditions are linear combinations of the evolution equations with the constraints that are not preserved at the boundary, in both cases. In the process, the relationship of the normal projection of the Einstein tensor to the recently introduced 'constraint-preserving' boundary conditions becomes apparent
[Albert Schweitzer's MD thesis on Criticism of the medical pathographies on Jesus].
Seidel, Michael
2009-01-01
The prominent philosopher, theologian, physician, musicologist and organ soloist Albert Schweitzer (14. 1. 1875-4. 9. 1965) submitted his MD thesis Kritik der von medizinischer Seite veröffentlichten Pathographien uber Jesus (Criticism of the medical pathographies on Jesus) in 1913. Very soon he published this work under the title Die psychiatrische Beurteilung Jesu. Darstellung und Kritik (The psychiatric evaluation of Jesus. Description and criticism) in order to reach a broader audience. Schweitzer's explicit motive for selecting this topic was to influence the theological debate by means of a M. D. thesis on psychiatric pathographies on Jesus. He was confronted with a lot of reproaches. These reproaches contended that his theological opinions had been supporting tendencies to describe Jesus as a mentally ill person or a religious fanatic. In addition, some authors of pathographies on Jesus (De Loosten, Binet-Sanglé, Hirsch, Rasmussen) characterized Jesus as mentally ill, suffering from paranoia. Schweitzer intended to reject the reproaches considering himself and the postulates of the authors of the pathographies. Schweitzer combined in a transdisciplinary way theological, psychiatric and psychopathological arguments. He did this in a very convincing way. Although Schweitzer did not deal with a central or explicit psychiatric question, he implicitly postulated transdisciplinary approaches for proper retrospective pathographies on historic persons. At the age of thirty, Schweitzer decided to finish his academic career and to begin studies in medicine as a preparation for work as a physician in Africa. This decision provoked much lack of understanding in his personal environment. Therefore it may be possible that a very personal motive contributed to the selection of the topic of the MD thesis. Among psychiatric authorities, Albert Schweitzer's interest in the criticisms of psychiatric pathographies and his transdisciplinary approach to this topic encountered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Min; Wang Gang; Chen Tianlun
2007-01-01
A modified evolution model of self-organized criticality on generalized Barabasi-Albert (GBA) scale-free networks is investigated. In our model, we find that spatial and temporal correlations exhibit critical behaviors. More importantly, these critical behaviors change with the parameter b, which weights the distance in comparison with the degree in the GBA network evolution.
D.A. Marion
2012-01-01
The hydraulic characteristics are determined for the June 11, 2010, flood on the Little Missouri River at the Albert Pike Recreation Area in Arkansas. These characteristics are then used to predict the high-water elevations for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood events in the Loop B, C, and D Campgrounds of the recreation area. The peak discharge and related...
Planck, Einstein y los orígenes de la física cuántica
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sánchez Ron, José Manuel
2000-12-01
Full Text Available Not available
La física cuántica nació en diciembre de 1900, cuando Max Planck, hasta entonces un no demasiado conocido físico teórico de Berlín, se vio obligado a introducir, para explicar la ley de radiación de un cuerpo negro que él mismo había obtenido poco antes, un tipo de discontinuidad de la energía, asociada a una nueva ley física: E=h·ν. En el presente artículo se explica el camino que condujo a Planck a semejante hallazgo, al igual que los problemas que éste planteaba a su descubridor. Fue Albert Einstein, cuyas aportaciones también se consideran, quien en 1905 avanzó por la senda abierta por Planck, insertando de manera mucho más radical la cuantización energética en el seno de la física.
EINSTEIN EQUATIONS FOR TETRAD FIELDS ECUACIONES DE EINSTEIN PARA CAMPOS TETRADOS
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Héctor Torres-Silva
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Every metric tensor can be expressed by the inner product of tetrad fields. We prove that Einstein's equations for these fields have the same form as the stress-energy tensor of electromagnetism if the total external current . Using the Evans' unified field theory, we show that the true unification of gravity and electromagnetism is with source-free Maxwell equations.Todo tensor métrico puede ser expresado por el producto interno de campos tetrados. Se prueba que las ecuaciones de Einstein para esos campos tienen la misma forma que el tensor electromagnético de momento-energía si la corriente externa total es igual a cero. Usando la teoría de campo unificado de Evans se muestra que la verdadera unificación de la gravedad y el electromagnetismo es con las ecuaciones de Maxwell sin fuentes.
Spatial entanglement patterns and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering in Bose-Einstein condensates
Fadel, Matteo; Zibold, Tilman; Décamps, Boris; Treutlein, Philipp
2018-04-01
Many-particle entanglement is a fundamental concept of quantum physics that still presents conceptual challenges. Although nonclassical states of atomic ensembles were used to enhance measurement precision in quantum metrology, the notion of entanglement in these systems was debated because the correlations among the indistinguishable atoms were witnessed by collective measurements only. Here, we use high-resolution imaging to directly measure the spin correlations between spatially separated parts of a spin-squeezed Bose-Einstein condensate. We observe entanglement that is strong enough for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering: We can predict measurement outcomes for noncommuting observables in one spatial region on the basis of corresponding measurements in another region with an inferred uncertainty product below the Heisenberg uncertainty bound. This method could be exploited for entanglement-enhanced imaging of electromagnetic field distributions and quantum information tasks.
Effective equivalence of the Einstein-Cartan and Einstein theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nester, J.M.
1977-01-01
I prove that, for any choice of minimally coupled source field Lagrangian for the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity, there exists a related minimally coupled source field Lagrangian for the Einstein theory which produces the same field equations for the metric and source field. By using a standard first-order form for source Lagrangians, the converse is also demonstrated. This establishes a one-to-one correspondence between source Lagrangians for the two theories which clearly reveals their similarities and their differences. Because of this ''equivalence,'' one can view either theory, in terms of the other, as minimal coupling for a related Minkowski source Lagrangian or as nonminimal coupling for the same Minkowski source Lagrangian. Consequently the two theories are, in this sense, indistinguishable. Some other implications of this ''equivalence'' are discussed
Bose-Einstein condensation and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaksch, D.H.
1999-10-01
After a short introduction on recent developments in the field of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) with weakly interacting neutral atoms in the first part of my thesis I investigate the properties of a BEC in its stationary state with the help of quantum kinetic theory in the second part. Especially, I consider the particle number and phase fluctuations of a BEC emerging from the interaction of the condensed particles with the thermal cloud of atoms. In the third part of my thesis I show how one might realize the Bose-Hubbard model in optical lattices by making use of BEC. In the last part of my work I show how one can realize quantum logic with neutral atoms trapped in either optical lattices or in magnetic microtraps. (author)
Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolin, Alexandru I.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2007-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments on Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates we investigate both analytically and numerically the dynamics of cigar-shaped Bose-condensed gases subject to periodic modulation of the strength of the transverse confinement. We offer a fully analytical explanation of the observed parametric resonance, based on a Mathieu-type analysis of the non-polynomial Schroedinger equation. The theoretical prediction for the pattern periodicity versus the driving frequency is directly compared to the experimental data, yielding good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the two. These results are corroborated by direct numerical simulations of both the one-dimensional non-polynomial Schroedinger equation and of the fully three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation