Sample records for wells nonlinear absorption

  1. Extraction of many-body configurations from nonlinear absorption in semiconductor quantum wells. (United States)

    Smith, R P; Wahlstrand, J K; Funk, A C; Mirin, R P; Cundiff, S T; Steiner, J T; Schafer, M; Kira, M; Koch, S W


    Detailed electronic many-body configurations are extracted from quantitatively measured time-resolved nonlinear absorption spectra of resonantly excited GaAs quantum wells. The microscopic theory assigns the observed spectral changes to a unique mixture of electron-hole plasma, exciton, and polarization effects. Strong transient gain is observed only under cocircular pump-probe conditions and is attributed to the transfer of pump-induced coherences to the probe.

  2. Nonlinear absorption in discrete systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spire, A; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR5825, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France)


    In the context of nonlinear scattering, a continuous wave incident onto a nonlinear discrete molecular chain of coupled oscillators can be partially absorbed as a result of a three-wave resonant interaction that couples two HF-waves of frequencies close to the edge of the Brillouin zone. Hence both nonlinearity and discreteness are necessary for generating this new absorption process which manifests itself by soliton generation in the medium. As a paradigm of this nonlinear absorption we consider here the Davydov model that describes exciton-phonon coupling in hydrogen-bonded molecular chains.

  3. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)


    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  4. Role of dynamical screening in excitation kinetics of biased quantum wells: Nonlinear absorption and ultrabroadband terahertz emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, B. S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    In this work we describe the ultrafast excitation kinetics of biased quantum well, arising from the optically induced dynamical screening of a bias electric field. The initial bia electric field inside the quantum well is screened by the optically excited polarized electron-hole pairs. This leads...... to a dynamical modification of the properties of the system within an excitation pulse duration. We calculate the excitation kinetics of a biased quantum well and the dependency of resulting electronic and optical properties on the excitation pulse fluence, quantum well width,and initial bias field strength. Our...... wells are in good agreement with our experimental observations [Turchinovich et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 241307(R) (2003)], as well as in perfect compliance with qualitative considerations. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...

  5. Enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity completely without absorption (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Niu, Yueping; Deng, Li; Gong, Shangqing


    We investigate the enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity in a four-level tripod-type atomic system completely without absorption. We study the effect of the incoherent pumping on the nonlinear susceptibility of the probe field and show that compared with that without the incoherent pumping, the Kerr nonlinearity can be enhanced with completely suppressed absorption at two different probe frequencies. Thus, we can get a symmetrical enhanced Kerr nonlinearity. Particularly, all of our results are in the case of Doppler broadening.

  6. Exciton-related nonlinear optical absorption and refractive index change in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Guillermo L. [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, Miguel E., E-mail: [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, Carlos A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)


    In this work the variations of the exciton-related optical absorption and the change of the refractive index in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As double quantum well as functions of the geometric parameters of the heterostructure are investigated. The variational method is applied within the framework of the parabolic band and effective mass approximations, in order to obtain the 1s-like exciton energy spectrum. The outcome for the related optical coefficients shows a quenched and redshifted light absorption as a result of the increment in the inner barrier and right-hand well widths, with the possibility of an enhancement of the excitonic contribution to the relative change in the refractive index.

  7. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 471–481. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and refraction in core–shell silicon nanowires. SUNIL KUMAR1,∗, M KHORASANINEJAD2, M M ADACHI2,. K S KARIM2, S S SAINI2 and A K SOOD1. 1Department of Physics and Centre for Ultrafast Laser Applications, Indian Institute of Science,.

  8. Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in a tunnel-coupled double quantum wells (United States)

    Asadpour, S. H.; Hamedi, Hamid Reza; Eslami-Majd, A.; Sahrai, Mostafa


    The giant Kerr nonlinearity in an asymmetric coupled quantum well (CQW) driven by probe and control laser fields based on intersubband transitions is investigated. The effect of controlling parameters such as intensity of coupling field and electron tunneling on nonlinear behavior of the system is then discussed. It is shown that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity with reduced linear and nonlinear absorption can be achieved.

  9. Solitons and vortices in nonlinear potential wells

    CERN Document Server

    Dror, Nir


    We consider self-trapping of topological modes governed by the one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) nonlinear-Schrodinger/Gross-Pitaevskii equation with effective single- and double-well (DW) nonlinear potentials induced by spatial modulation of the local strength of the self-defocusing nonlinearity. This setting, which may be implemented in optics and Bose-Einstein condensates, aims to extend previous studies, which dealt with single-well nonlinear potentials. In the 1D setting, we find several types of symmetric, asymmetric and antisymmetric states, focusing on scenarios of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. The single-well model is extended by including rocking motion of the well, which gives rise to Rabi oscillations between the fundamental and dipole modes. Analysis of the 2D single-well setting gives rise to stable modes in the form of ordinary dipoles, vortex-antivortex dipoles (VADs), and vortex triangles (VTs), which may be considered as produced by spontaneous breaking of the axial symmetry. The con...

  10. Measurement of frequency sweep nonlinearity using atomic absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Song, Ningfang; Lu, Xiangxiang; Xu, Xiaobin; Pan, Xiong; Li, Wei; Hu, Di; Liu, Jixun


    A novel scheme to determine frequency sweep nonlinearity using atomic saturated absorption spectroscopy is proposed and demonstrated. The frequency modulation rate is determined by directly measuring the interference fringe number and the frequency gap between two atomic transition peaks of rubidium atom. An experimental setup is established, and test results show that the frequency sweep nonlinearity is ∼10%, with an average frequency modulation rate of ∼1.12 THz/s. Moreover, the absolute optical frequency and optical path difference between two laser beams are simultaneously determined with this method. This low-cost technique can be used for optical frequency sweep nonlinearity correction and real-time frequency monitor.

  11. Perfect photon absorption in nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, G S; Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu


    It has been shown that perfect photon absorption can occur in the linear excitation regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which photons from two identical light fields coupled into two ends of the cavity are completely absorbed and result in excitation of the polariton state of the CQED system. The output light from the cavity is totally suppressed by the destructive interference and the polariton state can only decay incoherently back to the ground state. Here we analyze the perfect photon absorption and onset of optical bistability in the nonlinear regime of the CQED and show that the perfect photon absorption persists in the nonlinear regime of the CQED below the threshold of the optical bistability. Therefore the perfect photon absorption is a phenomenon that can be observed in both linear and nonlinear regimes of CQED. Furthermore, our study reveals for the first time that the optical bistability is influenced by the input-light interference and can be manipulated by varying the relative ph...

  12. Vibration absorption in systems with a nonlinear energy sink: Nonlinear damping (United States)

    Starosvetsky, Y.; Gendelman, O. V.


    In this work, response regimes are investigated in a system comprising of a linear oscillator (subject to harmonic excitation) and a nonlinear energy sink (NES) with nonlinear damping characteristics. An analytical technique for the treatment of certain class of nonlinear damping functions is developed. Special attention is paid to the case of piecewise-quadratic damping, motivated by possible applications. It is demonstrated that the NES with a properly tuned piecewise-quadratic damping element allows complete elimination of undesirable periodic regimes. In this way, an efficient system of vibration absorption is obtained, and its performance can overcome that of a tuned mass damper (TMD). Numerical results agree satisfactorily with the analytical predictions.

  13. Stabilization of vortex beams in Kerr media by nonlinear absorption (United States)

    Porras, Miguel A.; Carvalho, Márcio; Leblond, Hervé; Malomed, Boris A.


    We elaborate a solution for the problem of stable propagation of transversely localized vortex beams in homogeneous optical media with self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Stationary nonlinear Bessel-vortex states are stabilized against azimuthal breakup and collapse by multiphoton absorption, while the respective power loss is offset by the radial influx of the power from an intrinsic reservoir. A linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations reveal a region of stability of these vortices. Beams with multiple vorticities have their stability regions too. These beams can then form robust tubular filaments in transparent dielectrics as common as air, water, and optical glasses at sufficiently high intensities. We also show that the tubular, rotating, and specklelike filamentation regimes, previously observed in experiments with axicon-generated Bessel beams, can be explained as manifestations of the stability or instability of a specific nonlinear Bessel-vortex state, which is fully identified.

  14. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guddala, Sriram, E-mail:; Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)


    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Estimation of enhancement in third-order nonlinear susceptibility induced by a sharpening absorption band (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo


    We derived an empirical relationship between |χ (3)| and absorption spectra based on a simple two-level model. We calculated third-order nonlinear susceptibility for a methanol solution of rose bengal (RB), a polydiacetylene thin film (PDA), and a GaAlAs/ GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) using the relationship. The estimated values are of the same order as the experimental ones. We also investigated the effect of the sharpening absorption bandwidth on |χ (3)| enhancement, and found that |χ (3)| of 10 -6 esu can be expected if the width of the PDA absorption band is reduced by one order of magnitude.

  16. Are non-linearity effects of absorption important for MAX-DOAS observations? (United States)

    Pukite, Janis; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas


    For scattered light observations the absorption optical depth depends non-linearly on the trace gas concentrations if their absorption is strong. This is the case because the Beer-Lambert law is generally not applicable for scattered light measurements due to many (i.e. more than one) light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases a linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorption non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries with spatially extended and diffuse light paths, especially in satellite limb geometry but also for nadir measurements as well. Fortunately the effects of non-linear effects can be quantified by means of expanding the radiative transfer equation in a Taylor series with respect to the trace gas absorption coefficients. Herewith if necessary (1) the higher order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the DOAS fit and (2) the algorithm constraints of retrievals of VCDs and profiles can be improved by considering higher order sensitivity parameters. In this study we investigate the contribution of the higher order absorption structures for MAX-DOAS observation geometry for different atmospheric and ground properties (cloud and aerosol effects, trace gas amount, albedo) and geometry (different Sun and viewing angles).

  17. Separating higher-order nonlinearities in transient absorption microscopy (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Anderson, Miguel; Park, Jong Kang; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.


    The transient absorption response of melanin is a promising optically-accessible biomarker for distinguishing malignant melanoma from benign pigmented lesions, as demonstrated by earlier experiments on thin sections from biopsied tissue. The technique has also been demonstrated in vivo, but the higher optical intensity required for detecting these signals from backscattered light introduces higher-order nonlinearities in the transient response of melanin. These components that are higher than linear with respect to the pump or the probe introduce intensity-dependent changes to the overall response that complicate data analysis. However, our data also suggest these nonlinearities might be advantageous to in vivo imaging, in that different types of melanins have different nonlinear responses. Therefore, methods to separate linear from nonlinear components in transient absorption measurements might provide additional information to aid in the diagnosis of melanoma. We will discuss numerical methods for analyzing the various nonlinear contributions to pump-probe signals, with the ultimate objective of real time analysis using digital signal processing techniques. To that end, we have replaced the lock-in amplifier in our pump-probe microscope with a high-speed data acquisition board, and reprogrammed the coprocessor field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to perform lock-in detection. The FPGA lock-in offers better performance than the commercial instrument, in terms of both signal to noise ratio and speed. In addition, the flexibility of the digital signal processing approach enables demodulation of more complicated waveforms, such as spread-spectrum sequences, which has the potential to accelerate microscopy methods that rely on slow relaxation phenomena, such as photo-thermal and phosphorescence lifetime imaging.

  18. Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)


    In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es

  19. Black phosphorus: broadband nonlinear optical absorption and application (United States)

    Li, Ying; He, Yanliang; Cai, Yao; Chen, Shuqing; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Yuanjiang, Xiang


    Black phosphorus (BP), 2D layered material with layered dependent direct bandgap (0.3 eV (bulk), 2.0 eV (single layer)) that has gained renewed attention, has been demonstrated as an extremely appropriate optical material for broadband optical applications from infrared to mid-infrared wavebands. Herein, by coupling multi-layer BP films with microfiber, we fabricated a nonlinear optical device with long light–matter interaction distance and enhanced damage threshold. Through taking full advantage of its fine nonlinear optical absorption property, we obtained stable mode-locking (51 ps) and Q-switched mode-locking states in Yb-doped or Er-doped (403.7 fs) all-fiber lasers and the single-longitudinal-mode operation (53 kHz) in an Er-doped fiber laser with enhanced power tolerance, using the same nonlinear optical device. Our results showed that BP could be a favorable nonlinear optical material for developing BP-enabled wave-guiding photonic devices, and revealed new insight into BP for high optical power unexplored optical devices.

  20. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Guo


    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  1. A nonlinear numerical model of percutaneous drug absorption. (United States)

    Kubota, K; Twizell, E H


    A nonlinear mathematical model developed by Chandrasekaran et al. is examined to monitor pharmacokinetic profiles in percutaneous drug absorption and is addressed to several associated problems that could occur in the data analysis of in vitro experiments. The formulation of the model gives rise to a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) of parabolic type, and a family of finite-difference methods is developed for the numerical solution of the associated initial/boundary-value problem. The value given to a parameter in this family determines the stability properties of the resulting method and whether the solution is obtained explicitly or implicitly. In the case of implicit members of the family it is seen that the solution of the nonlinear PDE is obtained by solving a linear algebraic system, the coefficient matrix of which is tridiagonal. The behaviors of two methods of the family are examined in a series of numerical experiments. Numerical differentiation and integration procedures are combined to monitor the cumulative amount of drug eliminated into the receptor cell per unit area as time increases. It is found that the use of the equation for the simple membrane model to estimate the permeability coefficient and lag time is warranted even if the system should be described by the dual-sorption model, provided cumulative amount versus time data collected for a sufficiently long time are used. However, being different from the behavior in the simple membrane model, the lag time, which can be estimated in this way, is dose-dependent and decreases with increasing donor cell concentration. On the other hand, the permeability coefficient in the dual-sorption model remains constant irrespective of the donor cell concentrations as in the simple membrane model.

  2. Nonlinear excitation kinetics of biased quantum wells. Coherent dynamical screening effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    In this paper we describe a strongly nonlinear process of ultrafast photoexcitation of a biased quantum well. This process is governed by coherent dynamical screening, where the instantaneously polarized photoexcited carriers screen initial bias field. This results in a dynamic modification...... of the bandstructure of the quantum well, which is totally coherent with the temporal intensity distribution of the excitation laser pulse. We developed a time-resolved theoretical model of coherent dynamical screening, which predicts interesting fundamental consequences, such as nonlinear absorption and ultra...

  3. Tuning nonlinear optical absorption properties of WS2 nanosheets (United States)

    Long, Hui; Tao, Lili; Tang, Chun Yin; Zhou, Bo; Zhao, Yuda; Zeng, Longhui; Yu, Siu Fung; Lau, Shu Ping; Chai, Yang; Tsang, Yuen Hong


    To control the optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials is a long-standing goal, being of both fundamental and technological significance. Tuning nonlinear optical absorption (NOA) properties of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides in a cost effective way has emerged as an important research topic because of its possibility to custom design NOA properties, implying enormous applications including optical computers, communications, bioimaging, and so on. In this study, WS2 with different size and thickness distributions was fabricated. The results demonstrate that both NOA onset threshold, FON, and optical limiting threshold, FOL, of WS2 under the excitation of a nanosecond pulsed laser can be tuned over a wide range by controlling its size and thickness. The FON and FOL show a rapid decline with the decrease of size and thickness. Due to the edge and quantum confinement effect, WS2 quantum dots (2.35 nm) exhibit the lowest FON (0.01 J cm-2) and FOL (0.062 J cm-2) among all the samples, which are comparable to the lowest threshold achieved in graphene based materials, showing great potential as NOA materials with tunable properties.To control the optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials is a long-standing goal, being of both fundamental and technological significance. Tuning nonlinear optical absorption (NOA) properties of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides in a cost effective way has emerged as an important research topic because of its possibility to custom design NOA properties, implying enormous applications including optical computers, communications, bioimaging, and so on. In this study, WS2 with different size and thickness distributions was fabricated. The results demonstrate that both NOA onset threshold, FON, and optical limiting threshold, FOL, of WS2 under the excitation of a nanosecond pulsed laser can be tuned over a wide range by controlling its size and thickness. The FON and FOL show a rapid decline with the decrease of size

  4. Switching feature of EIT-based slow light giant phase-sensitive Kerr nonlinearity in a semiconductor quantum well (United States)

    Hamedi, H. R.; Mehmannavaz, Mohammad Reza


    A four level inverted Y-type quantum well semiconductor is proposed based on phase-sensitive Kerr nonlinearity with a closed-loop configuration. It is found that as the Rabi-frequency of coupling field increases, the maximal Kerr nonlinearity intensifies and at the same time the probe linear and nonlinear absorption decreases at Telecom wavelength λ = 1550 nm . The impact of an incoherent pumping field as well as the relative phase of the applied fields on nonlinear optical properties of the QW medium is then discussed. The temporal behavior of the Kerr nonlinearity and the required switching time for switching the nonlinear dispersion are also discussed. The results may be useful for understanding the switching feature of EIT-based slow light Kerr nonlinearity enhancement systems and have potential application in optical information processing and transmission.

  5. Nonlinear acoustic enhancement in photoacoustic imaging with wideband absorptive nanoemulsion beads (United States)

    Wei, Chen-wei; Lombardo, Michael; Xia, Jinjun; Pelivanov, Ivan; Perez, Camilo; Larson-Smith, Kjersta; Matula, Thomas J.; Pozzo, Danilo; O'Donnell, Matthew


    A nanoemulsion contrast agent with a perfluorohexane core and optically absorptive gold nanospheres (GNSs) assembled on the surface, is presented to improve the specificity of photoacoustic (PA) molecular imaging in differentiating targeted cells or aberrant regions from heterogeneous background signals. Compared to distributed GNSs, clustered GNSs at the emulsion oil-water interface produce a red-shifted and broadened absorption spectrum, exhibiting fairly high absorption in the near-infrared region commonly used for deep tissue imaging. Above a certain laser irradiation fluence threshold, a phase transition creating a microbubble in the emulsion core leads to more than 10 times stronger PA signals compared with conventional thermal-expansion-induced PA signals. These signals are also strongly non-linear, as verified by a differential scheme using recorded PA images at different laser fluences. Assuming a linear relation between laser fluence and the PA signal amplitude, differential processing results in nearly perfect suppression of linear sources, but retains a significant residue for the non-linear nanoemulsion with more than 35 dB enhancement. This result demonstrates that contrast specificity can be improved using the nanoemulsion as a targeting agent in PA molecular imaging by suppressing all background signals related to a linear PA response. Furthermore, combined with a system providing simultaneous laser/ultrasound excitation, cavitation-generated bubbles have the potential to be a highly specific contrast agent for ultrasound molecular imaging and harmonic imaging, as well as a targeted means for noninvasive ultrasound-based therapies.

  6. Impact of carbon nanotube geometrical volume on nonlinear absorption and scattering properties (United States)

    Nair, Vijayakumar Sadasivan; Pusala, Aditya; Hatamimoslehabadi, Maryam; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.


    Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of carbon nanostructures are of great interest due to their broadband spectral response. As carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be synthesized with various lengths, thicknesses, and numbers of layers, their optical properties can also be different. We have performed side-by-side comparative studies of the relationship between the geometrical volume and NLO properties of CNTs. The real and imaginary components of the third order optical nonlinearity are obtained using well-known Z-scan technique. While the transmission and scattered light are detected using photodiodes, the generated photoacoustic signal is recorded simultaneously using an ultrasonic transducer. Results show an inverse relationship between the volume of CNTs and their NLO properties. This can be attributed to the availability of more nanoparticles within the laser beam profile and concurrent generation of scattering sites upon the absorption of incident radiation.

  7. A new active absorption system and its performance to linear and non-linear waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Clavero, M.; Frigaard, Peter Bak


    Highlights •An active absorption system for wavemakers has been developed. •The theory for flush mounted gauges has been extended to cover also small gaps. •The new system has been validated in a wave flume with wavemakers in both ends. •A generation and absorption procedure for highly non-linear...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available T-rays is sensitive to covalently cross-linked proteins and can be used to probe unique dynamic properties of water surrounding a protein. In this paper, we demonstrate the unique absorption properties of the dynamic hydration shells determined by hemagglutinin (HA protein in terahertz frequency. We study the changes arising from different concentrations in detail and show that nonlinear absorption coefficient is induced by the dynamic hydration water. The binary and ternary component model were used to interpret the nonlinearity absorption behaviors and predict the thickness of the hydration shells around the HA protein in aqueous phase.

  9. Nonlinear Model-Based Control of Unstable Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn-Ole Kaasa


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the potential of nonlinear model-based control applied for stabilization of unstable flow in oil wells. A simple empirical model is developed that describes the qualitative behavior of the downhole pressure during severe riser slugging. A nonlinear controller is designed by an integrator backstepping approach, and stabilization for open-loop unstable pressure setpoints is demonstrated. The proposed backstepping controller is shown in simulations to perform better than PI and PD controllers for low pressure setpoints, and is in addition easier to tune. Operation at a low pressure setpoint is desirable since it corresponds to a high production flow rate. The simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of proposed control scheme.

  10. Study of nonlinear absorption properties of reduced graphene oxide by Z-scan technique (United States)

    Sreeja, V. G.; Vinitha, G.; Reshmi, R.; Anila, E. I.; Jayaraj, M. K.


    Graphene has generated enormous research interest during the last decade due to its significant unique properties and wide applications in the field of optoelectronics and photonics. This research studied the structural and nonlinear absorption properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) synthesized by Modified Hummer's method. Structural and physiochemical properties of the rGO were explored with the help of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy (Raman). Nonlinear absorption property in rGO, was investigated by open aperture Z-scan technique by using a continuous wave (CW) laser. The Z-scan results demonstrate saturable absorption property of rGO with a nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, of -2.62 × 10-4 cm/W, making it suitable for applications in Q switching, generation of ultra-fast high energy pulses in laser cavity and mode lockers.

  11. THz induced nonlinear absorption in ZnTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Absorption spectra of ZnTe during strong-field THz interaction are investigated. Bleaching of the difference phonon modes below the fundamental TO mode is observed when field strengths higher than 4 MV/cm are applied.......Absorption spectra of ZnTe during strong-field THz interaction are investigated. Bleaching of the difference phonon modes below the fundamental TO mode is observed when field strengths higher than 4 MV/cm are applied....

  12. Electronic absorption spectra and nonlinear optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    New Chemistry Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur Campus, Bangalore 560 064 e-mail: Abstract. We have investigated the structural aspects of several carbon dioxide molecular aggregates and their spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties within the quantum ...

  13. Time evolution of absorption process in nonlinear metallic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Hatef, Ali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)


    The time evolution of the absorption coefficient in metallic photonic crystals has been studied numerically. These crystals are made from metallic spheres which are arranged periodically in air. The refractive index of the metallic spheres depends on the plasma frequency. Probe and pump fields are applied to monitor the absorption process. Ensembles of three-level particles are embedded in the crystal. Nanoparticles are interacting with the metallic crystals via the electron-photon interaction. It is found that when the resonance states lie away from the band edges system goes to transparent state. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Nonlinear Spatial Absorption of Alfven Waves by Dissipative Plasma (United States)

    Gavrikov, M. B.; Taiurskii, A. A.


    A mathematical model is proposed for explaining anomalous heating of the solar corona by Alfven waves generated in lower, much cooler, layers of the Sun. Numerical analysis shows that the absorption of Alfven waves occurs at wavelengths of the order of skin depth, in which case neither the classical nor Hall’s MHD equations are applicable. Therefore, our research was based on the equations of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics that fully take into account the inertia of the electrons. This investigation reveals some important features of the absorption process, in particular: the depth of the heated layer of the solar corona is finite and the parameters of the Alfven waves stabilize to a quasi-stationary regime whose parameters can be found.

  15. Nonlinear Interaction of Elliptical Laser Beam with Collisional Plasma: Effect of Linear Absorption (United States)

    Walia, Keshav; Kaur, Sarabjit


    In the present work, nonlinear interaction of elliptical laser beam with collisional plasma is studied by using paraxial ray approximation. Nonlinear differential equations for the beam width parameters of semi-major axis and semi-minor axis of elliptical laser beam have been set up and solved numerically to study the variation of beam width parameters with normalized distance of propagation. Effects of variation in absorption coefficient and plasma density on the beam width parameters are also analyzed. It is observed from the analysis that extent of self-focusing of beam increases with increase/decrease in plasma density/absorption coefficient.

  16. Nonlinear optical absorption in laser modified regions of fused silica substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walser, A D; Demos, S; Etienne, M; Dorsinville, R


    The presence of strong nonlinear absorption has been observed in laser modified fused silica. Intensity-dependent transmission measurements using 355-nm, 532-nm and 1,064-nm laser pulses were performed in pristine polished regions in fused silica substrates and in locations that were exposed to dielectric breakdown. The experimental results suggest that multi-photon absorption is considerably stronger in the modified regions compared to pristine sites and is strongly dependent on the excitation wavelength.

  17. Nonlinear absorption and transmission properties of Ge, Te and InAs using tuneable IR FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Becker, K.; Brau, C.A. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)


    Nonlinear absorption properties of Ge, Te and InAs are being investigated using the transmission of FEL optical pulses through these semiconductors (z-scan method). Wavelength, intensity and macropulse dependence are used to differentiate between two-photon and free-carrier absorption properties of these materials. Macropulse dependence is resolved by using a Pockles Cell to chop the 4-{mu}s macropulse down to 100 ns. Results of these experiments will be presented and discussed.

  18. Intersubband linear and nonlinear optical response of the delta-doped SiGe quantum well (United States)

    Duque, C. A.; Akimov, V.; Demediuk, R.; Belykh, V.; Tiutiunnyk, A.; Morales, A. L.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Fomina, O.; Tulupenko, V.


    The degree of ionization, controlled by external fields, of delta-doped layers inside the quantum wells can affect their energy structure, therefore delta-doped QWs can be used to engineer different kinds of tunable THz optical devices on intersubband transitions. Here it is calculated and analyzed the linear and nonlinear (Kerr-type) optical response, including absorption coefficient and refractive index change of 20 nm-wide Si0.8Ge0.2/Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 QW structures n-delta-doped either at the center or at the edge of the well under different temperatures. The conduction subband energy structure was found self-consistently, including the calculation of the impurity binding energy. Our results show that the degree of ionization of the impurity layer as well as the heterostructure symmetry has a strong influence on optical properties of the structures in THz region.

  19. Global Well-Posedness for Cubic NLS with Nonlinear Damping

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo


    We study the Cauchy problem for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, perturbed by (higher order) dissipative nonlinearities. We prove global in-time existence of solutions for general initial data in the energy space. In particular we treat the energy-critical case of a quintic dissipation in three space dimensions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Nonlinear Absorptions of CdSeTe Quantum Dots under Ultrafast Laser Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Chai


    Full Text Available The oil-soluble alloyed CdSeTe quantum dots (QDs are prepared by the electrostatic method. The basic properties of synthesized CdSeTe QDs are characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscope. The off-resonant nonlinear optical properties of CdSeTe QDs are studied by femtosecond Z-scan at 1 kHz (low-repetition rate and 84 MHz (high-repetition rate. Nonlinear absorption coefficients are calculated under different femtosecond laser excitations. Due to the long luminescent lifetime of CdSeTe QDs, under the conditions of high-repetition rate, for open-aperture curve, heat accumulation and bleaching of ground state are responsible for the decrease of two-photon absorption (TPA coefficient.

  1. Effect of concentration on the plasmonic absorption and optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles (United States)

    Rashidian, Morvarid; Dorranian, Davoud


    The effect of concentration on the optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles is investigated. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by nanosecond-pulsed laser ablation of a high-purity gold plate in distilled water. The size of nanoparticles was measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) method and was calculated from full width half maximum of their plasmonic absorption peak using Mie theory. Different nonlinear characteristics of gold nanoparticles are observed by considering their effects under irradiation with a second harmonic beam of a continuous-wave low power Nd-YAG laser at 532 nm. Low-power optical limiting with low limiting threshold is obtained in the sample using different apertures at different points of the laser beam path. The nonlinear optical responses are characterized by measuring the intensity dependent refractive index of medium using the z-scan technique. Results show that the linear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index of samples are increased with increasing the concentration of gold nanoparticles in distilled water. Increasing the intensity of the probe beam leads to increasing the magnitude of nonlinear refractive index.

  2. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; T. C., Sabari Girisun


    Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe2O4-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe2O4 decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe2O4. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10-10 m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe2O4-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp3) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe2O4 upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe2O4 along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable properties which are exceedingly required in both optoelectronics and photothermal therapy applications.

  3. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Sabari Girisun, T.C., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Nanospindle and nanosphere ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were decorated upon GO by hydrothermal method. • All the samples show superparamagnetism with almost zero coercivity and remanence. • The observed nonlinearity arises due to effective two photon absorption process. • Tuning of NLO behavior with variation in amount of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} upon GO were achieved. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-(15 wt%)GO show higher NLO coefficients and superior limiting actions. - Abstract: Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10{sup −10} m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp{sup 3}) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable

  4. Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and ultra-long exciton relaxation time of black phosphorus quantum dots. (United States)

    Chen, Runze; Zheng, Xin; Jiang, Tian


    Black phosphorus (BP) has recently attracted significant attention for its brilliant physical and chemical features. The remarkable strong light-matter interaction and tunable direct wide range band-gap make it an ideal candidate in various application regions, especially saturable absorbers. In this paper, ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs), a unique form of phosphorus nanostructures, with average size of 5.7 ± 0.8 nm are synthesized. Compared with BP nanosheets (BPNs) with similar thickness, the ultrafast nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption properties and excited carrier dynamics are investigated in wide spectra. Beyond the saturation absorption (SA), giant two photon absorption (TPA) is observed in BPQDs. BPQDs exhibit quite different excitation intensity and wavelength dependent nonlinear optical (NLO) response from BPNs, which is attributed to the quantum confinement and edge effects. The BPQDs show broadband photon-induced absorption (PIA) under the probe wavelength from 470 nm to 850 nm and a fast and a slow decay time are obtained as long as 92 ± 10 ps and 1100 ± 100 ps, respectively. The substantial independence for ultra-long time scales of pump intensity and temperature reveals that the carrier recombination mechanism may be attributed to a defect-assisted Auger capture process. These findings will help to develop optoelectronic and photonic devices operating in the infrared and visible wavelength region.

  5. Ultrafast optical nonlinearity, electronic absorption, vibrational spectra and solvent effect studies of ninhydrin (United States)

    Sajan, D.; Devi, T. Uma; Safakath, K.; Philip, Reji; Němec, Ivan; Karabacak, M.


    FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis spectra of the nonlinear optical molecule ninhydrin have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features, and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been investigated with the help of B3LYP density functional theory method. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra is carried out with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. Solvent effects have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory in combination with the polarized continuum model. Natural bond orbital analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the molecule. Employing the open-aperture z-scan technique, nonlinear optical absorption of the sample has been studied in the ultrafast and short-pulse excitation regimes, using 100 fs and 5 ns laser pulses respectively. It is found that ninhydrin exhibits optical limiting for both excitations, indicating potential photonic applications.

  6. Exact solutions to nonlinear nonautonomous space-fractional diffusion equations with absorption. (United States)

    Lenzi, E K; Mendes, G A; Mendes, R S; da Silva, L R; Lucena, L S


    We analyze a nonlinear fractional diffusion equation with absorption by employing fractional spatial derivatives and obtain some more exact classes of solutions. In particular, the diffusion equation employed here extends some known diffusion equations such as the porous medium equation and the thin film equation. We also discuss some implications by considering a diffusion coefficient D(x,t)=D(t)/x/(-theta) (theta in R) and a drift force F=-k(1)(t)x+k(alpha)x/x/(alpha-1). In both situations, we relate our solutions to those obtained within the maximum entropy principle by using the Tsallis entropy.

  7. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms ...

  8. The ultrafast nonlinear optical response and multi-photon absorption of a new metal complex in the near-infrared spectral range (United States)

    Kiran, A. J.; Lee, H. W.; Sampath Kumar, H. C.; Rudresha, B. J.; Bhat, B. R.; Yeom, D.-I.; Kim, K.; Rotermund, F.


    A new coordination compound, chloro(1,10-phenanthroline-N, N')(triphenylphosphine)copper(I) dichloromethane, incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate) exhibits superior nonlinear optical properties in the near-infrared spectral region. Its nonlinear response time and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility at 800 nm are <= 90 fs and 1.8 × 10 - 10 esu, respectively. Considerable nonlinear absorption is observed with this sample, near 800 and 1250 nm. The contribution of the excited states to the total nonlinear absorption process is discussed. The results reveal the potential of this newly designed compound for multi-photon absorption-based photonic applications.

  9. Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallacher, K.; Millar, R. W.; Paul, D. J., E-mail: [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Ballabio, A.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Polo Territoriale di Como, Via Anzani 42, Como I-22100 (Italy); Bashir, A.; MacLaren, I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ortolani, M. [Center for Life NanoScience@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Regina Elena 291, Rome I-00161 (Italy)


    Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells with Si{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5} barriers grown on a Si substrate is demonstrated from 6 to 9 μm wavelength at room temperature and can be tuned by adjusting the quantum well thickness. Fourier transform infra-red transmission and photoluminescence measurements demonstrate clear absorption peaks corresponding to intersubband transitions among confined hole states. The work indicates an approach that will allow quantum well intersubband photodetectors to be realized on Si substrates in the important atmospheric transmission window of 8–13 μm.

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of two-photon absorption dye doped linear copolymer (United States)

    Wang, D.; Zhou, G. Y.; Ren, Y.; Yu, X. Q.; Cheng, X. F.; Yang, S. J.; Xu, X. G.; Shao, Z. S.; Jiang, M. H.


    2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (abbreviated as HEMA) and acrylonitrile have been used as the monomers to form a trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-methylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium p-toluene sulfonate (abbreviated as HMASPS) doped linear copolymer. The spectra of one and two-photon excited fluorescence and two-photon pumped superradiance and two-photon pumped lasing of the polymer all shifted to short wavelengths compared with the solution sample of the dye. The copolymer shows much longer one- and two-photon excited fluorescence lifetimes of nanoseconds. When pumped by the picosecond Nd:YAG laser, the superradiance and lasing can be simultaneously obtained. The maximum two-photon pumped lasing conversion efficiency is 3.3%. The place of the maximum upconversion efficiency of the copolymer does not coincide with that of the maximum nonlinear absorption.

  11. 2D spatial distribution of probe absorption in a triple semiconductor quantum well nanostructure (United States)

    Raheli, Ali; Hamedi, H. R.; Sahrai, M.


    We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) position-dependent probe absorption in a triple semiconductor quantum well (SQW) structure driven coherently by two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Under weak probe field approximation and utilizing the density matrix approach, an analytical solution is presented for the probe linear susceptibility which clarifies directly the spatial-dependent nature of the probe absorption. Then, the distribution of probe absorption in 2D is numerically explored. It is found that 2D absorption spectra are very sensitive to the intensity and frequency detuning of standing-wave fields which can result in various 2D localization structures in one period of standing waves in the x-y plane.

  12. Supercontinuum of a 3.9 -μ m filament in air: Formation of a two-octave plateau and nonlinearly enhanced linear absorption (United States)

    Panov, Nikolay A.; Shipilo, Daniil E.; Andreeva, Vera A.; Kosareva, Olga G.; Saletsky, Alexander M.; Xu, Huailiang; Polynkin, Pavel


    Through numerical simulations we reveal the scenario of 3.9 -μ m filament spectrum enrichment in the atmosphere in the cases of linear and circular polarization of the incident pulse. The discrete spectrum of odd harmonics transforms into the two-octave plateau in the case of linear polarization. In contrast, in the case of circular polarization of the incident pulse, the harmonic-free flat supercontinuum appears with the plasma onset, reaching the tenth harmonic of the input radiation. We identify the energy balance specific to the filamentation near 4 μ m : the absorption on CO2 lines in the atmosphere is accelerated by the self-phase modulation in the Kerr nonlinearity early before the plasma channel is formed. This nonlinearly enhanced linear absorption overwhelms the plasma losses and conversion of the input pulse energy to the higher harmonics as well as the plateau.

  13. Nonlinear vibration absorption for a flexible arm via a virtual vibration absorber (United States)

    Bian, Yushu; Gao, Zhihui


    A semi-active vibration absorption method is put forward to attenuate nonlinear vibration of a flexible arm based on the internal resonance. To maintain the 2:1 internal resonance condition and the desirable damping characteristic, a virtual vibration absorber is suggested. It is mathematically equivalent to a vibration absorber but its frequency and damping coefficients can be readily adjusted by simple control algorithms, thereby replacing those hard-to-implement mechanical designs. Through theoretical analyses and numerical simulations, it is proven that the internal resonance can be successfully established for the flexible arm, and the vibrational energy of flexible arm can be transferred to and dissipated by the virtual vibration absorber. Finally, experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical predictions. Since the proposed method absorbs rather than suppresses vibrational energy of the primary system, it is more convenient to reduce strong vibration than conventional active vibration suppression methods based on smart material actuators with limited energy output. Furthermore, since it aims to establish an internal vibrational energy transfer channel from the primary system to the vibration absorber rather than directly respond to external excitations, it is especially applicable for attenuating nonlinear vibration excited by unpredictable excitations.

  14. Global Existence and Blow-Up of Solutions for a Quasilinear Parabolic Equation with Absorption and Nonlinear Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmed


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evolution r-Laplacian equation with absorption and nonlinear boundary condition. By using differential inequality techniques, global existence and blow-up criteria of nonnegative solutions are determined. Moreover, upper bound of the blow-up time for the blow-up solution is obtained.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and femtosecond nonlinear saturable absorption behavior of copper phthalocyanine nanocrystals doped-PMMA polymer thin films (United States)

    Zongo, S.; Dhlamini, M. S.; Neethling, P. H.; Yao, A.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.


    In this work, we report the femtosecond nonlinear saturable absorption response of synthesized copper phthalocyanine nanocrystals (CPc-NCs)-doped PMMA polymer thin films. The samples were initially characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-Vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The crystalline phase and morphological analysis revealed nanocrystals of monoclinic structure with an average crystallite size between 31.38 nm and 42.5 nm. The femtosecond Z-scan study at 800 nm central wavelength indicated a saturable absorption behavior of which the mechanism is closely related to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the particles. This nonlinear effect could potentially make the CPc-NCs useful in nonlinear optical devices.

  16. Broad band nonlinear optical absorption measurements of the laser dye IR26 using white light continuum Z-scan (United States)

    Dey, Soumyodeep; Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem Ballabh


    We study the nonlinear optical response of a standard dye IR26 using the Z-scan technique, but with the white light continuum. The continuum source of wavelength from 450 nm to 1650 nm has been generated from the photonic crystal fiber on pumping with 772 nm of Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The use of broadband incident pulse enables us to probe saturable absorption (SA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA) over the large spectral range with a single Z-scan measurement. The system shows SA in the resonant region while it turns to RSA in the non-resonant regions. The low saturation intensity of the dye can be explained based on the simultaneous excitation from ground states to various higher energy levels with the help of composite energy level diagram. The cumulative effects of excited state absorption and thermal induced nonlinear optical effects are responsible for the observed RSA.

  17. Peculiarities of the nonlinear absorption of colloidal solutions of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots under stationary single-photon excitation of excitons (United States)

    Smirnov, A. M.; Golinskaya, A. D.; Ezhova, K. V.; Kozlova, M. V.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Dneprovskii, V. S.


    Peculiarities of the nonlinear absorption of a colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with various sizes under resonant stationary excitation of the ground electron-hole (exciton) transition have been revealed by the pump and probe technique. The detected peculiarities of the nonlinear change in absorption are explained by the coexistence and competition of the effects of state filling and charge-induced Stark and temperature long-wavelength shift of the absorption spectra.

  18. Exciton binding energies and absorption in intermixed GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells (United States)

    Meney, Alistair T.


    The optical properties of excitons in layer-intermixed GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic dispersion is obtained using the 6×6 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian for the valence bands, and an accurate expression for the conduction band dispersion which includes the effects of nonparabolicity and warping to fourth order in k. The HH1-CB1 (1s) and LH1-CB1(1s) exciton binding energies are calculated as a function of diffusion time. The absorption for both TE and TM polarization is obtained at several wavelengths, and is seen to decrease significantly with increased intermixing. The decrease in absorption is larger for narrow wells, where the effects of intermixing are more pronounced for a given diffusion time.

  19. Semiclassical limit and well-posedness of nonlinear Schrodinger-Poisson systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Li


    Full Text Available This paper concerns the well-posedness and semiclassical limit of nonlinear Schrodinger-Poisson systems. We show the local well-posedness and the existence of semiclassical limit of the two models for initial data with Sobolev regularity, before shocks appear in the limit system. We establish the existence of a global solution and show the time-asymptotic behavior of a classical solutions of Schrodinger-Poisson system for a fixed re-scaled Planck constant.

  20. Linear and nonlinear behaviour of near-IR intersubband transitions of cubic GaN/AlN multi quantum well structures (United States)

    Wecker, T.; Jostmeier, T.; Rieger, T.; Neumann, E.; Pawlis, A.; Betz, M.; Reuter, D.; As, D. J.


    The linear and nonlinear behaviour of intersubband transitions of cubic GaN/AlN multi quantum well (QW) structures in the IR spectral region is investigated. In this study photoluminescence, IR absorption as well as pump-probe measurements are done. Two cubic GaN/AlN multi quantum wells with Si content of NSi 1019 cm-3 in the cubic GaN quantum wells were grown on 3C-SiC (001) substrate by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A broad IR absorption with a FWHM of 370 meV was found with a maximum at 0.7 eV, corresponding to the intersubband transition of the multi quantum wells. The nonlinear optical measurement reveals a clear change of transmission for a pump pulse with an angle of incidence of 65°. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy measurements are used to determine the real layer thicknesses. These thickness values are exploited in the calculation with the Schrödinger-Poisson solver nextnano³. The simulated transition energies agree very well with the experimental data for the photoluminescence and the absorption measurement.

  1. Optical rectification in quantum wells within different confinement and nonlinearity regimes (United States)

    Solaimani, M.; Ali Aleomraninejad, Seyed Mohammad; Lavaei, Leila


    In this paper, we study the effect of conduction band non-parabolicity on optical rectification coefficients (ORCs) of quantum well systems by using compact density matrix approach. To investigate the non-parabolicity effect, we include a fourth derivative of the wave function in the Schrödinger equation. Our calculations are based on high accuracy 3, 5, 13 and 15 points finite difference methods that are developed by an interpolation approach. We show that, in some situations, the conduction band non-parabolicity can considerably affect the optical properties. Thus, it is necessary to include the conduction band non-parabolicity effects. We compare three different structures GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs (weak confinement & medium nonlinearity), GaN/AlN (strong confinement & weak nonlinearity) and InSb/GaSb (medium confinement & strong nonlinearity). We show that the non-parabolicity is very important for systems with smaller system lengths. For fixed geometrical parameters, the ORC of Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAS quantum wells is greater than that of GaN/AlN quantum wells and the ORC of GaN/AlN quantum wells is greater than that of InSb/GaSb quantum wells. The behavior of the ORC under the influence of the applied electric field is different for the three above-mentioned quantum well systems. The red or blue shift of the ORC peak positions is more observable for systems with larger Leff.

  2. Rashba induced spin multistability of the intersubband optical absorption in asymmetric coupled quantum wells (United States)

    Aceituno, P.; Hernández-Cabrera, A.


    We study the multistable behavior of the intersubband optical absorption for InSb-based tunnel-coupled quantum wells. We consider four sublevels coming from the splitting of the two deepest levels due to the inversion asymmetry of the structure (Rashba effect), and a weak external in-plane magnetic field (Zeeman effect). Photoexcitation with an intense terahertz pump produces the redistribution of nonequilibrium electrons among the four spin sublevels. The redistribution produces a photoinduced self-consistent potential, giving rise to the renormalization of energy distance between sublevels. Depending on total electron concentration, magnetic field intensity, and pumping efficiency, we find different multistable behaviors in the intersubband optical absorption spectrum. Based on the matrix density, we describe the electron redistribution by means of a system of balance equations for electron concentrations.

  3. Linear and nonlinear absorption properties of diamond-like carbon doped with cu nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Peckus, Domantas; Tamulevičius, Tomas


    Ultrafast relaxation processes in diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with embedded Cu nanoparticles (DLC:Cu nanocomposites) were investigated by means of transient absorption spectroscopy focusing on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of photoexcited Cu nanoparticles. Absorption spectra...

  4. Heterointerface effects on the nonlinear optical rectification in a laser-dressed graded quantum well (United States)

    Niculescu, Ecaterina C.; Eseanu, Nicoleta; Radu, Adrian


    An investigation of the laser radiation effects on the nonlinear optical rectification in an AlGaAs inverse parabolic quantum well with asymmetrical barriers is performed within the effective mass approximation, taking into account the dielectric mismatch between the semiconductor and the surrounding medium. Using the accurate dressing effect for the confinement potential and electrostatic self-energy due to the image-charges, we prove that: (i) a spatially dependent effective mass in the laser-dressing parameter definition is required for precise calculations of the energy levels; (ii) the dielectric confinement provides a potential mechanism for controlling electronic states and optical properties of quantum wells. In addition, the laser dependence of the energy where the optical rectification reaches its maximum can be adjusted by external electric fields. The joint action of the intense high-frequency laser and static electric fields may provide tuning of the nonlinear properties in this type of dielectrically modulated heterostructures.

  5. Escape time from potential wells of strongly nonlinear oscillators with slowly varying parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jianping


    Full Text Available The effect of negative damping to an oscillatory system is to force the amplitude to increase gradually and the motion will be out of the potential well of the oscillatory system eventually. In order to deduce the escape time from the potential well of quadratic or cubic nonlinear oscillator, the multiple scales method is firstly used to obtain the asymptotic solutions of strongly nonlinear oscillators with slowly varying parameters, and secondly the character of modulus of Jacobian elliptic function is applied to derive the equations governing the escape time. The approximate potential method, instead of Taylor series expansion, is used to approximate the potential of an oscillation system such that the asymptotic solution can be expressed in terms of Jacobian elliptic function. Numerical examples verify the efficiency of the present method.

  6. Microstructural parameters and high third order nonlinear absorption characteristics of Mn-doped PbS/PVA nanocomposite films (United States)

    Ramezanpour, B.; Mahmoudi Chenari, Hossein; Sadigh, M. Khadem


    In this work, undoped and Mn-doped PbS/PVA nanocomposite films have been successfully fabricated using the simple solution-casting method. Their crystalline structure was examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). XRD pattern show the formation of cubic structure of PbS for Mn-doped PbS in PVA matrix. Microstructure parameters of Mn-doped PbS/PVA nanocomposite films were obtained through the size-strain plot (SSP) method. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite film was determined using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, Z-scan technique was used to investigate the optical nonlinearity of nanocomposite films by a continuous-wave laser irradiation at the wavelength of 655 nm. This experimental results show that undoped PbS/PVA nanocomposite films indicate high nonlinear absorption characteristics. Moreover, the nanocomposite films with easy preparation characteristics, high thermal stability and nonlinear absorption properties can be used as an active element in optics and photonic devices.

  7. Microscopic Modeling of Intersubband Optical Processes in Type II Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Linear Absorption (United States)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Kolokolov, Kanstantin I.; Ning, Cun-Zheng


    Linear absorption spectra arising from intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum well heterostructures are analyzed using quantum kinetic theory by treating correlations to the first order within Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations take into account extrinsic dephasing contributions, carrier-longitudinal optical phonon interaction and carrier-interface roughness interaction which is considered with Ando s theory. As input for resonance lineshape calculation, a spurious-states-free 8-band kp Hamiltonian is used, in conjunction with the envelop function approximation, to compute self-consistently the energy subband structure of electrons in type II InAs/AlSb single quantum well structures. We demonstrate the interplay of nonparabolicity and many-body effects in the mid-infrared frequency range for such heterostructures.

  8. Optical Control of Intersubband Absorption in a Multiple Quantum Well-Embedded Semiconductor Microcravity (United States)

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng


    Optical intersubband response of a multiple quantum well (MQW)-embedded microcavity driven by a coherent pump field is studied theoretically. The n-type doped MQW structure with three subbands in the conduction band is sandwiched between a semi-infinite medium and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). A strong pump field couples the two upper subbands and a weak field probes the two lower subbands. To describe the optical response of the MQW-embedded microcavity, we adopt a semi-classical nonlocal response theory. Taking into account the pump-probe interaction, we derive the probe-induced current density associated with intersubband transitions from the single-particle density-matrix formalism. By incorporating the current density into the Maxwell equation, we solve the probe local field exactly by means of Green's function technique and the transfer-matrix method. We obtain an exact expression for the probe absorption coefficient of the microcavity. For a GaAs/Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)As MQW structure sandwiched between a GaAs/AlAs DBR and vacuum, we performed numerical calculations of the probe absorption spectra for different parameters such as pump intensity, pump detuning, and cavity length. We find that the probe spectrum is strongly dependent on these parameters. In particular, we find that the combination of the cavity effect and the Autler-Townes effect results in a triplet in the optical spectrum of the MQW system. The optical absorption peak value and its location can be feasibly controlled by varying the pump intensity and detuning.

  9. Non-Darcy flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Ullah, Siraj; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.; Zaigham Zia, Q. M.


    Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy's law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined.

  10. Heat generation/absorption and nonlinear radiation effects on stagnation point flow of nanofluid along a moving surface (United States)

    Soomro, Feroz Ahmed; Haq, Rizwan Ul; Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.; Zhang, Qiang


    In this study, heat generation/absorption effects are studied in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation along a moving slip surface. Uniform magnetic field and convective condition along the stretching surface are adjusted to deal the slip mechanisms in term of Brownian motion and thermophoresis for nanofluid. The mathematical model is constructed in the form of coupled partial differential equations. By introducing the suitable similarity transformation, system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained. Finite difference approach is implemented to obtain the unknown functions of velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration. To deduct the effects at the surface, physical quantities of interest are computed under the effects of controlled physical parameters. Present numerical solutions are validated via numerical comparison with existing published work for limiting cases. Present study indicates that due to increase in both Brownian motion and thermophoresis, the Nusselt number decreases while Sherwood number shows the gradual increase.

  11. Effect of Si δ-doped layer position on optical absorption in GaAs quantum well under hydrostatic pressure (United States)

    Dakhlaoui, Hassen; Almansour, Shaffa; Algrafy, Emane


    In this paper, the effects of hydrostatic pressure, the position and the concentration of Si δ-doped layer on the intersubband transitions and absorption lineshape in GaAs quantum well are studied. The electron energy structure and the optical absorption coefficient are calculated by solving Poisson and Schrödinger equations self-consistently. The obtained theoretical results show that the energy differences between the consecutives levels, the confining potential and the optical absorption coefficient depend not only on the hydrostatic pressure but also on the Si δ-doped layer position. Especially, we have found that the optical absorption coefficient can be red or blue shifted by moving the Si δ-doped layer from the middle of the quantum well to the interface with the quantum barrier. This behavior in optical absorption gives us a new degree of freedom in different device applications based on electronic transitions.

  12. Characterization of Photon-Counting Detector Responsivity for Non-Linear Two-Photon Absorption Process (United States)

    Sburlan, S. E.; Farr, W. H.


    Sub-band absorption at 1550 nm has been demonstrated and characterized on silicon Geiger mode detectors which normally would be expected to have no response at this wavelength. We compare responsivity measurements to singlephoton absorption for wavelengths slightly above the bandgap wavelength of silicon (approx. 1100 microns). One application for this low efficiency sub-band absorption is in deep space optical communication systems where it is desirable to track a 1030 nm uplink beacon on the same flight terminal detector array that monitors a 1550 nm downlink signal for pointingcontrol. The currently observed absorption at 1550 nm provides 60-70 dB of isolation compared to the response at 1064 nm, which is desirable to avoid saturation of the detector by scattered light from the downlink laser.

  13. Laser-induced periodic surface structures formation: investigation of the effect of nonlinear absorption of laser energy in different materials (United States)

    Levy, Yoann; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Mocek, Tomáš


    To get insight into laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formation, the relaxation of a modulation in the temperature profile is investigated numerically on surfaces of two different kinds of materials (metals and dielectrics; gold and fused silica as examples) upon irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses. The temperature modulation is assumed to originate from the interference between the incoming laser pulse and the surface electromagnetic wave, which is considered as the main mechanism of LIPSS formation. For comparative studies of laser energy dissipation, a simplified 2D approach is used. It is based on the two-temperature model (TTM) and considers the mechanisms of nonlinear absorption of laser light (multiphoton ionization in fused silica; temperature-dependent thermophysical and optical properties in gold) and relaxation (electron trapping to excitonic states in fused silica). The TTM is coupled with the Drude model, considering the evolution of optical properties as a function of free-carrier density and/or temperature. The development and decay of the lattice temperature modulation, which can govern the LIPSS formation, is followed during electron-lattice thermalization time and beyond. It is shown that strong temperature gradients can form along the surfaces of both kinds of materials under study within the fluence range typical for LIPSS formation. Considerable changes in optical properties of these materials are found as a function of time, including metals, for which a constant reflectivity is usually assumed. Effects of nonlinear absorption on the surface temperature dynamics are reported.

  14. Enhancement of Two-photon Absorption in Quantum Wells for Extremely Nondegenerate Photon Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Pattanaik, Himansu S; Khurgin, Jacob B; Hagan, David J; Van Stryland, Eric W


    We recently demonstrated orders of magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption (2PA) in direct gap semiconductors due to intermediate state resonance enhancement for photons of very different energies. It can be expected that further enhancement of nondegenerate 2PA will be observed in quantum wells (QWs) since the intraband matrix elements do not vanish near the band center as they do in the bulk, and the density of states in QWs is larger near the band edge. Here we present a perturbation-theory based theoretical description of nondegenerate 2PA in semiconductor QWs, where both frequency and polarization of two incident waves can vary independently. Analytical expressions for all possible permutations of frequencies and polarizations have been obtained, and the results are compared with degenerate 2PA in quantum wells along with degenerate and nondegenerate 2PA in bulk semiconductors. We show that using QWs in place of bulk semiconductors with both beams in the TM-polarized mode leads to an additional or...

  15. Magical flight and monstrous stress: technologies of absorption and mental wellness in Azeroth. (United States)

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Lacy, Michael G; Francois Dengah, H J; Fagan, Jesse; Most, David E


    Videogame players commonly report reaching deeply "immersive" states of consciousness, in some cases growing to feel like they actually are their characters and really in the game, with such fantastic characters and places potentially only loosely connected to offline selves and realities. In the current investigation, we use interview and survey data to examine the effects of such "dissociative" experiences on players of the popular online videogame, World of Warcraft (WoW). Of particular interest are ways in which WoW players' emotional identification with in-game second selves can lead either to better mental well-being, through relaxation and satisfying positive stress, or, alternatively, to risky addiction-like experiences. Combining universalizing and context-dependent perspectives, we suggest that WoW and similar games can be thought of as new "technologies of absorption"--contemporary practices that can induce dissociative states in which players attribute dimensions of self and experience to in-game characters, with potential psychological benefit or harm. We present our research as an empirically grounded exploration of the mental health benefits and risks associated with dissociation in common everyday contexts. We believe that studies such as ours may enrich existing theories of the health dynamics of dissociation, relying, as they often do, on data drawn either from Western clinical contexts involving pathological disintegrated personality disorders or from non-Western ethnographic contexts involving spiritual trance.

  16. Intersubband absorption of p-type wurtzite GaN/AlN quantum well for fiber-optics telecommunication (United States)

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Ahn, Doyeol; Park, Chan-Yong


    The intersubband transition of wurtzite (WZ) p-type GaN/AlN quantum well (QW) structures grown on GaN substrate was investigated theoretically using the multiband effective-mass theory. The peak value of the TE-polarization absorption spectrum is found to be similar to that of the TM-polarization absorption spectrum. The absorption coefficients for TE- and TM-polarizations are mainly attributed to the absorption from the ground state (m1 = 1) because holes are mainly confined in ground states near the band-edge in an investigated range of the carrier density. We observe that a transition wavelength of 1.55 μm can be obtained for the QW structure with a relatively thin (˜16 Å) well width. Thus, we expect that a p-type WZ AlN/GaN heterostructure is applicable for a photodetector application for fiber-optic communications with normal incidence of wave.

  17. Nonlinear optical rectification in laterally-coupled quantum well wires with applied electric field (United States)

    Liu, Guanghui; Guo, Kangxian; Zhang, Zhongmin; Hassanbadi, Hassan; Lu, Liangliang


    Nonlinear optical rectification coefficient χ0(2) in laterally-coupled AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum well wires with an applied electric field is theoretically investigated using the effective mass approximation as well as the numerical energy levels and wavefunctions of electrons. We find that χ0(2) is greatly influenced by the electric field as well as both the distance and the radius of the coupled system. A blue shift of χ0(2) with increasing electric field is exhibited while a red shift followed by a blue shift with increasing distance or radius is exhibited. A nonmonotonic behavior can be found in the resonant peak values of χ0(2) along with the increase of the electric field, the distance or the radius. One or two of the following physical mechanisms: the increased localization of the ground and first-excited states, the reduced coupling and the reduced quantum confinement effect are applied to elucidate the results above. Our results play a potential role in infrared photodetectors based on the coupled system.

  18. Effect of size and indium-composition on linear and nonlinear optical absorption of InGaN/GaN lens-shaped quantum dot (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Jbara; Zulkafli, Othaman; M, A. Saeed


    Based on the Schrödinger equation for envelope function in the effective mass approximation, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in a multi-subband lens quantum dot are investigated. The effects of quantum dot size on the interband and intraband transitions energy are also analyzed. The finite element method is used to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Strain and In-mole-fraction effects are also studied, and the results reveal that with the decrease of the In-mole fraction, the amplitudes of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients increase. The present computed results show that the absorption coefficients of transitions between the first excited states are stronger than those of the ground states. In addition, it has been found that the quantum dot size affects the amplitudes and peak positions of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients while the incident optical intensity strongly affects the nonlinear absorption coefficients. Project supported by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq, Ibnu Sina Institute and Physics Department of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM RUG Vote No. 06-H14).

  19. Intensity dependent absorption bleaching of high subband excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, S H; Lee, E H; Chae, K M; Park, S H; Kim, U


    We have investigated the influence of carrier generation on the absorption bleaching of the n=2 and n=3 excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs). With the excitation near the resonance of the n=1 exciton absorption, the long range coulomb screening and collision broadening had significant effects on the exciton bleaching. At low excitation intensity, the absorption bleaching of the n=2 exciton in 75 A-thick MQWs and that of the n=3 exciton in 150 A-thick MQWs were due to linewidth broadening by the collision broadening effect only. At high excitation intensity, however, the reduction of oscillator strength due to the long range coulomb screening contributed dominantly to absorption bleaching.

  20. Nonlinear flow model of multiple fractured horizontal wells with stimulated reservoir volume including the quadratic gradient term (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Guo, Ping


    The real fluid flow in porous media is consistent with the mass conservation which can be described by the nonlinear governing equation including the quadratic gradient term (QGT). However, most of the flow models have been established by ignoring the QGT and little work has been conducted to incorporate the QGT into the flow model of the multiple fractured horizontal (MFH) well with stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). This paper first establishes a semi-analytical model of an MFH well with SRV including the QGT. Introducing the transformed pressure and flow-rate function, the nonlinear model of a point source in a composite system including the QGT is linearized. Then the Laplace transform, principle of superposition, numerical discrete method, Gaussian elimination method and Stehfest numerical inversion are employed to establish and solve the seepage model of the MFH well with SRV. Type curves are plotted and the effects of relevant parameters are analyzed. It is found that the nonlinear effect caused by the QGT can increase the flow capacity of fluid flow and influence the transient pressure positively. The relevant parameters not only have an effect on the type curve but also affect the error in the pressure calculated by the conventional linear model. The proposed model, which is consistent with the mass conservation, reflects the nonlinear process of the real fluid flow, and thus it can be used to obtain more accurate transient pressure of an MFH well with SRV.

  1. Global well-posedness for nonlinear Schrodinger equations with energy-critical damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhua Feng


    Full Text Available We consider the Cauchy problem for the nonlinear Schrodinger equations with energy-critical damping. We prove the existence of global in-time solutions for general initial data in the energy space. Our results extend some results from [1,2].

  2. Particle emission from polymer-doped water ice matrices induced by non-linear absorption of laser light at 1064 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, A.; Schou, Jørgen; Dinescu, M.


    Emission of PEG (polyethylene glycol) molecules and ions from an ice target induced by laser irradiation in the infrared (IR) regime at 1064 nm was studied. Matrices of 1 wt% PEG flash-frozen solutions were used for polymer deposition with MAPLE (matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation). Even...... though linear absorption in defect-free water ice is two orders of magnitude larger at 1064 ran than 355 nm, the deposition rate and ion current density are much smaller for IR than for ultraviolet laser light. The similarity of results for both wavelengths indicates that non-linear absorption...

  3. Fast response of the optical nonlinearity in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Sawaki, N


    The time response of the optical nonlinear behavior in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure is estimated by using a picosecond pump-probe method at 77 K. From the results of the transmission of the probe pulse as a function of the delay time at the excitation wavelengths, a rise time of 5 approx 10 ps and a fall time of 8 approx 16 ps are obtained. The nonlinear behavior is attributed to the triple resonance of the electronic states due to the build-up of the internal field induced by the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes. It is found that the rise time is determined by the tunneling transfer time of the electrons in the narrowest well to an adjacent well separated by a thin potential barrier.

  4. Application of Near-IR Absorption Porphyrin Dyes Derived from Click Chemistry as Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials. (United States)

    Mi, Yongsheng; Liang, Pengxia; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Dong; Cao, Hui; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai; Yu, Lian


    Recently, third-order nonlinear properties of porphyrins and porphyrin polymers and coordination compounds have been extensively studied in relation to their use in photomedicine and molecular photonics. A new functionalized porphyrin dye containing electron-rich alkynes was synthesized and further modified by formal [2+2] click reactions with click reagents tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 7, 7, 8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The photophysical properties of these porphyrin dyes, as well as the click reaction, were studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In particular, third-order nonlinear optical properties of the dyes, which showed typical d-π-A structures, were characterized by Z-scan techniques. In addition, the self-assembly properties were investigated through the phase-exchange method, and highly organized morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the click post-functionalization on the properties of the porphyrins were studied, and these functionalized porphyrin dyes represent an interesting set of candidates for optoelectronic device components.

  5. The enhanced photo absorption and carrier transportation of InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells for photodiode detector applications. (United States)

    Yang, Haojun; Ma, Ziguang; Jiang, Yang; Wu, Haiyan; Zuo, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Jia, Haiqiang; Chen, Hong


    We have conducted a series of measurements of resonantly excited photoluminescence, photocurrent and photovoltage on InGaN/GaN quantum wells with and without a p-n junction under reverse bias condition. The results indicate that most of the resonantly excited photo-generated carriers are extracted from the quantum wells when a p-n junction exists, and the photon absorption of quantum wells is enhanced by the p-n junction. Additionally, the carrier extraction becomes more distinct under a reverse bias. Our finding brings better understanding of the physical characteristics of quantum wells with p-n junction, which also suggests that the quantum well is suitable for photodiode detectors applications when a p-n junction is used.

  6. Piezoelectric Field Enhanced Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Wurtzite GaN/AlGaN Quantum Wells (United States)

    Liu, Ansheng; Chuang, S.-L.; Ning, C. Z.; Woo, Alex (Technical Monitor)


    Second-order nonlinear optical processes including second-harmonic generation, optical rectification, and difference-frequency generation associated with intersubband transitions in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum well (QW) are investigated theoretically. Taking into account the strain-induced piezoelectric (PZ) effects, we solve the electronic structure of the QW from coupled effective-mass Schrodinger equation and Poisson equation including the exchange-correlation effect under the local-density approximation. We show that the large PZ field in the QW breaks the symmetry of the confinement potential profile and leads to large second-order susceptibilities. We also show that the interband optical pump-induced electron-hole plasma results in an enhancement in the maximum value of the nonlinear coefficients and a redshift of the peak position in the nonlinear optical spectrum. By use of the difference-frequency generation, THz radiation can be generated from a GaN/Al(0.75)Ga(0.25)N with a pump laser of 1.55 micron.

  7. Global well-posedness and scattering for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the nonradial case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigong Han


    Full Text Available The energy-critical, focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the nonradial case reads as follows: \\[i\\partial_t u = -\\Delta u -|u|^{\\frac{4}{N-2}}u,\\quad (x,0=u_0 \\in H^1 (\\mathbb{R}^N,\\quad N\\geq 3.\\] Under a suitable assumption on the maximal strong solution, using a compactness argument and a virial identity, we establish the global well-posedness and scattering in the nonradial case, which gives a positive answer to one open problem proposed by Kenig and Merle [Invent. Math. 166 (2006, 645–675].

  8. Nonlinear photonic diode behavior in energy-graded core-shell quantum well semiconductor rod. (United States)

    Ko, Suk-Min; Gong, Su-Hyun; Cho, Yong-Hoon


    Future technologies require faster data transfer and processing with lower loss. A photonic diode could be an attractive alternative to the present Si-based electronic diode for rapid optical signal processing and communication. Here, we report highly asymmetric photonic diode behavior with low scattering loss, from tapered core-shell quantum well semiconductor rods that were fabricated to have a large gradient in their bandgap energy along their growth direction. Local laser illumination of the core-shell quantum well rods yielded a huge contrast in light output intensities from opposite ends of the rod.

  9. Nonlinear optical absorption tuning in Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} ferroelectric thin films by thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Zhong, X. L., E-mail:, E-mail:; Zhang, Y.; Wang, J. B., E-mail:, E-mail:; Song, H. J.; Tan, C. B.; Li, B. [Key Laboratory of Materials Design and Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Hunan Provincial National Defense Key Laboratory of Key Film Materials and Application for Equipment, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Cheng, G. H.; Liu, X. [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, CAS, Shanxi, Xi' an 710119 (China)


    The tunability of nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption in Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BNT) ferroelectric thin films was investigated through the open aperture Z-scan method with femtosecond laser pulses at the wavelength of 800 nm. NLO absorption responses of the BNT films were observed to be highly sensitive to the film thickness. As the film thickness increases from 106.8 to 139.7 nm, the NLO absorption changes from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA). When the film thickness further increases to 312.9 nm, the RSA effect is enhanced. A band-gap-related competition between the ground-state excitation and the two-photon absorption is responsible for the absorption switching behavior. Such a tunable NLO absorption can widen the photonic application of the BNT thin films.

  10. Study of a Steel’s Energy Absorption System for Heavy Quadricycles and Nonlinear Explicit Dynamic Analysis of its Behavior under Impact by FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel López Campos


    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the behavior of heavy quadricycles under impact is still very poor. One of the most significant causes is the lack of energy absorption in the vehicle frame or its steel chassis structure. For this reason, special steels (with yield stresses equal to or greater than 350 MPa are commonly used in the automotive industry due to their great strain hardening properties along the plastic zone, which allows good energy absorption under impact. This paper presents a proposal for a steel quadricycle energy absorption system which meets the percentages of energy absorption for conventional vehicles systems. This proposal is validated by explicit dynamics simulation, which will define the whole problem mathematically and verify behavior under impact at speeds of 40 km/h and 56 km/h using the finite element method (FEM. One of the main consequences of this study is that this FEM–based methodology can tackle high nonlinear problems like this one with success, avoiding the need to carry out experimental tests, with consequent economical savings since experimental tests are very expensive. Finally, the conclusions from this innovative research work are given.

  11. Effect of transverse electric field and temperature on light absorption in GaAs/AlGaAs tunnel-coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya., E-mail:; Balagula, R. M. [Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Kulagina, M. M.; Vasil’iev, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)


    The photoluminescence and intersubband absorption spectra are studied in GaAs/AlGaAs tunnel- coupled quantum well structures. The peak positions in the photoluminescence and absorption spectra are consistent with the theoretically calculated energies of optical carrier transitions. The effect of a transverse electric field and temperature on intersubband light absorption is studied. It is caused by electron redistribution between the size-quantization levels and a variation in the energy spectrum of quantum wells. The variation in the refractive index in the energy region of observed intersubband transitions is estimated using Kramers–Kronig relations.

  12. Modulation of intersubband light absorption and interband photoluminescence in double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells under strong lateral electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagula, R. M., E-mail:; Vinnichenko, M. Ya., E-mail:; Makhov, I. S.; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E. [Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)


    The effect of a lateral electric field on the mid-infrared absorption and interband photoluminescence spectra in double tunnel-coupled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells is studied. The results obtained are explained by the redistribution of hot electrons between quantum wells and changes in the space charge in the structure. The hot carrier temperature is determined by analyzing the intersubband light absorption and interband photoluminescence modulation spectra under strong lateral electric fields.

  13. Global well-posedness for passively transported nonlinear moisture dynamics with phase changes (United States)

    Hittmeir, Sabine; Klein, Rupert; Li, Jinkai; Titi, Edriss S.


    We study a moisture model for warm clouds that has been used by Klein and Majda (2006 Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 20 525-551) as a basis for multiscale asymptotic expansions for deep convective phenomena. These moisture balance equations correspond to a bulk microphysics closure in the spirit of Kessler (1969 Meteorol. Monogr. 10 1-84) and Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1996 Mon. Weather Rev. 124 487-97), in which water is present in the gaseous state as water vapor and in the liquid phase as cloud water and rain water. It thereby contains closures for the phase changes condensation and evaporation, as well as the processes of autoconversion of cloud water into rainwater and the collection of cloud water by the falling rain droplets. Phase changes are associated with enormous amounts of latent heat and therefore provide a strong coupling to the thermodynamic equation. In this work we assume the velocity field to be given and prove rigorously the global existence and uniqueness of uniformly bounded solutions of the moisture model with viscosity, diffusion and heat conduction. To guarantee local well-posedness we first need to establish local existence results for linear parabolic equations, subject to the Robin boundary conditions on the cylindric type of domains under consideration. We then derive a priori estimates, for proving the maximum principle, using the Stampacchia method, as well as the iterative method by Alikakos (1979 J. Differ. Equ. 33 201-25) to obtain uniform boundedness. The evaporation term is of power law type, with an exponent in general less or equal to one and therefore making the proof of uniqueness more challenging. However, these difficulties can be circumvented by introducing new unknowns, which satisfy the required cancellation and monotonicity properties in the source terms.

  14. Global well-posedness for the mass-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation on T (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Wu, Yifei; Xu, Guixiang


    We consider the global well-posedness for the Cauchy problem of the mass-critical nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the periodic case. We show that it is globally well-posed in H(T) for any s>2/5. This improves the related work of Bourgain (2004) [2]. The key point is that we combine I-method with the resonant decomposition, which is developed in Colliander et al. (2008) [9], Li et al. (2011) [15], Miao et al. (2010) [16]. Another new ingredient here is that we obtain a bilinear Strichartz estimates in the periodic case which improves slightly the result given in De Silva et al. (2007) [11].

  15. Application of Z-scan technique for the study of nonlinear absorption in chemically reduced LiNbO3 crystals (United States)

    Kostritskii, SM; Aillerie, M.; Kokonyan, E.; Sevostyanov, OG


    The nonlinear absorption (NLA) was studied by open-aperture Z-scan experiments in the chemically reduced nominally pure LiNbO3 crystals at cw-illumination with the red (644 nm) and green (514.5 nm) laser beams. The magnitude of the measured NLA is considerably different from the reported Z-scan results obtained in as-grown LiNbO3. The positive sign of NLA obtained with the red light has been related to the generation of the small bound polarons absorbing in red and near-IR ranges. Application of green light results in the light-induced transparency, i.e. the Z-scan traces show negative sign of NLA. Intensity dependence of Z-scan traces allows for conclusion that the photo-induced dissociation of small NbLi 4+:NbNb 4+ bipolarons and sequent generation of small polarons gives the dominating contribution to the nonlinear optical absorption in reduced crystals with a large bipolarons concentration.

  16. Two-photon absorption of ligand-protected Ag15 nanoclusters. Towards a new class of nonlinear optics nanomaterials. (United States)

    Sanader, Željka; Krstić, Marjan; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Bertorelle, Franck; Dugourd, Philippe; Brevet, Pierre-François; Antoine, Rodolphe; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta


    We report theoretical and experimental results on two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section of thiolated small silver cluster Ag15L11 exhibiting extraordinary large TPA in red. Our findings provide the responsible mechanism and allow proposing new classes of nanoclusters with large TPAs which are promising for biological and medical applications.

  17. Soliton Formation and Superluminality Effect due to Nonlinear Absorption of Femtosecond Laser Pulse Energy by the Medium Containing Nanorods (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Lysak, Tatiana M.


    We investigate a femtosecond pulse propagation in a medium, containing nanorods, with taking into account the dependence of multi-photon absorption from the aspect ratio of nanorods. Nanorods melting due to the laser energy absorption leads to the non-stationary interaction of laser pulse with the medium and time-dependent nanorod aspect ratio changing. Under certain conditions, we found out the soliton-like mode of a laser pulse propagation and the superluminality effect: acceleration of light (fast light) in comparison with light propagation in a linear medium. We discuss a physical mechanism of superluminality effect for considering laser pulse propagation. Using spatio-temporal analogy, one can see the similarity between the pulse centre evolution along longitudinal coordinate and the beam centre evolution under the infrared optical radiation propagation in a cloud, or fog, which moves across the beam, with taking into account its thermal blooming.

  18. Identifying and Quantifying Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil of the Picual Varietal by Absorption Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Modeling. (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Matute, Gemma; Torrecilla, José S


    In this research, the detection and quantification of adulterants in one of the most common varieties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been successfully carried out. Visible absorption information was collected from binary mixtures of Picual EVOO with one of four adulterants: refined olive oil, orujo olive oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. The data gathered from the absorption spectra were used as input to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The designed mathematical tool was able to detect the type of adulterant with an identification rate of 96% and to quantify the volume percentage of EVOO in the samples with a low mean prediction error of 1.2%. These significant results make ANNs coupled with visible spectroscopy a reliable, inexpensive, user-friendly, and real-time method for difficult tasks, given that the matrices of the different adulterated oils are practically alike.

  19. Development of population pharmacokinetics model of icotinib with non-linear absorption characters in healthy Chinese volunteers to assess the CYP2C19 polymorphism and food-intake effect. (United States)

    Hu, Pei; Chen, Jia; Liu, Dongyang; Zheng, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Jiang, Ji


    Icotinib is a potent and selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) approved to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its high variability may impede its application. The objectives of this analysis were to assess plasma pharmacokinetics and identify covariates that may explain variability in icotinib absorption and/or disposition following single dose of icotinib in healthy volunteers. Data from two clinical studies (n = 22) were analyzed. One study was designed as three-period and Latin-squared (six sequence) trial to evaluate dose proportionality, and the other one was designed as two-way crossover trial to evaluate food effect on pharmacokinetics (PK) characters. Icotinib concentrations in plasma were analyzed using non-linear mixed-effects model (NONMEM) method. The model was used to assess influence of food, demographic characteristics, measurements of blood biochemistry, and CYP2C19 genotype on PK characters of icotinib in humans. The final model was diagnosed by goodness-of-fit plots and evaluated by visual predictive check (VPC) and bootstrap methods. A two-compartment model with saturated absorption character was developed to capture icotinib pharmacokinetics. Typical value of clearance, distribution clearance, central volume of distribution, maximum absorption rate were 29.5 L/h, 24.9 L/h, 18.5 L, 122.2 L and 204,245 μg/h, respectively. When icotinib was administrated with food, bioavailability was estimated to be increased by 48%. Inter-occasion variability was identified to affect on maximum absorption rate constant in food-effect study. CL was identified to be significantly influenced by age, albumin concentration (ALB), and CYP2C19 genotype. No obvious bias was found by VPC and bootstrap methods. The developed model can capture icotinib pharmacokinetics well in healthy volunteers. Food intake can increase icotinib exposure. Three covariates, age, albumin concentration, and CYP2C19 genotype, were identified to

  20. Ultrathin Gradient Nonlinear Metasurface with a Giant Nonlinear Response (United States)


    National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan, 44919, South Korea 3Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München, Am...absorption empties the quantum-well ground state, limiting the maximum achievable overall nonlinear response of the MQW system [14]. The analyses presented

  1. Nonlinear system identification by Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering and supervised local model network learning for the drug absorption spectra process. (United States)

    Teslic, Luka; Hartmann, Benjamin; Nelles, Oliver; Skrjanc, Igor


    This paper deals with the problem of fuzzy nonlinear model identification in the framework of a local model network (LMN). A new iterative identification approach is proposed, where supervised and unsupervised learning are combined to optimize the structure of the LMN. For the purpose of fitting the cluster-centers to the process nonlinearity, the Gustafsson-Kessel (GK) fuzzy clustering, i.e., unsupervised learning, is applied. In combination with the LMN learning procedure, a new incremental method to define the number and the initial locations of the cluster centers for the GK clustering algorithm is proposed. Each data cluster corresponds to a local region of the process and is modeled with a local linear model. Since the validity functions are calculated from the fuzzy covariance matrices of the clusters, they are highly adaptable and thus the process can be described with a very sparse amount of local models, i.e., with a parsimonious LMN model. The proposed method for constructing the LMN is finally tested on a drug absorption spectral process and compared to two other methods, namely, Lolimot and Hilomot. The comparison between the experimental results when using each method shows the usefulness of the proposed identification algorithm.

  2. Asymmetric GaAs n-type double δ-doped quantum wells as a source of intersubband-related nonlinear optical response: Effects of an applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K.A.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calz. Solidaridad Esq. Paseo a La Bufa S/N. C.P. 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)


    In this work, the conduction band electron states and the associated intersubband-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change are calculated for an asymmetric double n-type δ-doped quantum well in a GaAs-matrix. The effects of an external applied static electric field are included. Values of the two-dimensional impurities density (N{sub 2d}) of each single δ-doped quantum well are taken to vary within the range of 1.0×10{sup 12} to 7.0×10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, consistent with the experimental data growth regime. The optical responses are reported as a function of the δ-doped impurities density and the applied electric field. It is shown that single electron states and the related optical quantities are significantly affected by the structural asymmetry of the double δ-doped quantum well system. In addition, a brief comparison with the free-carrier-related optical response is presented. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear optics in asymmetric double n-type δ-doped quantum well in a GaAs-matrix. • The system is considered under external applied electric field in growth direction. • The 2D impurity density is consistent with the experimental data growth regime. • The optical quantities are significantly affected by the structural asymmetry of the system.

  3. The effect of Se/Te ratio on transient absorption behavior and nonlinear absorption properties of CuIn0.7Ga0.3(Se1-xTex)2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) amorphous semiconductor thin films (United States)

    Karatay, Ahmet; Küçüköz, Betül; Çankaya, Güven; Ates, Aytunc; Elmali, Ayhan


    The characterization of the CuInSe2 (CIS), CuInGaSe (CIGS) and CuGaSe2 (CGS) based semiconductor thin films are very important role for solar cell and various nonlinear optical applications. In this paper, the amorphous CuIn0.7Ga0.3(Se1-xTex)2 semiconductor thin films (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were prepared with 60 nm thicknesses by using vacuum evaporation technique. The nonlinear absorption properties and ultrafast transient characteristics were investigated by using open aperture Z-scan and ultrafast pump-probe techniques. The energy bandgap values were calculated by using linear absorption spectra. The bandgap values are found to be varying from 0.67 eV to 1.25 eV for CuIn0.7Ga0.3Te2, CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se1.6Te0.4, CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se0.4Te1.6 and CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se2 thin films. The energy bandgap values decrease with increasing telluride (Te) doping ratio in mixed CuIn0.7Ga0.3(Se1-xTex)2 films. This affects nonlinear characteristics and ultrafast dynamics of amorphous thin films. Ultrafast pump-probe experiments indicated that decreasing of bandgap values with increasing the Te amount switches from the excited state absorption signals to ultrafast bleaching signals. Open aperture Z-scan experiments show that nonlinear absorption properties enhance with decreasing bandgaps values for 65 ps pulse duration at 1064 nm. Highest nonlinear absorption coefficient was found for CuIn0.7Ga0.3Te2 thin film due to having the smallest energy bandgap.

  4. Multiphoton absorption in amyloid protein fibres (United States)

    Hanczyc, Piotr; Samoc, Marek; Norden, Bengt


    Fibrillization of peptides leads to the formation of amyloid fibres, which, when in large aggregates, are responsible for diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Here, we show that amyloids have strong nonlinear optical absorption, which is not present in native non-fibrillized protein. Z-scan and pump-probe experiments indicate that insulin and lysozyme β-amyloids, as well as α-synuclein fibres, exhibit either two-photon, three-photon or higher multiphoton absorption processes, depending on the wavelength of light. We propose that the enhanced multiphoton absorption is due to a cooperative mechanism involving through-space dipolar coupling between excited states of aromatic amino acids densely packed in the fibrous structures. This finding will provide the opportunity to develop nonlinear optical techniques to detect and study amyloid structures and also suggests that new protein-based materials with sizable multiphoton absorption could be designed for specific applications in nanotechnology, photonics and optoelectronics.

  5. Observation of room temperature optical absorption in InP/GaAs type-II ultrathin quantum wells and quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. D., E-mail:; Porwal, S.; Mondal, Puspen; Srivastava, A. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Dixit, V. K.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013, Madhya Pradesh (India)


    Room temperature optical absorption process is observed in ultrathin quantum wells (QWs) and quantum dots (QDs) of InP/GaAs type-II band alignment system using surface photovoltage spectroscopy technique, where no measurable photoluminescence signal is available. Clear signature of absorption edge in the sub band gap region of GaAs barrier layer is observed for the ultrathin QWs and QDs, which red shifts with the amount of deposited InP material. Movement of photogenerated holes towards the sample surface is proposed to be the main mechanism for the generation of surface photovoltage in type-II ultrathin QWs and QDs. QDs of smaller size are found to be free from the dislocations as confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

  6. On the fundamentals of winning virtuous strategies creation toward leveraged buyout transactions implementation during private equity investment in conditions of resonant absorption of discrete information in diffusion - type financial system with induced nonlinearities


    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.


    The authors perform an original research on the fundamentals of winning virtuous strategies creation toward the leveraged buyout transactions implementation during the private equity investment in the conditions of the resonant absorption of discrete information in the diffusion - type financial system with the induced nonlinearities at the influences by the Schumpeterian creative disruption processes in the free market economy. We propose that the money is a financial computing process, whic...

  7. Investigation of 1.3 μm AlGaInAs multi-quantum wells for electro-absorption modulated laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binet, Guillaume [III-V Lab., Route de Nozay, 91461, Marcoussis (France); Institut Jean le Rond d' Alembert, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7190, 75005, Paris (France); Decobert, Jean; Lagay, Nadine; Chimot, Nicolas; Kazmierski, Christophe [III-V Lab., Route de Nozay, 91461, Marcoussis (France)


    Monolithic photonic integrated circuits (PIC) transmitters using the prefixed optical phase switching concept for BPSK modulation format have been shown promising at 1.55 μm band. These devices could also be crucial for short reach connections and access networks. With this aim, we are studying basic quantum well designs for a laser and an electro-absorption modulator switch to be integrated by selective area growth into PICs at 1.3 μm. Photocurrent measurements and band offset modeling have been performed to determine the MQW stack well-fitted for this application. Broad area laser measurements have also been checked on these structures to verify the material lasing properties. A 6 nm thick well with low barrier seems to be the best trade-off between absorption and shift for 1.3 μm EAM and it also gives good lasing properties. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of non-equilibrium holes in p-type modulation-doped GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells. (United States)

    Khalil, Hagir Mohammed; Sun, Yun; Balkan, Naci; Amann, Andreas; Sopanen, Markku


    Nonlinear charge transport parallel to the layers of p-modulation-doped GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental results show that at low temperature, T = 13 K, the presence of an applied electric field of about 6 kV/cm leads to the heating of the high mobility holes in the GaInNAs QWs, and their real-space transfer (RST) into the low-mobility GaAs barriers. This results in a negative differential mobility and self-generated oscillatory instabilities in the RST regime. We developed an analytical model based upon the coupled nonlinear dynamics of the real-space hole transfer and of the interface potential barrier controlled by space-charge in the doped GaAs layer. Our simulation results predict dc bias-dependent self-generated current oscillations with frequencies in the high microwave range.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of non-equilibrium holes in p-type modulation-doped GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amann Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear charge transport parallel to the layers of p-modulation-doped GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental results show that at low temperature, T = 13 K, the presence of an applied electric field of about 6 kV/cm leads to the heating of the high mobility holes in the GaInNAs QWs, and their real-space transfer (RST into the low-mobility GaAs barriers. This results in a negative differential mobility and self-generated oscillatory instabilities in the RST regime. We developed an analytical model based upon the coupled nonlinear dynamics of the real-space hole transfer and of the interface potential barrier controlled by space-charge in the doped GaAs layer. Our simulation results predict dc bias-dependent self-generated current oscillations with frequencies in the high microwave range.

  10. Observation of mid-infrared intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Teruhisa, E-mail: [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Life and Environment Laboratories, Sharp Corporation, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri, Nara 632-8567 (Japan); Arita, Munetaka [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Arakawa, Yasuhiko [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)


    Mid-infrared (4.20–4.84 μm) intersubband absorption in non-polar m-plane Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/GaN multiple-quantum wells is observed at room temperature. 10 period Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/GaN multiple-quantum wells were grown on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and the high-quality structural and optical properties are revealed by x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence studies. Through this we have demonstrated that MOCVD grown non-polar m-plane AlGaN/GaN quantum wells are a promising material for mid-infrared intersubband devices.

  11. Theory of graphene saturable absorption (United States)

    Marini, A.; Cox, J. D.; García de Abajo, F. J.


    Saturable absorption is a nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a semianalytical nonperturbative single-particle approach, describing electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics nonperturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. We obtain results in qualitative agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations of graphene nanoribbons including electron-electron interactions, finite-size, and higher-band effects. Remarkably, such effects are found to affect mainly the linear absorption, while the predicted saturation intensities are in good quantitative agreement in the limit of extended graphene. Additionally, we find that the modulation depth of saturable absorption in graphene can be electrically manipulated through an externally applied gate voltage. Our results are relevant for the development of graphene-based optoelectronic devices, as well as for applications in mode-locking and random lasers.

  12. The nonlinear oil-water two-phase flow behavior for a horizontal well in triple media carbonate reservoir (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Tao, Zhengwu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Xin


    Carbonate reservoir is one of the important reservoirs in the world. Because of the characteristics of carbonate reservoir, horizontal well has become a key technology for efficiently developing carbonate reservoir. Establishing corresponding mathematical models and analyzing transient pressure behaviors of this type of well-reservoir configuration can provide a better understanding of fluid flow patterns in formation as well as estimations of important parameters. A mathematical model for a oil-water two-phase flow horizontal well in triple media carbonate reservoir by conceptualizing vugs as spherical shapes are presented in this article. A semi-analytical solution is obtained in the Laplace domain using source function theory, Laplace transformation, and superposition principle. Analysis of transient pressure responses indicates that seven characteristic flow periods of horizontal well in triple media carbonate reservoir can be identified. Parametric analysis shows that water saturation of matrix, vug and fracture system, horizontal section length, and horizontal well position can significantly influence the transient pressure responses of horizontal well in triple media carbonate reservoir. The model presented in this article can be applied to obtain important parameters pertinent to reservoir by type curve matching.

  13. Experimental Characterization of Nonlinear Optical Materials (United States)

    Knox, Katie; Yang, Chuan; Liu, Zhiwen


    An optical system based on a half-wave plate-polarizer attenuator was designed to determine the transmitted light through materials that behave nonlinearly in the presence of high-energy picosecond laser pulses. The sample's nonlinear absorbance of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was measured as the energy of the incident light was regulated by the rotation of a half-wave plate. The optical system was used to measure the absorption of two linear samples as well as a nonlinear liquid crystal. Experimental results revealed that the optical material, which was composed of gold nanospheres in the nonlinear liquid L34, behaved as expected in the presence of lower input energies, but the attenuated beam did not reach a high enough energy to observe the full limiting effects of the nonlinear material.

  14. Local well-posedness for a higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation in Sobolev spaces of negative indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Carvajal


    Full Text Available We prove that the initial value problem associated with $$ partial_tu+ialpha partial^2_x u+Beta partial^3_x u +igamma|u|^2u = 0, quad x,t in mathbb{R}, $$ is locally well-posed in $H^s$ for $s>-1/4$.

  15. Effect of the magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in double δ-doped GaAs quantum wells (United States)

    Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rojas-Briseño, J. G.; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Restrepo, R. L.; Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.


    In this paper we are reporting the computation for the Nonlinear Optical Rectification (NOR) and the Second and Third Harmonic Generation (SHG and THG) related with electronic states of asymmetric double Si-δ-doped quantum well in a GaAs matrix when this is subjected to an in-plane (x-oriented) constant magnetic field effect. The work is performed in the effective mass and parabolic band approximations in order to compute the electronic structure for the system by a diagonalization procedure. The expressions for the nonlinear optical susceptibilities, χ0(2), χ2ω(2), and χ3ω(3), are those arising from the compact matrix density formulation and stand for the NOR, SHG, and THG, respectively. This asymmetric double δ-doped quantum well potential profile actually exhibits nonzero NOR, SHG, and THG responses which can be easily controlled by the in-plane (x-direction) externally applied magnetic field. In particular we find that for the chosen configuration the harmonic generation is in the far-infrared/THz region, thus and becoming suitable building blocks for photodetectors in this range of the electromagnetic spectra.

  16. Picosecond nonlinear optical properties of cuprous oxide with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 8, 2014 ... To find the nonlinear optical parameters nonlinear absorption (NLA), we utilized the stan- dard Z-scan technique, which is a simple single-beam nonlinear transmission experiment. [4]. Nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter can show two types of nonlinear absorption behaviour: (1) ...

  17. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W


    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  18. Application of the Banach Fixed-Point Theorem to the Scattering Problem at a Nonlinear Three-Layer Structure with Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Serov


    Full Text Available A method based on the Banach fixed-point theorem is proposed for obtaining certain solutions (TE-polarized electromagnetic waves of the Helmholtz equation describing the reflection and transmission of a plane monochromatic wave at a nonlinear lossy dielectric film situated between two lossless linear semiinfinite media. All three media are assumed to be nonmagnetic and isotropic. The permittivity of the film is modelled by a continuously differentiable function of the transverse coordinate with a saturating Kerr nonlinearity. It is shown that the solution of the Helmholtz equation exists in form of a uniformly convergent sequence of iterations of the equivalent Volterra integral equation. Numerical results are presented.

  19. Application of the Banach Fixed-Point Theorem to the Scattering Problem at a Nonlinear Three-Layer Structure with Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüermann HW


    Full Text Available Abstract A method based on the Banach fixed-point theorem is proposed for obtaining certain solutions (TE-polarized electromagnetic waves of the Helmholtz equation describing the reflection and transmission of a plane monochromatic wave at a nonlinear lossy dielectric film situated between two lossless linear semiinfinite media. All three media are assumed to be nonmagnetic and isotropic. The permittivity of the film is modelled by a continuously differentiable function of the transverse coordinate with a saturating Kerr nonlinearity. It is shown that the solution of the Helmholtz equation exists in form of a uniformly convergent sequence of iterations of the equivalent Volterra integral equation. Numerical results are presented.

  20. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A


    This book is mostly concerned on the experimental research of the nonlinear optical characteristics of various media, low- and high-order harmonic generation in different materials, and formation, and nonlinear optical characterization of clusters. We also demonstrate the inter-connection between these areas of nonlinear optics.   Nonlinear optical properties of media such as optical limiting can be applied in various areas of science and technology. To define suitable materials for these applications, one has to carefully analyse the nonlinear optical characteristics of various media, such as the nonlinear refractive indices, coefficients of nonlinear absorption, saturation absorption intensities, etc. Knowing the nonlinear optical parameters of materials is also important for describing the propagation effects, self-interaction of intense laser pulses, and optimisation of various nonlinear optical processes. Among those processes one can admit the importance of the studies of the frequency conversion of c...

  1. Phase control of Kerr nonlinearity due to quantum interference in a four-level N-type atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein, E-mail: [Young Researchers Club, Bandar Anzali Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Anzali (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Hamedi, Hamid; Sahrai, Mostafa [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Linear and nonlinear response of a four-level N-type atomic system for a weak probe field is investigated. It is demonstrated that the giant Kerr nonlinearity with reduced absorption can be achieved by the spontaneously generated coherence. In addition, the effect of a relative phase between coupling fields on linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity is then discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum interference due to spontaneous emission is considered in a four level medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The giant Kerr nonlinearity in the reduced linear absorption is obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase control of driving fields on linear and nonlinear susceptibility is investigated.

  2. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.


    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...

  3. Polarized dependence of nonlinear susceptibility in a single layer graphene system in infrared region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solookinejad, G., E-mail:


    In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.

  4. Generation of trains of ultrashort microwave pulses by two coupled helical gyro-TWTs operating in regimes of amplification and nonlinear absorption (United States)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Denisov, G. G.; Vilkov, M. N.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.


    Based on a time-domain model, we demonstrate that a periodic train of powerful ultrashort microwave pulses can be generated in an electron oscillator consisting of two coupled helically corrugated gyrotron travelling wave tubes (gyro-TWTs) operating in regimes of amplification and saturable absorption, respectively. The mechanism of pulse formation in such an oscillator is based on the effect of passive mode-locking widely used in laser physics. Saturable absorption can be implemented in a gyro-TWT in the Kompfner dip regime by a proper matching of the guiding magnetic field. According to simulations with the parameters of an experimentally realized Ka-band gyro-TWT, the peak power of generated pulses with a duration of 200 ps can achieve 400 kW.

  5. Largely Enhanced Saturable Absorption of a Complex of Plasmonic and Molecular-Like Au Nanocrystals (United States)

    Ding, Si-Jing; Nan, Fan; Yang, Da-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ya-Lan; Zhou, Li; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Qu-Quan


    A saturable absorber is a nonlinear functional material widely used in laser and photonic nanodevices. Metallic nanostructures have prominent saturable absorption (SA) at the plasmon resonance frequency owing to largely enhanced ground state absorption. However, the SA of plasmonic metal nanostructures is hampered by excited-state absorption processes at very high excitation power, which usually leads to a changeover from SA to reversed SA (SA→RSA). Here, we demonstrate tunable nonlinear absorption behaviours of a nanocomplex of plasmonic and molecular-like Au nanocrystals. The SA→RSA process is efficiently suppressed, and the stepwise SA→SA process is fulfilled owing to energy transfer in the nanocomplex. Our observations offer a strategy for preparation of the saturable absorber complex and have prospective applications in liquid lasers as well as one-photon nonlinear nanodevices. PMID:25875139

  6. Internal Optical Waveguide Loss and p-Type Absorption in Blue and Green InGaN Quantum Well Laser Diodes (United States)

    Sizov, Dmitry S.; Bhat, Rajaram; Heberle, Albert; Song, Kechang; Zah, Chung-en


    We present a new characterization method for internal optical waveguide loss of blue, aquamarine, and green group-III-nitride laser diodes from as-grown wafers without need for further fabrication. This approach relies on excitation-position dependent polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectra collected from the edge of the planar waveguide. The high measurement accuracy of +/-1 cm-1 enables for the first time determination of the mechanisms for p-layer optical loss from the waveguide loss difference before and after Mg dopant activation. Temperature-dependent measurements show that the dominant optical loss mechanism is absorption by acceptor-bound holes. This absorption mechanism does not depend significantly on light polarization.

  7. Time-reversed wave mixing in nonlinear optics. (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; Wan, Wenjie; Chen, Xianfeng


    Time-reversal symmetry is important to optics. Optical processes can run in a forward or backward direction through time when such symmetry is preserved. In linear optics, a time-reversed process of laser emission can enable total absorption of coherent light fields inside an optical cavity of loss by time-reversing the original gain medium. Nonlinearity, however, can often destroy such symmetry in nonlinear optics, making it difficult to study time-reversal symmetry with nonlinear optical wave mixings. Here we demonstrate time-reversed wave mixings for optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and optical parametric amplification (OPA) by exploring this well-known but underappreciated symmetry in nonlinear optics. This allows us to observe the annihilation of coherent beams. Our study offers new avenues for flexible control in nonlinear optics and has potential applications in efficient wavelength conversion, all-optical computing.

  8. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.


    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  9. Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio


    We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass $(\\simeq 10^{-12} $m$^2/$W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The non\\-li\\-near coefficient can be increased to values in the range of $10^{-10} $m$^2/$W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.

  10. High performance platforms for integrated nonlinear optics (United States)

    Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto


    Nonlinear photonic chips have succeeded in generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. This paper reviews some of the recent achievements in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on amorphous silicon and Hydex glass, highlighting their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement.

  11. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves. (United States)

    Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V


    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  12. Accurate Evaluation Nonlinear Absorption Coefficients for Light Propagation in InAs, InSb, and HgCdTe Alloys (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamurthy, Srini; Yu, Zhi G; Gonzalez, Leo; Guha, Shekhar


    .... The calculated coefficients and lifetimes are fitted to closed-form expressions and used in solving the rate equations to obtain the transmitted pump and probe intensities as functions of incident intensity and sample thickness. The calculated pump transmission and time-dependent probe transmission in InAs agree very well with the measured values.

  13. Intersubband absorption properties of high Al content AlxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown with different interlayers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. (United States)

    Sun, He Hui; Guo, Feng Yun; Li, Deng Yue; Wang, Lu; Wang, Dong Bo; Zhao, Lian Cheng


    High Al content AlxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) films with different interlayers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. These MQWs were designed to achieve intersubband (ISB) absorption in the mid-infrared spectral range. We have considered two growth conditions, with AlGaN interlayer and GaN/AlN superlattice (SL) interlayer, both deposited on GaN-on-sapphire templates. Atomic force microscopy images show a relatively rough surface with atomic-step terraces and surface depression, mainly dominated by dislocations. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that good crystalline quality of the AlGaN/GaN MQW layer could be achieved when the AlGaN interlayer is inserted. The ISB absorption with a peak at 3.7 μm was demonstrated in MQW films with AlGaN interlayer. However, we have not observed the infrared absorption in MQW films with GaN/AlN SL interlayer. It is believed that the high dislocation density and weaker polarization that resulted from the rough interface are determinant factors of vanished ISB absorption for MQW films with the GaN/AlN SL interlayer.

  14. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias


    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz nonlinear......In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... is determined by (but not equal to) the electron momentum relaxation rate. Single cycle pulses of light, irrespective of the frequency range to which they belong, inherently have an ultrabroadband spectrum covering many octaves of frequencies. Unlike the single-cycle pulses in optical domain, the THz pulses can...... be easily sampled with sub-cycle resolution using conventional femtosecond lasers. This makes the THz pulses accessible model tools for direct observation of general nonlinear optical phenomena occurring in the single-cycle regime....

  15. Large Kerr nonlinearity in a crystal of molecular magnets system (United States)

    Feili, Sahar; Hamedi, Hamid Reza


    A novel scheme is proposed to investigate the possible giant Kerr nonlinearity in a crystal of molecular magnets. The crystal is subjected to one dc magnetic field and two probe and coupling ac magnetic fields. By studying the steady-state behavior of the medium, we show that an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption can be achieved under condition of slow light levels, just by properly adjusting the coupling field. Also, the transient evolution of nonlinear dispersion is proposed. It is found that the frequency detunings of probe and coupling fields, as well as the intensity of coupling field, lead to the large Kerr nonlinearity. Our results can be used as a guideline for optimizing and controlling the switching process in the crystal of molecular magnets, which is much more practical than that in the atomic system because of its flexible design and the long relaxation times.

  16. Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of polymeric carboxyl phthalocyanine coordinated with rare earth atom (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Zonghua; Chen, Jishi; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Fushi


    The nonlinear optical properties of the polymeric carboxyl phthalocyanine with lanthanum (LaPPc.COOH), holmium (HoPPc.COOH) and ytterbium (YbPPc.COOH) as centric atom, were investigated by the Z-scan method using a picosecond 532 nm laser. The synthesized phthalocyanines had steric polymeric structure and dissolved well in aqueous solution. The nonlinear optical response of them was attributed to the reverse saturable absorption and self-focus refraction. The nonlinear absorption properties decreased with the centric atoms changing from La, Ho to Yb. The largest second-order hyperpolarizability and optical limiting response threshold of LaPPc.COOH were 3.89 × 10-29 esu and 0.32 J/cm2, respectively. The reverse saturable absorption was explained by a three level mode of singlet excited state under the picosecond irradiation. The result indicates the steric structure presented additive stability of these polymeric phthalocyanines for their application as potential optical limiting materials.

  17. Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics, nonlinear absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers in silicon nanowires consisting of a crystalline core and a surrounding amorphous shell, using femtosecond time resolved differential reflectivity and transmission spectroscopy at 3.15 eV and 1.57 eV photon energies. The complex behaviour of the ...

  18. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza


    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  19. InP-based short-wave infrared and midwave infrared photodiodes using a novel type-II strain-compensated quantum well absorption region. (United States)

    Chen, Baile; Holmes, Archie L


    We report on InP-based p-type/intrinsic/n-type (PIN) photodiodes with a novel strain-compensated type-II InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum well active region. The device has optical response out to 3.0 μm, specific detectivity (D*) of 7.73×10(9) cm Hz(0.5)/W at 290 K for 2.7 μm. These preliminary results show that this novel strain-compensated approach leads to similar performance when compared to a conventional strain-compensated approach.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics: Challenges and perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Nonlinear .... engineering problems as well as population dynamics, economics, social dynamics, etc. [11]. 2.1 Nonlinear ordinary ..... niques such as dispersion management method have been developed. Multina- tional organizations have ...

  1. Self-action of propagating and standing Lamb waves in the plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear zero-group velocity modes. (United States)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Ni, Chenyin; Shen, Zhonghua


    An analytical theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous plate material on the Lamb waves near the S 1 zero group velocity point is developed. The theory predicts that the main effect of the hysteretic quadratic nonlinearity consists in the modification of the frequency and the induced absorption of the Lamb modes. The effects of the nonlinear self-action in the propagating and standing Lamb waves are expected to be, respectively, nearly twice and three times stronger than those in the plane propagating acoustic waves. The theory is restricted to the simplest hysteretic nonlinearity, which is influencing only one of the Lamé moduli of the materials. However, possible extensions of the theory to the cases of more general hysteretic nonlinearities are discussed as well as the perspectives of its experimental testing. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous and cracked plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.


    For the first time ever we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of carbon dots (C-dots). The C-dots for these experiments were synthesized by mild pyrolysis of lauryl gallate. The resulting C-dots bear lauryl chains and, hence, are highly dispersible in polar organic solvents, like chloroform. Dispersions in CHCl3 show significant NLO response. Specifically, the C-dots show negative nonlinear absorption coefficient and negative nonlinear refraction. Using suspensions with different concentrations these parameters are quantified and compared to those of fullerene a well-known carbon molecule with proven NLO response. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperspectral tomography based on multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS) (United States)

    Dai, Jinghang; O'Hagan, Seamus; Liu, Hecong; Cai, Weiwei; Ewart, Paul


    This paper demonstrates a hyperspectral tomographic technique that can recover the temperature and concentration field of gas flows based on multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS). This method relies on the recently proposed concept of nonlinear tomography, which can take full advantage of the nonlinear dependency of MUMAS signals on temperature and enables 2D spatial resolution of MUMAS which is naturally a line-of-sight technique. The principles of MUMAS and nonlinear tomography, as well as the mathematical formulation of the inversion problem, are introduced. Proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations are presented using representative flame phantoms and assuming typical laser parameters. The results show that faithful reconstruction of temperature distribution is achievable when a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 is assumed. This method can potentially be extended to simultaneously reconstructing distributions of temperature and the concentration of multiple flame species.

  4. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.


    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  5. Absorption in dielectric models

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J


    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  6. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas


    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  7. Effects of Polaron and Quantum Confinement on the Nonlinear Optical Properties in a GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs Quantum Well Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Caroline Sugirtham


    Full Text Available The binding energy of a polaron confined in a GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs quantum well wire is calculated within the framework of the variational technique and Lee-Low Pines approach. The polaron-induced photoionization cross section as a function of normalized photon energy for a on-centre donor impurity in the quantum wire is investigated. The oscillator strength with the geometrical effect is studied taking into account the polaron effects in a GaAs/Ga0.8Al0.2As quantum well wire. The effect of polaron on the third-order susceptibility of third harmonic generation is studied. Our theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with previous investigations.

  8. Nonlinear Elasticity (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.


    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  9. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)


    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  10. Detrimental Plasma Memory Effect Build Up Locally and Nonlinearly, as well as Globally and Fractally in RPP/SSD beams Subdued by Using STUD Pulses (United States)

    Bouzid, Anas; Shadwick, Bradley; Hüller, Stefan; Afeyan, Bedros


    We show how long time correlations build up in space and time locally in a single hot spot, as well as globally through many tranches of hot spots for backscattering instabilities. STUD pulses remove such obstacles by combatting the memory build up effects directly. Experiments are proposed that can test these predictions. Statistical optical tools are used to characterize the behavior of scattered light fields re-amplifying in various stages and spreading in angular reach fractally. An analytic model is proposed capturing these effects.

  11. Unsteady MHD Mixed Convection Slip Flow of Casson Fluid over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemical Reaction, Thermal Radiation, Heat Generation/Absorption and Convective Boundary Conditions. (United States)

    Ullah, Imran; Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Shafie, Sharidan; Khan, Ilyas


    Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.

  12. Unsteady MHD Mixed Convection Slip Flow of Casson Fluid over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemical Reaction, Thermal Radiation, Heat Generation/Absorption and Convective Boundary Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ullah

    Full Text Available Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.

  13. Nonlinear permittivity spectra of supercooled ionic liquids: Observation of a "hump" in the third-order permittivity spectra and comparison to double-well potential models. (United States)

    Patro, L N; Burghaus, O; Roling, B


    We have measured the third-order permittivity spectra ε33 of a monocationic and of a dicationic liquid close to the glass transition temperature by applying ac electric fields with large amplitudes up to 180 kV/cm. A peak ("hump") in the modulus of ε33 is observed for a mono-cationic liquid after subtraction of the dc contribution from the imaginary part of ε33. We show that the origin of this experimental "hump" is a peak in the imaginary part of ε33, with the peak height strongly increasing with decreasing temperature. Overall, the spectral shape of the third-order permittivity of both ionic liquids is similar to the predictions of a symmetric double well potential model, although this model does not predict a "hump" in the modulus. In contrast, an asymmetric double well potential model predicts a "hump," but the spectral shape of both the real and imaginary part of ε33 deviates significantly from the experimental spectra. These results show that not only the modulus of ε33 but also its phase is an important quantity when comparing experimental results with theoretical predictions.

  14. Multiphoton absorption in CsLiB6O10 with femtosecond infrared laser pulses (United States)

    Reddy, J. N. Babu; Naik, V. B.; Elizabeth, Suja; Bhat, H. L.; Venkatram, N.; Rao, D. Narayana


    Nonlinear absorption and refraction characteristics of cesium lithium borate (CsLiB6O10) crystal have been studied using Z-scan technique. Ti:sapphire laser with 110 fs pulse width operating at 800 nm wavelength and pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz is used as the source of photons. Intensity of the laser pulse is varied from 0.541 to 1.283 T W/cm2 to estimate the intensity dependence of multiphoton absorption coefficients. Using the theory of multiphoton absorption proposed by Sutherland [Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, in 2nd ed., edited by D. G. McLean and S. Kirkpatrick, Dekker, New York (2003)], found that open aperture Z-scan data fit well for the five-photon absorption (5PA) process. 5PA coefficients are obtained by fitting the expressions into the open aperture experimental data for various peak intensities (I00). The nonlinear refractive index n2 estimated from closed aperture Z-scan experiment is 1.075×10-4 cm2/T W at an input peak intensity of 0.723 T W/cm2. The above experiment when repeated with a 532 nm, 6 ns pulsed laser led to an irreversible damage of the sample resulting in an asymmetric open aperture Z-scan profile. This indicates that it is not possible to observe multiphoton absorption in this regime of pulse width using 532 nm laser.

  15. Nonlinear Optics and Applications (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)


    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  16. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan


    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  17. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho


    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  18. Tuning Optical Nonlinearity of Laser-Ablation-Synthesized Silicon Nanoparticles via Doping Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianwei Chen


    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles at different doping concentrations are investigated for tuning their optical nonlinear performance. The silicon nanoparticles are synthesized from doped silicon wafers by pulsed laser ablation. Their dispersions in water are studied for both nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction properties. It is found that the optical nonlinear performance can be modified by the doping concentration. Nanoparticles at a higher doping concentration exhibit better saturable absorption performance for femtosecond laser pulse, which is ascribed to the free carrier absorption mechanism.

  19. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...

  20. Electro-Absorption Spectroscopy and Semi-Empirical Molecular Orbital Calculations of Polar Retinoid Analogues (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Hattori, Kingo; Yamada, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi


    Nonlinear polarizabilities of a series of polar retinoid analogues were determined experimentally by means of electro-absorption (Stark) spectroscopy. The dependence of the magnitude of nonlinear polarizabilities on polyene chain-lengths as well as on the strength of electron-accepting groups was systematically compared. Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations using AM1 Hamiltonian (MNDO-AM1 method) could quantitatively predict the second (β) and the third (γ) order nonlinear polarizabilities of the present set of molecules except for the γ value of C20BDCInd. The real and imaginary parts of χ(3)(-ω0,0,ω) spectra were calculated in order to account the figure of merit of the third-order nonlinear optical material.

  1. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyken B.


    Full Text Available The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  2. Linear and nonlinear analysis of an unstable, but well-posed, one-dimensional two-fluid model for two-phase flow based on the inviscid Kelvin–Helmholtz instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullmer, William D.; Ransom, Victor H.; Lopez de Bertodano, Martin A., E-mail:


    For nuclear reactor safety analysis, the one-dimensional two-fluid model equations are solved numerically with the first order upwind method because of its robust stability. In the present two-fluid model for horizontal stratified flow, surface tension is included because it makes the model well-posed. However, this is not done in industrial applications and numerical viscosity provides linear stabilization even when the model is ill-posed. It is now shown that numerical viscosity also provides nonlinear stabilization; meaning that the wave growth is bounded when the flow is unstable (e.g., in case of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability). The formation of kinematic shocks in the presence of numerical viscosity provides the dissipation mechanism needed to stop the wave growth. However, numerical viscosity varies with the mesh size, which means that even though the unstable model is well-posed and meets von Neumann and nonlinear stabilization requirements, the solution does not converge for some short wavelengths greater than 2Δx. Furthermore, when the mesh size is large, significant artificial viscosity is added to the continuity and momentum equations and the model may become over-stabilized. A more scientific approach is proposed: to add a physical dissipation mechanism instead of numerical viscosity, i.e., Reynolds stresses. This approach has two advantages: first, the one-dimensional two-fluid model converges under severe dynamic conditions, such as the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, and second, a higher order numerical method may be used instead of the first order upwind scheme without experiencing numerical excursions.

  3. Nonlinear Correlation Spectroscopy (NLCS)


    Geissbuehler, Matthias; Bonacina, Luigi; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav; Bocchio, Noelia L.; Geissbuehler, Stefan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Maerki, Iwan; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Lasser, Theo


    We present a novel concept for optical spectroscopy called nonlinear correlation spectroscopy (NLCS). NLCS analyses coherent field fluctuations of the second and third harmonic light generated by diffusing nanoparticles. Particles based on noncentrosymmetric nonlinear materials such as KNbO(3) show a strong second as well as third harmonic response. The method and the theory are introduced and experimental NLCS results in fetal calf serum are presented showing the promising selectivity of thi...

  4. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús


    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  5. Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via quantum interference from spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadpour, S.H., E-mail: [Young Researchers Club, Bandar Anzali Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Anzali (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahrai, M. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, A. [School of Engineering and Emerging Technologies, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedi, H.R. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A novel atom configuration is proposed for a giant Kerr nonlinearity in zero linear and nonlinear probe absorption. It is shown that without coherent control field and just by quantum interference of spontaneous emission, a giant Kerr nonlinearity can be obtained. -- Highlights: ► The quantum interference from spontaneous emission is considered in a four-level medium. ► The giant Kerr nonlinearity in the zero linear and nonlinear absorption is obtained. ► The quantum interference effect on group velocity is then investigated.

  6. Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via quantum interference from spontaneous emission (United States)

    Asadpour, S. H.; Sahrai, M.; Soltani, A.; Hamedi, H. R.


    A novel atom configuration is proposed for a giant Kerr nonlinearity in zero linear and nonlinear probe absorption. It is shown that without coherent control field and just by quantum interference of spontaneous emission, a giant Kerr nonlinearity can be obtained.

  7. Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption (United States)

    Zheng, Qingdong; Zhu, Haomiao; Chen, Shan-Ci; Tang, Changquan; Ma, En; Chen, Xueyuan


    Since the invention of the laser in 1960, multiphoton effects have become useful in techniques for real applications as well as conceptual predictions. Here, we report the first experimental observation of frequency-upconverted stimulated emission from a novel fluorophore through simultaneous five-photon absorption. Compared to lower-order nonlinear absorption, the fifth-order dependence on input light intensity of the five-photon absorption process will provide much stronger spatial confinement, allowing the achievement of a much higher contrast in imaging. Stimulated emission has also been achieved by the absorption of two to four photons under near-infrared laser excitation, making this gain medium a promising multiphoton imaging probe with attractive features, including the absence of autofluorescence from biological samples, large penetration depth, and improved sensitivity and resolution.

  8. Nonlinear optical studies on 1,3-disubstituent chalcones doped polymer films (United States)

    Poornesh, P.; Shettigar, Seetharam; Umesh, G.; Manjunatha, K. B.; Prakash Kamath, K.; Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.


    We report the measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical properties of recently synthesized and characterized two different 1,3-disubstituent chalcones doped PMMA films, with the prospective of reaching a good compromise between processability and high nonlinear optical properties. The measurements were done using nanosecond Z-scan at 532 nm. The Z-scan spectra reveal a large negative nonlinear refraction coefficient n2 of the order 10 -11 esu and the molecular two photon absorption cross section is 10 -46 cm 4 s/photon. The doped films exhibit good optical power limiting property under nanosecond regime and the two photon absorption (TPA) is the dominating process leading to the nonlinear behavior. The improvement in the nonlinear properties has been observed when methylenedioxy group is replaced by dimethoxy group due to increase in conjugation length. The observed nonlinear parameters of chalcone derivatives doped PMMA film is comparable with stilbazolieum derivatives, a well-known class of optical materials for photonics and biophotonics applications, which suggests that, these moieties have potential for the application of all-optical limiting and switching devices.

  9. Nonlinear reconstruction (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran


    We present a direct approach to nonparametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed nonlinear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the nonlinear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to the nonlinear scale (rδrδL>0.5 for k ≲1 h /Mpc ) with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully nonlinear fields, potentially substantially expanding the baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift space distortions information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21 cm intensity mapping initiatives.

  10. Complex motions and chaos in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Zhang, Jiazhong


    This book brings together 10 chapters on a new stream of research examining complex phenomena in nonlinear systems—including engineering, physics, and social science. Complex Motions and Chaos in Nonlinear Systems provides readers a particular vantage of the nature and nonlinear phenomena in nonlinear dynamics that can develop the corresponding mathematical theory and apply nonlinear design to practical engineering as well as the study of other complex phenomena including those investigated within social science.

  11. On the modeling of spectral map of glass-metal nanocomposite optical nonlinearity. (United States)

    Lipovskii, A A; Shustova, O V; Zhurikhina, V V; Svirko, Yu


    The spectral map of the nonlinear absorption coefficient of glass-copper nanocomposite in the pump-probe scheme constructed with the use of a simple anharmonic oscillator model reproduced well the spectral map obtained in the experiment. It is shown that spectral features in nonlinear response of glass-metal nanocomposites (GMN) can be engineered by varying the size of nanoparticles. The pronounced dependence of the magnitude of the third-order nonlinearity on the particles size explains the diversity of experimental data related to nonlinear optical response of GMNs in different experiments. Performed modeling proves that silver GMN demonstrate much sharper spectral dependence than copper ones due to strong frequency dependence of local field enhancement factor for silver nanoparticles.

  12. Practical Nonlinearities (United States)


    architectures , practical nonlinearities, nonlinear dynamics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8. NUMBER OF PAGES...performers from Mesodynamic Architectures (MESO) and uPNT all to include devices in these runs. This cost-sharing was planned, and is necessary for...contributions to the performance of MEMS gyroscopes. In particular, we have demonstrated for the first time that Parametric Amplification can improve the

  13. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi


    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  14. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henari, F. Z., E-mail:; Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (Bahrain)


    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10{sup −6} cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Guk,


    Full Text Available The article deals with theoreticalmodeling results of the combined influence of nonlinear absorptivity and absorption coefficient on the spatial and temporal distribution of the electron-hole plasma and the dynamics of the specific absorption flux in silicon under femtosecond laser pulse. It is shown thatincreased absorption of the hot electron gas makes the main contribution to the change in specific absorption flux. Obtained results were compared with the known views about the polariton mechanism,which is usedfor the interpretation of femtosecond laser silicon microstructuring. There aredemonstratedThe need to consider absorption capacity dynamics in the regimes assessment of ultra short laser semiconductor processing.

  16. Optical properties of the Tietz-Hua quantum well under the applied external fields (United States)

    Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.


    In this study, the effects of the electric and magnetic fields as well as structure parameter- γ on the total absorption coefficient, including linear and third order nonlinear absorption coefficients for the optical transitions between any two subband in the Tietz-Hua quantum well have been investigated. The optical transitions were investigated by using the density matrix formalism and the perturbation expansion method. The Tietz-Hua quantum well becomes narrower (wider) when the γ - structure parameter increases (decreases) and so the energies of the bound states will be functions of this parameter. Therefore, we can provide the red or blue shift in the peak position of the absorption coefficient by changing the strength of the electric and magnetic fields as well as the structure parameters and these results can be used to adjust and control the optical properties of the Tietz-Hua quantum well.

  17. Enormous enhancements of the Kerr nonlinearity at C-band telecommunication wavelength in an Er3+-doped YAG crystal (United States)

    Hamedi, Hamid Reza


    A novel solid configuration is proposed to achieve a giant Kerr nonlinearity with reduced absorption under conditions of slow light levels. It is shown that an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity accompanied with negligible absorption can be obtained just through the proper tuning of intensity of coherent driving field at C-band telecommunication wavelength which is practical for communication applications. Moreover, the impact of incoherent pump field as well as frequency detuning of coherent field on manipulating the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) crystal medium is discussed. The presented results may be of interest to researchers in the field of all-optical signal processing and solid-state quantum information science.

  18. Nonlinear optical effects in pure and N-doped semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Donlagic, N S


    the optical response of a one-dimensional n-doped two-band semiconductor whose conduction band has been linearized with respect to the two Fermi points. Due to the linearization it is possible to calculate the linear and nonlinear response functions of the interacting electron system exactly. These response functions are then used in order to determine the linear absorption spectrum and the time-integrated signal of a degenerated four-wave-mixing experiment. It is shown that the well-known features of the linear response can directly be related to features of the nonlinear experiments. For example, the exponent which describes the algebraic decay of the time-integrated four-wave-mixing signal is functionally dependent on the exponent of the algebraic singularity in the linear absorption spectrum reflecting the common origin of the different phenomena. Over the last decades, the nonlinear optical properties of condensed matter systems have been an attractive and fruitful field of research. While the linear res...

  19. Optical Multi-hysteresises and "Rogue Waves" in Nonlinear Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, A E


    An overdense plasma layer irradiated by an intense light can exhibit dramatic nonlinear-optical effects due to a relativistic mass-effect of free electrons: highly-multiple hysteresises of reflection and transition, and emergence of gigantic "rogue waves". Those are trapped quasi-soliton field spikes inside the layer, sustained by an incident radiation with a tiny fraction of their peak intensity once they have been excited by orders of magnitude larger pumping. The phenomenon persists even in the layers with "soft" boundaries, as well as in a semi-infinite plasma with low absorption.

  20. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design (United States)

    Bonner, Ellwood


    The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

  1. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind


    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio


    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  3. Nonlinear optical characterization of Disperse Orange 3 (United States)

    Derkowska-Zielinska, Beata; Fedus, Kamil; Wang, Hongzhen; Cassagne, Christophe; Boudebs, Georges


    The nonlinear optical responses of Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with different concentrations were investigated by Z-scan D4σ technique employing 12 ps and 17 ps pulses of Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The comparison of the experimental results at both wavelengths demonstrates the strong influence of the resonant phenomena related to the linear absorption on the nonlinear response at 532 nm. In particular, DO3 solution was found to exhibit negative resonant nonlinear refraction with negligible saturable and multi-photon absorption. Moreover, the competition between negative and positive nonlinear refractive indices (n2) of the solute and the solvent was observed at low concentrations. The linear dependence of n2 on the latter quantity allowed to estimate an effective second-order hyperpolarizability of DO3 molecule at 532 nm.

  4. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)


    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  5. Anomalous water absorption in porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lockington, D A


    The absorption of fluid by unsaturated, rigid porous materials may be characterized by the sorptivity. This is a simple parameter to determine and is increasingly being used as a measure of a material's resistance to exposure to fluids (especially moisture and reactive solutes) in aggressive environments. The complete isothermal absorption process is described by a nonlinear diffusion equation, with the hydraulic diffusivity being a strongly nonlinear function of the degree of saturation of the material. This diffusivity can be estimated from the sorptivity test. In a typical test the cumulative absorption is proportional to the square root of time. However, a number of researchers have observed deviation from this behaviour when the infiltrating fluid is water and there is some potential for chemo-mechanical interaction with the material. In that case the current interpretation of the test and estimation of the hydraulic diffusivity is no longer appropriate. Kuentz and Lavallee (2001) discuss the anomalous b...

  6. Analysis of Decentralized Control for Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard


    Email Print Request Permissions This paper investigates decentralized control structures for absorption cycle heat pumps and a dynamic nonlinear model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption system is used as case study. The model has four controllable inputs, which can be used to stabilize...

  7. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors


    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika; Hansen, Ole


    While emission and absorption entropy generation is well known in black bodies, it has not previously been studied in semiconductors, even though semiconductors are widely used for solar light absorption in modern solar cells [1]. We present an analysis of the entropy generation in semiconductor materials due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the emission and absorption entropy generation reduces the fundamental limit on the efficiency of any semiconduc...

  8. Emerging Low-Dimensional Materials for Nonlinear Optics and Ultrafast Photonics. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Guo, Qiangbing; Qiu, Jianrong


    Low-dimensional (LD) materials demonstrate intriguing optical properties, which lead to applications in diverse fields, such as photonics, biomedicine and energy. Due to modulation of electronic structure by the reduced structural dimensionality, LD versions of metal, semiconductor and topological insulators (TIs) at the same time bear distinct nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as compared with their bulk counterparts. Their interaction with short pulse laser excitation exhibits a strong nonlinear character manifested by NLO absorption, giving rise to optical limiting or saturated absorption associated with excited state absorption and Pauli blocking in different materials. In particular, the saturable absorption of these emerging LD materials including two-dimensional semiconductors as well as colloidal TI nanoparticles has recently been utilized for Q-switching and mode-locking ultra-short pulse generation across the visible, near infrared and middle infrared wavelength regions. Beside the large operation bandwidth, these ultrafast photonics applications are especially benefit from the high recovery rate as well as the facile processibility of these LD materials. The prominent NLO response of these LD materials have also provided new avenues for the development of novel NLO and photonics devices for all-optical control as well as optical circuits beyond ultrafast lasers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nonlinear optical response of some Graphene oxide and Graphene fluoride derivatives (United States)

    Liaros, Nikolaos; Orfanos, Ioannis; Papadakis, Ioannis; Couris, Stelios


    The nonlinear optical properties of two graphene derivatives, graphene oxide and graphene fluoride, are investigated by means of the Z-scan technique employing 35 ps and 4 ns, visible (532 nm) laser excitation. Both derivatives were found to exhibit significant third-order nonlinear optical response at both excitation regimes, with the nonlinear absorption being relatively stronger and concealing the presence of nonlinear refraction under ns excitation, while ps excitation reveals the presence of both nonlinear absorption and refraction. Both nonlinear properties are of great interest for several photonics, opto-fluidics, opto-electronics and nanotechnology applications.

  10. Nonlinear synthesis of infrasound propagation through an inhomogeneous, absorbing atmosphere. (United States)

    de Groot-Hedlin, C D


    An accurate and efficient method to predict infrasound amplitudes from large explosions in the atmosphere is required for diverse source types, including bolides, volcanic eruptions, and nuclear and chemical explosions. A finite-difference, time-domain approach is developed to solve a set of nonlinear fluid dynamic equations for total pressure, temperature, and density fields rather than acoustic perturbations. Three key features for the purpose of synthesizing nonlinear infrasound propagation in realistic media are that it includes gravitational terms, it allows for acoustic absorption, including molecular vibration losses at frequencies well below the molecular vibration frequencies, and the environmental models are constrained to have axial symmetry, allowing a three-dimensional simulation to be reduced to two dimensions. Numerical experiments are performed to assess the algorithm's accuracy and the effect of source amplitudes and atmospheric variability on infrasound waveforms and shock formation. Results show that infrasound waveforms steepen and their associated spectra are shifted to higher frequencies for nonlinear sources, leading to enhanced infrasound attenuation. Results also indicate that nonlinear infrasound amplitudes depend strongly on atmospheric temperature and pressure variations. The solution for total field variables and insertion of gravitational terms also allows for the computation of other disturbances generated by explosions, including gravity waves.

  11. Nonlinear damping and quasi-linear modelling


    Elliott, S J; Ghandchi Tehrani, Maryam; Langley, R.


    The mechanism of energy dissipation in mechanical systems is often nonlinear. Even though there may be other forms of nonlinearity in the dynamics, nonlinear damping is the dominant source of nonlinearity in a number of practical systems. The analysis of such systems is simplified by the fact that they show no jump or bifurcation behaviour, and indeed can often be well represented by an equivalent linear system, whose damping parameters depend on the form and amplitude of the excitation, in a...

  12. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad


    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  13. Rapid assessment of nonlinear optical propagation effects in dielectrics (United States)

    Hoyo, J. del; de la Cruz, A. Ruiz; Grace, E.; Ferrer, A.; Siegel, J.; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G.; Solis, J.


    Ultrafast laser processing applications need fast approaches to assess the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in order to predict the optimal range of processing parameters in a wide variety of cases. We develop here a method based on the simple monitoring of the nonlinear beam shaping against numerical prediction. The numerical code solves the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonlinear absorption under simplified conditions by employing a state-of-the art computationally efficient approach. By comparing with experimental results we can rapidly estimate the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the material. The validity of this approach has been tested in a variety of experiments where nonlinearities play a key role, like spatial soliton shaping or fs-laser waveguide writing. The approach provides excellent results for propagated power densities for which free carrier generation effects can be neglected. Above such a threshold, the peculiarities of the nonlinear propagation of elliptical beams enable acquiring an instantaneous picture of the deposition of energy inside the material realistic enough to estimate the effective nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients that can be used for predicting the spatial distribution of energy deposition inside the material and controlling the beam in the writing process. PMID:25564243

  14. Harnessing the electromagnetic absorptions of metamaterials for positive applications (United States)

    Xiang, Yuanjiang; Zou, Yanhong; Luo, Hailu; Dai, Xiaoyu; Wen, Shuangchun; Fan, Dianyuan


    Absorption or loss is inevitable for the metal-based metamaterials (MMs) due to the intrinsic loss of the metal, and constitutes a major hurdle to the practical realization of most applications such as a sub-wavelength lens. Thus, to reduce the losses becomes one of the major challenges in the MM field. However, the inevitable loss can also be harnessed to take a positive role in the applications of MMs such as stealth technology or other types of cloaking devices. In this presentation, after a brief review of the advances in MMs-based absorbers, we present several schemes to fulfill the desired electromagnetic absorption properties, both linear and nonlinear. For linear absorption, we have experimentally demonstrated that the absorption performance of an ordinary microwave absorbing material can be evidently improved by using the electric resonance resulting from an array of subwavelength metallic circuit elements. For nonlinear absorption, we show theoretically that the active linear magnetic permeability induces a nonlinear absorption, similar to the two-photon absorption (TPA), of electric field in a lossy MM with a Kerr-type nonlinear polarization.

  15. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in CMOS-compatible ultra-silicon-rich nitride photonic crystal waveguides (United States)

    Sahin, E.; Ooi, K. J. A.; Chen, G. F. R.; Ng, D. K. T.; Png, C. E.; Tan, D. T. H.


    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) on an ultra-silicon-rich nitride (USRN) platform, with the goal of augmenting the optical nonlinearities. The design goals are to achieve an optimized group index curve on the PhCW band edge with a non-membrane PhCW with symmetric SiO2 undercladding and overcladding, so as to maintain back-end CMOS compatibility and better structural robustness. Linear optical characterization, as well as nonlinear optical characterization of PhCWs on ultra-silicon-rich nitride is performed at the telecommunication wavelengths. USRN's negligible two-photon absorption and free carrier losses at the telecommunication wavelengths ensure that there is no scaling of two-photon related losses with the group index, thus maintaining a high nonlinear efficiency. Self-phase modulation experiments are performed using a 96.6 μm PhCW. A 1.5π phase shift is achieved with an input peak power of 2.5 W implying an effective nonlinear parameter of 1.97 × 104 (W m)-1. This nonlinear parameter represents a 49× enhancement in the nonlinear parameter from the slow light effect, in good agreement with expected scaling from the measured group index.

  16. Negative Binomial States of the Radiation Field and their Excitations are Nonlinear Coherent States


    Wang, Xiao-Guang; Fu, Hong-Chen


    We show that the well-known negative binomial states of the radiation field and their excitations are nonlinear coherent states. Excited nonlinear coherent state are still nonlinear coherent states with different nonlinear functions. We finally give exponential form of the nonlinear coherent states and remark that the binomial states are not nonlinear coherent states.

  17. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Meier, A.L.


    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  18. Novel InN/InGaN multiple quantum well structures for slow-light generation at telecommunication wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, F.B.; Valdueza-Felip, S.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Kandaswamy, P.K.; Lahourcade, L.; Calvo, V.; Monroy, E. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Martin-Lopez, S.; Corredera, P. [Departamento de Metrologia, Instituto de Fisica Aplicada (CSIC), 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    The third order susceptibility is responsible for a variety of optical non-linear phenomena - like self focusing, phase conjugation and four-wave mixing - with applications in coherent control of optical communication. InN is particularly attractive due to its near-IR bandgap and predicted high nonlinear effects. Moreover, the synthesis of InN nanostructures makes possible to taylor the absorption edge in the telecomunication spectral range and enhance nonlinear parameters thanks to carrier confinement. In this work, we assess the nonlinear optical behavior of InN/In{sub x}Ga{sub (1-x)}N (0.9 > x > 0.7) multiple-quantum-well (MQW) structures grown by plasma-assisted MBE on GaN-on-sapphire templates. Low-temperature (5 K) photoluminescence measurements show near-IR emission whose intensity increases with the In content in the barriers, which is explained in terms of the existence of piezoelectric fields in the structures. The nonlinear optical absorption coefficient, {alpha}{sub 2}, were measured at 1.55 {mu}m using the Z-scan method. We observe a strong dependence of the nonlinear absorption coefficient on the In content in the barriers. Saturable absorption is observed for the sample with x = 0.9, with {alpha}{sub 2} {proportional_to} -9 x 10{sub 3} cm/GW. For this sample, an optically controlled reduction of the speed of light by a factor S {proportional_to} 80 is obtained at 1.55 {mu}m (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the nonlinear susceptibility;; the multiphoton absorption rate;; the birefringence; and; the energy gap,. from the first principles for complex practical nonlinear optical crystals, such as the borate crystal series, with an accuracy acceptable for materials development/design, and answer the questions often raised by the material ...

  20. Determination of optical constants and nonlinear optical coefficients ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absorption spectra; nonlinear optics; optical constants; optical limiting. PACS Nos 78.20.Ci; 42.70.Nq; 42.65.−k. 1. Introduction. Much work has been done since the mid-1980s, towards the study of nonlinear optical. (NLO) materials. This topic is still at the forefront of current research because NLO materials form the basis of ...

  1. Investigation of two-photon absorption induced excited state absorption in a fluorenyl-based chromophore. (United States)

    Li, Changwei; Yang, Kun; Feng, Yan; Su, Xinyan; Yang, Junyi; Jin, Xiao; Shui, Min; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xueru; Song, Yinglin; Xu, Hongyao


    Two-photon absorption induced excited state absorption in the solution of a new fluorenyl-based chromophore is investigated by a time-resolved pump-probe technique using femtosecond pulses. With the help of an additional femtosecond open-aperture Z-scan technique, numerical simulations based on a three-energy level model are used to interpret the experimental results, and we determine the nonlinear optical parameters of this new chromophore uniquely. Large two-photon absorption cross section and excited state absorption cross section for singlet excited state are obtained, indicating a good candidate for optical limiting devices. Moreover, the influence of two-beam coupling induced energy transfer in neat N,N'-dimethylformamide solvent is also considered, although this effect is strongly restrained by the instantaneous two-photon absorption.

  2. Enormous enhancements of the Kerr nonlinearity at C-band telecommunication wavelength in an Er{sup 3+}-doped YAG crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamedi, Hamid Reza, E-mail:


    A novel solid configuration is proposed to achieve a giant Kerr nonlinearity with reduced absorption under conditions of slow light levels. It is shown that an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity accompanied with negligible absorption can be obtained just through the proper tuning of intensity of coherent driving field at C-band telecommunication wavelength which is practical for communication applications. Moreover, the impact of incoherent pump field as well as frequency detuning of coherent field on manipulating the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the yttrium–aluminum-garnet (YAG) crystal medium is discussed. The presented results may be of interest to researchers in the field of all-optical signal processing and solid-state quantum information science.

  3. Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser (United States)

    Cho, B. I.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, M.; Chung, H.-K.; Barbrel, B.; Engelhorn, K.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Ciricosta, O.; Dakovski, G. L.; Hájková, V.; Holmes, M.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Nam, Chang Hee; Rackstraw, D. S.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J. J.; Vinko, S. M.; Wark, J. S.; Zastrau, U.; Heimann, P. A.


    A nonlinear absorber in which the excited state absorption is larger than the ground state can undergo a process called reverse saturable absorption. It is a well-known phenomenon in laser physics in the optical regime, but is more difficult to generate in the x-ray regime, where fast nonradiative core electron transitions typically dominate the population kinetics during light matter interactions. Here, we report the first observation of decreasing x-ray transmission in a solid target pumped by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses. The measurement has been made below the K -absorption edge of aluminum, and the x-ray intensity ranges are 1016 - 1017 W /cm2 . It has been confirmed by collisional radiative population kinetic calculations, underscoring the fast spectral modulation of the x-ray pulses and charge states relevant to the absorption and transmission of x-ray photons. The processes shown through detailed simulations are consistent with reverse saturable absorption, which would be the first observation of this phenomena in the x-ray regime. These light matter interactions provide a unique opportunity to investigate optical transport properties in the extreme state of matters, as well as affording the potential to regulate ultrafast x-ray free-electron laser pulses.

  4. Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser. (United States)

    Cho, B I; Cho, M S; Kim, M; Chung, H-K; Barbrel, B; Engelhorn, K; Burian, T; Chalupský, J; Ciricosta, O; Dakovski, G L; Hájková, V; Holmes, M; Juha, L; Krzywinski, J; Lee, R W; Nam, Chang Hee; Rackstraw, D S; Toleikis, S; Turner, J J; Vinko, S M; Wark, J S; Zastrau, U; Heimann, P A


    A nonlinear absorber in which the excited state absorption is larger than the ground state can undergo a process called reverse saturable absorption. It is a well-known phenomenon in laser physics in the optical regime, but is more difficult to generate in the x-ray regime, where fast nonradiative core electron transitions typically dominate the population kinetics during light matter interactions. Here, we report the first observation of decreasing x-ray transmission in a solid target pumped by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses. The measurement has been made below the K-absorption edge of aluminum, and the x-ray intensity ranges are 10^{16} -10^{17}  W/cm^{2}. It has been confirmed by collisional radiative population kinetic calculations, underscoring the fast spectral modulation of the x-ray pulses and charge states relevant to the absorption and transmission of x-ray photons. The processes shown through detailed simulations are consistent with reverse saturable absorption, which would be the first observation of this phenomena in the x-ray regime. These light matter interactions provide a unique opportunity to investigate optical transport properties in the extreme state of matters, as well as affording the potential to regulate ultrafast x-ray free-electron laser pulses.

  5. Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Rubidium: An Undergraduate Experiment (United States)

    Jacques, V.; Hingant, B.; Allafort, A.; Pigeard, M.; Roch, J. F.


    In this paper, we describe two complementary nonlinear spectroscopy methods which both allow one to achieve Doppler-free spectra of atomic gases. First, saturated absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the structure of the 5S[subscript 1/2] [right arrow] 5P[subscript 3/2] transition in rubidium. Using a slightly modified experimental…

  6. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan


    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  7. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices (United States)

    Byer, Robert L.


    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  8. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses (United States)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.


    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi2O3-30ZnO-(70-x) B2O3 (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σe) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  9. Performance of SOI Bragg Grating Ring Resonator for Nonlinear Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Leonardis


    Full Text Available In this paper, a spectroscopic sensor formed by a silicon-on-insulator waveguiding Bragg grating ring resonator working in linear and non-linear regime is proposed. In linear regime, the device shows a spectral response characterized by a photonic band gap (PBG. Very close to the band gap edges, the resonant structure exhibits split modes having a splitting magnitude equal to the PBG spectral extension, whose characteristics can be exploited to obtain a RI optical sensor almost insensitive to the fabrication tolerances and environmental perturbations. When the device operates in nonlinear regime, exactly in the spectral region showing the split resonant modes, the RI sensing performance is strongly improved with respect to the linear regime. This improvement, demonstrated by taking into account all the non-linear effects excited in the integrated silicon structure (i.e., Two Photon Absorption (TPA, TPA-induced Free Carrier Absorption, plasma dispersion, Self-Phase-Modulation and Cross-Phase-Modulation effects as induced by Kerr nonlinearity as well as the deleterious thermal and stress effects, allows enhancing the performance of the RI split mode resonant sensors, while achieving good immunity to the fabrication tolerances and environmental perturbations. The improvement in terms of sensor resolution can be at least one order of magnitude, still without using optimal parameters.

  10. Porosity and liquid absorption of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krus, M.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Kunzel, H. M.


    be a slowing-down effect which is related to water because the absorption of organic liquids, such as hexane, is quite normal. Measurements of the porosity of hardened cement paste determined by helium pycnometry and water saturation show that water molecules can enter spaces in the microstructure which...... are not accessible to the smaller helium atoms. Considering the results of dilatation tests both before and after water and hexane saturation, it seems possible that a contraction of capillary pores due to moisture-related swelling of the cement gel leads to the non-linear water absorption over the square root...

  11. Nonlinear optical response of tetra and mono substituted zinc phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail:


    The nonlinear absorption properties of 6 mono-substituted and 3 symmetric zinc phthalocyanine complexes have been studied in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) using 10 ns pulses at 532 nm. The non linear absorption of the complexes has been studied using the Z-scan technique. The study showed that both the singlet and triplet excited states contribute to the non linear absorption behavior. The nonlinear third-order susceptibility and second-order hyperpolarizability values of the complexes are reported. It was observed that two of the symmetric phthalocyanine complexes (5-α substituted with aminophenoxy and 9-β substituted with carboxyphenoxy) showed better and promising optical nonlinearity when compared to the other complexes studied. - Highlights: • Nonlinear absorption properties of zinc phthalocyanine are reported • Singlet and triplet excited states contribute to the non linear absorption. • Symmetrically tetra substituted phthalocyanines showed better optical nonlinearity.

  12. Investigation of nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials by the Z-scan method (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Tugushev, R. I.; Usmanov, T.


    We have studied the nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials (vegetable oil, juice, wine, cognac, Coca-Cola and Fanta drinks, Nescafé coffee, tea, gasoline, clock oil, glycerol, and polyphenyl ether) that are used in everyday life. Their nonlinearities have been studied by the Z-scan method in the near-IR and visible spectral ranges. We have shown that the majority of samples possess a nonlinear absorption; however, some of the studied materials show a strong saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction. Red wine and glycerol proved to be the most interesting materials. For these samples, we have observed a change in the sign of the nonlinear absorption with increasing laser intensity, which was attributed to the competition between two-photon absorption and saturated absorption.

  13. Nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (United States)

    Kaw, P. K.


    Soon after lasers were invented, there was tremendous curiosity on the nonlinear phenomena which would result in their interaction with a fully ionized plasma. Apart from the basic interest, it was realized that it could be used for the achievement of nuclear fusion in the laboratory. This led us to a paper on the propagation of a laser beam into an inhomogeneous fusion plasma, where it was first demonstrated that light would go up to the critical layer (where the frequency matches the plasma frequency) and get reflected from there with a reflection coefficient of order unity. The reflection coefficient was determined by collisional effects. Since the wave was expected to slow down to near zero group speed at the reflection point, the dominant collision frequency determining the reflection coefficient was the collision frequency at the reflection point. It turned out that the absorption of light was rather small for fusion temperatures. This placed a premium on investigation of nonlinear phenomena which might contribute to the absorption and penetration of the light into high-density plasma. An early investigation showed that electron jitter with respect to ions would be responsible for the excitation of decay instabilities which convert light waves into electrostatic plasma waves and ion waves near the critical frequency. These electrostatic waves would then get absorbed into the plasma even in the collisionless case and lead to plasma heating which is nonlinear. Detailed estimates of this heating were made. Similar nonlinear processes which could lead to stimulated scattering of light in the underdense region (ω >ω _p) were investigated together with a number of other workers. All these nonlinear processes need a critical threshold power for excitation. Another important process which was discovered around the same time had to do with filamentation and trapping of light when certain thresholds were exceeded. All of this work has been extensively verified in

  14. Effect of temperature on the structural, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of MgO-doped graphene oxide nanocomposites (United States)

    Kimiagar, Salimeh; Abrinaei, Fahimeh


    Magnesium oxide (MgO)-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were prepared by the hydrothermal method at different temperatures. The effect of growth temperature on the structural, linear, and nonlinear optical (NLO) parameters was investigated. The decoration of MgO on GO sheets was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy analyses. The energy band-gaps of MgO-GO nanocomposites were calculated from UV-vis spectrum using Tauc plot. The NLO parameters of MgO-GO nanocomposites were calculated for the first time by the simple Z-scan technique with nanosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The nonlinear absorption coefficient β and nonlinear refractive index n2 for MgO-GO nanocomposites at the laser intensity of 1.1×108 W/cm2 were measured to be in the order of 10-7 cm/W and 10-12 cm2/W, respectively. The third-order NLO susceptibility of MgO-GO nanocomposites was measured in the order of 10-9 esu. The results showed that MgO-GO structures have negative nonlinearity as well as good nonlinear two-photon absorption at 532 nm. Furthermore, the NLO parameters increased by the enhancement of the growth temperature. As the investigation of new materials plays an important role in the advancement of optoelectronics, MgO-GO nanocomposites possess potential applications in NLO devices.

  15. Nonlinear effects in coplanar GaAs/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice directional couplers (United States)

    Das, Utpal; Chen, YI; Bhattacharya, Pallab


    The performance characteristics of InGaAs/GaAs strained-layer superlattice coplanar ridge-type directional couplers realized by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. The measured power transfer characteristics with 1.15 micron incident photoexcitation demonstrate nonlinear coupling due to absorption associated with the tails of the excitonic resonances in the quantum wells. From a theoretical fit of the measured data, the nonlinear refractive index coefficient, n2, of the multiquantum well is found to be 2.25 x 10 to the -7th sq cm/W. This agrees very well with a value of n2 = 1.9 x 10 to the-7th sq cm/W obtained independently on the same material from interferometric measurents.

  16. Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Razmi


    Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.

  17. Nonlinear data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Reich, Sebastian


    This book contains two review articles on nonlinear data assimilation that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. Both contributions focus on so-called particle filters. The first contribution by Jan van Leeuwen focuses on the potential of proposal densities. It discusses the issues with present-day particle filters and explorers new ideas for proposal densities to solve them, converging to particle filters that work well in systems of any dimension, closing the contribution with a high-dimensional example. The second contribution by Cheng and Reich discusses a unified framework for ensemble-transform particle filters. This allows one to bridge successful ensemble Kalman filters with fully nonlinear particle filters, and allows a proper introduction of localization in particle filters, which has been lacking up to now.

  18. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  19. Impact of nonlinear loss on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G


    We study the impact of two-photon absorption (2PA) and fifth-order nonlinear loss such as 2PA-induced free-carrier absorption in semiconductors on the performance of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering devices. We formulate the equations of motion including effective loss coefficients, whose explicit expressions are provided for numerical evaluation in any waveguide geometry. We find that 2PA results in a monotonic, algebraic relationship between amplification, waveguide length and pump power, whereas fifth-order losses lead to a non-monotonic relationship. We define a figure of merit for materials and waveguide designs in the presence of fifth-order losses. From this, we determine the optimal waveguide length for the case of 2PA alone and upper bounds for the total Stokes amplification for the case of 2PA as well as fifth-order losses. The analysis is performed analytically using a small-signal approximation and is compared to numerical solutions of the full nonlinear modal equations.

  20. Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in silica matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.; Elliman, R.G. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Electronic Materials Engineering; Samoc, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Laser Physics Centre


    The measurements of the optical nonlinearities of Ge and Si implanted glasses is reported. Analytic techniques employed included Rutherford backscattering, using 2.0 MeV He ions, optical absorption and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the presence of implanted species changed the absorption spectra and that the magnitude of the optical nonlinearities for Ge and Si implanted samples are quite different. A possible explanation is the difference in absorption coefficient that may be amplified by quantum confinement effects which causes the indirect energy gaps of Ge and Si nanocrystals to increase as particle size decreases. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Kerr nonlinearity and EIT in a double Lambda type atomic system (United States)

    Hamedi, Hamid Reza; Khaledi-Nasab, Ali; Raheli, Ali


    The giant Kerr nonlinearity in a four-level double Lambda type atomic system is theoretically predicted. We find that an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be achieved just by the intensity of coupling filed that lies within the transparency window. It is also shown that the giant Kerr nonlinearity with reduced absorption can be achieved by the quantum interference mechanisms.

  2. D-xylose absorption (United States)

    ... this page: // D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  3. Transverse pump-probe microscopy of moving breakdown, filamentation and self-organized absorption in alkali aluminosilicate glass using ultrashort pulse laser. (United States)

    Grossmann, Daniel; Reininghaus, Martin; Kalupka, Christian; Kumkar, Malte; Poprawe, Reinhart


    We present time and space resolved transverse pump-probe measurements of the free electron and defect generation induced by nonlinear absorption of ultra short pulsed laser radiation in unhardened Corning Gorilla glass. The applied setup exhibits a 100 fs probe pulse duration and an independent pump pulse duration up to 5 ps. Hence, our work comprises the absorption of ultra short pulsed laser radiation at a wavelength of 800 nm and pulse energies from 10 μJ to 50 μJ up to a delay of 6 ns. Our investigations reveal different absorption regimes like filamentation and moving breakdown as well as the formation of permanent modifications. Finally, the deposition of multiple pulses in the incubation regime is examined, observing a self-organizing absorption effect.

  4. Wave power absorption: Experiments in open sea and simulation (United States)

    Eriksson, M.; Waters, R.; Svensson, O.; Isberg, J.; Leijon, M.


    A full scale prototype of a wave power plant based on a direct drive linear generator driven by a point absorber has been installed at the west coast of Sweden. In this paper, experimentally collected data of energy absorption for different electrical loads are used to verify a model of the wave power plant including the interactions of wave, buoy, generator, and external load circuit. The wave-buoy interaction is modeled with linear potential wave theory. The generator is modeled as a nonlinear mechanical damping function that is dependent on piston velocity and electric load. The results show good agreement between experiments and simulations. Potential wave theory is well suited for the modeling of a point absorber in normal operation and for the design of future converters. Moreover, the simulations are fast, which opens up for simulations of wave farms.

  5. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.


    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  6. Identifiability of nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunali, E.T.


    The parameter identifiability problem of deterministic, nonlinear dynamical control systems is studied in the framework of differential geometric systems theory. The relations between nonlinear observability, nonlinear functional expansions and identifiability are investigated and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. In a different approach, by using the uniqueness theorem of nonlinear system realization theory, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for another class of nonlinear systems. These results provide an insight to the identifiability problem of nonlinear systems. The results are illustrated by examples that also show the effectiveness of the conditions obtained. Finally, some possible research topics in this area are suggested.

  7. Micro-/nanoscale multi-field coupling in nonlinear photonic devices (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Mingwei; Xu, Pengfei; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu


    The coupling of mechanics/electronics/photonics may improve the performance of nanophotonic devices not only in the linear region but also in the nonlinear region. This review letter mainly presents the recent advances on multi-field coupling in nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinear piezoelectric effect and piezo-phototronic effects in quantum wells and fibers show that large second-order nonlinear susceptibilities can be achieved, and second harmonic generation and electro-optic modulation can be enhanced and modulated. Strain engineering can tune the lattice structures and induce second order susceptibilities in central symmetry semiconductors. By combining the absorption-based photoacoustic effect and intensity-dependent photobleaching effect, subdiffraction imaging can be achieved. This review will also discuss possible future applications of these novel effects and the perspective of their research. The review can help us develop a deeper knowledge of the substance of photon-electron-phonon interaction in a micro-/nano- system. Moreover, it can benefit the design of nonlinear optical sensors and imaging devices with a faster response rate, higher efficiency, more sensitivity and higher spatial resolution which could be applied in environmental detection, bio-sensors, medical imaging and so on.

  8. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara


    Full Text Available Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  9. Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, L.C.


    A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Donor impurity-related optical absorption spectra in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum wells: hydrostatic pressure and {gamma}-X conduction band mixing effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, MOR (Mexico); Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, S.Y. [Fac. de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Velasco, V.R. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, the mixing between the {gamma} and X conduction band valleys in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum wells is investigated by taking into account the effect of applied hydrostatic pressure. Some optical properties such as donor and/or acceptor binding energy and impurity-related transition energies are calculated and comparisons with available experimental data are presented. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry]. (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng


    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  12. Electronic absorption spectra and nonlinear optical properties of CO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Biotechnology, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721 657; Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur Campus, Bangalore 560 064; New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur Campus, Bangalore 560 064 ...

  13. Low power continuous wave laser induced optical nonlinearities in saffron ( Crocus Sativus L.) (United States)

    Nasibov, H.; Mamedbeili, I.


    We report on the low power CW laser induced nonlinear optical responses of Saffron (stigmata of Crocus Savitus L.) ethanol and methanol extracts. The optical nonlinearities were investigated by performing Z-scan measurements at 470 and 535 nm wavelengths. At both wavelengths the material has a strong nonlinear refraction, mainly of thermal origin. However, only at 470 nm wavelength the material exhibit pronounced saturable nonlinear absorption. Long-term (70 days) stability measurements indicated that the nonlinearities in the Saffron extracts are due to their nonvolatile components. This study shows that there is great potential for Saffron extracts to be used in nonlinear photonic applications.

  14. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems with Slope Restricted Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Liu


    Full Text Available The problem of absolute stability of Lur’e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.

  15. Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morandotti, Roberto


    Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.

  16. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.; Damschen, D.W.


    The Hanford Site contains about 2200 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works days to the present. As of June 1977, about 1900 wells still exist, and about 850 of these existing wells were drilled to the ground-water table. About 700 of these wells (including about 24 farm wells) still contain water. The others have become dry through infiltration of sediments or a general lowering of the water table in their vicinity. This report, providing the most complete documentation of wells in and adjacent to the Hanford Site, supersedes all previous compilations of Hanford wells.

  17. A perspective on nonlinear dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of nonlinear dynamical systems has been an active area of research for over twenty five years now. Well after the initial upsurge of interest caused by the seminal works in the 1960s and 70s – associated with the names of Lorenz, Gardner,. Greene, Kruskal and Miura, Kolmogorov, Arnold and Moser, Ruelle and ...

  18. Improving the fidelity of two-photon absorption reference standards (United States)

    de Reguardati, S.; Pahapill, J.; Rammo, M.; Rebane, A.


    Reference standards with well-defined femtosecond two-photon absorption (2PA) properties facilitate accurate measurement of nonlinear-optical spectra by bypassing tedious characterization of the photon flux. The 2PA standards are increasingly used for developing advanced multi-photon fluorescent probes and, since recently, also for probing intra- and intermolecular electrostatic interactions. We have recently reported 2PA cross section values of a set of common organic dyes in different solvents in 680-1050 nm wavelength range with estimated accuracy of 8%. In the present work, we aim at further improving the accuracy and fidelity of the absolute 2PA cross section data by comparing in a pair-wise manner the relative 2PA efficiency of nine standards with partially overlapping absorption- and fluorescence emission spectra. We measure the relative 2PA-induced fluorescence for each pair under identical excitation conditions, which allows revealing inconsistencies potentially present in the previously published data due to errors in estimating the excitation laser beam spatial- and temporal profile, pulse energy and other critical parameters. Our current measurements confirmed and in some cases improved previously reported error margins thus improving the fidelity of the reference data. We also present refined 2PA cross section data on 9-Chloroanthracene in dichloromethane.

  19. Nonlinear Optics of Hexaphenyl Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Neuendorf, Rolf


    The nonlinear optical response of films of needle-shaped para-hexaphenyl nanoaggregates on mica surfaces is investigated. Two-photon luminescence as well as optical second harmonic generation (SHG) are observed following excitation with femtosecond pulses at 770 nm. Polarization dependent...... measurements reveal that the nonlinear optical transition dipole moment is oriented with an angle of 75° with respect to the needles long axes. The absolute value of the macroscopic second-order susceptibility, averaged over a size distribution of p-6P nanoaggregates, is estimated to be of the order of 6...

  20. Field guide to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E


    Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This [i]Field Guide [/i]describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics. This Field Guide is designed for those looking for a condensed and concise source of key concepts, equations, and techniques for nonlinear optics. Topics covered include technologically important effects, recent developments in nonlinear optics

  1. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev


    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Pulses in Gold Strip Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Olivier, Nicolas


    We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third-order nonl......We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third...

  3. Membrane Gas Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.


    Membrane gas absorption processes are absorption processes utilising hollow fibre membranes as contacting media for gas and liquid flows. The principle of operation and engineering aspects are discussed, followed by discussion of a number of typical applications. Benefits in terms of operation,

  4. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.


    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  5. Solar absorption surface panel (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.


    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  6. Nanoplasmonic solution for nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg


    Nonlinear optical properties of dielectric waveguides are well known and are widely used in moderntelecommunication systems [1]. However, the fundamental law of diffraction imposes physical limitation for integration of dielectric photonics and semiconductor electronics [2]. A possible way...... to combine the high speed of a photonic device with the compact size of an electronic device is to produce ananoplasmonic device based on metal waveguides. The successful solutions can be used for future sustainable technologies. In meantime, nonlinear optics of metal waveguides is not fully understood...... and is being under investigation in recent years [3].The purpose of our research is to study nonlinear optical properties of gold waveguides embedded intodielectric medium (silicon dioxide) using picosecond laser spectroscopy. The work includes modeling ofoptical properties of gold waveguides, fabrication...

  7. Effect of non-linear permeability in a spherically symmetric model of hydrocephalus. (United States)

    Sobey, Ian; Wirth, Benedikt


    We examine a spherically symmetric model of the brain and apply non-linear permeability in a small strain poroelastic framework. Numerical solutions to the model show that non-linear effects tend to improve predictions of ventricle wall displacement and pressure increase in acute hydrocephalus in comparison with a constant permeability model. Our model is used to study different mechanisms for hydrocephalus: complete blockage of the aqueduct and normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), as well as offering observations on mechanical effects in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In each situation it is possible to apply different parameter conditions to quantify mechanical effects that correspond to some observed symptoms. The results support and quantify ideas from Levine (2000, Ventricle size in pseudotumor cerebri and the theory of impaired CSF absorption. J. Neurol. Sci., 177, 85-94) on a poroelastic mechanism for some features of NPH and idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

  8. Noncommutative Nonlinear Supersymmetry


    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash


    We present noncommutative nonlinear supersymmetric theories. The first example is a non-polynomial Akulov-Volkov-type lagrangian with noncommutative nonlinear global supersymmetry in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The second example is the generalization of this lagrangian to Dirac-Born-Infeld lagrangian with nonlinear supersymmetry realized in dimensions D=2,3,4, 6 and 10.

  9. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear fractional equation; nonlinear fractional relaxation; -expansion. Abstract. We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and ...

  10. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong


    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  11. Nonlinear Microwave Optomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevchuk, O.


    The nonlinearity is essential for creation of non-classical states of the cavity or mechanical resonator such as squeezed or cat states. A microwave cavity can be made nonlinear by, for instance, adding Josephson junctions. The mechanical resonator is inherently nonlinear. The radiation pressure

  12. Scattering and absorption differential cross sections for double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The scattering and absorption differential cross sections for nonlinear QED process such as double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of independent final photon energy. The incident gamma photons are of 0.662 MeV in energy as produced by an 8 Ci137Cs radioactive source and thin ...

  13. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.; Myers, D.A.; Damschen, D.W.


    The Hanford Reservation contains about 2100 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works to the present. As of Jan. 1976, about 1800 wells still exist, 850 of which were drilled to the groundwater table; 700 still contain water. This report provides the most complete documentation of these wells and supersedes all previous compilations, including BNWL-1739. (DLC)

  14. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics. (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando


    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  15. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.


    The Site Characterization and Assessment Section of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has compiled a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The list of wells will be used by DOE contractors who need condensed, tabular information on well location, construction, and completion dates. This report does not include data on lithologic logs and ground-water contamination. Moreover, the completeness of this list is limited because of new well construction and existing well modifications, which are continually under way. Despite these limitations, this list represents the most complete description possible of data pertaining to wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Study of large nonlinear change phase in Hibiscus Sabdariffa (United States)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Vázquez-Guevara, M. A.


    High intensities electromagnetic energy interacting with organic media gives rise to nonlinear optical effects. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is a flower whose concentrated solution presents interesting nonlinear optical properties. This organic material shows an important self-phase modulation with changes bigger than 2π. We present a diffraction ring patterns study of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution. Numerical results of transmittance, with refraction and simultaneous absorption, are shown.

  17. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO. (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.


    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  18. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin


    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  19. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources (United States)

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.


    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400

  20. Nonlinear optical thin films (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.


    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  1. Energy absorption of braided composite tubes (United States)

    Beard, Shawn Joseph

    In this investigation, a model was developed for simulating the crushing behavior and predicting the energy absorption characteristics of braided composite tubes. The crushing model uses the finite element code ABAQUS along with a material module that describes the constitutive behavior of the braid material. The material module contains a three-dimensional description of the braid geometry, which is used to calculate the effective stiffnesses of a representative volume. The stiffness calculations include the effects of nonlinear shear, damage accumulation, and scissoring and jamming of the braider tows. A stiffness reduction scheme, based on the predicted failure mode, is used to account for tow and resin failure throughout the representative volume. Scissoring of the braider tows results in an increase in the overall effective compliance until jamming occurs. To facilitate the model development, extensive coupon tests and tube crushing experiments were conducted. Coupon tests were conducted on braided flat plaques to help characterize the damage mechanisms occurring and to obtain the initial stiffnesses for verifying the proposed model. The braided flat plaques were made using 80k Akzo Nobel Fortafil carbon fiber tows for both the axial and braider tows, and Hetron 922 epoxy-vinyl ester resin for the matrix. Crushing tests were conducted on braided carbon fiber/epoxy-vinyl ester composite tubes with both circular and square cross-sections. All tests were conducted quasi-statically, and plug-type initiators were used to trigger the progressive crushing. The braided tubes were made using 80k Akzo Nobel Fortafil carbon fiber tows for the axial tows, 12k Hercules Grafil 34-700 carbon fiber tows for the braider tows, and Hetron 922 epoxy-vinyl ester resin for the matrix. The energy absorption characteristics are significantly affected by the fiber architecture of the tube and the fillet radius of the initiator plug. In order to verify the proposed model, simulation

  2. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov


    of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of solitons...... in quadratic nonlinear media. In the second part of the report (Chapter 4), the possibility to obtain light with ultrabroad spectrum due to the interplay of many nonlinear effects based on cubic nonlinearity is investigated thoroughly. The contribution of stimulated Raman scattering, a delayed nonlinear...... a modified nonlinear Schroedinger model equation. Chapter 4 and papers D and E are dedicated to this part of the research....

  3. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier


    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from −0.79 to −0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from −0.47 to −0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  4. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods (United States)

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul


    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  5. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah


    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  6. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Argo, R.S.


    The report is comprised of a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information on location, construction and completion dates has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. 4 refs. (ACR)

  7. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.


    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details.

  8. Salicylate absorption from a bismuth subsalicylate preparation. (United States)

    Feldman, S; Chen, S L; Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Ericsson, C D; Hulse, M


    The active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol (PB) (Norwich-Eaton), a common antidiarrheal, is bismuth subsalicylate. The absorption of salicylate after oral PB was studied in six fasted men. Plasma concentrations of total salicylate and the urinary excretion profile of salicylate were determined as a function of time and dose. After 60 ml PB, 500.1 +/- 33.6 mg (mean +/- SD) salicylate were recovered in urine, representing 95.0 +/- 6.4% of salicylic acid equivalents in 60 ml of the formulation. Peak plasma salicylate levels were reached 0.5 to 3 hr after ingestion and averaged 40.1 +/- 17.3 micrograms/ml. Absorption of salicylate was also essentially complete after 15- and 30-ml doses of the antidiarrheal preparation, and a linear relationship between dose and recovery of salicylate in the urine was found. Salicylate kinetics was nonlinear after a multiple-dose regimen of 60 ml every 6 hr for five doses.

  9. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.


    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given. (WHK)

  10. Absorption heat pump system (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon


    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  11. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique (United States)

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar


    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  12. Tuning the nonlinear response of (6,5)-enriched single-wall carbon nanotubes dispersions (United States)

    Aréstegui, O. S.; Silva, E. C. O.; Baggio, A. L.; Gontijo, R. N.; Hickmann, J. M.; Fantini, C.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Fonseca, E. J. S.


    Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of (6,5)-enriched single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) dispersions are investigated using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. As the (6,5) SWCNTs presented a strong resonance in the range of 895-1048 nm, the nonlinear refractive index (n2) and the absorption coefficients (β) measurements were performed tuning the laser exactly around absorption peak of the (6,5) SWCNTs. It is observed that the nonlinear response is very sensitive to the wavelength and the spectral behavior of n2 is strongly correlated to the tubes one-photon absorption band, presenting also a peak when the laser photon energy is near the tube resonance energy. This result suggests that a suitable selection of nanotubes types may provide optimized nonlinear optical responses in distinct regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Analysis of the figures of merit indicated that this material is promising for ultrafast nonlinear optical applications under near infrared excitation.

  13. Optical absorption measurement system (United States)

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.


    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  14. Efficient reverse saturable absorption of sol-gel hybrid plasmonic glasses (United States)

    Lundén, H.; Lopes, C.; Lindgren, M.; Liotta, A.; Chateau, D.; Lerouge, F.; Chaput, F.; Désert, A.; Parola, S.


    Monolithic silica sol-gel glasses doped with platinum(II) acetylide complexes possessing respectively four or six phenylacetylene units (PE2-CH2OH and PE3-CH2OH) in combination with various concentrations of spherical and bipyramidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) known to enhance non-linear optical absorption, were prepared and polished to high optical quality. The non-linear absorption of the glasses was measured and compared to glasses doped solely with AuNPs, a platinum(II) acetylide with shorter delocalized structure, or combinations of both. At 532 nm excitation wavelength the chromophore inhibited the non-linear scattering previously found for glasses only doped with AuNPs. The measured non-linear absorption was attributed to reverse saturable absorption from the chromophore, as previously reported for PE2-CH2OH/AuNP glasses. At 600 nm strong nonlinear absorption was observed for the PE3-CH2OH/AuNPs glasses, also attributed to reverse saturable absorption. But contrary to previous findings for PE2-CH2OH/AuNPs, no distinct enhancement of the non-linear absorption for PE3-CH2OH/AuNPs was observed. A numerical population model for PE3-CH2OH was used to give a qualitative explanation of this difference. A stronger linear absorption in PE3-CH2OH would cause the highly absorbing triplet state to populate quicker during the leading edge of the laser pulse and this would in turn reduce the influence from two-photon absorption enhancement from AuNPs.

  15. Discontinuity and complexity in nonlinear physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Luo, Albert


    This unique book explores recent developments in experimental research in this broad field, organized in four distinct sections. Part I introduces the reader to the fractional dynamics and Lie group analysis for nonlinear partial differential equations. Part II covers chaos and complexity in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems, important to understand the resonance interactions in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as Tsunami waves and wildfire propagations; as well as Lev flights in chaotic trajectories, dynamical system synchronization and DNA information complexity analysis. Part III examines chaos and periodic motions in discontinuous dynamical systems, extensively present in a range of systems, including piecewise linear systems, vibro-impact systems and drilling systems in engineering. And in Part IV, engineering and financial nonlinearity are discussed. The mechanism of shock wave with saddle-node bifurcation and rotating disk stability will be presented, and the financial nonlinear models will be discussed....

  16. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L


    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  17. Sum rules and scaling in nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyk, Mark G., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States); Pérez-Moreno, Javier [Department of Physics, Skidmore College, 815 North Broadway, Saratoga Springs, NY 12886 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States); Shafei, Shoresh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States)


    Nonlinear optics is a mature field characterized by a wealth of phenomena that are well understood. The microscopic origins of these phenomena are known to be in the quantum process of light–matter interactions; yet, no general prescription is available for optimizing the nonlinear response. It is even more difficult to understand the important features of a complex system that lead to the best response. This paper reviews work on how scaling, with the use of sum rules, can be applied to identify universal properties associated with a large nonlinear-optical response. An analysis using sum rules and scaling unifies our understanding of the nonlinear-optical response of a broad class of quantum systems through the scale-invariant intrinsic nonlinearities.

  18. Nonlinear inversion schemes for fluorescence optical tomography. (United States)

    Freiberger, Manuel; Egger, Herbert; Scharfetter, Hermann


    Fluorescence optical tomography is a non-invasive imaging modality that employs the absorption and re-emission of light by fluorescent dyes. The aim is to reconstruct the fluorophore distribution in a body from measurements of light intensities at the boundary. Due to the diffusive nature of light propagation in tissue, fluorescence tomography is a nonlinear and severely ill-posed problem, and some sort of regularization is required for a stable solution. In this paper we investigate reconstruction methods based on Tikhonov regularization with nonlinear penalty terms, namely total-variation regularization and a levelset-type method using a nonlinear parameterization of the unknown function. Moreover, we use the full threedimensional nonlinear forward model, which arises from the governing system of partial differential equations. We discuss the numerical realization of the regularization schemes by Newtontype iterations, present some details of the discretization by finite element methods, and outline the efficient implementation of sensitivity systems via adjoint methods. As we will demonstrate in numerical tests, the proposed nonlinear methods provide better reconstructions than standard methods based on linearized forward models and linear penalty terms. We will additionally illustrate, that the careful discretization of the methods derived on the continuous level allows to obtain reliable, mesh independent reconstruction algorithms.

  19. Absorption cooling device. Absorptions-Kuehlvorrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, J.; Vardi, I.; Kimchi, Y.; Ben-Dror, J.


    The invention concerns improvements of absorption refrigerators, where a lithium chloride or lithium bromide/water cycle is used. According to the invention an inner separating or dividing structure between different functional parts of a machine of this type is provided. The structure contains two sections of wall, which are separated from one another by a suitable space, in order to achieve thermal insulation. This air space is provided with an opening in the direction towards the inside of the container and the opening is shielded to prevent the entry of liquids (in liquid or spray form).

  20. Simultaneous self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption measurement by a spectral homodyne Z-scan method. (United States)

    Fischer, Martin C; Liu, Henry C; Piletic, Ivan R; Warren, Warren S


    We developed a technique to simultaneously measure self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption using shaped femtosecond laser pulses. In the conventional Z-scan measurement technique the amount of nonlinearity is determined by measuring the change in shape and intensity of a transmitted laser beam. In contrast, our method sensitively measures nonlinearity-induced changes in the pulse spectrum. In this work we demonstrate the technique in nonlinear absorptive and dispersive samples, quantify the obtained signal, and compare the measurements with traditional Z-scans. This technique is capable of measuring these nonlinearities in highly scattering samples.

  1. Quantitative treatment of coarsely binned low-resolution recordings in molecular absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Spietz, Peter; Martín, Juan Carlos Gómez; Burrows, John P


    Optical multichannel detectors like photodiode arrays or CCD cameras combined with grating spectrometers are commonly used as detection systems in quantitative absorption spectroscopy. As a trade-off to broad spectral coverage, banded spectral features are sometimes recorded with insufficient spectral resolution and/or insufficiently fine detector binning. This renders the true physical spectrum of recorded intensities changed by instrumental and spectrum specific artefacts thus impeding comparability between results from different set-ups. In this work, it is demonstrated that in the case of a "well-behaved"--i.e. free of ro-vibronic structure--absorption band like the iodine monoxide IO(4Lambert's law) between absorber concentration and apparent, i.e. pixelwise optical density occur. This can be critical in studies of chemical kinetics. It is shown that the observed non-linearity can cause errors of up to 50% in the determination of a second order rate coefficient for the IO self reaction. To overcome the problem, a consistent and rigorous integral approach for the treatment of intensity recordings is developed. Linearity between optical density and absorber concentration thereby is re-established. The method is validated using artificial test data as well as experimental data of the IO(4<--0) absorption transition, obtained in the context of I2/O3 photochemistry studies. The agreement is accurate to within +/-2% (test data) and +/-3% (experimental data) supporting the validity of the approach. Possible consequences for other spectroscopic work are indicated.

  2. Absorption-Line Studies of Seyfert Galaxies (United States)

    Shull, J. Michael

    We propose to undertake a "reverberation analysis" of the variable absorption lines ill two Seyfert Galaxies (NGC 4051 and Mrk 279) to help understand the origin of intrinsic absorption lines in AGNs. Stich an analysis is a powerful tool for elucidating the radial distribution of absorbing gas in the broad-line region (BLR) and narrow-line region (NLR). Only two Seyferts have previously been studied with this technique: NGC 4151 (Bromage el al. 1985; Clavel et al. 1987) and NGC 3516 (Voit, Shull, and Begelman 1987). The absorption features have been interpreted as an outflow of ionized clouds from the nuclear region or from an accretion disk affected by UV/X-ray heating. Neither the source of the absorbing gas in these Seyferts nor the "gene" which distingishes them from other Seyferts is known. Until the 1984 onset of absorption in Mrk 279, broad self-absorbed. lines had been observed only in Seyferts of low intrinsic luminosity, such as NGC 4051. Mrk 279 is intrinsically much brighter, and therefore more quasar-like, than the other three absorptionline Seyfert I's in the CfA sample. Thus, it may show how the absorption phenomenon changes at higher luminosity and could bridge the gap between the low luminosity absorption-line Seyferts and the well-studied broad absorption-line (BAL) QSO's. In addition, Mrk 279's significant redshift will allow us to study, for the first time, the Ly-alpha line in an absorption-line Seyfert. With 3 US-1 shifts for each of these two underobserved Seyferts, we can double the number of objects in which absorption-line variability has been studied and investigate why the absorption-line strengths correlate or anti-correlate with the UV continuum.

  3. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.


    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  4. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng


    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  5. Ultrafast nonlinear dynamics of thin gold films due to an intrinsic delayed nonlinearity (United States)

    Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.


    Using long-range surface plasmon polaritons light can propagate in metal nano-scale waveguides for ultracompact opto-electronic devices. Gold is an important material for plasmonic waveguides, but although its linear optical properties are fairly well understood, the nonlinear response is still under investigation. We consider the propagation of pulses in ultrathin gold strip waveguides, modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The nonlinear response of gold is accounted for by the two-temperature model, revealing it as a delayed nonlinearity intrinsic in gold. The consequence is that the measured nonlinearities are strongly dependent on pulse duration. This issue has so far only been addressed phenomenologically, but we provide an accurate estimate of the quantitative connection as well as a phenomenological theory to understand the enhanced nonlinear response as the gold thickness is reduced. In comparison with previous works, the analytical model for the power-loss equation has been improved, and can be applied now to cases with a high laser peak power. We show new fits to experimental data from the literature and provide updated values for the real and imaginary parts of the nonlinear susceptibility of gold for various pulse durations and gold layer thicknesses. Our simulations show that the nonlinear loss is inhibiting efficient nonlinear interaction with low-power laser pulses. We therefore propose to design waveguides suitable for the mid-IR, where the ponderomotive instantaneous nonlinearity can dominate over the delayed hot-electron nonlinearity and provide a suitable plasmonics platform for efficient ultrafast nonlinear optics.

  6. Analysis of nonlinear behavior of loudspeakers using the instantaneous frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hai; Jacobsen, Finn


    It is well know that the weakest link in a sound reproduction chain is the loudspeaker. The most significant effect on the sound quality is nonlinear distortion of loudspeakers. Many methods are applied to analyze the nonlinear distortion of loudspeakers. Almost all of the methods are based...... on the Fourier transform. In this work, a new method using the instantaneous frequency is introduced for describing and characterizing loudspeaker nonlinearities. First, numerical integration is applied to simulate the nonlinearities of loudspeakers caused by two nonlinear parameters, force factor and stiffness......, separately. Then, a practical loudspeaker is used in an experiment and its nonlinear characteristics are analyzed with the instantaneous frequency. The results provide a clear physical interpretation of the nonlinearities of loudspeakers and will be useful for understanding the nonlinear behavior...

  7. Third Conference on nonlinear science and complexity (NSC)

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Baleanu, Dumitru; Dynamical Systems and Methods


    Nonlinear Systems and Methods For Mechanical, Electrical and Biosystems presents topics observed at the 3rd Conference on Nonlinear Science and Complexity(NSC), focusing on energy transfer and synchronization in hybrid nonlinear systems. The studies focus on fundamental theories and principles,analytical and symbolic approaches, computational techniques in nonlinear physical science and mathematics. Broken into three parts, the text covers:\\ Parametrical excited pendulum, nonlinear dynamics in hybrid systems, dynamical system synchronization and (N+1) body dynamics as well as new views different from the existing results in nonlinear dynamics. Mathematical methods for dynamical systems including conservation laws, dynamical symmetry in nonlinear differential equations and invex energies. Nonlinear phenomena in physical problems such as solutions, complex flows, chemical kinetics, Toda lattices and parallel manipulator. This book is useful to scholars, researchers and advanced technical members of industrial l...

  8. Wellness Matters (United States)

    Arteaga, Brenda


    Creating a healthier school in today's world of budget cuts and seemingly endless to-do lists is not only possible, but it is also imperative. Beyond the health implications, one of the most compelling reasons for creating healthier schools is that wellness serves as a power booster for learning. Numerous studies have documented what educators…

  9. Werable wellness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Bartosz


    We live in a world full of rush and a ‘relaxed state of being’ might increasingly play a role in today’s fast paced society to overcome contemporary stress and related illnesses such as burn-outs. The Sleephones concept is a wearable wellness device that aims to support relaxation by combing music...

  10. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanocluster Films. (United States)

    Ho-Wu, Rosina; Yau, Sung Hei; Goodson, Theodore


    Gold nanoclusters have been extensively studied in solution for their unique optical properties. However, many applications of nanoclusters involve the use of the material in the solid state such as films. Au25(SR)18 in polymeric hosts was used as the model for studying the optical properties of nanocluster films. Different film-processing conditions as well as types of polymers were explored to produce a good-quality film that is suitable for optical measurements. The best optical film was made using Au25(C6S)18 and polystyrene. The formation of nanocluster films drastically reduces the intercluster distances to a few nanometers, which were estimated and characterized by optical absorption. The steady-state absorption and emission properties of the nanocluster film maintained their molecular characteristics. The emissions from the nanocluster films are found to be strongly enhanced at 730 nm with a smaller enhancement at 820 nm when the intercluster distance is below 8 nm. The emission enhancement can be attributed to the energy transfer between clusters due to the small intercluster distance. Two-photon Z scan revealed that the two-photon absorption cross sections are in the order of 10(6) GM, which is an order of magnitude higher than it is in solution. The two-photon absorption enhancement is correlated with strong dipole coupling. These results show that metal nanoclusters can be made into optical quality films, which increase the interaction between clusters and enhances their linear and nonlinear optical responses.

  11. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N


    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  12. Organic nonlinear optical materials (United States)

    Umegaki, S.


    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  13. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, Kelvin


    We have developed an Ultrafast optical nonlinear spectroscopy facility with the motivation of studying spatio-temporal soliton interactions for all-optical switching application and several associated...

  14. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G


    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  15. Nonlinear optical properties of free standing films of PbS quantum dots in the nonresonant femtosecond regime (United States)

    Kurian, Pushpa Ann; Vijayan, C.; Nag, Amit; Goswami, Debabrata


    Devices based on optical technology for high speed communication networks require materials with large nonlinear optical response in the ultrafast regime. Nonlinear optical materials have also attracted wide attention as potential candidates for the protection of optical sensors and eyes while handling lasers. Optical limiters have a constant transmittance at low input influence and a decrease in transmittance at higher fluences and are based on a variety of mechanisms such as nonlinear refraction, nonlinear scattering, multiphoton absorption and free carrier absorption. As we go from bulk to nanosized materials especially in the strong quantum confinement regime where radius of the nanoparticle is less than the bulk exciton Bohr radius, the optical nonlinearity is enhanced due to quantum confinement effect. This paper is on the ultrafast nonresonant nonlinearity in free standing films of PbS quantum dots stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix by a simple chemical route which provides flexibility of processing in a variety of physical forms. Optical absorption spectrum shows significant blue shift from the bulk absorption onset indicating strong quantum confinement. PbS quantumdots of mean size 3.3nm are characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanism of nonlinear absorption giving rise to optical limiting is probed using open z-scan technique with laser pulses of 150 fs pulse duration at 780 nm and the results are presented in the nonresonant femtosecond regime. Irradiance dependence on nonlinear absorption are discussed.

  16. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.


    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  17. Prism coupling into ZnS waveguides: a classic example of a nonlinear coupler. (United States)

    Assanto, G; Svensson, B; Kuchibhatla, D; Gibson, U J; Seaton, C T; Stegeman, G I


    Prism coupling of an argon laser into a nonlinear ZnS waveguide was investigated for power slew rates much less than the nonlinearity relaxation time. The angular variation in coupling efficiency becomes progressively more asymmetric with increasing power until switching occurs on one side of the curve. For large detunings on the switching side, increasing absorption bistability was observed.

  18. Multiexciton absorption in CdSe nanocrystals (United States)

    Franceschetti, Alberto; Zhang, Yong


    Efficient multiple-exciton generation (MEG) has been recently reported in semiconductor nanocrystals. In this process, a single absorbed photon generates two or more electron-hole pairs. The MEG efficiency has so far been evaluated assuming that the change (bleaching) of the absorption spectrum due to MEG is linearly proportional to the number of excitons (NX) that are present in the nanocrystal. We have examined this assumption using atomistic pseudopotential calculations for colloidal CdSe nanocrystals ranging in size from 3 to 4.6 nm. We found that the bleaching of the first absorption peak, δα1S, depends non-linearly on NX, due to carrier-carrier interactions. When a single exciton is present in the nanocrystal, the 1S exciton peak is already 65-75% bleached. This non-linearity mandates an upper bound of 1.5 to the value of the normalized bleaching that can be attributed to MEG, significantly smaller than the limit of 2.0 predicted by the linear scaling assumption. Thus, measured values of the normalized bleaching in excess of 1.5 in CdSe nanocrystals cannot be due entirely to MEG, but must originate in part from other mechanisms.

  19. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer. (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee


    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  20. Optimal design for nonlinear response models

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, Valerii V


    Optimal Design for Nonlinear Response Models discusses the theory and applications of model-based experimental design with a strong emphasis on biopharmaceutical studies. The book draws on the authors' many years of experience in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. While the focus is on nonlinear models, the book begins with an explanation of the key ideas, using linear models as examples. Applying the linearization in the parameter space, it then covers nonlinear models and locally optimal designs as well as minimax, optimal on average, and Bayesian designs. The authors also discuss ada

  1. Nonlinear optical properties of sodium copper chlorophyllin in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Li, Jiangting; Peng, Yufeng; Han, Xueyun; Guo, Shaoshuai; Liang, Kunning; Zhang, Minggao


    Sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), as one of the derivatives of chlorophyll - with its inherent green features; good stability for heat, light, acids and alkalies; unique antimicrobial capability; and particular deodori zation performance - is widely applied in some fields such as the food industry, medicine and health care, daily cosmetic industry etc. SCC, as one of the metal porphyrins, has attracted much attention because of its unique electronic band structure and photon conversion performance. To promote the application of SCC in materials science; energy research and photonics, such as fast optical communications; and its use in nonlinear optical materials, solar photovoltaic cells, all-optical switches, optical limiters and saturable absorbers, great efforts should be dedicated to studying its nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. In this study, the absorption spectra and NLO properties of SCC in aqueous solution at different concentrations were measured. The Z-scan technique was used to determine NLO properties. The results indicated that the absorption spectra of SCC exhibit 2 characteristic absorption peaks located at the wavelengths 405 and 630 nm, and the values of the peaks increase with increasing SCC concentration. The results also showed that SCC exhibits reverse saturation absorption and negative nonlinear refraction (self-defocusing). It can be seen that SCC has good optical nonlinearity which will be convenient for applications in materials science, energy research and photonics.

  2. Mid-infrared nonlinear upconversion imaging and sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    for measurements of fluorescence or absorptions signals. Mid-IR upconversion imaging and detection using nonlinear crystals offers good promise as an alternative, sensitive mid-IR imaging and detection technology. In this paper the fundamental properties of upconversion is discussed....

  3. Printed organic smart devices characterized by nonlinear optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Accanto, Nicolo; Jørgensen, Mikkel


    In this study, we demonstrate that nonlinear optical microscopy is a promising technique to characterize organic printed electronics. Using ultrashort laser pulses we stimulate two-photon absorption in a roll coated polymer semiconductor and map the resulting two-photon induced photoluminescence...

  4. Absorption heat pump system (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio


    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy. (United States)

    Wise, Frank


    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  6. Friction and nonlinear dynamics


    Manini, N.; Braun, O. M.; Tosatti, E.; Guerra, R.; Vanossi, A.


    The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction.

  7. Nonlinear Maneuver Autopilot (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.


    Trajectory-control laws based on singular-perturbation theory and nonlinear dynamical modeling. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot commands flight-test trajectories of F-15 airplane. Underlying theory of controller enables separation of variables processed in fast and slow control loops, reducing amount of computation required.

  8. The Driving Forces of Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie C.; Pedersen, Torben


    capacity in order to compete in its focal market. The dual embeddedness of MNC subsidiaries plays a key role in this investigation, as subsidiaries belong to the MNC network and are simultaneously embedded in their host country environment. We argue that subsidiary absorptive capacity is formed...... as a purposeful response to this dual embeddedness. An analysis of marketing strategy absorptions undertaken by 213 subsidiaries reveals that MNCs can assist their subsidiaries to compete in competitive and dynamic focal markets by forming specific organizational mechanisms that are conducive to the development......The study investigates how a multinational corporation (MNC) can promote the absorptive capacity of its subsidiaries. The focus is on what drives the MNC subsidiary's ability to absorb marketing strategies that are initiated by the MNC parent, as well as how the subsidiary enacts on this absorptive...

  9. The effects of notoginsenoside R₁ on the intestinal absorption of geniposide by the everted rat gut sac model. (United States)

    Chula, Sa; Hang, Lv; Yinying, Ba; Jianning, Sun; Shi, Renbing


    Geniposide is derived from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae). Its anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic effects as well as its preventive effect against ischemic stroke have been reported. Radix notoginseng (Chinese name tienchi or sanqi) is the dried root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, an herb noted for its promotion of blood circulation, blood stasis removal and pain alleviation, and has been widely utilized for the prevention and treatment of microcirculatory disturbances in China and other Asian countries for many years. Notoginsenoside R₁ is an effective and structurally representative bioactive constituent of R. notoginseng. In our preliminary study, notoginsenoside R₁ was able significantly to improve the bioavailability of geniposide in beagle dogs, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the intestinal kinetic absorptive characteristics of geniposide as well as the absorptive behavior influenced by the co-administration of notoginsenoside R₁ using an in vitro everted rat gut sac model. The results showed good linear correlation between the geniposide absorption in sac contents and the incubation time from 0 to 120 min. The concentration dependence showed a non-linear correlation between the geniposide absorption and the concentrations 0.356-1.424 mg/mL, the absorption was saturated about 1.424 mg/mL. Notoginsenoside R₁ at 0.1 and 0.2mg/mL concentrations was able significantly to enhance the absorption of geniposide (1.424 mg/mL) by 1.7- and 1.4-fold. Moreover, verapamil, a well-known P-glycoprotein inhibitor, was able significantly to elevate the absorption of geniposide 2.4-fold. Notoginsenoside R₁ influenced geniposide's absorption in a way similar to that of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor. In conclusion, notoginsenoside R₁ significantly enhances the intestinal absorption of geniposide. As for the mechanism underlying the improvement of geniposide's bioavailability, it is proposed that

  10. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S


    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  11. Visual Absorption Capability (United States)

    Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler


    Visual absorption capability (VAC) is a tool to assess a landscape's susceptibility to visual change caused by man's activities. This paper explores different descriptive approaches to VAC and addresses in depth the development of the VAC process used on the Klamath National Forest. Four biophysical factors were selected to assess VAC for the lands within the...

  12. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj


    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  13. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Ueno


    Full Text Available The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa.

  14. Pseudopotential calculations and photothermal lensing measurements of two-photon absorption in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.T. III


    We have studied two-photon absorption in solids theoretically and experimentally. We have shown that it is possible to use accurate band structure techniques to compute two-photon absorption spectra within 15% of measured values in a wide band-gap material, ZnS. The empirical pseudopotential technique that we used is significantly more accurate than previous models of two-photon absorption in zinc blende materials, including present tunneling theories (which are essentially parabolic-band results in disguise) and the nonparabolic-band formalism of Pidgeon et al. and Weiler. The agreement between our predictions and previous measurements allowed us to use ZnS as a reference material in order to validate a technique for measuring two-photon absorption that was previously untried in solids, pulsed dual-beam thermal lensing. With the validated technique, we examined nonlinear absorption in one other crystal (rutile) and in several glasses, including silicates, borosilicates, and one phosphate glass. Initially, we believed that the absorption edges of all the materials were comparable; however, subsequent evidence suggested that the effective band-gap energies of the glasses were above the energy of two photons in our measurement. Therefore, we attribute the nonlinear absorption that we observed in glasses to impurities or defects. The measured nonlinear absorption coefficients were of the order of a few cm/TW in the glasses and of the order of 10 cm/GW in the crystals, four orders of magnitude higher than in glasses. 292 refs.

  15. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang


    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  16. Third-order nonlinear optical response of indigo carmine under 633 nm excitation for nonlinear optical applications (United States)

    Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.


    We report thermally induced third-order nonlinearity and optical limiting behaviour of Indigo Carmine dye. z-Scan technique was used to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. Continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. In open aperture z-scan experiments, samples exhibited reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. For closed aperture z-scan experiments, samples revealed self-defocusing property. The presence of donor and acceptor groups in the structure increases the conjugation length and in turn increases the optical nonlinearity. Induced self-diffraction rings pattern was recorded for the samples and it is attributed to refractive index change and thermal lensing. Also, optical limiting and clamping studies were carried out for various input power. Optical clamping of about ~1 mW was observed. This endorses that the dye under investigation is a positive candidate for opto-electronic and photonic applications.

  17. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)


    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  18. Reverse saturable absorption (RSA) in fluorinated iridium derivatives (United States)

    Ferry, Michael J.; O'Donnell, Ryan M.; Bambha, Neal; Ensley, Trenton R.; Shensky, William M.; Shi, Jianmin


    The photophysical properties of cyclometallated iridium compounds are beneficial for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications, such as the design of reverse saturable absorption (RSA) materials. We report on the NLO characterization of a family of compounds of the form [Ir(pbt)2(LX)], where pbt is 2-phenylbenzothiazole and LX is a beta-diketonate ligand. In particular, we investigate the effects of trifluoromethylation on compound solubility and photophysics compared to the parent acetylacetonate (acac) version. The NLO properties, such as the singlet and triplet excited-state cross sections, of these compounds were measured using the Z-scan technique. The excited-state lifetimes were determined from visible transient absorption spectroscopy.

  19. Magnon sidebands and spin-charge coupling in bismuth ferrite probed by nonlinear optical spectroscopy (United States)

    Ramirez, M. O.; Kumar, A.; Denev, S. A.; Podraza, N. J.; Xu, X. S.; Rai, R. C.; Chu, Y. H.; Seidel, J.; Martin, L. W.; Yang, S.-Y.; Saiz, E.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Lee, S.; Klug, J.; Cheong, S. W.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Auciello, O.; Schlom, D. G.; Ramesh, R.; Orenstein, J.; Musfeldt, J. L.; Gopalan, V.


    The interplay between spin waves (magnons) and electronic structure in materials leads to the creation of additional bands associated with electronic energy levels which are called magnon sidebands. The large difference in the energy scales between magnons (meV) and electronic levels (eV) makes this direct interaction weak and hence makes magnon sidebands difficult to probe. Linear light absorption and scattering techniques at low temperatures are traditionally used to probe these sidebands. Here we show that optical second-harmonic generation, as the lowest-order nonlinear process, can successfully probe the magnon sidebands at room temperature and up to 723 K in bismuth ferrite, associated with large wave vector multimagnon excitations which linear absorption studies are able to resolve only under high magnetic fields and low temperatures. Polarized light studies and temperature dependence of these sidebands reveal a spin-charge coupling interaction of the type PsL2 between the spontaneous polarization (Ps) and antiferromagnetic order parameter, L in bismuth ferrite, that persists with short-range correlation well into the paramagnetic phase up to high temperatures. These observations suggest a broader opportunity to probe the collective spin-charge-lattice interactions in a wide range of material systems at high temperatures and electronic energy scales using nonlinear optics.

  20. Threshold concentration in the nonlinear absorbance law. (United States)

    Tolbin, Alexander Yu; Pushkarev, Victor E; Tomilova, Larisa G; Zefirov, Nikolay S


    A new nonlinear relationship of the absorption coefficient with the concentration was proposed, allowing the calculation of the threshold concentration, which shows that there is a deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The nonlinear model was successfully tested on a stable dimeric phthalocyanine ligand of J-type in solvents with different polarity. It was shown that deviation from the linearity is connected with a specific association of the macrocyclic molecules, which, in the case of non-polar solvents, leads to the formation of H-aggregates composed of J-type dimeric molecules. The aggregation number was estimated to be less than 1.5, which has allowed us to conduct a series of analytical experiments in a wide range of concentrations (1 × 10(-6)-5 × 10(-4) mol L(-1)).

  1. A Simple Analytical Approximation to an Inhomogeneously-Broadened Dispersion Spectrum. Application to Absorption-Dispersion Admixtures. (United States)

    Bales, Barney L


    A simple analytical approximation to an inhomogeneously-broadened dispersion signal is proposed and tested with resonance lines broadened by unresolved hyperfine structure. Spectral parameters may be rapidly and accurately extracted using a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. Combining the new approximation to a dispersion signal with a well-known approximation to the absorption signal allows dispersion-absorption admixtures, a problem of growing importance, to be analyzed quickly and accurately. For pure dispersion signals, the maximum difference between the fit and the signal for unresolved lines is 1.1 % of the maximum intensity. For pure absorption, the difference is 0.33 % of the peak-to-peak intensity, and for admixtures up to 40 % dispersion (maximum intensity/peak-to-peak intensity), the difference is 0.7 %. The accuracy of the recovered spectral parameters depends on the degree of inhomogeneously-broadened and the percentage admixture, but they are generally about 1 % at most. A significant finding of the work is that the parameters pertinent to the dispersion or the absorption are insignificantly different when fitting isolated lines vs. fitting admixtures. Admixtures with added noise or an unsuspected extraneous line are investigated.

  2. Non-linear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Peter


    Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.

  3. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P


    The Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering have awarded Govind Agrawal with an honorable mention for the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award for his work on Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition.Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. It retains most of the material that appeared in the first edition, with the exception of Chapter 6, which is now devoted to the polarization effects relevant for light propagation in optical

  4. Nonlinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien


    This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

  5. Nonlinear Source Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem

    and remains the prime source of energy in non-terrestrial applications such as those in sky-explorers. However, a renewable energy source is expensive, bulky, and its performance is weather dependent, which make testing of downstream converters very difficult. As a result, a nonlinear source emulator (NSE...... generator unit. Because nonlinear energy sources come in different sizes and power rating, a single NSE may not be sufficient to simulate a wide selection of nonlinear sources. For this reason, the proposed NSE system is realized as modules. Stacking or connecting multiple modules in parallel will allow...

  6. Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites (United States)

    Debrus, S.; Lafait, J.; May, M.; Pinçon, N.; Prot, D.; Sella, C.; Venturini, J.


    Third-order nonlinear optical properties of Au:SiO2 thin films were studied at the surface plasmon resonance wavelength by the z-scan technique using a nanosecond laser. Films were prepared by a multilayer deposition sputtering technique. They were composed of 2 nm mean diam gold particles, with a metal volume fraction of 20%. Z-scan measurements performed both with and without aperture showed a very large nonlinear absorption masking the nonlinear refraction. The nonlinear absorption coefficient β was found to be negative and equal to -1.1×10-2 cm/W. The different mechanisms contributing to this absorption are discussed and the large value of β is correlated to the duration of the laser pulses. Moreover, it is shown that a mean field theory is not appropriate to evaluate the effective susceptibility at high metal concentrations.

  7. Nonlinearly enhanced sensing in coupled optical microresonators (United States)

    Wang, Chao

    Optical microresonators that confine photons to micron dimensions with low loss at telecommunication wavelengths play an important role in building modern all-optical integrated circuit. Such systems attract a considerable amount of interest because of the compact size and easy fabrication with state-of-art technologies. One can use the microresonators as sensors, optical delay lines, filters, interferometers, and lasers. In this thesis, we investigate nonlinear effects for sensing application in microring resonators. We theoretically analyze the effect of the Kerr index, two-photon absorption, free-carrier absorption, and free-carrier dispersion. In particular, selfphase and cross-phase modulations caused by the Kerr index are shown to lead to a bifurcation of degenerate resonator mode intensities. Using coupled mode equations, we present the transmission properties of our resonator system with nonlinear effects included. New sensing mechanisms based on the nonlinear bistability and bifurcation are proposed to enhance the transmission's sensitivity to perturbations of the resonance frequency of the resonators. This is used to develop models of ultra-sensitive gyroscopes and refractive index sensors for detection of chemical analytes. The bifurcation dramatically enhances the Sagnac phase shift and therefore substantially lowers the minimum detectable rotation rate (< 1deg/hour) in a micro-resonator gyroscope. For index sensing, nonlinearities enhance the resonance frequency shift and a theoretical detection limit of 10-11 RIU is derived assuming common noises in micro-optical systems. In this work, we focus on silicon-on-insulator resonators but we also consider different platforms, including silicon oxynitride, Hydex, and chalcogenide glasses, and discuss the advantages of each. The results we show here highlight novel mechanisms that can be used in practical applications to improve the performance of a microresonator based optical sensor.

  8. Nonlinearities in Periodic Structures and Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, Cornelia; Kivshar, Yuri S


    Optical information processing of the future is associated with a new generation of compact nanoscale optical devices operating entirely with light. Moreover, adaptive features such as self-guiding, reconfiguration and switching become more and more important. Nonlinear devices offer an enormous potential for these applications. Consequently, innovative concepts for all-optical communication and information technologies based on nonlinear effects in photonic-crystal physics and nanoscale devices as metamaterials are of high interest. This book focuses on nonlinear optical phenomena in periodic media, such as photonic crystals, optically-induced, adaptive lattices, atomic lattices or metamaterials. The main purpose is to describe and overview new physical phenomena that result from the interplay between nonlinearities and structural periodicities and is a guide to actual and future developments for the expert reader in optical information processing, as well as in the physics of cold atoms in optical lattices.

  9. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah


    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  10. Application of two-photon absorption in PWO scintillator for fast timing of interaction with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffray, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Buganov, O. [Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk (Belarus); Korjik, M.; Fedorov, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarus State University, 11 Bobruiskaya, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Nargelas, S.; Tamulaitis, G. [Semiconductor Physics Department and Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Tikhomirov, S. [Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk (Belarus); Vaitkevičius, A., E-mail: [Semiconductor Physics Department and Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)


    This work was aimed at searching for fast phenomena in scintillators in sub-10-ps range, a benchmark timing for the time response of radiation detectors in particle colliders. The pump-and-probe optical absorption technique with a tunable-wavelength parametric oscillator as the pump and a continuous-spectrum source as the probe beam was used to study lead tungstate PbWO{sub 4} (PWO) single crystals. It is shown that the rise time of the probe pulse absorption induced by the pump pulse is shorter than the pump pulse width of 200 fs. The approximately linear dependence of the probe absorption on the pump pulse energy density evidences that the induced absorption is caused by two-photon absorption involving one probe and one pump photon. We demonstrate that the intensity of the induced absorption at certain wavelengths is influenced by gamma irradiation, provided that an appropriate light polarization is selected. The application of the irradiation-sensitive nonlinearity for fast timing in radiation detectors is discussed. - Highlights: • Nonlinear transmittance with femtosecond rise time is observed in PWO scintillators. • The nonlinearity is caused by two-photon absorption of pump and probe photons. • Gamma irradiation imposes change in the nonlinearity for certain light polarization. • Application of the nonlinearity for fast timing in radiation detectors is feasible.

  11. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary ...... processes, with emphasis on exploitative learning. Before concluding, the paper addresses implications for theory and practice and limitations of this study....

  12. Complex geometrical optics of inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media (United States)

    Berczynski, Pawel


    The method of complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media. CGO method reduces the problem of Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the other methods of nonlinear optics such as: variational method approach, method of moments and beam propagation method. The power of CGO method is presented on the example of the evolution of beam intensity and wave front cross-section along curvilinear central ray with torsion in weakly absorptive and nonlinear saturable graded-index fiber, where the effect of initial beam ellipticity is included into our description.

  13. Nonlinear optical response of multiwalled carbon-nanotube dispersions (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sean M.; Hold, Stephanie V.; Brennan, Margaret E.; Cadek, Martin; Drury, Anna; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Blau, Werner J.


    Experimental measurements of nonlinear optical extinction of nanosecond laser pulses by a set of conjugated copolymer/multiwalled carbon-nanotube composites dispersed in solution are reported here. The polymer poly(para-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctyloxy-meta-phenylenevinylene) and multiwalled carbon-nanotube composites were varied according to nanotube mass content. The experiments were performed with an open-aperture Z scan with 6-ns Gaussian pulses at 532 nm from a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear optical extinction of the incident pulses displays enhanced dissipation of the incident light for lower incident intensities relative to increasing multiwalled carbon-nanotube content. Either the multiwalled carbon nanotubes or the polymer dominates the nonlinear response of the composite depending on the relative mass of polymer to nanotube. Effective optical coefficients with a nonlinear absorption based model are calculated, and their intensity dependence is investigated. Mechanistic implications of the optical dissipation are also discussed.

  14. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G


    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  15. Crossing a Nonlinear Resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 9. Crossing a Nonlinear Resonance: Adiabatic Invariants and the Melnikov-Arnold Integral. Sudhir R Jain. General Article Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 797-813 ...

  16. Nonlinearity in nanomechanical cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.


    Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used to successfully predict the linear dynamics of micro-and nanocantilever beams. However, its capacity to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of these devices has not yet been rigorously assessed, despite its use in nanoelectromechanical systems development....... In this article, we report the first highly controlled measurements of the nonlinear response of nanomechanical cantilevers using an ultralinear detection system. This is performed for an extensive range of devices to probe the validity of Euler-Bernoulli theory in the nonlinear regime. We find that its...... predictions deviate strongly from our measurements for the nonlinearity of the fundamental flexural mode, which show a systematic dependence on aspect ratio (length/width) together with random scatter. This contrasts with the second mode, which is always found to be in good agreement with theory...

  17. Nonlinear differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Struble, Raimond A


    Detailed treatment covers existence and uniqueness of a solution of the initial value problem, properties of solutions, properties of linear systems, stability of nonlinear systems, and two-dimensional systems. 1962 edition.

  18. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, b


    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  19. Analytical evaluation of nonlinear distortion effects on multicarrier signals

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Theresa


    Due to their ability to support reliable high quality of service as well as spectral and power efficiency, multicarrier modulation systems have found increasing use in modern communications services. However, one of the main drawbacks of these systems is their vulnerability to nonlinear distortion effects. Analytical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects on Multicarrier Signals details a unified approach to well-known analytical results on memoryless nonlinearities that takes advantage of the Gaussian behavior of multicarrier signals.Sharing new insights into the behavior of nonlinearly d

  20. Non-linear finite element analysis in structural mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rust, Wilhelm


    This monograph describes the numerical analysis of non-linearities in structural mechanics, i.e. large rotations, large strain (geometric non-linearities), non-linear material behaviour, in particular elasto-plasticity as well as time-dependent behaviour, and contact. Based on that, the book treats stability problems and limit-load analyses, as well as non-linear equations of a large number of variables. Moreover, the author presents a wide range of problem sets and their solutions. The target audience primarily comprises advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical and civil engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for practising engineers in industry.

  1. Optimizing optical nonlinearities in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Aleksandra D.


    Full Text Available Regardless of the huge advances made in the design and fabrication of mid-infrared and terahertz quantum cascade lasers, success in accessing the ~3-4 mm region of the electromagnetic spectrum has remained limited. This fact has brought about the need to exploit resonant intersubband transitions as powerful nonlinear oscillators, consequently enabling the occurrence of large nonlinear optical susceptibilities as a means of reaching desired wavelengths. In this work, we present a computational model developed for the optimization of second-order optical nonlinearities in In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As quantum cascade laser structures based on the implementation of the Genetic algorithm. The carrier transport and the power output of the structure were calculated by self-consistent solutions to the system of rate equations for carriers and photons. Both stimulated and simultaneous double-photon absorption processes occurring between the second harmonic generation-relevant levels are incorporated into rate equations and the material-dependent effective mass and band non-parabolicity are taken into account, as well. The developed method is quite general and can be applied to any higher order effect which requires the inclusion of the photon density equation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45010

  2. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng


    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  3. Absorption in periodic layered structures


    Moroz, Alexander; Tip, Adriaan; Combes, Jean-Michel


    Photonic band structure of metal-dielectric and semiconductor-dielectric layered structures are studied in the presence of a strong absorption. It is shown that absorption can enlarge some gaps by as much as 50%.

  4. Strong saturable absorption of black titanium oxide nanoparticle films (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Fang; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Zhang, Geng-Min


    Nonlinear optical materials with strong saturable absorption (SA) properties play an essential role in passive mode-locking generation of ultrafast lasers. Here we report black TiO2-x nanoparticles are promising candidate for such an application. Black TiO2-x nanoparticles are synthesized by using cathodic plasma electrolysis, and nanoparticle films are deposited on optical glass plates via natural sedimentation and post annealing. Characterization of the samples with TEM, SEM, XRD and XPS reveal that nanoparticles have diameters of 8-70 nm, and are in polycrystalline structure and co-existence of anatase, rutile and abundant oxygen-deficient phases. Optical transmittance and reflectance measurements with a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer evidence an excellent wide-spectral optical absorption property. The nonlinear optical properties of the samples were measured by using open-aperture Z-scan technique with picosecond 532-nm laser, and verified by direct transmission measurements using nanosecond 1064-nm laser. Strong SA behavior was detected, and the nonlinear absorption coefficient is as high as β = - 4.9 × 10-8 m/W, at least two orders larger than most previous reports on ordinary TiO2. The strong SA behaviors are ascribed to the existence of plenty surface states and defect states within bandgap, and the relaxation rates of electrons from upper energy levels to lower ones are much slower than excitation rates.

  5. Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Walters, Grant


    Organometallic trihalide perovskites are solution processed semiconductors that have made great strides in third generation thin film light harvesting and light emitting optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been demonstrated that large, high purity single crystals of these perovskites can be synthesized from the solution phase. These crystals’ large dimensions, clean bandgap, and solid-state order, have provided us with a suitable medium to observe and quantify two-photon absorption in perovskites. When CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals are pumped with intense 800 nm light, we observe band-to-band photoluminescence at 572 nm, indicative of two-photon absorption. We report the nonlinear absorption coefficient of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites to be 8.6 cm GW-1 at 800 nm, comparable to epitaxial single crystal semiconductors of similar bandgap. We have leveraged this nonlinear process to electrically autocorrelate a 100 fs pulsed laser using a two-photon perovskite photodetector. This work demonstrates the viability of organometallic trihalide perovskites as a convenient and low-cost nonlinear absorber for applications in ultrafast photonics.

  6. Handbook of nonlinear optical crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Valentin G; Nikogosyan, David N


    This Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals provides a complete description of the properties and applications of nonlinear crystals In addition, it presents the most important equations for calculating the main parameters of nonlinear frequency converters This comprehensive reference work will be of great value to all scientists and engineers working in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics and laser physics

  7. Nonlinear Analysis in Counseling Research (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Richey Gosnell, Katelyn M.; Holmgren, Andrew; Osborne, Jason W.


    Nonlinear effects are both underreported and underrepresented in counseling research. We provide a rationale for evaluating nonlinear effects and steps to evaluate nonlinear relationships in counseling research. Two heuristic examples are provided along with discussion of the results and advantages to evaluating nonlinear effects.

  8. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina


    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  9. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.


    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of fluorination.

  10. Absorption characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The analytical expression for the absorption coefficient of BR film is applied to study the absorption characteristics of BR molecules in a typical laser system operating at funda- mental wavelength 514 nm. The experimental data available for the absorption coefficients of the levels B and M corresponding to the wavelength ...

  11. Controlling quantum-dot light absorption and emission by a surface-plasmon field. (United States)

    Huang, Danhong; Easter, Michelle; Gumbs, Godfrey; Maradudin, A A; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Cardimona, D A; Zhang, Xiang


    The possibility for controlling both the probe-field optical gain and absorption, as well as photon conversion by a surface-plasmon-polariton near field is explored for a quantum dot located above a metal surface. In contrast to the linear response in the weak-coupling regime, the calculated spectra show an induced optical gain and a triply-split spontaneous emission peak resulting from the interference between the surface-plasmon field and the probe or self-emitted light field in such a strongly-coupled nonlinear system. Our result on the control of the mediated photon-photon interaction, very similar to the 'gate' control in an optical transistor, may be experimentally observable and applied to ultra-fast intrachip/interchip optical interconnects, improvement in the performance of fiber-optic communication networks, and developments of optical digital computers and quantum communications.

  12. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.


    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  13. Spectroscopy of III-V narrow gap semiconductor quantum wells (United States)

    Larrabee, Diane C.

    The narrow gap III-V semiconductors, InAs/AlSb/GaSb and InSb, exhibit an array of extreme physical properties, from the lightest effective mass and largest nonparabolicity of III-V semiconductors to heterostructure conduction band offsets ranging from -0.15 to +2.0 eV. In this work, I present three spectroscopic techniques which exploit these unusual properties to provide new insight into the physics of these materials. First, my measurement of cyclotron resonance in InAs/AlSb and InSb/AlInSb quantum wells was the first spectroscopic application of a new laser, the THz quantum cascade laser. The physical properties mentioned above put these materials into an experimentally accessible range, and InAs's high room temperature mobility and low temperature carrier density enabled us to explore a large temperature range. Previous investigations of other materials in limited temperature ranges had suggested what we confirmed: the cyclotron resonance effective mass increases with temperature, contrary to theoretical expectations. Second, we applied time resolved cyclotron resonance to InSb quantum wells for the first time. Because of InSb's large effective g-factor and nonparabolicity, time resolved cyclotron resonance enabled us to monitor the carrier relaxation and recombination from each Landau- and Zeeman-quantized state directly in time. This unprecedented level of detail could be extended to longer times to probe spin-flip relaxation, a significant parasitic process in quantum computation. Finally, I measured intersubband absorption in narrow InAs/AlSb quantum wells with widths from 10.5 to 1.8 nm. I observed the highest energy intersubband resonance in InAs/AlSb quantum wells: 650 meV at 77 K in a 1.8 nm well. I also performed detailed measurements of the temperature dependence of intersubband absorption and confirmed the correlation between the integrated intensity of intersubband absorption and the carrier distribution inferred from Shubnikov-de Haas and Hall

  14. Nonlinear damping and quasi-linear modelling. (United States)

    Elliott, S J; Ghandchi Tehrani, M; Langley, R S


    The mechanism of energy dissipation in mechanical systems is often nonlinear. Even though there may be other forms of nonlinearity in the dynamics, nonlinear damping is the dominant source of nonlinearity in a number of practical systems. The analysis of such systems is simplified by the fact that they show no jump or bifurcation behaviour, and indeed can often be well represented by an equivalent linear system, whose damping parameters depend on the form and amplitude of the excitation, in a 'quasi-linear' model. The diverse sources of nonlinear damping are first reviewed in this paper, before some example systems are analysed, initially for sinusoidal and then for random excitation. For simplicity, it is assumed that the system is stable and that the nonlinear damping force depends on the nth power of the velocity. For sinusoidal excitation, it is shown that the response is often also almost sinusoidal, and methods for calculating the amplitude are described based on the harmonic balance method, which is closely related to the describing function method used in control engineering. For random excitation, several methods of analysis are shown to be equivalent. In general, iterative methods need to be used to calculate the equivalent linear damper, since its value depends on the system's response, which itself depends on the value of the equivalent linear damper. The power dissipation of the equivalent linear damper, for both sinusoidal and random cases, matches that dissipated by the nonlinear damper, providing both a firm theoretical basis for this modelling approach and clear physical insight. Finally, practical examples of nonlinear damping are discussed: in microspeakers, vibration isolation, energy harvesting and the mechanical response of the cochlea. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  16. Invariance properties and conservation laws of the nonlinear damped wave equation with power law nonlinearities (United States)

    Al Ali, Usamah S.; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Kara, A. H.; Zaman, F. D.

    Nonlinear evolution equations represent some of the most fundamental processes in both physics as well engineering. Considering this, we analyze and classify the three dimensional wave equation with a power law nonlinearity in presence of damping and external force terms. In view of the significance of conservation laws in physics, a study of the invariance properties is presented and conservation laws are constructed and classified. An illustrative case of a symmetry reduction in one special case is presented.

  17. Sound absorption with green materials (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria


    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  18. Nonlinear propagation of lower hybrid waves in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaw, P.K.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.


    A model equation was used to investigate the competition between the electron E x B/sub o/ nonlinearities (which lead to parametric instabilities and anomalous absorption) and the electron polarization drift and ion nonlinearities (which induce filamentation and self-focusing effects) in the propagation of a large amplitude lower hybrid wave in a plasma. The conclusion is that the former dominates for plasma regions with 2//sub pi/ > 2//sub ci/ (i.e., everywhere except in a thin skin region).

  19. Nonlinear Kalman Filtering With Divergence Minimization (United States)

    Gultekin, San; Paisley, John


    We consider the nonlinear Kalman filtering problem using Kullback-Leibler (KL) and $\\alpha$-divergence measures as optimization criteria. Unlike linear Kalman filters, nonlinear Kalman filters do not have closed form Gaussian posteriors because of a lack of conjugacy due to the nonlinearity in the likelihood. In this paper we propose novel algorithms to optimize the forward and reverse forms of the KL divergence, as well as the alpha-divergence which contains these two as limiting cases. Unlike previous approaches, our algorithms do not make approximations to the divergences being optimized, but use Monte Carlo integration techniques to derive unbiased algorithms for direct optimization. We assess performance on radar and sensor tracking, and options pricing problems, showing general improvement over the UKF and EKF, as well as competitive performance with particle filtering.

  20. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao


    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  1. Dynamics of water absorption through superabsorbent polymer (United States)

    Chang, Sooyoung; Kim, Wonjung


    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) consist of hydrophilic cross-linked polymer networks that can absorb and retain a great amount of water relative to their own mass, so that they are widely used for disposable diapers and holding soil moisture in agriculture. SAPs are typically available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles, and the water absorption is driven by capillary flows between particles as well as diffusion that entail swelling. Although the control of water absorption of SAPs is important in engineering applications, but the dynamics of water absorption in SAP particles has not been fully understood. We examine the dynamics of the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate, one of the most common SAP. We experimentally measured the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate particles in one-dimensional confined channel. The water flows through the particles were analyzed by capillarity dominant at the early stage and by diffusion involving volume expansion critical at a later stage. The results provide a quantitative basis of the hydrodynamic analysis of the water flow through SAP particles from a macroscopic point of view, facilitating the prediction of water uptake of SAPs in hygienic and agricultural applications. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No.2015R1A2A2A04006181).

  2. The Dynamics of Nonlinear Inference (United States)

    Kadakia, Nirag

    The determination of the hidden states of coupled nonlinear systems is frustrated by the presence of high-dimensionality, chaos, and sparse observability. This problem resides naturally in a Bayesian context: an underlying physical process produces a data stream, which - though noisy and incomplete - can in principle be inverted to express the likelihood of the underlying process itself. A large class of well-developed methods treat this problem in a sequential predict-and-correct manner that alternates information from the presumed dynamical model with information from the data. One might instead formulate this problem in a temporally global, non-sequential manner, which suggests new avenues of approach within an optimization context, but also poses new challenges in numerical implementation. The variational annealing (VA) technique is proposed to address these problems by leveraging an inherent separability between the convex and nonconvex contributions of the resulting functional forms. VA is shown to reliably track unobservable states in sparsely observed chaotic systems, as well as in minimally-observed biophysical neural models. Second, this problem can be formally cast in continuous time as a Wiener path integral, which then suggests classical solutions derived from Hamilton's principle. These solutions come with their own difficulties in that they comprise an unstable boundary-value problem. Accordingly, a further technique called Hamiltonian variational annealing is proposed, which again exploits an existing separability of convexity and nonlinearity, this time in a an enlarged manifold constrained by underlying symmetries. A running theme in this thesis is that the optimal estimate of a nonlinear system is itself a dynamical system that lives in an unstable, symplectic manifold. When this system is recast in a variational context, instability is manifested as nonconvexity, the central idea being that when this nonconvexity is incorporated in a systematic

  3. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko


    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  4. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J


    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  5. Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 Ontario (Canada)


    A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration.

  6. Absorption of americium compounds in the respiratory tract. (United States)

    Blanchardon, Eric; Davesne, Estelle; Paquet, François; Bailey, Michael


    To improve the dosimetry of incorporated americium (Am) and to contribute to radiation protection by characterizing the absorption kinetics of inhaled Am compounds. In vitro dissolution tests, animal experiments and human contamination cases published in the literature were reviewed. The data were analyzed with biokinetic models consistent with the current publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Material-specific dissolution parameter values with consequent assignment to absorption Types are proposed as well as representative central values for the different chemical forms of Am. The absorption of Am oxide is consistent with the moderate absorption Type M while Am nitrate appears more soluble. Am associated with plutonium oxide usually follows its slow absorption Type S. However, the large variability observed stresses the value of investigating the specific absorption kinetics for Am compounds which represent a significant risk of internal exposure.

  7. Engineered nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Torner, L.


    We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear...... discrete equation. The proposed structure therefore provides an experimental setting for exploring discrete effects in a controlled manner. In particular, we show propagation of breathers that are eventually trapped by discreteness. When the stripes are wide the beams evolve in a structure we term...

  8. Tunable nonlinear graphene metasurfaces (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria A.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.


    We introduce an important approach for enhancing the nonlinear response of graphene through its resonant coupling to a plasmonic metasurface via cascaded Fano resonances. Such a hybrid metasurface supports two types of subradiant resonant modes, i.e., asymmetric modes of structured metamaterial elements ("metamolecules") and graphene plasmons exhibiting strong mutual coupling and avoided dispersion crossing. We demonstrate that the tunability of graphene plasmons facilitates the strong interaction between the subradiant modes, modifying the spectral position and lifetime of the Fano resonances. We reveal that a strong resonant interaction, combined with the subwavelength localization of plasmons, leads to an enhanced nonlinear response and high efficiency of the second-harmonic generation.

  9. Fully nonlinear elliptic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarelli, Luis A


    The goal of the book is to extend classical regularity theorems for solutions of linear elliptic partial differential equations to the context of fully nonlinear elliptic equations. This class of equations often arises in control theory, optimization, and other applications. The authors give a detailed presentation of all the necessary techniques. Instead of treating these techniques in their greatest generality, they outline the key ideas and prove the results needed for developing the subsequent theory. Topics discussed in the book include the theory of viscosity solutions for nonlinear equa

  10. Oscillations in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hale, Jack K


    By focusing on ordinary differential equations that contain a small parameter, this concise graduate-level introduction to the theory of nonlinear oscillations provides a unified approach to obtaining periodic solutions to nonautonomous and autonomous differential equations. It also indicates key relationships with other related procedures and probes the consequences of the methods of averaging and integral manifolds.Part I of the text features introductory material, including discussions of matrices, linear systems of differential equations, and stability of solutions of nonlinear systems. Pa

  11. Tunable Broadband Nonlinear Optical Properties of Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots for Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fang Jiang


    Full Text Available Broadband nonlinear optical properties from 500 to 1550 nm of ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs have been extensively investigated by using the open-aperture Z-scan technique. Our results show that BPQDs exhibit significant nonlinear absorption in the visible range, but saturable absorption in the near-infrared range under femtosecond excitation. The calculated nonlinear absorption coefficients were found to be (7.49 ± 0.23 × 10−3, (1.68 ± 0.078 × 10−3 and (0.81 ± 0.03 × 10−3 cm/GW for 500, 700 and 900 nm, respectively. Femtosecond pump-probe measurements performed on BPQDs revealed that two-photon absorption is responsible for the observed nonlinear absorption. The saturable absorption behaviors observed at 1050, 1350 and 1550 nm are due to ground-state bleaching induced by photo-excitation. Our results suggest that BPQDs have great potential in applications as broadband optical limiters in the visible range or saturable absorbers in the near-infrared range for ultrafast laser pulses. These ultrasmall BPQDs are potentially useful as broadband optical elements in ultrafast photonics devices.

  12. Periodicity of a class of nonlinear fuzzy systems with delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Jiali [Computational Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail:; Yi Zhang [Computational Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail:; Zhang Lei [Computational Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail:


    The well known Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) model gives an effective method to combine some simple local systems with their linguistic description to represent complex nonlinear dynamic systems. By using the T-S method, a class of local nonlinear systems having nice dynamic properties can be employed to represent some global complex nonlinear systems. This paper proposes to study the periodicity of a class of global nonlinear fuzzy systems with delays by using T-S method. Conditions for guaranteeing periodicity are derived. Examples are employed to illustrate the theory.

  13. Kerr nonlinearity and optical multi-stability in a four-level Y-type atomic system (United States)

    Sahrai, M.; Hamedi, H. R.; Memarzadeh, M.


    The nonlinear response to applied fields of a four-level Y-type atomic system is investigated. The effect of laser intensity and quantum interference induced by spontaneous emission on optical bistability, optical multi-stability and Kerr nonlinearity is then discussed. It is found that the threshold of the optical bistability can substantially be reduced by the quantum interference. So, an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity with reduced absorption can be achieved.

  14. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes. (United States)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua


    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Complex Nonlinearity Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G


    Complex Nonlinearity: Chaos, Phase Transitions, Topology Change and Path Integrals is a book about prediction & control of general nonlinear and chaotic dynamics of high-dimensional complex systems of various physical and non-physical nature and their underpinning geometro-topological change. The book starts with a textbook-like expose on nonlinear dynamics, attractors and chaos, both temporal and spatio-temporal, including modern techniques of chaos–control. Chapter 2 turns to the edge of chaos, in the form of phase transitions (equilibrium and non-equilibrium, oscillatory, fractal and noise-induced), as well as the related field of synergetics. While the natural stage for linear dynamics comprises of flat, Euclidean geometry (with the corresponding calculation tools from linear algebra and analysis), the natural stage for nonlinear dynamics is curved, Riemannian geometry (with the corresponding tools from nonlinear, tensor algebra and analysis). The extreme nonlinearity – chaos – corresponds to th...

  16. Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grancharova, Alexandra


    Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) has become the accepted methodology to solve complex control problems related to process industries. The main motivation behind explicit NMPC is that an explicit state feedback law avoids the need for executing a numerical optimization algorithm in real time. The benefits of an explicit solution, in addition to the efficient on-line computations, include also verifiability of the implementation and the possibility to design embedded control systems with low software and hardware complexity. This book considers the multi-parametric Nonlinear Programming (mp-NLP) approaches to explicit approximate NMPC of constrained nonlinear systems, developed by the authors, as well as their applications to various NMPC problem formulations and several case studies. The following types of nonlinear systems are considered, resulting in different NMPC problem formulations: Ø  Nonlinear systems described by first-principles models and nonlinear systems described by black-box models; �...

  17. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of organic azo dyes by using strength of nonlinearity parameter and Z-scan technique (United States)

    Motiei, H.; Jafari, A.; Naderali, R.


    In this paper, two chemically synthesized organic azo dyes, 2-(2,5-Dichloro-phenyazo)-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (i)) and 5,5-Dimethyl-2-tolylazo-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (ii)), have been studied from optical Kerr nonlinearity point of view. These materials were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Experiments were performed using a continous wave diode-pumped laser at 532 nm wavelength in three intensities of the laser beam. Nonlinear absorption (β), refractive index (n2) and third-order susceptibility (χ (3)) of dyes, were calculated. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of dyes have been calculated from two methods; 1) using theoretical fits and experimental data in the Z-scan technique, 2) using the strength of nonlinearity curves. The values of β obtained from both of the methods were approximately the same. The results demonstrated that azo dye (ii) displays better nonlinearity and has a lower two-photon absorption threshold than azo dye (i). Calculated parameter related to strength of nonlinearity for azo dye (ii) was higher than azo dye (i), It may be due to presence of methyl in azo dye (ii) instead of chlorine in azo dye (i). Furthermore, The measured values of third order susceptibility of azo dyes were from the order of 10-9 esu . These azo dyes can be suitable candidate for optical switching devices.

  18. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods......Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients...

  19. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf


    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  20. Combined forecasts from linear and nonlinear time series models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Terui (Nobuhiko); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)


    textabstractCombined forecasts from a linear and a nonlinear model are investigated for time series with possibly nonlinear characteristics. The forecasts are combined by a constant coefficient regression method as well as a time varying method. The time varying method allows for a locally

  1. Bayesian Nonlinear Assimilation of Eulerian and Lagrangian Coastal Flow Data (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Bayesian Nonlinear Assimilation of Eulerian and...Develop and apply theory, schemes and computational systems for rigorous Bayesian nonlinear assimilation of Eulerian and Lagrangian coastal flow data...of coastal ocean fields by assimilation of Eulerian and Lagrangian flow data. - Apply our DO and GMM-DO schemes, as well as their theoretical

  2. Combined Forecasts from Linear and Nonlinear Time Series Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Terui (Nobuhiko); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)


    textabstractCombined forecasts from a linear and a nonlinear model are investigated for time series with possibly nonlinear characteristics. The forecasts are combined by a constant coefficient regression method as well as a time varying method. The time varying method allows for a locally

  3. Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.


    Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's

  4. Nonlinearity and disorder: Classification and stability of nonlinear impurity modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole


    We study the effects produced by competition of two physical mechanisms of energy localization in inhomogeneous nonlinear systems. As an example, we analyze spatially localized modes supported by a nonlinear impurity in the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and describe three types...... of nonlinear impurity modes, one- and two-hump symmetric localized modes and asymmetric localized modes, for both focusing and defocusing nonlinearity and two different (attractive or repulsive) types of impurity. We obtain an analytical stability criterion for the nonlinear localized modes and consider...... the case of a power-law nonlinearity in detail. We discuss several scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of the nonlinear impurity modes, including the mode decay or switching to a new stable state, and collapse at the impurity site....

  5. Nonlinear elliptic systems with exponential nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said El Manouni


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of solutions for {gather*} -mathop{m div}( a(| abla u | ^N| abla u |^{N-2}u = f(x,u,v quad mbox{in } Omega -mathop{m div}(a(| abla v| ^N| abla v |^{N-2}v = g(x,u,v quad mbox{in } Omega u(x = v(x = 0 quad mbox{on }partial Omega. end{gather*} Where $Omega$ is a bounded domain in ${mathbb{R}}^N$, $Ngeq 2$, $f$ and $g$ are nonlinearities having an exponential growth on $Omega$ and $a$ is a continuous function satisfying some conditions which ensure the existence of solutions.

  6. Nonlinear silicon photonics (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.


    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  7. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)


    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  8. Nonlinear Regression with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ritz, Christian; Parmigiani, Giovanni


    R is a rapidly evolving lingua franca of graphical display and statistical analysis of experiments from the applied sciences. This book provides a coherent treatment of nonlinear regression with R by means of examples from a diversity of applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine and toxicology.

  9. Nonlinearities in Microwave Superconductivity


    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.


    The research is focused on the modeling of nonlinear properties of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films, using Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Lumped Element Circuit theories, with purpose to enhance microwave power handling capabilities of microwave filters and optimize design of microwave circuits in micro- and nano- electronics.

  10. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  11. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus


    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on ou...

  12. Nonlinear Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep Jesur


    and features are added such a way that it can be also used for design of nonlinear control systems to achieve desired performance. It is very simple to learn this tool. One can easily use it with preliminary knowledge of DF and PPT methods.

  13. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura


    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  14. Slowly Rotating Black Holes with Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hendi


    4 dimensions. These solutions are asymptotically AdS and their horizon has spherical topology. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the rotation parameter a as well as the nonlinearity parameter β. In the limit β→∞, the solution describes slowly rotating AdS type black holes.

  15. Time Variance of the Suspension Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde


    . This paper investigates the changes in compliance the driving signal can cause, this includes low level short duration measurements of the resonance frequency as well as high power long duration measurements of the non-linearity of the suspension. It is found that at low levels the suspension softens...

  16. Periodic Solutions for Highly Nonlinear Oscillation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadimi, M; Barari, Amin; Kaliji, H.D


    In this paper, Frequency-Amplitude Formulation is used to analyze the periodic behavior of tapered beam as well as two complex nonlinear systems. Many engineering structures, such as offshore foundations, oil platform supports, tower structures and moving arms, are modeled as tapered beams. The r...

  17. Quantum Nonlinear Optics with Polar J-Aggregates in Microcavities. (United States)

    Herrera, Felipe; Peropadre, Borja; Pachon, Leonardo A; Saikin, Semion K; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán


    We predict that an ensemble of organic dye molecules with permanent electric dipole moments embedded in a microcavity can lead to strong optical nonlinearities at the single-photon level. The strong long-range electrostatic interaction between chromophores due to their permanent dipoles introduces the desired nonlinearity of the light-matter coupling in the microcavity. We develop a semiclassical model to obtain the absorption spectra of a weak probe field under the influence of strong exciton-photon coupling with the cavity field. Using realistic parameters, we demonstrate that a cavity field with an average photon number near unity can significantly modify the absorptive and dispersive response of the medium to a weak probe field at a different frequency. Finally, we show that the system is in the regime of cavity-induced transparency with a broad transparency window for dye dimers. We illustrate our findings using pseudoisocyanine chloride (PIC) J-aggregates in currently available optical microcavities.

  18. Third-order optical nonlinearities of PVP/Pd nanohybrids (United States)

    Papagiannouli, I.; Potamianos, D.; Krasia-Christoforou, T.; Couris, S.


    Pd nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone were synthesized following mild reduction of palladium ion complexes. Their morphology and optical properties were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to confirm the existence of monodispersed, low-dimensional single nanoparticles. Furthermore, their third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated by means of the Z-scan technique, using 35 ps and 4 ns laser pulses, both in the visible (532 nm) and in the infrared (1064 nm). These results denote that the surface plasmon resonance is not significantly contributing to the nonlinear optical response of Pd nanoparticles. In contrast, a two photon absorption process was found to contribute to the observed response. The present results are discussed and compared with previous literature findings.

  19. SU-F-J-46: Feasibility of Cerenkov Emission for Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oraiqat, I; Rehemtulla, A; Lam, K; Ten Haken, R; El Naqa, I [University of Michigan, Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Clarke, R [University of Michigan, Physics Department, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Purpose: Cerenkov emission (CE) is a promising tool for online tumor microenvironment interrogation and targeting during radiotherapy. In this work, we utilize CE generated during radiotherapy as a broadband excitation source for real-time absorption spectroscopy. We demonstrate the feasibility of CE spectroscopy using a controlled experiment of materials with known emission/absorption properties. Methods: A water tank is irradiated with 20 MeV electron beam to induce Cerenkov emission. Food coloring dyes (Yellow #5, Red #40, and Blue #1), which have known emission/absorption properties were added to the water tank with increasing concentration (1 drop (0.05 mL), 2 drops, and 4 drops from a dispenser bottle). The signal is collected using a condensing lens which is coupled into a 20m optical fiber that is fed into a spectrometer that measures the emitted spectra. The resulting spectra from water/food coloring dye solutions were normalized by the reference spectrum, which is the Cerenkov spectrum of pure water, correcting for both the nonlinearity of the broadband Cerenkov emission spectrum as well as the non-uniform spectral response of the spectrometer. The emitted spectra were then converted into absorbance and their characteristics were analyzed. Results: The food coloring dye had a drastic change on the Cerenkov emission, shifting its wavelength according to its visible color. The collected spectra showed various absorbance peaks which agrees with tabulated peak positions of the dyes added within 0.3% for yellow, 1.7% for red, and 0.16% for blue. The CE peak heights proportionally increased as the dye concentration is increased. Conclusion: This work shows the potential for real-time functional spectroscopy using Cerenkov emission during radiotherapy. It was demonstrated that molecule identification as well as relative concentration can be extracted from the Cerenkov emission color shift.

  20. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.


    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  1. Advanced Research Workshop on Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Denis; Raviart, Pierre-Arnaud


    The field of nonlinear hyperbolic problems has been expanding very fast over the past few years, and has applications - actual and potential - in aerodynamics, multifluid flows, combustion, detonics amongst other. The difficulties that arise in application are of theoretical as well as numerical nature. In fact, the papers in this volume of proceedings deal to a greater extent with theoretical problems emerging in the resolution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems than with numerical methods. The volume provides an excellent up-to-date review of the current research trends in this area.

  2. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.


    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  3. Derivation of an applied nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laine, Mark Richard [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwarz, Jens [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rambo, Patrick K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  4. Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch


    Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.

  5. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach is based on high-Q optical WGM resonators made with a nonlinear crystal. Such resonators have been demonstrated to dramatically enhance nonlinear...

  6. Nonlinear spectral imaging of fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaus, H.


    Nonlinear microscopy combined with fluorescence spectroscopy is known as nonlinear spectral imaging microscopy (NLSM). This method provides simultaneously specimen morphology – distinguishing different parts in a tissue – and (auto)fluorescence spectra, thus their biochemical composition. A novel

  7. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija


    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  8. Modelling discontinuous well log signal to identify lithological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of sharp and discontinuous lithological boundaries from well log signal stemming fromheterogeneous subsurface structures assumes a special significance in geo-exploration studies. Well logdata acquired from various geological settings generally display nonstationary/nonlinear characteristicswith varying ...

  9. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of azobenzene derivatives. (United States)

    Krawczyk, P; Kaczmarek, A; Zaleśny, R; Matczyszyn, K; Bartkowiak, W; Ziółkowski, M; Cysewski, P


    The results of computations of spectroscopic parameters of lowest-lying electronic excited states of azobenezene derivatives are presented. The analysis of experimentally recorded spectra was supported by quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory. The theoretically determined resonant (two-photon absorption probabilities) and non-resonant (first-order hyperpolarisability) nonlinear optical properties are also discussed, with an eye towards the performance of recently proposed long-range corrected (LRC) schemes (LC-BLYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals).

  10. Azide-derivatized gold nanosphere "clicked" to indium and zinc phthalocyanines for improved nonlinear optical limiting (United States)

    Bankole, Owolabi M.; Nyokong, Tebello


    We report on the conjugation of azide-derivatized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to alkyne moieties of ZnPc and InPc via azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition reaction to form phthalocyanines-AuNPs (MPc-AuNPs) conjugates. The detailed structural characterizations of the composites were in good agreement with the expected results. The nonlinear absorption coefficients and other nonlinear optical limiting parameters were almost two times larger for the conjugates compared to free phthalocyanines. We established direct relationship between improved photophysical characterizations and enhanced nonlinear effects of reverse saturable absorption mechanisms favoured by excited triplet absorption of the phthalocyanines in the presence of AuNPs. The combination of InPc with AuNPs resulted in the lowest limiting intensity value of 0.06 J/cm2, hence the best performance in terms of optical limiting.

  11. Impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in delta-doped quantum rings: Electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: [Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, CP 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico); Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)


    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the donor impurity binding energy for the ground (1s-like) and the excited (2p{sub z}-like) states as well as the impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption and relative changes in the refraction index in a GaAs single quantum ring with axial n-type delta-doping. The delta-like potential along the z-direction is an approximate model analytically described using a Lorentzian function with two parameters. Additionally we consider the application of an electric field along the z-direction. It is found that the changes in the geometry of the quantum ring, the change in the 2D impurity density of the delta-like doping, and different values of the electric field lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the optical responses spectrum.

  12. Nonlinear waves in waveguides with stratification

    CERN Document Server

    Leble, Sergei B


    S.B. Leble's book deals with nonlinear waves and their propagation in metallic and dielectric waveguides and media with stratification. The underlying nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs) are derived giving also their solutions for specific situations. The reader will find new elements to the traditional approach. Various dispersion and relaxation laws for different guides are considered as well as the explicit form of projection operators, NEEs, quasi-solitons and of Darboux transforms. Special points relate to: 1. the development of a universal asymptotic method of deriving NEEs for guide propagation; 2. applications to the cases of stratified liquids, gases, solids and plasmas with various nonlinearities and dispersion laws; 3. connections between the basic problem and soliton- like solutions of the corresponding NEEs; 4. discussion of details of simple solutions in higher- order nonsingular perturbation theory.

  13. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)


    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  14. Nonlinear Squeeze Film Dampers without Centralized Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Changsheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, the bifurcation behavior of a flexible rotor supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs is analyzed numerically by means of rotor trajectories, Poincar maps, bifurcation diagrams and power spectra, based on the short bearing and cavitated film assumptions. It is shown that there also exist two different operations (i.e., socalled bistable operations in some speed regions in the rotor system supported on the nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs. In the bistable operation speed regions, the rotor system exhibits synchronous, sub-synchronous, sub-super-synchronous and almost-periodic as well as nonperiodic motions. The periodic bifurcation behaviors of the rotor system supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers without centralized springs are very complex and require further investigations.

  15. Magnetoplasmonic RF mixing and nonlinear frequency generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firby, C. J., E-mail:; Elezzabi, A. Y. [Ultrafast Optics and Nanophotonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada)


    We present the design of a magnetoplasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator facilitating radio-frequency (RF) mixing and nonlinear frequency generation. This is achieved by forming the MZI arms from long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides containing bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG). The magnetization of the Bi:YIG can be driven in the nonlinear regime by RF magnetic fields produced around adjacent transmission lines. Correspondingly, the nonlinear temporal dynamics of the transverse magnetization component are mapped onto the nonreciprocal phase shift in the MZI arms, and onto the output optical intensity signal. We show that this tunable mechanism can generate harmonics, frequency splitting, and frequency down-conversion with a single RF excitation, as well as RF mixing when driven by two RF signals. This magnetoplasmonic component can reduce the number of electrical sources required to generate distinct optical modulation frequencies and is anticipated to satisfy important applications in integrated optics.

  16. A topological introduction to nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert F


    This third edition of A Topological Introduction to Nonlinear Analysis is addressed to the mathematician or graduate student of mathematics - or even the well-prepared undergraduate - who would like, with a minimum of background and preparation, to understand some of the beautiful results at the heart of nonlinear analysis. Based on carefully-expounded ideas from several branches of topology, and illustrated by a wealth of figures that attest to the geometric nature of the exposition, the book will be of immense help in providing its readers with an understanding of the mathematics of the nonlinear phenomena that characterize our real world. For this third edition, several new chapters present the fixed point index and its applications. The exposition and mathematical content is improved throughout. This book is ideal for self-study for mathematicians and students interested in such areas of geometric and algebraic topology, functional analysis, differential equations, and applied mathematics. It is a sharply...

  17. Nonlinear streak computation using boundary region equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J A; Martel, C, E-mail:, E-mail: [Depto. de Fundamentos Matematicos, E.T.S.I Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The boundary region equations (BREs) are applied for the simulation of the nonlinear evolution of a spanwise periodic array of streaks in a flat plate boundary layer. The well-known BRE formulation is obtained from the complete Navier-Stokes equations in the high Reynolds number limit, and provides the correct asymptotic description of three-dimensional boundary layer streaks. In this paper, a fast and robust streamwise marching scheme is introduced to perform their numerical integration. Typical streak computations present in the literature correspond to linear streaks or to small-amplitude nonlinear streaks computed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) or the nonlinear parabolized stability equations (PSEs). We use the BREs to numerically compute high-amplitude streaks, a method which requires much lower computational effort than DNS and does not have the consistency and convergence problems of the PSE. It is found that the flow configuration changes substantially as the amplitude of the streaks grows and the nonlinear effects come into play. The transversal motion (in the wall normal-streamwise plane) becomes more important and strongly distorts the streamwise velocity profiles, which end up being quite different from those of the linear case. We analyze in detail the resulting flow patterns for the nonlinearly saturated streaks and compare them with available experimental results. (paper)

  18. Feedback Linearisation for Nonlinear Vibration Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiffri


    Full Text Available Feedback linearisation is a well-known technique in the controls community but has not been widely taken up in the vibrations community. It has the advantage of linearising nonlinear system models, thereby enabling the avoidance of the complicated mathematics associated with nonlinear problems. A particular and common class of problems is considered, where the nonlinearity is present in a system parameter and a formulation in terms of the usual second-order matrix differential equation is presented. The classical texts all cast the feedback linearisation problem in first-order form, requiring repeated differentiation of the output, usually presented in the Lie algebra notation. This becomes unnecessary when using second-order matrix equations of the problem class considered herein. Analysis is presented for the general multidegree of freedom system for those cases when a full set of sensors and actuators is available at every degree of freedom and when the number of sensors and actuators is fewer than the number of degrees of freedom. Adaptive feedback linearisation is used to address the problem of nonlinearity that is not known precisely. The theory is illustrated by means of a three-degree-of-freedom nonlinear aeroelastic model, with results demonstrating the effectiveness of the method in suppressing flutter.

  19. Nonlinear frequency response analysis of structural vibrations (United States)

    Weeger, Oliver; Wever, Utz; Simeon, Bernd


    In this paper we present a method for nonlinear frequency response analysis of mechanical vibrations of 3-dimensional solid structures. For computing nonlinear frequency response to periodic excitations, we employ the well-established harmonic balance method. A fundamental aspect for allowing a large-scale application of the method is model order reduction of the discretized equation of motion. Therefore we propose the utilization of a modal projection method enhanced with modal derivatives, providing second-order information. For an efficient spatial discretization of continuum mechanics nonlinear partial differential equations, including large deformations and hyperelastic material laws, we employ the concept of isogeometric analysis. Isogeometric finite element methods have already been shown to possess advantages over classical finite element discretizations in terms of higher accuracy of numerical approximations in the fields of linear vibration and static large deformation analysis. With several computational examples, we demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the modal derivative reduction method for nonlinear static computations and vibration analysis. Thus, the presented method opens a promising perspective on application of nonlinear frequency analysis to large-scale industrial problems.

  20. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.


    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based...

  1. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators (United States)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada


    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  2. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks. Part I : Genuine Nonlinearity and Discontinuous Solutions. Phoolan Prasad is with the. Department of. Mathematics, Indian. Institute of Science and has been working in the area of nonlinear waves and hyperbolic partial differential equations. He is deeply interested in.

  3. Exploring Divisibility and Summability of 'Photon' Wave Packets in Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha; Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar


    Formulations for second and higher harmonic frequency up and down conversions, as well as multi photon processes directly assume summability and divisibility of photons. Quantum mechanical (QM) interpretations are completely congruent with these assumptions. However, for linear optical phenomena (interference, diffraction, refraction, material dispersion, spectral dispersion, etc.), we have a profound dichotomy. Most optical engineers innovate and analyze all optical instruments by propagating pure classical electromagnetic (EM) fields using Maxwell s equations and gives only lip-service to the concept "indivisible light quanta". Further, irrespective of linearity or nonlinearity of the phenomena, the final results are always registered through some photo-electric or photo-chemical effects. This is mathematically well modeled by a quadratic action (energy absorption) relation. Since QM does not preclude divisibility or summability of photons in nonlinear & multi-photon effects, it cannot have any foundational reason against these same possibilities in linear optical phenomena. It implies that we must carefully revisit the fundamental roots behind all light-matter interaction processes and understand the common origin of "graininess" and "discreteness" of light energy.

  4. Nonlinear Interaction of Zero Sound with the Order Parameter Collective Modes in Superfluid HELIUM-3-BORON. (United States)

    McKenzie, Ross Hugh

    A brief overview of past experimental and theoretical investigations of the linear and nonlinear interaction of zero sound with the order parameter collective modes in superfluid ^3He-B is given before introducing the quasiclassical (QC) theory of superfluid ^3He. A new approach to calculating the linear and nonlinear response is presented. The QC propagator is calculated by expanding the low energy Dyson's equation in powers of the nonequilibrium self energy. The expression given for the expansion coefficients, involving products of pairs of equilibrium Green's functions, has a simple diagrammatic representation, and establishes a connection between the QC theory and other theoretical formalisms which have been used to investigate the collective modes. It is shown that the expansion coefficients satisfy Onsager-like relations and some identities required by gauge and galilean invariance. Consequently, this new approach to deriving dynamical equations for the collective modes is more efficient and transparent than solving the QC transport equations. This new approach is used to investigate the linear coupling of zero sound to the order parameter collective modes in weakly inhomogeneous superfluid ^3 He. It makes tractable the treatment of (nonlinear) parametric processes involving zero sound and the collective modes. It is shown that the approximate particle-hole symmetry of the ^3He Fermi liquid determines important selection rules for nonlinear acoustic processes, just as it is well known to do for linear processes. Analogues with nonlinear optics guide the derivation, solution and interpretation of the dynamical equations for a three-wave resonance between two zero sound waves and the J = 2 ^+ order parameter collective mode. It is shown that stimulated Raman scattering and two phonon absorption of zero sound by the J = 2^+ collective mode should be observable when the pump sound wave has energy density larger than about one percent of the superfluid

  5. Strain wave evolution equation for nonlinear propagation in materials with mesoscopic mechanical elements. (United States)

    Gusev, Vitalyi; Aleshin, Vladislav


    Nonlinear wave propagation in materials, where distribution function of mesoscopic mechanical elements has very different scales of variation along and normally to diagonal of Preisach-Mayergoyz space, is analyzed. An evolution equation for strain wave, which takes into account localization of element distribution near the diagonal and its slow variation along the diagonal, is proposed. The evolution equation provides opportunity to model propagation of elastic waves with strain amplitudes comparable to and even higher than characteristic scale of element localization near Preisach-Mayergoyz space diagonal. Analytical solutions of evolution equation predict nonmonotonous dependence of wave absorption on its amplitude in a particular regime. The regime of self-induced absorption for small-amplitude nonlinear waves is followed by the regime of self-induced transparency for high-amplitude waves. The developed theory might be useful in seismology, in high-pressure nonlinear acoustics, and in nonlinear acoustic diagnostics of damaged and fatigued materials.

  6. Optical nonlinearities of nanostructured VO{sub 2} thin films with low phase transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Boqing [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen Sihai, E-mail: [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Huang Zhangli; Fu Ming [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Vanadium dioxides (VO{sub 2}) thin films which change from a monoclinic semiconductor phase to a tetragonal metallic structure at the temperature of 29 Degree-Sign C have been fabricated by reactive ion beam sputtering. Micrograph of scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the grain size of VO{sub 2} crystallite ranges from 20 nm to 50 nm. Regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser pulses were applied to induce the phase transition, which was accompanying with the third-order optical nonlinearities in VO{sub 2} thin films. Open-aperture and closed-aperture measurements of Z-scan were used to study the optical absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. Nanostructured VO{sub 2} thin films exhibit two-photon absorption and a negative nonlinear index of refraction when phase transition is induced. The optical nonlinearities are due to excitation of electronic subsystem only and without involving of the structural semiconductor-to-metal phase transition.

  7. Ultrafast nonlinear optical studies of equiaxed CuNbO3 microstructures (United States)

    Priyadarshani, N.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Venugopal Rao, S.


    Diverse microstructures of monoclinic copper niobate (m-CuNbO3) were synthesized by solid-state reaction (900 °C, 3-12 h). FESEM data demonstrated that agglomerated clusters grew as an elongated grains which migrated to form web-shaped equiaxed structure and dissected to form individual equiaxed microstructure. With femtosecond laser excitation (800 nm, 150 fs), open aperture Z-scan data revealed the presence of two-photon absorption. The nonlinear refractive index (n2) toggled between positive and negative nonlinearity for different microstructures. Web-shaped equiaxed structure kindled both the nonlinear absorption (βeff = 2.0 × 10-12 m/W), nonlinear refraction (n2 = 3.16 × 10-17 m2/W) and a strong optical limiting action (onset limiting threshold of 22.24 μJ/cm2).

  8. Nonlinear H-infinity control, Hamiltonian systems and Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    CERN Document Server

    Aliyu, MDS


    A comprehensive overview of nonlinear Haeu control theory for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems, Nonlinear Haeu-Control, Hamiltonian Systems and Hamilton-Jacobi Equations covers topics as diverse as singular nonlinear Haeu-control, nonlinear Haeu -filtering, mixed H2/ Haeu-nonlinear control and filtering, nonlinear Haeu-almost-disturbance-decoupling, and algorithms for solving the ubiquitous Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equations. The link between the subject and analytical mechanics as well as the theory of partial differential equations is also elegantly summarized in a single chapter

  9. Linear and nonlinear spectroscopy from quantum master equations. (United States)

    Fetherolf, Jonathan H; Berkelbach, Timothy C


    We investigate the accuracy of the second-order time-convolutionless (TCL2) quantum master equation for the calculation of linear and nonlinear spectroscopies of multichromophore systems. We show that even for systems with non-adiabatic coupling, the TCL2 master equation predicts linear absorption spectra that are accurate over an extremely broad range of parameters and well beyond what would be expected based on the perturbative nature of the approach; non-equilibrium population dynamics calculated with TCL2 for identical parameters are significantly less accurate. For third-order (two-dimensional) spectroscopy, the importance of population dynamics and the violation of the so-called quantum regression theorem degrade the accuracy of TCL2 dynamics. To correct these failures, we combine the TCL2 approach with a classical ensemble sampling of slow microscopic bath degrees of freedom, leading to an efficient hybrid quantum-classical scheme that displays excellent accuracy over a wide range of parameters. In the spectroscopic setting, the success of such a hybrid scheme can be understood through its separate treatment of homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening. Importantly, the presented approach has the computational scaling of TCL2, with the modest addition of an embarrassingly parallel prefactor associated with ensemble sampling. The presented approach can be understood as a generalized inhomogeneous cumulant expansion technique, capable of treating multilevel systems with non-adiabatic dynamics.

  10. Analysis of nonlinear optical properties in donor-acceptor materials. (United States)

    Day, Paul N; Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A


    Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to calculate nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, including the first and second hyperpolarizabilities as well as the two-photon absorption cross-section, for the donor-acceptor molecules p-nitroaniline and dimethylamino nitrostilbene, and for respective materials attached to a gold dimer. The CAMB3LYP, B3LYP, PBE0, and PBE exchange-correlation functionals all had fair but variable performance when compared to higher-level theory and to experiment. The CAMB3LYP functional had the best performance on these compounds of the functionals tested. However, our comprehensive analysis has shown that quantitative prediction of hyperpolarizabilities is still a challenge, hampered by inadequate functionals, basis sets, and solvation models, requiring further experimental characterization. Attachment of the Au2S group to molecules already known for their relatively large NLO properties was found to further enhance the response. While our calculations show a modest enhancement for the first hyperpolarizability, the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability is predicted to be more than an order of magnitude.

  11. Non-linear behaviour of large-area avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, L M P; Monteiro, C M B; Santos, J M; Morgado, R E


    The characterisation of photodiodes used as photosensors requires a determination of the number of electron-hole pairs produced by scintillation light. One method involves comparing signals produced by X-ray absorptions occurring directly in the avalanche photodiode with the light signals. When the light is derived from light-emitting diodes in the 400-600 nm range, significant non-linear behaviour is reported. In the present work, we extend the study of the linear behaviour to large-area avalanche photodiodes, of Advanced Photonix, used as photosensors of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) scintillation light produced by argon (128 nm) and xenon (173 nm). We observed greater non-linearities in the avalanche photodiodes for the VUV scintillation light than reported previously for visible light, but considerably less than the non-linearities observed in other commercially available avalanche photodiodes.

  12. Optical switching in nonlinear photonic crystals lightly doped with nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lipson, R H [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)


    A possible switching mechanism has been investigated for nonlinear photonic crystals doped with an ensemble of non-interacting three-level nanoparticles. In this scheme, an intense pump laser field is used to change the refractive index of the nonlinear photonic crystal while a weaker probe field monitors an absorption transition in the nanoparticles. In the absence of the strong laser field the system transmits the probe field when the resonance energy of the nanoparticles lies near the edge of the photonic band gap due to strong coupling between the photonic crystal and the nanoparticles. However, upon application of an intense pump laser field the system becomes absorbing due to a band edge frequency shift that arises due to a nonlinear Kerr effect which changes the refractive index of the crystal. It is anticipated that the optical switching mechanism described in this work can be used to make new types of photonic devices.

  13. Absorption Measurements of Periodically Poled Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (PPKTP at 775 nm and 1550 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Steinlechner


    Full Text Available The efficient generation of second-harmonic light and squeezed light requires non-linear crystals that have low absorption at the fundamental and harmonic wavelengths. In this work the photo-thermal self-phase modulation technique is exploited to measure the absorption coefficient of periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP at 1,550 nm and 775 nm. Themeasurement results are (84±40 ppm/cmand (127±24 ppm/cm, respectively. We conclude that the performance of state-of-the-art frequency doubling and squeezed light generation in PPKTP is not limited by absorption.

  14. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielczarek, Jakub, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Trześniewski, Tomasz, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland)


    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  15. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Mielczarek


    Full Text Available In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity, as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains, and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  16. Propagation of nonlinear reactive contaminants in porous media (United States)

    Serrano, Sergio E.


    A study on the effect of nonlinear reactions on the space and time distribution of contaminant plumes governed by the advective-dispersive equation in porous media was conducted. Several models of nonlinear reactions were considered: the irreversible nonlinear first-order kinetic sorption model, the nonlinear Freundlich sorption isotherm model, the nonlinear Langmuir sorption isotherm model, and the reversible nonlinear kinetic sorption model. Each of these models was coupled with the advective-dispersive equation with dimensionless concentration and an approximate analytical series solutions was obtained. Comparison between linear and nonlinear plumes indicated that nonlinear reactions may have a significant effect on the shape and spatial distribution of a contaminant at a given time and in certain cases may explain quantitatively the occurrence of scaled (e.g., concentration change while preserving shape), retarded, and nonsymmetric plumes as well as the presence of back tails and sharp front ends usually observed in the field. By adopting a nonlinear model of contaminant migration a more realistic representation of contaminant propagation is possible than that obtained with a linear model.

  17. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.


    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains...

  18. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.


    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  19. Coherent source interaction, third-order nonlinear response of synthesized PEG coated magnetite nanoparticles in polyethylene glycol and its application (United States)

    Gopal, S. Veena; Chitrambalam, S.; Joe, I. Hubert


    Third-order nonlinear response of synthesized polyethylene glycol coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in a suitable solvent, polyethylene glycol has been studied. The structural characterization of the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were carried out. The linear optical property of the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles was investigated using UV-visible technique. Both closed and open aperture Z-scan techniques have been performed at 532 nm with pulse width 5 ns and repetition rate 10 Hz. It was found that polyethylene glycol coated magnetite exhibits reverse saturable absorption, with significant nonlinear absorption coefficient. Two-photon absorption intensity dependent positive nonlinear refraction coefficients indicate self focusing phenomena. Results show that higher concentration gives better nonlinear and optical limiting properties.

  20. Enhanced two-channel nonlinear imaging by a highly polarized supercontinuum light source generated from a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Bao, Hongchun; Gu, Min


    Real-time monitoring the variation of chlorophyll distributions and cellular structures in leaves during plant growth provides important information for understanding the physiological statuses of plants. Two-photon-excited autofluorescence imaging and second harmonic generation imaging of leaves can be used for monitoring the nature intrinsic fluorophores distribution and cellular structures of leaves by the use of the near-infrared region of light which has minimal light absorption by endogenous molecules and thus increases tissue penetration. However, the two-photon absorption peak of intrinsic fluorophores of a ficus benjamina leaf is 50 nm away from the second harmonic generation excitation wavelength, which cannot be effectively excited by a femtosecond laser beam with one central wavelength. This paper shows that a highly polarized supercontinuum light generated from a birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths can effectively excite two-photon autofluorescence as well as second harmonic generation signals for simultaneously monitoring intrinsic fluorophore distributions and non-centrosymmetric structures of leaves.

  1. Nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Finn


    It is generally very difficult to solve nonlinear systems, and such systems often possess chaotic solutions. In the rare event that a system is completely solvable, it is said to integrable. Such systems never have chaotic solutions. Using the Inverse Scattering Transform Method (ISTM) two......-dimensional defocusing Nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation are studied analytically and numerically. It is found that no bound states exist. When the initial condition is a dark ring on a background of finite amplitude, the ring initially shrinks until the curvature effects become dominant, forcing the ring to expand...... particular configurations of the Discrete Self-Trapping (DST) system are shown to be completely solvable. One of these systems includes the Toda lattice in a certain limit. An explicit integration is carried through for this Near-Toda lattice. The Near-Toda lattice is then generalized to include singular...

  2. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S


    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  3. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design (United States)

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Tang, Jun; Li, Jie


    This paper presents a sigmoid function based augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) for calculating the noise-less time derivative from a noisy measurement. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) compared to the existing tracking differentiators, better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the enhanced noise-filtering mechanism not only can be applied to the designed differentiator, but also can be extended for improving noise-tolerance capability of the available differentiators. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, applications on autopilot design and displacement following for nonlinear mass spring mechanical system are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed AND technique.

  4. Monte Carlo and nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Caliot, Cyril; Charon, Julien; Coustet, Christophe; Hafi, Mouna El; Eymet, Vincent; Farges, Olivier; Forest, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Galtier, Mathieu; Gautrais, Jacques; Khuong, Anaïs; Pelissier, Lionel; Piaud, Benjamin; Roger, Maxime; Terrée, Guillaume; Weitz, Sebastian


    The Monte Carlo method is widely used to numerically predict systems behaviour. However, its powerful incremental design assumes a strong premise which has severely limited application so far: the estimation process must combine linearly over dimensions. Here we show that this premise can be alleviated by projecting nonlinearities on a polynomial basis and increasing the configuration-space dimension. Considering phytoplankton growth in light-limited environments, radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, electromagnetic scattering by particles and concentrated-solar-power-plant productions, we prove the real world usability of this advance on four test-cases that were so far regarded as impracticable by Monte Carlo approaches. We also illustrate an outstanding feature of our method when applied to sharp problems with interacting particles: handling rare events is now straightforward. Overall, our extension preserves the features that made the method popular: addressing nonlinearities does not compromise o...

  5. Nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.


    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.

  6. Elastic nonlinearity imaging. (United States)

    Hall, Timothy J; Oberait, Assad A; Barbone, Paul E; Sommer, Amy M; Gokhale, Nachiket H; Goenezent, Sevan; Jiang, Jingfeng


    Previous work has demonstrated improved diagnostic performance of highly trained breast radiologists when provided with B-mode plus elastography images over B-mode images alone. In those studies we have observed that elasticity imaging can be difficult to perform if there is substantial motion of tissue out of the image plane. So we are extending our methods to 3D/4D elasticity imaging with 2D arrays. Further, we have also documented the fact that some breast tumors change contrast with increasing deformation and those observations are consistent with in vitro tissue measurements. Hence, we are investigating imaging tissue stress-strain nonlinearity. These studies will require relatively large tissue deformations (e.g., > 20%) which will induce out of plane motion further justifying 3D/4D motion tracking. To further enhance our efforts, we have begun testing the ability to perform modulus reconstructions (absolute elastic parameter) imaging of in vivo breast tissues. The reconstructions are based on high quality 2D displacement estimates from strain imaging. Piecewise linear (secant) modulus reconstructions demonstrate the changes in elasticity image contrast seen in strain images but, unlike the strain images, the contrast in the modulus images approximates the absolute modulus contrast. Nonlinear reconstructions assume a reasonable approximation to the underlying constitutive relations for the tissue and provide images of the (near) zero-strain shear modulus and a nonlinearity parameter that describes the rate of tissue stiffening with increased deformation. Limited data from clinical trials are consistent with in vitro measurements of elastic properties of tissue samples and suggest that the nonlinearity of invasive ductal carcinoma exceeds that of fibroadenoma and might be useful for improving diagnostic specificity. This work is being extended to 3D.

  7. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.


    The optical fiber based supercontinuum source has recently become a significant scientific and commercial success, with applications ranging from frequency comb production to advanced medical imaging. This one-of-a-kind book explains the theory of fiber supercontinuum broadening, describes......, provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers...

  8. Non-Linear Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Graffi, Dario


    L. Cesari: Non-linear analysis.- J.K. Hale: Oscillations in neutral functional differential equations.- M. Jean: Elements de la theorie des equations differentielles avec commandes.- J. Mawhin: Un apercu des recherches belges en theorie des equations differentielles ordinaires dans le champ reel entre 1967 et 1972.- Yu A. Mitropol'skii: Certains aspects des progres de la methode de centrage.- Th. Vogel: Quelques problemes non lineaires en physique mathematique.

  9. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis


    de Leeuw, Jan


    Two quite different forms of nonlinear principal component analysis have been proposed in the literature. The first one is associated with the names of Guttman, Burt, Hayashi, Benzécri, McDonald, De Leeuw, Hill, Nishisato. We call it multiple correspondence analysis. The second form has been discussed by Kruskal, Shepard, Roskam, Takane, Young, De Leeuw, Winsberg, Ramsay. We call it nonmetric principal component analysis. The two forms have been related and combined, both geometricall...

  10. Species differences in the dissolution and absorption of griseofulvin and albendazole, biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs, in the gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Waki, Ryoichi; Nagata, Shunji


    It is well known that large differences exist in the bioavailability of orally administered drugs between species. Dissolution is the first step in the oral absorption of solid drugs. In this study, we measured the in vivo luminal concentrations of griseofulvin (GF) and albendazole (AZ), Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drugs, and the GF fraction absorbed (Fa) in rats. Then, we compared the GF Fa in rat with that in other species reported previously to evaluate differences in drug dissolution and oral absorption. The Fa of GF has been reported to decrease from 80% to 40% with an increase in the oral dose in dogs and humans, because the rate-limiting step for absorption shifts from dissolution to solubility. However, such non-linearity was not observed in rats that were administered doses in the same ranges as those in humans, and the Fa values in rats were higher than those in dogs or humans. The in vivo luminal concentration of GF after oral administration in rats was much higher than the saturated solubility of GF in fasted-state simulated dog (FaSSIF(dog)) or human intestinal fluid (FaSSIF(human)). Furthermore, oral administration of AZ showed similar tendencies of interspecies differences in dissolution and oral absorption.

  11. Numerical investigation of MHD free convection flow of a non-Newtonian fluid past an impulsively started vertical plate in the presence of thermal diffusion and radiation absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umamaheswar


    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is carried out on an unsteady MHD free convection flow of a well-known non-Newtonian visco elastic second order Rivlin-Erickson fluid past an impulsively started semi-infinite vertical plate in the presence of homogeneous chemical reaction, thermal radiation, thermal diffusion, radiation absorption and heat absorption with constant mass flux. The presence of viscous dissipation is also considered at the plate under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field. The flow is governed by a coupled nonlinear system of partial differential equations which are solved numerically by using finite difference method. The effects of various physical parameters on the flow quantities viz. velocity, temperature, concentration, Skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are studied numerically. The results are discussed with the help of graphs. We observed that the velocity decreases with an increase in magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, and Prandtl number while it increases with an increase in Grashof number, modified Grashof number, visco-elastic parameter and Soret number. Temperature increases with an increase in radiation absorption parameter, Eckert number and visco-elastic parameter while it decreases with increasing values of radiation parameter, Prandtl number and heat absorption parameter. Concentration increases with increase in Soret number while it decreases with an increase in Schmidt number and chemical reaction parameter.

  12. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films (United States)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.


    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  13. Coherent perfect absorption mediated enhancement and optical bistability in phase conjugation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Nireekshan; Gupta, S Dutta


    We study phase conjugation in a nonlinear composite slab when the counter propagating pump waves are completely absorbed by means of coherent perfect absorption. Under the undepleted pump approximation the coupling constant and the phase conjugated reflectivity are shown to undergo a substantial increase and multivalued response. The effect can be used for efficient switching of the phase conjugated reflectivity in photonic circuits.

  14. Free-Electron Laser-Induced 2-Photon Absorption in Hg1-Xcdxte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoorn, J.; Anderegg, V. F.; Klaassen, T. O.; Wenckebach, W. T.; Bakker, R. J.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.


    The powerful output of FELIX, the recently built Rijnhuizen free-electron laser, is used for the first frequency dependent study of nonlinear optical excitation of Hg1-xCdxTe in the far-infrared spectral region. Two-photon interband absorption has been investigated as a function of power and

  15. Nonlinear damped Schrodinger equation in two space dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Saanouni


    Full Text Available In this article, we study the initial value problem for a semi-linear damped Schrodinger equation with exponential growth nonlinearity in two space dimensions. We show global well-posedness and exponential decay.

  16. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tingchao [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli [Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, Xiaodong, E-mail:, E-mail: [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Sun, Handong, E-mail:, E-mail: [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)


    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  17. Noninvasive label-free monitoring of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals in human skin using nonlinear optical microscopy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Osseiran, Sam; Wang, Hequn; Evans, Conor L.


    Over the past decade, nonlinear optical microscopy has seen a dramatic rise in its use in research settings due to its noninvasiveness, enhanced penetration depth, intrinsic optical sectioning, and the ability to probe chemical compounds with molecular specificity without exogenous contrast agents. Nonlinear optical techniques including two-photon excitation fluorescence (2PEF), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), second harmonic generation (SHG), coherent anti-Stokes and stimulated Raman scattering (CARS and SRS, respectively), as well as transient and sum frequency absorption (TA and SFA, respectively), have been widely used to explore the physiology and microanatomy of skin. Recently, these modalities have shed light on dermal processes that could not have otherwise been observed, including the spatiotemporal monitoring of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. However, a challenge quickly arises when studying such chemicals in a dermatological context: many exogenous compounds have optical signatures that can interfere with the signals that would otherwise be acquired from intact skin. For example, oily solvents exhibit strong signals when probing CH2 vibrations with CARS/SRS; chemical sun filters appear bright in 2PEF microscopy; and darkly colored compounds readily absorb light across a broad spectrum, producing strong TA/SFA signals. Thus, this discussion will first focus on the molecular contrast in skin that can be probed using the aforementioned nonlinear optical techniques. This will be followed by an overview of strategies that take advantage of the exogenous compounds' optical signatures to probe spatiotemporal dynamics while preserving endogenous information from skin.

  18. Nonlinear noise waves in soft biological tissues (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Gurbatov, S. N.; Demin, I. Yu.


    The study of intense waves in soft biological tissues is necessary both for diagnostics and therapeutic aims. Tissue represents an inherited medium with frequency-dependent dissipative properties, in which waves are described by nonlinear integro-differential equations. The equations for such waves are well known. Their group analysis has been performed, and a number of exact solutions have been found. However, statistical problems for nonlinear waves in tissues have hardly been studied. As well, for medical applications, both intense noise waves and waves with fluctuating parameters can be used. In addition, statistical solutions are simpler in structure than regular solutions; they are useful for understanding the physics of processes. Below a general approach is described for solving nonlinear statistical problems applied to the considered mathematical models of biological tissues. We have calculated the dependences of the intensities of the narrowband noise harmonics on distance. For wideband noise, we have calculated the dependence of the spectral integral intensity on distance. In all cases, wave attenuation is determined both by the specific dissipative properties of the tissue and the nonlinearity of the medium.

  19. Quantum of optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconductors. (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Bechtel, Hans A; Plis, Elena; Martin, Michael C; Krishna, Sanjay; Yablonovitch, Eli; Javey, Ali


    The optical absorption properties of free-standing InAs nanomembranes of thicknesses ranging from 3 nm to 19 nm are investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Stepwise absorption at room temperature is observed, arising from the interband transitions between the subbands of 2D InAs nanomembranes. Interestingly, the absorptance associated with each step is measured to be ∼1.6%, independent of thickness of the membranes. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretically predicted absorptance quantum, AQ = πα/nc for each set of interband transitions in a 2D semiconductor, where α is the fine structure constant and nc is an optical local field correction factor. Absorptance quantization appears to be universal in 2D systems including III-V quantum wells and graphene.

  20. Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Li


    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses on protein hydrolysates as potential promoters of iron absorption. The ability of protein hydrolysates to chelate iron is thought to be a key attribute for the promotion of iron absorption. Iron-chelatable protein hydrolysates are categorized by their absorption forms: amino acids, di- and tri-peptides and polypeptides. Their structural characteristics, including their size and amino acid sequence, as well as the presence of special amino acids, influence their iron chelation abilities and bioavailabilities. Protein hydrolysates promote iron absorption by keeping iron soluble, reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron, and promoting transport across cell membranes into the gut. We also discuss the use and relative merits of protein hydrolysates as iron supplements.

  1. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration. (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard


    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [(14)C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  2. Visualizing Nonlinear Narratives with Story Curves. (United States)

    Kim, Nam Wook; Bach, Benjamin; Im, Hyejin; Schriber, Sasha; Gross, Markus; Pfister, Hanspeter


    In this paper, we present story curves, a visualization technique for exploring and communicating nonlinear narratives in movies. A nonlinear narrative is a storytelling device that portrays events of a story out of chronological order, e.g., in reverse order or going back and forth between past and future events. Many acclaimed movies employ unique narrative patterns which in turn have inspired other movies and contributed to the broader analysis of narrative patterns in movies. However, understanding and communicating nonlinear narratives is a difficult task due to complex temporal disruptions in the order of events as well as no explicit records specifying the actual temporal order of the underlying story. Story curves visualize the nonlinear narrative of a movie by showing the order in which events are told in the movie and comparing them to their actual chronological order, resulting in possibly meandering visual patterns in the curve. We also present Story Explorer, an interactive tool that visualizes a story curve together with complementary information such as characters and settings. Story Explorer further provides a script curation interface that allows users to specify the chronological order of events in movies. We used Story Explorer to analyze 10 popular nonlinear movies and describe the spectrum of narrative patterns that we discovered, including some novel patterns not previously described in the literature. Feedback from experts highlights potential use cases in screenplay writing and analysis, education and film production. A controlled user study shows that users with no expertise are able to understand visual patterns of nonlinear narratives using story curves.

  3. Hydration shell parameters of aqueous alcohols: THz excess absorption and packing density. (United States)

    Matvejev, V; Zizi, M; Stiens, J


    Solvation in water requires minimizing the perturbations in its hydrogen bonded network. Hence solutes distort water molecular motions in a surrounding domain, forming a molecule-specific hydration shell. The properties of those hydration shells impact the structure and function of the solubilized molecules, both at the single molecule and at higher order levels. The size of the hydration shell and the picoseconds time-scale water dynamics retardation are revealed by terahertz (THz) absorption coefficient measurements. Room-temperature absorption coefficient at f = 0.28 [THz] is measured as a function of alcohol concentration in aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1,2-propanol, and 1-butanol solutions. Highly diluted alcohol measurements and enhanced overall measurement accuracy are achieved with a THz absorption measurement technique of nL-volume liquids in a capillary tube. In the absorption analysis, bulk and interfacial molecular domains of water and alcohol are considered. THz ideal and excess absorption coefficients are defined in accordance with thermodynamics mixing formulations. The parameter extraction method is developed based on a THz excess absorption model and hydrated solute molecule packing density representation. First, the hydration shell size is deduced from the hydrated solute packing densities at two specific THz excess absorption nonlinearity points: at infinite alcohol dilution (IAD) and at the THz excess absorption extremum (EAE). Consequently, interfacial water and alcohol molecular domain absorptions are deduced from the THz excess absorption model. The hydration shell sizes obtained at the THz excess absorption extremum are in excellent agreement with other reports. The hydration shells of methanol, ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol consist of 13.97, 22.94, 22.99, and 31.10 water molecules, respectively. The hydration shell water absorption is on average 0.774 ± 0.028 times the bulk water absorption. The hydration shell parameters might shed light on

  4. Compensation of self-absorption losses in luminescent solar concentrators by increasing luminophore concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumer, Zachar; van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Schropp, Ruud E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584; de Mello Donegá, Celso|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125593899


    Self-absorption in luminophores is considered a major obstacle on the way towards efficient luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). It is commonly expected that upon increasing luminophore concentration in an LSC the absorption of the luminophores increases as well and therefore self-absorption

  5. Nonlinear Properties of Soft Glass Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik

    This thesis builds around the investigation into using soft glass materials for midinfrared and THz applications. Soft glasses is a term that cov ers a wide range of chemical compositions where many are yet to be fully investigated. The work in this thesis is separated in two parts, the mid......-infrared applications and the THz applications. In the mid-infrared, it is investigated whether soft glasses are a suitable candidate for supercontinuum generation (SCG). A few commercially available fluoride fibers are tested for their zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW), a key property when determining the possibility...... of SCG in a fiber. A group of soft glasses, namely the chalcogenides, are known to display two photon absorption (TPA) which could potentially limit the SCG when this is initiated within the frequency range where this nonlinear process occur. An analytic model is presented to estimate the soliton self...

  6. Nonlinear Optical Properties and Applications of Polydiacetylene (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Paley, Mark S.; Witherow, William K.; Frazier, Donald O.


    Recently, we have demonstrated a picosecond all-optical switch, which also functions as a partial all-optical NAND logic gate using a novel polydiacetylene that is synthesized in our laboratory. The nonlinear optical properties of the polydiacetylene material are measured using the Z-scan technique. A theoretical model based on a three level system is investigated and the rate equations of the system are solved. The theoretical calculations are proven to match nicely with the experimental results. The absorption cross-sections for both the first and higher excited states are estimated. The analyses also show that the material suffers a photochemical change beyond a certain level of the laser power and its physical properties suffer radical changes. These changes are the cause for the partial NAND gate function and the switching mechanism.

  7. The expected time until absorption when absorption is not certain


    Walker, D. M.


    This paper considers continuous-time Markov chains whose state space consists of an irreducible class, , and an absorbing state which is accessible from . The purpose is to provide a way to determine the expected time to absorption conditional on such time being finite, in the case where absorption occurs with probability less than 1. The results are illustrated by applications to the general birth and death process and the linear birth, death and catastrophe process.

  8. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander


    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  9. Tuning optical and three photon absorption properties in graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol free standing films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, B., E-mail:; Hariharan, S. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Udayabhaskar, R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Advanced Ceramics and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Materials Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion 4070386 (Chile)


    We report the optical and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) free standing films. The composite polymer films were prepared in ex-situ method. The variation in optical absorption spectra and optical constants with the amount of GO loading was noteworthy from the optical absorption spectroscopic studies. Nonlinear optical studies done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses show three photon absorption like behaviour. Both steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies reveal that the GO was functioning as a pathway for the decay of fluorescence from PVA. This is attributed to the energy level modifications of GO through hydroxyl groups with PVA. Raman spectroscopy also supports the interaction between GO and PVA ions through OH radicals.

  10. Intersubband Optical Absorption Coefficients and Refractive Index Changes in a Gaussian Spherical Quantum Dot (United States)

    Ehsanfard, Najmeh; Kazerani Vahdani, Mohammad Reza


    The effects of smooth confining potential on the linear and nonlinear optical properties are investigated with Gaussian confining potential in Quantum Dots (GQDs). To this end the effective mass approximation, the compact density matrix approach, and iterative method are used to calculate linear and nonlinear Absorption Coefficient (AC) and Refractive Index (RI) change of an electron confined in GQD. The effects of confining potential and radius of GQD and also incident optical intensity have been investigated. The results show that increasing confining potential decreases the refractive index magnitude and shifts the peak values to the higher energy regions. It is also shown that the peak values of absorption coefficient increase by increasing confining potential. Both absorption coefficient and refractive index experience red shift by increasing the size of quantum dot. It is also shown that transition from step potential to Gaussian potential makes AC and RI to experience a blue shift.

  11. Non-linear excitation of quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride multiplayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Schell


    Full Text Available Two-photon absorption is an important non-linear process employed for high resolution bio-imaging and non-linear optics. In this work, we realize two-photon excitation of a quantum emitter embedded in a two-dimensional (2D material. We examine defects in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN and show that the emitters exhibit similar spectral and quantum properties under one-photon and two-photon excitation. Furthermore, our findings are important to deploy two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride for quantum non-linear photonic applications.

  12. A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Petersen, Paul Michael


    A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media is presented. Assuming a gain (or absorption) grating and a refractive index grating are generated because of the nonlinear process in a nonlinear medium, the coupled-wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave...... to the previous theory of two-wave mixing, the theory presented here is more general and the application of the theory to the photorefractive materials, Kerr media and semiconductor broad-area amplifiers are described....

  13. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.


    A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowitz......-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated....

  14. 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat


    Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate® I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 ( The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded

  15. Nonlinear Spatio-Temporal Dynamics and Chaos in Semiconductors (United States)

    Schöll, Eckehard


    Nonlinear transport phenomena are an increasingly important aspect of modern semiconductor research. This volume deals with complex nonlinear dynamics, pattern formation, and chaotic behavior in such systems. It bridges the gap between two well-established fields: the theory of dynamic systems and nonlinear charge transport in semiconductors. This unified approach helps reveal important electronic transport instabilities. The initial chapters lay a general framework for the theoretical description of nonlinear self-organized spatio-temporal patterns, such as current filaments, field domains, fronts, and analysis of their stability. Later chapters consider important model systems in detail: impact ionization induced impurity breakdown, Hall instabilities, superlattices, and low-dimensional structures. State-of-the-art results include chaos control, spatio-temporal chaos, multistability, pattern selection, activator-inhibitor kinetics, and global coupling, linking fundamental issues to electronic device applications. This book will be of great value to semiconductor physicists and nonlinear scientists alike.

  16. Nonlinear ion transport in liquid and solid electrolytes (United States)

    Roling, B.; Patro, L. N.; Burghaus, O.; Gräf, M.


    This paper describes nonlinear ion transport properties of liquid and solid electrolytes. Typically, the relation between ionic current density and electric field becomes nonlinear at electric fields above 50-100 kV/cm. We review the 1st and 2nd Wien effect found in classical strong and weak electrolyte solutions as well as the strong nonlinear ion transport effects observed for inorganic glasses and for polymer electrolytes. Furthermore, we give an overview over models describing nonlinear ion transport in electrolyte solutions, in glasses and in polymers. Recent results are presented for the nonlinear ionic conductivity of supercooled ionic liquids. We show that supercooled ionic liquids exhibit anomalous Wien effects, which are clearly distinct from the classical Wien effects. We also discuss the frequency dependence of higher-order conductivity and permittivity spectra of these liquids.

  17. International Conference on Differential Equations and Nonlinear Mechanics

    CERN Document Server


    The International Conference on Differential Equations and Nonlinear Mechanics was hosted by the University of Central Florida in Orlando from March 17-19, 1999. One of the conference days was dedicated to Professor V. Lakshmikantham in th honor of his 75 birthday. 50 well established professionals (in differential equations, nonlinear analysis, numerical analysis, and nonlinear mechanics) attended the conference from 13 countries. Twelve of the attendees delivered hour long invited talks and remaining thirty-eight presented invited forty-five minute talks. In each of these talks, the focus was on the recent developments in differential equations and nonlinear mechanics and their applications. This book consists of 29 papers based on the invited lectures, and I believe that it provides a good selection of advanced topics of current interest in differential equations and nonlinear mechanics. I am indebted to the Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Ae...

  18. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    -sensing as well as active devices for all-optical switching at low (mW) laser powers. Commercially available PCFs infiltrated with liquids also provide a versatile and compact tool for exploration of the fundamentals of nonlinear beam propagation in periodic photonic structures. To explore the full scientific...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...... of nonlinear beam reshaping occurring on a short time scale before the establishment of a steady state regime. In experiment, a 532nm laser beam can be injected into a single hole of an infiltrated PCF cladding structure, and the temporal dynamics of the nonlinear response is measured by monitoring...

  19. A new approach to nonlinear constrained Tikhonov regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi


    We present a novel approach to nonlinear constrained Tikhonov regularization from the viewpoint of optimization theory. A second-order sufficient optimality condition is suggested as a nonlinearity condition to handle the nonlinearity of the forward operator. The approach is exploited to derive convergence rate results for a priori as well as a posteriori choice rules, e.g., discrepancy principle and balancing principle, for selecting the regularization parameter. The idea is further illustrated on a general class of parameter identification problems, for which (new) source and nonlinearity conditions are derived and the structural property of the nonlinearity term is revealed. A number of examples including identifying distributed parameters in elliptic differential equations are presented. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Synthesis and nonlinear light scattering of microemulsions and nanoparticle suspensions (United States)

    Salazar-Alvarez, German; Björkman, Eva; Lopes, Cesar; Eriksson, Anders; Svensson, Sören; Muhammed, Mamoun


    Microemulsions composed of normal or inverse micellar solutions and aqueous suspensions of pristine (uncoated) or silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, mainly γ-Fe2O3, were synthesised and their optical limiting properties investigated. The microemulsions are colorless solutions with high transparency for visible wavelengths while the aqueous suspensions of iron oxide are of pale yellow colour. Optical limiting experiments performed in 2 mm cells using a f/5 optical system with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser delivering 5 ns pulses with 10 Hz repetition rate, showed clamping levels of ˜3 μJ for the suspensions of both pristine and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A strong photoinduced nonlinear light scattering was observed for the water-in-oil microemulsion and the aqueous suspensions of nanoparticles while oil-in-water microemulsions did not show a significant nonlinear effect. Measurements carried out using an integrating sphere further verified that the photoinduced nonlinear light scattering is the dominating nonlinear mechanism while the nonlinear absorption of iron oxide nanoparticles is negligible at 532 nm.

  1. Nonlinear MPC Design for Identified Nonlinear Parameter Varying (NPV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Lu


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC is proposed based on an identified nonlinear parameter varying (NPV model. Firstly, an NPV model scheme is present for process identification, which is featured by its nonlinear hybrid Hammerstein model structure and varying model parameters. The hybrid Hammerstein model combines a normalized static artificial neural network with a linear transfer function to identify general nonlinear systems at each fixed working point. Meanwhile, a model interpolating philosophy is utilized to obtain the global model across the whole operation domain. The NPV model considers both the nonlinearity of transition dynamics due to the variation of the working-point and the nonlinear mapping from the input to the output at fixed working points. Moreover, under the new NPV framework, the control action is computed via a multistep linearization method aimed for nonlinear optimization problems. In the proposed scheme, only low cost tests are needed for system identification and the controller can achieve better output performance than MPC methods based on linear parameter varying (LPV models. Numerical examples validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Keywords: Nonlinear parameter varying (NPV, Hammerstein model, nonlinear MPC.

  2. Non-linear osmosis (United States)

    Diamond, Jared M.


    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  3. Phase-sensitive Kerr nonlinearity for closed-loop quantum systems (United States)

    Hamedi, H. R.; Juzeliūnas, G.


    The third-order susceptibility is investigated in a five-level atomic system in which the laser beams couple the ground state to a four-level closed-loop system. It is found that under the condition of the multiphoton resonance, one can enhance the Kerr nonlinearity of such a medium by properly adjusting the amplitudes and phases of the applied fields. In this case, the linear and nonlinear absorption reduce considerably in a region with a positive group velocity. It is demonstrated that the third-order susceptibility is very sensitive to the relative phase of the applied fields. An analytical model is presented to elucidate such phase control of the Kerr nonlinearity. A comparison is also made between the Kerr-nonlinear indices for the five-, four-, and three-level systems. It is realized that the magnitude of the Kerr nonlinearity for the five-level system is larger than that of the three- and four-level counterparts. Finally, it is shown that effect of Doppler broadening can lead to an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity while maintaining linear and nonlinear absorption.

  4. Relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics the QED vacuum and matter in super-strong radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet K


    This revised edition of the author’s classic 2006 text offers a comprehensively updated review of the field of relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics. It explores the interaction of strong and super-strong electromagnetic/laser radiation with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and diverse types of matter – including free charged particles and antiparticles, acceleration beams, plasma and plasmous media.  The appearance of laser sources of relativistic and ultra-relativistic intensities over the last decade has stimulated investigation of a large class of processes under such super-strong radiation fields. Revisions for this second edition reflect these developments and the book includes new chapters on Bremsstrahlung and nonlinear absorption of superintense radiation in plasmas, the nonlinear interaction of relativistic atoms with intense laser radiation, nonlinear interaction of strong laser radiation with Graphene, and relativistic nonlinear phenomena in solid-plasma targets under supershort laser pul...

  5. Modulating light with light via giant nano-opto-mechanical nonlinearity of plasmonic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Ou, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Jianfa; Zheludev, Nikolay I


    From the demonstration of saturable absorption by Vavilow and Levshin in 1926, and with invention of the laser, unavailability of strongly nonlinear materials was a key obstacle for developing optical signal processing, in particular in transparent telecommunication networks. Today, most advanced photonic switching materials exploit gain dynamics and near-band and excitonic effects in semiconductors, nonlinearities in organic media with weakly-localized electrons and nonlinearities enhanced by hybridization with metamaterials. Here we report on a new type of artificial nonlinearity that is nano-opto-mechanical in nature. It was observed in an artificial metamaterial array of plasmonic meta-molecules supported by a flexible nano-membrane. Here nonlinearity is underpinned by the reversible reconfiguration of its structure induced by light. In a film of only 100 nanometres thickness we demonstrated modulation of light with light using milliwatt power telecom diode lasers.

  6. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per


    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....

  7. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello


    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  8. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E


    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  9. Nonlinear backreaction in cosmology (United States)

    Green, Stephen Roland

    This thesis, based on two papers by Green and Wald, investigates the problem of nonlinear backreaction in cosmology. We first analyze the problem in a general context by developing a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric (not necessarily a cosmological metric), but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition itself—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Next, we apply our framework to the cosmological context, specializing our background metric to be of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker form. We demonstrate that, in the case of dust matter, a cosmological constant, and vanishing spatial curvature (i.e., our universe today), Newtonian gravity alone provides a good global description of an inhomogeneous general relativistic cosmology, even when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. Namely, we find a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general

  10. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...... food-web systems, nephron pressure and flow regulation, pulsatile secretion of hormones, thermostatically controlled radiator systems, post-stall maneuvering of aircrafts, transfer electron devices for microwave generation, economic long waves, human decision making behavior, and pattern formation...

  11. Nonlinear elliptic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper we treat the question of the existence of solutions of boundary value problems for systems of nonlinear elliptic equations of the form - deltau = f (x, u, v,Ñu,Ñv, - deltav = g(x, u, v, Ñu, Ñv, in omega, We discuss several classes of such systems using both variational and topological methods. The notion of criticality takes into consideration the coupling, which plays important roles in both a priori estimates for the solutions and Palais-Smale conditions for the associated functional in the variational case.

  12. The use of machine learning and nonlinear statistical tools for ADME prediction. (United States)

    Sakiyama, Yojiro


    Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)-related failure of drug candidates is a major issue for the pharmaceutical industry today. Prediction of ADME by in silico tools has now become an inevitable paradigm to reduce cost and enhance efficiency in pharmaceutical research. Recently, machine learning as well as nonlinear statistical tools has been widely applied to predict routine ADME end points. To achieve accurate and reliable predictions, it would be a prerequisite to understand the concepts, mechanisms and limitations of these tools. Here, we have devised a small synthetic nonlinear data set to help understand the mechanism of machine learning by 2D-visualisation. We applied six new machine learning methods to four different data sets. The methods include Naive Bayes classifier, classification and regression tree, random forest, Gaussian process, support vector machine and k nearest neighbour. The results demonstrated that ensemble learning and kernel machine displayed greater accuracy of prediction than classical methods irrespective of the data set size. The importance of interaction with the engineering field is also addressed. The results described here provide insights into the mechanism of machine learning, which will enable appropriate usage in the future.

  13. A numerical study of nonlinear infrasound propagation in a windy atmosphere. (United States)

    Sabatini, R; Marsden, O; Bailly, C; Bogey, C


    Direct numerical simulations of the two-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are performed to study the acoustic field generated by an infrasonic source in a realistic atmosphere. Some of the main phenomena affecting the propagation of infrasonic waves at large distances from the source are investigated. The effects of thermal and wind-related refraction on the signals recorded at ground level are highlighted, with particular emphasis on the phase shift induced by the presence of caustics in the acoustic field. Nonlinear waveform steepening associated with harmonic generation, and period lengthening, both of which are typical of large source amplitudes, are illustrated, and the importance of thermoviscous absorption in the upper atmosphere is clearly demonstrated. The role of diffraction in the shadow zone, around caustics and at stratospheric altitudes is also pointed out. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using high-order finite-differences and a Runge-Kutta time integration method both originally developed for aeroacoustic applications, along with an adaptive shock-capturing algorithm which allows high-intensity acoustic fields to be examined. An improvement to the shock detection procedure is also proposed in order to meet the specificities of nonlinear propagation at long range. The modeling as well as the numerical results are reported in detail and discussed.

  14. Sensitive Water Probing through Nonlinear Photon Upconversion of Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Guo, Shaohong; Xie, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei


    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles have received growing attention in the development of low-background, highly sensitive and selective sensors. Here, we report a water probe based on ligand-free NaYF4:Yb/Er nanoparticles, utilizing their intrinsically nonlinear upconversion process. The water molecule sensing was realized by monitoring the upconversion emission quenching, which is mainly attributed to efficient energy transfer between upconversion nanoparticles and water molecules as well as water-absorption-induced excitation energy attenuation. The nonlinear upconversion process, together with power function relationship between upconversion emission intensity and excitation power density, offers a sensitive detection of water content down to 0.008 vol % (80 ppm) in an organic solvent. As an added benefit, we show that noncontact detection of water can be achieved just by using water attenuation effect. Moreover, these upconversion nanoparticle based recyclable probes should be particularly suitable for real-time and long-term water monitoring, due to their superior chemical and physical stability. These results could provide insights into the design of upconversion nanoparticle based sensors.

  15. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho


    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  16. Spatial location identification of structural nonlinearities from random data (United States)

    Josefsson, A.; Magnevall, M.; Ahlin, K.; Broman, G.


    With growing demands on product performance and growing complexity of engineering structures, efficient tools for analyzing their dynamic behavior are essential. Linear techniques are well developed and often utilized. However, sometimes the errors due to linearization are too large to be acceptable, making it necessary to take nonlinear effects into account. In many practical applications it is common and reasonable to assume that the nonlinearities are highly local and thus only affect a limited set of spatial coordinates. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to finding the spatial location of nonlinearities from measurement data, as this may not always be known beforehand. This information can be used to separate the underlying linear system from the nonlinear parts and create mathematical models for efficient parameter estimation and simulation. The presented approach builds on the reverse-path methodology and utilizes the coherence functions to determine the location of nonlinear elements. A systematic search with Multiple Input/Single Output models is conducted in order to find the nonlinear functions that best describe the nonlinear restoring forces. The obtained results indicate that the presented approach works well for identifying the location of local nonlinearities in structures. It is verified by simulation data from a cantilever beam model with two local nonlinearities and experimental data from a T-beam experimental set-up with a single local nonlinearity. A possible drawback is that a relatively large amount of data is needed. Advantages of the approach are that it only needs a single excitation point that response data at varying force amplitudes is not needed and that no prior information about the underlying linear system is needed.

  17. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I


    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  18. Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert


    Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.  

  19. Vibrational spectra, electronic absorption, nonlinear optical properties, evaluation of bonding, chemical reactivity and thermodynamic properties of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods. (United States)

    Singh, R N; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta


    In this work, detailed vibrational spectral analysis of ethyl 4-(1-(2-(hydrazinecarbonothioyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (EHCHEDPC) molecule has been carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy and potential energy distribution (PED). Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method, using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. The other carried outwork cover: structural, thermodynamic properties, electronic transitions, bonding, multiple interaction, chemical reactivity and hyperpolarizability analysis. The results of the calculation were applied to the simulated spectra of (EHCHEDPC), which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The vibrational analysis shows red shift in both group, the proton donor (pyrrole N-H) and proton acceptor (C=O of ester) indicating the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been used to find electronic excitations and their nature. The results of natural bond orbital (NBOs) analysis show the charges transfer and delocalization in various intra- and intermolecular interactions. The binding energy of intermolecular multiple interactions is calculated to be 12.54 kcal mol(-1) using QTAIM calculation. The electronic descriptors analyses reveal the investigated molecule used as precursor for heterocyclic derivatives synthesis. First hyperpolarizability (β0) has been computed to evaluate non-linear optical (NLO) response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind


    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo