Sample records for welsh basin uk

  1. Early veins as evidence of detachment in the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Welsh Basin (United States)

    Fitches, W. R.; Cave, R.; Craig, J.; Maltman, A. J.

    A suite of small-scale structures, mostly represented by veins, is widely developed in the Lower Palaeozoic elastic sedimentary rocks of the Welsh Basin. The structures were produced after considerable dewatering and diagenesis had taken place, but before the host rocks were folded and cleaved by the regional deformation. Bedding-parallel veins, the most common of the structures, are attributed to hydraulic jacking and mineralization by overpressured pore-fluid, probably at burial depths of several hundred metres or more. The various burial processes, including the production of the veins, are regarded as being diachronous, in effect propagating up through the sediment pile as sedimentation and burial progressed. The bedding-parallel veins are considered to represent inclined detachment surfaces, sole planes down which rock masses slid due to gravity. These surfaces were initiated in rocks originally inclined from the horizontal for sedimentological reasons or in horizontal host rocks which were later tilted by tectonic processes. Other structures in the suite were produced as a consequence of the downslope movement, for example by compression in the toe regions of the glide-sheet and by extension at the trailing edges. Slip directions, recorded by striations on the bedding-parallel veins, were mainly WNW-ESE in W Wales and N-S in NE Wales. It is anticipated that these structures will be found to be widespread in other sedimentary basins. That they have escaped attention elsewhere is probably because individual structures are small and seemingly insignificant whilst in deformed rocks they may have been attributed to folding or faulting.

  2. ABA and Diverse Cultural and Linguistic Environments: A Welsh Perspective (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Hoerger, M.; Hughes, J. C.; Williams, B. M.; Jones, B.; Moseley, Y.; Hughes, D. R.; Prys, D.


    Gwynedd Local Education Authority (LEA) in North West Wales, UK, is funding a small-scale autism-specific specialist education service using ABA methodology. The program is available through the medium of Welsh, English or bilingually, depending on the individual needs of the child (Jones and Hoerger in Eur J Behav Anal 10:249-253,…

  3. Twitter and the Welsh Language (United States)

    Jones, Rhys James; Cunliffe, Daniel; Honeycutt, Zoe R.


    The emergence of new domains, such as the Internet, can prove challenging for minority languages. Welsh is a minority, regional language and is considered "vulnerable" by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Welsh-speaking community appears to have responded positively to the Internet and the…

  4. Tense and plural formation in Welsh-English bilingual children with and without language impairment. (United States)

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; John, Nerys


    Grammatical morphology has been shown to be problematic for children with specific language impairment (SLI) or developmental language disorder (DLD). Most research on this topic comes from widely spoken languages, such as English. Despite Welsh being the most extensively spoken indigenous in the UK after English, and Wales being the only official bilingual country in the UK, our knowledge about the morphosyntactic areas of Welsh that may pose problems for Welsh-speaking children with SLI is limited. Currently, Welsh-speaking speech and language therapists (SLTs) are heavily reliant on the use of informally translated English assessments. This can inadvertently result in a failure to take aspects of Welsh morphosyntax into account that are critical for the assessment and treatment of Welsh-speaking children. This is the first study to examine how Welsh-English bilingual children of early school age with typical development (bi-TD) and with SLI (bi-SLI) perform on production tasks targeting verbal and nominal morphology in Welsh. We targeted areas of Welsh morphosyntax that could potentially be vulnerable for Welsh-speaking children with or at risk of language impairment, such as tense marking and plural formation, and assessed their diagnostic potential. Twenty-eight Welsh-dominant bilingual children participated in the study: 10 bi-SLI and 18 bi-TD. They were administered three elicitation tasks targeting the production of verbal (compound and synthetic past tense) and nominal (plural) morphology in Welsh. The bi-SLI children performed worse than their bi-TD peers across all three tasks. They produced more uninflected verbs in the elicited-production task and were less likely to be prompted to produce the synthetic past, which is a concatenating, low-frequency form of the past tense. They also over-regularized less in the context of plural nouns, and when they did, they opted for high-frequency suffixes. By focusing on aspects of morphosyntactic development which

  5. CAL and FE: a Welsh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Cockrill


    Full Text Available The increasing usage in recent years of trendy, but often ill-defined, terms such as 'lifelong learning' (see Edwards, Raggatt, Harrison, McCollum and Calder, 1998, 'the learning society' (for example, National Grid for Learning, govermhtm, or 'learning country' (for example, Welsh Office, 1998; ETAG, 1999 indicates the importance that both the public and private sectors attach to the establishment of a learning culture. This has included the recognition that, in order to achieve such a culture, access to learning must be made easier and existing barriers removed. Edwards and his coauthors (1998 maintain that most experts see lifelong learning as a rallying cry, rather than a specific policy. This statement holds true for many similar slogans, but what they have in common is 'the power to unite various stakeholders around the need for change, because it has emerged as a response to today's challenges' (Edwards et al, 1998.

  6. Assessing the fugitive emission of CH4 via migration along fault zones - Comparing potential shale gas basins to non-shale basins in the UK. (United States)

    Boothroyd, I M; Almond, S; Worrall, F; Davies, R J


    This study considered whether faults bounding hydrocarbon-bearing basins could be conduits for methane release to the atmosphere. Five basin bounding faults in the UK were considered: two which bounded potential shale gas basins; two faults that bounded coal basins; and one that bounded a basin with no known hydrocarbon deposits. In each basin, two mobile methane surveys were conducted, one along the surface expression of the basin bounding fault and one along a line of similar length but not intersecting the fault. All survey data was corrected for wind direction, the ambient CH4 concentration and the distance to the possible source. The survey design allowed for Analysis of Variance and this showed that there was a significant difference between the fault and control survey lines though a significant flux from the fault was not found in all basins and there was no apparent link to the presence, or absence, of hydrocarbons. As such, shale basins did not have a significantly different CH4 flux to non-shale hydrocarbon basins and non-hydrocarbon basins. These results could have implications for CH4 emissions from faults both in the UK and globally. Including all the corrected fault data, we estimate faults have an emissions factor of 11.5±6.3tCH4/km/yr, while the most conservative estimate of the flux from faults is 0.7±0.3tCH4/km/yr. The use of isotopes meant that at least one site of thermogenic flux from a fault could be identified. However, the total length of faults that penetrate through-basins and go from the surface to hydrocarbon reservoirs at depth in the UK is not known; as such, the emissions factor could not be multiplied by an activity level to estimate a total UK CH4 flux. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Welsh Blood Service - 70 years of continuous change. (United States)

    Poole, G D


    The National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) in England and Wales was established as a single entity in 1946 and operated as such for almost half a century. During those 50 years, the blood service in Wales, as in the rest of the UK, saw many technological and operational changes. The automation of donation testing, the introduction of successive layers of microbiological screening, the creation of the Tissue Typing Laboratory (later renamed the Welsh Transplantation and Immunogenetics Laboratory) and the development of information technology brought - over a relatively long period - highly significant improvements to an organisation that had begun life as an Emergency Medical Service. Differing funding and reporting arrangements for the Welsh and English blood services made little difference in practice, but the devolution of government following the 1997 referendum in Wales would have a profound influence. Four years before the Government of Wales Act (1998) was passed through the UK parliament, the National Blood Authority (NBA) assumed executive control of the English blood services but not the blood service in Wales. The Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service and the Northern Ireland Blood Transfusion Service had been created as independent organisations in 1946; thus, the scene was set for diversification between the four independent blood services, each operating in different political environments with different funding streams. The creation of the UK Blood Services Forum and its Joint Professional Advisory Committee in 1999 has, however, ensured consistency in professional matters. The blood transfusion service in Wales, in its new headquarters in Talbot Green, became known as the Welsh Blood Service (WBS), or Gwasanaeth Gwaed Cymru in Welsh, reporting for most of its life to the Velindre NHS Trust, part of NHS Wales. Considerable changes would impact the WBS in the 21st century. Social changes would mean that the role of recruitment and marketing

  8. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK


    Sustainable Development Commission


    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  9. Welsh Women's Industrial Fiction 1880–1910 (United States)

    Bohata, Kirsti; Jones, Alexandra


    ABSTRACT From the beginning of the genre, women writers have made a major contribution to the development of industrial writing. Although prevented from gaining first-hand experience of the coalface, Welsh women writers were amongst the first to try to fictionalize those heavy industries—coal and metal in the south, and slate in the north—which dominated the lives of the majority of the late nineteenth-century Welsh population. Treatment of industrial matter is generally fragmentary in this early women's writing; industrial imagery and metaphor may be used in novels that are not primarily “about” industry at all. Yet from c. 1880–1910, Welsh women writers made a significant—and hitherto critically neglected—attempt to make sense in literature of contemporary industrial Wales in powerful and innovative ways. This essay maps their contribution and considers anglophone Welsh women writers' adaptations and innovations of form (particularly romance) as they try to find a way of representing industrial landscapes, communities and the daily realities of industrial labour. It identifies the genesis in women's writing of tropes that would become central to later industrial fiction, including depictions of industrial accident, injury, death and disability. And it explores the representation of social relations (class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality) and conflict on this tumultuous, dangerous new stage. PMID:29118469

  10. Welsh Women's Industrial Fiction 1880-1910. (United States)

    Bohata, Kirsti; Jones, Alexandra


    From the beginning of the genre, women writers have made a major contribution to the development of industrial writing. Although prevented from gaining first-hand experience of the coalface, Welsh women writers were amongst the first to try to fictionalize those heavy industries-coal and metal in the south, and slate in the north-which dominated the lives of the majority of the late nineteenth-century Welsh population. Treatment of industrial matter is generally fragmentary in this early women's writing; industrial imagery and metaphor may be used in novels that are not primarily "about" industry at all. Yet from c. 1880-1910, Welsh women writers made a significant-and hitherto critically neglected-attempt to make sense in literature of contemporary industrial Wales in powerful and innovative ways. This essay maps their contribution and considers anglophone Welsh women writers' adaptations and innovations of form (particularly romance) as they try to find a way of representing industrial landscapes, communities and the daily realities of industrial labour. It identifies the genesis in women's writing of tropes that would become central to later industrial fiction, including depictions of industrial accident, injury, death and disability. And it explores the representation of social relations (class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality) and conflict on this tumultuous, dangerous new stage.

  11. Y Coleg Cymraeg Cendelaethol - A Welsh Language Higher Education Initiative (United States)

    Meara, Rhian


    The Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol is a Welsh Government funded Higher Education Institution established to develop and promote Welsh-medium higher education in Wales. The Coleg funds > 50 academic lectureships within 7 universities and 2 colleges in Wales across all subject areas including a strong focus on Geography, Geology, Environmental Science and Agricultural subjects. Students whose first language is Welsh are classed as an under-represented group in higher education due to the minority status of the Welsh Language. Many of these students are also from areas involved in Communities First, and the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation initiatives. Students have completed Primary and Secondary education through the medium of Welsh and therefore struggle with the change to English-medium education at university entry-level, which in the GEES subject areas is often highly technical. Students who study through the Coleg can complete up to 66% of their degrees through the medium of Welsh including lectures, seminars, practical classes, field work and tutorials. Students therefore receive high quality subject tuition, typically in small group settings with experts in their preferred language. Staff also act as role-models for the students and provide important pastoral support which helps with the student transition process. The Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol also provides sponsorship for Welsh-medium students throughout their undergraduate degrees. Students completing 33% of their degrees in Welsh are eligible for a maintenance grant of £1,500 over three years while students completing 66% of their course in Welsh can apply for a maintenance grant of £4,500 over three years. The Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol was founded in 2011 and has recently received continued funding by the Welsh Government. Over the past 5 years, there has been a strong increase in student numbers studying through the medium of Welsh and excellent feedback has been received from students on their

  12. Learning Welshness: Does the Curriculum Cymreig Positively Affect Pupils' Orientations to Wales and Welshness? (United States)

    Smith, Kevin


    This article explores the possible affect schooling has on pupils' orientations to cultural and national identity in Wales. The Curriculum Cymreig is a distinctive feature of the national curriculum of Wales that has important ramifications regarding the enactment of citizenship education in Welsh schools. Under this initiative, schools in Wales…

  13. Prestige Planning and the Welsh Language: Marketing, the Consumer-Citizen and Language Behaviour (United States)

    Chriost, Diarmait Mac Giolla


    This paper comprises a brief examination of the approach taken by the Welsh Language Board, as the principal language policy and planning body in Wales, with regard to aspects of prestige planning and the Welsh language. It describes how devolution and the recent, and first ever, national review by the Welsh Assembly Government of Welsh language…

  14. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Welsh Onion Caused by Colletotrichum circinans. (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Jin Hee


    Anthracnose occurred frequently on leaf sheaths of Welsh onions grown in Gangwha island, Korea in November, 2007. The disease incidence was as high as 30% in five fields investigated. A total of 20 single spore isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from the affected plants, and all the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum circinans based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Three isolates of the fungus caused anthracnose symptoms on the leaf sheaths of Welsh onions by artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed during the field survey. In this study, the mycological and pathological characteristics of C. circinans identified as causing anthracnose of Welsh onions are clarified.

  15. Final Critical Habitat for the Welsh's milkweed (Asclepias welshii) (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Welsh's milkweed (Asclepias welshii) occur based on the description provided in...

  16. Regional methods for mapping major faults in areas of uniform low relief, as used in the London Basin, UK (United States)

    Haslam, Richard; Aldiss, Donald


    Most of the London Basin, south-eastern UK, is underlain by the Palaeogene London Clay Formation, comprising a succession of rather uniform marine clay deposits up to 150 m thick, with widespread cover of Quaternary deposits and urban development. Therefore, in this area faults are difficult to delineate (or to detect) by conventional geological surveying methods in the field, and few are shown on the geological maps of the area. However, boreholes and excavations, especially those for civil engineering works, indicate that faults are probably widespread and numerous in the London area. A representative map of fault distribution and patterns of displacement is a pre-requisite for understanding the tectonic development of a region. Moreover, faulting is an important influence on the design and execution of civil engineering works, and on the hydrogeological characteristics of the ground. This paper reviews methods currently being used to map faults in the London Basin area. These are: the interpretation of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) data from time-series satellite-borne radar measurements; the interpretation of regional geophysical fields (Bouguer gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic), especially in combination with a digital elevation model; and the construction and interpretation of 3D geological models. Although these methods are generally not as accurate as large-scale geological field surveys, due to the availability of appropriate data in the London Basin they provide the means to recognise and delineate more faults, and with more confidence, than was possible using traditional geological mapping techniques. Together they reveal regional structures arising during Palaeogene crustal extension and subsidence in the North Sea, followed by inversion of a Mesozoic sedimentary basin in the south of the region, probably modified by strike-slip fault motion associated with the relative northward movement of the African Plate and the Alpine orogeny. This

  17. Identifying priorities for nutrient mitigation using river concentration-flow relationships: the Thames basin, UK


    Bowes, Michael J.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Naden, Pamela S.; Old, Gareth H.; Scarlett, Peter M.; Roberts, Colin; Armstrong, Linda K.; Harman, Sarah A.; Wickham, Heather D.; Collins, Adrian L.


    The introduction of tertiary treatment to many of the sewage treatment works (STW) across the Thames basin in southern England has resulted in major reductions in river phosphorus (P) concentrations. Despite this, excessive phytoplankton growth is still a problem in the River Thames and many of its tributaries. There is an urgent need to determine if future resources should focus on P removal from the remaining STW, or on reducing agricultural inputs, to improve ecological status. Nutrient...

  18. The Effects of Language of Testing on Bilingual Pre-Adolescents' Attitudes towards Welsh and Varieties of English. (United States)

    Price, Susan; And Others


    Describes a study using matched-guise technique designed to (1) determine how West Welsh preadolescents would react to Welsh speakers reading a passage of prose in one of three language varieties (Received Pronunciation English, Welsh-Accented English, Welsh) and (2) to examine what effect language of testing might have on children's social…

  19. Identifying priorities for nutrient mitigation using river concentration-flow relationships: The Thames basin, UK (United States)

    Bowes, Michael J.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Naden, Pamela S.; Old, Gareth H.; Scarlett, Peter M.; Roberts, Colin; Armstrong, Linda K.; Harman, Sarah A.; Wickham, Heather D.; Collins, Adrian L.


    The introduction of tertiary treatment to many of the sewage treatment works (STW) across the Thames basin in southern England has resulted in major reductions in river phosphorus (P) concentrations. Despite this, excessive phytoplankton growth is still a problem in the River Thames and many of its tributaries. There is an urgent need to determine if future resources should focus on P removal from the remaining STW, or on reducing agricultural inputs, to improve ecological status. Nutrient concentration-flow relationships for monitoring sites along the River Thames and 15 of its major tributaries were used to estimate the relative inputs of phosphorus and nitrogen from continuous (sewage point sources) and rain-related (diffuse and within-channel) sources, using the Load Apportionment Model (LAM). The model showed that diffuse sources and remobilisation of within-channel phosphorus contributed the majority of the annual P load at all monitoring sites. However, the majority of rivers in the Thames basin are still dominated by STW P inputs during the ecologically-sensitive spring-autumn growing season. Therefore, further STW improvements would be the most effective way of improving water quality and ecological status along the length of the River Thames, and 12 of the 15 tributaries. The LAM outputs were in agreement with other indicators of sewage input, such as sewered population density, phosphorus speciation and boron concentration. The majority of N inputs were from diffuse sources, and LAM suggests that introducing mitigation measures to reduce inputs from agriculture and groundwater would be most appropriate for all but one monitoring site in this study. The utilisation of nutrient concentration-flow data and LAM provide a simple, rapid and effective screening tool for determining nutrient sources and most effective mitigation options.

  20. Collaboration Nation: The Building of the Welsh Repository Network (United States)

    Knowles, Jacqueline


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information about the Welsh Repository Network (WRN), innovative work being undertaken to build an integrated network of institutional digital repositories. A collaborative approach, in particular through the provision of centralised technical and organisational support, has demonstrated…

  1. Congruence and Welsh-English Code-Switching (United States)

    Deuchar, Margaret


    This paper aims to contribute to elucidating the notion of congruence in code-switching with particular reference to Welsh-English data. It has been suggested that a sufficient degree of congruence or equivalence between the constituents of one language and another is necessary in order for code-switching to take place. We shall distinguish…

  2. Welsh Slate: A Candidate for Global Heritage Stone Status (United States)

    Horak, Jana; Hughes, Terry; Lott, Graham


    Slate is the iconic stone of Wales, and has a temporal and geographic record of usage such that it is considered worthy of consideration for Global Heritage Stone status. The reputation of Welsh slate is built on the quality and durability of the stone, enabling it to be used in a wide range of contexts from industrial roofing, through domestic housing to higher prestige buildings. Although metamorphic slates are present in several across Wales, the highest quality roofing material was extracted from just two areas in north-west Wales; the Cambrian Slate Belt, around Bethesda to Nantlle, working purple and green slates of the Llanberis Slate Formation and a second area to the south around Blaenau Ffestiniog - the Ordovician Slate Belt - which works grey slates of the Nant Francon Supergroup. These two areas are considered to form the core of the Welsh Slate Province. Welsh slate has been extracted for at least 2000 years, as evidenced by their presence as roofing slates in Roman forts in North Wales dating from 77AD. Slates from medieval churches and castles in north Wales indicate extraction continued throughout this period. In the 16th century exportation of Welsh slate commenced, initially limited to Ireland and those parts of England where it could be transported by boat. The second half of 18th century saw the first major expansion of the industry, facilitated by improved road transportation and some mechanisation, and subsequently in the 1830s by repeal of punitive boat taxes: production increased substantially through the late 19th century supported by the introduction of steam railways, and both production and exports peaked around 1900. The industry is still active today, although on a much reduced scale, with an estimate of around 20% of output being exported. Considerable reserves of this high quality slate resource remain in North Wales and it is important to ensure that they are protected to maintain continuity of supply to the heritage sector and are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian Siân Hodges


    Full Text Available The Welsh-medium education system has long been seen as an effective tool of Welsh language production in Wales. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of Welsh medium education in one south Wales Valley, ‘Cwm Rhymni / Rhymni Valley’. The main reasoning behind the primary research is to focus on the reasons why non-Welsh speaking parents chose Welsh medium education for their children. The research focuses on education but recognises the over lapping nature of the main language transmission spheres within Welsh language planning, i.e. family,community and workplace. This study adopts a mainly qualitative research strategy by administering 60 unstructured interviews to parents who chose Welsh medium nursery, primary and secondary schools for their children. However, as a secondary methodological tool, a semi-structured questionnaire was given out prior to the interviews and the interview sample was then drawn from these. Moreover, Welsh language resurgence within Anglicized areas of South Wales is a fairly unexplored field, this study is hoped to be a catalyst for many more future studies in this field and attempts to address the existing lacunae.

  4. Review of the market for Welsh organic meat, 2007


    Cullen, Richard; Lampkin, Nic; Moakes, Simon


    The supply situation for Welsh organic meat Organic production in Wales has been developing steadily in the last five years, with particular emphasis on organic cattle and sheep production. This was despite over-supply conditions in some sectors, notably dairy, following the very rapid growth in 1999/2000. Between the end of 2002 and end of 2005, the number of holdings increased by 12% to 688, and the certified land area increased by 29% to 71,000 hectares, of which more than 90% is gra...

  5. Response of welsh onion to various rates of compost application


    Maryati,; Warjana; Isnaini, Soni


    This research???s objective was to study effect of various rates of compost on growth and yield of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in Sekincau, West Lampung. An experiment was conducted in dry season of 2004, started from August and harvested in November 2004. It was arranged in a randomized completed block design. Treatments were no-compost, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 t ha-1 compost. Results revealed that compost increased plant height, tiller number, root length, number of dr...

  6. Evolution of the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) carbon-cycle and global climatic controls on local sedimentary processes (Cardigan Bay Basin, UK) (United States)

    Xu, Weimu; Ruhl, Micha; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Leng, Melanie J.; Huggett, Jennifer M.; Minisini, Daniel; Ullmann, Clemens V.; Riding, James B.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Storm, Marisa S.; Percival, Lawrence M. E.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Idiz, Erdem F.; Tegelaar, Erik W.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.


    The late Early Jurassic Toarcian Stage represents the warmest interval of the Jurassic Period, with an abrupt rise in global temperatures of up to ∼7 °C in mid-latitudes at the onset of the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). The T-OAE, which has been extensively studied in marine and continental successions from both hemispheres, was marked by the widespread expansion of anoxic and euxinic waters, geographically extensive deposition of organic-rich black shales, and climatic and environmental perturbations. Climatic and environmental processes following the T-OAE are, however, poorly known, largely due to a lack of study of stratigraphically well-constrained and complete sedimentary archives. Here, we present integrated geochemical and physical proxy data (high-resolution carbon-isotope data (δ13 C), bulk and molecular organic geochemistry, inorganic petrology, mineral characterisation, and major- and trace-element concentrations) from the biostratigraphically complete and expanded entire Toarcian succession in the Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) Borehole, Cardigan Bay Basin, Wales, UK. With these data, we (1) construct the first high-resolution biostratigraphically calibrated chemostratigraphic reference record for nearly the complete Toarcian Stage, (2) establish palaeoceanographic and depositional conditions in the Cardigan Bay Basin, (3) show that the T-OAE in the hemipelagic Cardigan Bay Basin was marked by the occurrence of gravity-flow deposits that were likely linked to globally enhanced sediment fluxes to continental margins and deeper marine (shelf) basins, and (4) explore how early Toarcian (tenuicostatum and serpentinum zones) siderite formation in the Cardigan Bay Basin may have been linked to low global oceanic sulphate concentrations and elevated supply of iron (Fe) from the hinterland, in response to climatically induced changes in hydrological cycling, global weathering rates and large-scale sulphide and evaporite deposition.

  7. The impact of attaining the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma on academic performance in bioscience higher education (United States)

    Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew


    Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact of attaining the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels on overall university degree performance in comparison to attaining four GCE A-Levels, in three cohorts of undergraduate students (Year 1 = 318, Year 2 = 280, Year 3 = 236) studying Biosciences from 2005 to 2011 at a UK HEI. Binary logistic regression was used to compare the academic attainment of students who had achieved four GCE A-Levels to those who had achieved three GCE A-Levels in addition to the WBQ. Comparisons were also made between students who had achieved three GCE A-Levels and those who had achieved three GCE A-Levels in addition to the WBQ. The results suggest that students who achieved the WBQ qualification in its current form, in addition to three GCE A-Levels, performed less well academically in undergraduate studies than those who achieved four GCE A-Levels. Furthermore, this effect was still present when the balance between coursework and examination was considered, and when students who had achieved the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels were compared to students who had achieved three GCE A-Levels.

  8. Degenerative myelopathy in 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs. (United States)

    March, P A; Coates, J R; Abyad, R J; Williams, D A; O'Brien, D P; Olby, N J; Keating, J H; Oglesbee, M


    Postmortem examination was performed on 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs (mean age 12.7 years) with clinical signs and antemortem diagnostic tests compatible with a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy. Tissue sections from specific spinal cord and brain regions were systematically evaluated in all dogs. Axonal degeneration and loss were graded according to severity and subsequently compared across different spinal cord segments and funiculi. White matter lesions were identified in defined regions of the dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi. The dorsolateral portion of the lateral funiculus was the most severely affected region in all cord segments. Spinal cord segment T12 exhibited the most severe axonal loss. Spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and brain sections were within normal limits, with the exception of areas of mild astrogliosis in gray matter of the caudal medulla. Dogs with more severe lesions showed significant progression of axonal degeneration and loss at T12 and at cord segments cranial and caudal to T12. Severity of axonal loss in individual dogs positively correlated with the duration of clinical signs. The distribution of axonal degeneration resembled that reported in German Shepherd Dog degenerative myelopathy but differed with respect to the transverse and longitudinal extent of the lesions within more clearly defined funicular areas. Although these lesion differences might reflect disease longevity, they could also indicate a form of degenerative myelopathy unique to the Pembroke Welsh Corgi dog.

  9. Radiographic Hip Joint Phenotype of the Pembroke Welsh Corgi (United States)

    Karbe, Georga T.; Biery, Darryl N.; Gregor, Thomas P.; Giger, Urs; Smith, Gail K.


    Objective To investigate the radiographic hip joint phenotype of the Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Study Design Prospective and retrospective cross-sectional study. Animals Pembroke Welsh Corgis (n = 399). Methods Ventrodorsal, hip-extended radiographs were evaluated for subluxation, osteoarthritis (OA), caudolateral curvilinear osteophytes (CCO), and circumferential femoral head osteophytes (CFHO) of PennHIP evaluated Corgis. Joint laxity was measured by distraction index (DI). Results All Corgis had DI > 0.30 (mean, 0.66), 6.8% had OA, 18% had subluxation, 22.3% had CCO, and 74.4% had CFHO. Higher DI increased the odds for subluxation and canine hip dysplasia (CHD) but not for OA, CCO, or CFHO. The presence of CCO increased the odds for OA by 4.6 times (P = .002) and 2.2 times (P = .01) for hip dysplasia. All dogs with OA had CFHO. The presence of CFHO increased the odds for subluxation by 8.7 times (p hip dysplasia. Subluxation increased the odds for OA by 15.4 times (P hip laxity that has been shown to correlate with hip OA and hip dysplasia in large-breed dogs. The relationship between CCO and OA was similar to published findings in nonchondrodystrophic large-breed dogs and the CFHO was significantly associated with subluxation. Both CCO and CFHO are associated with hip dysplasia in this small chondrodystrophic breed. PMID:23253037

  10. Rumen fluke (Calicophoron daubneyi) on Welsh farms: prevalence, risk factors and observations on co-infection with Fasciola hepatica. (United States)

    Jones, Rhys Aled; Brophy, Peter M; Mitchell, E Sian; Williams, Hefin Wyn


    Reports of Calicophoron daubneyi infecting livestock in Europe have increased substantially over the past decade; however, there has not been an estimate of its farm level prevalence and associated risk factors in the UK. Here, the prevalence of C. daubneyi across 100 participating Welsh farms was recorded, with climate, environmental and management factors attained for each farm and used to create logistic regression models explaining its prevalence. Sixty-one per cent of farms studied were positive for C. daubneyi, with herd-level prevalence for cattle (59%) significantly higher compared with flock-level prevalence for sheep (42%, P = 0·029). Co-infection between C. daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica was observed on 46% of farms; however, a significant negative correlation was recorded in the intensity of infection between each parasite within cattle herds (rho = -0·358, P = 0·007). Final models showed sunshine hours, herd size, treatment regularity against F. hepatica, the presence of streams and bog habitats, and Ollerenshaw index values as significant positive predictors for C. daubneyi (P climate change in C. daubneyi establishment and its future within the UK.

  11. The role of deformation bands controlling reservoir quality in a salt-walled mini-basin, Central North Sea, UK (United States)

    Davies, Philip; Jones, Stuart; Imber, Jonathan


    At shallow burial depths, sediments are typically poorly consolidated and subject to low confining pressure and differential stress. Fractures that form in poorly consolidated and therefore non-lithified sediments would be unable to remain open. However, the large amount of pore space present would allow for processes such as grain sliding and grain rolling, resulting in the formation of deformation bands. The structure and style of the resulting deformation bands would depend on the size, shape and sorting of the grains, as well as early cementation, porosity and the orientation and magnitude of the local stresses. Previous studies on deformation bands in general have shown that they produce an anisotropy that can affect fluid flow. Early deformation band formation near the surface may also influence later diagenesis at greater burial depths, and thus have a further impact on fluid flow in sandstone. Dilatant (deformation) bands are commonly reported for poorly consolidated sandstones at surface or near-surface conditions (governing later reservoir quality for spatially and temporally complex sedimentary fills of salt-walled mini-basins.

  12. Vertical groundwater flow in Permo-Triassic sediments underlying two cities in the Trent River Basin (UK) (United States)

    Taylor, R. G.; Cronin, A. A.; Trowsdale, S. A.; Baines, O. P.; Barrett, M. H.; Lerner, D. N.


    The vertical component of groundwater flow that is responsible for advective penetration of contaminants in sandstone aquifers is poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is of particular concern in urban areas where abstraction disrupts natural groundwater flow regimes and there exists an increased density of contaminant sources. Vertical hydraulic gradients that control vertical groundwater flow were investigated using bundled multilevel piezometers and a double-packer assembly in dedicated boreholes constructed to depths of between 50 and 92 m below ground level in Permo-Triassic sediments underlying two cities within the Trent River Basin of central England (Birmingham, Nottingham). The hydrostratigraphy of the Permo-Triassic sediments, indicated by geophysical logging and hydraulic (packer) testing, demonstrates considerable control over observed vertical hydraulic gradients and, hence, vertical groundwater flow. The direction and magnitude of vertical hydraulic gradients recorded in multilevel piezometers and packers are broadly complementary and range, within error, from +0.1 to -0.7. Groundwater is generally found to flow vertically toward transmissive zones within the hydrostratigraphical profile though urban abstraction from the Sherwood Sandstone aquifer also influences observed vertical hydraulic gradients. Bulk, downward Darcy velocities at two locations affected by abstraction are estimated to be in the order of several metres per year. Consistency in the distribution of hydraulic head with depth in Permo-Triassic sediments is observed over a one-year period and adds support the deduction of hydrostratigraphic control over vertical groundwater flow.

  13. RNA-Seq reveals leaf cuticular wax-related genes in Welsh onion. (United States)

    Liu, Qianchun; Wen, Changlong; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Liying; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin


    The waxy cuticle plays a very important role in plant resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and is an important characteristic of Welsh onions. Two different types of biangan Welsh onions (BG) were selected for this study: BG, a wild-type covered by wax, which forms a continuous lipid membrane on its epidermal cells, and GLBG, a glossy mutant of BG whose epidermal cells are not covered by wax. To elucidate the waxy cuticle-related gene expression changes, we used RNA-Seq to compare these two Welsh onion varieties with distinct differences in cuticular wax. The de novo assembly yielded 42,881 putative unigenes, 25.41% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 22,289 (52.0%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 798 genes, representing 1.86% of the total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between these two Welsh onion varieties. The expression patterns of four important unigenes that are related to waxy cuticle biosynthesis were confirmed by RT-qPCR and COG class annotation, which demonstrated that these genes play an important role in defense mechanisms and lipid transport and metabolism. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the Welsh onion waxy cuticle. These results may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the waxy cuticle and will be useful for waxy gene cloning, genetics and breeding as well as phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of the Welsh onion.

  14. The factors and motivations behind United Kingdom chiropractic professional association membership: a survey of the Welsh Institute of Chiropractic Alumni. (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Sheena E; McCarthy, Peter W


    There are many professional associations representing chiropractors and chiropractic in the United Kingdom (UK). Each has its unique selling points (USPs) and chiropractors can choose to join as many as they like; however, cost of membership has to be weighed against perceived benefits. The predictors of UK chiropractic association membership and motivational factors to join these associations, have not formally been identified. This research study aimed to identify some of the factors and motivations in Welsh Institute of Chiropractic (WIOC) Alumni regarding their decision to join (or not) a UK chiropractic professional association. An online survey instrument, comprising 23 questions, was administered from November-December 2015 via a link announced on 'The WIOC Alumni' Facebook group (N = 655), the active platform for the WIOC Alumni Organisation. One hundred forty-eight respondents (approximately 22.6 % of 'The WIOC Alumni' Facebook group membership) completed the survey. Ten factors were reported to be important in decision making: 'promoting public awareness of chiropractic' (91.2 %), 'access to professional indemnity insurance' (89.2 %), 'overall professionalism of the association' (87.2 %), 'the identity of the association' (77.7 %), 'positive attitude to research' (77.0 %), 'workplace support and advice' (68.9 %), 'access to events \\ courses \\ seminars' (64.2 %), 'Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities' (62.2 %), 'cost of membership' (59.5 %) and 'addresses my area of interest' (56.1 %). 'Many of my friends have joined' (71.6 %) was considered unimportant, whereas 'Lobbying: Influencing policy' and 'career development' were considered important by almost twice as many as those that consider them unimportant (45.3 %: 25.7 % and 43.9 %: 27.0 % respectively), 'requirement of employment' and 'associations newsletter' were seen as unimportant by roughly twice as many as those considering them important (44.6 %: 28.4 % and

  15. OT {-(Uk} / ET {-(Uk}

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    Dr. İbrahim TAŞ


    Full Text Available The {-(Uk} affix, expressing the verb result and derivingqualifications, is not seen among the the rules of vowels, rounded-unroundedat old Turkic and middle Turkic texts. But in some words, rounded -unrounded rule is seen. At this text, we investigated some of these words.

  16. Demography and monitoring of Welsh's milkweed (Asclepias welshii) at Coral Pink Sand Dunes (United States)

    Brent C. Palmer; L. Armstrong


    Results are presented of a 12-year monitoring program on the Coral Pink Sand Dunes and Sand Hills populations of the threatened Welsh's milkweed, Asclepias welshii N & P Holmgren. The species is an early sera1 member of the dune flora, colonizing blowouts and advancing with shifting dunes. When an area stabilizes and other vegetation encroaches, A. welshii is...

  17. The Impact of Attaining the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma on Academic Performance in Bioscience Higher Education (United States)

    Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew


    Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact…

  18. Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience (United States)

    Andrews, Tegau; Prys, Gruffudd


    This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with…

  19. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Welsh-English Bilingual Children's Adjectival Constructions (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Gavrila, Andra


    Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) refers to the linguistic influence of one of a bilingual's languages while processing the other. Researchers have debated whether CLI is better explained by the structure of bilinguals' two languages or by a combination of processing demands and structure. In this study, we test if Welsh-English bilingual children…

  20. A Race to the Bottom--Prison Education and the English and Welsh Policy Context (United States)

    Czerniawski, Gerry


    This article examines prison education in England and Wales arguing that a disjuncture exists between the policy rhetoric of entitlement to education in prison at the European level and the playing out of that entitlement in English and Welsh prisons. Caught between conflicting discourses around a need to combat recidivism and a need for…

  1. Perspectives on the emblems of the nation in contemporary Estonian and Anglo-Welsh poetry / Ene-Reet Soovik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soovik, Ene-Reet, 1968-


    Kaasaegse eesti luule ja Walesi ingliskeelse luule võrdlemiseks on kasutatud uusi antoloogiaid: Eesti luule antoloogia II (koost. Raivo Kuusk, 1998), Twentieth-century anglo-welsh poetry (ed. Dannie Abse, 1997)

  2. Written cognate treatment in a Welsh-English bilingual aphasic patient

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    Polly Barr


    Weighted Statistics (Howard, Best, & Nickels, 2015 will be used to investigate improvement from baselines to post-tests. This will establish whether there are effects of English treatment on the treated sets (a, b and c and the untreated English and Welsh sets (d,e,f,g. If treatment improves written production of the treated sets, then we can attribute this to strengthening lexical representation and investigate generalisation to untreated sets. We will specifically be looking at whether cognates when treated in English improve in Welsh compared to non-cognates, but also if any inhibition occurs if cognates share exactly the same phonology (sets a and e compared to if cognates have slightly differing phonology (sets c and f. The results of the study will be used to inform bilingual language models on interconnectivity and the special status of cognates as well as inform us of cost and time effective aphasia therapy.

  3. Bacterial Blight of Welsh Onion : A New Disease Caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. allii pv. nov.


    Ikuo, KADOTA; Katsue, UEHARA; Hirosuke, Shinohara; Koushi, NISHIYAMA; Okinawa Agricultural Research Center:Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural College; National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences


    In June of 1998, a new bacterial disease was observed on Welsh onion in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Infected plants in nursery boxes were stunted with tip dieback, and heavily infected plants died. In fields, the disease appeared on leaves as irregular gray spots or elliptical spots with creases in the center. These spots enlarged and spread rapidly continued cloudy or rainy weather, and formed blight lesions on outer leaves. Yellow mucoid bacterial colonies were consistently isolated from the...

  4. Studies on the Ecology and Control of Welsh Onion Root Rot Caused by Fusarium redolens(Abstracts of the Research by the Winners of the Young Scientist Award)


    Akinori, SHINMURA; Hokkaido Prefecture Donan Agricultural Experiment Station


    A previously unreported disease was found on welsh onion grown in a plastic-film greenhouse on Hokkaido, Japan in 1996. Symptoms included leaf blight, plant stunting and root rot. A Fusarium sp. was consistently isolated from rotting roots of welsh onion. We had reported the causal agent was Fusarium oxysporum and named the disease welsh onion root rot, but when I reexamined the classification of this Fusarium, I identified it as Fusarium redolens. The objectives of our study were to determin...

  5. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function (United States)

    Hindle, John V.; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A.; Bastable, Alexandra J. M.; Pye, Kirstie L.; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J.; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Bialystok, Ellen; Thomas, Enlli M.; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Clare, Linda


    Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n = 57) and bilingual Welsh/English (n = 46) speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of the degree of daily usage of each language and the degree of bilingualism. Results. Monolinguals showed an advantage in performance of language tests. There were no differences in performance of EF tests in monolinguals and bilinguals. Those who used Welsh less in daily life had better performance on one test of English vocabulary. The degree of bilingualism correlated with one test of nonverbal reasoning and one of working memory but with no other tests of EF. Discussion. The reasons why the expected benefit in EF in Welsh-English bilinguals with PD was not found require further study. Future studies in PD should include other language pairs, analysis of the effects of the degree of bilingualism, and longitudinal analysis of cognitive decline or dementia together with structural or functional neuroimaging. PMID:25922786

  6. Prevalence and progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia in the Welsh springer spaniel. (United States)

    Oliver, J A C; Ekiri, A; Mellersh, C S


    To determine the prevalence of pectinate ligament dysplasia in a large group of Welsh springer spaniels; to investigate associations between pectinate ligament dysplasia and age, sex and intraocular pressure and between intraocular pressure and age and sex; and to investigate progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia in individual dogs. In a prospective study, gonioscopy was performed in both eyes of 227 Welsh springer spaniels and intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry. Eyes were classified as "unaffected" if 0% of the iridocorneal angle was affected with pectinate ligament dysplasia (grade 0), "mildly affected" if 90% was affected (grade 3). In a retrospective study, progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia over time was investigated for 65 dogs. One hundred and thirty-nine of 227 dogs (61·2%) were affected by pectinate ligament dysplasia (grades 1 to 3) and 82/227 (36·2%) were moderately or severely affected. There was a significant association between pectinate ligament dysplasia and age. There were no associations between pectinate ligament dysplasia and intraocular pressure or pectinate ligament dysplasia and sex. Thirty-five of 65 dogs (53·8%) demonstrated progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia. Prevalence of pectinate ligament dysplasia was high despite widespread screening and selection against the condition. Our data indicate that gonioscopic features of pectinate ligament dysplasia can progress in the Welsh springer spaniel. Dogs deemed unaffected at an early age may subsequently be diagnosed with pectinate ligament dysplasia. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Displaying medication costs on dispensing labels as a strategy to reduce wastage: views of the Welsh general public

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    Yemm R


    Full Text Available Rowan Yemm, Christabel Jones, Tryphosa Mitoko Cardiff University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK Introduction: In 2015, the UK health secretary made public an intention to include the value of medicines costing over £20 on dispensing labels as an attempt to reduce wastage attributable to patient behavior. However, there is a lack of evidence investigating the potential effect or feasibility of this proposal, and concerns have been raised that it may introduce new problems in vulnerable groups. This pilot study aimed to gather views of the Welsh general public on this subject.Methods: Six focus groups from within key population groups were conducted. A snowball sampling strategy was employed with participants recruited via a neutral gatekeeper. Focus groups session were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and iterative thematic analysis was used to identify emergent themes.Results: Six focus groups were conducted. Three key themes were identified: “influence of cost” – whereby participants expressed concern about cost linking to their perceived value, guilt for needing prescribed medication and irrelevance of cost if the medication was considered necessary; “knowledge is power” – whereby participants expressed a desire to know more about their medicines and engage with health care professionals about them, and felt information on dispensing labels alone would be insufficient to support this and “blame the system” – whereby participants felt responsibility for wastage should be shared by both system and patient and identified existing wasteful practices such as inappropriate prescribing, ordering and disposal of returned medicines.Conclusion: Findings were largely consistent with criticisms publicized by professional bodies that introducing cost may serve to make patients feel guilty or unworthy rather than encourage them to use their medicines appropriately. Similarly

  8. Concussion knowledge and experience among Welsh amateur rugby union coaches and referees (United States)

    Griffin, Steffan Arthur; Ranson, Craig; Moore, Isabel; Mathema, Prabhat


    Background Rugby union is a collision sport where participants are at high risk of sustaining a concussion. In settings where there is little qualified medical supervision, certain stakeholders (eg, coaches and officials) should possess sufficient knowledge in regard to the recognition and management of concussion. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and experience of various aspects of concussion among coaches and referees involved in Welsh amateur rugby union. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 1843 coaches and 420 referees. Results A total of 333 coaches and 283 referees completed the questionnaire (18% and 68% response rates, respectively). Participants exhibited greater knowledge of concussion symptom recognition relative to knowledge of both the consequences of concussion and associated return-to-play protocols, both of which could be considered poor. There were no differences in knowledge levels between coaches and referees or between participants with or without a history of concussion. Two-thirds of participants incorrectly believed that headgear could prevent concussion, and nearly 30% of coaches reported having witnessed other coaches allowing a potentially concussed player to continue playing. Conclusions Identification of several misconceptions indicates that concussion management within Welsh amateur rugby union needs to be improved, warranting a multi-faceted educational intervention. PMID:29259806

  9. Ethnic mirrors. Self-representations in the Welsh and Mennonite museums in Argentina and Paraguay

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    Marisa Gonz\\u00E1lez De Oleaga


    Full Text Available According to some scholars and philosophers, ethnic identities are the best political, social, economic, ethic (and even aesthetic alternative to State centralism, which is incapable of dealing with cultural diversity. Ethnic communitarism is then defined as a more authentic, humane, democratic and inclusive form of organization. The Welsh colonies of Chubut (Argentine and the established Mennonite colonies of the Chaco Region (Paraguay are two ethnic groups with forms of community life that have been thoroughly studied from different perspectives. However, neither has been analyzed their point of view of alterity or their relation with those who do not belong to the community. In their museums the history of the community is represented, self-images and other people's images are constructed and spread. The interesting part of these stories is not what they say but what they do, the form in which contents are expressed. These communitarian historical museums tell about the past but they mainly have an impact on the present. Like national or even imperial museums, Welsh and Mennonite museums tend to naturalize a particular self-centered, prejudicial and evolutionist point of view that often excludes other perspectives, especially those elaborated by the neighboring indigenous communities. In contrast, we believe it is necessary to take a stance for democratic, horizontal relations between communities and more polyphonic and responsible historical representations.

  10. Electrophysiological cross-language neighborhood density effects in late and early English-Welsh bilinguals

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    Giordana eGrossi


    Full Text Available Behavioral studies with proficient late bilinguals have revealed the existence of orthographic neighborhood density effects across languages when participants read either in their first (L1 or second (L2 language. Words with many cross-language neighbors have been found to elicit more negative event-related potentials (ERPs than words with few cross-language neighbors (Midgley et al., 2008; the effect started earlier, and was larger, for L2 words. Here, 14 late and 14 early English-Welsh bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on English and Welsh words presented in separate blocks. The pattern of cross-language activation was different for the two groups of bilinguals. In late bilinguals, words with high cross-language neighborhood density elicited more negative ERP amplitudes than words with low cross-language neighborhood density starting around 175 ms after word onset and lasting until 500 ms. This effect interacted with language in the 300-500 ms time window. A more complex pattern of early effects was revealed in early bilinguals and there were no effects in the N400 window. These results suggest that cross-language activation of orthographic neighbors is highly sensitive to the bilinguals’ learning experience of the two languages.

  11. The Cultural Symbolisation of Disordered and Deviant Behaviour: Young People's Experiences in a Welsh Rural Market Town. (United States)

    Jones, Jane


    In rural Llanrwst, north Wales, concepts of "traditional community" and local Welsh culture are felt to be threatened by inmigration of "English" outsiders. Interviews with secondary school students illustrate how cultural boundaries are reinforced by school structures and student behaviors and how cultural belonging is…

  12. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis in Welsh pony embryos after biopsy and cryopreservation. (United States)

    Guignot, F; Reigner, F; Perreau, C; Tartarin, P; Babilliot, J M; Bed'hom, B; Vidament, M; Mermillod, P; Duchamp, G


    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and embryo cryopreservation are important tools to improve genetic management in equine species with marked consequences on the economic value, health, biodiversity, and preservation of the animals. This study aimed to develop a biopsy method at the blastocyst stage that provides viable genotyped cryopreserved Welsh pony embryos. Embryos were collected at d 6.75 to 7 after ovulation. Biopsies were performed with either a microblade or a micropipette. After biopsy, embryos were cryopreserved. The survival rate of biopsied embryos was evaluated on fresh and cryopreserved embryos either 24 h after in vitro culture or after transfer to recipients. Fresh and nonbiopsied embryos were used as controls. Sex, coat color genes, myotony (neuromuscular disorder) diagnosis, and markers of parentage were investigated using PCR on biopsied cells after whole-genome amplification and on remaining embryos. The embryo survival rate after transfer was not affected by the micropipette biopsy (50%, = 8; 43%, = 7; and 50%, = 12, at d 30 for fresh biopsied embryos, vitrified biopsied embryos, and control embryos, respectively) but was significantly reduced by the use of microblade biopsy: 9 ( = 11) vs. 67% ( = 12) for control embryos. Successful sex determination was achieved for 82% ( = 28) of the micropipette biopsies and 100% ( = 50) of the microblade biopsies. Sex determined on biopsied cells was found to correspond completely (100%) with that determined on the remaining embryo ( = 37). More than 90% of the parentage checking markers, coat color, and myotony diagnosis were successfully determined on biopsies obtained with either a micropipette or a microblade. Mendelian incompatibility (7.5 and 5.5%) and embryo genotyping errors (6.6 and 8.6%) were low and not significantly different between the 2 methods. In conclusion, for the first time, pregnancy at Day 30 was obtained after transfer of Welsh pony biopsied and vitrified embryos >300 μm in

  13. Giant cell glioblastoma in the cerebrum of a Pembroke Welsh corgi. (United States)

    Giri, D K; Aloisio, F; Alosio, F; Ajithdoss, D K; Ambrus, A; Lidbury, J A; Hein, H E; Porter, B F


    A 6-year-old, neutered female Pembroke Welsh corgi was presented with a 1-month history of ataxia and panting. The clinical signs progressed until the dog became anorexic, obtunded and exhibited circling to the left. At necropsy examination, a mass was detected in the left forebrain, impinging on the cribriform plate. Microscopically, the mass was composed of sheets of round to pleomorphic neoplastic cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclear atypia, anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were common. Numerous bizarre, multinucleated giant cells containing 60 or more nuclei and giant mononuclear cells were present. The matrix contained abundant reticulin. Immunohistochemistry revealed the neoplastic cells uniformly to express vimentin, and a small number of neoplastic cells expressed glial fibrillary acid protein. A diagnosis of giant cell glioblastoma was made. Although well recognized in man, this tumour has been documented rarely in the veterinary literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in respiratory function in Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs with degenerative myelopathy. (United States)

    Oyake, Kanae; Kobatake, Yui; Shibata, Sanae; Sakai, Hiroki; Saito, Miyoko; Yamato, Osamu; Kushida, Kazuya; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Kamishina, Hiroaki


    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is characterized by progressive degeneration of the spinal cord. Although atrophic changes in the intercostal muscles were previously reported in the late stage of DM in Pembroke Welsh Corgis (PWCs), changes in respiratory function have not yet been examined. In the present study, we performed an arterial blood gas analysis and measured respiratory movements over progressive disease stages to document changes in respiratory function in DM-affected PWCs. We found that respiratory dysfunction progressed during the later stages of DM and correlated with a change in respiratory movement to the abdominal breathing pattern. These results suggested that hypoventilation occurred due to dysfunctional changes in the intercostal muscles and resulted in hypoxemia in the later stages of DM.

  15. Immunohistochemical observation of canine degenerative myelopathy in two Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs. (United States)

    Ogawa, Mizue; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Park, Eun-Sil; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Jun; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu; Nakayama, Hiroyuki


    Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess whether oxidative stress and/or denatured proteins play roles in the pathogenesis of canine degenerative myelopathy (DM). Two Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs with a homozygous mutation (c.118G>A) in the canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene were examined. The pathological features of the dogs were consistent with those of previous cases of DM in PWC. In the spinal lesions, diffuse SOD1 expression was observed in the neurons while no inclusion-like aggregates had formed, which disagreed with the findings of a previous study. A unique inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) staining pattern in reactive astrocytes and a significant increase in ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the spinal lesions were also observed. These findings indicate the involvement of oxidative stress and the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in the pathogenesis of canine DM, whereas the role of SOD1 remains unclear.

  16. Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience

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    Tegau Andrews


    Full Text Available This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with terminology for school-age and further education, the second concerned with higher education. The developments described include the adoption of international standards in terminology standardization and their incorporation in an online terminology standardization environment and dissemination platform that enable access to the centralized terminological dictionaries via a number of sophisticated websites, portals and mobile apps featuring rich dictionary entries. Some of the issues in managing large term collections are explored, and usage statistics are presented for the resources described.

  17. Developing blood borne virus services across prisons in Wales, UK. (United States)

    Perrett, Stephanie E; Craine, Noel; Lyons, Marion


    This paper aims to describe the strategies being put in place to develop blood borne virus (BBV) services across prisons in Wales, UK, in response to the recommendations for prisons within the Welsh Government's Blood Borne Viral Hepatitis Action Plan for Wales. A task and finish group was established to ensure multidisciplinary engagement between healthcare and custody staff. A service improvement package was developed focusing on awareness raising and/or development of clinical services for prisoners, prison officers and prison healthcare staff. Prison healthcare staff have undergone training in BBVs and are being supported to deliver clinical services to prisoners. Training has been delivered in pre/post test discussion and dried blood spot testing; care pathways have been established between prison and community specialists for treatment referrals. An e-learning module is being rolled out to raise awareness amongst custody staff and encourage occupational hepatitis B vaccination. Literature on "liver health" has been produced to be given to every prisoner across Wales. It is envisaged that BBV services will become a routine part of prison care in Wales. Data on activity are being collected for evaluation and it is hoped that tackling BBVs in prisons will help reduce rates of infection both within prisons and in the wider community. This paper describes new initiatives that have been established to tackle BBVs across Welsh prisons and will be relevant to any prison healthcare staff looking to develop similar services.

  18. The effect of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on bolting of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) (United States)


    Background Bolting reduces the quality and commercial yield of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in production. However, seed production is directly dependent on flower induction and bolting. The Welsh onion belongs to the green plant vernalisation type, specific seedling characteristics and sufficient accumulated time at low temperature are indispensible for the completion of its vernalisation process. Only if these conditions for vernalisation are fulfilled, the plants will bolt in the following year. The present investigation evaluated the effects of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on the bolting of Welsh onion at the Horticultural Farm of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi Province, China in two succeeding production years: 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. A strip split plot layout within a randomised complete block design with three replications was used. Results The results revealed that all three factors (cultivar, sowing date and transplant location) and their interaction had significant effects on the initiation and final rate of bolting observed by 30 April. The earliest bolting date (14 February, 2011 and 15 February, 2012) and the highest bolting rate (100% in 2011 and 62% in 2012) occurred when the JinGuan cultivar was sown on 20 August and transplanted in a plastic tunnel, whereas the latest date and lowest rate (no bolting observed until 30 April) of bolting occurred when the XiaHei cultivar was sown on 29 September and transplanted in an open field. Conclusions These results suggest that we can control bolting in Welsh onion production by choosing an appropriate cultivar, sowing date and transplant location. Choosing a late bolting cultivar, such as cultivar XiaHei, sowing around October, and transplanting in the open field can significantly delay bolting, while a sowing date in late August should be selected for seed production, and the seedlings should be transplanted in a plastic tunnel to

  19. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan. (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi


    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  20. [Inhibitory effect on Microcystis aeruginosa as well as separation and identification of the allelochemicals of welsh onion]. (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Yuan; Li, Cheng; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Tingting


    To study the inhibition of welsh onion on Microcystis aeruginosa, and separat and identify of the allelochemicals from welsh onion. METHEDS: The inhibitory effect of different concentrations of fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf water extracts on M. aeruginosa were studied; besides, separation and identification of the allelochemicals of welsh onion were also studied. Both fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf water extracts had, to different degree, inhibitory effect on the growth of M. aeruginosat. Compared with the control group, the fluorescence intensity of fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf were lower than the control group in the same period, and the inhibitory effect were more obvious with the increase of the water extract concentrations, to the fifth day, M. aeruginosa almost completely dead of the highest concentration(50 ml/L) of fistular onion stalk water extract treated group, the EC50 of water extract from fistular onion stalk to M. aeruginosa was 12.7 ml/L, equivalent to fresh weight 1.27 g/L. Main allelochemicals in fistular onion stalk includes allyl mercaptan, cyclopentyl mercaptan, and so on. The inhibiting assay on M. aeruginosa showed that the EC50 of allyl mercaptan and cyclopentyl mercaptan respectively were 0.03 and 0.02 g/L. The fistular onion stalk water extracts has very good algicidal effect, allelopathic algal inhibiting substances primarily are sulfocompound, which have the potential to develop into biological algicide.

  1. Translating Welsh Drama Into Hungarian Through English: A Contextual Introduction to Sêra Moore Williams’ Crash in Hungarian Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Minier


    Full Text Available This article offers a predominantly contextual introduction to my translation of a contemporary Welsh play by Sêra Moore Williams, Crash (2004, into Hungarian. Williams' three-person drama for young people was written originally in the author's native language, Welsh, and translated into English by the playwright herself. In my translation process of the play from English to Hungarian the intermediary role played by English raises ethical concerns from a postcolonial perspective, while in a pragmatic sense it is almost a necessity to rely on it when communicating Welsh-language cultural production to the broader international public, including to other minor languages. The article will place the drama in its generic context, introducing the play as a Theater in Education piece, as Williams' work has been inspirational in the development of tantermi színház [classroom theater] in Hungary since the early 2000s. As a specific case study within the case study, the additional discussion of the translation of Williams' polysemic title will provide an insight into the role such a significant paratext plays in uprooting a dramatic text from one culture to another.

  2. Users Engage More with Interface than Materials at Welsh Newspapers Online Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Reed


    Full Text Available A Review of: Gooding, P. (2016. Exploring the information behaviour of users of Welsh Newspapers Online through web log analysis. Journal of Documentation, 72(2, 232-246. doi:10.1108/JD-10-2014-0149 Objective – This study has two specific objectives: to learn about the behaviours of visitors to the Welsh Newspapers Online (WNO website, and to explore how the identified behaviours are different from those common to information-seeking in a physical archive. Design – Analysis of Google Analytics and web server content logs. Setting – Welsh Newspapers Online website: Subjects – WNO had 19,805 unique visitors from 12 March 2013 to 30 June 2013, who made 52,767 visits to the site. Methods – Gooding accessed the WNO Google Analytics account, which provided visitor numbers, user engagement by page visit and visit duration, bounce rate, and mobile and social media usage. Using anonymized processed content logs provided by the National Library of Wales, he then explored searches undertaken by users on the website; instances where users browsed, filtered, or otherwise interacted with search results; and instances where users viewed content. Main Results – Google Analytics statistics showed users of WNO demonstrate behaviour that is “deeper and more sustained than general web browsing” (p. 237. The number of visitors who only viewed one page and then left the site (bounce rate was low, while page views and time spent on the site were higher than considered standard on general websites. Mobile users made up 11% of visits, although on average they viewed fewer pages and stayed for less time than non-mobile users. Screen size was directly correlated to the level of engagement. There were 9% of visitors referred via social media, but generally showed a low engagement rate similar to that of mobile users; the exception was users who were directed to WNO via blogging platforms. Web log analysis showed visitors most

  3. Clinical characterization of a familial degenerative myelopathy in Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs. (United States)

    Coates, Joan R; March, Philip A; Oglesbee, Michael; Ruaux, Craig G; Olby, Natasha J; Berghaus, Roy D; O'Brien, Dennis P; Keating, John H; Johnson, Gary S; Williams, David A


    Adult dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM) have progressive ataxia and paresis of the pelvic limbs, leading to paraplegia and euthanasia. Although most commonly reported in German Shepherd dogs, high disease prevalence exists in other breeds. Our aim was the clinical and histopathologic characterization of familial degenerative myelopathy (FDM) in Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs. Twenty-one PWCs were prospectively studied from initial diagnosis until euthanasia. Neurologic examination, blood tests, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, electrodiagnostic testing, and spinal imaging were performed. Concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-isoprostane) were measured in CSF. Routine histochemistry was used for neuropathology. Deoxyribonucleic acid and pedigrees were collected from 110 dogs. Median duration of clinical signs before euthanasia was 19 months. Median age at euthanasia was 13 years. All dogs were nonambulatory paraparetic or paraplegic, and 15 dogs had thoracic limb weakness at euthanasia. Electrodiagnostic testing and spinal imaging were consistent with noncompressive myelopathy. No significant difference was detected in 8-isoprostane concentrations between normal and FDM-affected dogs. Axonal and myelin degeneration of the spinal cord was most severe in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus. Pedigree analysis suggested a familial disease. Clinical progression of FDM in PWC dogs was similar to that observed in other breeds but characterized by a longer duration. Spinal cord pathology predominates as noninflammatory axonal degeneration. Oxidative stress injury associated with 8-isoprostane production is not involved in the pathogenesis of FDM-affected PWC dogs. A familial disease is suspected.

  4. Development of Polymorphic Genic SSR Markers by Transcriptome Sequencing in the Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyi Yang


    Full Text Available Transcriptome analysis is an efficient way to explore molecular markers in plant species, for which genome sequences have not been published. To address the limited number of markers published for the Welsh onion, this study found 6486 loci of genic simple sequence repeats (SSR, which consisted of 1–5 bp repeat motifs, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS technology and the RNA-Seq approach. The most abundant motif was mononucleotide (52.33%, followed by trinucleotide (31.96%, and dinucleotide (14.57%. A total of 2525 primer pairs were successfully designed, and 91 out of 311 tested primers were polymorphisms. Overall, 38 genic SSR markers were randomly selected to further validate the degree of genetic diversity, and 22 genic SSR markers (57.89% showed high levels of polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content (PIC value and the number of alleles (Na were 0.63 and 5.27, respectively, and the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the 22 Allium accessions into three groups with Nei’s similarity coefficients ranging from 0.37 to 0.99. This result suggested that these genic SSR markers could be used to develop a higher resolution genetic map and/or to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Allium plants in the near future.

  5. Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats (United States)

    Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.


    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.

  6. Is translation semantically mediated? Evidence from Welsh-English bilingual aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Kate Hughes


    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of the semantic system in picture naming is undisputed. However, it has been proposed that translation could take place via direct lexical links between L1 and L2 word forms in addition to or instead of via semantics (i.e., with translation going from a spoken word in L1 accessing its meaning and this meaning then leading to the retrieval of the translation equivalent in L2. There is conflicting evidence in the psycholinguistic literature as to the extent of semantic mediation in translation vs. picture naming tasks (Potter et al, 1984; Kroll and Stewart, 1994. More recently, Hernandez et al (2010 investigated this question in a case study of JFF, a proficient bilingual Spanish-Catalan speaker with Alzheimer’s disease and naming difficulties due to a semantic deficit. As JFF’s semantic deficit did not only affect picture naming but also translation tasks, the authors concluded against the existence of functional direct lexical links to support translation. The goal of our study was to explore this issue further in a larger sample of proficient bilingual patients with aphasia and word finding difficulties in both languages. More specifically, we compare the rate of semantic errors produced in naming vs. translation tasks. Hypotheses: If there is equal involvement of the semantic system in naming and in translation tasks, then there should be no difference in the rate of semantic errors produced in the two tasks. However, if there are at least partly functional direct lexical links between translation equivalents, then we should observe fewer semantic errors in translation than in naming. Participants. Nine Welsh-English early proficient bilingual aphasic participants were selected for participation. Each patient scored significantly lower (p < .05 than age-matched controls (N=37 on at least one task using the modified t-tests for single cases (Crawford & Howell, 1998, and made semantic errors on naming tasks in

  7. Evidence of Secular Changes in Physical Activity and Fitness, but Not Adiposity and Diet, in Welsh 12-13 Year Olds (United States)

    Thomas, Non E.; Williams, D. R. R.; Rowe, David A.; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S.


    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate secular trends in selected cardiovascular disease risk factors (namely adiposity, physical activity, physical fitness and diet) in a sample of Welsh 12-13 year olds between 2002 and 2007. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A secondary school based in South West Wales. Method: Two studies in…

  8. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  9. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford


    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.

  10. Degenerative myelopathy associated with a missense mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene progresses to peripheral neuropathy in Pembroke Welsh corgis and boxers. (United States)

    Shelton, G Diane; Johnson, Gayle C; O'Brien, Dennis P; Katz, Martin L; Pesayco, Jill P; Chang, Brian J; Mizisin, Andrew P; Coates, Joan R


    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease with many similarities to an upper-motor-neuron-onset form of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), that results from mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. DM occurs in many dog breeds, including the Pembroke Welsh Corgi and Boxer. The initial upper motor neuron degeneration produces spastic paraparesis and affected dogs develop general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs. Dog owners usually elect euthanasia when their dog becomes paraplegic. When euthanasia is delayed, lower motor neuron signs including ascending tetraparesis, flaccid paralysis and widespread muscle atrophy emerge. For this study, muscle and peripheral nerve specimens were evaluated at varying disease stages from DM-affected Pembroke Welsh Corgis and Boxers that were homozygous for the SOD1 mutation and had spinal cord histopathology consistent with DM. Comparisons were made with age- and breed-matched control dogs. Here we provide evidence that Pembroke Welsh Corgis and Boxers with chronic DM develop muscle atrophy consistent with denervation, peripheral nerve pathology consistent with an axonopathy, and to a lesser degree demyelination. Canine DM has been proposed as a potential spontaneous animal disease model of human ALS. The results of this study provide further support that canine DM recapitulates one form of the corresponding human disorder and should serve as a valuable animal model to develop therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving patient safety incident reporting systems by focusing upon feedback - lessons from English and Welsh trusts. (United States)

    Wallace, Louise M; Spurgeon, Peter; Benn, Jonathan; Koutantji, Maria; Vincent, Charles


    This paper describes practical implications and learning from a multi-method study of feedback from patient safety incident reporting systems. The study was performed using the Safety Action and Information Feedback from Incident Reporting model, a model of the requirements of the feedback element of a patient safety incident reporting and learning system, derived from a scoping review of research and expert advice from world leaders in safety in high-risk industries. We present the key findings of the studies conducted in the National Health Services (NHS) trusts in England and Wales in 2006. These were a survey completed by risk managers for 351 trusts in England and Wales, three case studies including interviews with staff concerning an example of good practice feedback and an audit of 90 trusts clinical risk staff newsletters. We draw on an Expert Workshop that included 71 experts from the NHS, from regulatory bodies in health care, Royal Colleges, Health and Safety Executive and safety agencies in health care and high-risk industries (commercial aviation, rail and maritime industries). We draw recommendations of enduring relevance to the UK NHS that can be used by trust staff to improve their systems. The recommendations will be of relevance in general terms to health services worldwide.

  12. Productivity and quality when editing machine translation and translation memory outputs: an empirical analysis of English to Welsh translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Screen Benjamin


    Full Text Available This article reports on a controlled study carried out to examine the possible benefits of editing Machine Translation and Translation Memory outputs when translating from English to Welsh. Using software capable of timing the translation process per segment, 8 professional translators each translated 75 sentences of differing match percentage, and post- edited a further 25 segments of Machine Translation. Basing the final analysis on 800 sentences and 17,440 words, the use of Fuzzy Matches in the 70-99% match range, Exact Matches and Statistical Machine Translation was found to significantly speed up the translation process. Significant correlations were also found between the processing time data of Exact Matches and Machine Translation post-editing, rather than between Fuzzy Matches and Machine Translation as expected. Two experienced translators were then asked to rate all translations for fidelity, grammaticality and style, whereby it was found that the use of translation technology either did not negatively affect translation quality compared to manual translation, or its use actually improved final quality in some cases. As well as confirming the findings of research in relation to translation technology, these findings also contradict supposed similarities between translation quality in terms of style and post-editing Machine Translation.

  13. Design of an automatic sprinkler irrigation system for the Welsh onion growing, in La Puerta farm (Tota-Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Pinto-Medina


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design for automating sprinkler irrigation system in a Welsh onion growing, which poses the required parameters, establishes the differences, advantages and results related to the traditional irrigation system used in this region (Tota, Boyacá. Starting from the resources owned by the farming unit, calculations of water requests of the plant, taking into account the crop evapotranspiration, the irrigation planning with certain factors on the basis of effective storage of soils. Two different technologies for the design are presented: hard-wired and programmable logic. The hard-wired logic system is developed as an automatic cyclical sequence with four work timed stages; on the other hand, the programmable logic controller PLC used, is the Easy-512-DC of Moller, which is provided with eight digital inputs and four relay outputs, programmed in Ladder according to the sequence of the process.

  14. How long do the advantages of learning to read a transparent orthography last? An investigation of the reading skills and reading impairment of Welsh children at 10 years of age. (United States)

    Hanley, Richard; Masterson, Jackie; Spencer, Llinos; Evans, Dylan


    Spencer and Hanley (2003) showed that Welsh-speaking children aged between 5 and 7 years who were learning to read Welsh (a transparent orthography) performed significantly better at reading both real words and nonwords than did English-speaking children living in Wales who were learning to read English (a deep orthography). In this study, the reading skills of these children were reexamined three years later, during their sixth year of formal reading instruction. The children learning to read English continued to perform poorly at reading low- and medium-frequency irregular words but no differences were observed in reading regular words or nonwords. These findings emphasize how long it takes to acquire a large sight vocabulary in English, but indicated that the reading skills of the majority of the English-speaking children had caught up with those of their Welsh-speaking counterparts. However, the poorest 25% of the English readers continued to perform much worse than the lowest performing 25% of Welsh readers on both words and nonwords. An underachieving tail of this kind was not observed in the reading performance of the Welsh-speaking group. Overall, these findings suggest that in the long term the detrimental effects of an opaque orthography are most damaging to the poorest readers.

  15. Impact of regulation on English and Welsh water-only companies: an input-distance function approach. (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Porcher, Simon; Maziotis, Alexandros


    The assessment of productivity change over time and its drivers is of great significance for water companies and regulators when setting urban water tariffs. This issue is even more relevant in privatized water industries, such as those in England and Wales, where the price-cap regulation is adopted. In this paper, an input-distance function is used to estimate productivity change and its determinants for the English and Welsh water-only companies (WoCs) over the period of 1993-2009. The impacts of several exogenous variables on companies' efficiencies are also explored. From a policy perspective, this study describes how regulators can use this type of modeling and results to calculate illustrative X factors for the WoCs. The results indicate that the 1994 and 1999 price reviews stimulated technical change, and there were small efficiency gains. However, the 2004 price review did not accelerate efficiency change or improve technical change. The results also indicated that during the whole period of study, the excessive scale of the WoCs contributed negatively to productivity growth. On average, WoCs reported relatively high efficiency levels, which suggests that they had already been investing in technologies that reduce long-term input requirements with respect to exogenous and service-quality variables. Finally, an average WoC needs to improve its productivity toward that of the best company by 1.58%. The methodology and results of this study are of great interest to both regulators and water-company managers for evaluating the effectiveness of regulation and making informed decisions.

  16. Expression of Autophagy-Related Proteins in the Spinal Cord of Pembroke Welsh Corgi Dogs With Canine Degenerative Myelopathy. (United States)

    Ogawa, M; Uchida, K; Yamato, O; Mizukami, K; Chambers, J K; Nakayama, H


    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease frequently found in Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs, and it has clinical and pathologic similarities to human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Autophagy is a major intracellular protein degradation system. Abnormalities of autophagy--resulting in cell death through mechanisms called type II programmed cell death--have recently been reported to occur in various neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Thus, the distribution and expression levels of proteins involved in autophagy were examined in the spinal cords of 8 PWC dogs suffering from DM with superoxide dismutase mutation, 5 non-DM PWC dogs, and 6 Beagle dogs without neurologic signs. There was no significant difference in the ratio of neurons with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-positive somata relative to those that were LC3 negative among the 3 groups, whereas the number of LC3-positive neurites was significantly increased in DM dogs. Punctate LC3 immunoreactivity did not colocalize with a lysosome marker, LAMP2 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 2). NBR1 (neighbor of BRCA gene 1) was localized mostly in reactive astrocytes, whereas there were p62 (p62/A170/SQSTM1)-positive foci in the neuropil of the spinal cord of DM dogs. Western blotting revealed in DM dogs the decreased expression of Beclin1 and Atg16 L, which are molecules involved in formation of the isolation membrane. These findings suggest that altered autophagosome degradation may result in LC3 and p62 accumulation in the DM spinal cord, whereas the early stage of membrane formation is likely to be downregulated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture. (United States)

    Dansen, O; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J; Jacobs, M P T; Everts, H; van Doorn, D A


    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1 kg DM cereal mix/d). For both diets, the same grass hay was used (898 g DM/kg and 4.5 MJ NE/kg DM) and a commercial cereal mix was used in the RC diet (890 g DM/kg and 9.6 MJ NE/kg DM). Ponies were housed in pairs in climate-controlled respiration chambers. Carbon dioxide production (CO2), oxygen (O2) consumption, and CH4 production were measured over 3 consecutive days. Heat production (HP) rates were calculated from gaseous exchange. Feces were collected quantitatively to determine dietary nutrient digestibility. Dry matter intake differed between diets (P Methane production was higher (P = 0.014) on the R diet (29.8 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)) compared to the RC diet (23.2 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)). Methane production expressed in liters/kilogram metabolic body weight (BW0.75) per day tended (P = 0.064) to decrease with 21% for the RC group compared with the R group. Heat production, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were not affected by diet. Diurnal patterns of CH4 production and HP were similar for both diets. Methane production increased slightly (P emission can be discerned in ponies fed at maintenance.

  18. BSE in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint


    The 2000 BSE Inquiry report points out that the most serious failure of the UK Government was one of risk communication. This paper argues that the government's failure to communicate the risks BSE posed to humans to a large degree can be traced back to a lack of transparency in the first risk...

  19. UK Mission to CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  20. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia


    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  1. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  2. [Analysis of pesticides including chlorine in welsh onions and mushrooms using gas chromatograph with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED)]. (United States)

    Tateishi, Yukinari; Takano, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Maki; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Sakai, Naoko; Kamijo, Kyoko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Kamata, Kunihiro


    An analytical method for the determination of 32 kinds of pesticide residues in onions, Welsh onions and mushrooms using gas chromatograph with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED) was developed. The pesticides were extracted with acetone-n-hexane (2:3) mixture. The crude extract was partitioned between 5% sodium chloride and ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:4) mixture. The extract was passed through a Florisil mini-column for cleanup with 10 mL of acetone-n-hexane (1:9) mixture. Although the sensitivity of GC-AED was inferior to that of GC-ECD, GC-AED has a superior element-selectivity. Therefore pesticide residues in foods could be analyzed more exactly by using GC-AED. Thirty-two pesticides including chlorine in onion, Welsh onion and shiitake mushroom were detected without interference. Recoveries of these pesticides from samples determined by GC-AED were 64-114%, except for a few pesticides.

  3. Analysis of water from K west basin canisters (second campaign)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford


    Gas and liquid samples have been obtained from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters. The data will provide source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results for the gas and liquid samples of the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a; Trimble 1995b; Trimble 1996a; Trimble 1996b). An analysis of cesium-137 (137CS ) data from the second campaign samples was reported (Trimble and Welsh 1997), and the gas sample results are documented in Trimble 1997. This report documents the results of all analytes of liquid samples from the second campaign.

  4. Assessing the relative efficiency of water companies in the English and Welsh water industry: a metafrontier approach. (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros; Sala-Garrido, Ramon


    The assessment of relative efficiency of water companies is essential for managers and authorities. This is evident in the UK water sector where there are companies with different services such as water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) and water-only companies (WoCs). Therefore, it is a critical limitation to estimate a common production frontier for both types of companies, as it might lead to biased efficiency estimates. In this paper, a robust and reliable methodology, the metafrontier model, is applied to compare the efficiency of water companies providing different services. The results illustrate the superior performance of WaSCs compared to WoCs. It also confirms the presence of economies of scope in the UK water industry. The methodology and results of this study are of great interest for both regulators and water utility managers to make informed decisions.

  5. Determination of behavioural traits of pure-bred dogs using factor analysis and cluster analysis; a comparison of studies in the USA and UK. (United States)

    Bradshaw, J W; Goodwin, D


    The questionnaire survey of Hart and Hart (1985, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 186, 1811-1815) ranked the 56 most popular breeds of dog in the USA on 13 behavioural traits and is compared here with results of a similar survey conducted on the 49 most popular breeds in the UK. Of the 36 breeds in common between the studies, 24 were similar for the traits aggressivity, reactivity and ease of housetraining between the two countries. However, the characteristics of nine breeds (Airedale Terrier, Old English Sheepdog, Welsh Corgi, Irish Setter, Standard Poodle, Beagle, Samoyed, Boxer, Dalmatian) differed markedly between the two countries, and a further three (Chihuahua, Scottish Terrier, Standard Dachshund) showed smaller, but probably meaningful, shifts. These differences should be recognised when giving advice to prospective owners, and when treating unwanted behaviour in these breeds.

  6. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management (United States)


    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  7. Well integrity failure in the UK (United States)

    Worrall, F.


    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  8. UK businesses bag innovation awards (United States)

    Banks, Michael


    Five UK firms have received innovation awards from the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World. Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging, Metrasens, M Squared Lasers, Silixa and Tracerco have all won an IOP award for developing new innovative products.

  9. UK science, post-Brexit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Wilsdon


    Nine months since the British vote to exit the European Union ("Brexit"), the UK science community's initial dismay has given way to hard-boiled determination to limit the damage it will do to universities and research...

  10. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-


    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  11. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches


    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny


    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional adv...

  12. San Mateo Creek Basin (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  13. Dublin Basin


    Somerville, I.D.; C. N. Waters


    The Carboniferous rocks of the Dublin Basin extend from the east coast of north Co. Dublin westwards to the River Shannon at Athlone and northwards to the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of the Longford-Down Massif (see Strogen et al. 1996, fig. 5; Sevastopulo & Wyse Jackson 2001, fig. 10.12; Fig. 21.1). They occur in counties Longford, Westmeath, Meath, north Co. Dublin, north Co. Offaly, north Co. Kildare and south Co. Dublin. Most of the rocks in the region belong to the Mississippia...

  14. Neuronal loss and decreased GLT-1 expression observed in the spinal cord of Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs with canine degenerative myelopathy. (United States)

    Ogawa, M; Uchida, K; Yamato, O; Inaba, M; Uddin, M M; Nakayama, H


    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is frequently found in Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs. Canine DM is potentially a spontaneous animal model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar lesions and the involvement of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. However, the ventral horn lesion in DM has not been characterized in detail. Glutamate excitotoxicity due to deficiency of the glutamine-glutamate cycle has been implicated in neuron death in ALS. Thus, we examined 5 PWC dogs with an SOD1 mutation that were affected by DM, 5 non-DM PWC dogs, and 5 Beagle dogs without neurologic signs to assess the neuronal changes and the expression levels of 2 glial excitatory amino acid transporters (glutamate transporter 1 [GLT-1] and glutamate/aspartate transporter [GLAST]). The number of neurons in the spinal ventral horns of the DM dogs was significantly decreased, whereas no change was found in the cell size. Chromatolysis, lipofuscin-laden neurons, and marked synapse loss were also observed. GLT-1 expression was strikingly decreased in DM dogs, whereas GLAST expression showed no significant change. The results indicate that excitotoxicity related to the reduced expression of GLT-1, but not GLAST, may be involved in neuron loss in DM, as in human ALS, whereas intraneuronal events may differ between the 2 diseases.

  15. Vaccine acceptance: the UK perspective. (United States)

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri


    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner's theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vaccines. In this article we examine vaccine acceptability from a UK perspective, and consider the future impact this is likely to have on the introduction of rotavirus and shingles vaccine in the UK in 2013.

  16. Hydrogeology of sedimentary basins (United States)

    Kreitler, Charles W.


    Hydrogeologic environments in sedimentary basins are as variable as are the different types of basins. Important hydrologic characteristics can be used to distinguish the different types of basin: (1) the topographic setting as determined by the geologic and structural history of the basin; (2) permeability distribution within the basin; and (3) potential energy distributions and flow mechanisms. These parameters control residence times of waters, rates and directions of saline groundwater flow and the origin and chemical composition of the saline waters. The Gulf Coast and Palo Duro Basins, Texas, exemplify two end member types of sedimentary basins. The Gulf Coast Basin is a relatively young, Tertiary-age basin which is presently compacting; fluid movement is from the overpressured, undercompacted sediments up the structural dip or up fault zones into the hydrostatic section, natural fluid pressures are either hydrostatic or overpressured. The Palo Duro is an older, Paleozoic-age basin that has been tectonically uplifted. Fluid flow is gravity driven from topographically high recharge areas to discharge in topographically low areas. Fluid pressures are subhydrostatic. Fluids discharge more easily than they are recharged. Not all flow is derived by a simple recharge discharge model. Brines may flow from other basins into the Palo Duro Basin and waters may discharge from the Palo Duro Basin into other basins. Areal differences in the chemical composition of the basin brines may be the result of different origins.

  17. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles


    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  18. Anandavardhanan, Dr U.K.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship; Associateship. Associate Profile. Period: 2007–2010. Anandavardhanan, Dr U.K.. Date of birth: 25 May 1976. Address during Associateship: Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai - 400 076. Contact: Email: YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  19. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, A.H.


    Læserbrev, som kritiserer det store UK Prospective Diabetes Study's forfattere for at overfortolke deres fund, idet marginalt signifikante p-værdier tages som udtryk for slående effekt (af at sænke blodsukkeret). Det sker selvom der f.eks. indgår effektvariabler, som kunne påvirkes af patienternes...

  20. Altamont attracts UK windfarm developer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macari, L.; Reynolds, S.C.


    Altamont Pass in California is the site for a 25 MW wind farm built by UK-based James Howden and equipped with seventy-five 330 kW machines. It was sold to an institutional investor in the USA for $48 million. The wind farm is also the site for a 750 kW demonstration wind turbine.

  1. Indian Diaspora In The UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kulik


    Full Text Available The author traces the history of formation of the Indian diaspora in the UK, evaluates the key trends that characterize the current state of diaspora. The article highlights the level of involvement and participation of diaspora in the evolution of the bilateral relations, as well as the influence of diaspora over home and foreign policy in the UK and India. The diaspora today is not just a unique vibrant connection between the two countries, it has also become a factor of influence over domestic, social and economic affairs in both the UK and India. There is a growing number of Indians among British statesmen and politicians. Indians occupy significant posts in various sectors in Britain, including business and finance. This contributes to strengthening of economic ties between the two countries, particularly important considering Britain’s forthcoming exit from the EU. As to internal political matters, though potential issues exist (those include, for instance, the possible transfer from India into Britain of problematic inter-caste relations, India’s criticism over unbalanced approach to teaching colonial history in British schools, the Indian diaspora due to its’ inherent tolerance and moderation generally plays a stabilizing role in the UK, especially on the background of radicalization of other ethnic communities. For the new India the diaspora today is not just an important source of financing, competences and know-how, it is also a significant lobbying and soft-power instrument. This article is part of a broader research, related to the contemporary relations between the United Kingdom and India. Indian diaspora in the UK is an integral part of the unique centuries-long history that connects the two countries. It is poised to remain a strong factor contributing to interdependence and cooperation between Britain and India in the XXI century.

  2. Predicting nutrient responses to mitigation at catchment to national scale: the UK research platform (Invited) (United States)

    Johnes, P.


    Nutrient enrichment of waters from land-based and atmospheric sources presents a significant management challenge, requiring effective stakeholder engagement and policy development, properly underpinned by robust scientific evidence. The challenge is complex, raising significant questions about the specific sources, apportionment and pathways that determine nutrient enrichment and the key priorities for effective management and policy intervention. This paper presents outputs from 4 major UK research programmes: the Defra Demonstration Test Catchments programme (DTC), the Environment Agency's Catchment Sensitive Farming monitoring and evaluation programme (CSF), Natural Resources Wales Welsh Catchment Initiative (WCI) and the NERC Environmental Virtual Observatory programme (EVOp). Funded to meet this challenge, they are delivering new understanding of the rates and sources of pollutant fluxes from land to water, their impacts on ecosystem goods and services, and likely trends under future climate and land use change from field to national scale. DTC, a 12m investment by the UK Government, has set up long-term, high resolution research platforms equipped with novel telemetered sensor networks to monitor stream ecosystem responses to on-farm mitigation measures at a representative scale for catchment management. Ecosystem structural and functional responses and bulk hydrochemistry are also being monitored using standard protocols. CSF has set up long-term, enhanced monitoring in 8 priority catchments, with monthly monitoring in a further 72 English catchments and 6 Welsh priority catchments, to identify shifts in pollutant flux to waters resulting from mitigation measures in priority areas and farming sectors. CSF and WCI have contributed to >50 million of targeted farm improvements to date, representing a significant shift in farming practice. Each programme has generated detailed evidence on stream ecosystem responses to targeted mitigation. However, to provide

  3. Objectively measured residential environment and self-reported health: a multilevel analysis of UK census data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunstan

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between health and the quality of the residential environment. What is known is often based on subjective assessments of the environment rather than on measurements by independent observers. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the association between self-reported general health and an objectively assessed measure of the residential environment. We studied over 30,000 residents aged 18 or over living in 777 neighbourhoods in south Wales. Built environment quality was measured by independent observers using a validated tool, the Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT, at unit postcode level. UK Census data on each resident, which included responses to a question which assessed self-reported general health, was linked to the REAT score. The Census data also contained detailed information on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of all respondents and was also linked to the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation. After adjusting for both the individual characteristics and area deprivation, respondents in the areas of poorest neighbourhood quality were more likely to report poor health compared to those living in areas of highest quality (OR 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.49. The particular neighbourhood characteristics associated with poor health were physical incivilities and measures of how well the residents maintained their properties. Measures of green space were not associated with self-reported health. This is the first full population study to examine such associations and the results demonstrate the importance for health of the quality of the neighbourhood area in which people live and particularly the way in which residents behave towards their own and their neighbours' property. A better understanding of causal pathways that allows the development of interventions to improve neighbourhood quality would offer significant potential health gains.

  4. Impact of media reporting of cervical cancer in a UK celebrity on a population-based cervical screening programme. (United States)

    MacArthur, Georgina J; Wright, Melissa; Beer, Helen; Paranjothy, Shantini


    To determine the impact of media reporting of cervical cancer in a UK celebrity on cervical screening uptake, response time and colposcopy referral and attendance. Population-based national cervical screening programme for women in Wales, UK. A time series regression analysis of the Welsh national cervical screening and colposcopy databases was used to examine the number of smear tests carried out between 2000 and 2010, stratified by age group and deprivation indicators. Logistic regression was used to analyse colposcopy attendance. Over 33,000 more cervical screening tests than expected were carried out in the year of media reporting (2008/9), 11,539 (35%) of which were in the month of Jade Goody's death. The largest increase was evident in women aged 35-39 years (475 additional tests per month, 95% CI 331-619). Impacts were similar across deprivation quintiles. Colposcopy referrals increased by 18% during the year of media reporting. Increases were observed for all smear test results in 2008/9, particularly among younger women, and further rises were evident in 2009/10 for smear tests showing borderline changes and mild dyskaryosis. The proportion of women attending colposcopy appointments rose in the year of media reporting (χ(2) = 45.8, P celebrity was associated with a significant, but transient, increase in screening uptake and colposcopy referral and attendance. Mass media reporting can play a role in enhanced detection of abnormalities, but public health messages must be communicated effectively to minimize anxiety whilst maximizing case-finding and uptake among non-responders.

  5. UK policy: A success story? (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan


    Child poverty is at the heart of the United Kingdom (UK) government's social policy agenda. Child poverty rose rapidly in the 1980s; the child poverty rate was one of the highest in Europe by 2000. In 1999, the government's objective was to reduce child poverty by 50% by 2004/2005, which it narrowly failed to meet. In 2005/2006, there was an increase in child poverty. An index of child well-being found that the UK was 21st out of the 25 European Union countries. Overall, the UK came in last in the UNICEF well-being index. The government's child poverty strategy has been to manage the economy to maximize employment and to improve in-work incomes. Both have been successful in reducing child poverty. Out-of-work incomes have also been improved, but not enough to lift many children out of poverty. Public expenditure on services, especially health, education and childcare, has also increased; although there are questions about how much of this extra spending has focused on children and child poverty. The comprehensive spending review, reporting later in 2007, is likely to be tight, and it is now unlikely that the government will succeed in its aim of reducing child poverty by 50% by 2010 unless there are radical changes in policy. Constraints on the government's ability to do this include the structural inequalities in British society and public attitudes toward people in poverty.

  6. Worldwide open access: UK leadership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Harnad


    Full Text Available The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA to research but recently its leadership has been derailed by the joint influence of the publishing industry lobby from without and well-intentioned but premature and unhelpful over-reaching from within the OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive ‘Finch Report’ followed by a new draft of the Research Councils UK (RCUK OA mandate, downgrading the role of cost-free OA self-archiving of research publications (‘green OA’ in favor of paying subscription publishers over and above subscriptions, out of scarce research funds, in exchange for making single articles OA (‘hybrid gold OA’. The motivation of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY, but the likely effect would be researcher resistance, very little OA and a waste of research funds. There is still time to fix the RCUK mandate and restore the UK's leadership by taking a few very specific steps to clarify and strengthen the green component by adding a mechanism for monitoring and verifying compliance, with consequences for non-compliance, along lines also being adopted in the EC and the US.

  7. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny


    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  8. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn


    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  9. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the Welsh National Exercise Referral Scheme: protocol for trial and integrated economic and process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Janine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits to health of a physically active lifestyle are well established and there is evidence that a sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in the onset and progression of chronic disease. Despite a recognised need for effective public health interventions encouraging sedentary people with a medical condition to become more active, there are few rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness. Following NICE guidance, the Welsh national exercise referral scheme was implemented within the context of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Methods/Design The randomised controlled trial, with nested economic and process evaluations, recruited 2,104 inactive men and women aged 16+ with coronary heart disease (CHD risk factors and/or mild to moderate depression, anxiety or stress. Participants were recruited from 12 local health boards in Wales and referred directly by health professionals working in a range of health care settings. Consenting participants were randomised to either a 16 week tailored exercise programme run by qualified exercise professionals at community sports centres (intervention, or received an information booklet on physical activity (control. A range of validated measures assessing physical activity, mental health, psycho-social processes and health economics were administered at 6 and 12 months, with the primary 12 month outcome measure being 7 day Physical Activity Recall. The process evaluation explored factors determining the effectiveness or otherwise of the scheme, whilst the economic evaluation determined the relative cost-effectiveness of the scheme in terms of public spending. Discussion Evaluation of such a large scale national public health intervention presents methodological challenges in terms of trial design and implementation. This study was facilitated by early collaboration with social research and policy colleagues to develop a rigorous design which included an innovative approach

  10. UK photonics in defence and security (United States)

    Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.


    The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.

  11. and Developing Open Crime and Justice Data for the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Smith


    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the evolution and development of the and sites, which publish open data about crime and justice in the UK, and make it accessible and comprehensible to the public. has received over 64 million visits (754 million hits since launching in January 2011. Open crime and justice data represents a key sector in the UK open data landscape, and citizens are keen to engage with the criminal justice system to become more informed about local levels of crime and other policing information. This paper sets out the policing context in the UK, discusses the journey in providing such open data, the processes involved and challenges encountered, and explores possible future developments.

  12. Energy co-operatives in the UK


    Y. Tham; T. Muneer


    The UK is implementing different types of policies to encourage the use of renewable energy for electricity generation. Currently, the UK is falling behind other European countries in this respect. Hence, co-operatives play an important role in helping the UK to move forward. Co-operatives are of interest to the Government in respect of economic development in the community. Co-operatives keep both the business, or entity, and the wealth it creates locally, which also supports the local econo...

  13. Immunization campaigns in the UK. (United States)

    Noakes, K; Salisbury, D


    A mass immunization campaign is a rapid vaccination intervention across age groups as opposed to provision through routine vaccination at a specified age attainment. Some countries use campaigns routinely as they have experience that shows that in their health systems higher coverage can be reached through campaigns than by routine service provision. Whilst many industrialized and non-industrialized countries have introduced new vaccines into their routine programme, the UK is unusual in deliberately doing this via campaigns. A number of mass immunization campaigns have been implemented in the UK, either integrated into the routine immunization programme such as the annual influenza immunization campaign; as a catch-up campaign alongside the introduction of a new vaccine into the routine vaccination schedule (MMR, Haemophilus influenzae b, Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine); or as a one-off campaign, to boost immunity in a particular age group, without introducing the vaccination into the schedule routinely at that age (Haemophilus influenzae b). Campaigns require intense planning at national and local level with leadership to achieve proper management. Although the components of an immunization campaign can be described separately--strategic planning, vaccine supply, communication and surveillance; for a programme to be successful integrated planning is essential.

  14. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches. (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny


    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  15. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  16. The Project (United States)

    Bramald, Tom; Powell, Jonathan


    In this article, the authors describe how pupils can benefit from some unusual and exciting free resources of is a project that provides free resources to support teaching and learning in a variety of subjects including maths and geography, often in a cross-curricular way. Via the project website, it is possible,…

  17. UK Policy on Folate Fortification of Foods (United States)

    Malcolm, Alan


    The UK Food Standards Agency has decided not to recommend fortification of foods with folate, the family of vitamins associated with the prevention of neural tube defects in babies. This is a change in attitude from previous recommendations made by a series of committees and reports in the UK. Notably, it differs from US policy on the matter. The…

  18. UK creates new funding super-body (United States)


    The UK government has passed its higher-education and research bill, which includes the creation of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) - a new umbrella organization that will oversee the country’s seven research councils such as the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  19. Grade Inflation in UK Higher Education (United States)

    Bachan, Ray


    This paper examines the continual increase in the proportion of "good" honour degrees awarded by UK universities since the mid-2000s. This trend has brought with it the charge of "grade inflation" that may reflect falling standards in UK higher education. This issue has been raised in the national press and in government which…

  20. Development of the UK Engagement Survey (United States)

    Kandiko Howson, Camille; Buckley, Alex


    Student engagement has become a key feature of UK higher education, but until recently there has been a lack of data to track, benchmark and drive enhancement. In 2015 the first full administration ran in the UK a range of survey items drawn from the US-based National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This is the latest example of international…

  1. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan


    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  2. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.


    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  3. MNCs in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Marginson, Paul


    country’s institutions to suit the MNC’s needs (country-of-origin effect). This question is discussed by Steen E. Navrbjerg from FAOS and Paul Marginson from Warwick in the article MNCs in Denmark and the UK - accommodating to or transforming national industrial relations? The article is based on a survey...... of 301 MNCs in the UK and 110 MNC’s in Denmark. In the article home owned MNCs is compared with overseas MNCs in Denmark and the UK respectively; furthermore, MNCs in a liberal market economy (UK) is compared with MNCs in a coordinated market economy (Denmark). The analysis shows that the MNCs in Denmark...... much more often recognize unions than is the case with MNCs in the UK. This indicates that strong relations between the social partners and a strong institutionalised IR-system in Denmark are defining the relations between employer and employee, and are also inhibiting the MNCs opportunities...

  4. Spatial and temporal analysis of the risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl and metal contaminants in sediments in UK estuaries and coastal waters. (United States)

    Manuel Nicolaus, E E; Law, Robin J; Wright, Serena R; Lyons, Brett P


    The environmental risks of 22 contaminants, comprising 6 metals, 10 PAHs and 6 PCB congeners occurring in UK estuaries and coastal waters were assessed as single substances. Sediment samples were taken within 12 nautical miles of the English and Welsh coastlines between 1999 and 2011. The measured environmental concentrations were compared to quality standards including ERL, ERM and EAC, all of which have been established internationally. Out of a total of 38,031 individual samples analysed, 42.6% and 7.7% exceeded the ERL/EAC and ERM values, respectively. The highest Risk Characterisation Ratios (RCRs) for metals, PAHs and PCBs were observed for copper, fluorene and CB118 (2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). In general, the highest concentrations of PAHs and PCBs were observed in 2011 in the Lower Medway indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment. This study suggests that re-suspension of contaminants banned over 20years ago is still an ongoing issue. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Great Basin insect outbreaks (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans


    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  6. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.


    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Ramamurthi, Bhaskar; Narayanan, Babu; A, Oredope


    .... The India-UK Advanced Technology Centre initiative is a collaborative research project between various institutes and companies across UK and India, which envisages, apart from several research...

  8. Heavens Open Up for UK Astronomers (United States)


    A significant milestone for British and European science occurred today (July 8, 2002) when the Council of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) met in London. At this historical meeting, the United Kingdom was formally welcomed into ESO by the nine other member states. The UK, one of the leading nations in astronomical research, now joins one of the world's major astronomical organisations. UK astronomers will now be able to use the four 8.2-metre and several 1.8-metre telescopes that comprise the Very Large Telescope (VLT) facility located at the Paranal Observatory in the northern part of the Atacama desert in Chile, as well as two 4-m class telescopes and several smaller ones at the ESO La Silla Observatory further south. The UK will also benefit from increased involvement in the design and construction of the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA), a network of 64 twelve-metre telescopes also sited in Chile, and play a defining role in ESO's 100-metre Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL). Sir Martin Rees , The Astronomer Royal, said, "Joining ESO is good for UK science, and I think good for Europe as well. It offers us access to the VLT's 8-m class telescopes and restores the UK's full competitiveness in optical astronomy. We're now guaranteed full involvement in ALMA and in the next generation of giant optical instruments - projects that will be at the forefront of the research in the next decade and beyond. Moreover, our commitment to ESO should enhance its chances of forging ahead of the US in these technically challenging and high profile scientific projects. UK membership of ESO is a significant and welcome outcome of this government's increasing investment in science". Prof. Ian Halliday , Chief Executive of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC), the UK's strategic science investment agency said, "The United Kingdom already participates in Europe's flagship particle physics research and the space science research programmes through

  9. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.


    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  10. The Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic: An Extinct Young Ocean Basin or a Failed Breakup Basin? (United States)

    Roberts, Alan; Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy


    We investigate the crustal structure and composition of the Rockall Trough which is located in the NE Atlantic to the west of Ireland and the UK. The Rockall Trough is a large extensional basin formed in the Early Cretaceous and has dimensions of approximately 250 km in width and 1000 km in length. It is one of several basins formed during the complex Mesozoic northward propagation of rifting, continental breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation of the North Atlantic; other adjacent basins formed at this time include the Porcupine Trough to its east and the East and West Orphan Basins on the Canadian conjugate margin. To investigate the crustal structure of the Rockall Trough we have used three independent analyses of available 2D and 3D data: 1. 3D gravity inversion, using public-domain gravity and sediment-thickness information, has produced maps of (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness (figure 1) and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins. 2. Gravity inversion as above, but using public-domain gravity data combined with new proprietary 2D sediment-thickness information, has produced a series of cross-sections which show (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins 3. Geodynamic modelling, comprising 2D flexural backstripping and forward modelling, has been used to produce (i) estimates of stretching/thinning factor, (ii) whole-crustal cross-sections and (iii) predictions of palaeobathymetry through time along a series of project-specific transects. Our analysis of the Rockall Trough shows a rapid shallowing of crustal basement thicknesses on the flanks of the basin with central values of crustal thickness typically 8-10 km consistent with previously published seismic estimates. An important question is whether this thin crust is hyper-extended continental crust or proto-oceanic crust. Locally isolated patches of crustal thicknesses as low as 3km are observed which are consistent with the

  11. South American sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M.


    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  12. UK Freight Demand: Elasticities and Decoupling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agnolucci, Paolo; Bonilla, David


    The aim of this study is to estimate road freight demand in the UK for the period 1956-2003 and to assess the occurrence of decoupling between economic activity and freight demand as discussed in McKinnon (2006...

  13. CERN sells management system to UK's Transacsys

    CERN Multimedia

    Rohde, L


    CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).

  14. Project SEARCH UK - Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes. (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel


    The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. The evaluation obtained data from all sites operational in the UK at the time of evaluation (n = 17) and analysed employment outcomes. Data were available for 315 young people (n = 315) in the programme and pay and other employment related data were available for a subsample. The results of the analysis suggest that Project SEARCH achieves on average employment rates of around 50 per cent. Project SEARCH UK represents a valuable addition to the supported employment provision in the UK. Its unique model should inform discussions around best practice in supported employment. Implications for other supported employment programmes are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. UK Higher Education Project Management Survey


    Stewart, Andrew


    This is a printable version of a survey designed and distributed online to capture information about the maturity of project management practices across UK Higher Education during the academic year 2012-2013.

  16. A rescue plan for UK physics funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Brumfiel, Geoff


    "Britain's most troubled research council is about to undergo radical surgery. On 4 March, UK science minister Paul Drayson unveiled his plan to reform the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)" (0.5 page)

  17. River basin administration (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  18. Analysing UK real estate market forecast disagreement


    McAllister, Patrick; Newell, G.; Matysiak, George


    Given the significance of forecasting in real estate investment decisions, this paper investigates forecast uncertainty and disagreement in real estate market forecasts. Using the Investment Property Forum (IPF) quarterly survey amongst UK independent real estate forecasters, these real estate forecasts are compared with actual real estate performance to assess a number of real estate forecasting issues in the UK over 1999-2004, including real estate forecast error, bias and consensus. The re...

  19. The UK sports- and underwear market


    Tesfai, Iyoel; Melgaard, Mathilde; Elvestad, Nina; Grav, Nina Kristin


    Pierre Robert Group is a Norwegian company, which specialises in regular underwear, in addition to sports underwear. The company is currently represented in Sweden and Finland, as well as in their domestic market. Pierre Robert Group wishes to explore the possibilities for a future expansion into the UK sports- and/or underwear market. The purpose of this report is to explore the UK sports- and underwear market in order to ascertain the most appropriate strategy for Pierre Robert, if they ...

  20. UK energy policy: findings from two surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology


    The paper summarises the results of two surveys, carried out in November 1992 and December 1994, of the opinions of UK energy professionals on the effectiveness of UK energy policy, what objectives energy policy should seek to achieve and how they should be achieved. Most respondents said that there should be a long term energy policy, at the level of both the UK and Europe. Such a policy should create a regulatory framework that complements market forces to improve the efficiency of energy use and environmental quality, to enhance security of supplies and to reduce the costs of energy supplies. Around two-thirds, however, said that existing UK energy policies were inappropriate and ineffective. There were serious doubts about the effectiveness of the regulation of gas and electricity, particularly the latter. Opinions tended to be somewhat more favourable in 1994 than in 1992. Just under half the respondents wanted nuclear power to occupy a special place in policy, while two-fifths wanted a special place for electricity from renewable sources. While the experts` desired energy policy objectives were broadly similar to those listed by the Government in 1994, the rankings were in many cases different. The energy professionals were not fully convinced that the objectives had been satisfactorily achieved. The paper also draws some wider lessons from the UK`s recent policy experience. 18 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  1. Watershed Planning Basins (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  2. BASINS Framework and Features (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  3. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  4. Comparison of stochastic and deterministic methods for mapping groundwater level spatial variability in sparsely monitored basins. (United States)

    Varouchakis, Epsilon A; Hristopulos, D T


    In sparsely monitored basins, accurate mapping of the spatial variability of groundwater level requires the interpolation of scattered data. This paper presents a comparison of deterministic interpolation methods, i.e. inverse distance weight (IDW) and minimum curvature (MC), with stochastic methods, i.e. ordinary kriging (OK), universal kriging (UK) and kriging with Delaunay triangulation (DK). The study area is the Mires Basin of Mesara Valley in Crete (Greece). This sparsely sampled basin has limited groundwater resources which are vital for the island's economy; spatial variations of the groundwater level are important for developing management and monitoring strategies. We evaluate the performance of the interpolation methods with respect to different statistical measures. The Spartan variogram family is applied for the first time to hydrological data and is shown to be optimal with respect to stochastic interpolation of this dataset. The three stochastic methods (OK, DK and UK) perform overall better than the deterministic counterparts (IDW and MC). DK, which is herein for the first time applied to hydrological data, yields the most accurate cross-validation estimate for the lowest value in the dataset. OK and UK lead to smooth isolevel contours, whilst DK and IDW generate more edges. The stochastic methods deliver estimates of prediction uncertainty which becomes highest near the southeastern border of the basin.

  5. What controls the oxidative ratio of UK peats? A multi-site study of elemental CHNO concentrations in peat cores (United States)

    Clay, Gareth; Worrall, Fred; Masiello, Carrie


    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.82 and 1.27 with a median value of 1.08 which is within the range of world soils. There were significant differences in OR of the peat between sites with the data falling into two broad groupings - Group 1: Forsinard, Auchencorth, Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor; Group 2: Moor House, Thorne Moor, Westhay Moor, Whixhall Moss. Whilst there were significant changes (p < 0.05) in elemental ratios with increasing peat depth (increasing C:N ratio and decreasing O:C ratio) there was no significant difference overall in OR with depth. This paper will explore some of the possible controlling factors on these ratios. Local

  6. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms intervention in Wales, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption amongst university students has received increasing attention. A social norms approach to reducing drinking behaviours has met with some success in the USA. Such an approach is based on the assumption that student's perceptions of the norms of their peers are highly influential, but that these perceptions are often incorrect. Social norms interventions therefore aim to correct these inaccurate perceptions, and in turn, to change behaviours. However, UK studies are scarce and it is increasingly recognised that social norm interventions need to be supported by socio ecological approaches that address the wider determinants of behaviour. Objectives To describe the research design for an exploratory trial examining the acceptability, hypothesised process of change and implementation of a social norm marketing campaign designed to correct misperceptions of normative alcohol use and reduce levels of misuse, implemented alongside a university wide alcohol harm reduction toolkit. It also assesses the feasibility of a potential large scale effectiveness trial by providing key trial design parameters including randomisation, recruitment and retention, contamination, data collection methods, outcome measures and intracluster correlations. Methods/design The study adopts an exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial design with halls of residence as the unit of allocation, and a nested mixed methods process evaluation. Four Welsh (UK universities participated in the study, with residence hall managers consenting to implementation of the trial in 50 university owned campus based halls of residence. Consenting halls were randomised to either a phased multi channel social norm marketing campaign addressing normative discrepancies (n = 25 intervention or normal practice (n = 25 control. The primary outcome is alcohol consumption (units per week measured using the Daily Drinking Questionnaire. Secondary

  7. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard


    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two

  8. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study. (United States)

    McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard


    To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18,532, 14,094, and 14,376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14,235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two ways. Method 1 adjusted PLAB pass marks to equate median performance of PLAB

  9. Statement about UK referendum on the EU

    CERN Multimedia


    Dear Colleagues, Many people have expressed their concerns about the consequences of the 23 June vote in the UK for CERN, and for the UK’s relationship with CERN. CERN is an intergovernmental organisation subject to its own treaty. We are not part of the European Union, and several of our Member States, including Switzerland, in which we are headquartered, are not EU Members. Britain’s membership of CERN is not affected by the UK electorate’s vote to leave the European Union. We look forward to continuing the very constructive relationship we have shared with the UK, one of our founding members, long into the future. CERN was founded on the principle of international collaboration, and our success over the years is built on that. We will continue to work proactively to encourage ever-greater international collaboration in particle physics, and to help ensure that the UK continues to play a very active role. UK nationals remain eligible for all categories of employment at CERN, a...

  10. Trends in UK mean sea level revisited (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Shennan, I.; Williams, S. D. P.


    This paper presents estimates of rates of mean sea level (MSL) change around the UK, based on a larger tide gauge data set and more accurate analysis methods than have been employed so far. The spatial variation of the trend in MSL is found to be similar to that inferred from geological information and from advanced geodetic techniques, which is a similar conclusion to that arrived at in the previous studies. The tide gauge MSL trends for 1901 onwards are estimated to be 1.4 +/- 0.2 mm yr-1 larger than those inferred from geology or geodetic methods, suggesting a regional sea level rise of climate change origin several one-tenths of mm per year lower than global estimates for the 20th century. However, UK MSL change cannot be described in terms of a simple linear increase alone but includes variations on interannual and decadal timescales. The possible sources of variation in a `UK sea level index' are explored. Air pressure is clearly one such possible source but its direct local forcing through the `inverse barometer' accounts for only one-third of the observed variability. A number of larger scale atmospheric and ocean processes must also play important roles, but modelling them satisfactorily and separating the individual contributions present a major challenge. As regards future regional UK sea level changes, we conclude that there is no basis for major modification to existing projections for the 2080s included in the 2002 UK Climate Impacts Programme studies.

  11. UK-India CBM technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creedy, D.P.; Garner, K.; Vrolijk, C. [Wardell Armstrong, Newcastle-under-Lyme (United Kingdom)


    The aim of this UK-India coalbed methane (CBM) technology transfer project was to promote the development of CBM gas extraction and utilisation techniques appropriate to the geological and mining conditions in India, focusing on coal mine methane (CMM) and abandoned mine methane (AMM) needs. The potential use of environmental support mechanism under the Kyoto Agreement to project development was also explored. Two of the most advanced, gassy coal mines in India were selected as case study sites: Moonidih coal mine and North Amlabad coal mine. Background data were gathered on the two mines and supplemented by observations made during the UK team visit to India in December 2004. The report concludes that opportunities exist for UK companies in VCBM, CMM and DMM in India. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 apps.

  12. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton


    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  13. Putting the teeth into the UK Biobank. (United States)

    Galloway, John


    The author of this article has been involved in the development of the UK Biobank, and was instrumental in ensuring that dentistry has been included in the project. He describes what the UK Biobank is, what the project involves and aims to achieve, and how by July 2010 some 500,000 UK citizens aged from 40-69 years had been recruited. He then details the events that led to the inclusion of dentistry in the project, the key role that stored saliva samples will have, and how the project will link to data stored by the Dental Practice Board and now the National Health Service Business Services Authority. The article ends with a brief look into the future of the project.

  14. UK Minister enthusiastic after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    ON Tuesday 5 August the UK Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, John Denham, came to CERN. The UK continues its strong links with CERN.The Minister was welcomed on arrival at CERN by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and senior British scientists. Following a short presentation, he began a comprehensive tour of the Laboratory with a visit to both the LHC at point 5 and the CMS experiment. After lunch the Minister’s busy schedule continued, completing his overview of the main areas of UK participation at CERN. As soon as he had signed the guest book, he was whisked off to visit the LHCb experiment, the LHC computing grid project (LCG) and the ATLAS control room. However, the last item on his itinerary was perhaps the most illuminating. Meeting a diverse group of British scientists, from technical and summer students to staff members with more than 30 years of experience, the Minister had the opportunity...

  15. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television. (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John


    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.


    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  17. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John


    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  18. 16th UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Gegov, Alexander; Jayne, Chrisina; Shen, Qiang


    The book is a timely report on advanced methods and applications of computational intelligence systems. It covers a long list of interconnected research areas, such as fuzzy systems, neural networks, evolutionary computation, evolving systems and machine learning. The individual chapters are based on peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 16th Annual UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence, held on September 7-9, 2016, in Lancaster, UK. The book puts a special emphasis on novels methods and reports on their use in a wide range of applications areas, thus providing both academics and professionals with a comprehensive and timely overview of new trends in computational intelligence.

  19. Bullying and the UK Armed Forces. (United States)

    Coetzee, R H; Atkins, S; Gould, M


    There are certain characteristics of the culture and environment in the Armed Forces that may be conducive to bullying. In this article we examine the cultural and environmental factors that may encourage such behaviour and those that act as deterrents for victims to come forward. We will look at the scope of this problem within the UK Armed Forces specifically, before more generally considering the psychological impact of bullying. There appears to be an overall downward trend in bullying within the UK Armed Forces and a positive increase in complaints as more victims step forward. We conclude by highlighting some areas for further development.

  20. Brexit and UK-Based Financial Services


    Sowels, Nicholas


    This article seeks to present the key issues which Brexit is raising for financial services based in the UK, as they appeared in early 2017: i.e. since the Government has made clear that Britain will leave both the EU and the Single Market. The article reviews the place of UK-based financial services internationally and with respect to the European Union. The article then looks at some of the main questions currently highlighted by the Brexit process, most notably the loss of “passporting rig...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Voicu


    Full Text Available The number of immigrants received by the United Kingdom significantly increased during the past several years. Given the set of economic and social difficulties encountered, UK created for the first time a completely original system of Nationality Legislation and started to apply a severe policy of assimilation instead of integration. UK applied the Community Law concerning immigration, asylum and free movement of workers in its national interest, the whole European construction showing the “British specificities”. Even today, there are a lot of measures to be taken in order to come to a real integration policy of immigrants.

  2. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology...... airline size and load factor. The paper also highlights that factors such as increase in oil price and fierce market competition were also potential inefficiency determinants. Practical implications – The findings of this paper provide a fresh link between airline performance and the current industry...... of the airline industry. The study also extends the limited literature available on UK airlines....

  3. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  4. The potential for phosphorus pollution remediation by calcite precipitation in UK freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal


    Full Text Available This paper examines the potential for calcium carbonate to reduce phosphate pollution in freshwaters by co-precipitation, a process known as a "self cleansing mechanism". Calcium carbonate saturation levels and phosphate concentrations (SRP - soluble reactive phosphate across the major eastern UK river basins are examined to test for solubility controls. The study shows that calcite saturation varies for each catchment as a function of flow and biological activity rather than by direct regulation by SRP. Indeed, there is no evidence, for any of the rivers studied, that calcite solubility controls hold. However, for groundwater and groundwater-fed springs in the Chalk of the Thames basin, calcite saturation is observed with associated low SRP levels. A self-cleansing mechanism may well be operative within the Chalk due to two factors. Firstly, there is a high potential for nucleation on the calcite micro-crystals in the aquifer. Secondly, there are within aquifer reactions that remove the calcite nucleating inhibitors (SRP and dissolved organic carbon, DOC to levels lower than those occurring within the rivers do. These inhibitors enter the catchment at very high concentrations in association with agricultural pollution (fertilizer application and animal slurry and household contamination (e.g. sewage sources from septic tanks. Under low flow conditions, when the saturation index for calcite is at its highest, so too is the concentration of the nucleation inhibitor SRP. Companion work shows that calcite precipitation can occur at the water-sediment interface of the river and this may involve SRP removal. The data, as a whole, define an apparent bound for calcite solubility control where in the presence of nucleating centres, SRP must be less than 4 mM-P l-1 and DOC must be less than 150 mM-C l-1: a condition that does not seem to pertain within most UK rivers. Keywords: calcite, calcium carbonate, phosphate, soluble reactive phosphate, dissolved

  5. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ...

  6. Developing Internationalisation Strategies, University of Winchester, UK (United States)

    Neale, Richard Hugh; Spark, Alasdair; Carter, Joy


    Purpose: Internationalisation has been a theme in UK higher education for a decade or more. The review of this paper, a practice-based case study, is to find how Winchester formulated two successive internationalisation strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The strategies were developed using a research-oriented method: grounded in the…

  7. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John


    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  8. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud


    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  9. Student Representations of Psychology in the UK (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Duffy, Karen


    Psychology is a popular choice for UK students in their secondary school curriculum. Policy makers and elite universities, however, express concern about the subject. The British Psychological Society (2013) commissioned a detailed study of the provision of school curricula in psychology and as part of this work a survey of students was conducted.…

  10. Akanidomo ibanga University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corresponding author: Akanidomo Ibanga, Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. E-mail: ... sexual behaviour and lack of self-protection in sexual situations among the women (Co- hen et al. ... behaviour is upheld despite varying defini- tions of CSA. Other negative ...

  11. UK pulls out of plans for ILC

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin


    "A funding crisis at one of the UK's leading research councils has forced the country to pull out of plans for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) says in a report published today that it does not see "a practicable path towards the realization of this facility as currently conceived on a reasonable timescale". (1 page)

  12. Sunday Opening in UK Public Libraries (United States)

    Moore, Chris; Creaser, Claire


    This paper presents a summary of the first survey of public library authorities in the UK to explore Sunday opening, undertaken in 2007 as part of the Clore Leadership Programme. It provides a snapshot of Sunday opening practice, set against a context of societal, economic, and policy developments, and examines whether Sunday opening furthers the…

  13. UK Groups Plan Cancer Research Hub. (United States)

    Colwell, Janet


    Two major cancer research groups in the UK have announced plans to create a global cancer center aimed at accelerating drug development and fostering collaboration with industry. The $1.5 billion campus is expected to house 10,000 scientists and clinicians and deliver two additional drug candidates, an increase of 40%, every 5 years. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Rental Values in UK Shopping Malls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuo, Tony Shun-Te; Lizieri, Colin; McCann, Phillip; Crosby, Neil

    This paper employs a unique dataset to analyse the retail rental levels of 1108 retail tenants in 148 UK regional shopping malls. The dataset integrates information regarding the characteristics of the shopping centre, the individual retailer, the brand, the individual unit occupied, the tenancy

  15. Periodic integration in quarterly UK macroeconomic variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); G. Romijn


    textabstractThis paper presents empirical evidence on the seasonal patterns in several UK macroeconomic variables, additional to related evidence reported in Osborn (International Journal of Forecasting (1990), 6, 327–336). The method used is a test procedure for seasonal unit roots that allows

  16. Globalisation and MATESOL Programmes in the UK (United States)

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Tavakoli, Parvaneh


    This article reports the results of a mixed-methods approach to investigating the association between globalisation and MATESOL in UK universities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from academic staff through eight emails, four interviews and 41 questionnaires indicate that the globalised context of higher education has affected these…

  17. Pacific basin energy (United States)

    Testimony is presented concerning pending legislation which provides for the assessment and development of the potential for renewable energy sources in the U.S. insular areas, including the trust territories. Options for self-sufficiency throughout the Pacific basin are considered in light of rapidly escalating fuel costs.

  18. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.


    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In

  19. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter


    basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...

  20. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme to build social and emotional competence in Welsh primary schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Bywater, Tracey; Hutchings, Judy; Whitaker, Christopher; Evans, Ceri; Parry, Laura


    moderator analyses will be applied to establish differences between conditions, and for whom the intervention works best for and why. This trial will provide information on the delivery and effectiveness of a child centred, school-based intervention delivered in small groups of children, at risk of developing more severe conduct problems. The effects on child behaviour in school and home environments, academic attainment, peer interactions, parent and teacher mental health will be assessed. UK Clinical Research Network UKCRNID8615. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN96803379.

  1. The incredible years therapeutic dinosaur programme to build social and emotional competence in welsh primary schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ceri


    will be conducted. ANCOVA, effect sizes, mediator and moderator analyses will be applied to establish differences between conditions, and for whom the intervention works best for and why. Discussion This trial will provide information on the delivery and effectiveness of a child centred, school-based intervention delivered in small groups of children, at risk of developing more severe conduct problems. The effects on child behaviour in school and home environments, academic attainment, peer interactions, parent and teacher mental health will be assessed. Trial Registration UK Clinical Research Network UKCRNID8615 Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN96803379

  2. A UK indicator of education for sustainable development


    Huckle, John; Sustainable Development Commission


    Report references UK Government publication 'Securing the Future'. Report on workshops consulting members of the education community on their preferred approach to the indicator announced in the UK strategy for sustainable development, 'Securing the Future'. Publisher PDF

  3. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins (United States)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Bruulsema, Thomas W.; Burt, Tim P.; Chan, Neng Iong; Elser, James J.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Lyu, Yang; Peterson, Heidi M.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Shen, Jianbo; Worrall, Fred; Zhang, Fusuo


    Global food production depends on phosphorus. Phosphorus is broadly applied as fertilizer, but excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication of surface water bodies and coastal ecosystems. Here we present an analysis of phosphorus fluxes in three large river basins, including published data on fertilizer, harvested crops, sewage, food waste and river fluxes. Our analyses reveal that the magnitude of phosphorus accumulation has varied greatly over the past 30-70 years in mixed agricultural-urban landscapes of the Thames Basin, UK, the Yangtze Basin, China, and the rural Maumee Basin, USA. Fluxes of phosphorus in fertilizer, harvested crops, food waste and sewage dominate over the river fluxes. Since the late 1990s, net exports from the Thames and Maumee Basins have exceeded inputs, suggesting net mobilization of the phosphorus pool accumulated in earlier decades. In contrast, the Yangtze Basin has consistently accumulated phosphorus since 1980. Infrastructure modifications such as sewage treatment and dams may explain more recent declines in total phosphorus fluxes from the Thames and Yangtze Rivers. We conclude that human-dominated river basins may undergo a prolonged but finite accumulation phase when phosphorus inputs exceed agricultural demand, and this accumulated phosphorus may continue to mobilize long after inputs decline.

  4. Entrepreneurial Propensity in Pakistan and UK: A comparative study of Pakistani and UK Prospective Teachers


    Akhtar Ali; Keith Topping; Tariq, Riaz H.; Peter Wakefield


    This research compares entrepreneurial inclination of Pakistani and UK primary level prospective teachers (B.Ed. students). Factor analysis revealed entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and self-efficacy as three common factors among both the data sets. Both the groups of respondents were also compared on five conceptual variables namely locus of control, self efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and subjective norms. The prospective teachers from UK were...

  5. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.


    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  6. Analysis of energy embodied in the international trade of UK


    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; Höök, Mikael


    Interest in the role embodied energy plays in international trade and its subsequent impact on energy security has grown. As a developed nation, the UK's economic structure has changed from that of a primary producer to that of a primary consumer. Although the UK's energy consumption appears to have peaked, it imports a lot of energy embodied in international trade alongside the more obvious direct energy imports. The UK has seen increasing dependency on imported fossil energy since the UK be...

  7. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.


    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  8. Food production and service in UK hospitals. (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Jones, Eleri; Redmond, Elizabeth; Hewedi, Mahmoud; Wingert, Andreas; Gad El Rab, Mohamed


    The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food. Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK. The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations. Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals. The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems. The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU


    Full Text Available With the beginning of the 1990’s, organic agriculture in the UK has expanded rapidly, in the middle of the year 2003 it represented 4% of the agricultural surface with around 4000 farms, managing almost 720.000 hectares. This growth was brought by the consumers and decisional factors which see organic agriculture as a contribution to environment, social and nutritional welfare purposes. This is one of the sustainable food production strategies; another being the integrated agriculture, a less restrictive option for the farmers. The most recent national statistics presented by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs on organic farming were published in July of 2012. These present information gathered throughout 2011 for organic crops and livestock in the UK and the number of organic producers/processors registered with the Organic Certification Bodies in Great Britain.

  10. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK


    Probst, H; Griffiths, S.; Adams, R; Hill, C.


    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the “rate-limiting” steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms...

  11. Stresses reported by UK trainee counselling psychologists


    Kumary, Ajvir; Baker, Martyn


    This study examined stressors and psychological distress in 109 UK counselling psychology trainees. The research focus was two-fold. What is the profile of stressors that counselling psychology trainees report about the components of training? What relationship is there between this profile, and other characteristics of trainees, including their level of current psychological distress? Data from a stress survey and from the General Health Questionnaire were examined. High stress scores were f...

  12. The UK's National Electronic Site Licencing Initiative.


    Woodward, Hazel


    In 1998 the UK created the National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI) to increase and improve access to electronic journals and to negotiate license agreements on behalf of academic libraries. The use of a model license agreement and the success of site licensing is discussed. Highlights from an interim evaluation by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) are noted and key issues and questions arising from the evaluation are identified

  13. Comovement in UK real estate sector returns


    Lee, Stephen


    Engle et al. (1990) distinguish between 'heat waves' and 'meteor showers' in an analogy which tries to differentiate between particular effects, not transmitted among markets, and general effects, which tend to affect all the markets, although different markets can be affected to different degrees. This paper applies this approach to the study of the monthly returns of four real estate market sectors: Office, Retail, Industrial and Retail Warehouses in the UK over the period 1979:2 to 1997:12...

  14. UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation


    Les Levidow; Susan Carr


    UK biotechnology regulation has developed ‘precautionary controls’ for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly-based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public-interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all “novel organisms” — a term which implies an analogy between GMOs and non-indigenous organisms. Copyr...

  15. INOPS Survey data report for the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Nielsen, Alex Skøtt

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Denmark. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from September 2015 to November 2015 through an onl...... an online survey send to managers in all Local Authorities in the UK (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)....

  16. UK wood gasification project under way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    It is reported that a wood gasification pilot plant will be built in the UK by John Brown and Wellman Engineering as part of the EEC solar energy programme. The construction of the plant is scheduled to start in November 1982 and will convert up to 12 ton/day of biomass into around 20 ton/day of synthesis gas suitable for methanol production.

  17. Engineering geology maps of the UK


    Dobbs, Marcus; Reeves, Helen; Northmore, Kevin; Entwisle, David


    School and university students of geology, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering generally have less knowledge of engineering geological conditions than those who have had experience of hands-on research or practice. In the UK, the number of geology, geoscience and earth science departments has reduced over the past 25 years. Engineering geology has a very weak academic base and geology is taught less to civil engineering students than previously.

  18. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case – Crasna River Basin (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert


    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  19. Emerging hybridity: comparing UK healthcare regulatory arrangements. (United States)

    Furnival, Joy; Walshe, Kieran; Boaden, Ruth


    Purpose Healthcare regulation is one means to address quality challenges in healthcare systems and is carried out using compliance, deterrence and/or improvement approaches. The four countries of the UK provide an opportunity to explore and compare different regulatory architecture and models. The purpose of this paper is to understand emerging regulatory models and associated tensions. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses qualitative methods to compare the regulatory architecture and models. Data were collected from documents, including board papers, inspection guidelines and from 48 interviewees representing a cross-section of roles from six organisational regulatory agencies. The data were analysed thematically using an a priori coding framework developed from the literature. Findings The findings show that regulatory agencies in the four countries of the UK have different approaches and methods of delivering their missions. This study finds that new hybrid regulatory models are developing which use improvement support interventions in parallel with deterrence and compliance approaches. The analysis highlights that effective regulatory oversight of quality is contingent on the ability of regulatory agencies to balance their requirements to assure and improve care. Nevertheless, they face common tensions in sustaining the balance in their requirements connected to their roles, relationships and resources. Originality/value The paper shows through its comparison of UK regulatory agencies that the development and implementation of hybrid models is complex. The paper contributes to research by identifying three tensions related to hybrid regulatory models; roles, resources and relationships which need to be managed to sustain hybrid regulatory models.

  20. Assessing and managing water scarcity within the Nile River Transboundary Basin (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Wendi, D.; Jessen, O. Z.; Riegels, N. D.


    The Nile Basin is the main source of water in the North Eastern Region of Africa and is perhaps one of the most critical river basins in Africa as the riparian countries constitute 40% of the population on the continent but only 10% of the area. This resource is under considerable stress with rising levels of water scarcity, high population growth, watershed degradation, and loss of environmental services. The potential impacts of climate change may significantly exacerbate this situation as the water resources in the Nile Basin are critically sensitive to climate change (Conway, Hanson, Doherty, & Persechino, 2007). The motivation for this study is an assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation potential for floods and droughts within the UNEP project "Adapting to climate change induced water stress in the Nile River Basin", supported by SIDA. This project is being carried out as collaboration between DHI, the UK Met Office, and the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The Nile Basin exhibits highly diverse climatological and hydrological characteristics. Thus climate change impacts and adaptive capacity must be addressed at both regional and sub-basin scales. While the main focus of the project is the regional scale, sub-basin scale modelling is required to reflect variability within the basin. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability is the scarcity of data. This paper presents an initial screening modelling study of the water balance of the Nile Basin along with estimates of expected future impacts of climate change on the water balance. This initial study is focussed on the Ethiopian Highlands and the Lake Victoria regions, where the impact of climate change on rainfall is important. A robust sub-basin based monthly water balance model is developed and applied to selected sub-basins. The models were developed and calibrated using publicly available data. One of the major challenges in addressing this variability within the basin is the

  1. IEA PVPS Task 1 - UK Expert. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, R.


    The paper relates to work carried out under contract to the UK Renewable Energy Programme, and describes the terms of reference of the UK representation in the IEA PVPS Task 1 which provides a forum for exchange of information on photovoltaic (PV) technology between 21 participating countries. The main benefit derived by the UK is access to international expertise in PV technology. Using information obtained from participation in Task 1, the UK produces a National Survey Report which reports on developments in PV technology in the UK over the previous 12 months. The report covers installed capacity, prices, budgets and costs: it is freely available on the UK PVPS website. The newsletter PV Power, is prepared and distributed biannually - 18 issues have been published by mid-2003. IT Power is currently the UK representative on the IEA PVPS Task 1.

  2. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation. (United States)

    Reap, Elisabeth


    Hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas from shale rock is a new, rapidly expanding industry in the United States (US). However, there is concern that these operations could be having large negative impacts such as groundwater contamination, increased air pollution and seismic events. The United Kingdom (UK) is looking at the potential for emulating the success of 'shale gas' in the US. Differences in population density and geological conditions mean that the public health impacts recorded in the US cannot be directly extrapolated to the UK. There is limited academic literature available but findings suggest that the UK government is not fully recognising the inherent risks of hydraulic fracturing exposed by this literature. Government reports suggest a reliance on engineering solutions and better practice to overcome problems found in the US when evidence suggests that there are inherent risks and impacts that cannot be eliminated. This study applies US results to approximate the impact of one exposure pathway, inhalation of hydrocarbons by the public from operational air emissions over the 30 year lifetime of a well and finds that 7.2 extra cancer cases from exposure to air contamination would be expected in the UK if all test sites, approved test sites and test sites awaiting approval as of January 2015 went on to extract gas. In conclusion, limited assessment of the public health implications of hydraulic fracturing operations is available but the UK government appears to not be applying the precautionary principle to potentially significant legislation.

  3. UK FIT : successes and lessons learned from the UK's small wind FIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A. [NEL Technologies, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)


    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the feed-in tariff (FIT) program established in the United Kingdom (UK) to develop wind power resources. Grants and and other financial incentives available in the UK were also described. The FIT program is comprised of 3 small wind financial incentive bands that are based on wind turbine rate power. Microgeneration certification scheme (MCS) certification is a prerequisite. The MCS is comprised of scheme owners, administrators and licensees, and certification bodies. MCS product standards and scheme documents for factory production control were reviewed. Testing, certification, and accreditation standards were outlined. FIT tariffs will be reviewed in 2013. The FIT program has been guaranteed in the UK for a period of 20 years. An Act of Parliament will be required to overturn it. A chart of wind speed power curves was also included. tabs., figs.

  4. Report on primate supply for biomedical scientific work in the UK. EUPREN UK Working Party. (United States)

    Owen, S; Thomas, C; West, P; Wolfensohn, S; Wood, M


    A Working Party of the UK group of European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN) considered primate supply for scientific work in the UK. Through a questionnaire, which achieved a very good response, it obtained details of primate use, sources and breeding in the UK and it put forward options to ensure that animal welfare is the best possible whilst ensuring continued supply. The questionnaire showed that contract research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies use about 80% of the 4233 primates used annually at the moment, with the rest accounted for by academic establishments and public sector laboratories. Fifty-four per cent are cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), of which nearly 90% are captive-bred outside the European Union (EU), the remainder being bred in the UK. Nearly 90% of cynomolgus macaques are used by only five institutions. Thirty-seven per cent of primates used are marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus), all of which are bred in the UK. Most of the rest are rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), about half of which are captive-bred outside the EU, the other half being bred in the UK. Overall primate use has increased from about 3000 per year in 1990 and users predict that requirements for all species except baboons (Papio sp.) will be maintained or increase. Marmoset breeding in the UK is already closely matched to use, and it could be increased reasonably easily if necessary. Some of the existing breeding centres of macaques in the UK would be prepared to consider expanding to supply others, although investment and imported breeding stock would be needed and it is likely that a large investment would be needed to breed a significant fraction of the macaque use in the UK. A further problem is that the users of only about 10% of the cynomolgus macaques said that they could replace this species by rhesus macaques, which are easier to breed in the UK. The questionnaire showed that much of the use of macaques would be transferred to other countries

  5. Risks posed by climate change to the delivery of Water Framework Directive objectives in the UK. (United States)

    Wilby, R L; Orr, H G; Hedger, M; Forrow, D; Blackmore, M


    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is novel because it integrates water quality, water resources, physical habitat and, to some extent, flooding for all surface and groundwaters and takes forward river basin management. However, the WFD does not explicitly mention risks posed by climate change to the achievement of its environmental objectives. This is despite the fact that the time scale for the implementation process and achieving particular objectives extends into the 2020s, when climate models project changes in average temperature and precipitation. This paper begins by reviewing the latest UK climate change scenarios and the wider policy and science context of the WFD. We then examine the potential risks of climate change to key phases of the River Basin Management Process that underpin the WFD (such as characterisation of river basins and their water bodies, risk assessments to identify pressures and impacts, programmes of measures (POMs) options appraisal, monitoring and modelling, policy and management activities). Despite these risks the WFD could link new policy and participative mechanisms (being established for the River Basin Management Plans) to the emerging framework of national and regional climate change adaptation policy. The risks are identified with a view to informing policy opportunities, objective setting, adaptation strategies and the research agenda. Key knowledge gaps have already been identified during the implementation of the WFD, such as the links between hydromorphology and ecosystem status, but the overarching importance of linking climate change to these considerations needs to be highlighted. The next generation of (probabilistic) climate change scenarios will present new opportunities and challenges for risk analysis and policy-making.

  6. Entrepreneurial Propensity in Pakistan and UK: A comparative study of Pakistani and UK Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali


    Full Text Available This research compares entrepreneurial inclination of Pakistani and UK primary level prospective teachers (B.Ed. students. Factor analysis revealed entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and self-efficacy as three common factors among both the data sets. Both the groups of respondents were also compared on five conceptual variables namely locus of control, self efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and subjective norms. The prospective teachers from UK were found to be significantly lower on instrumental readiness and entrepreneurial intentions than their Pakistani counterparts. There were some partial impacts of demographic variables on entrepreneurial propensity of both the groups of respondents. Some implications for planning and policy were outlined.

  7. Pharmacovigilance teaching in UK undergraduate pharmacy programmes. (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn P; Webley, Sherael D


    Pharmacists in the UK are able to report spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority. The level of reporting by UK pharmacists remains low. This could be explained by poor knowledge of ADR reporting. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the level of pharmacovigilance education provided to pharmacy students on undergraduate pharmacy programmes in the UK. A cross-sectional survey was used to obtain data relating to the teaching of pharmacovigilance within schools of pharmacy. The survey was designed to reveal whether core elements pertinent to pharmacovigilance and specifically to spontaneous reporting were taught and to what extent. All of the respondents taught pharmacovigilance within an assessed compulsory module. A small number (23%) did not include pharmacovigilance law within their syllabus. In 54%, the amount of time devoted to teaching pharmacy students about their role in pharmacovigilance was less than 4 h in the 4-year course; only one respondent spent approximately 20 h, the remaining respondents (38%) spent between 4 and 8 h. The amount of time dedicated to the teaching of pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate degree programmes is low. Considering the importance of spontaneous reporting in drug safety and the shift in the role of the pharmacists, more time may need to be devoted to pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate courses. By doing so, new pharmacists would be more informed of the important role they play in drug safety and thereby potentially help enhance the level of ADR reporting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Water Grid for the UK (United States)

    Leathard, A.; Fowler, H. J.; Kilsby, C. G.


    Anthropogenically aggravated climate change associated with intensive expansion of the global economy has increased the demand for water whilst simultaneously altering natural variability in its distribution, straining water resources unsustainably and inequitably in many parts of the world, increasing drought risk, and encouraging decision-makers to reconsider the security of water supply. Indeed, in the absence of additional resource development, contemporary planning forecasts imply increased water stress across much of the United Kingdom. Until recently the regulatory authorities of the UK promoted increased efficiency of water delivery and consumption combined with a portfolio of financial instruments as a means of reducing water stress, maintaining present levels of consumer service without significant further exploitation of the environment. However, despite an increasingly sophisticated understanding of climate change and its effects, significant uncertainty remains in the quantification of its impacts on the water sector, and questions persist as to the effectiveness of such demand management measures compared to that of more traditional infrastructure improvements. Faced with possible futures provided for by detrimentally over-stressed resources, what opportunities remain for future strategic development in the UK? Is there a single national strategy that is both politically and socially acceptable? Do the benefits of national water infrastructure projects outweigh their costs? This ongoing study aims to evolve robust national adaptation strategies by quantifying the projected impacts of climate change across mainland UK using multi-model and perturbed-physics ensembles of projected future climate, encapsulating uncertainties in a scenario-driven integrated water resources model incorporating socio-economic elements.

  9. UK medicines regulation: responding to current challenges. (United States)

    Richards, Natalie; Hudson, Ian


    The medicines regulatory environment is evolving rapidly in response to the changing environment. Advances in science and technology have led to a vast field of increasingly complicated pharmaceutical and medical device products; increasing globalization of the pharmaceutical industry, advances in digital technology and the internet, changing patient populations, and shifts in society also affect the regulatory environment. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) regulates medicines, medical devices and blood products to protect and improve public health, and supports innovation through scientific research and development. It works closely with other bodies in a single medicines network across Europe and takes forward UK health priorities. This paper discusses the range of initiatives in the UK and across Europe to support innovation in medicines regulation. The MHRA leads a number of initiatives, such as the Innovation Office, which helps innovators to navigate the regulatory processes to progress their products or technologies; and simplification of the Clinical Trials Regulations and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme, to bring innovative medicines to patients faster. The Accelerated Access Review will identify reforms to accelerate access for National Health Service patients to innovative medicines and medical technologies. PRIME and Adaptive Pathways initiatives are joint endeavours within the European regulatory community. The MHRA runs spontaneous reporting schemes and works with INTERPOL to tackle counterfeiting and substandard products sold via the internet. The role of the regulator is changing rapidly, with new risk-proportionate, flexible approaches being introduced. International collaboration is a key element of the work of regulators, and is set to expand. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. UK money demand 1873-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn


    This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...... analysis we find a single equilibrium relationship relating velocity to opportunity costs, and we identify a significant link between excess money and inflation. After accounting for the turbulent periods, the equilibrium structure is reasonably stable over a period of 130 years...

  11. The language barrier?: context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups. (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R; Spears, Russell; Bowen, Dafydd


    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g., in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g., national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Intake Levels of Fish in the UK Paediatric Population


    Kranz, Sibylle; Nicholas R V Jones; Monsivais, Pablo


    The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). This study was designed to describe the fish intake habits of UK children using a nationally representative sample. Dietary and socio-demographic data of children 2?18 (N = 2096) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey ...

  13. Challenges and opportunities for UK immigrants. Learning English


    Pundziuvienė, Daiva; Matulionienė, Jūratė


    In the UK, the need for adult immigrants to learn English includes considerations for the recently arrived and those who have been living in the UK for a long time but still do not speak English; those in a wide variety of work situations; and those experiencing cultural shock. Such learners frequently have low self-esteem and often develop psychological barriers to speaking a foreign language. While most learning of English takes place in informal contexts, formal institutions in the UK and ...

  14. An exploration of Branding approaches in UK Universities


    Chapleo, Chris


    This exploratory paper considers the current state of UK HE branding; in particular, conceptualisations and approaches. It is driven by calls in the literature for clearer understanding and application of branding in Higher Education (HE). Objectives of the research, drawn from literature, were to explore conceptualisations of branding in the UK HE sector, as well as current challenges to branding concepts/ practice in UK HE. The methodology was based upon depth interviews with fifteen opinio...

  15. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, T. (Shell Research B. V., Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Lawrence, D.T. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))


    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  16. Predicting microbial pollution concentrations in UK rivers in response to land use change. (United States)

    Hampson, Danyel; Crowther, John; Bateman, Ian; Kay, David; Posen, Paulette; Stapleton, Carl; Wyer, Mark; Fezzi, Carlo; Jones, Philip; Tzanopoulos, Joseph


    The Water Framework Directive has caused a paradigm shift towards the integrated management of recreational water quality through the development of drainage basin-wide programmes of measures. This has increased the need for a cost-effective diagnostic tool capable of accurately predicting riverine faecal indicator organism (FIO) concentrations. This paper outlines the application of models developed to fulfil this need, which represent the first transferrable generic FIO models to be developed for the UK to incorporate direct measures of key FIO sources (namely human and livestock population data) as predictor variables. We apply a recently developed transfer methodology, which enables the quantification of geometric mean presumptive faecal coliforms and presumptive intestinal enterococci concentrations for base- and high-flow during the summer bathing season in unmonitored UK watercourses, to predict FIO concentrations in the Humber river basin district. Because the FIO models incorporate explanatory variables which allow the effects of policy measures which influence livestock stocking rates to be assessed, we carry out empirical analysis of the differential effects of seven land use management and policy instruments (fiscal constraint, production constraint, cost intervention, area intervention, demand-side constraint, input constraint, and micro-level land use management) all of which can be used to reduce riverine FIO concentrations. This research provides insights into FIO source apportionment, explores a selection of pollution remediation strategies and the spatial differentiation of land use policies which could be implemented to deliver river quality improvements. All of the policy tools we model reduce FIO concentrations in rivers but our research suggests that the installation of streamside fencing in intensive milk producing areas may be the single most effective land management strategy to reduce riverine microbial pollution. Copyright © 2010

  17. The deep Ionian Basin revisited (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian


    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  18. Obesity Treatment in the UK Health System. (United States)

    Capehorn, Matthew S; Haslam, David W; Welbourn, Richard


    In the UK, as in most other countries in the world, levels of obesity are increasing. According to the Kinsey report, obesity has the second largest public health impact after smoking, and it is inextricably linked to physical inactivity. Since the UK Health and Social Care Act reforms of 2012, there has been a significant restructuring of the National Health Service (NHS). As a consequence, NHS England and the Department of Health have issued new policy guidelines regarding the commissioning of obesity treatment. A 4-tier model of care is now widely accepted and ranges from primary activity, through community weight management and specialist weight management for severe and complex obesity, to bariatric surgery. However, although there are clear care pathways and clinical guidelines for evidence-based practice, there remains no single stakeholder willing to take overall responsibility for obesity care. There is a lack of provision of adequate services characterised by a noticeable 'postcode lottery', and little political will to change the obesogenic environment.

  19. The UK s new National Space Centre (United States)

    Pounds, K.; Barnet

    The National Space Centre (NSC) was opened in June 2001 and is a £52M (75M) science-based visitor attraction and education facility with the mission `to promote a wider understanding of space science and technology, and demonstrate its relevance to life on Earth in the 21s t Century'. It is located in the city of Leicester, lying close to the geographical heart of the UK and with 9 million people within a 90 minute drive. The NSC was funded by the Millennium Commission in partnership with the University of Leicester and Leicester City Council, with support from BT, ESA and others. Its main components are an Exhibition, Space Theatre and Challenger Learning Centre. The CLC is the only one operating outside North America and it has been the stimulus for the new "Classroom Space" project which makes data from real space missions available for use in schools, with appropriate support for teachers. Recently the NSC has become the host for the UK's Near Earth Object Information Centre, and it will act as the Operations Centre for the Faulkes (2m class) robotic telescopes to be located in Maui and Siding Springs, providing a unique educational facility for 12-18 year old school students. The first successful year of operation of the NSC will be reported and plans for future national and international development outlined.

  20. Islamist groups in the UK and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ilyas


    Full Text Available Since 2001 and 7/7 the search to find out why and how Muslims born in Europe join political and violence orientated Islamist groups has occupied policy makers and social scientist. The search has produced explanations that suggest social grievance, Islam and physiological problems are the motivations for why some Muslims join and act on behalf of Islamist groups in the UK. However, the approaches tend not to focus the role emotions generated from events that involve Muslim suffering play in some individuals becoming interested in acquiring and acting upon them. These events are often experienced variously by Muslims living in Europe through the media and are used by Islamist groups as resources to recruit. Consequently, this paper is based on interviews carried out with Islamists in the UK and tentatively discusses two process that take into account the emotional effect of events that concern Muslims in order to make sense of how some Muslims become compelled to acquire extreme ideas, act upon extreme ideas (independently or behalf of a group or join Islamist groups.

  1. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites. (United States)

    Mundy, Darren P


    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  2. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories. (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine


    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The UK Virtual Observatory - Adding Planetary Data (United States)

    Allan, Peter

    The UK has built a virtual observatory called AstroGrid. Using this facility, scientists can already get access to a wide range of data on traditional astronomy, the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics (STP). This paper describes the AstroGrid system and what would be involved in adding access to planetary data to those already on offer. In recent years, there have been activities in several countries to create what are known as virtual observatories. The idea is that you should be able to easily get to all of the astronomical data that exist from your desktop computer. You do not need to know that specific data exist and you do not need to know where these data reside. In order to make this possible, it is essential that data archives and software that accesses those archives is built around a set of internationally agreed standards. These standards have been developed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A data archive that adheres to these standards can publish data on the internet to registries of resources that client software can search. The AstroGrid software developed in the UK adheres to these standards and provides a comprehensive set of services for data archives to provide dataset access, registries of data holdings, virtual file stores, communities of users, workflow for execution of complex grid applications and an environment into which pre-existing data processing applications can be plugged. There is also client software for searching registries and remote data archives, accessing the remote data, and a basic set of tools for displaying and analysing those data. AstroGrid is unique amongst virtual observatories in that it includes major data sources on the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics as well as more traditional astronomy. The need to support these very different types of data has led to the development of tools that can handle very different coordinate systems and display data in a variety of ways. For example, we have a

  4. Changes needed to medicine in the UK before senior UK-trained doctors, working outside the UK, will return: questionnaire surveys undertaken between 2004 and 2015. (United States)

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J


    To report the changes to UK medicine which doctors who have emigrated tell us would increase their likelihood of returning to a career in UK medicine. Questionnaire survey. UK-trained medical graduates. Questionnaires were sent 11 years after graduation to 7158 doctors who qualified in 1993 and 1996 in the UK: 4763 questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were sent 17 and 19 years after graduation to the same cohorts: 4554 questionnaires were returned. Comments from doctors working abroad about changes needed to UK medicine before they would return. Eleven years after graduation, 290 (6%) of respondents were working in medicine abroad; 277 (6%) were doing so 17/19 years after graduation. Eleven years after graduation, 53% of doctors working abroad indicated that they did not intend to return, and 71% did so 17/19 years after graduation. These respondents reported a number of changes which would need to be made to UK medicine in order to increase the likelihood of them returning. The most frequently mentioned changes cited concerned 'politics/management/funding', 'pay/pension', 'posts/security/opportunities', 'working conditions/hours', and 'factors outside medicine'. Policy attention to factors including funding, pay, management and particularly the clinical-political interface, working hours, and work-life balance may pay dividends for all, both in terms of persuading some established doctors to return and, perhaps more importantly, encouraging other, younger doctors to believe that the UK and the National Health Service can offer them a satisfying and rewarding career.

  5. Dimension of Fractal Basin Boundaries. (United States)

    Park, Bae-Sig

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show "final state sensitivity" of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent alpha) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - alpha , where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map. We look for universal scalings of the dimension of fractal basin boundaries near type I and type III intermittency transitions to chaos. Type I intermittency can occur as the system experiences a saddle-node (tangent) bifurcation and type III intermittency can occur as the system experiences an inverted period doubling bifurcation. At these bifurcations, multiple attractors with fractal basin boundaries can be created. It is found the dimension scales, with the parameter, according to the power law d = d_{o } - k| p - p_{c}| ^{beta} with beta = 1/2, where p is the system parameter, p _{c} is the bifurcation value, k is a scaling constant, and d_{o} is

  6. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.


    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  7. Constraining the vertical surface motions of the Hampshire Basin, south England During the Cenozoic (United States)

    Smith, Philip; England, Richard; Zalasiewicz, Jan


    The potential effect of rising sea level on the UK has received considerable attention in recent years. However, the ongoing long-term changes in surface topography of the UK driven by regional tectonics and the mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. It is thought that glacial loading/unloading is the primary influence. However, this is inconsistent with present-day vertical surface motions recorded from Continuous Global Positioning Stations (CGPS) across the UK. The lateral variations in the present day motions are too complex to be explained by glacial isostatic rebound. We are investigating the hypothesis that the vertical motions of SE England also reflect the long term tectonic history by backstripping the Cenozoic geological record. So far the Paleogene stratigraphic record of the Hampshire basin in southern England has been investigated and using a series of deep boreholes that reach the chalk basement, a 2-D backstripping method has been applied. Subsidence analysis of cliff sections and boreholes reveal the Hampshire Basin was tectonically subsiding at a steady rate from 56.5Ma and any major periods of uplift and denudation to the present day state must have occurred from the mid Oligocene onwards. At this time the northern and western regions of the UK were believed to be uplifting as evidenced by heavy mineral transport directionns and sediment drainage patterns. A rapid increase in tectonic subsidence from 42Ma recorded by the three Isle of Wight sections in close proximity to an existing Variscan fault, thought to reactivate as a thrust during the Cenozoic, suggests a compressional stress regime in this region. The stress pattern observed from the tectonic subsidence data and evidence from drainage patterns supports a model in which the UK was uplifting in the north and west while the south east was subsiding. As this pattern is similar to the present day vertical surface motions and pre-dates glaciation, we propose glacial unloading as a

  8. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likeman Marcus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA, allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st

  9. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS). (United States)

    Absoud, Michael; Cummins, Carole; Chong, Wui K; De Goede, Christian; Foster, Katharine; Gunny, Roxanna; Hemingway, Cheryl; Jardine, Philip; Kneen, Rachel; Likeman, Marcus; Lim, Ming J; Pike, Mike; Sibtain, Naomi; Whitehouse, William P; Wassmer, Evangeline


    There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is no direct patient

  10. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  11. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen


    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  12. The compassion gap in UK universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Waddington


    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is set in the context of increasing marketisation in UK higher education, where students are seen as consumers, rather than learners with power. The paper explores the dark side of academic work and the compassion gap in universities, in order to make recommendations for practice development in higher education and the human services. Aims: The paper aims to show how reflexive dialogue can be used to enable the development of compassionate academic practice. Conclusions and implications for practice: Toxic environments and organisational cultures in higher education have compounded the crisis in compassionate care in the NHS. Implications for practice are: Narrative approaches and critical appreciative inquiry are useful methods with which to reveal, and rectify, failures of compassion Courageous conversations are required to challenge dysfunctional organisational systems and processes Leadership development programmes should include the application of skills of compassion in organisational settings

  13. Repertoires of ADHD in UK newspaper media. (United States)

    Horton-Salway, Mary


    This article takes a discursive approach to examine how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been represented and debated in UK newspapers in the last decade. Two repertoires of ADHD were identified as the biological and the psychosocial. Subject positions such as problem child, abnormal or ordinary naughty child and ineffectual or neglectful parents are embedded in these alternative versions of ADHD. The biological repertoire justifies and encourages drug treatment for problem children while the psychosocial repertoire makes available the subject position of ordinary naughty child and supports moral judgements about poor parenting practices in a 'sick society'. Such representations have challenged the media medicalization of ADHD common in a previous decade. Although the biological and the psychosocial repertoires are competing explanations for ADHD, they both perform a common function in representing families as in need of regulation.

  14. A statistical analysis of UK financial networks (United States)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.


    In recent years, with a growing interest in big or large datasets, there has been a rise in the application of large graphs and networks to financial big data. Much of this research has focused on the construction and analysis of the network structure of stock markets, based on the relationships between stock prices. Motivated by Boginski et al. (2005), who studied the characteristics of a network structure of the US stock market, we construct network graphs of the UK stock market using same method. We fit four distributions to the degree density of the vertices from these graphs, the Pareto I, Fréchet, lognormal, and generalised Pareto distributions, and assess the goodness of fit. Our results show that the degree density of the complements of the market graphs, constructed using a negative threshold value close to zero, can be fitted well with the Fréchet and lognormal distributions.

  15. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review (United States)

    Evans, Kathy


    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications…

  16. Food advertising during children's television in Canada and the UK. (United States)

    Adams, J; Hennessy-Priest, K; Ingimarsdóttir, S; Sheeshka, J; Ostbye, T; White, M


    Television advertisements for less healthy foods are thought to contribute to overweight and obesity in children. In the UK, new regulations on television food advertising to children came into effect in April 2007. These prohibit advertisements for "less healthy" foods during or around programmes "of particular appeal to" (OPAT) children. In Canada, self-regulated codes of practice on television food advertising to children were recently strengthened. To document the nutritional content of food advertised and number of advertisements OPAT children broadcast in the UK and central Canada before the introduction of the new UK regulations. All food advertisements broadcast on four popular channels in Canada and the three terrestrial commercial channels in the UK during 1 week in 2006 were identified and linked to relevant nutritional data. Food advertisements OPAT children and for "less healthy" products were identified using the criteria in the UK regulations. 2315 food related advertisements broadcast in Canada and 1365 broadcast in the UK were included. 52-61% were for "less healthy" products; 5-11% were OPAT children. Around 5% of food advertisements would have been prohibited under the new UK regulations. There were few differences in the nutritional content of food described in advertisements that were and were not OPAT children. There was little evidence that food described in advertisements OPAT children were any less healthy than those that were not. Few food advertisements are likely to be prohibited by the new UK regulations.

  17. Students and Sex Work in the UK: Providers and Purchasers (United States)

    Roberts, Ron; Jones, Amy; Sanders, Teela


    Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of UK higher education in recent years have been accompanied by an increased student presence in the sex industry, ostensibly for financial reasons and to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of students ("N" = 200) drawn from several universities in the UK. Data…

  18. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison (United States)

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.


    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  19. Is Communications a Strategic Activity in UK Education? (United States)

    Chapleo, Chris


    This qualitative exploratory paper investigates whether communications/public relations is regarded by opinion formers in UK education as a strategic business activity or a tactical marketing tool. It is based upon depth interviews with 16 senior managers with strategic roles in UK higher or further education, or Government bodies, conducted…

  20. In the Service of Technocratic Managerialism? History in UK Universities (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Norton, Claire


    This article discusses the conceptualisation, organisation and philosophical orientation of academic history culture in UK higher education. It problematises the extent to which a dominant history culture in UK universities implies and uncritically reproduces normative understandings about the subject; about its epistemological standing,…

  1. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education (United States)

    Brown, Stephen


    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  2. Staying In Step: The US Pivot and UK Strategic Choices (United States)

    2013-01-01 -singapore/defence. 10. “New Treaty to Formalise Defence Co-Operation with Australia,” 18...January 2013, https:// formalise -defence-co-operation-with-australia. 11. Saki Dockrill, Britain’s Retreat from

  3. Stress among UK Academics: Identifying Who Copes Best (United States)

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa


    This article examined levels of stress and associated coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored…

  4. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools (United States)

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon


    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  5. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. IDRC to populate at a later date. Nous finançons des chercheurs qui inspirent des changements mondiaux. Abonnez-vous · Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Désabonnez-vous · Plan du site. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube ...

  6. UK Higher Education: The Truth about the Student Market (United States)

    Watson, David


    This article uses data from a series of reports by the Longer Term Strategy Group of Universities UK to outline key features of the developing market for higher education in the UK. The resulting empirical lessons about the behaviour of students and institutions are tested against the political drive for a freer domestic "market" for…

  7. Long-term scenarios: Energy pathways in the UK (United States)

    Tavoni, Alessandro


    The bottom-up approach promoted through the Paris Agreement and signed in 2016 requires the definition of accurate and realistic national pathways to cut emissions. A recent study applied to the UK energy system shows that current UK policy on climate change is incompatible with the most stringent climate objectives.

  8. UK Government: New postgraduate scheme - Dorothy Hodgkin awards

    CERN Multimedia


    The UK Prime Minister today announced a new GBP10m initiative, the Dorothy Hodgkin Postgraduate Awards, which will allow over 100 PhD students from India, China, Hong Kong, Russia and the developing world to study in top UK universities (1 page).

  9. Large microplastic particles in sediments of tributaries of the River Thames, UK - Abundance, sources and methods for effective quantification. (United States)

    Horton, Alice A; Svendsen, Claus; Williams, Richard J; Spurgeon, David J; Lahive, Elma


    Sewage effluent input and population were chosen as predictors of microplastic presence in sediments at four sites in the River Thames basin (UK). Large microplastic particles (1mm-4mm) were extracted using a stepwise approach to include visual extraction, flotation and identification using Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics were found at all four sites. One site had significantly higher numbers of microplastics than other sites, average 66 particles 100g(-1), 91% of which were fragments. This site was downstream of a storm drain outfall receiving urban runoff; many of the fragments at this site were determined to be derived of thermoplastic road-surface marking paints. At the remaining three sites, fibres were the dominant particle type. The most common polymers identified included polypropylene, polyester and polyarylsulphone. This study describes two major new findings: presence of microplastic particles in a UK freshwater system and identification of road marking paints as a source of microplastics. This study is the first to quantify microplastics of any size in river sediments in the UK and links their presence to terrestrial sources including sewage and road marking paints. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements (United States)

    Hosmer, Paul


    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  11. In the loop Large Hadron Collider project - UK engineering firms

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, N


    This paper presents the latest measures being taken to boost the level of UK engineering firms' involvement in research at CERN (Centre for Nuclear Research), including its 27 km circular Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Virtually all of the components on this complex project have had to be custom-made, usually in the form of collaboration. It is part of these collaborations that some UK firms have proved they can shine. However, despite the proven capabilities, the financial return continues to be less than the government's funding. Each of the 20 CERN member states provides funds in proportion to its GDP and the UK is the second largest financial contributor. UK firms become price-competitive where a contract calls for a degree of customisation or product development, project management and tight quality control. Development of the Particle Physics Grid, for dissemination and analysis of data from the LHC, continues to provide major supply opportunities for UK manufacturers.

  12. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann


    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  13. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  14. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  15. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in the UK: current status and developments (United States)

    Baker, A; Distefano, G; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J; Hatton, M Q


    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has developed from the principles and techniques used in the stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of brain metastases. Advances in computer technology, imaging, planning and treatment delivery and evidence from retrospective analysis of single- and multi-institutional early-phase studies have established SABR in the treatment of medically inoperable early lung cancer. Effective multidisciplinary team working is crucial to safe delivery of SABR. The variation in patient selection, radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques has led to a collective approach to SABR implementation across the UK. Centres developing the technique are represented in the UK SABR Consortium, which is supported by the relevant UK professional bodies and represents a platform to develop extracranial SABR across the UK. The uptake of SABR in the UK has been slowed by workforce issues, but at least 15 centres are currently delivering treatment with over 500 patients treated using UK SABR Consortium guidance. A mentoring program is being piloted helping new centres to develop their programs, and over 30 UK centres are expected to be offering SABR treatment by the end of 2014. The use of consistent guidance for patient selection, treatment planning and delivery in the UK gives the opportunity to collect and audit toxicity and outcome across the centres, contributing to the internationally reported SABR experience. Having established this service in the UK, the development of SABR through clinical research is a priority, and with input from the Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group, the UK is developing a national study program that includes participation in international trials. PMID:23873906

  16. Report from the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting, September 10-13, 2007, Nottingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Neilson


    Full Text Available This is a report from the UK e-Science All Hands Meeting held at the East Midlands Conference Centre, Nottingham on September 10-13, 2007. This event was the 5th annual All Hands Meeting. The proceedings of the meeting are available from the UK e-Science 2007 All Hands Meeting Website.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell


    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  18. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers (United States)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.


    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  19. The siting of UK nuclear reactors. (United States)

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff


    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  20. SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data quality assessment (United States)

    Chander, G.; Saunier, S.; Choate, M.J.; Scaramuzza, P.L.


    Satellite data from the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom (UK) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) were assessed for geometric and radiometric quality. The UK-DMC Surrey Linear Imager 6 (SLIM-6) sensor has a 32-m spatial resolution and a ground swath width of 640 km. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 design consists of a three-band imager with green, red, and near-infrared bands that are set to similar bandpass as Landsat bands 2, 3, and 4. The UK-DMC data consisted of imagery registered to Landsat orthorectified imagery produced from the GeoCover program. Relief displacements within the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery were accounted for by using global 1-km digital elevation models available through the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project. Positional accuracy and relative band-to-band accuracy were measured. Positional accuracy of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), which are designed to meet national map accuracy standards at 1 : 24 000 scales; this corresponds to a horizontal root-mean-square accuracy of about 6 m. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 images were typically registered to within 1.0-1.5 pixels to the DOQ mosaic images. Several radiometric artifacts like striping, coherent noise, and flat detector were discovered and studied. Indications are that the SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data have few artifacts and calibration challenges, and these can be adjusted or corrected via calibration and processing algorithms. The cross-calibration of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was performed using image statistics derived from large common areas observed by the two sensors.

  1. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett


    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  2. Burnout in therapy radiographers in the UK. (United States)

    Probst, H; Griffiths, S; Adams, R; Hill, C


    The 2007 UK National Radiotherapy Advisory Group report indicated that the number and type of staff available is one of the "rate-limiting" steps in improving productivity in radiotherapy departments. Retaining well-trained, satisfied staff is key to meeting the objectives of the report; burnout is an important factor linked to satisfaction and attrition. The results of a survey measuring burnout in a sample of radiotherapists (therapy radiographers) are presented and considered against norms for the health sector and burnout in therapists from Canada and the USA. Case study methodology was used studying six radiotherapy departments selected because of close geographical proximity and differing vacancy rates for radiotherapists. An anonymous survey of radiotherapists used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other workforce-related measures (e.g. job satisfaction scales, measures of professional plateau, intentions to leave, job characteristics and demographic data); the results of the burnout questionnaire alone are presented in this paper. A total of 97 completed questionnaires were returned (representing a 28% response rate). The average score for emotional exhaustion was higher than the MBI norms, with 38% of respondents reporting emotional exhaustion (an element of burnout). The data presented support and validated a previous qualitative study, and highlighted key areas of concern requiring further study. A correlation between burnout and job dissatisfaction and intention to leave was identified; managers may want to consider encouraging role extension and good leadership qualities in treatment unit leaders to minimise the potential for burnout.

  3. Social sensing of floods in the UK (United States)

    Williams, Hywel T. P.


    “Social sensing” is a form of crowd-sourcing that involves systematic analysis of digital communications to detect real-world events. Here we consider the use of social sensing for observing natural hazards. In particular, we present a case study that uses data from a popular social media platform (Twitter) to detect and locate flood events in the UK. In order to improve data quality we apply a number of filters (timezone, simple text filters and a naive Bayes ‘relevance’ filter) to the data. We then use place names in the user profile and message text to infer the location of the tweets. These two steps remove most of the irrelevant tweets and yield orders of magnitude more located tweets than we have by relying on geo-tagged data. We demonstrate that high resolution social sensing of floods is feasible and we can produce high-quality historical and real-time maps of floods using Twitter. PMID:29385132

  4. Social Justice and Adaptation in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Benzie


    Full Text Available Adaptation strategies and policies are normally based on climate impact assessments that fail to take account of the social nature and distribution of vulnerability to climate change. This is largely a product of the dominant assessment techniques that are used to inform such strategies and the limits of existing evidence. In this paper I contribute to filling gaps in the current adaptation literature by exploring the social nature of vulnerability and the potential for socially just adaptation. It does so by reviewing studies from the UK, in particular those under the Joseph Rowntree Foundation's Climate Change and Social Justice programme. It finds that vulnerability to high temperatures and fluvial and coastal flooding, in terms of sensitivity, exposure, and the capacity to anticipate, respond, and recover, is concentrated in certain disadvantaged and socially marginalized groups, including those on low incomes. It also finds that both autonomous and planned adaptation may fail to protect the most vulnerable individuals and groups, and may even reinforce existing patterns of vulnerability in some cases, i.e., mal-adaptation, especially where they rely on unmediated market forces or where they fail to explicitly recognize aspects of social vulnerability in their design and implementation. I argue that social justice should be an explicit objective of adaptation strategy.

  5. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett


    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  6. Processing LHC data in the UK. (United States)

    Colling, D; Britton, D; Gordon, J; Lloyd, S; Doyle, A; Gronbech, P; Coles, J; Sansum, A; Patrick, G; Jones, R; Middleton, R; Kelsey, D; Cass, A; Geddes, N; Clark, P; Barnby, L


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the greatest scientific endeavours to date. The construction of the collider itself and the experiments that collect data from it represent a huge investment, both financially and in terms of human effort, in our hope to understand the way the Universe works at a deeper level. Yet the volumes of data produced are so large that they cannot be analysed at any single computing centre. Instead, the experiments have all adopted distributed computing models based on the LHC Computing Grid. Without the correct functioning of this grid infrastructure the experiments would not be able to understand the data that they have collected. Within the UK, the Grid infrastructure needed by the experiments is provided by the GridPP project. We report on the operations, performance and contributions made to the experiments by the GridPP project during the years of 2010 and 2011--the first two significant years of the running of the LHC.

  7. UK Renal Registry 12th Annual Report (December 2009): chapter 16: international comparisons with the UK RRT programme. (United States)

    Donovan, Kieron; Ford, Daniel; van Schalkwyk, Dirk; Ansell, David


    International comparisons between renal registries are important to highlight epidemiological and practice differences in RRT provision between countries. This report aims to compare the rates of RRT incidence and prevalence in the UK with a number of different countries. Data from 19 countries or regions between 2003 and 2007 from four international renal registries were analysed. Rates of RRT incidence, prevalence, transplantation and dialysis modality were compared. A crude mortality rate for each country was calculated. Despite continued growth, the UK ranked 16th highest in incidence rate and 15th in prevalence rate in 2007. This may partly be related to successful primary care preventing stage 5 CKD. The UK had the 8th fastest rate of increase in RRT prevalence of 18 countries (4.2%/ year). The age profile of UK RRT patients was comparable with other countries. The UK had the 6th highest use of home dialysis therapies. The UK has the 8th highest incidence and 9th highest prevalence rate of kidney transplantation of 16 countries. Meeting the growing demand for RRT is a problem for all countries that choose to offer it. The UK continues to provide for growth in demand for RRT. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Mercury in UK imported fish and shellfish and UK-farmed fish and their products. (United States)

    Knowles, T G; Farrington, D; Kestin, S C


    Total mercury concentrations were measured in fish and shellfish and their products imported into the UK and also in UK-produced farmed salmon and trout. Three hundred and thirty-six samples were collected using a two-stage sampling plan. The sample plan was weighted to reflect consumption, but with some bias towards fish that might accumulate higher levels of mercury, such as large predatory fish at the top of the food chain. The highest levels of total mercury were found in billfish (swordfish and marlin) and shark. Mercury concentrations in the five samples of fresh/frozen shark ranged from 1.006 to 2.200 mg kg(-1), all above the European Commission limit for the species, and concentrations in 20 samples of fresh/frozen billfish ranged from 0.153 to 2.706 mg kg(-1) with 13 samples above the 1.0 mg kg(-1) limit for the species. One sample of Antarctic ice fish was collected and had a mercury concentration of 0.664 mg kg(-1). The limit for this species was 0.5 mg kg(-1). One sample of fresh/frozen tuna out of the 20 collected had a mercury concentration above the limit of 1.0 mg kg(-1) (1.5 mg kg(-1)), but all other fresh tuna samples were well within the regulatory limit (average 0.4 mg kg(-1)). Mercury concentrations in canned tuna were lower with concentrations on average half that measured in fresh/frozen tuna. Mercury concentrations in UK-farmed salmon and trout were relatively low. The maximum concentration found in 46 samples of fresh/frozen or smoked trout and salmon was 0.103 mg kg(-1).

  9. Bank erosion events and processes in the Upper Severn basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Lawler


    Full Text Available This paper examines river bank retreat rates, individual erosion events, and the processes that drive them in the Upper Severn basin, mid-Wales, UK. Traditional erosion pin networks were used to deliver information on patterns of downstream change in erosion rates. In addition, the novel automatic Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin (PEEP monitoring system was deployed to generate near-continuous data on the temporal distribution of bank erosion and accretion: this allowed focus on the magnitude and timing of individual erosional and depositional events in relation to specific flow episodes. Erosion dynamics data from throughout the Upper Severn basin are combined with detailed information on bank material properties and spatial change in channel hydraulics derived from direct field survey, to assess the relationships between flow properties and bank erosion rates. Results show that bank erosion rates generally increase downstream, but relate more strongly to discharge than to reach-mean shear stress, which peaks near the basin head. Downstream changes in erosion mechanisms and boundary materials, across the upland/lowland transition (especially the degree of development of composite bank material profiles, are especially significant. Examples of sequences of bank erosion events show how the PEEP system can (a quantify the impact of individual, rather than aggregated, forcing events, (b reveal the full complexity of bank response to given driving agents, including delayed erosion events, and (c establish hypotheses of process-control in bank erosion systems. These findings have important implications for the way in which bank erosion problems are researched and managed. The complex responses demonstrated have special significance for the way in which bank processes and channel-margin sediment injections should be handled in river dynamics models.

  10. Experiences with maternal and perinatal death reviews in the UK--the MBRRACE-UK programme. (United States)

    Kurinczuk, J J; Draper, E S; Field, D J; Bevan, C; Brocklehurst, P; Gray, R; Kenyon, S; Manktelow, B N; Neilson, J P; Redshaw, M; Scott, J; Shakespeare, J; Smith, L K; Knight, M


    Established in 1952, the programme of surveillance and Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK is the longest running such programme worldwide. Although more recently instituted, surveillance and confidential enquiries into perinatal deaths are also now well established nationally. Recent changes to funding and commissioning of the Enquiries have enabled both a reinvigoration of the processes and improvements to the methodology with an increased frequency of future reporting. Close engagement with stakeholders and a regulator requirement for doctors to participate have both supported the impetus for involvement of all professionals leading to greater potential for improved quality of care for women and babies. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide distributions in the Nansen Basin, Artic Ocean: Scavenging rates and circulation timescales (United States)

    Kirk Cochran, J.; Hirschberg, David J.; Livingston, Hugh D.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Key, Robert M.

    the Barents Sea Slope and to ˜300 m in the central basin. "PreChernobyl" inventories of 137Cs (as well as 239,240Pu) are 10 times those expected from global atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing and are derived principally from releases from the Sellafield, U.K., nuclear fuel reprocessing facility on the Irish Sea. Based on the sources Of 137Cs to the Nansen Basin, mixing time scales are 9-18 years for the upper water column (to 1500 m) and ˜40 years for the deep water. These mixing time scales, combined with more rapid scavenging at the basin margin relative to the central basin, produce residence times of particle-reactive radionuclides in the Nansen Basin comparable to other open ocean areas (e.g. north-west Atlantic) despite the presence of permanent ice cover and long periods of low-light levels that limit productivity in the Arctic.

  12. Curbing UK impacts on global biodiversity: an agenda for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steve [Scott Wilson Ltd (United Kingdom); Craeynest, Lies [WWF (United Kingdom); Bass, Steve


    Stemming the tide of biodiversity loss is a global issue with national implications. The UK has set up initiatives to reduce its impacts on biodiversity worldwide — but as a government review found in 2006, these have yet to add up to a comprehensive strategy. How can the gaps be filled? New research suggests that action on a number of fronts is key. Many UK policies and practices clearly affect biodiversity even though they do not directly address it. For instance, UK imports such as coffee, cocoa and sugar are linked to biodiversity loss. By integrating relevant mainstream concerns such as trade and exploitation of natural resources into an overall strategy, the UK government could better demonstrate its commitment to reducing biodiversity loss significantly by the target date of 2010.

  13. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rankin


    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  14. UK Ownership and Control: A Transformational Analysis | Lotto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    financial companies and data from the Office for National Statistics, this study reveals that, UK equity ownership has witnessed a rapid decline by major domestic institutional investors and increase in foreign ownership since 2004. It is further ...

  15. Dynamic reorganization of river basins. (United States)

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu


    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  16. Hydrogeological aspects of shale gas extraction in the UK


    Stuart, Marianne


    UK shale gas exploitation currently at a very early stage. Potentially significant quantities but resources are not yet proven. In the UK a number of the potentially exploitable shales are below important aquifers.Water demand for shale gas production may not be significant relative to other uses but local needs must be considered carefully. Shale gas extraction will use/mobilise potential pollutants. Risks must be fully assessed and managed effectively – through to post abandonment. The most...

  17. Exploring shared leadership in a UK public sector programme


    Bates, Simon


    This thesis considers shared leadership in a UK public sector programme. Many UK public sector change initiatives are delivered through programmes. In recent years, the practice and academic domain of programme management have developed from within the established discipline of project management. The leadership of projects has been widely studied, both conceptually and empirically, but programmes are substantively different. Shared leadership is a relatively new conceptuali...

  18. Determinants of Capital Structure: Empirical Evidence From UK


    Xu, Wenjing


    This paper investigates the determinants of capital structure for the companies in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study is to determine which capital structure is more appropriate to UK listed companies. Results obtained will be compared against previous empirical and theoretical predictions. Panel data set containing 342 UK public quoted companies across 8 industries during the period from 2000-2009 is employed. A Pooled OLS regression is constructed to discuss what the determinants...

  19. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, J.S. [Astra, Anzoategui (Venezuela)


    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  20. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  1. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers. (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy


    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Prescription errors in UK critical care units. (United States)

    Ridley, S A; Booth, S A; Thompson, C M


    Drug prescription errors are a common cause of adverse incidents and may be largely preventable. The incidence of prescription errors in UK critical care units is unknown. The aim of this study was to collect data about prescription errors and so calculate the incidence and variation of errors nationally. Twenty-four critical care units took part in the study for a 4-week period. The total numbers of new and re-written prescriptions were recorded daily. Errors were classified according to the nature of the error. Over the 4-week period, 21,589 new prescriptions (or 15.3 new prescriptions per patient) were written. Eighty-five per cent (18,448 prescriptions) were error free, but 3141 (15%) prescriptions had one or more errors (2.2 erroneous prescriptions per patient, or 145.5 erroneous prescriptions per 1000 new prescriptions). The five most common incorrect prescriptions were for potassium chloride (10.2% errors), heparin (5.3%), magnesium sulphate (5.2%), paracetamol (3.2%) and propofol (3.1%). Most of the errors were minor or would have had no adverse effects but 618 (19.6%) errors were considered significant, serious or potentially life threatening. Four categories (not writing the order according to the British National Formulary recommendations, an ambiguous medication order, non-standard nomenclature and writing illegibly) accounted for 47.9% of all errors. Although prescription rates (and error rates) in critical care appear higher than elsewhere in hospital, the number of potentially serious errors is similar to other areas of high-risk practice.

  3. Macrofaunal production along the UK continental shelf (United States)

    Bolam, S. G.; Barrio-Frojan, C. R. S.; Eggleton, J. D.


    Estimates of secondary production ( P/ B ratio and total production) by macrobenthic communities across the UK continental shelf are presented. Values for individual sampling stations varied from 0.21 to 4.1 y - 1 for community P/ B and 3.1 to 897.2 kJ m - 2 y - 1 for total production. Such data fills an important gap pertaining to our understanding of the spatial variation in production estimates for this region. Benthic production estimates varied primarily at small (inter-station) scales (24 nm), although larger-scale differences were observed. In general, the highest production estimates were exhibited by benthic communities in Cardigan Bay (Irish Sea) and East English Channel, while the lowest estimates were observed for the mid- and northern North Sea areas. The former were typified by shallow, gravelly areas of seabed which exhibit high bed tidal stress and do not thermally stratify during the summer months. On average, annelids contribute an overwhelming majority of the total production with different regions varying in the relative contributions from other phyla such as molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms. Spatial heterogeneity of sediment granulometric variables occurred primarily between stations while those of other variables (e.g., depth, stratification, and tidal bed stress) were more regional. Although a large proportion of the spatial variation in secondary production estimates was not explained by environmental characteristics, the data indicate that such relationships are scale-dependent. Average bed temperature was a significant factor in creating some of the observed differences at large spatial scales. The possible reasons why a larger proportion of the variation in production estimates was not explained by the present study are presented.

  4. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  5. Core competencies for UK occupational health nurses: a Delphi study. (United States)

    Lalloo, D; Demou, E; Kiran, S; Gaffney, M; Stevenson, M; Macdonald, E B


    Occupational health nurses (OHNs) play a pivotal role in the delivery of occupational health (OH) services. Specific competency guidance has been developed in a number of countries, including the UK. While it is acknowledged that UK OHN practice has evolved in recent years, there has been no formal research to capture these developments to ensure that training and curricula remain up-to-date and reflect current practice. To identify current priorities among UK OHNs of the competencies required for OH practice. A modified Delphi study undertaken among representative OHN networks in the UK. This formed part of a larger study including UK and international occupational physicians. The study was conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire based on available guidance on training competencies for OH practice, the published literature, expert panel reviews and conference discussions. Consensus among OHNs was high with 7 out of the 12 domains scoring 100% in rating. 'Good clinical care' was the principal domain ranked most important, followed by 'general principles of assessment & management of occupational hazards to health'. 'Research methods' and 'teaching & educational supervision' were considered least important. This study has established UK OHNs' current priorities on the competencies required for OH practice. The timing of this paper is opportune with the formal launch of the Faculty of Occupational Health Nursing planned in 2018 and should inform the development of competency requirements as part of the Faculty's goals for standard setting in OHN education and training.

  6. Clinical epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doufekas K


    Full Text Available Konstantinos Doufekas, Adeola OlaitanDepartment of Gynaecological Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London, UKAbstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth commonest cancer among women and the leading cause of gynecological cancer death in the UK. Most women present with advanced disease, mainly because the nonspecific nature of the symptoms lead to diagnostic delays. Recent data have shown a fall in ovarian cancer mortality rates in the UK, but rates are still higher when compared to other European countries or the USA. In addition, surgeons in the UK achieve on average lower optimal surgical cytoreduction rates in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Despite a wealth of information on epidemiological risk factors, the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains largely unknown. This review presents the most recent data on incidence, mortality, and survival for epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK. Time trends, trends by age, international comparisons, and regional variation in incidence, survival, and mortality are presented within the context of a major reorganization of cancer services that took place in the UK over 10 years ago. Centralization of cancer services has meant that women with ovarian cancer receive treatment in specialist Cancer Centers.Keywords: ovarian, cancer, epidemiology, UK, incidence, survival

  7. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK. (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M; McCambridge, Jim


    Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew


    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  9. Adolescent grandchildren’s perceptions of grandparents’ involvement in UK: an interpretation from life course and evolutionary theory perspective


    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O.


    In this article, we study grandparental involvement from the viewpoint of evolutionary theory and sociological life course perception. We have used ‘the Involved Grandparenting and Child Well-Being 2007’ survey, which is the first nationally representative sample of British and Welsh adolescents aged 11–16 (n = 1,488). First, we explore with the descriptive statistics the amount of grandparental involvement reported by adolescents. The result follows the predicted pattern: maternal grandparen...

  10. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project... (United States)


    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012...

  11. Cultural Resources Investigations, Cross Basin Channel Realignments, Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana (United States)


    segment of the Case account as a " fairy tale " (King 1977:19). During the Civil War the Atchafalaya Basin was the site of a brief, Union military campaign...who farms; it does not imply a plantation owner. The value of planters’ properties ranged from $100.00 to $40,000.00. Persons employed in the lumber

  12. Seabed morphology and gas venting features in the continental slope region of KrishnaeGodavari basin, Bay of Bengal: Implications in gas–hydrate exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.; Mazumdar, A.; Desa, M.; Badesab, F.K.

    carbonates. The wet bulk density of the whole core was measured onboard using the GEOTEK Multisensor Core Logger (MSCL) system following standard calibration and measurement protocol ( The density profiles are used...., Somoza, L., Diaz del Rio, V., Medialdea, T., Mata, M., León, R., 2007. Gas- related morphologies and diapirism in the Gulf of Cádiz. Geo-Marine Letters 27(2), 213--221. Gupta, S.K., 2006. Basin architecture and petroleum system of Krishna Godavari Basin...

  13. Proposal of a lumped hydrological model based on general equations of growth - application to five watersheds in the UK (United States)

    Prieto Sierra, C.; García Alonso, E.; Mínguez Solana, R.; Medina Santamaría, R.


    This paper explores a new approach to lumped hydrological modelling based on general laws of growth, in particular using the classic logistic equation proposed by Verhulst. By identifying homologies between the growth of a generic system and the evolution of the flow at the outlet of a river basin, and adopting some complementary hypotheses, a compact model with 3 parameters, extensible to 4 or 5, is obtained. The model assumes that a hydrological system, under persistent conditions of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and land uses, tends to reach an equilibrium discharge that can be expressed as a function of a dynamic aridity index, including a free parameter reflecting the basin properties. The rate at which the system approaches such equilibrium discharge, which is constantly changing and generally not attainable, is another parameter of the model; finally, a time lag is introduced to reflect a characteristic delay between the input (precipitation) and output (discharge) in the system behaviour. To test the suitability of the proposed model, 5 previously studied river basins in the UK, with different characteristics, have been analysed at a daily scale, and the results compared with those of the model IHACRES (Identification of unit Hydrographs and Component flows from Rainfall, Evaporation and Streamflow data). It is found that the logistic equilibrium model with 3 parameters properly reproduces the hydrological behaviour of such basins, improving the IHACRES in four of them; moreover, the model parameters are relatively stable over different periods of calibration and evaluation. Adding more parameters to the basic structure, the fits only improve slightly in some of the analysed series, but potentially increasing equifinality effects. The results obtained indicate that growth equations, with possible variations, can be useful and parsimonious tools for hydrological modelling, at least in certain types of watersheds.

  14. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan basin is a classic example of Proterozoic intracontinental basin that developed in the central part of the Indian shield along with several other basins such as Cuddapah,Chattisgarh,etc.The strata are exposed in three major sectors:Son valley,Bundelkhand and Rajasthan. Substantially thick Vindhyan rocks ...

  15. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.


    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  16. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns (United States)

    Russ Mason


    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  17. The Amazon Basin in transition (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy


    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  18. Incentives facing UK-listed companies to comply with the risk reporting provisions of the UK corporate governance code â[euro] Abstract of the London Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


      This abstract relates to the following paper: Klumpes P. , Ledlie C. , Fahey F. , Kakar G. and Styles S. Incentives facing UK-listed companies to comply with the risk reporting provisions of the UK corporate governance code...

  19. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)


    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  20. School food standards in the UK: implementation and evaluation. (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley; Spence, Suzanne; Reed, Lowri; Conway, Ruth; Palmer, Alison; Stewart, Eve; McBratney, Jennifer; Carter, Lynne; Beattie, Shirley; Nelson, Michael


    To outline the evolution of school food standards and their implementation and evaluation in each of the four countries of the UK since 2000. Review of relevant policies, surveys and evaluations, including country-specific surveys and regional evaluations. UK: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Primary and secondary schools and schoolchildren. By September 2013 standards will have been introduced in all primary and secondary schools in the UK. Evaluations have varied in their scope and timing, relating to government forward planning, appropriate baselines and funding. Where standards have been implemented, the quality and nutritional value of food provided have improved. Emerging evidence shows improved overall diet and nutrient intake by school-aged children as a result. The re-introduction of school food standards in the UK has not been centrally coordinated, but by September 2013 will be compulsory across all four countries in the UK, except in England where academies are now exempt. Provision of improved school food has had a demonstrable impact on diet and nutrition beyond the school dining room and the school gate, benefiting children from all socio-economic groups. Improved school food and dining environments are associated with higher levels of school lunch take up. Implementation of school food standards requires investment. It is critical to policy development that the value of this investment is measured and protected using planned, appropriate, robust and timely evaluations. Where appropriate, evaluations should be carried out across government departments and between countries.

  1. Factors associated with smoking behaviour change in UK military personnel. (United States)

    Thandi, G; Fear, N T


    Research in the UK civilian population suggests that poor mental health outcomes are associated with smoking behaviour. In the UK military population, smoking cessation is associated with deployment in the reserve forces. However, little is known about the links between mental health outcomes and smoking initiation and cessation in the UK military. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine change in mental health and military factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation in a representative sample of UK military personnel. Data were collected between 2003 and 2009; 5138 regular and reserve military personnel were included in the analyses. The results showed that smoking initiation was associated with symptoms of psychological distress, symptoms of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relationship breakdown and deployment. These findings are consistent with existing research in civilian populations showing links between poor mental health and smoking behaviour. Furthermore, our finding that deployment is associated with smoking initiation is also in line with research from the US military and UK reserves.

  2. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu


    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  3. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Desheng [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China); Liang Digang; Jia Chengzao; Wang Gang [Tarim Petroleum Exploration and Development Bureau, Korle (China)] [and others


    The Tarim basin is the largest and least explored inland basin in China. The areal extent of the basin reaches 560,000 km{sup 2}. The interior of the basin is mostly covered by the Takla Mekan Desert, which is about 330,000 km{sup 2} in areal extent. The basin has become the object of special attention since China set aside first- and third-round onshore bidding blocks in the Tarim basin for foreign oil firms to explore. The Tarim basin is a polyhistory superimposed basin that has experienced seven evolutionary stages: (1) Sinian-Cambrian-Ordovician aulacogen stage, (2) Silurian-Devonian intracratonic depression stage, (3) Carboniferous marginal sea stage, (4) Permian rift basin stage, (5) Triassic-Jurassic foreland basin stage, (6) Cretaceous-Paleogene NeoTethys bay stage, and (7) Neogene-Pleistocene foreland and inland basin stage. Both the basin`s Paleozoic marine platform sequences and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial fills are believed to contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbons. After recent years of exploration, nine oil and gas fields have been proven and 23 discoveries have been made in the Tabei, Tazhong, and Southwest areas. Kekeya, Lunnan, Sangtamu, Jiefangqudong, Donghetang, and Tazhong 4 oil fields have been put into production. Output of crude oil was 2.6 million t (metric tons) (52,000 BOPD) in 1995. The production will increase to 5 million t (100,000 BOPD) in 1997. Giant oil and gas traps probably will be discovered in the Tarim basin. The prospect is promising.

  4. Modelling Forearc Basin Formation and Stratigraphy (United States)

    Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael


    Comparison of synthetic stratigraphy of forearc basins as generated in coupled plate subduction and accretionary wedge models to the stratal patterns observed for forearc basins in nature, could be used to ascertain the dynamic consistency of the interpreted deformational history of the wedge. Additionally, it could help us understand the emergence of stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins as an interplay between sedimentary flux and wedge dynamics. Here we present a simple methodology to generate synthetic stratigraphy by emplacing isochronal surfaces during the evolution of the wedge. We use a dynamic 2D, high-resolution, thermo-mechanical, subduction model coupled to an adaptive irregular surface grid to model the free surface. In this model, we track basin stratigraphy developing in the wedge top basins atop the accretionary prism by emplacing lines of Lagrangian markers at discrete times along the upper surface of the model, which subsequently are buried, transported, and deformed according to the velocity field generated in the model. We conduct numerical experiments to identify the stratigraphic signatures of different forearc basin formation mechanisms. We also study the impact of hinterland and trench sedimentation on the wedge evolution and its impact on forearc basin formation. Forearc basins that form on top of the overriding plate remain passive to the deformation history of the wedge. Forearc basins formed as negative alpha basins remain mostly undeformed. Forearc basins that form due to wedge stabilization exhibit landward tilting of strata with time. We also find that trench sedimentation enhances the landward tilting of the basin by shifting deformation landwards and potentially triggering out-of-sequence-thrust emergence/reactivation. Predicted stratigraphic features in our numerical models agree well with stratigraphic patterns observed in different types of forearc basins in the Nankai Trough, Sunda Strait and Lombok Basin offshore Japan, Java


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III


    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  6. The future of UK/Irish surgery: A European solution. (United States)

    Varzgalis, M; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J


    The United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) hospital systems are dependent on junior doctors for their functionality however it is increasingly difficult to recruit UK/ROI trained doctors to fill these posts. Directive 2005/36/EC, which came into force in 2007, is the principal European legislation on the recognition of equivalence of professional qualifications across Europe. European trained doctors are therefore attractive candidates for junior doctor posts. However, although their training is recognised as equivalent by the Irish Medical Council (IMC) and General Medical Council (GMC) they are not being appointed to equivalent posts by the Health Service Executive (HSE) or National Health Service (NHS). With the influence of European Union (EU) centralisation, modification of UK/ROI consultant grade is imminent, possibly to pyramidal structure of the Continental European model with clearer lines of corporate responsibility. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AstroGrid: Initial Deployment of the UK's Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Walton, N. A.; Lawrence, A.; Linde, T.


    AstroGrid, a UK eScience project with collaborating groups drawn from the major UK data archive centres, is creating the UK's virtual observatory. AstroGrid has now completed its requirements capture and design stages, and has begun to release software capabilities on a three monthly cycle. It is using the iterative process, with eight iterations, with each successive iteration release building a working system comprising increasing capabilities. AstroGrid's first functional release with it's 'Iteration 2' product, and the capabilities and functionality that this provides, is described. AstroGrid's technical input into joint products in conjunction with the European Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, and the Australian VO, is discussed. The component based AstroGrid architecture and how external projects may be able to deploy components of interest in constructing there 'VO' - for instance the use of MySpace to provide secure intermediate 'grid' user storage areas, is discussed.

  8. Evolving trauma and orthopedics training in the UK. (United States)

    Inaparthy, Praveen K; Sayana, Murali K; Maffulli, Nicola


    The ever-growing population of the UK has resulted in increasing demands on its healthcare service. Changes have been introduced in the UK medical training system to avoid loss of training time and make it more focused and productive. Modernizing medical careers (MMC) was introduced in 2005. This promised to reduce the training period for a safe trauma specialist, in trauma and orthopedics, to 10 years. At around the same time, the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) was introduced to reduce the working hours for junior doctors in training, to improve patient safety and also work-life balance of junior doctors. Introduction of the assessment tools from Orthopedic Competency assessment project (OCAP) will help tailor the training according to the needs of the trainee. The aim of this article is to review the changes in the UK orthopedic surgical training over the past two decades. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption (United States)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo


    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  10. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; Van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimentary and volcanic units and not by a common tectonic origin or development. Instead, the sub-basins that together form the Permian Basins are each controlled by different structural and/or rheological controls that are inherited from Early Paleozoïc and older geodynamic processes, they are even located in different crustal/lithospheric domains. The North Permian basin is located on Baltic crust that was thinned during Late Proterozoïc - Early Paleozoïc times. South of the Thor suture, the South Permian basin and its sub-basins are located on Avalonian crust (Southern North Sea and North German Basins) and on the transition of East European cratonic and Avalonian crust (Polish Through). The size of crustal domains and of the faults that govern basin formation requires a regional-scale to assess their impact on basins and sub-basins. In the case of the Permian Basins this encompasses East Avalonia and surroundings, roughly speaking the area north of the Variscan Rheïc suture, east of the Atlantic and southwest of the Teisseyre-Tornquist line. This approach sheds light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric which are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The focus on understanding the geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Considering their fundamentally different structural and rheological controls, the Permian (sub)basins have a remarkably common history of subsidence and inversion, suggesting a more or less continuous

  11. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose? (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc


    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The UK's multidisciplinary response to an Ebola epidemic. (United States)

    Reece, Sian; Brown, Colin S; Dunning, Jake; Chand, Meera A; Zambon, Maria C; Jacobs, Michael


    The West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic was the largest and most devastating outbreak of EVD the world has ever seen. Its impact was felt far from the shores of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, with public health systems and clinicians across the globe confronted with an international response both in the affected region and within their own borders. The UK had a prominent role in response efforts, particularly in Sierra Leone. This article highlights how UK academic, health service, military, commercial and public health professionals all played a significant role both at home and abroad. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  13. Food, the UK and the EU: Brexit or Bremain?


    Lang, T.; Schoen, V.


    This briefing paper explores the food terrain exposed by the wider “Brexit versus Bremain” Referendum question to be decided by the voting UK public on June 23. It is written to raise issues; to invite academics and civil society working on food matters to consider how their work fits this momentous issue; and to aid informed decisions. The paper follows from debates and concerns expressed at the 6th City Food Symposium on UK food and Brexit held on December 14, 2015.

  14. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.


    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  15. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy. (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian


    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  17. Deformed river basins of the Himalaya (United States)

    Walcott, R.; Sinclair, H.


    Identification of the controls on basin morphology in mountain belts is needed to understand how landscapes evolve under changing conditions. Although river basins vary enormously in area, many of their morphological relationships, such as Hack's law, are scale invariant irrespective of mountain type. This suggests that, in most mountain belts, the fundamental process(es) that control basin morphology are also scale invariant and therefore largely insensitive to variations in tectonic activity. However, river basins in the Himalaya are anomalously wide when compared with basins developed on the flanks of other semi-linear ranges. We present a detailed study of Himalayan river basin morphology to determine how the evolution of this orogen may have influenced the shape of these unusual basins. We investigate, in particular, the statistical geometric properties of basins, such as the length, width and area of basins, with respect to the scale and the location of the basin within the mountain belt. Our results show that the anomalously wide basins found over much of the Himalaya have a limited scale range and distribution. These data therefore provide an indication of the significant control that the evolution of this mountain range has had on basin morphology at the local scale. The fact that these catchments have departed from what is perceived as a stable scaling relationship implies that, while their rivers can incise at a rate broadly comparable to the rate of rock uplift, their drainage divides can not migrate fast enough to reconfigure in response to tectonic shortening. As a result, long-term crustal shortening has significantly deformed the river network within the central and western Himalaya.

  18. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  19. Learning the Price of Poverty across the UK (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Thompson, Ian; Beckett, Lori; Egan, David; Leitch, Ruth; McKinney, Stephen


    In 2016, the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Commission on Poverty and Policy Advocacy brought together several academics from across the four jurisdictions of the UK already engaged in work on poverty, education and schooling. The aim of this BERA Commission was to build a network of research-active practitioners across the UK…

  20. LGBT refugee protection in the UK: from discretion to belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gray


    Full Text Available The UK government used to have no specific guidance or trainingfor decision-makers for claims brought on the grounds of sexualorientation. It was only in 2010 following a combination of judicial,civil society and political pressures that specific policy guidance wasspeedily issued and significant progress was seen.

  1. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010 (United States)

    Allison, Simon


    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  2. The Future of Entrepreneurship Education in the UK's "Big Society" (United States)

    Matlay, Harry; Hussain, Javed


    Over the last three decades in the UK, successive Conservative and Labour governments have implemented policies and initiatives aimed at widening access to higher education. During the same period, entrepreneurship education has emerged as an important aspect of higher education provision, as it has in other industrially developed and developing…

  3. The Textuality of Learning Contexts in UK Colleges (United States)

    Satchwell, Candice; Ivanic, Roz


    A significant aspect of learning contexts is the way in which semiotic artefacts mediate learning within them. This article reports on the "Literacies for Learning in Further Education" (LfLFE) project in the UK, which has researched the role of texts and associated communicative practices in constructing and mediating teaching and…

  4. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac. L'Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac finance la recherche novatrice sur les politiques fiscales qui appuient la lutte antitabac dans les pays à faible revenu ...

  5. The Future of Bioscience Fieldwork in UK Higher Education (United States)

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Peacock, Julie; Park, Julian R.


    Fieldwork is an important and often enjoyable part of learning in Bioscience degree courses, however it is unclear how the recent reforms to Higher Education (HE) may impact the future funding of outdoor learning. This paper reports on the findings from a recent survey of 30 HE Bioscience practitioners from across the UK. Their current level of…

  6. The status of ISI in the UK nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bann, T.; Rogerson, A. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom). Nuclear NDE Services


    This paper reviews the status of in-service inspection (ISI) in UK nuclear power generation industry through the experience of its nuclear utilities. The paper is intended to be a summary of some of the most recent and relevant ISI issues facing the utilities and the solutions devised to address those issues. (orig.)

  7. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses (United States)

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John


    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  8. UK Food Standards Agency alpha-linolenic acid workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderson, P; Finnegan, YE; Williams, CM; Calder, PC; Burdge, GC; Wootton, SA; Griffin, BA; Millward, DJ; Pegge, NC; Bemelmans, WJE


    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from plant oils (alpha-linolenic acid; ALA) were as beneficial to cardiovascular health as the n-3 PUFA from the marine oils, eicosapentaenoic

  9. The Global Economic Cost of Osteoarthritis: How the UK Compares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chen


    Full Text Available Aims. To examine all relevant literature on the economic costs of osteoarthritis in the UK, and to compare such costs globally. Methods. A search of MEDLINE was performed. The search was expanded beyond peer-reviewed journals into publications by the department of health, national orthopaedic associations, national authorities and registries, and arthritis charities. Results. No UK studies were identified in the literature search. 3 European, 6 North American, and 2 Asian studies were reviewed. Significant variation in direct and indirect costs were seen in these studies. Costs for topical and oral NSAIDs were estimated to be £19.2 million and £25.65 million, respectively. Cost of hip and knee replacements was estimated to exceed £850 million, arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis was estimated to be £1.34 million. Indirect costs from OA caused a loss of economic production over £3.2 billion, £43 million was spent on community services and £215 million on social services for osteoarthritis. Conclusions. While estimates of economic costs can be made using information from non-published data, there remains a lack of original research looking at the direct or indirect costs of osteoarthritis in the UK. Differing methodology in calculating costs from overseas studies makes direct comparison with the UK difficult.

  10. Paokil uks ja 13 noort hinge / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-


    12. mail esietendus Eesti Riiklikus Nukuteatris noortestuudio debüütlavastus "Kolmteist + uks" L. Knutzoni näidendi "Kõigepealt sa sünnid" põhjal, lavastaja R. Toots, muusikaline kujundaja J. Kreen, liikumine E. Ülevainult

  11. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary schools in the United Kingdom (UK) are community organised schools with the general aim of teaching younger generations their 'native' languages and cultures. However, the aims and practices of these schools are predominantly dependent on changes in the social and political contexts both in the host ...

  12. Participation in Written Government Consultations in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne


    5,000 responses to consultations in Denmark and the UK in the first half of 2008. It shows that participation is highly conditional upon system-and actor-level characteristics in practice. Our findings indicate that, even if liberal democracies have adopted similar procedures for actor consultation...

  13. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary schools in the United Kingdom (UK) are community organised schools with the general aim of teaching younger generations their 'native' languages and cultures. However, the aims and practices of these schools are pre- dominantly dependent on changes in the social and political contexts both in the host ...

  14. Chinese Language Teaching in the UK: Present and Future (United States)

    Zhang, George X.; Li, Linda M.


    There has been a long history of Chinese learning and teaching (CLT) in the UK, but until recently CLT was predominantly confined to community schools for Chinese children at weekends and a small number of other schools and universities. Therefore, it had remained peripheral for a long time in terms of student numbers and its position in the…

  15. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S


    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  16. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students (United States)

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine


    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  17. Greening Technology in U.K. Higher Education (United States)

    Bristow, Rob


    With the world focusing on climate change and individuals through to organizations questioning how they can reduce their personal and professional carbon footprints, JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) is looking at how it can help U.K. education professionals learn from one another. In 2009, the final report from JISC's SusteIT study…

  18. Diagnostic Testing at UK Universities: An E-Mail Survey (United States)

    Gillard, Jonathan; Levi, Margaret; Wilson, Robert


    In July 2009, an e-mail survey was sent to various UK universities to gain information regarding current practices concerning mathematics diagnostic testing, and to provide an update from the review "Diagnostic Testing for Mathematics" published by the LTSN MathsTEAM Project in 2003. A total of 38 university departments were contacted…

  19. Norms and Values in UK Science Engagement Practice (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Holliman, Richard


    In recent years, there has been a rhetorical shift from "deficit" to "dialogue" and "engagement" in UK policy and institutional discourse about science communication. Past efforts to reduce public scientific literacy deficits have been overshadowed by calls for dialogue between scientists, science communicators and…

  20. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bekalo


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  1. Emotional Connectedness to Home for Ghanaian Students in the UK (United States)

    Doku, Florence; Meekums, Bonnie


    Ghanaian migrants represent one of the largest Black African groups in the UK. While viewed positively in terms of economic and educational success, migration has impacts on emotional attachments. The aim of this study was therefore to explore narrative expressions of belonging and emotional connectedness for Ghanaian university students in the…

  2. The Education of Asylum Seekers: Some UK Case Studies (United States)

    Reakes, Angharad


    The body of literature examining the educational needs of asylum-seeker children is limited. Extending the body of knowledge has become increasingly important because of the increasing number of asylum seekers in the UK, with significant implications for local education authorities and schools. The main focus of the research was the situation in…

  3. Refugee Children in the UK. Education in an Urbanised Society (United States)

    Rutter, Jill


    Asylum migration causes intense media and political debate. However, little attention has been paid to how forced migrants can rebuild their lives in the UK or elsewhere. This timely book analyzes the social policies that impact on refugee children's education, and: (1) Provides the background to the migration of refugees; (2) Explores how…

  4. Quick Win or Slow Burn: Modelling UK HE CAA Uptake (United States)

    Warburton, Bill


    The uptake of CAA in UK higher education (HE) on a large scale lags behind the expectations of CAA specialists. A research project was undertaken with the aim of discovering and addressing the underlying reasons for this. The research was conducted according to Strauss and Corbin's (1998) prescription for grounded theory (GT) research. During…

  5. Commitment to Environmental Sustainability in the UK Student Population (United States)

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Alcock, Ian


    Sustainability is an increasingly important issue in higher education, both in the UK and internationally. Although environmental sustainability is the most frequently identified of the three pillars of sustainability (social and economic sustainability being less widely understood), there has been little previous research which has quantitatively…

  6. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools (United States)

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul


    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  7. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK (United States)

    Keenan, Chris


    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  8. Performance Management in UK Universities: Implementing the Balanced Scorecard (United States)

    Taylor, John; Baines, Claire


    In recent years, UK universities have become increasingly concerned with performance management. This trend reflects both growing competition and marketisation within higher education, and the increasing requirements for accountability. In response, institutions have begun to explore the application of formal methodologies for performance…

  9. Tuberculosis Microepidemics among Dispersed Migrants, Birmingham, UK, 2004–2013 (United States)

    Browne, Catherine; Khanom, Shaina; Evans, Jason T.; Smith, E. Grace; Hawkey, Peter M.; Kunst, Heinke; Welch, Steven B.; Dedicoat, Martin J.


    To determine if local transmission was responsible for rising tuberculosis incidence in a recently dispersed migrant community in Birmingham, UK, during 2004–2013, we conducted enhanced epidemiologic investigation of molecular clusters. This technique identified exact locations of social mixing and chains of apparent recent transmission, which can be helpful for directing resources. PMID:25695328

  10. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools (United States)

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin


    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  11. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK (United States)

    Drea, Sinead


    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  12. Leveraged Public to Private Transactions in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Simons, T.; Wright, M.


    This paper examines the magnitude and the sources of the expected shareholder gains in UK public to private transactions (PTPs) in the second wave from 1997-2003.Pre-transaction shareholders on average receive a premium of 40% and the share price reaction to the PTP announcement is about 30%.The

  13. The Changing UK Careers Landscape: Tidal Waves, Turbulence and Transformation (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre


    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and…

  14. Lock-In Agreements in Venture Capital Backed UK IPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espenlaub, S.; Goergen, M.; Khurshed, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.


    This paper examines the impact of venture-capital backing of UK companies issuing shares at flotation on the characteristics of the lock-in agreements entered into by the existing shareholders, and on the abnormal returns realised around the expiry of the directors' lock-in agreements.The study

  15. Bloom's syndrome in an Indian man in the UK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vekaria, Rajni; Bhatt, Ree'Thee; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; de Boer, Richard C


    A 17-year-old Indian man was diagnosed with Bloom's syndrome at the age of 3 years. This is the first reported case of Bloom's in an Indian from the UK and the third case report from the British Isles...

  16. UK Solar System Data Centre: Data Archive for Ionospheric Research (United States)

    Wild, Matthew; James, Sarah; Bogdanova, Yulia; Crothers, Steve


    The UK Solar System Data Centre (UKSSDC) has been working to improve access to its extensive holdings of historical ionospheric data. In our archive, ionospheric data from 200 stations worldwide (1930s-present), such as ionograms and scaled ionospheric parameters (e.g., foF2, fmin, h'F2), is held on both digital and physical media. From the 1990s these data sets are available in digital form and can be downloaded from our web-interface. Thanks to a Natural Environment Research Council grant we are in the process of digitising a selection, 2,200 out of ~27,000, of UK ionosonde film data to be made available via the web interface. It is hoped that more funding will be made available to continue this exercise over the next few years. The UKSSDC also provides real-time ionospheric data retrieval from two RAL Space ionosondes, Chilton and Port Stanley, alongside other European observatories. The UKSSDC is part of RAL Space based at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with the electronic address: This is a UK national data archive facility with open data access and can be used by scientists around the globe.

  17. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme... (United States)

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru


    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  18. PISA 2015: Findings and Some Implications for UK Science Education (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan; Millar, Robin


    This article provides an overview of the main findings for the countries of the UK from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2015, where science was the major focus. The nature of the tests, the key findings and how they might be interpreted are discussed--in…

  19. High risk of unprecedented UK rainfall in the current climate. (United States)

    Thompson, Vikki; Dunstone, Nick J; Scaife, Adam A; Smith, Doug M; Slingo, Julia M; Brown, Simon; Belcher, Stephen E


    In winter 2013/14 a succession of storms hit the UK leading to record rainfall and flooding in many regions including south east England. In the Thames river valley there was widespread flooding, with clean-up costs of over £1 billion. There was no observational precedent for this level of rainfall. Here we present analysis of a large ensemble of high-resolution initialised climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated, and that in the current climate there remains a high chance of exceeding the observed record monthly rainfall totals in many regions of the UK. In south east England there is a 7% chance of exceeding the current rainfall record in at least one month in any given winter. Expanding our analysis to some other regions of England and Wales the risk increases to a 34% chance of breaking a regional record somewhere each winter.A succession of storms during the 2013-2014 winter led to record flooding in the UK. Here, the authors use high-resolution climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated and that there remains a high chance of exceeding observed record monthly rainfall totals in many parts of the UK.

  20. Empowering sustainable niches: Comparing UK and Dutch offshore wind developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Verhees, Bram; Raven, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331927X; Smith, Adrian


    Abstract Offshore wind has been positioned as a promising technology that could play a major role in moving towards more sustainable energy systems, but deployment varies significantly across countries. This article aims to explain the contrast between the boom in the UK versus stagnation in The

  1. Maturity and Interculturality: Chinese Students' Experiences in UK Higher Education (United States)

    Gu, Qing


    Increasing global competition for students has witnessed an ever more rapid internationalisation of higher education. In the case of the UK, there has been a major influx of Chinese students to British universities since the launch of the British Government's long-term worldwide educational campaign in 1999. Drawing upon evidence from an extensive…

  2. Kosovan refugees in the UK: the Rolls Royce or rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bloch


    Full Text Available This article examines the different reception and support entitlements offered to spontaneous asylum seekers from Kosovo and their UNHCR programme counterparts, plus the operation of the Kosovo reception programme. It also discusses the Asylum and Immigration Bill and itsimplications for asylum seekers to the UK.

  3. The role of fire in UK peatland and moorland management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.M.; Kettridge, Nicholas; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Gray, Alan; Ascoli, Davide; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Marrs, Rob; Allen, Katherine A.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Clay, Gareth D.; McMorrow, Julia; Vandvik, Vigdis


    Fire has been used for centuries to generate and manage some of the UK’s cultural landscapes. Despite its complex role in the ecology of UK peatlands and moorlands, there has been a trend of simplifying the narrative around burning to present it as an only ecologically damaging practice. That

  4. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel


    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  5. Comparing SVARs and SEMs : Two models of the UK economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.P.A.M.; Wallis, K.F.


    The structural vector autoregression (SVAR) and simultaneous equation macroeconometric model (SEM) styles of empirical macroeconomic modelling are compared and contrasted, with reference to two models of the UK economy, namely the long-run structural VAR model of Garratt, Lee, Pesaran and Shin and

  6. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK


    Samuel Bekalo


    This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  7. Evidence-based medicine teaching in UK medical schools. (United States)

    Meats, Emma; Heneghan, Carl; Crilly, Mike; Glasziou, Paul


    It is recognized that clinicians need training in evidence-based medicine (EBM), however there is considerable variation in the content and methods of the EBM curriculum in UK medical schools. To determine current practice and variation in EBM undergraduate teaching in UK medical schools and inform the strategy of medical schools and the National Knowledge Service. We contacted all 32 medical schools in the UK and requested that the person primarily responsible for EBM undergraduate teaching complete a short online survey and provide their EBM curriculum. The survey was completed by representatives from 20 (63%) medical schools and curriculum details were received from 5 (16%). There is considerable variation in the methods and content of the EBM curriculum. Although the majority of schools teach core EBM topics, relatively few allow students to practice the skills or assess such skills. EBM teaching is restricted by lack of curriculum time, trained tutors and teaching materials. Key elements to progress include the integration of EBM with clinical specialties, tutor training and the availability of high-quality teaching resources. The development of a national undergraduate EBM curriculum may help in promoting progress in EBM teaching and assessment in UK medical schools.

  8. Potential vectors of equine arboviruses in the UK. (United States)

    Chapman, G E; Archer, D; Torr, S; Solomon, T; Baylis, M


    There is growing concern about the increasing risk of disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in both human beings and animals. There are several mosquito-borne viral diseases that cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in horses and that can have substantial welfare and economic ramifications. While none has been recorded in the UK, vector species for some of these viruses are present, suggesting that UK equines may be at risk. The authors undertook, therefore, the first study of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK. Mosquito magnet traps and red-box traps were used to sample adults, and larvae were collected from water sources such as tyres, buckets, ditches and pools. Several species that are known to be capable of transmitting important equine infectious arboviruses were trapped. The most abundant, with a maximum catch of 173 in 72 hours, was Ochlerotatus detritus, a competent vector of some flaviviruses; the highest densities were found near saltmarsh habitats. The most widespread species, recorded at >75 per cent of sites, was Culiseta annulata. This study demonstrates that potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses, including those known to be capable of infecting horses, are present and may be abundant on equine premises in the UK. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Current status of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery in the UK. (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Alexis; Kirkby, Karen J; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H


    To investigate and benchmark the current clinical and dosimetric practices in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the UK. A detailed questionnaire was sent to 70 radiotherapy centres in the UK. 97% (68/70) of centres replied between June and December 2014. 21 centres stated that they are practising SRS, and a further 12 centres plan to start SRS by the end of 2016. The most commonly treated indications are brain metastases and acoustic neuromas. A large range of prescription isodoses that range from 45% to 100% between different radiotherapy centres was seen. Ionization chambers and solid-water phantoms are used by the majority of centres for patient-specific quality assurance, and thermoplastic masks for patient immobilization are more commonly used than fixed stereotactic frames. The majority of centres perform orthogonal kilovoltage X-rays for localization before and during delivery. The acceptable setup accuracy reported ranges from 0.1 to 2 mm with a mean of 0.8 mm. SRS has been increasing in use in the UK and will continue to increase in the next 2 years. There is no current consensus between SRS centres as a whole, or even between SRS centres with the same equipment, on the practices followed. This indicates the need for benchmarking and standardization in SRS practices within the UK. This article outlines the current practices in SRS and provides a benchmark for reference and comparison with future research in this technique.

  10. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria. (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa


    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  11. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK (United States)

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara


    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  12. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K. (United States)

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.


    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  13. Malaria in the UK: past, present, and future


    Chin, T; Welsby, P


    There is strong evidence that malaria was once indigenous to the UK, that global warming is occurring, and that human activity is contributing to global warming. Global warming will have a variety of effects, one of which will probably be the return of indigenous malaria.

  14. L130-million cut to grants hits UK physical scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cressey, Daniel


    "UK physicists, still reeling from massive funding cuts announced earlier this year, have learnt of worse to come. Roughly L130 million (US$260 million)is being slashed from research grants awarded by the Engineering and Physical Scienes Research Council (EPSRC), it announced on 17 March." (2 pages)

  15. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University (United States)

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew


    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  16. Supporting International Students in UK Higher Education Institutions (United States)

    McDonald, Ian


    International students make up an increasingly large proportion of the UK's student population. Whether studying at undergraduate, postgraduate taught or postgraduate research level, they require support just like home students. However, international students can often bring additional issues and complications for the staff who are supporting…

  17. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie


    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  18. Abandoned babies in the UK - a review utilizing media reports. (United States)

    Sherr, L; Mueller, J; Fox, Z


    In the absence of national policy or comprehensive data, the phenomenon of abandoned babies is poorly understood in the UK. This study aims to use media reports as a resource to collate existing information on abandoned babies and to draw conclusions to inform future response. An exhaustive media search using electronic searches and media monitoring was undertaken to glean systematic information on all abandoned babies in the UK from 1998-2005. These were matched onto two databases - the UK Crime Statistics and the UK Abandoned Children Register in an attempt to align information on infant abandonment. Media reports were coded to list gender, survival, age, parental finding and circumstantial data. Our figures suggest an average of 16 babies abandoned yearly, while official sources give conflicting indications because of incomplete data gathering and child over-inclusion. Through systematic coding of media reports, 124 babies were identified over a 7-year period. Of these, 96 (77.4%) were newborns (1 week old). Adjusted logistic regression analysis found the strongest predictors of survival were age at abandonment and 'findability'. Newborn babies were less likely to survive than older babies (33.7% newborns died vs. 0% older babies, P Media interest is transient - 44.8% cases have a single report - and are typified by negative headlines (81.5%). This database currently represents the most accurate and comprehensive picture of the newborn abandonment phenomenon in the UK, a phenomenon that is rare but with high media and social interest. If the future well-being of mother and baby are to be catered for, clearer evidence-based policy and provision is vital.

  19. June 22, 1941: Evaluation of Public Opinion US and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey O. Buranok


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the U.S. and U.K public opinion about German attack on the USSR 22 June 1941. Considered the views of the American and British statesmen and politicians, the public mood, reflected in the press. Identify the main points of view on the outbreak of war with Germany against the Soviet Union. It is shown that in the presence of a variety of assessments prevailed ideas of solidarity with the Soviet Union and the need to support it. This work will allow for a " reflection" of the image of a belligerent Soviet Union, and to find the key moments falsifying the history of World War II in the U.S. and the UK. The events of the Great Patriotic War , which will be set out on the basis of US and UK archives, and t hen will be presented t o look at fighting in the USSR in the memoranda of public institutions of Great Britain and the United States, as well as their coverage in the Anglo-American media. In this case, due consideration will be given to the mechanisms of information influence that have been implemented in the U.S. Office of War Information and the British Ministry of Information. Selected key battles 1941 year in the USSR: a description of the fighting, then their score by British and U.S. military and political leadership, guidelines an d promotional materials departments of the UK and the U.S., the UK and the U.S. press.

  20. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim A


    Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers

  1. Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula. (United States)

    Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark; Oldman, Alex; Habib, Ali; Saied, Azam; Court, Jessica; Giannoudi, Marilena; Sayma, Meelad; Ward, Nicholas; Cork, Nick; Olatokun, Olamide; Devine, Oliver; O'Connell, Paul; Carr, Phoebe; Kotronias, Rafail Angelos; Gardiner, Rebecca; Buckle, Rory T; Thomson, Ross J; Williams, Sarah; Nicholson, Simon J; Goga, Usman


    Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.

  2. Increased funding fro UK's largest scientific computing grid, GridPP

    CERN Multimedia


    "Science computing in the UK has been boosted with the annoucement by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) of 30 million BP further funding for the UK's largest scientific Grid." (1 page)

  3. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge


    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building, is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout packaging processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. Optimization and simplification of the original sludge corrosion process design is described and the use of transportable and reusable equipment is indicated. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup.

  5. Suceava Anthropic Torrential Basin - Prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil BRICIU


    Full Text Available One problem discussed by urban hydrology today is the draining influence of the modern cities over the natural drainage systems. The increasing urban areas and of their imperviousness all over theworld is linked to floods shape modifications and unpredicted systemic implications.  Generally, the draining influence of a city over its environment begins when it has a surface great enough to create an anthropic-generated runoff during a rain with enoughprecipitations to provoke waters accumulation into street torrents. The size, imperviousness, precipitations, drainage system and water consumption of the Suceava city are analysed in order to estimate the discharge of the city into Suceava river at various rainfalls. The article is structured as follows:1. Argumentation on the class separation between natural and anthropic torrential basins.2. Placing Suceava city as one of the torrential anthropic basins in Romania using basic arguments.3. Extending one of the argument, the importance of the rainfalls, in more detailed discussions (rainfall characteristics mainly, but also its cumulative effect with the floods on the Suceava river and the consumption of water in the city, with two scenarios. 4. The city is analysed as being integrated into a metropolitan area which can exacerbate the influence of the main city over the surrounding natural drainage basins nearby that area.5. Conclusions, where measures are proposed in order to diminish the potential negative effects on environment and human society.This article is only an introduction to a more detailed analysis which will be complete with further field data.

  6. Survey of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in the UK by the QA group on behalf of the UK SABR Consortium (United States)

    Baker, A; Scott, A J D; Webster, G J


    Objective: To ascertain the progress being made towards the implementation of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) treatment in the UK, to obtain details of current practice in centres with an active treatment programme and to assess the projected future provision. Methods: In August 2012, an online questionnaire was sent to all 65 UK radiotherapy institutions. The included questions covered the current number of patients being treated and the intended number of patients for each clinical site; immobilization and motion management methods; CT scanning protocols; target and organ-at-risk delineation; treatment planning; image-guidance and treatment protocols; and quality assurance methods. Results: 48/65 (74%) institutions responded by the end of November 2012, with 15 indicating an active SABR programme. A further four centres indicated that a SABR protocol had been established but was not yet in clinical use. 14 of the 29 remaining responses stated an intention to develop a SABR programme in the next 2 years. Conclusion: The survey responses confirm that SABR provision in the UK is increasing and that this should be expected to continue in the next 2 years. A projection of the future uptake would suggest that by the end of 2014, UK SABR provision will be broadly in line with international practice. PMID:24620840

  7. Free energy basin-hopping (United States)

    Sutherland-Cash, K. H.; Wales, D. J.; Chakrabarti, D.


    A global optimisation scheme is presented using basin-hopping with the acceptance criterion based on approximate free energy for the corresponding local minima of the potential energy. The method is illustrated for atomic and colloidal clusters and peptides to examine how the predicted global free energy minimum changes with temperature. Using estimates for the local free energies based on harmonic vibrational densities of states provides a computationally effective framework for predicting trends in structure at finite temperature. The resulting scheme represents a powerful tool for exploration of energy landscapes throughout molecular science.

  8. Understanding trans-basin floods (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Zimmer, J.; Thieken, A. H.; Merz, B.


    Trans-basin floods are extreme events occurring on a regional scale and across catchment boundaries. They are the consequence of highly complex and inextricably linked processes involving atmospheric conditions, runoff generation and concentration in the catchment, and in-channel wave propagation. To understand trans-basin floods the dynamics of these processes have to be analysed over a range of temporal scales including preconditioning factors, like monthly anomalies of climatic conditions; initial factors, such as the immediate flood producing weather system or the catchment state on a daily scale and maintaining factors, such as persistent regimes determining the progression of a flood event. These mechanisms can be understood by analysing past events. Therefore a set of trans-basin events was developed for a period of 51 years (1952-2002) analysing time series of daily mean discharge at 170 gauges of rivers in the central European basins Elbe, Danube, Rhine, Weser and Ems. A novel indicator including both the spatial extent of the event as well as the magnitude of the discharges in the rivers allows comparing events with respect to their severity. Reanalysis data (i.e. ECMWF ERA-40 and NCEP Reanalysis I) were used to examine the general circulation patterns during the events. Further, a high-quality dataset of daily precipitation for over 2300 stations in Germany was used to trace the water supply of the events on all the three temporal scales. Several atmospheric parameters, such as water vapour content or temperature anomalies, were derived for the affected flooding area to serve as possible indicators common to a majority of the events. The causative general circulation patterns could be grouped into three types with 1) more or less zonally progressing baroclinic disturbances within the planetary frontal zone, 2) zonal flow retarded by a quasi-stationary air mass boundary (blocking situation to the East) and 3) slowly moving cut-off lows with abundant meso

  9. Plankton Respiration from the Cellular to the Basin Scale (United States)

    Robinson, C.; Garcia-Martin, E. E.; Hull, T.; Kitidis, V. A.; Ostle, C.; Serret, P.; Tilstone, G.


    Estimates of marine plankton respiration provide an important constraint on the magnitude of the biological carbon pump and global elemental nutrient cycles, yet respiration remains one of the least constrained terms in models of metabolism, gas exchange and carbon mass balance. This is due in part to the difficulty in measuring both total oceanic respiration and that attributable to specific plankton groups or size classes and the resulting lack of earth observation algorithms. Respiration in the surface layer of the ocean is usually estimated from either the consumption of dissolved oxygen in a contained sample volume or from enzymatic proxies such as INT, and is less frequently determined from mixed layer oxygen utilisation, allometric equations or biomass / abundance spectra.As part of a tracer release (SF6) experiment in the Mauritanian upwelling and a seasonal study of UK shelf sea biogeochemistry, we measured plankton respiration using a range of methods which span time and space scales from cells to the mixed layer and hours to years. This presentation will compare and contrast these concurrent measurements with a view to assessing the range of variability in respiration relative to that in primary production alongside measures of parameters such as plankton community structure and organic carbon availability which may lead to this variability. In addition, by comparing between systems and between seasons in the same system, and utilising the available global dataset, we aim to test predictive empirical models of respiration in an attempt to extrapolate to the basin scale.

  10. Seismic Characterization of the Jakarta Basin (United States)

    Cipta, A.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Masturyono, M.; Rudyanto, A.; Irsyam, M.


    Jakarta, Indonesia, is home to more than 10 million people. Many of these people live in seismically non-resilient structures in an area that historical records suggest is prone to earthquake shaking. The city lies in a sedimentary basin composed of Quaternary alluvium that experiences rapid subsidence (26 cm/year) due to groundwater extraction. Forecasts of how much subsidence may occur in the future are dependent on the thickness of the basin. However, basin geometry and sediment thickness are poorly known. In term of seismic hazard, thick loose sediment can lead to high amplification of seismic waves, of the kind that led to widespread damage in Mexico city during the Michoacan Earthquake of 1985. In order to characterize basin structure, a temporary seismograph deployment was undertaken in Jakarta in Oct 2013- Jan 2014. A total of 96 seismic instrument were deployed throughout Jakarta were deployed throughout Jakarta at 3-5 km spacing. Ambient noise tomography was applied to obtain models of the subsurface velocity structure. Important key, low velocity anomalies at short period (<8s) correspond to the main sedimentary sub-basins thought to be present based on geological interpretations of shallow stratigraphy in the Jakarta Basin. The result shows that at a depth of 300 m, shear-wave velocity in the northern part (600 m/s) of the basin is lower than that in the southern part. The most prominent low velocity structure appears in the northwest of the basin, down to a depth of 800 m, with velocity as low as 1200 m/s. This very low velocity indicates the thickness of sediment and the variability of basin geometry. Waveform computation using SPECFEM2D shows that amplification due to basin geometry occurs at the basin edge and the thick sediment leads to amplification at the basin center. Computation also shows the longer shaking duration occurrs at the basin edge and center of the basin. The nest step will be validating the basin model using earthquake events

  11. Basin-scale relations via conditioning (United States)

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.; Guertin, D.P.


    A rainfall-runoff model is used in conjunction with a probabilistic description of the input to this model to obtain simple regression-like relations for basin runoff in terms of basin and storm characteristics. These relations, similar to those sought in regionalization studies, are computed by evaluating the conditional distribution of model output given basin and storm characteristics. This method of conditioning provides a general way of examining model sensitivity to various components of model input. The resulting relations may be expected to resemble corresponding relations obtained by regionalization using actual runoff to the extent that the rainfall-runoff model and the model input specification are physically realistic. The probabilistic description of model input is an extension of so-called "random-model" of channel networks and involves postulating an ensemble of basins and associated probability distributions that mimic the variability of basin characteristics seen in nature. Application is made to small basins in the State of Wyoming. Parameters of the input variable distribution are estimated using data from Wyoming, and basin-scale relations are estimated both, parametrically and nonparametrically using model-generated runoff from simulated basins. Resulting basin-scale relations involving annual flood quantiles are in reasonable agreement with those presented in a previous regionalization study, but error estimates are smaller than those in the previous study, an artifact of the simplicity of the rainfall-runoff model used in this paper. We also obtain relations for peak of the instantaneous unit hydrograph which agree fairly well with theoretical relations given in the literature. Finally, we explore the issues of sensitivity of basin-scale, relations and error estimates to parameterization of the model input probability distribution and of how this sensitivity is related to making inferences about a particular ungaged basin. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Stratigraphic Signatures of Forearc Basin Formation Mechanisms (United States)

    Mannu, U.; Ueda, K.; Gerya, T.; Willett, S.; Strasser, M.


    Forearc basins are loci of active sedimentation above the landward portion of accretionary prisms. Although these basins typically remain separated from the frontal prism by a forearc high, their evolution has a significant impact on the structure and deformation of the entire wedge. Formation of forearc basins has been proposed as a consequence of changes in wedge stability due to an increase of slab dip in subduction zones. Another hypothesis attributes this to higher hinterland sedimentation, which causes the rear of the wedge to stabilize and eventually develop a forearc basin. Basin stratigraphic architecture, revealed by high-resolution reflection seismic data and borehole data allows interpretation of structural development of the accretionary prism and associated basins with the goal of determining the underlying driving mechanism(s) of basin formation. In this study we supplement data interpretation with thermo-mechanical numerical models including high-resolution isochronal surface tracking to visualize the developing stratigraphy of basins that develop in subduction zone and wedge dynamic models. We use a dynamic 2D thermo mechanical model incorporating surface processes, strain weakening and sediment subduction. The model is a modification of I2VIS model, which is based on conservative, fully staggered finite differences and a non-diffusive marker- in-cell technique capable of modelling mantle convection. In the model different driving mechanisms for basin formation can be explored. Stratigraphic simulations obtained by isochronal surface tracking are compared to reflection pattern and stratigraphy of seismic and borehole data, respectively. Initial results from a model roughly representing the Nankai Trough Subduction Zone offshore Japan are compared to available seismic and Integrated Ocean Drilling (IODP) data. A calibrated model predicting forearc basin stratigraphy will be used to discern the underlying process of basins formation and wedge

  13. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun


    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  14. Evaluating the UK and Dutch defined benefit policies using the holistic balance sheet framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Pelsser, A.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    This paper compares the UK and Dutch occupational defined-benefit pension policies using the holistic balance sheet (HBS) framework. The UK DB pension system differs from the Dutch one in terms of the steering tools and adjustment mechanisms. In addition to the sponsor guarantee, the UK system has

  15. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Johnson, L.; Jebb, S.A.; Wardle, J.


    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tectonic events largely controlled the evolution of the coastal basin of Tanzania and the. Indian Ocean. These included the Karoo rifting during Permo-Triassic, the break up of the. Gondwana Supercontinent, which started with rifting in the Triassic period, the opening of the Somali basin in the Middle Jurassic, and the ...

  17. Fractal basins in an ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Djellit


    Full Text Available Complex dynamics is detected in an ecological model of host-parasitoid interaction. It illustrates fractalization of basins with self-similarity and chaotic attractors. This paper describes these dynamic behaviors, bifurcations, and chaos. Fractals basins are displayed by numerical simulations.

  18. Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program (United States)

    Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson


    The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...

  19. Attractors and basins of dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Dénes


    Full Text Available There are several programs for studying dynamical systems, but none of them is very useful for investigating basins and attractors of higher dimensional systems. Our goal in this paper is to show a new algorithm for finding even chaotic attractors and their basins for these systems. We present an implementation and examples for the use of this program.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sub-basins, and their subsequent projection are derived from the Population Census .... Social scientists are inclined to consider the impact of social, cultural and institutional fac- tors on population-environment relationships, and much recent research .... river sub-basin at each point in time during the projection period.

  1. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected ...

  2. Sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected East Africa.

  3. Triassic conodonts of the Slovenian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser


    Full Text Available Slovenian Basin was formed during the Ladinian following disintegration of the Slovenian Carbonate Platform. It persisted continuously until the Late Cretaceous. Several conodont asscociations were recognized within the Triassic rocks of the Slovenian Basin. Stratigraphically significant species belong to the genera Budurovignathus, Epigondolella, Gladigondolella, Metapolygnathus, Misikella, Neogondolella, Nicoraella, Norigondolellaand Paragondolella.

  4. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan basin is a classic example of Proterozoic intracontinental basin that developed in ... The Vindhyan strata define a broad, regional syncline trending ..... influenced inner shelf setting. (C hak rab orty and. B ose. 1990). Se m ri. G roup. R o h tas. F o rm ation. Th is formation b egin s w ith m assiv e, p lan e-lamin.

  5. Basins of Attraction for Chimera States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Panaggio, Mark; Abrams, Daniel


    evaluate asymptotic states and associated destination maps, and demonstrate that basins form a complex twisting structure in phase space. Understanding the basins' precise nature may help in the development of control methods to switch between chimera patterns, with possible technological and neural system...

  6. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.


    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  7. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  8. Evaluating UK research in speech and language therapy. (United States)

    Lewison, Grant; Carding, Paul


    There has been a steady growth in recent years in British higher-degree training in speech and language therapy. But what is the standing of UK research in the subject and its component areas which should underpin and inform such training? How can such research be evaluated? The intention was to compare UK publications relevant to speech and language therapy with those of other countries, both quantitatively and qualitatively. We sought then to examine the UK papers in more detail to analyse their sources of funding, their geographical distribution and the ways in which they could appropriately be evaluated. Papers were selectively retrieved from the Science Citation Index and the Social Sciences Citation Index for 1991-2000 by means of a filter based on journal names and paper title words. They were subsequently checked to remove many false positives. The papers were classified into one of seven subject areas and by their research level (from clinical to basic). Their importance was estimated through their potential impact on other researchers, as determined by the citation score of their journals, by the numbers of citations they actually received and by the subjective esteem in which the various journals were held by UK speech and language researchers. World output of speech and language therapy papers has averaged 1000 papers per year during the 1990s, and has grown by half over the period. UK output has been about 12% of the total, compared with 10% in biomedicine, and is published in high impact journals relative to the norm for the field, which is quite a low rate compared with biomedicine overall. Almost half the UK papers had no funding acknowledgements, with the private-non-profit and industrial sectors playing less of a role than in other biomedical areas. Papers in seven subject areas showed substantial differences in their performance on the four criteria selected. The state of British speech and language research appears to be satisfactory, with an

  9. Long Term Large Scale river nutrient changes across the UK (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Naden, Pam; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Helen; Davies, Jessica; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Quinton, John; Stuart, Marianne; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai


    During recent decades and centuries, pools and fluxes of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (C, N and P) in UK rivers and ecosystems have been transformed by the spread and fertiliser-based intensification of agriculture (necessary to sustain human populations), by atmospheric pollution, by human waste (rising in line with population growth), and now by climate change. The principal objective of the UK's NERC-funded Macronutrients LTLS research project has been to account for observable terrestrial and aquatic pools, concentrations and fluxes of C, N and P on the basis of past inputs, biotic and abiotic interactions, and transport processes. More specifically, over the last 200 years, what have been the temporal responses of plant and soil nutrient pools in different UK catchments to nutrient enrichment, and what have been the consequent effects on nutrient transfers from land to the atmosphere, freshwaters and estuaries? The work described here addresses the second question by providing an integrated quantitative description of the interlinked land and water pools and annual fluxes of C, N and P for UK catchments over time. A national-scale modelling environment has been developed, combining simple physically-based gridded models that can be parameterised using recent observations before application to long timescales. The LTLS Integrated Model (LTLS-IM) uses readily-available driving data (climate, land-use, nutrient inputs, topography), and model estimates of both terrestrial and freshwater nutrient loads have been compared with measurements from sites across the UK. Here, the focus is on the freshwater nutrient component of the LTLS-IM, but the terrestrial nutrient inputs required for this are provided by models of nutrient processes in semi-natural and agricultural systems, and from simple models of nutrients arising from human waste. In the freshwater model, lateral routing of dissolved and particulate nutrients and within-river processing such as

  10. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins – the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater

  11. Basins in ARC-continental collisions (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio


    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  12. Hydrological research basins and the environment (United States)

    Alley, V. M.; Warmerdam, P. M. M.

    The role and relative importance of experimental and representative basins in pre-dieting anthropogenic effects on water resources and the environment was the goal of the International Conference on Hydrological Research Basins and the Environment, held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, September 24-28, 1990. About 70 persons, almost exclusively from Europe, attended the meeting, which was organized by the Committee of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins and the National Committee of the Netherlands for the International Hydrological Program of Unesco.During the conference, the 3rd General Meeting of the European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins was held. This network of basins, covering nine countries in Europe, organizes periodic meetings and tries to enhance the compatibility of observations and methods of analysis, and to implement research projects of common interest.

  13. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  14. The medline UK filter: development and validation of a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline. (United States)

    Ayiku, Lynda; Levay, Paul; Hudson, Tom; Craven, Jenny; Barrett, Elizabeth; Finnegan, Amy; Adams, Rachel


    A validated geographic search filter for the retrieval of research about the United Kingdom (UK) from bibliographic databases had not previously been published. To develop and validate a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline with high recall and precision. Three gold standard sets of references were generated using the relative recall method. The sets contained references to studies about the UK which had informed National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance. The first and second sets were used to develop and refine the medline UK filter. The third set was used to validate the filter. Recall, precision and number-needed-to-read (NNR) were calculated using a case study. The validated medline UK filter demonstrated 87.6% relative recall against the third gold standard set. In the case study, the medline UK filter demonstrated 100% recall, 11.4% precision and a NNR of nine. A validated geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK with high recall and precision has been developed. The medline UK filter can be applied to systematic literature searches in OVID medline for topics with a UK focus. © 2017 Crown copyright. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2017 Health Libraries GroupThis article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  15. Large-scale innovation and change in UK higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brown


    Full Text Available This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ technology to deliver such changes. Key lessons that emerged from these experiences are reviewed covering themes of pervasiveness, unofficial systems, project creep, opposition, pressure to deliver, personnel changes and technology issues. The paper argues that collaborative approaches to project management offer greater prospects of effective large-scale change in universities than either management-driven top-down or more champion-led bottom-up methods. It also argues that while some diminution of control over project outcomes is inherent in this approach, this is outweighed by potential benefits of lasting and widespread adoption of agreed changes.

  16. Financing Corporate Rescues, Where Does the UK Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpareva Aruoriwo


    Full Text Available In this paper Akpareva Aruoriwo aims to evaluate the adequacy of the framework available for the financing of corporate rescues in the UK. She examines the legal provision made for prioritising creditors who get involved after an insolvency has been declared, with reference to examples from America and Canada. Without post-insolvency funding, companies may find it very difficult to survive, and without protection for post-insolvency creditors, those creditors may not wish to provide this sort of funding. The author examines the arguments for and against this kind of creditor protection, looking at past calls for reforms to the law and the preparedness of the UK to adopt any reforms.

  17. UK role 4 military infection services: past, present and future. (United States)

    Dufty, Ngozi E; Bailey, M S


    NATO describes 'Role 4' military medical services as those provided for the definitive care of patients who cannot be treated within a theatre of operations and these are usually located in a military force's country of origin and may include the involvement of civilian medical services. The UK Defence Medical Services have a proud history of developing and providing clinical services in infectious diseases and tropical medicine, sexual health and HIV medicine, and medical microbiology and virology. These UK Role 4 Military Infection Services have adapted well to recent overseas deployments, but new challenges will arise due to current military cutbacks and a greater diversity of contingency operations in the future. Further evidence-based development of these services will require leadership by military clinicians and improved communication and support for 'reach-back' services.

  18. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform. (United States)

    Morris, Lydia


    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  19. [Career guidance for registered nurse in the UK]. (United States)

    Simón Melchor, Lucía; Simón Melchor, Alba


    Cuts in temporary contracts has had big consequences for newly qualified nurses with regards to finding employment. This cut in contracts has resulted in a doubling in the rate of unemployment in this profession. In the past nurses emigrated to other countries for purposes like knowledge of the language or to extend their training and experience, however today the emigration has become the only way out for many professional nurses. The reputation of nurses in Spain is recognised internationally, with the UK being one of the countries with the largest demand for Spanish nurses. Due to the great amount of job opportunities that are emerging in the UK, nurses need help and guidance in their careers, and also nurses need training in areas such as Professional Body, developing a curriculum, facing an interview etc...

  20. Evaluation of the status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK. (United States)

    Waining, M; Young, I S; Williams, S B


    To establish the current status of canine hydrotherapy in the UK and to ascertain information regarding the current use of hydrotherapy, a questionnaire was sent to 152 hydrotherapy centres throughout the UK, from which 89 responded. Hydrotherapy was found to be a rapidly growing business. Stand-alone centres were in existence; however, many centres were connected to other businesses, including boarding kennels and general practice veterinary surgeries. The dogs using the facility were mainly pedigree breeds, particularly labrador retrievers (30 per cent), and the most commonly encountered conditions were rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (25 per cent), hip dysplasia (24 per cent) and osteoarthritis (18 per cent). The proportion of qualified versus unqualified staff varied between centres, highlighting a need for improved regulation of this aspect of the industry. However, all the dogs treated by the hydrotherapy centres surveyed were direct veterinary referrals, suggesting a good degree of professionalism in the field and a high regard for the benefits of hydrotherapy.

  1. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK. (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D


    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  2. Attitudes towards protective headgear in UK rugby union players


    Barnes, Andrew; Rumbold, James L; Olusoga, Peter


    Background/aim Concussions in rugby union pose a major threat to player welfare. Research has found protective headgear offers no significant protection against concussions but suggests a large proportion of players perceive headgear to be effective in preventing concussions. This study aimed to explore UK rugby union players’ attitudes towards wearing protective headgear.\\ud \\ud \\ud Methods 545 rugby union players (85% male) from a range of playing standards completed an online survey. Quant...

  3. Determinants of satisfaction amongst tenants of UK Offices


    Sanderson, Danielle C.; Edwards, Victoria M.


    Purpose – Corporate Occupiers require offices and services which meet their business needs, whilst\\ud landlords must attract and retain occupiers in order to maximise occupancy and rental income. The purpose\\ud of this research is to help landlords and corporate occupiers understand each other better, in order to achieve a mutually beneficial relationship.\\ud Design/methodology/approach - This paper analyses interviews with 1334 office tenants in the UK,\\ud conducted over an 11-year period, t...

  4. Experience, age and exporting performance in UK SMEs


    Love, James H.; Roper, Stephen; Zhou, Ying


    We consider the determinants of SME exporting performance using a survey of internationally engaged UK SMEs. We first develop a model incorporating organisational and prior managerial learning effects. Our empirical analysis then allows us to identify separately the positive effects on exporting from the international experience of the firm and the negative effects of firm age. Positive exporting effects also result from grafted knowledge – acquired by the recruitment of management with prior...

  5. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups


    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Mickes, Laura


    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details ...

  6. Gene-obesogenic environment interactions in the UK Biobank study


    Tyrrell, J.; Wood, AR; Ames, RM; Yaghootkar, H; Beaumont, RN; Jones, SE; Tuke, MA; Ruth, KS; Freathy, RM; Davey Smith, G.; S. Joost; Guessous, I; Murray, A.; Strachan, DP; Kutalik, Z.


    Background: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI).Methods: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity. We used BMI as the outcome a...

  7. Renal artery sympathetic denervation:observations from the UK experience


    Sharp, Andrew S.P.; Davies, Justin E; Lobo, Melvin D.; Bent, Clare L.; Mark, Patrick B.; Burchell, Amy E; Thackray, Simon D.; Martin, Una; McKane, William S.; Gerber, Robert T.; Wilkinson, James R.; Antonios, Tarek F.; Doulton, Timothy W.; Patterson, Tiffany; Clifford, Piers C.


    Background Renal denervation (RDN) may lower blood pressure (BP); however, it is unclear whether medication changes may be confounding results. Furthermore, limited data exist on pattern of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response?particularly in those prescribed aldosterone antagonists at the time of RDN. Methods We examined all patients treated with RDN for treatment-resistant hypertension in 18 UK centres. Results Results from 253 patients treated with five technologies are shown. Pre-proc...

  8. Proposal for establishment of the UK Cranial Reconstruction Registry (UKCRR). (United States)

    Kolias, Angelos G; Bulters, Diederik O; Cowie, Christopher J; Wilson, Mark H; Afshari, Fardad T; Helmy, Adel; Broughton, Ellie; Joannides, Alexis J; Zebian, Bassel; Harrisson, Stuart E; Hill, Ciaran S; Ahmed, Animul I; Barone, Damiano G; Thakur, Bhaskar; McMahon, Catherine J; Adlam, David M; Bentley, Robert P; Tolias, Christos M; Mitchell, Patrick M; Whitfield, Peter C; Critchley, Giles R; Belli, Antonio; Brennan, Paul M; Hutchinson, Peter J


    The increasing utilisation of decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury and stroke has led to an increase in the number of cranioplasties undertaken. Cranioplasty is also undertaken following excision of tumours originating from or invading the skull vault, removal of bone flaps due to post-operative infection, and decompressive craniectomy for the management of rarer causes of brain oedema and/or refractory intracranial hypertension. The existing literature which mainly consists of single-centre, retrospective studies, shows a significant variation in practice patterns and a wide range of morbidity. There also exists a need to measure the outcome as perceived by the patients themselves with patient reported outcome measures (PROMs; functional outcome, quality of life, satisfaction with cosmesis). In the UK, the concept of long-term surveillance of neurosurgical implants is well established with the UK shunt registry. Based on this background, we propose to establish the UK Cranial Reconstruction Registry (UKCRR). The overarching aim of the UKCRR is to collect high-quality data about cranioplasties undertaken across the UK and Ireland in order to improve outcomes for patients. Any patient undergoing reconstruction of the skull vault with autologous bone, titanium, or synthetic material in participating units will be eligible for inclusion. Data will be submitted directly by participating units to the Outcome Registry Intervention and Operation Network secure platform. A Steering Committee will be responsible for overseeing the strategic direction and running of the UKCRR. These will include re-operation due to a cranioplasty-related issue, surgical site infection, re-admission due to a cranioplasty-related issue, unplanned post-operative escalation of care, adverse events, length of stay in admitting unit, destination at discharge from admitting unit, mortality at discharge from admitting unit, neurological status and PROMs during routine follow-up. The

  9. Determinants of Small Business Presence in Japanese and UK Manufacturing


    土井, 教之; Cowling, Mark


    The present paper has attempted to examine determinants of small business(SMEs) presence in Japanese and UK manufacturing industries, using a cross-industry model. The results suggest that market structure elements have a definite influence on SMEs' share. This conclusion is consistent with the findings observed in the US and other European countries. The main results here are the following; (1) Concentration is negatively related to SMEs' share. (2) Capital intensity and requirements have a ...

  10. Fracking for shale in the UK: risks, reputation and regulation


    Jones, Peter; Comfort, Daphne; Hillier, David


    Fracking, the exploitation of shale gas reserves, has become one of the most contentious energy-related issues in the world. New technologies have made once-unprofitable fields open to exploitation. This chapter examines fracking in the UK, a case study that illuminates the technology and politics of the procedure in many places. It situates British fracking within changing manifolds of global energy supply and demand as well as wider debates about energy security. It also explains the techni...

  11. The advertising creative process:a study of UK agencies


    Turnbull, Sarah; Wheeler, Colin H.


    Advertising agencies are hired to develop creative advertising for their clients. This paper explores the advertising creative process used by agencies when developing new creative work. Using in-depth interviews with 21 agency practitioners in the United Kingdom (UK) this study examines the stages that take place within the advertising creative process. Findings suggest the process is made up of a series of sequentially linked stages and illustrate how agencies validate advertising creative ...

  12. Reassessing employer expectations of graduates in UK travel services


    Major, Bridget; Evans, Nigel


    This article sets out to ascertain travel and tourism industries employers' views on degrees. Research of this kind and on this scale has not previously been carried out and a large scale survey of industry views was conducted with key issues identified and discussed. These cover topics such as the employment of graduates within the UK travel services industry, views on their contribution and appropriateness, the types of skills that such degrees provide, salary scales and graduate training s...

  13. Phalangiotarbid arachnids from the coal measures of Lancashire, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, J.A.; Horrocks, C.A. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    Four new specimens of phalangiotarbid (arachnida: Phalangiotarbida) from the Upper Carboniferous (upper Westphalian A) of Westhoughton, Lancashire, UK, are referred to Mesotarbus peteri sp. nov. an additional Lancashire phalangiotarbid, Phalangiotarbus subovalis (Woodward, 1872), from the Upper Carboniferous (lower/middle Westphalian A) of Burnley, is redescribed and designated the neotype of this species. This material allows new interpretations of the opisthosomal segmentation and respiratory organs of phalangiotarbids, and a reconstruction of Mesotarbus peteri is presented.

  14. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report


    Leininger Brent; Evans Roni; Haas Mitch; Bronfort Gert; Triano Jay


    Abstract Background The purpose of this report is to provide a succinct but comprehensive summary of the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual treatment for the management of a variety of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal conditions. Methods The conclusions are based on the results of systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), widely accepted and primarily UK and United States evidence-based clinical guidelines, plus the results of all RCTs not yet incl...

  15. A survey of statistics in three UK general practice journal


    Rigby, A S; Armstrong, G K; Campbell, M J; Summerton, N


    Abstract Background Many medical specialities have reviewed the statistical content of their journals. To our knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a diagnostician we thought it would be of interest to see whether the statistical methods reported reflect the diagnostic process. Methods Hand search of three UK journals of general practice namely the British Medical Journal (general practice section), British Journal of General Pr...

  16. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in the UK in 2009. (United States)

    Wagner, Karen S; White, Joanne M; Andrews, Nick J; Borrow, Ray; Stanford, Elaine; Newton, Emma; Pebody, Richard G


    This study aimed to estimate the immunity of the UK population to tetanus and diphtheria, including the potential impact of new glycoconjugatate vaccines, and the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster in 1994. Residual sera (n=2697) collected in England in 2009/10 were selected from 18 age groups and tested for tetanus and diphtheria antibody. Results were standardised by testing a panel of sera (n=150) to enable comparison with a previously (1996) published serosurvey. Data were then standardised to the UK population. In 2009, 83% of the UK population were protected (≥0.1 IU/mL) against tetanus compared to 76% in 1996 (p=0.079), and 75% had at least basic protection against diphtheria (≥0.01 IU/mL) in 2009 compared to 60% in 1996 (pdiphtheria. Higher diphtheria immunity was observed in those aged 16-34 years in 2009 compared to 1996 (geometric mean concentration [GMC] 0.15 IU/mL vs. 0.03 IU/mL, pdiphtheria in 2009 were 29% susceptible), 45-69 years (>20% susceptible) and 70+ years (>32% susceptible). Low immunity was observed in those aged 10-11 years (>19% susceptible), between the scheduled preschool and school leaver booster administration. The current schedule appears to induce protective levels; increases in the proportions protected/GMCs were observed for the ages receiving vaccinations according to UK policy. Glycoconjugate vaccines appear to have increased immunity, in particular for diphtheria, in preschool age groups. Diphtheria immunity in teenagers and young adults has increased as a result of the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster. However, currently older adults remain susceptible, without any further opportunities for immunisations planned according to the present schedule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surprising Selection Effects in the UK Car Insurance Market


    Cannon, Edmund; Cipriani, Giam Pietro; Bazar-Rosen, Katia


    We document a large and persistent anomaly in the UK car insurance market over the period 2012-13: insurance companies charged a higher premium for third-party (liability) insurance than comprehensive insurance (which includes third-party). Furthermore, some companies charged higher prices for comprehensive policies with larger deductibles. This evidence suggests both that consumers are too confused or too poorly informed to arbitrage and that sellers of car insurance do not implement the inc...

  18. The Determinants of Employee Crime in the UK


    Neil Rickman; Robert Witt


    For the first time, we present evidence on employee theft in the UK using data on actual recorded crime. We present a model where employees are ‘rational cheaters’ with ‘consciences’ to produce hypotheses about the role of labour market (wages, unemployment) and social (age, education) influences on employee theft. We then examine the role of these influences using regional crime data supplemented by data from the LFS. Our results provide information on two competing views of motivations for ...

  19. Factors influencing improved attendance in the UK fire service


    Litchfield, I; Hinckley, P.


    Background Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of ?29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. Aims To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explor...

  20. Resurgence in home haemodialysis: perspectives from the UK. (United States)

    Mitra, Sandip; Brady, Mark; O'Donoghue, Donal


    Improvement in dialysis outcomes requires a paradigm shift in haemodialysis provision and service design. Haemodialysis at home, recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, can lead to outcome benefits but has a range of implementation barriers. This article describes the various initiatives in the UK at local, regional and national levels, to provide greater patient choice and autonomy, overcome adoption barriers and enable greater uptake of this modality.

  1. Trends in evaporation loss over the UK: 1962 to 2013 (United States)

    Blyth, Eleanor; Robinson, Emma; Martinez de la Torre, Alberto


    Many models of hydrology assume that an increase in air temperature will result in an increase in evaporation. However, there are some processes involved in transpiration (evaporation through the vegetation) that make the relationship more complicated: in a bid to conserve water, vegetation will reduce their stomata in response to drier soils and warmer drier air which leads to lower transpiration rates despite higher evaporative demands. In addition, the vegetation responds to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide by closing their stomata, and this further reduces the transpiration. The JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) model, used widely in the UK to study the impacts of climate change on the environment, includes many of the processes that are likely to affect changes in water loss and its impact on large scale hydrology. A new assessment of the UK wide water balance for the last 52 years (1961 to 2013) at a 1km grid-scale has been made using this model in a system called CHESS (Climate Hydrology and Ecology research Support System). Some data is available to check the overall water balance. For instance, river flow data can be used at an annual time scale to capture the water balance, while evaporation data from flux towers can be used at some locations around the UK for the few years that it is available to evaluate the seasonal variations of evaporation. Both of these methods provide imperfect but useful evidence. Here we present the results of the modelling exercise and the evaluation: long term increasing evaporation loss trends are clearly present in the model output and these are discussed with respect to the different drivers of change.

  2. Evidence of Historical Mining Impacts on Saltmarshes from east Cornwall, UK (United States)

    Iurian, Andra-Rada; Taylor, Alex; Millward, Geoff; Blake, William


    In landscapes with extensive mining history, saltmarshes can become sinks for contaminants that are vulnerable to release with sea-level rise and increased storminess. Given the prolonged residence time of heavy metals in the environment, data is urgently required to contextualise the impacts of past and present mining and pollution events and provide a baseline against which to assess Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC) compliance within an integrated catchment management framework. The geology of east Cornwall, UK (with intrusions of granite into the surrounding sedimentary rocks) was favourable for a prosperous mining industry, although large scale operations did not start until about 1830. Tin, cooper, lead and tungsten were the most important ores in the region. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal extent of contamination from past mining, sediment cores were collected from three saltmarshes, namely: Antony Marsh and Treluggan Marsh on the Lower Basin of River Lynher, and Port Eliot Marsh on the Lower Basin of River Tiddy. Core sections at 1 cm intervals were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry for Pb-210, Ra-226, Cs-137 and Am-241, and the well-established Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was employed to derive Pb-210 geochronology with bomb-derived Cs-137 and Am-241 as independent chronological markers. The geochronological data provided the sedimentary accumulation and temporal context for the study. In terms of sediment quality with respect to mining pollution, core sections were analysed using Q-ICP-MS techniques and, additionally, WD-XRF instrumentation at Plymouth University. Measurements were performed for target elements that are normally associated with mining and smelting activities (e.g. Pb, Cu, Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, etc.), and lithogenic elements (e.g. Fe, Al, Ti) that allow enrichment factors for the anthropogenically-derived elements to be determined. The grain size distribution was determined to identify storminess events and to

  3. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK. (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John


    Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  4. Exploring leadership in the context of dentistry in the UK. (United States)

    Willcocks, Stephen George


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore selective leadership approaches in the context of dentistry in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper utilising published sources from relevant literature about leadership theory and practice and the policy background to dentistry in the UK. Findings This paper suggests that there is merit in identifying and applying an eclectic mix of leadership theory to the case of dentistry. It offers insight into individual aspects of the leadership role for dentists and applies this to the dental context. It also contrasts these individual approaches with shared leadership and suggests this may also be relevant to dentistry. It highlights the fact that leadership will be of growing concern for dentistry in the light of recent policy changes. Research limitations/implications This paper points out that there are developmental implications depending on the particular approach taken. It argues that leadership development will become increasingly important in dentistry in the UK. Originality/value This paper addresses a topic that has so far received limited attention in the literature.

  5. UK asbestos imports and mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (United States)

    Barber, C M; Wiggans, R E; Young, C; Fishwick, D


    Previous studies have demonstrated that the rising mortality due to mesothelioma and asbestosis can be predicted from historic asbestos usage. Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is also rising, without any apparent explanation. To compare mortality due to these conditions and examine the relationship between mortality and national asbestos imports. Mortality data for IPF and asbestosis in England and Wales were available from the Office for National Statistics. Data for mesothelioma deaths in England and Wales and historic UK asbestos import data were available from the Health & Safety Executive. The numbers of annual deaths due to each condition were plotted separately by gender, against UK asbestos imports 48 years earlier. Linear regression models were constructed. For mesothelioma and IPF, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of male and female deaths each year and historic UK asbestos imports. For asbestosis mortality, a similar relationship was found for male but not female deaths. The annual numbers of deaths due to asbestosis in both sexes were lower than for IPF and mesothelioma. The strength of the association between IPF mortality and historic asbestos imports was similar to that seen in an established asbestos-related disease, i.e. mesothelioma. This finding could in part be explained by diagnostic difficulties in separating asbestosis from IPF and highlights the need for a more accurate method of assessing lifetime occupational asbestos exposure. © Crown copyright 2015.

  6. Public preferences regarding rabies-prevention policies in the UK. (United States)

    Cox, M; Barbier, E B; White, P C; Newton-Cross, G A; Kinsella, L; Kennedy, H J


    The current 6-month quarantine system for all cats and dogs entering the UK has kept the UK rabies-free since 1922. However, pressure is mounting for a change to a system of vaccination, microchip identification and serological testing. In response to the increasing controversy surrounding the quarantine system, the UK government recently set up an independent review panel to assess the alternatives. This paper quantifies public preferences for the current policy and three alternative rabies-prevention measures. A survey was used not only to assess the overall preferences for rabies-prevention policies but also to assess the importance of policy attributes and socio-economic characteristics in determining policy preferences. We interviewed a sample of pet-owners in North Yorkshire. The results showed that the existing system was the single most-preferred policy option. However, a large proportion of the sample preferred the vaccination-based policies. A logistic-regression model and ordered probit models were used to find that safety and animal welfare were the most-important factors determining policy preferences. The respondents' awareness of the rabies-policy review, a desire to take a pet abroad, the amount of foreign travel, occupation and previous experience of quarantine were all important factors in policy choice. Socio-economic characteristics such as income, pets owned and the number of children were not significant determinants of policy preference.

  7. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail:, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)


    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  8. Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis. (United States)

    Nutt, David J; King, Leslie A; Phillips, Lawrence D


    Proper assessment of the harms caused by the misuse of drugs can inform policy makers in health, policing, and social care. We aimed to apply multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) modelling to a range of drug harms in the UK. Members of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, including two invited specialists, met in a 1-day interactive workshop to score 20 drugs on 16 criteria: nine related to the harms that a drug produces in the individual and seven to the harms to others. Drugs were scored out of 100 points, and the criteria were weighted to indicate their relative importance. MCDA modelling showed that heroin, crack cocaine, and metamfetamine were the most harmful drugs to individuals (part scores 34, 37, and 32, respectively), whereas alcohol, heroin, and crack cocaine were the most harmful to others (46, 21, and 17, respectively). Overall, alcohol was the most harmful drug (overall harm score 72), with heroin (55) and crack cocaine (54) in second and third places. These findings lend support to previous work assessing drug harms, and show how the improved scoring and weighting approach of MCDA increases the differentiation between the most and least harmful drugs. However, the findings correlate poorly with present UK drug classification, which is not based simply on considerations of harm. Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (UK). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey of intrathecal opioid usage in the UK. (United States)

    Giovannelli, M; Bedforth, N; Aitkenhead, A


    Intrathecal opioids are now used routinely in the UK for intra- and postoperative analgesia. The opioids of choice have altered over recent years and the dosage regimens used can vary between institutions. Concerns over safety have been reduced probably because much lower doses of opioids are now being used. This survey explored the practice of intrathecal opioid usage in the UK. We sent a questionnaire survey to 270 anaesthetic departments and received 199 replies, a response rate of 73.7%. Intrathecal opioids were used in 175 (88.4%) departments. Of these departments, 107 (61.1%) had local guidelines or protocols in place. Opioids such as diamorphine (used in 136 (78.2%) of departments) and fentanyl (129 (74.1%)) with a shorter duration of action are now more commonly used than morphine (37 (21.3%)) for intrathecal analgesia. In 96 (54.5%) departments, patients were nursed on regular surgical wards following administration of spinal opioids. The use of low-dose lipophilic intrathecal opioids for postoperative analgesia is widespread in the UK. Patients are commonly nursed in low-dependency post-anaesthetic care areas. The low incidence of adverse events reported by the respondents along with the popularity of the technique suggests that low-dose spinal opioid administration is safe.

  10. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups. (United States)

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M; Mickes, Laura


    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence-accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up.

  11. Medical student fitness to practise committees at UK medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Jocelyne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.

  12. An overview of occupational hazards amongst UK Otolaryngologists. (United States)

    Vijendren, Ananth; Yung, Matthew


    Occupational-related hazards (OH) are noted to be prevalent within the medical community. However, there is limited evidence of its effects amongst ENT surgeons. A national survey was carried out with the assistance of ENT-UK to investigate the prevalence of various OH amongst ENT doctors in the UK. A literature search was also conducted to search for articles within English literature worldwide on this subject. 70.6 % of the responding 323 ENT surgeons had reported a form of OH throughout their career. Musculoskeletal pain was the most commonly reported (47.4 %) followed by stress/psychiatric morbidities (38.4 %) and sharps injuries (26.6 %). We found no correlation between OH and consultants/non-consultant status, time spent in ENT and subspecialty. Our literature search revealed 16 articles pertaining to OH amongst ENT doctors. OHs are prevalent within the UK ENT community. There is good evidence within literature on musculoskeletal pain, however, higher level studies are required to thoroughly investigate the other hazards.

  13. Current use of early warning scores in UK emergency departments. (United States)

    Griffiths, James R; Kidney, Elizabeth M


    There is recent evidence that the modified early warning scoring systems (MEWS) in the emergency department (ED) can identify patients at risk of deterioration. However, concerns remain that they are not sensitive enough to use as a risk assessment tool. To assess use of MEWS in UK EDs. A postal survey was undertaken of 254 adult EDs within the UK. Questionnaires were sent to the clinical lead at each department about their use of early warning scoring systems. Responses were received from 145 departments giving a response rate of 57%. 87% of respondents are currently using early warning scores (EWS). Of those, 80% are using MEWS. In 71% high EWS results in senior ED review, however in 25% it does not. Less than half of departments use high MEWS to trigger critical care input. 93% of respondents support using EWS in the ED. Despite the lack of strong evidence, the majority of UK EDs are using EWS in some form. MEWS is the most commonly used but departments vary on their use of EWS for senior ED and/or critical care review. Over 90% of respondents in this survey support EWS in the ED.

  14. Storageless and caching Tier-2 models in the UK context (United States)

    Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Dewhurst, Alastair; Crooks, David; MacMahon, Ewan; Roy, Gareth; Smith, Oliver; Mohammed, Kashif; Brew, Chris; Britton, David


    Operational and other pressures have lead to WLCG experiments moving increasingly to a stratified model for Tier-2 resources, where “fat” Tier-2s (“T2Ds”) and “thin” Tier-2s (“T2Cs”) provide different levels of service. In the UK, this distinction is also encouraged by the terms of the current GridPP5 funding model. In anticipation of this, testing has been performed on the implications, and potential implementation, of such a distinction in our resources. In particular, this presentation presents the results of testing of storage T2Cs, where the “thin” nature is expressed by the site having either no local data storage, or only a thin caching layer; data is streamed or copied from a “nearby” T2D when needed by jobs. In OSG, this model has been adopted successfully for CMS AAA sites; but the network topology and capacity in the USA is significantly different to that in the UK (and much of Europe). We present the result of several operational tests: the in-production University College London (UCL) site, which runs ATLAS workloads using storage at the Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) site; the Oxford site, which has had scaling tests performed against T2Ds in various locations in the UK (to test network effects); and the Durham site, which has been testing the specific ATLAS caching solution of “Rucio Cache” integration with ARC’s caching layer.

  15. A survey of UK clinical librarianship: February 2004. (United States)

    Ward, Linda


    This article will describe a survey carried out in February 2004, the aim of which was to summarize the form and content of clinical librarian (CL) and other similar outreach information services to UK health professionals in the acute (secondary or tertiary) sector. (i) To survey the activities and views of UK information professionals offering information services involving the librarians' presence in the clinical setting, (ii) to develop a tool to explore critical aspects of this form of information work, (iii) to create a contacts database for UK CLs, to be made available on the Internet. All known information specialists/librarians offering CL or similar services were surveyed. The semi-structured questionnaire was piloted. Respondents were asked to consider their activity over a period of 4 weeks. Twenty-six people responded to the invitation to take part and met the inclusion criteria. A summary of a 'typical' clinical librarian revealed by this survey is given, with a major conclusion that there is a very mixed picture of activity. Opinion on how far CLs should go in fully appraising search results is uncertain. The survey suggests reasons for this and the developments that may influence change are discussed. Recommendations for future research and development are offered.

  16. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Wells


    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day.

  17. UK owner preferences for treatment of feline injection site sarcomas. (United States)

    Carwardine, D; Friend, E; Toscano, M; Bowlt, K


    Feline injection site sarcomas are therapeutically challenging because of their locally invasive nature. Several protocols recommend that the two perceived high-risk adjuvanted vaccines should be administered into distinct anatomical sites ("left hind leg leukaemia, right hind leg rabies"), which should aid surgical resection. This has resulted in a change in tumour distribution with an increased proportion situated caudal to the diaphragm when such a policy is adopted. The aim of this study was to determine UK cat owners' attitudes towards surgical treatments of different anatomical regions. A cross-sectional study of an anonymous convenience sample of UK cat owners was conducted from September to December, 2012 using an internet-based survey. There were a total of 208 respondents: 39% would pursue surgery regardless of tumour site. One percent would not pursue surgery. Of the remainder, respondents would not allow amputation of the forelimb (20%), hindlimb (15%) or tail (15%). Twenty-six, 32 and 27% would not have surgical treatment of the inter-scapular region, chest or abdomen, respectively. The majority of respondents were willing to travel up to 100 miles for radiotherapy or chemotherapy (66 and 69%, respectively). The current feline vaccine site recommendations may not be appropriate for UK cat owners. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Critical care pharmacy workforce: UK deployment and characteristics in 2015. (United States)

    Borthwick, Mark; Barton, Greg; Bourne, Richard S; McKenzie, Catherine


    Clinical pharmacists reduce medication errors and optimize the use of medication in critically ill patients, although actual staffing level and deployment of UK pharmacists is unknown. The primary aim was to investigate the UK deployment of the clinical pharmacy workforce in critical care and compare this with published standards. An electronic data entry tool was created and distributed for UK critical care pharmacy services to record their critical care workforce deployment data. Data were received for 279 critical care units in 171 organizations. Clinical pharmacist input was identified for 98.6% of critical care units. The median weekday pharmacist input to critical care was 0.045 whole time equivalents per Level 3 (ICU) bed with significant interregional variation. Weekend services were sparse. Pharmacists spent 24.5% of time on the multidisciplinary team ward round, 58.5% of time on independent patient review and 17% of time on other critical care professional support activities. There is significant variation in staffing levels when services are stratified by highest level of competence of critical care pharmacist within an organization (P = 0.03), with significant differences in time spent on the multi-disciplinary ward round (P = 0.010) and on other critical care activities (P = 0.009), but not on independent patient review. Investment in pharmacy services is required to improve access to clinical pharmacy expertise at weekends, on MDT ward rounds and for other critical care activities. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. A survey of clinical teaching fellowships in UK medical schools. (United States)

    Wilson, Sam; Denison, Alan R; McKenzie, Hamish


    Undergraduate medical education in the UK has changed considerably over the last decade. One development has involved the creation of teaching-specific posts for junior doctors by medical schools. These posts are generally termed 'clinical teaching fellowships', but it is not known how many of them exist, or whether they are similar in terms of educational activities, professional development, and research and clinical experience opportunities. Teaching deans in all UK medical schools were sent a questionnaire relating to clinical teaching fellowships, and were asked to distribute a second set of different questionnaires to their clinical teaching fellows, which were to be returned to the authors separately. A total of 28 deans and 46 fellows responded. Fifteen medical schools had clinical teaching fellows and there appeared to be a total of 77 such posts in the UK. There was little uniformity in the activities undertaken within the posts. Deans who employed clinical teaching fellows were unanimously positive regarding the posts. Fellows were generally positive but expressed reservations relating to approval for postgraduate training, career development, deterioration in clinical skills, financial disincentives, credibility within one's own specialty, and provision of training and support. Clinical teaching fellow posts are generally enjoyed by fellows and valued by deans. Fellows carry out differing duties and their training in medical education is variable. The posts can be unstructured and may lack credibility to doctors outside medical education. Providing specific structured training in medical education, recognised at a national level, would help deal with these concerns.

  20. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.


    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.


    Carl, Noah


    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72.

  2. Sector review of UK higher education energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Ian; Ogbonna, Anthony; Altan, Hasim [Building Energy Analysis Unit, School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, S10 2TN Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    The UK education and education-related services are said to be one of the fastest-growing export earners in recent years and are known to have had significant impacts at the micro- and macro-levels of the UK. This review looks at energy consumption of this fast growing sector. It concentrates on the energy consumption patterns of the funded higher education institutions in the UK. The findings indicate energy consumption in the sector has been on the increase in the 6 years up to 2006; rising by about 2.7% above the 2001 consumption levels. This increase is, however, not evenly spread across the entire sector. The high energy-consuming institutions appear to be increasing their net consumption, relative to other institutions. Gross internal area, staff and research student full-time equivalent were found to have highest correlation with energy consumption across the sector and may be used as proxy indicators for energy consumption as well as the targets of interventions. (author)

  3. Energy efficiency interventions in UK higher education institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Hasim [School of Architecture, The University of Sheffield, Crookesmoor Building, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom)


    This paper provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular. Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives and their relevant issues are extensively discussed. To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted among UK higher education institutions between February and April 2008. Consultation responses show that there are a relatively high percentage of institutions (83%) that have embarked on both technical and non-technical initiatives, which is a demonstration to the joined-up approach in such area. Major barriers for intervention studies are also identified, including lack of methodology, non-clarity of energy demand and consumption issues, difficulty in establishing assessment boundaries, problems with regards to indices and their effectiveness and so on. Besides establishing clear targets for carbon reductions within the sector, it is concluded that it is important to develop systems for effectively measuring and evaluating the impact of different policies, regulations and schemes in the future as the first step to explore. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Uyi OMORUYI


    Full Text Available International students’ contribution to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs tends to be considered from different aspects. There is an inadequate substantiation base that would allow academics, researchers and other stakeholders understand the importance of overseas students in the UK Business Schools. This paper investigates the contribution of international students to Business School in the UK HEIs. The research was exploratory and part of a bigger project on how and why Business Schools in the UK use Relationship Marketing to retain international students. It employed semi-structured interviews with 18 members of staff from four Business Schools in the North of England. Findings indicate that international students’ definition tends to differ amongst staff members within the Business Schools. Business Schools’ management perceive overseas students as an integral part of their institutions, especially as their overall contributions cannot be over-emphasised. The sample size and use of semi-structured interviews, as a single data gathering strategy, does not allow broad generalisation of findings. The obtained evidence can still be used as a platform for further research in this area.

  5. Developing a Broadband Adoption Model in the UK Context (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Mustafee, Navonil; Williams, Michael D.; Lal, Banita

    This research examines the factors affecting the consumer adoption of broadband in the United Kingdom. A conceptual model of broadband adoption was developed by selecting and justifying a number of relevant constructs from the technology adoption literature. The model was then empirically tested by employing survey data that was randomly collected from 358 UK broadband consumers. The findings suggest that, with the exception of one construct that was included in the conceptual model (namely, knowledge), all of the con structs significantly influence consumers when adopting broadband in a UK household. The significant constructs include relative advantage, utilitarian outcomes, hedonic outcomes, primary influence, facilitating conditions resources, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, when considering the behavioral intention and facilitating conditions resources constructs together, they significantly explain UK broad band adoption behavior. The theoretical contri bution of this research is that it determines and integrates the appropriate constructs from the technology adoption literature in order to enhance the knowledge of technology adoption from the consumer's perspective. This research has implications for policy makers and broadband providers since the results of this study can be exploited by the aforementioned stakeholders in order to encourage and promote the adoption and usage of broadband among the general population.

  6. Intermittent Small Baseline Subset (ISBAS) InSAR of rural and vegetated terrain: a new method to monitor land motion applied to peatlands in Wales, UK (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Rawlins, Barry G.; Jordan, Colm J.; Sowter, Andrew; Evans, Christopher D.


    It is renowned that the success of multi-interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) methods such as Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and Small BASeline Subset (SBAS) is controlled by not only the availability of data, but also local topography and land cover. Locations with sufficient temporal phase stability and coherence are typically limited to either built-up, urban areas or areas of exposed bedrock. Whilst conventional PSI and SBAS approaches have limited potential to monitor surface motions in areas where few (or zero) scatterers or coherent targets exist, the newly developed Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS) technique (Sowter et al. 2013) can fill the gap by providing a more complete picture of ground movement in rural and vegetated regions. ISBAS is a small baseline, multi-look, coherent target method, which considers the intermittent coherence of rural areas and can work over a wide range of land cover classes including agriculture and grassland. Building upon a nationwide study that the British Geological Survey (BGS) undertook to assess the feasibility of InSAR techniques to monitor the landmass of Great Britain (Cigna et al. 2013), we identified a rural region in North Wales as an appropriate target area to evaluate the efficacy of ISBAS, where conventional SBAS and PSI approaches are unlikely to succeed. According to the UK Land Cover Map 2007 (LCM2007) from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), this area is dominated by improved and acid grassland, heather, bog and coniferous woodland, which are likely to result into extremely low PSI or SBAS point densities and sparse coverage of monitoring results. We employed 53 ERS-1/2 C-band (5.3GHz frequency) SAR data acquired in descending mode between 1993 and 2000, which were made available to BGS via the ESA Category 1 project id.13543. In the framework of the Glastir Monitoring & Evaluation Programme (Emmett et al. 2013), funded by the Welsh Government, we processed these using ISBAS covering a 4

  7. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC


    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  8. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC


    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  9. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC


    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  10. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC


    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  11. Paleolakes of Northeastern Hellas Basin (United States)

    Glines, N.; Hargitai, H.; Gulick, V.


    We have identified and measured 34 potential paleolakes within the Navua-Hadriacus-Ausonia region of NE Hellas Basin, Mars. These lakes were fed by channels active episodically throughout Mars' history, likely sourced from both local ground water and precipitation on upslope crater rims and mountain peaks. Up to 2,500 km3 of water or ice would have filled these 34 paleolakes. Evidence for hydrothermal activity from the local volcanic zone may be preserved in deposit layers throughout the drainage systems. While we promote the region as a target of prime astrobiological investigation, we also propose an increased potential for paleolake identification throughout the highlands, following similar detailed CTX-resolution channel and deposit mapping.

  12. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana


    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  13. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  14. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312, and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15. The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480. Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%, aged between 30 and 45 (66%, married or had a civil partner (83%, had university education (47% and an annual family income (69% ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39% of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46% were longer-term residents. Most (95% were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14% of respondents smoked but more than half (61% consumed alcohol. More than half (57% did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23% of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them

  15. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.


    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  16. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob


    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at values compare with much higher levels of methane in aquicludes and thermal waters, for example

  17. UK Renal Registry 16th annual report: chapter 2 UK RRT prevalence in 2012: national and centre-specific analyses. (United States)

    Shaw, Catriona; Pitcher, David; Pruthi, Rishi; Fogarty, Damian


    This chapter describes the characteristics of adult patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the UK in 2012. Data were electronically collected from all 71 renal centres within the UK. A series of crosssectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to describe the demographics of prevalent RRT patients in 2012 at centre and national level. There were 54,824 adult patients receiving RRT in the UK on 31st December 2012. The UK adult prevalence of RRT was 861 pmp. This represented an annual increase in absolute prevalent numbers of approximately 3.7%, although there was variation between centres and Primary Care and Health Board areas. The actual number of patients increased across all modalities: 2.3% haemodialysis (HD), 0.3% peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 5.6% for those with a functioning transplant. The number of patients receiving home HD has increased by 19.3% since 2011. Median RRT vintage for patients on HD was 3.4 years, PD 1.7 years and for those patients with a transplant, 10.2 years. The median age of prevalent patients was 58 years (HD 66 years, PD 63 years, transplant 52 years) compared to 55 years in 2005. For all ages the prevalence rate in men exceeded that in women. The most common recorded renal diagnosis was glomerulonephritis (biopsy proven/not biopsy proven) (18.8%). Transplantation was the most common treatment modality (50.4%) The HD and transplant population continued to expand; the decline in the size of the prevalent PD population has plateaued. There were national, regional and dialysis centre level variations in prevalence rates. Prevalent patients were on average three years older than the prevalent RRT cohort 7 years ago. This has continued implications for service planning and ensuring equity of care for RRT patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Crustal Structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan (United States)

    El Tahir, Nada; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi; Durrheim, Raymond


    The Khartoum basin is one of several Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan associated with the Central Africa Rift System. Little is known about the deep crustal structure of this basin, and this limited knowledge hampers the development of a more detailed understanding of its origin and evolution. Constraints on crustal structure in Sudan are only available through regional gravity studies and continental-scale tomography models, but these studies have poor resolution in the Khartoum basin. Here, we investigate the crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum basin beneath 3 permanent seismic stations in Khartoum, Sudan through the H-k stacking of receiver functions and the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities. Our H-k-stacking results indicate that crustal thickness beneath the Khartoum basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km and that crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. These results are consistent with 1D velocity models developed from the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities, which display similar estimates for crustal thickness and an average shear-wave velocity of 3.7 km/s for the basin's crust. Our results provide the first seismic estimate of Moho depth for a basin in Sudan and, when compared to average crustal thickness for the unrifted Proterozoic crust in eastern Africa, reveal that at most a few kilometers of crustal thinning has occurred beneath the Khartoum basin.

  19. Improving National Capability in Biogeochemical Flux Modelling: the UK Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVOp) (United States)

    Johnes, P.; Greene, S.; Freer, J. E.; Bloomfield, J.; Macleod, K.; Reaney, S. M.; Odoni, N. A.


    , underpin this approach (Johnes & Butterfield, 2002). Ten regions have been defined across the UK using GIS manipulation of spatial data describing hydrogeology, runoff, topographical slope and soil parent material. The export coefficient model operates within this regional modelling framework, providing mapped, tabulated and statistical outputs at scales from 1km2 grid scale to river catchment, WFD river basin district, major coastal drainage units to the North Sea, North Atlantic and English Channel, to the international reporting units defined under OSPAR, the International Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. Here the geoclimatic modelling framework is presented together with modelled fluxes for N and P for each scale of reporting unit, together with scenario analysis applied at regional scale and mapped at national scale. The ways in which the results can be used to further explore the primary drivers for spatial variation and identify waterbodies at risk, especially in unmonitored and data-poor catchments are discussed, and the technical and computational support of a cloud-based infrastructure is evaluated as a mechanism to explore potential water quality impacts of future mitigation strategies applied at catchment to national scale.

  20. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes. (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William


    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  1. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William


    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  2. "Hitting the spot": Developing individuals with lived-experience of health and social care as facilitators to deliver a course to enhance public involvement in research - a Welsh perspective. (United States)

    Meudell, Alan; Jones, Sian; Simon, Natalie; Hunter, Zoe; Moore, Barbara; Elliott, Jim; Casey, Dawn


    Public involvement in research has become an important and integral part of the research process in health and social care, from the early stages of research prioritisation and development to the later stages of research conduct and dissemination. Learning and development opportunities, including training, can assist the public and researchers in working together in the research process, and a training schedule exists in Wales for this purpose. One of the key components of this training schedule in Wales is the course Involving the Public in the Design and Conduct of Research: Building Research Partnerships. Building on the existing successes of this UK-wide course, first developed by Macmillan Cancer Support, a project was established between Health and Care Research Wales and Macmillan Cancer Support to develop three members of the Involving People Network into trained facilitators. Once trained, the aim was for the three facilitators to deliver the course in Wales. Macmillan Cancer Support and Health and Care Research Wales selected, through a competitive process, three members of the Involving People Network to use their lived experience of Involvement in research projects, as well as any lived experience of a physical or mental health condition or illness, to become facilitators of the course in the unique context of public involvement in research in Wales. Through this process many benefits were realised, including developing the course content and its delivery in Wales, as well as building the skills and confidence of the individuals themselves as facilitators. This has contributed to a continuing commitment to the sustainable delivery of the Involving the Public in the Design and Conduct of Research: Building Research Partnerships course in Wales and a combined approach to addressing any challenges and obstacles which presented. Health and Care Research Wales has a strategic aim to Ensure public involvement and engagement is central to what we do and

  3. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford


    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  4. Prediction of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins (United States)

    Harff, J.E.; Davis, J.C.; Eiserbeck, W.


    To estimate the undiscovered hydrocarbon potential of sedimentary basins, quantitative play assessments specific for each location in a region may be obtained using geostatistical methods combined with the theory of classification of geological objects, a methodology referred to as regionalization. The technique relies on process modeling and measured borehole data as well as probabilistic methods to exploit the relationship between geology (the "predictor") and known hydrocarbon productivity (the "target") to define prospective stratigraphic intervals within a basin. It is demonstrated in case studies from the oil-producing region of the western Kansas Pennsylvanian Shelf and the gas-bearing Rotliegend sediments of the Northeast German Basin. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  5. Dobreflection: An Exceptional Example of Basin Inversion In The East-european Craton (United States)

    Bayer, U.; Stovba, S.; Maystrenko, Y.; Stephenson, R.; Tolkunov, A.; Dobreflection Working Group

    DOBREflection is a joint project of Ukrainian organisations (Ukrgeofisika and the Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences) and an international European consortium that included acquisition of some 250 km of deep seismic re- flection data in 2000 and 2001. The aim was to study the south-eastern continuation of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (DDB) into the coal mining areas of the Donbas Foldbelt (DF), including the sedimentary fill and its deformation as well as the structure of the deeper crust. The DF is the strongly inverted and compressionally deformed part of the DDB, which is a Late Devonian rift basin located on the south-western part of the East-European Craton (EEC) between the Ukrainian Shield (UkS) to the south-west and the Voronezh Massif (VM) to the north-east. DOBREflection reveals that the base of the predominantly Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary succession in the DF reaches a maximum of about 20-km in its axial part. However, the Donbas area has been much more seriously affected by secondary tectonic events than those parts of the DDB further north. In particular, significant shortening in response to Late Cretaceous Eo-Alpine compression is in evidence. While syn- and post-rift faults with offsets up to more than 3-km disrupt the basement horizon, the shortening (basin inversion) is displayed mainly as folding within the sedimentary succession. The fold patterns sug- gest a detachment surface most likely located within the Upper Devonian sequence, perhaps indicating the presence of salt rich layers. Shortening is also accommodated on two important crustal-scale structures. The first of these is a slightly inclined listric shear zone, or thrust, cutting the entire crust - including the UkS Moho - south of the DF, upwards through the complete sedimentary package ending in the northern part of the DF within an area of reverse faults exposed at the surface. The latter have vertical offsets up to a few kilometres whereas the

  6. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca. (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Taylor, John D; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Todt, Christiane; Ikebe, Chiho; Rabone, Muriel; Glover, Adrian G


    We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature 'cf' as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  7. Malaria knowledge and utilization of chemoprophylaxis in the UK population and in UK passengers departing to malaria-endemic areas. (United States)

    Behrens, Ron H; Alexander, Neal


    The burden of imported malaria is predominantly in travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in sub-Saharan Africa. The failure of this group to use chemoprophylaxis is recognized as the most important risk factor for the high incidence of disease. Understanding the reasons for failure to follow national recommendations may relate to knowledge, risk perception, cost, and peer pressure. Research into these variables is critical to understand and change practices in this group and this study was designed to explore whether knowledge, risk perception and prophylaxis use differs between travellers' to various destinations and the rest of the UK population. Two face-to-face questionnaire surveys were conducted to collect information on demographics, malaria knowledge, source, and quality of pre-travel advice, past travel experience and perceived malaria threat. One was an IPSOS survey of individuals representative of the UK population. The other was a departure lounge survey (Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)) of passengers departing to malarious regions detailing destinations and use of chemoprophylaxis. Around a quarter of the 1,991 UK population surveyed had previously travelled to a malarious area. Five-hundred departing passengers were interviewed, of which 80% travelled for leisure (56% VFR's) and 42% were travelling to West Africa. Malaria knowledge among the UK population (score 58.6) was significantly lower than that of individuals who had previously travelled or were travelling (63.8 and 70.7 respectively). Malaria knowledge was similar in individuals who had and had not sought pre-travel advice and travellers using and not using chemoprophylaxis for their journey. Leisure travellers to Ghana and Nigeria were predominantly VFRs (74%), whilst 66% of travellers to Kenya were tourists. Despite similar high knowledge scores and perceived (>90%) threat of the lethality of malaria in the three groups, chemoprophylaxis use in Nigerians (50%) was substantially

  8. A tale of two stormwater basins: Nutrient cycling in grassed stormwater detention versus bioretention basins (United States)

    McPhillips, L. E.; Walter, M. T.


    Nutrient cycling performance was compared in a grassed detention basin and a bioretention basin that was amended with compost, mulch, and diverse plantings. We monitored dissolved nutrients in basin inflows and outflows as well as emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from basin soils during 2014 and 2015. Though these basins are intended to improve storm runoff quality, the bioretention basin was a source of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). SRP and DOC leaching was driven by high P and C content of the bioretention soil media and nitrate leaching was driven by the low C:N of added compost. Emissions of N2O and CH4 were low from both basins, though there were periodically high N2O emission rates at both sites. CO2 emissions were greater from the bioretention basin, where soil C content was greater. Based on these results, bioretention basin design should minimize organic matter (OM) additions to soil media and choose OM with high C:N (>20) and low P content in order to minimize availability of excess nutrients for leaching or GHG production.

  9. Basin-scale geology and hydrogeology of coalbed methane bearing strata in Rocky Mountain sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Regional-scale information is provided on various geological and hydrogeological conditions in sedimentary basins in Canada and the United States, with particular attention to the Alberta Basin. The Alberta Basin contains abundant coal resources, particularly in the Upper-Cretaceous-Tertiary succession of the Rocky Mountain foreland. Estimates of coalbed methane resources in the Alberta Basin are 300 to 540 Tcf. The hydrogeology of the coal-bearing strata and the effect of ground water flow on coalbed methane migration, accumulation, and producibility of coalbed methane is reviewed. 53 refs., 12 figs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Taylor


    Some 140 miles of multichannel seismic reflection data, acquired commercially in the 1970's, were reprocessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in late 2000 and early 2001 to interpret the subsurface geology of the Crazy Mountains Basin, an asymmetric Laramide foreland basin located in south-central Montana. The seismic data indicate that the northwestern basin margin is controlled by a thrust fault that places basement rocks over a thick (22,000 feet) sequence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to the south. From the deep basin trough, Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks slope gently upward to the south and southeast. The northern boundary of the basin, which is not imaged well by the seismic data, appears to be folded over a basement ridge rather than being truncated against a fault plane. Seismic data along the basin margin to the south indicate that several fault controlled basement highs may have been created by thin-skinned tectonics where a series of shallow thrust faults cut Precambrian, Paleozoic, and early Mesozoic rocks, whereas, in contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata are folded. The data are further interpreted to indicate that this fault-bounded asymmetric basin contains several structures that possibly could trap hydrocarbons, provided source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are present. In addition, faults in the deep basin trough may have created enough fracturing to enhance porosity, thus developing ''sweet spots'' for hydrocarbons in basin-centered continuous gas accumulations.

  11. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.


    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES{ampersand}H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility.

  12. Climate change and the Great Basin (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers


    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  13. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.


    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation.

  14. Protection of the remaining Rainwater Basins Wetlands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report begins with a review of the significant waterfowl values of the Basins wetlands, and it points out how those values have been degraded significantly by...

  15. Baseline Vegetation Monitoring for Rainwater Basin Wetlands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rainwater Basin (RWB) area of South-Central Nebraska is recognized as the focal point of the Central Flyway during the spring migration. Historically these...

  16. USGS Streamgage NHDPlus Version 1 Basins 2011 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents 19,031 basin boundaries and their streamgage locations for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) active and historical streamgages from the...

  17. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.


    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document(S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  18. Bashkirian conodonts of the Donets Basin, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemyrovska, T.I.


    The present study reports upon the conodont fauna of the Upper Serpukhovian through Lower Moscovian of the Donets Basin, Ukraine. Three new species are described: Declinognathodus? pseudolateralis, Idiognathodus praedelicatus and Idiognathoides postsulcatus. The relatively continuous, rhythmic

  19. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph


    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  20. Evaporitic minibasins of the Sivas Basin (Turkey) (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kavak, Kaan


    The Oligo-Miocene Sivas basin (Turkey) was strongly affected by salt tectonics, best expressed in its central part. Halokinesis initiated from a main evaporite layer deposited during the Upper Eocene. Such evaporitic accumulations led to two generations of mini basins filled with continental to marine deposits, and nowadays separated by diapiric gypsum walls or welds. Some mini-basins developed above depleting diapirs, filled by more than 50 % of lacustrine to sebkhaic gypsiferous facies. These evaporitic mini-basins (EMB) developed during periods of limited fluvial input, when diapiric stems were outcropping with insignificant topographic reliefs. Chemical analyses (S, O and Sr) suggest that such evaporites were sourced from the recycling of adjacent salt structures. EMB development above diapirs can be explained by (i) high regional accommodation (Ribes et al., 2016), (ii) erosion of the diapiric crests by the fluvial system preceding evaporite deposition, (iii) deflation of some diapirs in a transtensive setting (Kergaravat, 2015), and (iv) fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites. EMB stand out from other siliciclastic mini-basins of the Sivas Basin by (i) their small dimension (< 1km), (ii) their teardrop encased shape and (iii) exacerbated internal halokinetic deformations. The latter specifically include large halokinetic wedges, mega-slumps or inverted mega-flaps. Comparison with siliciclastic mini-basins suggests that strong halokinesis of EMB was triggered by the ductile rheology of their evaporitic infilling. Additional filling and subsequent withdrawal of EMB may have been also increased by (i) the large amount of solutes provided by leaching of the outcropping diapiric structure together with the fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites and (iii) the high density of the gypsum and anhydrite compared to halite. The Great Kavir in Iran could display present day analogues relevant of early-stage EMB. Finally, although EMB have never been identified in