Probst, Tahira M; Sinclair, Robert R; Sears, Lindsay E; Gailey, Nicholas J; Black, Kristen Jennings; Cheung, Janelle H
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of county-level population health determinants in predicting individual employee reactions to economic stress. Using multilevel modeling and a population health perspective, we tested a model linking nationally representative individual-level data (N = 100,968) on exposure to economic stressors and county-level population health determinants (N = 3,026) to responses on a composite measure of individual well-being that included the facets of purpose, community, physical, and social well-being, as well as life satisfaction. Results indicate that higher income- and employment-related economic stress were significantly related to poorer well-being. Additionally, living in a county with more positive population health determinants was significantly predictive of individual well-being. Finally, the Level-1 relationship between income-related stress and well-being was significantly attenuated for individuals living in counties with more positive population health determinants. In contrast, employment-related stress had a stronger negative relationship with well-being for individuals who lived in counties with more positive population health determinants. We discuss these findings in light of conservation of resources and relative deprivation theories, as well as how they may extend the scientific foundation for evidence-based social policy and evidence-based intervention programs aimed at lessening the effects of economic stress on individual well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Newland, Lisa A.
Prevention and intervention programmes for children at risk aim to improve child well-being and resilience. They do so using both direct and indirect strategies, intervening with children but also considering broader contextual factors (such as family dynamics). Children's subjective well-being comprises five main components (physical health,…
Full Text Available The growth of personal sensors and the ability to sensorize attributes connected with the physical beings and environments are increasing. Initiatives such as Internet of Things (IoT aim to connect devices and people through communication channels in order to automate and fuel interaction. Targeted approaches can be found on the Smart Cities projects which use the IoT to gather data from people and attributes related to city management. Though good for management of new cities, well-being should as well be of principal importance. It regards users higher than infrastructure and managerial data. Taking lessons from ergonomic studies, health studies and user habits it is possible to track and monitor user daily living. Moreover, the link between user living conditions and sparse events such as illness, indispositions can be tracked to well-being data through autonomous services. Such application is detailed in the approach categorized by this article and the research presented
Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo
This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…
DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco
This article studies the link between people's subjective well-being, defined as life satisfaction, and productivity in the framework of efficiency analysis. We adopt Data Envelopment Analysis to compute productive efficiency indices using European Social Survey and AMECO data for 20 European countries. While accounting for reverse causality, we find significant efficiency gains when subjective well-being is an input to production. This supports the view that promoting subjective well-being r...
DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco
This article is about the link between people’s subjective well-being, defined as an evaluation of one’s own life, and productivity. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that subjective well-being contributes to productivity using a two step approach: first, we establish whether subjective well-being can be a candidate variable to study Total Factor Productivity; second, we assess how much subjective well-being contributes to productivity at aggregate level through efficiency gains. We adopt ...
Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter
Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.
Vanessa de Fátima Nery
Full Text Available Abstract The context of organizational change may affect the well-being, namely when this change generate unfairness perceptions on employees. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the organizational change context on the perception of organizational justice and well-being. We proposed a mediation model of perceived organizational justice between the context of organizational change and well-being. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted with 731 public employees in the energy sector. Participants answered three instruments which evaluate organizational change context, justice perception and well-being. Factorial analyses and regression analysis were performed in order to test the psychometric qualities of the scale and the mediation model, respectively. The results indicate that the relationship between context and welfare perception is mediated by justice perceptions. This study contributes to research on reactions to organizational change and its impacts on individuals, highlighting the influence of perceived justice on the affective outcomes of organizational change.
We carried out qualitative research with 61 health professionals and volunteer workers to explore their perceptions of their own and their clients' well-being in a context of political violence. We applied content analysis to identify the themes emerging from 8 focus group and 11 individual interviews. Participants were found to define the concept of well-being in terms of three key areas: security, participation, and development. Palestinian health providers see promotion of economic development and professional growth, involvement in political and social life, and resistance to the occupation as factors required to enhance well-being and quality of life for themselves and their clients.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the determinants and intercorrelations between teachers’ and pupils’ well-being and motivation in the school context. Based on self-determination theory and job demands-resources theory, we hypothesize that (a teachers’ weekly self-concordant work motivation promotes teachers’ weekly work-related well-being (i.e. work-related positive affect and work engagement, and (b that a crossover effect of teachers’ weekly work-related well-being on pupils’ weekly school-related well-being exists, while controlling for trait-level teachers’ antecedents of trait-level teachers’ work-related well-being: job demands and job resources. A quantitative weekly diary methodology is employed. Participants are primary school pupils and their teachers from six European countries.
Lennarz, Hannah K; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Finkenauer, Catrin; Granic, Isabela
Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal contexts in which jealousy arises, and different forms of social comparison. The impact of jealousy on perceptions of well-being was also explored. We used an experience sampling method during two weekends with 68 adolescents (M age = 13.94; 64.70% girls). Jealousy was common: On average, 90% of our sample experienced jealousy in 20% of the assessments. Adolescents reported more jealousy with peers than with family. Additionally, they experienced more jealousy when in online contexts than when in face-to-face peer contexts. The normative nature of jealousy, its developmental function and relation with well-being, and implications for understanding jealousy triggered in (highly social) online contexts are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of two empirical studies is the analysis of the development of subjective well-being in kindergarten and elementary school students in the context of the educational transitions (1 from kindergarten to elementary school and (2 from elementary to secondary schools in two different national school systems. Semi-structured interviews on self-esteem and dysthymic mood (i.e., low spirits, feelings of depressiveness and of dejection were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and the first three elementary school years. Measurements were repeated three times each a year apart. Samples refer to 312 German and 244 Luxembourg children enrolled in educational systems with optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school, and educational placement thereafter (Germany versus obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school (Luxembourg. Time- and age-effects point to significant discontinuities in the development of subjective well-being. There are declines of self-esteem and increases of dysthymic mood just after school enrollment (“transition shock” in the Luxembourg sample, whereas quite similar developments are observed in the last elementary school year before educational placement for secondary education in the German sample. School enrollment and educational placement for secondary education are critical life events with significant impact on children’s well-being, which varies between different school systems.
Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D
Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51 % female; 89 % Latinos, 11 % African Americans), we examined adolescents' perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth's well-being.
Kurtz, Laura E.; Algoe, Sara B.
Laughter is a pervasive human behavior that most frequently happens in a social context. However, data linking the behavior of laughter with psychological or social outcomes is exceptionally rare. Here, we draw attention to shared laughter as a useful objective marker of relationship well-being. Spontaneously-generated laughs of 71 heterosexual romantic couples were coded from a videorecorded conversation about how the couple first met. Multilevel models revealed that, while controlling for all other laughter present, the proportion of the conversation spent laughing simultaneously with the romantic partner was uniquely positively associated with global evaluations of relationship quality, closeness, and social support. Results are discussed with respect to methodological considerations and theoretical implications for relationships and behavioral research more broadly. PMID:26957946
Tay, Louis; Harter, James K
In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Yang, Chia-Chen; Liu, Dong
Mobile games such as Pokémon Go have become a major form of entertainment, and yet little is known about why people play the games and how their motives associate with well-being. Although literature on motives for playing video and online games is informative, the findings may not reflect the full spectrum of mobile gaming motives due to some unique affordances of mobile games (e.g., mobility). To catch up with the evolving gaming context, a popular mobile game, Pokémon Go, was taken as an example to explore individuals' mobile gaming motives. A Pokémon Go Motive Scale was developed. Seven motives were identified through factor analyses based on survey data from 262 Pokémon Go players (45 percent women; M age = 30.71, standard deviation = 7.77): Exercise, Fun, Escapism, Nostalgia, Friendship Maintenance, Relationship Initiation, and Achievement. Both Fun and Friendship Maintenance were positive correlates of well-being, whereas Escapism and Nostalgia were negative correlates. Relationship Initiation was associated with both better and poorer well-being. Implications of the findings are discussed.
for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...
Aléx, Lena; Lehti, Arja
Artikkel basert på intervju med eldre samiske kvinner og middeladrende Rom kvinner i Sverige. Our aim was to explore the experiences of well-being and lack of well-being among middle-aged and older women belonging to two national minority groups in Sweden. Interviews from nine older Sami women and four middle-aged Roma women were analyzed using grounded theory with the following categories identified: contributing to well-being (with the subcategories belonging to a healthy family, being s...
Shek, D T
In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.
Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265
Biggio, Gianluca; Cortese, Claudio G
Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace.
Full Text Available Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248, any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158, and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222. The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace.
Full Text Available Previous studies have linked higher emotional inertia (i.e., a stronger autoregressive slope of emotions with lower well-being. We aimed to replicate these findings, while extending upon previous research by addressing a number of unresolved issues and controlling for potential confounds. Specifically, we report results from two studies (Ns = 100 & 202 examining how emotional inertia, assessed in response to a standardized sequence of emotional stimuli in the lab, correlates with several measures of well-being. The current studies build on previous research by examining how inertia of both positive emotions (PE and negative emotions (NE are related to both positive (e.g., life satisfaction and negative (e.g., depressive symptoms indicators of well-being, while controlling for between-person differences in the mean level and variability of emotions. Our findings replicated previous research and further revealed that a NE inertia was more strongly associated with lower well-being than PE inertia; b emotional inertia correlated more consistently with negative indicators (e.g., depressive symptoms than positive indicators (e.g., life satisfaction of well-being; and c these relationships were independent of individual differences in mean level and variability of emotions. We conclude, in line with recent findings, that higher emotional inertia, particularly of NE, may indicate increased vulnerability to depression.
Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Kuppens, Peter
Previous studies have linked higher emotional inertia (i.e., a stronger autoregressive slope of emotions) with lower well-being. We aimed to replicate these findings, while extending upon previous research by addressing a number of unresolved issues and controlling for potential confounds. Specifically, we report results from two studies (Ns = 100 and 202) examining how emotional inertia, assessed in response to a standardized sequence of emotional stimuli in the lab, correlates with several measures of well-being. The current studies build on previous research by examining how inertia of both positive emotions (PE) and negative emotions (NE) relates to positive (e.g., life satisfaction) and negative (e.g., depressive symptoms) indicators of well-being, while controlling for between-person differences in the mean level and variability of emotions. Our findings replicated previous research and further revealed that (a) NE inertia was more strongly associated with lower well-being than PE inertia; (b) emotional inertia correlated more consistently with negative indicators (e.g., depressive symptoms) than positive indicators (e.g., life satisfaction) of well-being; and (c) these relationships were independent of individual differences in mean level and variability of emotions. We conclude, in line with recent findings, that higher emotional inertia, particularly of NE, may be an indicator of increased vulnerability to depression.
Shucksmith, J.; And Others
Examines parenting models and parent-child relationships from early to middle adolescence. Focuses on implications for adolescent functioning, including school integration and psychological well being. Results identify four distinct types of parenting styles characterized by different degrees of acceptance and control of young people's behavior.…
Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim
Ala-Kortesmaa, Sanna; Isotalus, Pekka
This qualitative cross-cultural study sought to contribute to the understanding of listening competence, dialogic listening, and the use of human agency in promoting well-being at work. The participant groups ("N" = 103) consisted of "n" = 76 U.S.-American and "n" = 27 Finnish attorneys. Results suggest that in order…
Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…
Lee, Kyung Hee; Boltz, Marie; Lee, Hana; Algase, Donna L
Social interaction between residents and staff is an important factor influencing sense of well-being. This study examined the relationship between staff-resident interactions and psychological well-being of persons with dementia. A total of 831 observations of 110 persons with dementia in 17 nursing homes and 6 assisted living facilities were included. Psychological well-being was measured by observed displays of positive and negative emotional expressions. Social interaction was determined by the type of social interaction (ie, verbal interaction, nonverbal interaction, and both verbal and nonverbal interactions) and the quality of interaction (ie, positive, negative, and neutral). Verbal or both verbal and nonverbal interactions showed significant relationship with positive and negative emotional expressions. Positive interaction was significantly associated with more positive emotional expression, whereas negative interaction was not. Staff-resident interactions are important to promote the psychological well-being of persons with dementia in residential care.
Lam, Jack; Fan, Wen; Moen, Phyllis
Using General Social Survey data, we examine whether any association between job insecurity and well-being is contingent on economic climate (comparing those interviewed in turbulent 2010 vs. pre-recessionary 2006), as well as income and gender. We find respondents with higher levels of job insecurity in 2010 reported lower levels of happiness compared to those similarly insecure in 2006. The positive relationship between job insecurity and days of poor mental health becomes more pronounced for those in the 3rd quartile of personal income in 2010, suggesting middle-class vulnerability during the economic downturn. Men (but not women) with higher insecurity report more days of poor mental health in both 2006 and 2010. These findings reinforce a “cycles of control” theoretical approach, given the mental health-job insecurity relationship is heightened for workers in turbulent times. PMID:25436177
Pothisiri, Wiraporn; Quashie, Nekehia T
Data from the 2011 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand examines the association between preparations for old age (financial, health, caregiving, living arrangements, and spiritual) and three measures of well-being: financial satisfaction, life satisfaction, and physical health. The study further explores the role of social stratification and the gendered nature of these relationships. The sample ( N = 10,235) is restricted to adults 60 years and above, who are retired and answered the survey independently. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that different forms of preparation are positively associated with post-retirement well-being for men and women but socioeconomic resources are positively associated with all three well-being outcomes. Furthermore, for women, there are significant negative interaction effects of income and financial preparation on life satisfaction, as well as negative interaction effects of disability and caregiver preparation on self-rated health. Implications for long-term care, socioeconomic inequality, and gender inequality in paid labor are discussed.
Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim
Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coursolle, Kathryn M; Sweeney, Megan M; Raymo, James M; Ho, Jeong-Hwa
This study investigates whether the association between retirement and emotional well-being depends on prior experience of work-family conflict. We use data from the 1993 and 2004 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to estimate linear regression models of 2 dimensions of emotional well-being-depressive symptoms and positive psychological functioning. We also use fixed effects models to investigate whether key findings persist after controlling for stable, but unobserved, characteristics of individuals. Retirement is associated with relatively fewer depressive symptoms among individuals who reported high levels of work stress interfering with family life in late midlife. We find suggestive evidence of a similar association with respect to positive psychological functioning after accounting for unobserved characteristics of individuals. Among individuals reporting high levels of family stress spillover into work life at late midlife, our results suggest that retirement tends to be associated with better emotional well-being among men than among women. Retirement may come more as a relief than as a stressor for individuals previously experiencing high levels of work demands interfering with family life. However, particularly among women, retirement may not relieve the burdens of family life stressors.
Kekäläinen, Tiia; Wilska, Terhi-Anna; Kokko, Katja
This study investigated the associations between leisure consumption and well-being in older adults (50–74 years old). To find out whether these associations are age-specific, they were compared with the associations observed among younger adults (18–49 years old). Differences between the older adults by age and life situation were also examined. This study was based on the “Finland 2014 – Consumption and Life style” survey (N = 1351), conducted among a representative sample of the Finnish ad...
Malmberg-Ceder, Kirsi; Haanpää, Maija; Korhonen, Päivi E; Kautiainen, Hannu; Soinila, Seppo
Musculoskeletal pain is a common symptom and many people even with chronic pain continue to work. The aim of our study is to analyze how musculoskeletal pain affects work well-being by comparing work engagement in employees with or without pain, and how pain-related risk of disability is associated with work engagement. In a separate analysis, we also studied, how psychosocial factors are related to work engagement. This is a cross-sectional study of Finnish female employees of the city of Pori, Finland (PORi To Aid Against Threats (PORTAAT) study). Data was collected by trained study nurses and self-administrated questionnaires. Work well-being was measured by work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) questionnaire and the burden of pain was measured by using the short version of Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ). Study population was divided into four groups: those without pain and the groups with low (I), medium (II) or high (III) ÖMPSQ score, reflecting increasing risk of long term disability due to musculoskeletal pain. The study nurse assessed psychosocial risk factors using defined core questions. We evaluated 702 female employees, 601 (86%) had suffered from musculoskeletal pain over the past 12 months, whereas 101 (14%) reported no pain at all. Pain was chronic (duration at least 3 months) in 465/601 (77%) subjects. Subjects with musculoskeletal pain were older, had higher BMI and were on sick leave more often than subjects without pain. Of the psychosocial risk factors, depression, type D personality, anxiety and hostility were significantly more common among subjects with musculoskeletal pain. Hypertension and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were significantly more frequent in the musculoskeletal pain group. Quality of sleep and working capability were significantly better among persons without pain. Average weekly working hours were slightly higher among those with musculoskeletal pain. In
Rubik, Beverly; Brooks, Audrey J; Schwartz, Gary E
To measure effects of Reiki treatments on growth of heat-shocked bacteria, and to determine the influence of healing context and practitioner well-being. Overnight cultures of Escherichia coli K12 in fresh medium were used. Culture samples were paired with controls to minimize any ordering effects. Samples were heat-shocked prior to Reiki treatment, which was performed by Reiki practitioners for up to 15 minutes, with untreated controls. Plate-count assay using an automated colony counter determined the number of viable bacteria. Fourteen Reiki practitioners each completed 3 runs (n = 42 runs) without healing context, and another 2 runs (n = 28 runs) in which they first treated a pain patient for 30 minutes (healing context). Well-being questionnaires were administered to practitioners pre-post all sessions. No overall difference was found between the Reiki and control plates in the nonhealing context. In the healing context, the Reiki treated cultures overall exhibited significantly more bacteria than controls (p bacterial cultures in the nonhealing context. Practitioner social (p bacterial cultures in the healing context. For practitioners starting with diminished well-being, control counts were likely to be higher than Reiki-treated bacterial counts. For practitioners starting with a higher level of well-being, Reiki counts were likely to be higher than control counts. Reiki improved growth of heat-shocked bacterial cultures in a healing context. The initial level of well-being of the Reiki practitioners correlates with the outcome of Reiki on bacterial culture growth and is key to the results obtained.
Rabaia, Yoke; de Jong, Joop; Abdullah, Anita; Giacaman, Rita; van de Ven, Peter
Interest in the well-being of people exposed to long-term violence and conflict has tended to focus on measurable effects of acute traumatic events, while attention to the pressures of their daily living context is relatively new. Using qualitative and quantitative data from a 2005 survey of all female family caretakers in 2 neighbouring Israeli-occupied West Bank villages (n = 820), we explored the associations of demographic, health-related and contextual factors with reported pressures and WHO-5 well-being index scores. The final model explained 17.8% of the variance with negative associations between health-related factors ("back-aches," "stomach aches" "psychological illness in the family") and family-related factors ("male head of household aggressive", "male head of household physically violent") and the WHO-5 well-being index scores. We found positive associations between socio-economic factors ("standard of living"; "number of rooms") and village-related factors ("residency in village A/B") and the WHO-5 well-being index score. Exploring the daily living context of villages A and B illuminated how the impact of historical and political events differed, even in villages that are geographically close. The paper lends support to calls for including politics and history in research on well-being in contexts of long-term violence and conflict. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.
Suh, Eunkook M
The self becomes context sensitive in service of the need to belong. When it comes to achieving personal happiness, an identity system that derives its worth and meaning excessively from its social context puts itself in a significantly disadvantageous position. This article integrates empirical findings and ideas from the self, subjective well-being, and cross-cultural literature and tries to offer insights to why East Asian cultural members report surprisingly low levels of happiness. The various cognitive, motivational, behavioral, and affective characteristics of the overly relation-oriented self are discussed as potential explanations. Implications for the study of self and culture are offered.
Lima, Julie; Caughy, Margaret; Nettles, Saundra M; O'Campo, Patricia J
This study builds upon existing research by examining whether risk indices for child psychological well-being behave in the same way in different types of neighborhoods. Specifically, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics acted to exacerbate or, alternatively, to buffer risk factors at the family and/or child level. Families with a child entering first grade in Fall 2002 were recruited from Baltimore City neighborhoods, defined as census block groups. This study included 405 children, and data came from an interview with the primary caregiver and an assessment of the first grader. The dependent variables were externalizing behavior and internalizing problems. A family risk index consisting of 13 measures, and a child risk index consisting of three measures were the main independent variables of interest. We examined the effects of these indices on child psychological well-being and behavior across two neighborhood characteristics: neighborhood potential for community involvement with children and neighborhood negative social climate. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that cumulative family risk was associated with an increase in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Perceived negative social climate moderated the effect of family risks on behavior problems such that more risk was associated with a larger increment in both externalizing behavior problems and psychological problems for children living in high versus low risk neighborhoods. These findings further emphasize the importance of considering neighborhood context in the study of child psychological well-being. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The new concept of “interpersonal pollution” and its antecedents and effects, i.e. on organizational members’ health and well-being and on organizational outcomes are investigated. Building upon this work this presentation proposes a model and tentative definition of a broader construct, i.e. “organizational pollution”, and identifies its potential antecedents and explores its impact on humans’ health and well-being and organizational outcomes. In particular our model explores the roles playe...
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany
The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…
Rathi, Neerpal; Lee, Kidong
The concept of core self-evaluations has been extensively investigated in Western and European countries, nonetheless its implications in Asian countries remains relatively unexplored. To void this gap, the current study investigated the association of core self-evaluations with worry, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being among South…
Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster
In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...
Fulmer, C Ashley; Gelfand, Michele J; Kruglanski, Arie W; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Diener, Ed; Pierro, Antonio; Higgins, E Tory
Whether one is in one's native culture or abroad, one's personality can differ markedly from the personalities of the majority, thus failing to match the "cultural norm." Our studies examined how the interaction of individual- and cultural-level personality affects people's self-esteem and well-being. We propose a person-culture match hypothesis that predicts that when a person's personality matches the prevalent personalities of other people in a culture, culture functions as an important amplifier of the positive effect of personality on self-esteem and subjective well-being at the individual level. Across two studies, using data from more than 7,000 individuals from 28 societies, multilevel random-coefficient analyses showed that when a relation between a given personality trait and well-being or self-esteem exists at the individual level, the relation is stronger in cultures characterized by high levels of that personality dimension. Results were replicated across extraversion, promotion focus, and locomotive regulatory mode. Our research has practical implications for the well-being of both cultural natives and migrants.
Maynard, Maria J; Harding, Seeromanie
In Britain and elsewhere there is ethnic variation in mental health in adulthood but less is known about adolescence. Few studies examining the role of family life in adolescent mental well-being have been based on a multi-ethnic UK sample. We explored whether family activities explain ethnic differences in mental health among adolescents in London, UK. These analyses are based on 4,349 Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi and White UK boys and girls aged 11-13, in 51 schools. Psychological well-being was measured as the total difficulties score from Goodman's strengths and difficulties questionnaire (increasing score represents increasing difficulties). Participation in family activities varied by ethnicity. Compared with the White UK group, all minority groups were more likely to visit friends and relatives and go other places as a family. Black Caribbeans and Nigerian/Ghanaians were less likely and South Asian groups more likely to eat a meal together as a family. In multivariate analyses all minority groups had better well-being scores compared to Whites, independent of family type and socio-economic status (SES). Although adjusting for family activities slightly attenuated the association for South Asians, the minority ethnic advantage in psychological well-being remained [regression coefficients for Black Caribbeans = -0.66 (95% CI = -1.13, -0.20); Nigerian/Ghanaians = -1.27 (-1.81, -0.74); Other Africans = -1.43 (-2.00, -0.86); Indians = -1.15 (-1.73, -0.58); Pakistani/Bangladeshis = -0.66 (-1.20, -0.12)]. In analyses based on the whole group, all activity variables were independent correlates of psychological well-being. Multivariate models, stratified by ethnicity, showed that family meals was associated with poorer mental health for all groups, except Black Caribbeans, independent of family type and SES. Despite ethnic patterning of the frequency of family activities, adjusting for differences in these variables did not
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.
Full Text Available The new concept of “interpersonal pollution” and its antecedents and effects, i.e. on organizational members’ health and well-being and on organizational outcomes are investigated. Building upon this work this presentation proposes a model and tentative definition of a broader construct, i.e. “organizational pollution”, and identifies its potential antecedents and explores its impact on humans’ health and well-being and organizational outcomes. In particular our model explores the roles played by leaders’ and members’ dark personalities and lack of environmental concern, by unethical leadership, by both the characteristics of the community and the organization, including the latter’s physical and ethical environment, and finally their link to organizational pollution. This new model implications for organizational and environmental psychology are discussed.
An important and recurrent attribute in resilient individuals is the value they place in relationships to others, and the quality of these relationships, and it was of interest to investigate how the concept of resilience was related to social capital. Resilience and social capital are associated with good outcomes and well-being, although individual and cultural differences exist. An essential topic in the resilience research is the prevention of maladaptation in individuals at risk. Therefo...
Frost, David M; McClelland, Sara I; Dettmann, Miranda
This study examined the impact of sexual closeness on sexual well-being. We developed a nuanced and multifaceted conceptualization of sexual closeness in the form of a constellation of ideal sexual closeness with a partner, actual sexual closeness, and the discrepancy between the two. Data were obtained from a diverse sample of N = 619 participants who took part in the Lives and Relationships Study: A longitudinal survey of men and women in relationships living in the U.S. and Canada. Increases in sexual closeness discrepancies over a period of 1 year predicted concomitant decreases in two indicators of sexual well-being: sexual satisfaction and orgasm frequency evaluations. Decreases in sexual closeness discrepancies resulted in improvement in sexual well-being. Individuals who reported no sexual closeness discrepancies and experienced no changes in sexual closeness discrepancies tended to have the highest levels of sexual well-being. Importantly, sexual closeness discrepancies were robust predictors of sexual well-being, above and beyond individuals' actual sexual closeness, general relationship closeness, and other demographic and relationship characteristics known to be associated with sexual well-being. The present findings demonstrate that how close people feel sexually to their relationship partners is part of a general constellation of factors related to relationship closeness that, only when considered together, sufficiently explain the ways in which experiences of closeness impact sexual well-being in romantic relationships.
Judith A. MacDonnell
Full Text Available This paper reports on grounded theory findings that are relevant to promoting the mental health and well-being of immigrant women in Canada. The findings illustrate how relationships among settlement factors and dynamics of empowerment had implications for “becoming resilient” as immigrant women and how various health promotion approaches enhanced their well-being. Dimensions of empowerment were embedded in the content and process of the feminist health promotion approach used in this study. Four focus groups were completed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada with 35 racialized immigrant women who represented diverse countries of origin: 25 were from Africa; others were equally represented from South Asia (5, Asia (5, and Central or South America and the Caribbean (5. Participants represented diverse languages, family dynamics, and educational backgrounds. One focus group was conducted in Somali; three were conducted in English. Constructivist grounded theory, theoretical sampling, and a critical feminist approach were chosen to be congruent with health promotion research that fostered women’s empowerment. Findings foreground women’s agency in the study process, the ways that immigrant women name and frame issues relevant to their lives, and the interplay among individual, family, community, and structural dynamics shaping their well-being. Implications for mental health promotion are discussed.
Maynard, Maria J; Harding, Seeromanie
BackgroundIn Britain and elsewhere there is ethnic variation in mental health in adulthood but less is known about adolescence. Few studies examining the role of family life in adolescent mental well-being have been based on a multi-ethnic UK sample. We explored whether family activities explain ethnic differences in mental health among adolescents in London, UK.MethodThese analyses are based on 4,349 Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi and White UK boys and girl...
Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Russell, Daniel W.; Hessling, Robert M.; Brown, P. Adama; Murry, Velma
The effects of community characteristics on well-being were examined among 709 African American women. Direct and moderating effects of neighborhood characteristics on distress were tested. Aggregate-level ratings of neighborhood cohesion and disorder were significantly related to distress, although the relation between cohesion and distress became nonsignificant when individual risk factors were statistically controlled. Aggregate-level neighborhood variables interacted significantly with individual risk and resource variables in the prediction of distress, consistent with trait-situation interaction theories (D. Magnusson & N. S. Endler, 1977). Community cohesion intensified the benefits of a positive life outlook. Community disorder intensified both the benefits of personal resources and the detrimental effects of personal risk factors. Results showed evidence of resilience among African American women. PMID:11138756
Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel
Epilepsy presents an identity of exclusion, which at multiple levels hinders the ability to engage with one's community. This article describes an exploratory, mixed methods study (N = 42) of the relationship between the social, cultural and environmental context and the experience of living with epilepsy in Cameroon. Participants were identified as 'epileptics', consequently restrictions placed on them reduced their ability to perform traditional roles, affected their social value and excluded them from their communities. Participants detail the effects of their reduced 'social value' and the challenges they face in attempts to be re-integrated as productive and functioning members of society.
Full Text Available Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105 from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.
King, Katherine; Ogle, Christin
Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105) from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.
Zacher, Hannes; Brailsford, Holly A.; Parker, Stacey L.
Organizational researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in self-regulatory strategies employees can use at work to sustain or improve their occupational well-being. A recent cross-sectional study on energy management strategies suggested that many work-related strategies (e.g.,
Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed
This study explored the importance of financial satisfaction versus postmaterialist needs for subjective well-being (SWB). Using the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether financial satisfaction and postmaterialist needs (pertaining to autonomy, social support, and respect) were universal predictors of the different components of SWB across the world, and whether their effects were moderated by national affluence. Results showed that financial satisfaction was the strongest predictor of life evaluation, whereas respect was the strongest predictor of positive feelings. Both measures predicted negative feelings to some extent. Multilevel analyses also revealed moderating effects of societal wealth. The association between financial satisfaction and SWB and that between postmaterialist needs and SWB were stronger in richer nations compared with poorer ones. This suggests that developed economies should continue to focus on both material and psychological aspects, and not disregard economic gains, as both measures are essential to well-being.
Temane, Qambeshile Michael
There is a lacuna in the field of positive psychology as far as the conceptualisation of influences of environmental contexts on psychological well-being is concerned, and there is also a lack of credible empirical findings on the dynamics of processes involved. The aim of the current study was to test various models on the possible mediating role of subjective perceptions of health, personality factors and spirituality in the dynamics of context and psychological well-being. ...
Tsai, William; Lu, Qian
Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is the inner conflict of desiring emotion expression and fearing consequence of emotion expression. Few studies to date have examined the effects of AEE within an ethnic group that prioritizes emotional self-control. The present study examined the associations between AEE and well-being (viz., quality of life and depressive symptoms) as a function of acculturation among a sample of Chinese American breast cancer survivors. Ninety-six Chinese breast cancer survivors (M age = 54.64 years old, SD = 7.98) were recruited from Southern California. Participants filled out a paper-pen questionnaire containing the Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Short Form (CESD-10). Acculturation was a statistically significant moderator of the relations between AEE and depressive symptoms, and a statistically marginally significant moderator of the relations between AEE and quality of life. Simple slopes revealed that AEE was negatively associated with quality of life (B = -.45, p acculturation, but not associated for women with low acculturation (Bs = -.15 and .04, ps > .05, for quality of life and depressive symptoms, respectively). These results suggest that less acculturated Chinese breast cancer survivors are protected by Chinese cultural values of emotional self-control and restraint, and thus do not experience the detrimental effects of AEE on their depressive symptoms and quality of life. Implications are discussed.
Imamoğlu, E Olcay; Beydoğan, Başak
The authors (a) explored the impact of individual differences in self-orientations (i.e., relatedness and individuation) of 383 Turkish public- and private-sector employees on their basic need satisfaction at work and their well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and psychological well-being); (b) considered differences in perceived autonomy- and relatedness-supportiveness of the work contexts; and (c) tested a model in which the relationship between self-orientations and well-being is partially mediated by the perceived supportiveness of the work context and the need satisfaction of employees at work, using structural equation modeling. Results suggest that self-orientations of employees predict their well-being both directly and indirectly through the mediation of perceived supportiveness and need satisfaction provided by the work context, which seem to vary according to sector type.
Sansone, Lori A.
The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529
identities ranged from 44% to 49% whilst 46% to 54% indicated the adoption of positive identities. Practical/managerial implications: This research is important as it highlights that investigations of SRI must assess both positive and negative sex role identities. Negative SRIs may have implications for critical individual and organisational outcomes. Furthermore, measures that assess both positive and negative identities may have implications for organisational processes, such as recruitment, selection and training, learning and development. Contribution/value-add: The findings of this research contribute to the South African body of literature investigating sex role identities. The present study’s finding of a high proportion of individuals endorsing negative identities has implications for future research. Future research needs to explore the relationship between both positive and negative identities and a wide variety of individual and organisational well-being indicators. Keywords: Sex role identity; positive sex role identity; negative sex role identity
Valeeva, Rania F.
In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…
Lovell, Geoff P; Gordon, James A R; Mueller, Marcus B; Mulgrew, Kate; Sharman, Rachael
We compared mothers who exercised predominantly in group settings, those who exercised predominantly in individual settings, and those who exercised equally in group and individual contexts among the following: (a) satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness); (b) self-determined exercise motivation; and (c) psychological well-being. With clear implications for mothers' exercise interventions we found that exercising either predominantly in group contexts or in mixed group and individual settings was associated with mothers having significantly higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs and self-determined exercise motivation than those exercising predominantly alone.
Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Wallhagen, Margaret I
Using the Japanese concept of ikigai, which describes a certain state of psychological well-being, this study explores how Japanese family caregivers of elderly parents with dementia pursue, maintain, or attempt to regain their psychological well-being in the face of the hardship of caregiving. Using constant comparative methodology, twenty-six Japanese women who were caring for an elderly demented parent or parent-in-law were interviewed. Based on the analysis of interview data, we define ikigai as certain life experiences and/or the positive emotion felt through those experiences that allow the caregiver to judge her life as good and meaningful, and to feel that it is worthwhile to continue living. Caregivers use various different means to pursue their ikigai depending on the context of care. The types of their pursuit of ikigai are examined in varying contexts of caregiving. Because the data suggest that ikigai experience influences how the caregivers' self-understanding changes over time, the notion of ikigai is further explored in relation to the construct of self-understanding.
McFerran, Katrina S.; Shoemark, Helen
Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts. PMID:23930986
McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen
Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.
Kiseleva Elena S.
Full Text Available The definition of the concept of relationship marketing is discussed. The notion of personal sale, which emphasizes the importance of knowing the psychology of customers, the ability to demonstrate significant competence and knowledge of modern techniques in sales by the seller is represented. The theory of marketing introduced by the concept of a "personal agent", most accurately reflects the activity of the seller in the context of relationship marketing. The necessity of the application of psychology in marketing is proved. This brief description of the four basic psychological concepts, which are the basis of the marketing strategy, is clarified by leading marketers. The three areas of application of differential psychology in marketing are suggested. The basis of the psychological techniques is represented by the typical characteristics of a person. The first point of the customer portrait is showed by the theory of spirits. The second point of psychological portrait is based on the theory of Socionics. The third point of the customer portrait refers to the theory of the types of perception of the world. Three stages of the process of building a psychological portrait of the client are proposed and described. Recommendations for dealing with clients of different psychological types are discussed. A technique of creation a psychological portrait of the client allows improving subjective well-being of customers and promotes the growth of the main indicators characterizing the effectiveness of personal sales.
Darabos, Katie; Hoyt, Michael A
Uncertainty associated with cancer can foster future-focused worry and ultimately diminish physical well-being, especially among young adult survivors. Stress perceptions might exacerbate the association of worry and physical well-being. Young adults with testicular cancer (N = 171) completed measures of physical well-being, perceived stress, and future cancer-related worry. Perceived stress and future worry were both negatively associated with physical well-being. Perceived stress moderated the relationship; more perceived stress was related to lower physical well-being in those with high worry. Interventions aimed at worry reduction might benefit from reducing global stress perceptions.
Pama, Marlous R.; Janse, Moniek; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Fleer, Joke; Ranchor, Adelita V.
OBJECTIVES: To (1) examine whether reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability is an adaptive predictor of well-being, (2) investigate intrusion, awareness, optimism, and pessimism as determinants of reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability, and
Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A.; Osborn, Peter; Butler, Jorie M.; Godri, Carine; Fortenberry, Katie T.; Barach, Ilana; Le, Hai; Wiebe, Deborah J.
This study examined whether intrafamily discrepancies in perceptions of the adolescent's competence and independence were associated with autonomy and well-being for adolescents and parents. The ways in which mothers and fathers consistently differed from their adolescent across measures of independence and competence regarding Type 1 diabetes, a…
Toplu-Demirtaş, Ezgi; Kemer, Gülşah; Pope, Amber L; Moe, Jeffry L
Research on the well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people has predominately focused on Western (-ized) societies where individualism, and not collectivism, is emphasized. In the present study, we utilized a mediator model via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness), perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others), and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) in a sample of LGB-identified individuals living in Turkey, a traditionally collectivistic culture (Hofstede, 2001). A sample of 291 LGB individuals (67 lesbian, 128 gay, and 96 bisexual) completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale, and Self-kindness, Common Humanity, and Mindfulness subscales of the Self-Compassion Scale. The results of SEM for the hypothesized mediator model revealed that self-compassion mediated the relationships between perceived social support from family and significant others and subjective well-being, explaining the 77% of the variance in subjective well-being. Implications for the literature base on LGB well-being are discussed, with a focus on the cross-cultural applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Dichter, Melissa E; Wagner, Clara; True, Gala
Women who have served in the military in the United States experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual assault (SA). The military setting presents challenges and opportunities not experienced in other employment contexts that may compound the negative impacts of IPV/SA on women's lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the intersection of women's experiences of IPV/SA and military service through analysis of women veterans' narrative accounts. We conducted in-depth face-to-face qualitative interviews with 25 women veterans receiving primary care at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We draw upon Adler and Castro's (2013) Military Occupational Mental Health Model to frame our understanding of the impact of IPV/SA as a stressor in the military cultural context and to inform efforts to prevent, and support women service members who have experienced, these forms of violence. Our findings highlight the impact of IPV/SA on women's military careers, including options for entering and leaving military service, job performance, and opportunities for advancement. Women's narratives also reveal ways in which the military context constrains their options for responding to and coping with experiences of IPV/SA. These findings have implications for prevention of, and response to, intimate partner or sexual violence experienced by women serving in the military and underscore the need for both military and civilian communities to recognize and address the negative impact of such violence on women service members before, during, and after military service.
Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia
This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health - an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The study
Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia
This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health – an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The
One of the primary functions of religion is to help people cope with stressful life events. The purpose of the current study is to see if God-mediated control beliefs perform this stress-buffering function. God-mediated control refers to the belief that people work together with God to reduce the effects of unwanted stressors in their lives. An effort is made to probe this relationship more deeply by seeing whether the stress moderating function of God-mediated control beliefs varies across levels of educational attainment. Findings from a recent nationwide survey suggest that strong God-mediated control beliefs reduce the magnitude of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms, anxiety, happiness, and hope, but only among more highly educated study participants. In contrast, God-mediated control beliefs do not appear to influence the relationship between stress and distress/well-being among study participants with lower levels of educational attainment.
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...
Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale
Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…
Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Voorpostel, Marieke
This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to
Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.
environment. In video surveillance, the behavior of humans and animals is monitored based on extremes: event is present/event is not present, objects behave normally/objects behave abnormally, action 1/action 2/action 3, etc. In nature, the motion of humans and animals is continuous with transitions from one...... action to another. The second aim of this thesis is to propose a method to monitor motion as a continuous process using common classification methods....... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...
As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.
Health and well-being at older ages: the interlinkage with family life histories, gender and national contexts: final report prepared in the context of the MAGGIE (Major Ageing and Gender Issues in Europe) research project
Dykstra, P.A.; Grundy, E.; Fokkema, C.M.; de Jong Gierveld, J.; Ploubides, G.B.; Read, S.; Tomassini, C.
Some previous studies that did examine the late-life health and well-being implications of family-related developments are limited in terms of their scope.First, detailed examination of possible gender differences is still often neglected or, especially in research on childlessness or late
Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier
A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...
Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention
King, Ronnel B; Datu, Jesus Alfonso
Student well-being has mostly been studied as an individual phenomenon with little research investigating how the well-being of one's classmates could influence a student's well-being. The aim of the current study was to examine how the aggregate well-being of students who comprise a class could predict students' subsequent well-being (Time 2 well-being) after controlling for the effects of prior well-being (Time 1 well-being) as well as key demographic variables such as gender and age. Two studies among Filipino secondary school students were conducted. In Study 1, 788 students from 21 classes participated; in Study 2, 404 students from 10 classes participated. For Study 1, questionnaires assessing students' life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect were administered twice seven months apart. For Study 2, the well-being questionnaires were administered twice, three months apart. Hierarchical linear modeling was used with level 1 (Time 1 individual well-being, gender, and age) and level 2 (class well-being) predictors. Results across the two studies provided converging lines of evidence: students who were in classes with higher levels of life satisfaction and positive affect were also more likely to have higher life satisfaction and positive affect at Time 2. The study indicated that the well-being of a student partly depends on the well-being of their classmates providing evidence for the social contagion of well-being in the classroom context. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insu...
Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa
Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…
Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan sumber student well-being pada remaja Jawa. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan penelitian kuantitatif dan didukung dengan kualitatif. Lokasi penelitian di Banyumas dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan skala student well-being dan openquesioner sumber student well-being serta panduan wawancara. Analisis data kuantitatif menggunakan deskriptif. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1 Sumber-sumber student well-being adalah dimensi hubungan sosial, kognitif, emosi dan spiritual. 2 Faktor penghambat tercapainya student well-being adalah jika ada masalah dalam dimensi sosial, kognitif, emosi, fisik dan spiritual.
Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door...... to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insufficient communication between the empirical study of well-being, and its normative/conceptual study as pursued...... in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...
Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.
In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design
L. D'Acci (Luca)
textabstractWell-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes
Ilies, R.; Pluut, Helen; Aw, S.S.Y.
In this article, we attempt to integrate the commentaries to our position paper on intra-individual models of employee well-being (EWB; Ilies, R., Aw, S. S. Y., & Pluut, H. (2015). Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here? European Journal of
Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the
Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Seinen, B.; Kompier, M.A.J.
Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. In the present study we investigated the hypotheses that (1) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being, (2) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy,
Liu, Chia-Yi; Yu, Chia-Ping
Over the past few decades, the widespread phenomenon of Internet abuse has gained attention from the public, academia, and the media. In a departure from this negative viewpoint, however, researchers and educators have devoted considerable effort in attempting to understand the influence of online communication on people's psychological well-being. This study focuses specifically on Facebook, and proposes a research model to examine the relationships among Facebook use, online social support, general social support, and psychological well-being. Our results show that using Facebook helped college students to obtain online social support, and that online social support is an extension of general social support. However, although general social support contributes to well-being, online social support appears to have little direct effect on well-being. The relationship between online social support and well-being is mediated through the factor of general social support.
In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards filling this gap. I start by giving a concise account of autism, which highlights the huge heterogeneity among autistics. I discuss some basic features of autism, ask whether there are good reasons why we would need an account of well-being specifically for autistics and what philosophical well-being research could learn from being informed by autistic experiences and phenomenology. I then investigate to what extent the capability approach gives us a helpful theory of well-being for autistics, and what looking through an autism-lens can contribute to the further development of the capabilitarian well-being. In particular, I show that some capabilities that are crucially relevant for autistics are also relevant for the lives of non-autistic people. The final part of the paper looks at an important difficulty in using the capabilitarian account of well-being for autistics, namely: should the normative focus be on achievements (functionings) or real opportunities (capabilities)? Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Guldager, J D; Andersen, P T; von Seelen, J; Leppin, A
School-based interventions for increasing physical activity among children are widespread, however there is still a lack of knowledge about how school context factors are linked to implementation quality and effectiveness of programmes. The aim of this paper is to examine teacher-perceived effectiveness of a Danish national classroom-based health programme 'Active Around Denmark' and in particular, to investigate whether perceptions vary as a function of school social context factors. After completion of the programme all teachers (N = 5.892) received an electronic questionnaire. 2.097 completed the questionnaire (response rate 36%) and 1.781 datasets could be used for analysis. The teachers were asked about their perceptions of changes in children's attitudes towards and levels of physical activity after the competition. Our results indicated that certain contextual factors, such as schools' prioritization of health promotion, teachers' support by their school principal in implementation as well as teacher's satisfaction with the school' physical environment made a significant difference in teacher-perceived effectiveness. To conclude, teacher-perceived effectiveness of the health programme does vary as a function of school social context factors.
Topp, C W; Østergaard, S D; Soendergaard, S
BACKGROUND: The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. Since its first publication in 1998, the WHO-5 has been translated into more than 30 languages and has been used in research studies...... is very high. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents. The scale has adequate validity both as a screening tool for depression and as an outcome measure in clinical trials and has been...
central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...
Ratner, Helene Gad; Gad, Christopher
The concept of well-being has become a key category of social and political imagination, cultivating new understandings of 'what it means to be a capable person' (Corsín Jiménez, 2008, 2). In 2015, the Danish Ministry of Education began conducting national, annual measurements of Danish pupils...... national objectives for pupils' well-being; 2) the Danish newspaper A4's interactive, online mapping of pupils' well-being at all Danish schools, developed from the same numbers (accessed through their juridical right to access government files) but using different calculative techniques and aimed...
Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.
multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression......A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued...
Chico Librán, Eliseo
This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; Sá, Laura; Oliveira, João T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana
Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M = 15.44, SD = 1.731). Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed. Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents' wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices. PMID:25610408
Paulo Alexandre Soares Moreira
Full Text Available Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the description of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents’ composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M=15.44, SD=1.731. Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed.Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents’ wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices.
Full Text Available Persons above age 80 comprise the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and it is estimated that one in four will need long-term care due to increased disabilities and illness. A major concern for residents, families, and providers is to ensure care that “allows the resident to maintain or attain their highest practicable physical, mental and psychosocial well-being.” The challenge is measuring a subjective concept such as well-being. The Eden Alternative is a current initiative aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being of long-term care residents. The initiative consists of providing long-term care environments that emphasize person-directed decision making and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Eden Alternative Well-Being Assessment Tool (EAWBAT. There are three assessment tools designed to measure the well-being of elders (residents, family members of residents, and employees working in the long-term care environments. The sample consisted of 237 residents, 430 employees, and 134 family members from seven Eden Alternative organizations throughout the United States. Factor analysis was completed to identify the underlying structure in these data for elders, employees, and families. Reliability statistics were computed for each scale. Reliability statistics ranged from .876 (employee assessment tool to .949 (family assessment tool, indicating the potential of the EAWBAT to measure the well-being of residents residing in long-term care environments, employees supporting them, and their family members.
Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica
In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.
Full Text Available This research aims at describing students’ well-being assessment at two private secondary schools in Sleman regency, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia. The subjects of the research were 42 secondary school students in the area. This is an evaluative research by means of quantitative approach. The data collecting technique employed a focus group discussion (FGD while the instrument used an FGD guide book based on a School Well-being Model (Konu and Rimpela, 2002. The data were analyzed quantitatively by means of thematic analysis. The research finding showed that the students’ school well-being was psychologically high at dimension of health status, but low at dimension of having, loving, and being. Another important finding is that there was a tendency of verbal, physical, as well as sexual bullying done by their classmates and teachers personally.
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
This research examines local perceptions of social well - being in two forest - dependent communities near Zahamena National Park (ZNP), Madagascar. Key informant interviews were conducted to observe how local context, including community and ecological factors, influenced perceptions of social well - being. Overall ...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin
Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...... central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......-being is an inclusive good, a good constituted by other things that are good in and for themselves. Then, I will put forward a case against Scanlon’s challenge by (1) showing that inclusiveness, when properly understood, does not lead to the conclusion Scanlon is led to and (2) showing that on at least the reading...
Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten
Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....
The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…
Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque
Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy--seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives--is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal…
van Eerde, W.; Sirois, F.M.; Pychyl, T.A.
This chapter provides an overview of the issues that are important to procrastination and well-being at work. In comparison with academic procrastination, many more issues need to be taken into consideration. These are discussed with the help of a conceptual framework that identifies characteristics
Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.; Prins, S.C.L.
In this paper, we present some of the work that is being done in the WeCare project (in the AAL programme). The project’s goal is to introduce social networking services in the lives of older people, in order to improve their well-being. Participation in social networks, both online and ‘in real
Andersen, Barbara Vad; Kraggerud, Hilde; Bruun Brockhoff, Per
an adequate level of research conducted in realistic eating contexts. In the aim to study how location and social context affected consumers’ feeling of food satisfaction and physical well-being a study was set up with, combined yoghurt with muesli products in two settings; a) in a sensory lab facility (n...... of food satisfaction. Test products were two variants of yoghurt (differing in protein content) and two variants of muesli (a berry and a nut variant) eaten as combined products. An effect of location context (lab- vs. natural context) was found for immediate post intake rating of hunger, fullness...
Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P
In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA
Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán
with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...... that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families....
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; S?, Laura; Oliveira, Jo?o T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana
Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participate...
Full Text Available The Gallup World Poll allows a look at how humanity is flourishing, based on the answers of survey respondents sampled from across the globe. Several conclusions are clear. First, how people are doing depends enormously on the society in which they live, and nations vary from doing very well to extremely poorly. In terms of subjective well-being, nations vary greatly, in both judgments of overall life and in positive and negative emotions. The best predictors of global life judgments were income and ownership of modern conveniences, whereas the best predictors of emotions were social factors such as the control of corruption and being able to count on others, and personal factors such as learning new things and being able to control one’s day. Thus, the answer to the question of whether money makes people happy must be qualified by the measure of well-being that is being used. It is proposed that systematic measures of well-being across and within nations would allow individuals, leaders, and policy makers to make better decisions.
Paavonen, E Juulia; Roine, Mira; Korhonen, Piia; Valkonen, Satu; Pennonen, Marjo; Partanen, Jukka; Lahikainen, Anja Riitta
Watching television, video and computer games, and internet constitute a significant part of children's leisure time. High media exposure, however, increases the risk of psychosocial symptoms in children, such as aggressions, difficulties of behavioral regulation and concentration. In particular, media violence is thought to be harmful for children's well-being. Although the risks associated with media exposure may at least partly reflect the accumulation of social risk factors, they also seem to have an independent role as a factor increasing the symptoms. It is likely that the adverse effects of media can be lessened by providing guidance for parents.
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper.......The first is the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) with data collected over 8 annual waves from 1994 to 2001 in 15 EU member countries. Observations are available for up to 15 countries with big differences in fertility levels, child care institutions and labour force participation for married women....... At the same time, the ECHP data contains a lot of relevant demographic and labour market background variables to be included in the econometric analyses of the SWB impact from children. The second data set is The German Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP). Like the ECHP, the GSOEP data contains many relevant...
Lucas, R E; Diener, E; Suh, E
The convergent and discriminant validities of well-being concepts were examined using multitrait-multimethod matrix analyses (D. T. Campbell & D. W. Fiske, 1959) on 3 sets of data. In Study 1, participants completed measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and optimism on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart and also obtained 3 informant ratings. In Study 2, participants completed each of the 5 measures on 2 occasions 2 years apart and collected informant reports at Time 2. In Study 3, participants completed 2 different scales for each of the 5 constructs. Analyses showed that (a) life satisfaction is discriminable from positive and negative affect, (b) positive affect is discriminable from negative affect, (c) life satisfaction is discriminable from optimism and self-esteem, and (d) optimism is separable from trait measures of negative affect.
The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…
Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita
Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an
Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita
Background : Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods : Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results : Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life
Gross domestic product has long been the chief measure of national success. But there's been a lot of talk lately about changing that, from economists and world leaders alike. GDP is under siege for three main reasons. First, it is flawed even on its own terms: It misses lots of economic activity (unpaid household work, for example) and, as a single-number representation of vast, complex systems, is inevitably skewed. Second, it fails to account for economic and environmental sustainability. And third, readily available alternative measures may reflect well-being far better, by taking into account factors such as educational achievement, health, and life expectancy. HBR's Justin Fox surveys historical and current views on how to assess national progress, from Jeremy Bentham to Robert Kennedy to Nicolas Sarkozy. He also looks at where we may be headed. The biggest success so far in the campaign to supplant or at least supplement GDP, he finds, is the UN's Human Development Index-on which the United States has never claimed the top spot.
Full Text Available Past research has revealed that relative importance a person places on extrinsic life goals as oposed to intrinsic ones is related to lower well-being. But sometimes it is more important why a goal is being pursued than the content of the goal. Materialistic aspirations will not decrease people's well-being if they help them to achieve basic financial security or some intrinsic goals. On the other hand, if social comparison or seeking power drives extrinsic orientation, these aspirations may be detrimental for well-being, since they do not satisfy satisfy our basic psychological needs. Research from Croatia and other, less rich countries suggest that extrinsic aspirations are not necessarily deterimental but may even contribute to well-being. This finding suggests that various factors can moderate the relationship between aspirations and well-being. Intrinsic life goals may probably be affordable only for people who are well off enough. The meaning of financial success in transitional and poor countries may not necesseraly be associated with purchase and consumption. On the contrary, it may bring opportunities and possibilities of self-expression and self-growth. Individualistic societies allow individuals to pursue their intrinsic goals while collectivistic cultures stress extrinsic ones. Although this extrinsic orientation may detract their well-being, the sense of individual well-being may not be as important to them as the survival of the group they belong to or so called social well-being.
Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena
In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…
José Mª Peiró
Full Text Available One of the main goals of work and organizational psychology is to promote the well-being and performance of employees. Nevertheless, the yoke of the current economic crisis tyrannizes this aim, mercilessly threating the sustainability of the well-being and performance achieved in previous decades. The decrease in one of these factors may hamper the other, resulting in a vicious circle. In this context, one of the biggest challenges faced by organizational psychologists is to reverse this trend in a virtuous cycle, where promoting high levels of well-being creates a performance improvement and vice-versa, in a “sustainable well-being-productivity synergy sustainable productivity and well-being synergy”. However, previous efforts have shown inconclusive results. We argue that the neglectfulness and lack of rigorousness of the most contemporaneous conceptualizations of well-being and job performance, as common praxis, are part of the reason for these disappointing results. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the contributions and efforts to the new reformulation of the concept of well-being and productivity. It also aims to integrate the most contemporaneous concepts of well-being and job performance, revisiting the “happy productive-worker thesis”, and using as framework Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, where the suitability and sustainability of the alternative models of “unhappy-productive worker” and “happy-unproductive worker” will be discussed.
verbalization among practitioners and thus a move towards shared understandings of what it means to fare well. Ideally, this should lead to timely pedagogical interventions to improve the lives of children who are not perceived to be thriving. In this manner, the tool addresses larger concerns around the role...... that simply ‘is’. This involves a focus on well-being as it is experienced, shaped, practiced, and recognized in everyday practices, always already embedded within wider contexts of institutional settings, social relationships and political agendas. In the discussion of perceptions and practices of well......-being, the paper will draw on the analytical concept of social technology (Jöhncke, Svendsen and Whyte, 2004) to explore the well-being assessment tool as not simply a solution to the problem of working pedagogically and systematically with well-being but also as a tool that activates particular perspectives...
Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian
Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and reference group. PMID:28192464
McNeill, Lindsey R; Bott, Rebecca C; Mastellar, Sara L; Djira, Gemechis; Carroll, Heidi K
In South Dakota, the status of equid well being is relatively unknown. This study sought to (a) gain understanding about the current perceptions of nonhuman animal well being in South Dakota, with an emphasis on horses and other equids; (b) determine the level of care equids are reportedly receiving and the perceived challenges to equine well being in South Dakota, and (c) determine if people from diverse geographical locations (east or west of the Missouri River) have similar views on the well being of equids in South Dakota. Respondents indicated the current level of equid well being in South Dakota is sufficient, but there is room for improvement. Current challenges for the equid population of South Dakota were the high annual cost of horse care, poor horsemanship, dental problems, and whether caregivers understand basic equine care. Several significant associations arose between where a respondent lives (Western or Eastern South Dakota) and their level of agreement with various statements. The results provide a benchmark to gauge well being and help give direction for future educational needs that can continue to improve equid care.
Shakya, Holly B
Previous work suggests that husbands and wives are likely to share affective states so that depression or happiness in one spouse is predictive of depression or happiness in the other. Studies that have examined spousal affect similarity, however, have been concentrated in the Western world where the meaning of marriage may be different than it is in other cultural contexts. Marriage in India, unlike that in the United States, is focused on the extended family so that love and intimacy between spouses are downplayed. This study examined affect and well-being similarity between 603 older married couples in India using pilot data from the Longitudinal Aging Study of India. We ran linear regression models to assess the relationship between the well-being states of husbands and wives using dyadic observations for four different measures: depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with daily life, social isolation, and overall life satisfaction. Across all four measures, the well-being scores of one spouse were positively and significantly associated with the well-being scores of the other. These associations did not vary by marital satisfaction, but were slightly stronger for respondents reporting poor health. Our increased understanding of social connectedness has prompted a shift from the consideration of single individuals to a broader understanding of individuals in the context of their social environments. The results of this study suggest that interventions designed to foster well-being among older adults in India might benefit from a focus on couples as a unit rather than individuals.
Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan
Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context. Practitioner Summary: Nature-based solutions are coming to the fore to address societal challenges such as well-being. As ergonomics is concerned with well-being, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the discipline. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being.
Anna M. Lomanowska
Full Text Available Engagement in intimate social interactions and relationships has an important influence on well-being. However, recent advances in Internet and mobile communication technologies have lead to a major shift in the mode of human social interactions, raising the question of how these technologies are impacting the experience of interpersonal intimacy and its relationship with well-being. Although the study of intimacy in online social interactions is still in its early stages, there is general agreement that a form of online intimacy can be experienced in this context. However, research into the relationship between online intimacy and well-being is critically limited. Our aim is to begin to address this research void by providing an operative perspective on this emerging field. After considering the characteristics of online intimacy, its multimodal components and its caveats, we present an analysis of existing evidence for the potential impact of online intimacy on well-being. We suggest that studies thus far have focused on online social interactions in a general sense, shedding little light on how the level of intimacy in these interactions may affect well-being outcomes. We then consider findings from studies of different components of intimacy in online social interactions, specifically self-disclosure and social support, to indirectly explore the potential contribution of online intimacy to health and well-being. Based on this analysis, we propose future directions for fundamental and practical research in this important new area of investigation.
Full Text Available Conventional welfare production is unsustainable. A societal emphasis on (green economic growth may therefore be superseded by an extended concept of well-being. Taking a transformative approach, science may take part in catalysing this challenging transformation of both the understanding and the level of well-being. Instead of economic growth at the expense of sustainability, we aim to cooperatively refocus on integrating economic, social and ecological perspectives into a more holistic, sustainable approach to individual and municipal well-being in Wuppertal (Germany. Therefore, the research team investigates and develops concepts of local sustainable well-being production, e.g., by employing a new indicator system and the real-world laboratory approach. What are the conditions and constraints of transforming well-being in Wuppertal and most particularly of the role of scientists in this endeavour? Answering this research question with a comparative case study approach, we have analysed our resources, processes, contexts and normativity. The results show that the role of ‘transformative scientists’ in Wuppertal faces constraints of timing and funding, as well as challenges from the different demands of science and practice. Hampered co-design interacts with role conflicts. Open-minded stakeholders are crucial for local well-being transformation, as is the awareness that urban residential districts have bottomed out. However, the normative sustainability claims of the transformative research project are not fully shared by all of its stakeholders, which is both necessary and challenging for transformative research.
Full Text Available A major focus of attention in psychology has been on the consequences and determinants of well-being. Religiosity and personality have both been shown to predict mental health and well-being, but the two predictors have not often been investigated together. In 4 studies involving 7 surveys (total N = 1,530 in various social and religious contexts, the relations among well-being, religious orientation, and personality factors were studied. Results showed that Extraversion was the single strongest correlate of higher levels of subjective and psychological well-being. Religiosity had null or weak positive relationships with well-being, and managed to explain variance in some aspects of positive functioning beyond personality factors. The null or week relationship of religiosity with well-being beyond personality was consistent across the HEXACO and the Big Five models of personality structure. It has been suggested that religion is relatively more important for eudaimonic than for hedonic way of living.
Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher
In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes-with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In 2018, the editors of the Portuguese Journal of Behavioral and Social Research (PJBSR continue to favor the publication of original articles of investigation and revision in the areas of social and behavioral sciences. The PJBSR continues to promote thinking, questioning the changes in society, their realities, and rethinking their problems, encouraging a reflection among their readers. The number 1 of the fourth volume of the PJBSR adds four original articles and one review article. Although this issue of the PJBSR addresses different contents, there is evidence of a focus on the study of positive psychological variables and their relation to human well-being, whether it is operationalized as physical or mental health, studied in the context of institutionalization or in the context of the work, evaluated at the level of the subjective perception of well-being or the level of the conception of death with dignity.
Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.
Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life after hip fracture. Identifying the meaning of a hip fracture in older people can provide a deeper understanding of what matters during rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life. Aim: To aggregate, appraise, interpret and synthesize findings from...... whole. Conclusion: The meta-synthesis provided evidence that both the sufferings and the possibilities of older people need to be addressed during rehabilitation to support experiences of well-being, independency and confidence after a hip fracture. The study contributed with evidence......Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during...
Houdmont, J; Zhou, J; Hassard, J
Research on the relationship between overtime and psychological well-being, and workers' perceptions of the factors that determine overtime, has been conducted exclusively in the Western cultural context. To examine whether existing theory and evidence can be applied to a non-Western cultural setting by investigating the constructs among a sample of office workers drawn from a Chinese branch of an international information and communication technology company. Data were collected from 130 full-time employees on overtime hours worked, psychological well-being, and four variables identified by participants as being important determinants of overtime: job demands, intrinsic motivation, anticipated rewards, and overtime work culture. T-tests and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between variables. All study participants had worked overtime in the previous 6 months period; the mean weekly overtime rate was 14.2 h. High overtime employees demonstrated significantly lower levels of psychological well-being than those who worked low levels of overtime. In combination, the four reasons for working overtime predicted approximately one-fifth of the variance in overtime hours worked, suggesting that knowledge of these variables could be used by practitioners to predict the amount of overtime in which workers are likely to engage. The findings suggest that existing theory and evidence may apply beyond the individualist cultural context. The findings might usefully inform the organization of work in collectivist cultures and the implementation of multinational operations in these cultures.
Anastasia Aleksandrovna Zmievskaya
Full Text Available The article investigates the reproductive normativity in the context of its relationship to person’s psychological well-being. The theoretical analysis allowed to formulate the definition of reproductive normativity (RN and its structural components. It’s considered the problem of relation between objective and subjective components of RN as the determinant of psychological well-being. It’s presented and justified one of the possible typologies of RN, reflecting the most common variants of modern Russians’ reproductive behavior: 1 high RN («The total normativity»; 2 medium-high RN («Family with deviant past»; 3 medium-low RN («Single parenthood»; 4 low RN («No family and children». The presence of different relations between objective and subjective components of RN in described types is empirically detected. The highest consistency of RN components is observed in groups with high and low RN, the lowest consistency is manifested among single parents. The mismatch between RN components is associated with lower psychological well-being. Single parents are at risk: they demonstrate the most negative evaluations of their life, self-awareness and self-attitude. Average- auspicious and almost identical indicators of psychological well-being were found among respondents with deviant past (medium-high RN and respondents with no family and children (low RN: psychological benefits of having family and children are eliminated by abnormal parenthood experience and by the mismatch between desired and actual implementation of family life. Thereby the «blocked» parent role is connected with the same level of psychological well-being as the improperly played parent role. The highest level of psychological well-being is expectedly found among respondents with high RN («The total normativity».
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
The word "gratitude" has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows-gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude.
Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin
The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
This chapter discusses the role of emotion expression in decision-making. To understand connections between emotion and decision it is helpful first to differentiate between emotion experience and emotion expression. Understanding how emotion expression influences decision-making is important as a practical matter. However, in contrast to emotion experience, economic research has paid little attention to the significance of emotion expression in decision-making. I review recent studies on emotion expression, paying specific attention to possible connections between emotion expression, punishment, fair economic exchange, and well-being. In contrast to emotions, which are typically difficult to control, I suggest that opportunities for emotion expression can feasibly be manipulated through appropriately designed policies. I further suggest that this approach may have the ability to positively affect well-being and economic outcomes. VALUE OF THE CHAPTER: The chapter provides new perspectives on how policy-makers can benefit by understanding the effect of emotion expression in decision-making. The chapter also suggests future research to improve our understanding of emotion expression.
MacDonald, Raymond A R
The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.
The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components. PMID:23930991
Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A
In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rutledge, Robb B; Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J
The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach-avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. Copyright © 2015 Rutledge et al.
Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.
The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach–avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. PMID:26156984
Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E
.... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...
Meulenbeek, Petrus Antonius Maria
Relapse after treatment of mental disorders is a major problem. Enhancing psychological well-being and resilience may reduce the risk of relapse in patients with mental disorders. Well-being therapy tries to address these factors. The original model of well-being therapy was developed by the Italian
Belasen, Ariel R.; Hafer, R. W.
There is ample evidence that well-being, measured in various ways for a large number of countries, is positively related to the level of general intelligence. Pesta at al. (2010a) verify this close relationship between well-being and IQ across states. There also is evidence that well-being is positively related to economic freedom across…
Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin
Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…
Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Davidson, Lucy, Ed.; Keyes, Corey L. M., Ed.; Moore, Kristin A., Ed.
This book offers a holistic examination of well-being across the life course by experts in psychology, sociology, child development, and medicine, and describes foundational strengths for well-being from infancy through adulthood. The chapters are: (1) "A Brief History of the Study of Well-Being in Children and Adults" (Kristin A. Moore…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.
Objective: This study explored whether specific dimensions of spiritual well-being (religious well-being and existential well-being) relate to reduced suicidal ideation, and whether associations persisted after controlling for religiosity and psychosocial variables associated with suicide. Participants: Participants were 457 college students who…
van Mens-Verhulst, Janneke; Woertman, Liesbeth; Radtke, Lorraine
We explored how frequently academic staff serve as role models for women undergraduate students, how this compares to the family context, and the qualities associated with potential role models in both contexts. Participants were 138 psychology students at a Dutch university. They completed a self-administered, online survey about inspirational…
Schulte, Paul; Vainio, Harri
This paper provides an overview of and perspective on the concept of well-being at work. Well-being is a term that reflects not only on one's health but satisfaction with work and life. Well-being is a summative concept that characterizes the quality of working lives, including occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects, and it may be a major determinant of productivity at the individual, enterprise and societal levels. Based on a review of the literature and a recent conference, we suggest a model linking workforce well-being, productivity, and population well-being. To appraise the validity of the model, we consider five questions: (i) is there a robust and usable definition of workplace well-being? (ii) have the variables that influence well-being been aptly described and can they be measured and used in risk assessments? (iii) what is the nature of evidence that well-being is linked to productivity? (iv) what is the state of knowledge on the effectiveness of interventions to promote workplace well-being? and (v) should interventions aimed at improving well-being at work focus on more than work-related factors?
Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective
Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne
When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being
Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.
The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…
Koch, Anette Boye
Child well-being is a major concern in Danish kindergartens, but well-being is a multi-dimensional concept that may be evaluated in a variety of ways. This article explores the well-being of kindergarten children from a methodological perspective. It presents results from a quantitative survey...... study and from a parallel qualitative interview study and discusses how the disparate findings communicate. The strategy of choosing a standard survey did not provide valuable data, but the meaning ascribed to well-being in the two approaches are compared and the article points to development...... of a future mixed methods study, in which child well-being is defined and evaluated with attention to play, social well-being, bodily skills and aesthetics....
Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a novel approach to investigating the nature of well-being and a new theory about well-being. The approach is integrative and naturalistic. It holds that a theory of well-being should account for two different classes of evidence – our commonsense judgments about well-being and the science of well-being (i.e., positive psychology. The network theory holds that a person is in the state of well-being if she instantiates a homeostatically clustered network of feelings, emotions, attitudes, behaviors, traits, and interactions with the world that tends to have a relatively high number of states that feel good, that lead to states that feel good, or that are valued by the agent or her culture.
Gatenio Gabel, Shirley; Zhang, Yiwei
In recent decades, measures of child well-being have evolved from single dimension to multidimensional measures. Multi-dimensional measures deepen and broaden our understanding of child well-being and inform us of areas of neglect. Child well-being in China today is measured through proxy measures of household need. This paper discusses the evolution of child well-being measures more generally, explores the benefits of positive indicators and multiple dimensions in formulating policy, and then reviews efforts to date by the Chinese government, researchers, and non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations to develop comprehensive multidimensional measures of child well-being in China. The domains and their potential interactions, as well as data sources and availability, are presented. The authors believe that child well-being in China would benefit from the development of a multidimensional index and that there is sufficient data to develop such an index.
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian
Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autisti...
Berlin, Martin; Fors, Filip
We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affective (emotional) well-being—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory componentof affective well-being, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reportsof both variables, including current mood-bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experie...
Shiau Wei Chan
Full Text Available Employees and financial well-being are two aspects that are closely related to each other, and have been deeply studied by researchers. Not only can financial well-being directly affect an individual, but it can also indirectly affect his/her organization as well as employer. Any level of financial employees’ well-being, either low or high, will change their job performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the level of financial well-being among manufacturing employees in Batu Pahat, as well as to test the relationships between determinants and financial well-being among manufacturing employees in Batu Pahat. In this study, seven research hypotheses were developed to examine seven determinants, including age, income, gender, education, current job position, in-come, and marital status which influence employees‘ financial well-being. In this study, 220 employees at the production level were selected randomly from a manufacturing company in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Then, a questionnaire was distributed to the employees. The data obtained were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS version 22.0. The results of this study revealed that the level of financial well-being was moderate and all of the determinants were positively related to financial well-being among the manufacturing employees. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing industry in Malaysia in order to gain insight on the correlation between financial well-being and its determinants.
As people lead longer and generally healthier lives, aspirations and expectations of health care extend to include well-being and enhanced quality of life. Several measurement scales exist to evaluate how well health care reaches these goals. However, the definitions of well-being or quality of life remain open to considerable debate, which complicates the design, validation, and subsequent choice of an appropriate measurement. This article reviews nine measures of psychological well-being, tracing their origins in alternative conceptual approaches to defining well-being. It compares their psychometric properties and suggests how they may be used. The review covers the Life Satisfaction Index, the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, single-item measures, the Philadelphia Morale scale, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Satisfaction With Life scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index, and the Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Scales range in size from a single item to 22; levels of reliability and validity range from good to excellent, although for some of the newer scales we lack information on some forms of validity. Measures exist to assess several conceptions of psychological well-being. Most instruments perform adequately for survey research, but we know less about their adequacy for use in evaluating health care interventions. There remains active debate over how adequately the questions included portray the theoretical definition of well-being on which they are based. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rajaratnam, Augustine S; Sears, Lindsay E; Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E
To evaluate changes in well-being, biometric, and productivity indicators after a well-being intervention. Biometric and self-reported outcomes were assessed among 677 retail distribution center employees before and after a 6-month well-being intervention. Despite lower well-being at baseline compared to an independent random sample of workers, program participants' well-being, productivity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol improved significantly after the intervention, whereas the decline in diastolic blood pressure was not significant. Moreover, participants' specific transition across well-being segments over the intervention period demonstrated more improvement than decline. There is evidence that programs designed to improve well-being within a workforce can be used to significantly and positively impact employee health and productivity, which should result in reduced health care costs, improved employee productivity, and increased overall profitability.
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley
Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…
Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed; Aurora, Raksha; Harter, James
Data from the Gallup World Poll highlighted the differential relations between perceived stress, well-being, and wealth at the individual- versus nation-level. At the nation level, stress was a distinct concept from negative affect (NA). It correlated positively with well-being (positive affect, life satisfaction, and domain satisfaction) and…
The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…
Li, J.; De Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.
This paper investigates the needs or criteria for sustaining well-being in crowded situations through two focus group discussions with a total of ten participants. We conclude that pursuing crowd well-being could be divided into two different cases: one is obtaining the enhancement of the current
Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.
Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…
Allahbakhshian, Maryam; Jafarpour, Mahshid; Parvizi, Soroor
Spiritual well-being is one of the fundamental concepts in chronic diseases which create meaning and purpose in life and is an important approach in promoting general health and quality of life. This study performed to determine the level of spiritual health and its dimensions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). 236 members of Iranian MS Society were volunteered to participate in a descriptive co-relational study. Spiritual well-being was evaluated by The Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) questionnaires in two religious and Existential dimensions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyse the data. The majority of patients (% 97.9) showed moderate spiritual well-being (mean score = 74.3, SD= 8.90). Although Existential well-being (mean score = 40.3, SD= 5.51) was higher than religious well- being (mean score = 33.9, SD= 4.88). A significant relationship was seen between economic status and the spiritual well-being. The results emphasize on the necessity of spiritual well-being as an effective factor on different aspects of these patients' life. This key point is useful and even necessary to be considered to design programs of care and cure for these patients in a country (like Iran) with cultural and religious beliefs. On the other hand, patients' economic status should be considered.
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane
Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…
Weiss, Laura Anne
In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people with
Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.
Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…
Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.
The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…
This chapter provides a parsimonious overview of the trends in various well-being dimensions covered in the previous chapters by constructing a composite index of well-being. It discusses the crucial problem of choosing a set of weights to calculate such a composite index. Related problems include
The primary aim of this research was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being relate to the propensity to use Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) in a sample of talented young athletes. A secondary aim was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being are related. This was a survey ...
Momtaz, Yadollah A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku A; Yahaya, Nurizan
Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders. The study included 1415 older Malays (60-100 years, 722 women), randomly selected through a multistage stratified random method from Peninsular Malaysia. WHO-Five well-being index was used to measure psychological well-being. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Using multiple regression analysis a significant model emerged (F(7, 1407) = 20.14, p ≤ 0.001), where age, sex, marital status, and household income were significant predictor variables of psychological well-being among Malay elders. However, level of education, employment status, and place of residence failed to predict psychological well-being. This study showed that the oldest old, elderly women, unmarried, and the poor elderly people are at risk for experiencing low psychological well-being. Therefore, they need special attention from family, policy makers, and those who work with elderly people.
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…
Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Westerberg, Kristina; Nordin, Maria
The main objective is to study the effects of job crafting activities of elder care and nursing home employees on their perceived well-being and quality of care in two European countries, Spain and Sweden. The Job Crafting, the General Health, and the Quality of Care questionnaires were administered to 530 employees. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results confirm the effects of job crafting on quality of care ( r = .291, p employees' well-being ( r = .201, p well-being in Spain and Sweden and with quality of care in Spain. On the contrary, in Sweden, the relationship between job crafting and well-being was not linear. Job crafting contributes significantly to employees' and residents' well-being. Management should promote job crafting to co-create meaningful and productive work. Cultural effects are proposed to explain the differences found.
Weiss, Robert S; Bass, Scott A; Heimovitz, Harley K; Oka, Masato
Japan's Silver Human Resource Center (SHRC) program provides part-time, paid employment to retirement-aged men and women. We studied 393 new program participants and examined whether part-time work influenced their well-being or "ikigai." The participants were divided into those who had worked in SHRC-provided jobs in the preceding year, and those who had not. Gender-stratified regression models were fitted to determine whether SHRC employment was associated with increased well-being. For men, actively working at a SHRC job was associated with greater well-being, compared to inactive members. And men with SHRC jobs and previous volunteering experience had the greatest increase in well-being. Women SHRC job holders did not experience increased well-being at the year's end. The study concludes that there is justification for exploring the usefulness of a similar program for American retirees who desire post-retirement part-time work.
Khanna, Surbhi; Greyson, Bruce
People who have near-death experiences often report a subsequently increased sense of spirituality and a connection with their inner self and the world around them. In this study, we examined spiritual well-being, using Paloutzian and Ellison's Spiritual Well-Being Scale, among 224 persons who had come close to death. Participants who reported having near-death experiences reported greater spiritual well-being than those who did not, and depth of spiritual well-being was positively correlated with depth of near-death experience. We discussed the implications of these findings in light of other reported aftereffects of near-death experiences and of spiritual well-being among other populations.
Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective wel...
Decramer, Adelien; Audenaert, Mieke; Van Waeyenberg, Thomas; Claeys, Tine; Claes, Claudia; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Crucke, Saskia
This article focuses on employee performance-management practices in the healthcare sector. We specifically aim to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of employee performance-management practices on affective well-being of nurses in hospitals. Theory suggests that the features of employee-performance management (planning and evaluation of individual performances) predict affective well-being (in this study: job satisfaction and affective commitment). Performance-management planning and evaluation and affective well-being were drawn from a survey of nurses at a Flemish hospital. Separate estimations were performed for different aspects of affective well-being. Performance planning has a negative effect on job satisfaction of nurses. Both vertical alignment and satisfaction with the employee performance-management system increase the affective well-being of nurses; however, the impact of vertical alignment differs for different aspects of affective well-being (i.e. job satisfaction and affective commitment). Performance-management planning and evaluation of nurses are associated with attitudinal outcomes. The results indicate that employee performance-management features have different impacts on different aspects of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Khayri, Freidoon; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza; Masoudi, Reza
Sleep disorders are considered as one of the most important problems in hemodialysis patients, making their everyday life a serious hazard. Sleep quality of hemodialysis patients and consequences of sleep disorders on other aspects of health such as spiritual well-being are important issues. This study examined the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran. This study was a correlation research, carried out on 190 hemodialysis patients. Data collection Questionnaires included demographic forms, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and Ellison and Paloutzian spiritual well-being scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis) at P spiritual health conditions. Pearson correlation test showed significant relationship between the sleep quality items of Pittsburg and spiritual well-being (P spiritual health, family, education, financial status, marital status, occupation, and use of sleep medication, the predictive power of these variables was found 0.417% and prediction of spiritual well-being was more than others (ß = 0.209). Considering bed as one of the most vital physical, mental, and emotional needs, it is very important in mental and spiritual well-being of hemodialysis patients as an influencing factor in mental relaxation and reducing disease tensions. Paying attention to sleep quality and spiritual well-being components of hemodialysis patients in formulating and promoting healthcare programs is recommended.
Varangis, Eleanna; Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom; Feldman, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to examine gay men's perceived attractiveness of male figures based on short-term and long-term partner contexts. A sample of 190 gay adult men rated the attractiveness of line-drawings depicting male figures varying systematically in muscularity and body fat percentage in both short-term and long-term dating contexts. Mixed effects modeling was used to estimate the effects of figure (muscularity and body fat), dating context (short-term vs. long-term), and individual rater characteristics on attractiveness ratings. Results indicated that figure muscularity and body-fat had significant non-linear (i.e., quadratic) relationships with attractiveness ratings, and short-term dating context was associated with more discriminating ratings of attractiveness. Interactions between individual characteristics and figure characteristics indicated that the more available the individual and lower body fat, the more discriminating they were in ratings of attractiveness. The implications for future investigations considering both object and observer characteristics of attractiveness preferences are discussed. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Corbin M.; O'Meara, KerryAnn
In a modern context of constrained resources and high demands, faculty exert agency to strategically navigate their careers (Baez 2000a; Neumann et al. 2006). Guided by the O'Meara et al. (2011) framework on agency in faculty professional lives, this study used Structural Equation Modeling to investigate which departmental factors…
Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Aldrich, Daniel; Ayres, Janet; Amberg, Shannon M.; Molloy, Alicia; Saylor, Amber; Thompson, Aaron
Encouraging members of the public to get engaged in local decision-making is a key role of Extension educators. The study reported here explores whether local context influences which individuals choose to attend public meetings about the community and the environment. The study surveyed meeting attendees and non-meeting attendees in three…
Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.
A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…
Seested Nielsen, Jytte; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kjær, Trine
targeting risks of death or risks of ill health should not necessarily be valued equally across sectors. From a welfare economic perspective, the use of the same estimates across contexts – and especially across sectors – could be misleading and in worst case lead to inefficient resource allocations....
Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S
Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharif, Saeed Pahlevan; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Panarello, Bianca; Win, Ma Thin Mar
Moral distress is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting healthcare professionals, especially nurses. If not addressed, it may create job dissatisfaction, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of patient care, or even encourage one to leave the profession. Spiritual well-being is a concept which is considered when dealing with problems and stress relating to a variety of issues. This research aimed to examine the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress among a sample of Iranian nurses and also to study the determinant factors of moral distress and spiritual well-being in nurses. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed to collect data from 193 nurses using the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Moral Distress Scale-Revised. This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. Mean scores of spiritual well-being and moral distress were 94.73 ± 15.89 and 109.56 ± 58.70, respectively. There was no significant correlation between spiritual well-being and moral distress (r = -.053, p = .462). Marital status and job satisfaction were found to be independent predictors of spiritual well-being. However, gender and educational levels were found to be independent predictors for moral distress. Age, working in rotation shifts, and a tendency to leave the current job also became significant after adjusting other factors for moral distress. This study could not support the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress. However, the results showed that moral distress is related to many elements including individual ideals and differences as well as organizational factors. Informing nurses about moral distress and its consequences, establishing periodic consultations, and making some organizational arrangement may play an important role in the identification and management of moral distress and
.... Targeted support services are currently unavailable. This study tests the hypothesis that patients experience greater well-being by participating in an intervention designed for breast cancer patients experiencing a first recurrence...
impacts of corporate social responsibility on the well-being of workers in the ... policies have been the healthcare, education, security, housing, agriculture, arts and tourism, sports, charity organization, religion, social clubs, government ...
Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille
. Through a comprehensive effectiveness evaluation and a similar substantial process evaluation, this study is designed to gain knowledge on a broad variety of implementation issues and give detailed information on project delivery and challenges at the school level - among other things to better inform......Background: The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children...... and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th...
Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper
of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory......Research has paid attention to how deaf identity affects life outcomes such as psychological well-being. However, studies are often carried out with small samples and without controlling for other variables. This study examined how different forms of identity—deaf, hearing, bicultural (deaf...... and hearing), and marginal (neither deaf nor hearing)—were associated with levels of psychological well-being and a number of other variables. The sample was 742 adults with hearing loss in Denmark. The study found that those with a deaf, hearing or bicultural identity had significantly higher levels...
Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed
Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.
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Full Text Available ... Z Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Video of Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being—Full Video Runtime: 16min 37sec The video from ...
Yang Yuwen; Yang Wenya
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between environment and personal well-being using a sample of 562 urban employees from three cities in Liaoning province in the People＇s Republic of China. In contrast to previous studies, this study controlled positive affectivity （PA）, negative affectivity （NA）, job satisfaction and Big Five personality traits. In addition, the research variables of personal well-being index （PWI）, positive affectivity, negative affectivity, job satisfaction, Big Five, and environmental satisfaction are measured with multi-item scales. The research finds that environmental satisfaction is positively related to personal well-being, suggesting that improvement of the natural surroundings in the cities can improve people＇s well-being.
Chaiviboontham, Suchira; Phinitkhajorndech, Noppawan; Hanucharurnkul, Somchit; Noipiang, Thaniya
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale in patients with advanced cancer. This cross-sectional study was employed to investigate psychometric properties. Some 196 participants from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok and suburban Thailand were asked to complete a Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Validity was determined by known-group, concurrent, and constructs validity. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficients. Three factors were extracted: so-called existential well-being, religious well-being, and peacefulness accounted for 71.44% of total variance. The Cronbach's α coefficients for total SWB, EWB, RWB, and peacefulness were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively. These findings indicate that the Thai SWBS is a valid and reliable instrument, and it presented one more factor than the original version.
Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C
Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.
Cristiane Pimentel Nalin
Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.
well-being declines and wives raises the more she earns relatively to him. However, the relationships are often of an inversed u-shaped form for both sexes with men getting the highest well-being at an earlier stage than women. Within the Scandinavian welfare state regime this preferred distribution......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being.......The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within...
African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Aggression and psychological well-being of adolescent taekwondo participants in comparison with hockey participants and a non sport group ... According to experts, schools in South ...
Ridner, S Lee; Newton, Karen S; Staten, Ruth R; Crawford, Timothy N; Hall, Lynne A
Identification of health-related risk behaviors associated with well-being in college students is essential to guide the development of health promotion strategies for this population. The purposes were to evaluate well-being among undergraduate students and to identify health-related risk behaviors that predict well-being in this population. A cross-sectional Web-based survey of undergraduate students was conducted at a metropolitan university in the Southeast United States. A total of 568 students responded (response rate 14.2%). Data were collected on health-related risk behaviors using the National College Health Assessment II. Controlling demographic characteristics, the best predictive model included physical activity, current tobacco user, depression, ever received mental health services, and sleep quality, which was the strongest predictor (β = .45, p college students may be most beneficial in improving well-being.
Transportation is critical to everyday activities and is also the underpinning of wellbeing. Well-beingoften related to happinesscan be defined in many ways and while : happiness is often considered an important element of well-being, it ...
Full Text Available The current paper presents the results from some research on the relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria, and different aspects of well-being. The information available on the Internet, which is not necessarily truthful and accurate, can unreasonably amplify users health concerns. Problematic Internet use, health anxiety aroused by online searches for health information and escalation of health concerns as an indicator of cyberchondria, are all associated with a decrease in subjective and eudaimonic well-being as well as in self-esteem. The analyses indicate positive relationships between depressive symptoms on the one hand, and Internet addiction and health anxiety, on the other. A conclusion regarding the existence of a relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria and decreased levels of well-being could be drawn from the research. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-esteem and eudaimonic well-being correlate positively with the number of people with whom users communicate online.
Full Text Available ... Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Video of Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being—Full Video Runtime: 16min 37sec The video from ...
Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Arenas, M Dolores; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, M Dolores; Albaladejo-Blázquez, Natalia; Gil, M Teresa; de la Fuente, Vanesa
Spirituality can be defined as a personal search for meaning and purpose in life that may or may not encompass religion. In this article we report on the development and testing of an instrument for measuring spiritual well-being within a sample of haemodialysis patients. The main instrument, a 21-item Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS), comprises four scales: Life Perspective, Purpose and Goals, Confusion and Lessened Meaning, Harmony and Peace, and Benefits of Spirituality. A total score for spiritual well-being is also produced. We also used the following variables: clinical (time on haemodialysis, modified Charlson comorbidity index), sociodemographic (age, gender), and self-assessments of health, quality of life (general and recent), personal happiness, religiosity, and belief in the afterlife. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 94 haemodialysis patients. This study demonstrates that the MiLS-Sp is a psychometrically sound measure of spiritual well-being for dialysis patients (reliability, validity) as they manage the complex demands of a chronic illness. Spiritual well-being was significantly associated with various quality of life variables, health status, personal happiness, or religiosity in patients on dialysis. There was no relationship between spirituality scores and comorbidity, HD duration, gender, or age. Spiritual well-being is relatively low in dialysis patients. Spirituality may play an important role on psychological well-being, quality of life, and self-rated health for patients on haemodialysis. Spiritual well-being in these patients is relatively low. Results suggest that assessing and addressing spiritual well-being in dialysis patients may be helpful in clinical practice.
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-be...
Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva; O Gostin, Lawrence
President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?......President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?...
Full Text Available This paper discussed the significance of well-being (WB and well-being management (WBM. As successful WBM requires the implementation of different training programs, such programs are presented in detail. The cause–effect relationship between training and individual/organizational performance is researched as well. The aim of the research to support this article was to present WBM, its training programs, as well as the determination of WBM activities concerning the mentioned programs implemented in Slovenian organizations.
Vanhala, Sinikka; Tuomi, Kaija
This paper is dealing with the relationships between HRM, company performance and employee well-being. The relationship between S/HRM and company performance has received much attention in prior literature, while the employee perspective has been widely neglected in this research tradition. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to identify and evaluate how company performance and employee well-being are related, and, secondly, to evaluate the possibilities of HR policies and practices...
Runquist, Jennifer J; Reed, Pamela G
This study examines the relationships of spiritually and physically related variables to well-being among homeless adults. A convenience sample of 61 sheltered homeless persons completed the Spiritual Perspective Scale, the Self-Transcendence Scale, the Index of Well-Being, and items measuring fatigue and health status. The data were subjected to correlational and multiple regression analysis. Positive, significant correlations were found among spiritual perspective, self-transcendence, health status, and well-being. Fatigue was inversely correlated with health status and well-being. Self-transcendence and health status together explained 59% of the variance in well-being. The findings support Reed's theory of self-transcendence, in which there is the basic assumption that human beings have the potential to integrate difficult life situations. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence that conceptualizes homeless persons as having spiritual, emotional, and physical capacities that can be used by health care professionals to promote well-being in this vulnerable population.
Zorn, C R; Johnson, M T
Spirituality is recognized as an important component of health care practice with elderly people. Yet, discussion of the role it plays in elderly women on a day-to-day basis is minimal, and it is frequently not addressed in quality-of-life studies in this population. The purposes of this study were to describe the level of religious well-being and selected characteristics of religiosity in a sample of 114 non-institutionalized, largely rural elderly women (Mdn age = 75), as well as to identify the relationship between selected factors and the level of religious well-being. Descriptive research revealed a high level of religious well-being among the participants and significant positive correlation between religious well-being and the variables of social support and hope (p hope emerged as the single significant predictor of religious well-being (p religious activities, highly rated the value or influence of religious beliefs in their lives, and identified that religious beliefs become increasingly important with age. Conducting a comprehensive assessment and implementing focused interventions associated with religious well-being will strengthen the scope of health care practice for elderly women.
Ab-Murat, Norintan; Mason, Lydia; Kadir, Rahimah Abdul; Yusoff, Noriah
To assess Malaysian dentists' perceptions of their mental well-being. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on a conceptual framework of mental health and well-being model. Two aspects were assessed, namely the physiological (two domains) and the psychological (six domains). Participants were asked to rate their experiences of the aforementioned aspects using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from all the time to never. The response rate was 81%. Most of the dentists (61.7%) perceived having positive mental well-being. Under the physiological aspect, most respondents reported that they were 'generally happy' (93.3%), but about 30% stated they were 'stressed physically and emotionally'. Of the six domains under the psychological aspect, positive well-being was observed in the 'sense of coherence' and 'behavioural stress' domains. Participants who were above 40 years old, married and had children reported having a more positive mental well-being when compared with their counterparts. Overall, most Malaysian dentists perceived having a positive mental well-being. It is crucial, however, to closely monitor and initiate early interventions for those with negative symptoms to ensure the safe practice of dentistry.
Diener, Ed; Seligman, Martin E P
In our 2004 "Beyond Money" article, we argued that national accounts of psychological and subjective well-being should complement the economic indicators that frequently guide policy decisions. We claimed that economic indicators fail to reflect important aspects of quality of life that well-being indicators capture. Since the time of our article, progress has been made, and scores of nations have used some forms of well-being measures. The National Academy of Sciences of the United States and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development both issued reports on accounts of well-being. Researchers have pointed to policies that are supported by the findings, such as environmental and economic policies. The emergence of "big data" has opened major new pathways for measuring well-being in inexpensive, unobtrusive, and nonreactive fashion. Psychological researchers now need to create superordinate combinations of subjective and objective measures of well-being to study the impact of the policies they advocate. The accounts can serve as a lever for convincing policymakers to enact policies that increase human flourishing.
Full Text Available Resilience and positive thinking, resilience and optimism, kindness as value could be the factors which could impact the future of our humanity and Earth as well as health and welfare of society. There is an active process of research in the positive psychology carried out in Latvia within the last ten years. The most important category of positive psychology is resilience and well-being. A lot of work has been done regarding adaptation of the concept of well-being and resilience in Latvia. There is a group of young researchers (master level students who have made a contribution to adaptation of the concept of resilience and well-being in the science of psychology in Latvia at Riga Teacher Training and Education Management Academy (RTTEMA. A group of professors have recently made a joint research, where different samples of adults are demonstrated among the Latvian population in this article. The idea of this research is to analyse the collected secondary data on different groups of adults concerning correlation between the aspects of well-being and resilience. The aim of the research is to investigate the dimension of well-being in cognitive, eudaimonistic, hedonistic, interpersonal and spiritual (transcendent relationship with resilience indicators - self-perseverance, self-reliance, acceptance of life, as well as the relevance of well-being indicators to age. One statement of this analysis was the hypothesis about the age as a factor which predetermines development of well-being and resilience. Methods- 1 Questionnaire on well-being (Majors, Majore, Svence, 2009, 2 Resilience scale, RS (Wagnild, Young, 1993, linguistically adapted by I. Bērziņa, G. Svence, 2011, 3 correlation and hierarchical regression analysis of the secondary data. Questions of the research: 1\twhat kind of correlation does exist between the indicators of well-being and resilience? 2\twhich well-being indicators predict these resilience indicators? 3\tis there any
Martínez-González, M Covadonga; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya; Guerra-Tapia, Aurora
In recent years, there has been a great development of esthetic dermatology as a subspecialty of dermatology. It is important to know to which extent the general population regard this branch of medical surgical specialty as being of interest and contributing to emotional well-being. To analyze the technical features of a questionnaire which has been designed to reflect such perception of the general population about esthetic dermatology and its contribution to emotional well-being. Production and psychometric analysis of a self-filled in questionnaire in relation to esthetic dermatology and emotional well-being (DEBIE). This questionnaire is made of 57 items and has been applied to a sample of 770 people within the general population. The drawing-up process of the questionnaire is described to provide content validity. Items analysis was carried out together with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to assess the structure and construct validity of the tool. The extent of internal consistency (reliability) and concurrent validity has also been verified. DEBIE questionnaire (Spanish acronym for Aesthetic Dermatology and Emotional Well-being) revolves around six factors explaining 53.91% of the variance; there is a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.90) and reasonable criterion validity. DEBIE questionnaire brings together adequate psychometric properties that can be applied to assess the perception that the general population have in relation to esthetic dermatology and its contribution to their emotional well-being. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lin, Dana T; Liebert, Cara A; Tran, Jennifer; Lau, James N; Salles, Arghavan
There is increasing recognition that physician wellness is critical; it not only benefits the provider, but also influences quality and patient care outcomes. Despite this, resident physicians suffer from a high rate of burnout and personal distress. Individuals with higher emotional intelligence (EI) are thought to perceive, process, and regulate emotions more effectively, which can lead to enhanced well-being and less emotional disturbance. This study sought to understand the relationship between EI and wellness among surgical residents. Residents in a single general surgery residency program were surveyed on a voluntary basis. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Resident wellness was assessed with the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form. Emotional intelligence and wellness parameters were correlated using Pearson coefficients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of well-being. Seventy-three residents participated in the survey (response rate 63%). Emotional intelligence scores correlated positively with psychological well-being (r = 0.74; p emotional exhaustion (r = -0.69; p emotional exhaustion (β = -0.63; p Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of resident well-being. Prospectively measuring EI can identify those who are most likely to thrive in surgical residency. Interventions to increase EI can be effective at optimizing the wellness of residents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available This study examines whether religious people experience more positive affect and less negative affect in everyday life and, if they do, whether it is because of the differences in how they allocate time to different activities or because they feel differently during similar activities. Using the well-being module from the 2010–13 American Time Use Survey (ATUS, I show that churchgoers enjoy a significantly higher level of affective well-being on Sunday than non-churchgoers do. The supplementary analysis of the Gallup Daily Poll data suggests that this higher level of affective well-being among churchgoers is found throughout the rest of the week as well. Further analyses of the ATUS demonstrate that about 40 percent of the affective well-being gap between churchgoers and non-churchgoers on Sunday can be explained by how they spend their time differently. Churchgoers spend more time on Sunday participating in pleasant activities shared with family members and friends than non-churchgoers do. More than half of the gap, however, remains unexplained, implying that it has to do with how they feel during similar activities rather than the activities in which they participate. I discuss the implications of these findings on the mechanisms underlying the link between religion and subjective well-being.
Gurková, Elena; Haroková, Sylvie; Džuka, Jozef; Žiaková, Katarína
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between domains of the job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in nurses. A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited from six hospitals in Czech Republic. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, the Negative Affect Scale and the Personal Well-being Index. We confirmed low association between job satisfaction and subjective well-being of nurses. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, co-workers and family/work balance accounted for only a small percentage of variance in cognitive component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling. Negative affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling and intention to leave the actual workplace. Low percentage of the variance suggests that subjective well-being is not strongly influenced by job satisfaction. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.
Annamaria Di Fabio
Full Text Available Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI, assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TeiQue were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait emotional intelligence in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.
Grossmann, Igor; Na, Jinkyung; Varnum, Michael E.W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E.
Laypeople and many social scientists assume that superior reasoning abilities lead to greater well-being. However, previous research has been inconclusive. This may be because prior investigators used operationalizations of reasoning that favored analytic as opposed to wise thinking. We assessed wisdom in terms of the degree to which people use various pragmatic schemas to deal with social conflicts. With a random sample of Americans we found that wise reasoning is associated with greater life satisfaction, less negative affect, better social relationships, less depressive rumination, more positive vs. negative words used in speech, and greater longevity. The relationship between wise reasoning and well-being held even when controlling for socio-economic factors, verbal abilities, and several personality traits. As in prior work there was no association between intelligence and well-being. Further, wise reasoning mediated age-related differences in well-being, particularly among the middle-aged and older adults. Implications for research on reasoning, well-being and aging are discussed. PMID:22866683
Ajrouch, Kristine J
This study addresses diversity of aging experiences by examining the associations among immigrant status, religious affiliation, and resources in the form of both human and social capital with the well-being of Arab-American elders. Data were drawn from a face-to-face survey of 101 Arab-American men and women aged 56 and over living in the metropolitan Detroit area. Correlations demonstrate that religious affiliation is not associated with well-being. Multiple regression analyses reveal that U.S. born Arab Americans reported less frequent feelings of depression and greater life satisfaction than did immigrants, but this variation appears to be accounted for by human capital indicators including education level and language. Social capital including perceptions of the ability to confide in child and relationship quality with spouse is significantly associated with well-being, yet does not constitute a pathway to well-being for Arab-American elders. Human and social capital represent valuable resources and their distribution within this immigrant/ethnic group is associated with noteworthy variations in well-being.
Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services parti...... disturbances (T2) were partially mediated by individual-level AOC (T1). CONCLUSIONS: Group-level AOC is an important predictor of employee well-being in contemporary health care organizations.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services...
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461...... outpatients with diabetes who were randomly assigned to standard care or to the monitoring condition. In the latter group, the diabetes nurse specialist assessed and discussed psychological well-being with the patient (with an interval of 6 months) in addition to standard care. The computerized Well...... nurse. The two groups did not differ for HbA(1c) or in their overall evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. In the monitoring condition, significantly more subjects were referred to the psychologist. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and discussing psychological well-being as part of routine diabetes...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Stansfeld, S A; Head, J; Marmot, M G
Work characteristics, including skill discretion and decision authority, explain most of the socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression in middle-aged British civil servants from the Whitehall II Study, London. Social support explained about one-third of the gradient, life events and material difficulties less than one-third. Socioeconomic status was measured by employment grade. Work characteristics were based on the Karasek model, social support was measured by the Close Persons Questionnaire, depression by the General Health Questionnaire and well-being by the Affect Balance Scale. Despite a small contribution from social selective factors measured by upward mobility, the psychosocial work environment explained most of the cross-sectional socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.
Sarda, Elisa; Bègue, Laurent; Bry, Clémentine; Gentile, Douglas
The overuse of online games is known to be inversely related to various indicators of well-being. This article validates the DSM-5 criteria of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and analyzes its links with five indicators of well-being: life satisfaction, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and academic performance in a French-speaking sample of 693 gamers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed a one-factor structure of IGD criteria. The IGD scale showed satisfactory validity and reliability and was related in a consistent way with well-being measures. The IGD scale appears to be an appropriate measure to assess video game addiction and will contribute to increase the comparability of international research on video game addiction.
Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W
Antenatal psychological well-being is multifactorially determined, including by social circumstances. Evidence suggests that workplace conditions are salient determinants of mental health, but it is not known whether employment conditions influence antenatal psychological well-being. To investigate the relationship between employment conditions and antenatal psychological well-being in Australian women. A sociodemographically diverse consecutive cohort of employed nulliparous women was recruited in late pregnancy. Data were collected by a structured interview assessing sociodemographic characteristics, employment arrangements, experience of pregnancy-related discrimination, and access to maternity leave entitlements. Participants completed two standardised psychometric measures of maternal mood: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Profile of Mood States (PoMS). Comparisons of self-reported mood were made between women by experience of workplace adversity, using a composite measure of workplace events. Of 205 eligible women, 165 agreed to participate. Of these, 114 of 165 (69%) reported at least one form of workplace adversity during pregnancy. More women without private health insurance (78%) reported workplace adversity than those who were privately insured (57%) (chi2(1)=6.95, P=0.008). Women experiencing workplace adversity had significantly worse psychological well-being as indicated by the EDS score (7.7+/-5.1) than those who were experiencing no workplace adversity (5.5+/-3.4), mean difference (95% CI)=-2.2 (-3.7 to -0.8), P=0.003. Similar results were reported for the PoMS. Workplace adversity during pregnancy is associated with poorer maternal psychological well-being. Workplace conditions and entitlements are salient factors for consideration in assessments of antenatal psychosocial well-being.
Grunseit, Anne; Richards, Justin; Merom, Dafna
Sporting or physical recreation event participation can affect different domains of mental and social well-being if sufficiently frequent, yet previous research has focused mainly on the physical health benefits of single-location or infrequent mass-participation events. We examined overall and domain specific subjective well-being of adult participants of "parkrun", a weekly, community-based, highly accessible and widespread running event. Data were from a national online survey of 865 adult Australian parkrunners. Scores on nine individual measures and the global Personal Well-being Index (PWI) were compared to national, normative data. Regression models tested associations between personal well-being and perceived benefits of parkrun (mental health and connection to community). Of 100 scores, 28% of means for parkrunners fell outside overall and age and gender subgroups normative ranges. Satisfaction with health was higher for male, those aged over 45 and overall parkrunners; only parkrunners aged 18-24 fell below their age group norm. Satisfaction with life as a whole was positively associated with perceived mental health benefits of parkrun, but not perceived community connection for women, and neither measure for men. PWI was positively associated with perceived community connection for men and with mental health benefit for women. Australian parkrunners mostly reflect the general population on personal well-being, except report superior satisfaction with physical health. Women's personal well-being may benefit from parkrun through improved mental health and men's from community connectedness. parkrun may facilitate positive expression of identity and continuation of healthy habits among athletes, and non-demanding, health enhancing activity and social interaction for non-athletes.
Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.
Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...... socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents, suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant...
Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Guidi, Jenny; Tomba, Elena
A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination. The evidence supporting the use of WBT and its specific contribution when it is combined with other psychotherapeutic techniques is still limited. However, the insights gained by the use of WBT may unravel innovative approaches to assessment and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, to be confirmed by controlled studies, with particular reference to decreasing vulnerability to relapse and modulating psychological well-being and mood. An important characteristic of WBT is self-observation of psychological well-being associated with specific homework. Such perspective is different from interventions that are labeled as positive but are actually distress oriented. Another important feature of WBT is the assumption that imbalances in well-being and distress may vary from one illness to another and from patient to patient. Customary clinical taxonomy and evaluation do not include psychological well-being, which may demarcate major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same diagnosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R
This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette; Rosenstjerne Andersen, Angelo
Children’s well-being around the age when they start school is crucial for their future success in the educational system. Factors in the first 3 years of a child’s life matter for the child’s well-being when he or she starts school. This article analyzes the relationship between early childhood...... factors–such as maternal employment, family structure, and family life–and future child well-being. The analysis uses the psychosocial SDQ-scale and the number of problems experienced around starting school as measures of well-being. Results show that family factors in particular are important, while...
Lee, Juyoung; Krause, Amanda E.; Davidson, Jane W.
The aim of this study was to consider how we can invest in music-making to promote well-being in school contexts. Web-based data collection was conducted where researchers identified 17 case studies that describe successful music programs in schools in Australia. The researchers aligned content from these case studies into the five categories of…
Traditional consumer theory assumes that welfare is derived at the point where goods are purchased. More recent theories however argue that what matters is dependent on what happens after goods are purchased. Such information requires surveys that are specifically designed for the purpose.
Measuring the perception of professional well-being appears as a problematic issue in past studies. Literature reviews show that previous studies have not yet reached an agreement on measures of teachers' professional well-being. Furthermore, when we consider the cultural context, a research gap becomes clearer. The aim of this study was to…
Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verleye, Gino; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid
This study aims to explore use of coping strategies among adolescents and their relationships with well being in the context of ongoing terrorism. Furthermore, we aim to explore to what extent coping styles in addition to exposure variables explain well being of adolescents facing ongoing terror. During September 2003, after three years of ongoing…
Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.
The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if
Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed
Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…
This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…
Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…
Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick
Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…
Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and ... Objective: The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic .... of mood that can be used to calculate a Total Mood.
Odirile, Bonkamile E.; Mpofu, Elias; Montsi, Mercy R.
We examined coping strategies by higher education employees to handle work stress as differentiated by personnel variables. We further examined levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in the same employees. Sixty-three higher education employees participated (males = 30; females = 33; mean age = 41.3 years). The participants completed the Coping…
Ferreira, Johanna G.; Venter, Elizabeth
The purpose of this research was to determine participants' perceptions of the positive influence of the natural environment on their well-being. Through a qualitative study, semistructured interviews were held with selected participants who enjoy activities in the natural environment. From the data analysis, particular themes emerged, namely the…
Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge
Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....
Lever, Joaquina Palomar
There are two tendencies in the literature regarding the relationship between income and subjective well-being. The first tendency maintains that there is a strong relationship between these two variables, and that the poorer the population, the more pronounced this relationship. The second tendency downplays this relationship, arguing that a…
Nelson, Mark D.; Tarabochia, Dawn W.; Koltz, Rebecca L.
School counselors design, deliver, and evaluate comprehensive, developmental school counseling programs that are focused on enhancing student development and success. A model of student well-being, known as PACES, is defined and described that consists of five distinct and interactive domains: physical, affective, cognitive, economic, and social.…
D.R. Gasper (Des)
textabstract__Abstract__ Migration involves a search for well-being and security, but is not guaranteed to bring either. In the short run it quite often reduces both. What are the hoped for benefits for which the risks are undertaken? Insecurity can generate migration, and in the case of refugees
Quinn, Diane M.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.
Many people have concealable stigmatized identities: Identities that can be hidden from others and that are socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. Understanding how these concealable stigmatized identities affect psychological well-being is critical. We present our model of the components of concealable stigmatized identities including valenced content – internalized stigma, experienced discrimination, anticipated stigma, disclosure reactions, and counter-stereotypic/positive informati...
Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita
This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…
IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Midden, C.J.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Midden, C.J.H.
In this short paper we aim to give a brief introduction to persuasive technology, especially as it pertains to human well-being. We discuss a number of current research opportunities in areas of healthcare, environmental conservation, and education. We conclude by highlighting what we regard as the
Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva
Roč. 44, 1-2 (2006), s. 59-61 ISSN 0960-7560 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/06/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Well-being * social gradient * resilience factors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Kebza, V.; Kodl, M.; Šolcová, Iva; Kernová, V.
Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 414-414 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : well-being * Czech population sample * determinants Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Barry, Margaret M.; Clarke, Aleisha Mary; Dowling, Katherine
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical perspective on the international evidence on promoting young people’s social and emotional well-being in schools. The challenges of integrating evidence-based interventions within schools are discussed and the need for innovative approaches
The search for balance. “Closing the mines because of their environmental impact is not an option ... As a result, local communities, governments, and mining companies are ... in mining communities would be critical to arriving at work- able solutions. ... “quality of life” instrument to assess the well-being of people in mining ...
Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Fivush, Robyn
Relations between narratives, especially the inclusion of internal state language within narratives, and well-being have been found in adults. However, research with adolescents has been sparse and the findings inconsistent. We examined gender differences in adolescents' personal autobiographical narratives as well as relations between internal…
Emotional regulation, perceived socialalienation and well-being of students in a Nigerian University: implilcations for assessment and coaching of emotional regulation. A O Ojedokun. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for the psychological studies of social issue Vol. 10 (1&2) 2007: pp. 76-90. Full Text: EMAIL FULL ...
Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)
Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L.
BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness or en...
Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony
We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…
The purpose of this study was to examine a conceptual framework for an individual's subjective perception of leisure that contributes to Subjective Well-Being (SWB). More specifically, this study was an attempt to examine causal relationships among social cognitive variables, subjective perception of leisure, and SWB. A survey was administered to…
Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions...
In addition to teaching research and writing skills, First-Year Composition classes are well situated to help students develop strategies for managing stress and increasing well-being. I describe an assignment sequence in which students interview others from three generations about topics related to happiness and wellbeing, analyze shared…
Leyendecker, Birgit; Agache, Alexandru
This study examined paternal involvement in parenting, the association between parents' perception of mutual support, and the relation to their children's well-being before (t1) and after the transition to first grade (t2). Participants were first and second generation immigrant families from Turkey (n = 134). In addition, German families (n = 45) were included for the comparison of paternal involvement. The percentage of highly involved fathers was higher in the German sub-sample (54 %) than in the Turkish sub-sample (38 %), but we found no influence of parents' education, household income, employment status, or children's gender. First generation fathers were more likely to be highly involved than second generation fathers. Analyses of the longitudinal data revealed that mothers with highly involved fathers were more likely to report higher marital support. This pattern was less clear for fathers. Children with highly involved fathers reported significantly higher well-being at t1. For t2, a moderator analysis revealed a positive effect on children's well-being only for those fathers who were both highly involved and reported the highest fathering self-efficacy. Among other variables, we controlled for children's well-being at t1, their health status, fathers' work hours and mothers' marital satisfaction.
Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.
Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit
Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin
This study aims to investigate the relationship between acculturation attitude (i.e. adjustment and attachment attitudes) and individuals' psychological adaptation (i.e. life satisfaction, depression and self-esteem). Additionally, the relationship between the dimensions of psychological adaptation with psychological well-being and their mediation…
Chesmore, Ashley A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
The present study investigates the relationship between childhood placement in special education and adult well-being among 1,377 low-income, minority children participating in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Roughly 16% of the sample received special education services in Grades 1 to 8. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and early…
Full Text Available There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently. In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument--the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD--to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM.
There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently). In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument – the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD) – to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed) what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM. PMID:23691236
Griggs, Steven; Howarth, David
This paper challenges the drawing of explicit boundaries between discourse and practice. Reflecting on the intricacies of practice and meaning, it begins by recounting the "story" of the national evaluation of the Well Being Power and the myriad of ways in which local practitioners interpreted its use. It then draws on political…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung
Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…
Kim, Kyoung Jin; Wee, Su-Jeong; Gilbert, Beverly Boals; Choi, Jeonghee
Children's participation in yoga activities is receiving increasingly widespread attention as an exercise system that promotes not only physical health benefits but also psychological well-being. The authors of this article introduce how yoga practices can be implemented in an early childhood classroom to enhance children's mind and body harmony,…
Herbers, Daniël Johannes
The ageing of many western populations calls for a better understanding of the factors related to well-being in later life. Family and housing are two domains that become increasingly important at older ages. At older ages people generally spend more time in and around the home, and social networks
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.
The present study examined the relationship between physical and psychological well-being, personality characteristics and demographic variables related to motherhood, work and marital status in a sample of 3,723 Dutch women. Analysis revealed several interesting relationships. First, whereas
Full Text Available ... second installment in NCCIH’s video series entitled The Science of Mind and Body Therapies . The first video, Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being , was launched September 2010. Learn more about yoga Press release NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to ...
Baker, Kate C; Dettmer, Amanda M
The well-being of non-human primates in captivity is of joint concern to scientists, veterinarians, colony managers, caretakers, and researchers working with non-human primates in biomedical research. With increased regulatory, accreditation, and research focus on optimizing the use of social housing for laboratory primates, as well as the advent of techniques to assess indices of chronic stress and related measures of well-being, there is no better time to present the most current advances in the field of non-human primate behavioral management. The collective body of research presented here was inspired in part by a 2014 symposium entitled, "Chronic Hormones and Demographic Variables: Center-Wide Studies on Non-Human Primate Well-Being" held at the American Society of Primatologists' 37th Annual Meeting in Decatur, GA. By aiming to target readership with scientific and/or management oversight of captive primate behavioral management programs, this special issue provides badly-needed guidance for implementing social housing programs in a research environment and leverages collaboration across multiple facilities to address key components of behavioral management, explore refinements in how well-being can be measured, and identify the interrelationships between varying indices. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22520, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
Effects Of Parenting Styles On Psychosocial Well-Being Of Adolescents In Selected Secondary Schools In Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. ... Based on these findings, it was recommended that the schools or teachers should learn how to satisfy the emotional needs of children, using appropriate teaching techniques in the ...
The study examined the contributions of perceived prevalence of financial crime, socioeconomic status and gender on psychological well-being among unemployed. The cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Participants were 288 unemployed graduates sampled in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria.
Drinking-related domestic violence generalizes the negative consequences of drinking, engenders and aggravates household economic and health problems, and compromises the well-being of the family. The poor socioeconomic condition of the affected family constrains their capacity to provide treatment services for the ...
The present study determines a few differences between accident free drivers and drivers with a history of accidents. 30 public transport bus drivers with a record of road accidents were compared with 30 public transport drivers free of accidents on their knowledge of road rules an regulations, subjective well being, state and ...
This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and family well-being among couples in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State. This was against the backdrop of incessant family crises and maladjustment in contemporary society. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Three hundred and ...
Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...
Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie
in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...
De Witte, Hans
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics (i.e., the validity and the reliability of the Short Inventory on Stress and Well-being (S-ISW, in particular the part of the S-ISW that measures well-being. The S-ISW is developed by ISW Limits in both Dutch and French and measures the following well-being indicators: strain, motivation and negative acts at work, which can be considered as possible outcome variables or employees’ reactions to the perceived work situation. Four samples (N1 = 17,781; N2 = 462; N3 = 264; N4 = 3596 were used to perform analyses, with longitudinal data available for Sample 2 and 3. The results supported the three-factor structure of the S-ISW (factor validity and the invariance of this factor structure between the Dutch and the French S-ISW. Furthermore, we established the content similarity of strain and motivation with negative stress and positive stress, respectively, supporting the construct validity of the S-ISW. The predictive validity of the well-being indicators was established using measures of absenteeism and doctor consultations. Finally, the S-ISW was reliable, as the indicators of well-being showed high test-retest reliability and adequate internal consistency. The part of the S-ISW that measures well-being is thus both valid and reliable, and may be a helpful instrument in conducting research to aid organizations in the development of their well-being policy.
Kempski, D. von [DVK air vitalizing system, Duesseldorf (Germany)
Until recently the quality of air did not play a major role in the planning of buildings. Quality of air was simply understood to be synonymous with pollution-free and safe air. This process omitted consideration of how to achieve the well-being of the occupants. The economic consequences of this limited approach were not apparent to investors, developers and tenants. More recently however, competition and market conditions in the commercial property market have led some investors to seek a new way forward. They have found their answer in performance-based buildings. These buildings go well beyond traditional methods of addressing the well-being of building occupants, resulting in enhanced productivity, reduced absenteeism and reduced health risks. Physiological and neurophysiological research shows that air quality, encompassing both olfactory and thermal comfort, plays an important role. The elimination of pollutants is far from being sufficient and does not significantly reduce the dissatisfaction. Today, research is focused on the occupants' perception of indoor air with the goal of increasing their satisfaction rate. It is known that people's well-being improves when the air around them is perceived as natural and fresh. This can only be the case if sufficient stimulating positive olfactory substances are found in the indoor air. It is therefore important that the hedonic value of indoor air always be taken into consideration when measuring air quality. To create an indoor environment that increases the well-being and performance of occupants, thermal and olfactory comfort have to complement one another. The performance-based building addresses the well-being of the building users in order to realize a significant increase in a building's value. (orig.)
Silverman, Arielle M; Molton, Ivan R; Smith, Amanda E; Jensen, Mark P; Cohen, Geoffrey L
To determine whether having friends who share one's disability experiences is associated with higher well-being, and whether these friendships buffer well-being from disability-related stressors. Research Method/Design: In 2 cross-sectional studies, adults with long-term physical disabilities identified close friends who shared their diagnosis. We assessed well-being as a function of the number of friends that participants identified in each group. Study 1 included 71 adults with legal blindness living in the United States, while Study 2 included 1,453 adults in the United States with either muscular dystrophy (MD), multiple sclerosis (MS), post-polio syndrome (PPS), or spinal cord injury (SCI). In Study 1, having more friends sharing a blindness diagnosis was associated with higher life satisfaction, even controlling for the number of friends who were not blind. In Study 2, Participants with more friends sharing their diagnosis reported higher quality of life and satisfaction with social role participation. Participants with more friends sharing their diagnosis also showed and attenuated associations between the severity of their functional impairment and their quality of life and social role satisfaction, suggesting that their friendships buffered the impact of their functional impairment on well-being. Participants reporting more friends with any physical disability showed similar benefits. Friends with disabilities can offer uniquely important informational and emotional support resources that buffer the impact of a functional impairment on well-being. Psychosocial interventions should help people with long-term disabilities build their peer support networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sankelo, Merja; Akerblad, Leena
This study describes the well-being at work of nurse entrepreneurs and owner-managers of social care companies in Finland from the vantage point of health and working capacity, general coping and job satisfaction and identifies factors associated with well-being. In recent years, increasing numbers of nurses have been starting up in business in the social care sector. As yet, there has been only limited research into their well-being at work. Survey. This study was conducted as part of a questionnaire survey among 335 social care entrepreneurs with different educational backgrounds. The sample for the study reported here consisted of those respondents who had a registered nurse degree (n = 84). The data were analysed by SPSS statistical software. Most of the respondents rated their physical, mental, financial and social situation and working capacity as good. Less than half of the respondents had experienced stress during the past year. Over half felt their coping efficacy was better than it had been shortly after starting up in business. The respondents' resources were consumed and strengthened by a range of different work-related factors. The majority were satisfied with their job as an entrepreneur. Several background factors were associated with the results. Most of the nurse entrepreneurs reported being content with their well-being at work. Nevertheless, the results also highlighted factors that could and should be addressed to improve the well-being at work of entrepreneurs who struggle to cope. The results provide useful information for the development of entrepreneurial training for nurses, for the design and provision of occupational health care services and for the enrichment of the content of the entrepreneur's job.
Strandberg, T E; Strandberg, A Y; Pitkälä, K; Salomaa, V V; Tilvis, R S; Miettinen, T A
We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men. We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses. Psychological well-being in old age. The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02). In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being. The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.
Martins, Conceição; Gouveia, Ana; Chaves, Melanie; Lourenço, Rafael; Marques, Sara; Santos, Telmo
Violence in dating relationships involves dimensions such as physical, psychological and sexual abuse, requiring strategies for prevention and early intervention. To identify the socio-demographic variables that influence violence in dating relationships; to identify whether having been a victim and/or witnessing violence in childhood has significant effect on violence in dating relationships; to verify the correlation between violence in dating relationships and psychological well-being. Quantitative non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. Data collection conducted by a socio-demographic characterisation questionnaire; Dating Relationship Victimization Practices and Behaviours Scale and Demonstration of Psychological Well-Being Measurement Scale. The non-probabilistic, convenience sample consisted of 203 students from the Health School of Viseu. Mostly female students gender; Mean age of 18.85 years, minimum of 18 and maximum of 34; Gender and having been a victim or witness of violence against children and sexual violence are variables that seem to intervene in dating violence and psychological well-being. Age has an influence on psychological well-being. Stalking violence and psychological violence were more prevalent in the study sample. It was found that the presence of any type of violence is associated with a decrease in student psychological well-being. By analysing the results we can infer the need to include this topic in education/training, active methodologies and effective participation of all stakeholders in the process, with a view to promoting and developing relationship and affective skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; Givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. This is a descriptive-comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann-Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year nursing course. Including spiritual care in the curriculum of
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive–comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann–Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Results: Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. Conclusions: The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year
Full Text Available Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled. Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE on modified Borg′s scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions. Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000, RPE (P value < 0.000, recovery time (P value < 0.000 and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000. Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults. Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient′s functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the
Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch
Full Text Available This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument applied to 183 Mexican teachers in the pilot test. Conclusions pint out to possible uses of this validated instrument for the design of strategies that favor the integral well-being of the future generations of teachers and a substantial improvement in the quality of education.
Hammell, Karen R Whalley
The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.
Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of mindfulness and its relationship to subjective well-being. The main objective of the study was the empirical confirmation of the relationship between mindfulness and components of hedonic model of subjective well-being. To this end, we held a correlation study with the participation of 94 men and 137 women (average age totaled 27.35 years. The participants filled out a questionnaire “Scale of life satisfaction” by E. Dinera, questionnaire" Mindfulness and awareness” as well as a modified version of the questionnaire "Scale differential emotions". A positive relationship of mindfulness and positive emotions, life satisfaction and the ratio of positive and negative emotions. We detected the negative relationship of negative emotions and mindfulness with life satisfaction. The obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies and suggest that there exists an interaction between emotional and cognitive processes.
Evans, Scotney D; Raymond, Catherine; Levine, Daniella
Traditional capacity-building approaches tend to be organizationally focused ignoring the fact that community-based organizations learn and take action in a larger network working to promote positive community change. The specific aim of this paper was to outline a vision for a Third Sector Alliance to build organizational, network, and sector capacity for community well-being in Miami. Building a foundation for social impact requires a strategy for organizational, network, and sector capacity building. Organizational, network, and sector capacity building can best be achieved through a cooperative network approach driven by a solid community-university partnership. Although a Third Sector Alliance for Community Well-being does not yet exist in Miami, Catalyst Miami and the University of Miami (UM) have partnered closely to articulate a vision of what could be and have been working to make that vision a reality.
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus
The present study investigated the workplace experiences of junior physicians in their first year of residency, and the impact of these experiences on their physical and psychological well-being. In a prospective longitudinal study 518 junior physicians (54.4% women, 45.6% men) were investigated twice within two years with regard to individual and institutional determinants of career development. Gender-relevant workplace experiences, i. e. effort-reward imbalance, and their relation to physical and psychological well-being, i. e. anxiety and depression, as well as life satisfaction were evaluated. The workplace experiences revealed three significant gender-specific results: Women residents received less mentoring, had more positive social relationships at work, and showed a higher over-commitment than their male colleagues. Both men and women residents reported significantly worse physical and psychological well-being as well as life satisfaction after their first year of residency (T2) compared to the time directly before their graduation from medical school (T1). The junior physicians' life satisfaction scores are significantly lower than those of the normal population. 7-10% of the respondents showed anxiety scores above cut-off, and 1-4% depression scores above cut-off. Personality traits such as a high sense of coherence and low expressiveness are protective factors for well-being and life satisfaction. Insufficient leadership of senior residents and unclear hierarchical structures as well as stress at work and over-commitment are risk factors for the development of symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. The reported results are consistent with the psychosocial stress model by Karasek and Theorell as well as with the model of effort-reward imbalance of Siegrist.
Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch; Yutzil Tania Cadena Pedraza; María del Carmen Romero Sánchez; Monica Georgina Cinco Basurto
This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and va...
Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang
Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...
Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Beauchamp, Mark R; Miller, Andrew; Lonsdale, Chris; Parker, Philip; Dally, Kerry
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention on psychological well-being in adolescent boys and to examine the potential mediating mechanisms that might explain this effect. ATLAS was evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools located in low-income communities (N = 361 adolescent boys, mean age = 12.7 ± .5 years). The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and involved: professional development for teachers, provision of fitness equipment to schools, enhanced school sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies for reducing screen time. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately post intervention (8 months). Psychological well-being was measured using the Flourishing Scale. Motivational regulations (intrinsic, identified, introjected, controlled, and amotivation) and basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in school sport, muscular fitness, resistance training skill competency, and recreational screen time were examined as potential mediating mechanisms of the intervention effect. The intervention effect on well-being was small but statistically significant. Within a multiple mediator model, changes in autonomy needs satisfaction, recreational screen time, and muscular fitness significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on psychological well-being. In addition to the physical health benefits, targeted physical activity programs for adolescent boys may have utility for mental health promotion through the mechanisms of increasing autonomy support and muscular fitness and reducing screen time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peternel, Lana; Sujoldžić, Anita
This study focuses on the middle school students in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. The survey was designed to examine adolescent eating behavior as it relates to body image and psychological well-being (self-esteem, life-satisfaction and stress) in relation to body mass index; BMI. Differences among participants in food intake were examined according to demographic variables and eating behavior (regular food intake or dieting) as well. Psychological variables were highly associated with die...
Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.
Ratanasiripong, Paul; Wang, Chia-Chih D C
The psychological well-being of nursing students is a very important component in the training and development of future nurses. While previous studies have explored different aspects of nursing students' mental and psychological health in various countries, they have given little attention to comparing nursing students with their non-nursing student peers. The present study investigated the differences between nursing students and non-nursing students in Thailand with regard to their psychological well-being. The gender effect was also examined. Four hundred students were included in this study (200 nursing students and 200 non-nursing students). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and four psychological instruments that examined their self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and social difficulties. Overall, compared to their non-nursing counterparts, nursing students were found to score significantly higher on self-esteem and life satisfaction and reported lower levels of depression and social difficulties. Gender was also found to have a significant main effect on participants' social difficulties. Several recommendations for improving the mental health and psychological well-being of nursing students are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status.A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42 and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants.In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years, educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years, educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction.Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.
Ozcakir, Alis; Oflu Dogan, Fatma; Cakir, Yakup Tolga; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan
The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status. A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42) and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants. In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction. Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.
Sels, Laura; Ceulemans, Eva; Bulteel, Kirsten; Kuppens, Peter
Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64%) did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction) or even negatively (empathic concern) related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects) accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects). Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions. PMID:27014114
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss how everyday life changes for the family in the event of chronic illness or disability. It changes physically due to loss of body function and socially due to time and other constraints related to treatment or lack of mobility. Equally important, there is a psychological impact due to the uncertainty of the future. The article will explore how family participation can help to maintain well-being in everyday life. The family should therefore focus on their own needs as much as on the needs of the family members who are ill. In order to maintain well-being in everyday life, it is crucial for the family to create routines and spend time doing things that they enjoy. By doing this, the family will create a rhythm of well-being regardless of the critical family situation. Family members and professional caregivers also need to come together at the beginning and during the illness or disability event to discuss changes that could be made day-to-day for all those involved, thereby making for an easier transition into care giving.
Full Text Available Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64% did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction or even negatively (empathic concern related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects. Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions.
Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Robinson, Elizabeth; Fleming, Theresa; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Grant, Sue
The current study describes the relationships between family meals and family connectedness, parental monitoring and parent-child communication and determines if frequent family meals are associated with better mental well-being and fewer risk-taking behaviours among adolescents. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of secondary school students in New Zealand (n = 9107). Frequent family meals were positively associated with better indicators of family relationships (P family meals were significantly associated with higher well-being scores (P family connectedness, parental monitoring and parental communication. Our findings suggest that family meals may provide a unique opportunity for building stronger families and young people. Creating environments where frequent family meals are normative, valued and feasible for families may result in benefits for young people that extend beyond good nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Weiss, Alexander; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hong, Kyung-Won; Inoue, Eiji; Udono, Toshifumi; Ochiai, Tomomi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; King, James E
We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies, older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not affected by the culture of the raters.
Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W
The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.
Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.
Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
Education as a phenomenon is rather complex which makes it difficult to define its quality. Definitions of quality must be open to change and evolution based on information, changing contexts, and new understandings of the nature of education's challenges. The main objective of the paper is to find out the significance of quality education for…
An intervention was carried out with primary school staff to promote well-being with weekly sessions of a project which became known as Chill and Chat. Data were gathered via questionnaires completed before and after the project and from three focus groups (before, during and after the intervention), and were analysed using thematic analysis.…
Kuykendall, Lauren; Tay, Louis
Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning-an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.
Homeless treatment programs have focused on physical solutions rather than attending to all aspects of well-being. Support services that address overall well-being have demonstrated effectiveness. Previous research suggests that overall well-being is defined as satisfaction within all life spheres. Objective life indices have been the primary evidence of success among various programs, which include food, housing, income, leisure, health, access to psychiatric and medical services, and maintenance of positive support networks. This does not account for other important subjective components, such as psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. This study was designed to assess quality of life and psychiatric symptoms among the people who were chronically and formerly chronically homeless. The people who were formerly chronically homeless are defined as individuals who were chronically homeless in the past but have successfully remained in housing for 6 months or more and have access to intensive case management services. People who are chronically homeless are homeless individuals who have lacked a residence for a year or more or have had four or more episodes in three years, are single, and have a persistent disability. Participants completed the Oxford Happiness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and a brief questionnaire. All participants were disabled in accordance with the definition of chronic homelessness adopted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. This researcher hypothesized that high quality-of-life scores, low frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and greater access to basic life indices indicate happiness overall. Additionally, it was hypothesized that people who are chronically homeless have a higher foster care rate than the general population.
Ulrich, Marianne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Jensen, Claus
AIM: To study health, well-being in daily life, educational level and socio-economic status in adulthood in moderately premature infants and the relationship to gender and socio-economic status at birth. METHODS: Prospective long-term follow-up study of a cohort of infants with a gestational age...... educational level at birth with no demonstrable effects due to gestation or gender. CONCLUSION: Moderately premature infants, born before the era of intensive care, at the age of 32 years with regard to health, quality of life, education and social status proved to fare as well as their term counterparts....
Karling, J; Pyper, T
Both traditional group practices and IPAs have felt the impact of changes brought about by managed care. Group practices need to ensure that their financial reporting and cost-accounting methods capture information that is key to decision making. An independent assessment of financial procedures helps identify any outstanding issues and maintain financial well-being. This assessment should be conducted at least quarterly so that potential problems can be resolved, income opportunities explored, and cost-saving measures adopted in a timely manner.
Pantzar, Mika; Shove, Elizabeth
Kulutus ja vapaa-ajan talous ovat nousseet useissa länsimaissa elinkeinopoliittisen keskustelun huomion kohteeksi viime vuosina. Talouden kasvu on nähty yhä enemmän tapahtuvan ns. elämystalouden ja viihdeteollisuuden virittämänä. Manufacturing leisure - Innovations in happiness, well-being and fun lähestyy vapaa-ajan klusteria kuluttajien vapaa-ajan käytäntöjen näkökulmasta. Saksalaiset, englantilaiset ja suomalaiset tutkijat pyrkivät vastaamaan muun muassa seuraaviin kysymyksiin: · Minkälais...
Ilona BONIWELL; Evgeny OSIN
In this review questions such as “What is a good use of time?”, “How can one achieve satisfaction with their time?” and “How can one’s relationship with time contribute to their well-being?” are raised and discussed with regard to empirical research on various aspects of positive psychology of time. This paper differs from traditional approach to thinking about time in organisations in three substantial ways. Firstly, it reviews the existing empirical research on time use, focusin...
Full Text Available This commentary reviews the contributions of the 6 papers to the emerging focus on migration within community psychology. This collection of articles on migration and community represents a growing interest in the field in immigration issues in general, and a community psychology focus on these issues in particular. The papers span a range of issues raised by migration in a variety of different contexts. The papers reflect principles of community psychology by articulating a perspective on migration and its outcomes within national and global contexts. Taken together, these articles demonstrate the increasing mutual enrichment of immigration and community research. The articles suggest the need to continue to articulate psychological constructs as transactional and contextual across multiple levels of analysis.
This commentary reviews the contributions of the 6 papers to the emerging focus on migration within community psychology. This collection of articles on migration and community represents a growing interest in the field in immigration issues in general, and a community psychology focus on these issues in particular. The papers span a range of issues raised by migration in a variety of different contexts. The papers reflect principles of community psychology by articulating a perspective on mi...
‘North’ (Denmark). Despite increase in numbers, intermarried couples are still almost invisible as a statistical category and in psychosocial services in the Danish context. The theoretical framework combines intersectionality approach, with life course perspective and the everyday life practices....... Implications for relevant mental health promotion and counselling for distressed couples are also included. Keywords: intermarried couples, visible ethnically different couples. intersectionality approach, gender positions, structural barriers, health promotion...
Veitch, Jennifer A
People spend much of their waking time in their workplaces (approximately 33% on a weekly basis), which raises the possibility that the conditions they experience at work influence their health and well-being. The workplace design literature has given scant attention to mental health outcomes, instead focusing on healthy populations. Conversely, the mental health literature gives scant attention to the potential contribution of workplace design in preventing mental health problems; nor does it provide much insight into facilitating return to work. Taken together, however, the literature does suggest both lines of research and possible interventions. Existing knowledge proposes that workplace design can influence mental health via the effects of light exposure on circadian regulation, social behaviour and affect; the effects of aesthetic judgement on at-work mood and physical well-being and at-home sleep quality; access to nature and recovery from stressful experiences; and privacy regulation and stimulus control. This paper includes a short review of the literature in this area, proposals for new research directions and consideration of the implications of this information on the design choices made by business owners, designers and facility managers. Providing suitable working conditions for all employees avoids stigmatizing employees who have mental health problems, while facilitating prevention and return to work among those who do. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religious meaning and subjective well-being. A major emphasis is placed on assessing race differences in the relationship between these constructs. Interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of older White and older Black adults. Survey items were administered to assess a sense of meaning in life that is derived specifically from religion. Subjective well-being was measured with indices of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The findings suggest that older adults who derive a sense of meaning in life from religion tend to have higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The data further reveal that older Black adults are more likely to find meaning in religion than older White adults. In addition, the relationships among religious meaning, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism tend to be stronger for older African Americans persons than older White persons. Researchers have argued for some time that religion may be an important source of resilience for older Black adults, but it is not clear how these beneficial effects arise. The data from this study suggest that religious meaning may be an important factor.
Anttonen, Hannu; Vainio, Harri
The "Towards Better Work and Well-being" conference, held in Helsinki in February 2010, was attended by 190 participants from 34 countries. During the Conference 12 keynote presentations and 57 oral and 47 poster communications were given. The conference was arranged by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in cooperation with the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health as well as with the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy. The Conference was supported by the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion, the European Network Education and Training in Occupational Health and Safety, and the European Technology Platform on Industrial Safety. The aim of the Conference was to provide an opportunity to discuss strategies and tools for promotion of health and well-being at work and its effect on productivity. The main topics of the Conference were scientific and practical evidence; management and good practices--better productivity; workplace as an arena for health and safety promotion; and expert services and policies.
Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona
In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.
Full Text Available The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosomatic functioning, a holistic approach would become possible. Results of public data will be discussed as a way of expanding the explanation framework. Also a theoretical framework will be presented so that all these would have a meaning for practitioners. Finally, acknowledging the fact that the environments’ benefits have been known and consciously used for human growth in several aspects, as in yoga or martial arts, some recent application will be discussed such as those in psychotherapy (nature psychotherapy or unification experiential psychotherapy.
Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.
Kandolin, I; Härmä, M; Toivanen, M
Flexibility of working hours became more prevalent in the 1990s in Finland. According to a representative survey on Finnish wage and salary earners (n = 1790) at the beginning of 2000, a great majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees regularly worked overtime and/or had irregular working hours every month. These employees were flexible in meeting the needs of their companies/employers. Individual flexibility of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees were able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and had more conflicts in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.
Magee, Carly; Biesanz, Jeremy C
Although there is a robust connection between dispositional personality traits and well-being, relatively little research has comprehensively examined the ways in which all Big Five personality states are associated with short-term experiences of well-being within individuals. To address three central questions about the nature of the relationship between personality and well-being states: First, to what extent do personality and well-being states covary within individuals? Second, to what extent do personality and well-being states influence one another within individuals? Finally, are these within-person relationships moderated by dispositional personality traits and well-being? Two experience sampling studies (N = 161 and N = 146) were conducted over two weeks. Across both studies all Big Five personality states were correlated with short term experiences of well-being within individuals. Individuals were more extraverted, emotionally stable, conscientious, agreeable and open in moments when they experienced higher well-being (greater self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect and less negative affect). Moreover, personality and well-being states dynamically influenced one another over time within individuals and these associations were not generally moderated by dispositional traits or well being. Behaviour and well-being are inter-connected within the context of the Big Five model of personality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hawker, Clare L
There is strong evidence that suggests physical activity can enhance mental well-being. However, this relationship has not been widely investigated in student nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between physical activity and mental well-being in undergraduate student nurses (n=215). Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Other outcomes included self-esteem, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. Almost, a quarter (23.8%) of the total sample, were meeting the Department of Health's physical activity guideline. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.0 with 40% being in the overweight to morbidly obese category. Self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with total physical activity (r=0.16, p=0.038) and moderate intensity activity (r=0.17, p=0.021). No other significant relationships were found between anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life and physical activity. Outcome expectations for exercise and self-efficacy were significantly positively correlated with moderate (r=0.17, p=0.019) and vigorous (r=0.28, p=0.000) intensity activity and total physical activity (r=0.29, p=0.000). BMI was significantly positively correlated with age (r=0.242, p=0.001), significantly negatively correlated with self-efficacy for exercise (r=0.257, p=0.000) and satisfaction with life (r=-0.144, p=0.041). Regression analysis showed that low self efficacy for exercise and increasing age were significant predictors of BMI with a small effect size r(2)=0.126, adjusted r(2)=0.112. BMI and physical activity variables collectively explained only 2% of the variance for anxiety, 4% for depression, 5% for self esteem and 6% for satisfaction with life. BMI was a significant predictor of satisfaction with life (Beta=-0.171, p=0.027). Participation in physical activity may be influential in improving mental well-being in student nurses. Promoting physical
Chana, Navtej; Kennedy, Paul; Chessell, Zoë J
To examine the relationships between structural factors (work stressors), individual factors (demographics and the personal resources of resilience and social support) and transactional factors (appraisals and coping), and nursing staffs' levels of burnout, psychological distress and caring behaviours. A further aim was to examine the relationships between nursing staffs' levels of burnout and psychological distress and their caring behaviours. Burnout and psychological distress levels have been found to be high in National Health Service nursing staff and furthermore this emotional distress has been found to affect patient care. In a National Health Service striving to provide high-quality patient-centred care, it is essential that factors affecting nursing staffs' well-being and their caring behaviours are examined. A cross-sectional correlation-based survey design. A sample of 102 nursing staff from an Acute National Health Service Trust were recruited in 2010. Participants completed the questionnaires: Nursing Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire-Short Form, Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale-2, Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Scale for Nurses, PsychNurse Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Caring Behaviours Inventory-revised. Due to the nonparametric nature of part of the data, Spearman's Rho correlations were used for analysis. Demographics were not found to be regularly correlated with nursing staffs' burnout, psychological distress or caring behaviours. Work stressors, coping strategies and self-efficacy were found to be significantly correlated with nursing staffs' burnout and psychological distress. Caring behaviours were also correlated with coping strategies and self-efficacy. Importantly, correlations were found between caring behaviours and nursing staffs' burnout and psychological distress. It is extremely important that the emotional well-being of nursing staff is supported, both for them, and
Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena
Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller
In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified...... and institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. Itwas successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue...... that facilitation makes study groups more inclusive, and they provide the potential for deep learning by structuring the learning situation...
Full Text Available Introduction: Physician health and well-being is an important issue that ultimately affects job performance. We compared the self-reported incidence of known medical issues, physical and mental health symptoms, and health behaviors of Emergency Physicians (EPs with the general public in the United States. Methods: Questions selected from a national survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC about public health trends were distributed to via Facebook to a private group of 12,917 EPs. Responses were compared between EPs and the general population using Chi-square tests of independence. Results: Our results demonstrated that EPs suffer less from chronic diseases, especially those related to the cardiopulmonary system; however, they suff er from a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain and infectious disease complaints. EPs also exhibit higher rates of mental health symptoms, sleep-related complications, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Awareness, education, and advocacy may help improve physician health and ultimately job performance.
This article describes some innovative approaches to understanding, measuring and attributing value to traditional wisdom in Vanuatu. The article uses decolonising methodologies to privilege indigenous perspectives. In particular, the study features the use of endogenous practices, such as sand drawing, as a vehicle for facilitating community engagement in the research. The results of the project reveal that, in the context of broad structural support for customary practices, communities leveraging traditional wisdom into commercial realms are able to generate livelihoods and maintain cultural heritage transmission. Local communities report increased pride and pleasure in the resurgence and innovation of cultural practices. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Simpson, Lynn; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Dudiak, Kika M; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Henrichsen, Tara L; Meyer, Benjamin J; Nyberg, David A; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis
Although there is limited evidence that antepartum testing decreases the risk for fetal death in low-risk pregnancies, women with high-risk factors for stillbirth should undergo antenatal fetal surveillance. The strongest evidence supporting antepartum testing pertains to pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. The main ultrasound-based modalities to determine fetal health are the biophysical profile, modified biophysical profile, and duplex Doppler velocimetry. In patients at risk for cardiovascular compromise, fetal echocardiography may also be indicated to ensure fetal well-being. Although no single antenatal test has been shown to be superior, all have high negative predictive values. Weekly or twice-weekly fetal testing has become the standard practice in high-risk pregnancies. The timing for the initiation of assessments of fetal well-being should be tailored on the basis of the risk for stillbirth and the likelihood of survival with intervention. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoonpongsimanont, W; Murphy, M; Kim, C H; Nasir, D; Compton, S
Emergency medicine (EM) residents are exposed to many work-related stressors, which affect them both physically and emotionally. It is unknown, however, how EM residents perceive the effect of these stressors on their well-being and how often they use unhealthy coping mechanisms to manage stress. To evaluate EM residents' perceptions of stressors related to their overall well-being and the prevalence of various coping mechanisms. An online survey instrument was developed to gauge resident stress, satisfaction with current lifestyle, stress coping mechanisms and demographics. A stratified random sample of EM residents from three postgraduate years (PGY-I, PGY-II and PGY-III) was obtained. Descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare residents across PGY level. There were 120 potential participants in each of the three PGYs. The overall response rate was 30% (109) with mean age of 30 and 61% were male. On a 0-4 scale (0 = completely dissatisfied), respondents in PGY-I reported significantly less satisfaction with lifestyle than those in PGY-II and III (mean rating: 1.29, 1.66 and 1.70, respectively; P stress categories: work relationships (1.37), work environment (1.10) and response to patients (1.08). Residents reported exercise (94%), hobbies (89%) and use of alcohol (71%) as coping methods. Residents reported low satisfaction with current lifestyle. This dissatisfaction was unrelated to perceived work-related stress. Some undesirable coping methods were prevalent, suggesting that training programs could focus on promotion of healthy group activities.
This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.
Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces. The surveillance was undertaken online and the data were encrypted and personal identifiers removed. The four clinical measures were Goldberg Anxiety/Depression Scale, Professional Quality of Life and Impact of Events (extended). Eighty-two per cent of 2798 CAIs returned questionnaires. There was a statistically significant relationship between all four clinical symptoms and workability (P < 0.001), between tenure and primary trauma (P < 0.01) and between anxiety, depression, primary trauma and workability and adverse childhood experience (ACE) scores (P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that workability, tenure and ACE scores explained between 12 and 23% of the variance. There were gender differences with women having higher levels of symptoms; however, the effect size and clinical significance were negligible for all but the primary trauma scores. Psychological surveillance can provide an important source of evidence for occupational health practitioners working with CAIs in informing them of the factors which could be considered in selecting, training, supporting and retaining officers and staff. Psychological surveillance can also help police management to identify ways to monitor the long-term effectiveness and well-being of CAIs.
Parker, Gordon B; Hyett, Matthew P
Because there has been a lack of a single comprehensive measure for assessing workplace well-being, we elected to develop such a self-report measure. Provisional items were extracted from the literature on "positive psychology" and were adapted to capture their workplace application. The provisional 50-item set was completed by a nonclinical sample of 150 adults. A second and third sample was recruited to examine its reliability and any impact of depressed mood and sociodemographic and work-related variables, respectively. Factor analysis identified four domains, "Work Satisfaction," "Organizational Respect for the Employee," "Employer Care," and a negative construct-"Intrusion of Work into Private Life." High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for the final 31-item measure, whereas there was no distinct impact of depressed mood on the scale scores. Work Satisfaction scale scores were influenced by job type. Gender effects were found for two of the four scales, whereas a longer period of employment inversely linked to Organizational Respect for the Employee and Employer Care scores and was conversely associated with higher Intrusion of Work into Private Life scores. The refined measure should enable individuals and employers to quantify the levels of support and well-being provided by employing organizations.
Ravalier, J M; Wegrzynek, P; Lawton, S
A variety of workplace-based interventions exist to reduce stress and increase productivity. However, the efficacy of these interventions is sometimes unclear. To determine whether complementary therapies offered in the workplace improve employee well-being. We performed a systematic literature review which involved an electronic search of articles published between January 2000 and July 2015 from the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and PubMed. We also undertook a manual search of all applicable article reference lists to ensure that no relevant studies were missed. We only selected published, full-length, English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Articles had to address the research objective using valid and reliable measures. We excluded articles concerning return to work or whose populations had been adversely affected by work resulting in the development of health issues. We included 10 articles in the review from 131 identified. Mindfulness and meditation-based interventions were most effective in improving workplace health and work performance; the latter demonstrating some evidence of maintaining gains up to 3 months later. The evidence for relaxation interventions was inconclusive. Mindfulness and meditation interventions may be helpful in improving both psychosocial workplace health and work performance, but long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Demiris, George; Wouters, Eveline
Smart homes, home automation and ambient-assisted living are terms used to describe technological systems that enrich our living environment and provide means to support care, facilitate well-being and improve comfort. This handbook provides an overview of the domain from the perspective of health care and technology. In Part 1, we set out to describe the demographic changes in society, including ageing, and diseases and impairments which lead to the needs for technological solutions. In Part 2, we describe the technological solutions, ranging from sensor-based networks, components, to communication protocols that are used in the design of smart homes. We also deal will biomedical features which can be measured, and services that can be delivered to end-users as well as the use of social robots. In Part 3, we present best practices in the field. These best practices mainly focus on existing projects in Europe, the USA and Asia, in which people receive help through dedicated technological solutions being p...
Liu, Pan; Tov, William; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Qiu, Lin
Nowadays, millions of people around the world use social networking sites to express everyday thoughts and feelings. Many researchers have tried to make use of social media to study users' online behaviors and psychological states. However, previous studies show mixed results about whether self-generated contents on Facebook reflect users' subjective well-being (SWB). This study analyzed Facebook status updates to determine the extent to which users' emotional expression predicted their SWB-specifically their self-reported satisfaction with life. It was found that positive emotional expressions on Facebook did not correlate with life satisfaction, whereas negative emotional expressions within the past 9-10 months (but not beyond) were significantly related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that both the type of emotional expressions and the time frame of status updates determine whether emotional expressions in Facebook status updates can effectively reflect users' SWB. The findings shed light on the characteristics of online social media and improve the understanding of how user-generated contents reflect users' psychological states.
Hoffner, Cynthia A; Lee, Sangmi
This study examined the use of mobile phones to regulate negative emotions, considering both the role of different aspects of phone use and individual differences in emotion regulation strategies. A total of 287 young adult smartphone users completed an online survey that addressed use of mobile phones for negative emotion regulation. They responded to a phone loss scenario by rating how much they would miss various uses/functions of the phone (which could be involved in emotion regulation). Habitual use of reappraisal to regulate emotion was associated with missing both interpersonal contact and social support, but not access to entertainment/information. In contrast, habitual use of emotion suppression was associated only with missing entertainment/information content. Regulating negative emotions via mobile phone was associated with missing all three uses/functions of the phone, but perception that the phone was effective in remediating negative emotion was associated only with missing social support. Well-being was related to greater use and perceived effectiveness of the mobile phone for emotion regulation. Overall, this study demonstrates that mobile phones can yield psychological benefits, depending on how they are used. Findings suggest that using the phone for social support is most likely to lead to effective remediation of negative emotion. Interpretations and implications of the findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.
Using the experience sampling method and survey data from the 500 Family Study this study examined how parents feel when they spend time with their children and whether their emotional experiences differ by type of activity and the parent's gender. I found that mothers spent more time in childcare than fathers but this disparity was primarily due to mothers' more frequent engagement in activities that were not child-centered (i.e., non-focused and passive childcare). Multilevel models further showed that engagement in these activities was related to higher positive affect. Shared meals and leisure activities were particularly beneficial to parents' emotional well-being and the likelihood of engaging in them was not affected by parents' paid work hours. By contrast, routine childcare was associated with increased stress and lower engagement but only among mothers. Mothers were also less likely to provide childcare in conjunction with their spouse. These findings reveal the subtle dimensions of the unequal division of childcare by gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.
Strickhouser, Jason E; Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan
To derive a robust and comprehensive estimate of the overall relation between Big Five personality traits and health variables using metasynthesis (i.e., second-order meta-analysis). Thirty-six meta-analyses, which collectively provided 150 meta-analytic effects from over 500,000 participants, met criteria for inclusion in the metasynthesis. Information on methodological quality as well as the type of health outcome, unreliability adjustment, population sampled, health outcome source, personality source, and research design was extracted from each meta-analysis. An unweighted model was used to aggregate data across meta-analyses. When entered simultaneously, the Big Five traits were moderately associated with overall health (multiple R = .35). Personality-health relations were larger when examining mental health outcomes than physical health outcomes or health-related behaviors and when researchers adjusted for measurement unreliability, used self-report as opposed to other-report Big Five scales, or focused on clinical as opposed to nonclinical samples. Further, effects were larger among agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism than extraversion or openness to experience. This metasynthesis provides among the most compelling evidence to date that personality predicts overall health and well-being. In addition, it may inform research on the mechanisms by which personality impacts health as well as research on the structure of personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Drake, Charles L.
In the symposium on Earth Sciences and Society at the Spring AGU Meeting May 29-June 1, Baltimore, Md.), I was assigned to speak on the maintenance of excellence and national well-being in the Earth sciences. I developed serious writer's block every time I approached the topic until I remembered a paragraph at the beginning of Doug Adams' great text, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe [Adams, 1982]. It tells how [A race of highly intelligent pan-dimensional beings once built themselves a gigantic supercomputer called Deep Thought to calculate once and for all the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, Universe and Everything. For seven and a half million years, Deep Thought computed and calculated, and in the end announced that the answer was in fact Forty-two—and so another, even bigger, computer had to be built to find out what the actual question was. And this computer, which was called the Earth, was so large that it was frequently mistaken for a planet-especially by the strange apelike beings who roamed its surface, totally unaware that they were simply part of a gigantic computer program. And this is very odd, because without that fairly simple and obvious piece of knowledge, nothing that ever happened on the Earth could possibly make the slightest bit of sense.
Wadsworth, E J K; Chaplin, K S; Smith, A P
Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. To consider the effect sizes seen at different ends of job characteristic dimensions and to compare the impact of the presence and absence of job characteristics in association with mental health and well-being outcomes. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.
Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke
To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Survey response rate of 51% (102/199). Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS) and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS). Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors); similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.
Bae, Wonyul; Ik Suh, Young; Ryu, Jungsu; Heo, Jinmoo
The objective of this study was to identify the interconnectedness of different intensity levels of physical activity and psychological (life satisfaction and positive affect) and physical (physical health) well-being. Participants were from the National Study of Midlife in the United States with assessments in 2004 and aged 25 to 74 living in the United States were included in the analyses. We conducted bivariate correlations to examine significant relationships among the study variables. In addition, after multicollinearity among the independent variable was checked, a series of hierarchical regression analyses with physical health, positive affect, and life satisfaction as criterion variables were conducted. The results showed that light physical activities were positively associated with physical health and life satisfaction in summer, whereas light physical activities and all dependent variables were positively correlated in winter. Furthermore, engaging in moderate physical activities was positively related only with physical health. Meanwhile, vigorous physical activities were not associated with life satisfaction, physical health, and positive affect in summer and winter.
Lakatos, Enikő; Szabó, Gábor; F Szigeti, Judit; Balog, Piroska
10 to 15% of the Hungarian fertile age population struggles with reproductivity problems. Previous researches have shown that psychological well-being and lifestyle factors play a pivotal role in overall health status, which is closely related to fertility. The aim of the study was to examine fertility-related psychological and lifestyle factors in a Hungarian sample. 194 women (115 infertile and 79 fertile) took part in the study. Standardized, validated questionnaires were used for the assessment of psychological factors and self-administered questions were used for exploring lifestyle factors. The results show that infertile women are younger (33.98±4.89 vs. 36.43±5.81 years, pfertile counterparts. The number of their depressive (BDI 14.00±12.21 vs. 7.79±9.17, p40.25±10.65, pfertile women. Findings related to lifestyle factors show that lower level of fluid consumption (1.71±0.67 vs. 1.95±0.68, pfertile group (OR = 1.65, CI = 2.58-1.06), independently of body mass index and age. The results confirm the findings of international researches showing that women struggling with infertility are in worse psychological condition than their fertile counterparts. The authors conclude that the findings demand further investigations and follow-up studies in order to more specifically determine the relationship between fluid consumption and fertility.
Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjœrg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn
The study assessed the association between well-being, work-environment and employees? health among the personnel in savings- and other banks? branches with reference to whether they had been exposed to bullying at work. A questionnaire based on the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work was sent to all employees (N=1847) in the spring of 2002. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical package. The response rate was 80% with 1475 employees returning the questionnaire. Women were 86% (n=1192) of the responders. About 15% of the employees (n=209) had experienced some form of harassment in connection with work. The majority of those had experienced bullying (8% (n=110)). The victims of bullying were more likely to have poor psychosocial work-environment and were less likely to have experienced a positive relationship with supervisors and other staff. There was only minimal association between bullying and seeking medical attention for a selected number of medical conditions. The victims of bullying were more likely to have experienced significant stress recently (p=0.025), to be mentally exhausted at the end of the workday (p=0.013), to have significant sleep difficulties (p=0.001), and poor mental health (pworkplace, that they will quit their job. In light of this it is of importance to study the experience of bullying among those receiving benefits due to long-term sickness absence or disability.
Karimi, Leila; Karimi, Hamidreza; Nouri, Aboulghassem
The present study examined the effects of two models of work–family conflict (WFC) and job-strain on the job-related and context-free well-being of employees. The participants of the study consisted of Iranian employees from a variety of organizations. The effects of three dimensions of the job-strain model and six forms of WFC on affective well-being were assessed. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the number of working hours, strain-based work interfering with family life (WIF) along with job characteristic variables (i.e. supervisory support, job demands and job control) all make a significant contribution to the prediction of job-related well-being. On the other hand, strain-based WIF and family interfering with work (FIW) significantly predicted context-free well-being. Implications are drawn and recommendations made regarding future research and interventions in the workplace.
Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl
Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.
Full Text Available The concept of cosmetotextiles, as another aspect of new beauty and health marques a growing success. This hybrid fabric, is definite as a textile article that contains a substance that is release sustainable on the human body skin pointed to perfume, change of appearance, maintenance in good condition, protection, or correction of body odors. Cosmetotextiles are created by microencapsulating different substances for body care or health, that are gradually transfer to the skin, by movement, pressure or the effect of the skin’s natural warmth and enzymes. The paper presents some elements regarding to the microencapsulating process (the major components of them general structure, the major advantages compare to usual presentation of cosmetic substances, some of the used active ingredients and them specific cosmetic and health benefits and the new generation of cosmetotextiles that bring together the latest innovations in fiber and textile structures and products. So, one of the manufacturing processes of a cosmetotextile is based on functionalisation of fibers by fixing microcapsules in them structure, resulting fibers as Novorel, Tencel C, Nilit Breeze, Emana, or by the functionalisation of fabrics, so of products made by these fabrics, where microcapsules are fixed on the external surface of the fabric, resulting in revolutionary “fabrics’ treatments” for beauty, health-care and well-being. Among these cosmeto fabrics and products are Sensitive Ultra Light Firming fabric, Sensitive Fabric Body ware, textile fabrics with the revolutionary Quiospheres technology, Doubleskin and different cosmeto-knitted products including specific placed areas with micro encapsulated ingredients, depending on them destinations (slimming, anti-cellulite treatment, corrective effect
Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G
To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Ploukou, Stella; Panagopoulou, Efharis
Nurses experience high levels of stress associated with the demands of their workplace. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common in this occupational group and the necessity of supportive actions is vital. This is especially true for nurses working in high intensity and demanding settings such as oncology units. This study examined the effects of a music intervention on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms of oncology nurses. Forty-eight oncology nurses, were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 22) attending four consecutive weekly 1-h music classes or a control group with no intervention (n = 26) who maintained their usual lifestyle habits, for one month. Intervention group played and improvised music using percussion instruments. Courses consisted of varied multitask exercises of progressive difficulty, sometimes involving team playing, or individual performances. Depression, anxiety, and physical symptoms were measured before and after the end of the intervention. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychosomatic symptoms were assessed with Pennebaker Inventory οf Limbic Languidness. Anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms significantly reduced for the intervention group at the end of the study. No statistical significant change was observed for the control group in any of the three psychological indicators. The findings of our study highlight the fact that music can be a cost-effective resource in developing interventions to reduce stress and improve well-being. Playing music can be the next step for further investigation, since we already know that listening to music is beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Collins, Rebecca L; Strasburger, Victor C; Brown, Jane D; Donnerstein, Edward; Lenhart, Amanda; Ward, L Monique
Sexual content is highly prevalent in traditional media, and portrayals rarely depict the responsibilities and risks (eg, condom use, pregnancy) associated with sexual activity. Exposure to such content is linked with shifts in attitudes about sex and gender, earlier progression to sexual activity, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection among adolescents. However, little information is available about moderators and mediators of these effects. We also know little about digital media, their sex-related content, and their potential influence on youth. Data from a few studies of older youth indicate that sexual displays on social media sites are related to problematic beliefs and behaviors among those who post this content and among viewers. Online pornography appears to be more problematic for youth than off-line sources. Given the vast and increasing amount of time youth spend online and their developmental openness to influence, more research attention to digital sexual media is needed. Those who undertake this work should identify potential negative consequences of use and opportunities to improve adolescent sexual health through digital media. Studies of on- and off-line media in which researchers examine younger media audiences, identify processes explaining sexual media effects on behavior, and moderators of effects are needed. Such studies could be used to inform interventions to reduce negative outcomes and increase positive media effects. Policy makers should stimulate the development of such interventions, including tools to help parents identify and manage negative media influences on their children's sexual well-being and development and dissemination of innovative media literacy programs related to sexual health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance
Sanchez, Diana T; Himmelstein, Mary S; Young, Danielle M; Albuja, Analia F; Garcia, Julie A
Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experienced racial discrimination, confrontation was associated with greater psychological well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomy promotion. These findings did not extend to physical health symptoms. These studies provide preliminary evidence that confrontation may aid in the process of regaining autonomy after experiencing discrimination and therefore promote well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The impact of shift and night work on health shows a high inter- and intra-individual variability, both in terms of kind of troubles and temporal occurrence, related to various intervening factors dealing with individual characteristics, lifestyles, work demands, company organisation, family relations and social conditions. The way we define "health" and "well-being" can significantly influence appraisals, outcomes and interventions. As the goal is the optimisation of shiftworkers' health, it is necessary to go beyond the health protection and to act for health promotion. In this perspective, not only people related to medical sciences, but many other actors (ergonomists, psychologists, sociologists, educators, legislators, as well as shiftworkers themselves. Many models have been proposed aimed at describing the intervening variables mediating and/or moderating the effects; they try to define the interactions and the pathways connecting risk factors and outcomes through several human dimensions, which refer to physiology, psychology, pathology, sociology, ergonomics, economics, politics, and ethics. So, different criteria can be used to evaluate shiftworkers' health and well-being, starting from biological rhythms and ending in severe health disorders, passing through psychological strain, job dissatisfaction, family perturbation and social dis-adaptation, both in the short- and long-term. Consequently, it appears rather arbitrary to focus the problem of shiftworkers' health and tolerance only on specific aspects (e.g. individual characteristics, but a systemic approach appears more appropriate, able to match as many variables as possible, and aimed at defining which factors are the most relevant for those specific work and social conditions. This can support a more effective and profitable (for individuals, companies, and society adoption of preventive and compensative measures, that must refer more to "countervalues" rather than to
Full Text Available Our analysis reveals that well-being is higher among immigrants in northern Iceland with strong social capital and with some connections to local networks. Individuals often resort to individual rationale to explain their circumstances, their choices and their subsequent well-being. We begin the discussion by very briefly reviewing the literature on well-being and by introducing the context in which the study was realised. In the following section, we examine the relationship between feelings of well-being and the urban environment; then we explore the belief that opportunities are plentiful in this northern town, and finally look at the relationship between the social support of immigrants and their well-being.
Full Text Available The present study aims to present paradigm shifts from the authentic happiness theory (2002 to the well-being theory (2011, both developed in Positive Psychology by Martin Seligman. The well-being theory adds fulfillment and interpersonal relationships to the elements already included in the first theory (positive emotions, engagement and meaning, highlighting that well-being does not depend only on individual aspects but on issues related to context and interpersonal relationships. Whereas authentic happiness seeks life satisfaction, well-being aspires to flourishing - a more complex and dynamic construct. Well-being theory opens the possibility of developing public policies related to promotion of quality of life without ruling out the need for constant review of such approach.
van den Bosch, Ralph; Taris, Toon W
Previous research on authenticity has mainly focused on trait conceptualizations of authenticity (e.g., Wood et al., 2008), whereas in specific environments (e.g., at work) state conceptualizations of authenticity (cf. Van den Bosch & Taris, 2013) are at least as relevant. For example, working conditions are subject to change, and this could well have consequences for employees' perceived level of authenticity at work. The current study employs a work-specific, state-like conceptualization of authenticity to investigate the relations between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes. A series of ten separate hierarchical regression analyses using data from 685 participants indicated that after controlling for selected work characteristics and demographic variables, authenticity at work accounted for on average 11% of the variance of various wellbeing and work outcomes. Of the three subscales of authenticity at work (i.e., authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting influence), self-alienation was the strongest predictor of outcomes, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence, respectively. These findings are discussed in the light of their practical and theoretical implications.
Samarapungavan, Ala; Bryan, Lynn; Wills, Jamison
In this paper, we present a study of second graders' learning about the nature of matter in the context of content-rich, model-based inquiry instruction. The goal of instruction was to help students learn to use simple particle models to explain states of matter and phase changes. We examined changes in students' ideas about matter, the coherence…
Using Self Determination as a framework, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, self-esteem, subjective vitality, and social physique anxiety in physical education. One thousand and eighty two high school students aged between 14 and 19 [mean (M) = 15.89 ± 0.95 years]…
Lennarz, H.K.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Granic, I.
Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal
RTO-MP-HFM-205 religion and morals , the economy, politics and society, the environment, allocation of resources, contemporary social issues...Indicators Research, 97 (1), 7-21.  Brickman, P., & Campbell, D.T. (1971). Hedonic relativism and planning the good society. In M. H. Appley (Ed
Rania, Nadia; Siri, Anna; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sasso, Loredana
The psychological climate within organisations affects not only the behaviour and the attitude of group members, but also the performance of the group itself. According to the ecological model, this research examines how learning in different classroom contexts of the same nursing degree programme can affect academic performance, well-being, self-esteem and perceived climate. Four scales were used to assess students' perceptions by collecting primary data while academic performance was measured by obtaining students' academic records. A questionnaire completed by 391 first-year nursing students was administered. Differences were observed in the perceptions of climate and academic performance in different classroom contexts with trends, which did not always overlap; however, strong correlations were observed among self-esteem, well-being and climate, and schoolmate relationships. Universities should not merely train competent professionals but also build learning communities that support the well-being of relationships and the development of well-being contexts. The findings support the need for an educational intervention for improving the quality of life and well-being of the community and individual students. This type of intervention requires a 'compliant' organisational environment that puts studetns, teachers and professionals in the condition to practice their professional skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Westerhof, G.J.; Barrett, A.E.
Objectives. This article investigates the theoretical and empirical relationship between age identity and subjective well-being (SWB) in a cross-national context. Feeling younger than one's actual age is considered a self-enhancing illusion that contributes to SWB even beyond factors predicting age
Full Text Available The present study’s aims are twofold: to introduce job insecurity research in Peru, and to investigate the relationship between job insecurity and a broad range of well-being indicators, including optimal and impaired, and general and work-related well-being. We hypothesise that job insecurity (1 relates negatively to work-related optimal well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, career satisfaction and work engagement and positively to work-related impaired well-being (i.e., burnout, and (2 negatively to general optimal well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and positively to general impaired well-being (i.e., psychological distress. In 2008, we administered questionnaires to employees from eight organizations based in Metropolitan Lima, yielding a convenience sample of 651 respondents. We used hierarchical regression analyses and controlled for organizations, age, gender, job-related (e.g., occupational position and family-related (e.g., financial contribution to the household variables. Results supported our hypotheses. We conclude that job insecurity shows a strong association with impaired well-being. A particular strength of this study is that it is situated in Lima, Peru, and in a context of economic growth. It also contributes to understand the association of job insecurity with work-related well-being by including rarely studied variables such as career satisfaction, work engagement and burnout.
Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu S; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Radler, Barry T; Ryff, Carol D
This study investigated age differences in multiple aspects of psychological well-being among midlife and older adults in Japan (N = 482) and the United States (N = 3,032) to test the hypothesis that older Japanese adults would rate aspects of their well-being (personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations with others) more highly that older U.S. adults. Partial support was found: older adults in Japan showed higher scores on personal growth compared to midlife adults, whereas the opposite age pattern was found in the United States. However, purpose in life showed lower scores for older adults in both cultural contexts. Interpersonal well-being, as hypothesized, was rated significantly higher, relative to the overall well-being, among Japanese compared to U.S. respondents, but only among younger adults. Women in both cultures showed higher interpersonal well-being, but also greater negative affect compared with men. Suggestions for future inquiries to advance understanding of aging and well-being in distinct cultural contexts are detailed.
Martire, L M; Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L
Theorists have proposed that greater centrality (personal importance) of a social role is associated with better psychological well-being but that role centrality exacerbates the negative effects of stress in that same social role on well-being. The present study found evidence to support both hypotheses in a sample of 296 women who simultaneously occupied the roles of parent care provider, mother, wife, and employee. Greater centrality of all four roles was related to better psychological well-being. As predicted, wife centrality exacerbated the effects of wife stress on life satisfaction, and employee centrality exacerbated the effects of employee stress on depressive symptoms. Contrary to prediction, centrality of the mother role buffered women from the negative effects of mother stress on depressive symptoms. These findings point to an aspect of role identity that can benefit well-being but that has complex effects in the context of role stress.
Uchida, Yukiko; Kitayama, Shinobu; Mesquita, Batja; Reyes, Jose Alberto S; Morling, Beth
Previous studies show there is little or no association between perceived emotional support and well-being in European American culture. The authors hypothesized that this paradoxical absence of any benefit of perceived support is unique to cultural contexts that privilege independence rather than interdependence of the self. Study 1 tested college students and found, as predicted, that among Euro-Americans a positive effect of perceived emotional support on subjective well-being (positive affect) was weak and, moreover, it disappeared entirely once self-esteem was statistically controlled. In contrast, among Asians in Asia (Japanese and Filipinos) perceived emotional support positively predicted subjective well-being even after self-esteem was controlled. Study 2 extended Study 1 by testing both Japanese and American adults in midlife with respect to multiple indicators of well-being and physical health. Overall, the evidence underscores the central significance of culture as a moderator of the effectiveness of perceived emotional support.
Full Text Available Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning—an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.
Brown, Lydia; Bryant, Christina; Brown, Valerie; Bei, Bei; Judd, Fiona
A large body of work has investigated the relationship between menopausal factors and negative well-being (e.g. anxiety and depressive symptoms), but less is known about positive well-being and its correlates among midlife women. This study tests two models with both positive and negative well-being indices as outcomes: the first included menopausal factors as predictors; the second model expanded the first by adding self-compassion, a protective trait, as a predictor and moderator. Cross-sectional study based on self-report questionnaires from 206 women aged 40-60, currently experiencing hot flushes. Hot flush interference ratings, emotional balance, satisfaction with life, eudaimonic well-being and depressive symptoms. In model one, menopausal stage and hot flush frequency were independent of well-being outcomes. Beliefs about perceived control over menopause was the strongest predictor of well-being (β range: .22-.32), followed by hot flush interference ratings (β range: .15-.33). In model two, self-compassion was the strongest predictor of well-being indices (β range: .20-.39), followed by beliefs about control (β range: .16-.20) and interference ratings (β range: .17-.26). Psychological aspects of the menopause appear more strongly linked to well-being than physiological aspects such as menopausal stage and hot flush frequency. Specifically, self-compassion, feeling in control of menopause and low interference ratings are three factors that are associated with well-being among midlife women. These aspects could be considered in tandem, as a means to support well-being in the context of menopause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.
Barendregt, Charlotte S; van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
This study investigated the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem of male adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the transition out of secure residential care was studied. Adolescents ( N = 172) were assessed three times with 6 months between each assessment. The sample comprised adolescents who were admitted throughout the entire study ( n = 116) and who had been discharged at 6/12 months follow-up ( n = 56). General well-being and self-esteem were stable concepts over time. The relation between general well-being and self-esteem differed for both groups. Among the admitted group general well-being positively predicted self-esteem and self-esteem negatively predicted general well-being from Time 2 to Time 3. Among the discharged adolescents, self-esteem at Time 1 positively predicted general well-being at Time 2 and general well-being at Time 2 positively predicted self-esteem at Time 3. Changing social contexts, as well as problems experienced during the transition out of secure care, might affect this relationship.
Full Text Available Background Research on adults points to personality as a crucial determinant of well-being. The present study investigates the question of personality’s relation to well-being and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Methods We assessed the role of temperament and character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI-125, on psychological well-being (PWB; Psychological Well-Being scales, subjective well-being (SWB; Positive and Negative Affect, PA and NA, respectively, and psychosocial adjustment (emotional-behavioural problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for Adolescents, SDQ-A, in 72 Italian late adolescents (aged 17.5 ± 0.75. Multiple regressions were conducted to predict PWB, SWB, and SDQ-A scores using TCI-125 scales as predictors. Results Character maturity, and in particular Self-Directedness, had a widespread protective effect on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, while different strengths and emotional-behavioural difficulties were associated to specific temperamental and character traits. For example, Harm-Avoidance and Novelty-Seeking positively predicted internalized and externalized problems, respectively. Discussion The present results suggest the usefulness of continuing to evaluate temperament and, in particular, character dimensions in investigations focused on adolescents’ well-being and psychosocial functioning, especially in the contexts of potential interventions aimed at enhancing development of adolescents’ character dimensions at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal levels.
Crescentini, Cristiano; Garzitto, Marco; Paschetto, Andrea; Brambilla, Paolo; Fabbro, Franco
Research on adults points to personality as a crucial determinant of well-being. The present study investigates the question of personality's relation to well-being and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. We assessed the role of temperament and character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI-125), on psychological well-being (PWB; Psychological Well-Being scales), subjective well-being (SWB; Positive and Negative Affect, PA and NA, respectively), and psychosocial adjustment (emotional-behavioural problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for Adolescents, SDQ-A), in 72 Italian late adolescents (aged 17.5 ± 0.75). Multiple regressions were conducted to predict PWB, SWB, and SDQ-A scores using TCI-125 scales as predictors. Character maturity, and in particular Self-Directedness, had a widespread protective effect on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, while different strengths and emotional-behavioural difficulties were associated to specific temperamental and character traits. For example, Harm-Avoidance and Novelty-Seeking positively predicted internalized and externalized problems, respectively. The present results suggest the usefulness of continuing to evaluate temperament and, in particular, character dimensions in investigations focused on adolescents' well-being and psychosocial functioning, especially in the contexts of potential interventions aimed at enhancing development of adolescents' character dimensions at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal levels.
Kosher, Hanita; Ben-Arieh, Asher
Recent years have brought a growing social and public commitment to the promotion of children's rights and children's well-being around the world, and these have become important goals of all those striving to improve children's lives. In spite of the intimate ideological connection between the concepts of children's rights and children's well-being, they have evolved separately both theoretically and empirically. In the current article, we present a study exploring the empirical association between these 2 concepts based on data from the International Survey on Children's Well-Being. This unique survey explores children's own perspectives on their well-being (subjective well-being), their perceptions and knowledge of their rights, and their reports on their right to participation. It includes data from more than 54,000 children aged 8-12 from 16 countries around the world. Our results showed clear cross-national differences between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights and their reports on participation. Also, children's participation in different contexts in their lives showed an association with their subjective well-being; a weaker association was found between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights. These results indicate that children's right to participation and, to some degree, their knowledge and thinking about their rights is an indicator of their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Renner, Lynette M; Hartley, Carolyn Copps
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is often associated with negative mental health outcomes; yet, little is known about the psychological well-being of women who experience IPV and receive civil legal services. Civil legal services are not specifically designed to focus on women's mental health needs but Sullivan's Social and Emotional Well-Being Framework helps to explain why women receiving this type of formal assistance may demonstrate positive changes in psychological well-being. Using a panel study design and data from 85 women who experienced IPV and sought civil legal services, we examined women's psychological well-being over a one-year period of time. Approximately two thirds of the women received assistance from Iowa Legal Aid (ILA) for a civil protective order ( n = 56) and the rest were represented in a family law matter. We used measures of mental health (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) and well-being (social support, resilience, goal directed thinking, empowerment). Our hypotheses that women would experience a decrease in mental health symptoms and an increase in well-being were partially supported. Women reported a decrease in depressive and PTSD symptoms over one year but there were no changes in their goal-oriented thinking or resilience. Implications for practice and future research are included.
The theoretical analysis of the concepts of social capital and of social cohesion shows that social capital should be considered as a micro concept whereas social cohesion, being a broader concept than social capital, is a more appropriate concept for macro analysis. Therefore, we suggest that data on the individual level should only be used to…
Full Text Available We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems, while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems. However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.
Hamann, Maike; Biggs, Reinette; Reyers, Belinda
We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems), while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems). However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.
Langlais, Michael R.; Anderson, Edward R.; Greene, Shannon M.
Repartnering has been linked to health benefits for mothers, yet few studies have examined relationship quality in this context. According to the divorce-stress-adaptation perspective, relationship quality may influence the relationship between maternal well-being and dating after divorce. The current study examines the consequences of dating, relationship quality, and dating transitions (breaking up and dating new partners) on maternal well-being (negative affect and life satisfaction). Using monthly surveys completed by mothers over a two-year period after filing for divorce, we examined changes in intercepts and slopes of dating status and transitions for maternal well-being while also testing the effects of relationship quality. Mothers entering high-quality relationships were likely to report boosts in well-being at relationship initiation compared to single mothers and mothers entering low-quality relationships. Mothers entering lower-quality relationships were likely to report lower levels of well-being than single mothers. Dating transitions were associated with increases in well-being. Implications for maternal adjustment are discussed. PMID:27746511
Emanuel, Federica; Colombo, Lara; Ghislieri, Chiara
The theme of well-being and discomfort at work has attracted increasing interest in recent years. The present study, according to Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), inquires the effects of personal (optimism, internal locus of control) and organizational resources (job autonomy, supervisors and colleagues support) and general (work-to-family conflict, workload) and context specific demands (emotional dissonance) on emotional well-being and discomfort at work in call centre employees. This research was conducted through an online questionnaire, composed by measures present in scientific literature, filled out individually by call center agents (N = 507) of the same telecommunication firm. Data analysis (PASW 18) provides: descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions. Personal and organizational resources improve emotional well-being at work, except for colleagues support. Optimism and supervisors support reduce emotional discomfort at work. Among organizational demands, work-family conflict and emotional dissonance increase emotional discomfort at work and, to a lesser extent, reduce the emotional well-being at work. The results, according to theoretical model, highlight the different role of demands and resources on emotional well-being and discomfort at work. The results suggest organizational politics and investments to promote emotional well-being at work, in particular training program to support emotional skills, training for supervisors, increasing job autonomy and support to work-family balance.
Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to explain why well-being in the workplace is a theme of increasing interest and why many studies have analyzed its functioning and diffusion. From the literature on well-being it is evident that the findings of previous research are sometimes discordant and theoretical models particularly use diverse variables according to different needs and objectives. Despite the influence of a number of different factors, well-being can be studied by looking at three main aspects: physical well-being, mental health, and job satisfaction. The variables influencing it, however, are numerous and often analyzed from different perspectives. Methods of analysis vary across national and disciplinary contexts. The present work is based on a local survey of a small Italian district that investigates two hypotheses about the correlation between locus of control and variables determining work well-being (Spector et al., 2002 and the possibility of using perceptions and desires on the variables influencing well-being as predictors of it. We use the concepts of cybernetic theory and feedback loop (Edwards, 1992. Findings of statistical correlation and hierarchic regression are discussed; limitations and suggestions for further research are presented.
Hoffmeister, Krista; Gibbons, Alyssa; Schwatka, Natalie; Rosecrance, John
Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Today, hospitals offer surgical treatment within a short hospital admission. This brief interaction may challenge the well-being of old patients. The aim of this study was to explore how the well-being of old hospitalized patients was affected by the interaction with staff during a fast-track surgical treatment and hospital admission for colon cancer. We used an ethnographic methodology with field observations and unstructured interviews focusing on one patient at a time (n=9 during a full day; the hours ranging from 7:45 a.m. to 8 p.m. Participants were between 74 and 85 years of age and of both sexes. The study was reported to the Danish Data Protection Agency with reference number (2007-58-0010. The encounter between old patients and the staff was a main theme in our findings elucidating a number of care challenges. The identified care challenges illustrated “well-being as a matter of different perspectives,” “vulnerability in contrast to well-being,” and “staff mix influencing the care encounter.” The experience of well-being in old cancer patients during hospital admission was absent or challenged when staff did not acknowledge their individual vulnerability and needs.
Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y
To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community. Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity. This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.
Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda
In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female...
BOAS,ANA ALICE VILAS; MORIN,ESTELLE M.
Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental he...
Anna M. Zalewska; Agnieszka Zawadzka
Background The aim of the research is to analyse pleasant (subjective well-being – SWB) and meaningful life (Citizenship dimensions) in the context of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism (HI, VI) or Collectivism (HC, VC) values (individual beliefs) among adolescents living in the culture “in between individualism and collectivism”. Participants and procedure Second-year high (111) and secondary (98) school students filled in the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and ...
López-Walle, Jeanette; Balaguer, Isabel; Castillo, Isabel; Tristán, José
Based on Basic Needs Theory, one of the mini-theories of Self-determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), the present study had two objectives: (a) to test a model in the Mexican sport context based on the following sequence: perceived coach autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and psychological well-being, and b) to analyze the mediational effect of the satisfaction of perceived coach autonomy support on indicators of psychological well-being (satisfaction with life and subjective vitality). Six hundred and sixty-nine young Mexican athletes (Boys = 339; Girls = 330; M(age) = 13.95) filled out a questionnaire assessing the study variables. Structural equations analyses revealed that perceived coach autonomy support predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Furthermore, basic need satisfaction predicted subjective vitality and satisfaction with life. Autonomy, competence and relatedness partially mediated the path from perceived coach autonomy support to psychological well-being in young Mexican athletes.
Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Lu, Chang-Qin
Work values influence our attitudes and behavior at work, but they have rarely been explored in the context of work stress. The aim of this research was thus to test direct and moderating effects of Chinese work values (CWV) on relationships between work stressors and work well-being among employees in the Greater China region. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data from three major cities in the region, namely Beijing, Hong Kong, and Taipei (N = 380). Work stressors were negatively related to work well-being, whereas CWV were positively related to work well-being. In addition, CWV also demonstrated moderating effects in some of the stressor-job satisfaction relationships.
Frances E. Owusu-Ansah
Objectives: This study examined the relationship between perceptions of control and the academic and subjective well-being of students with disabilities. Method: A total of 69 students with disabilities participated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Using trusted control and subjective well-being scales, data were subject to descriptive analyses. Results: Consistent with previous works, perceived control increased with increased subjective well-being, moderated by gender. In addition, forms of secondary control appeared to aid primary control in the tenacious pursuit of goals. However, neither perceived control nor self-esteem was predictive of academic performance. Conclusion: Limitations of sample size notwithstanding, the findings of the study can be considered provocative. Implications for clinical utility in facilitating context-specific interventions for this marginalised group are discussed. Replication with a larger sample size in other tertiary institutions is suggested for future work.
De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Mesquita, Batja; Kim, Heejung; Eom, Kimin; Choi, Hyewon
There is increasing evidence for emotional fit in couples and groups, but also within cultures. In the current research, we investigated the consequences of emotional fit at the cultural level. Given that emotions reflect people's view on the world, and that shared views are associated with good social relationships, we expected that an individual's fit to the average cultural patterns of emotion would be associated with relational well-being. Using an implicit measure of cultural fit of emotions, we found across 3 different cultural contexts (United States, Belgium, and Korea) that (1) individuals' emotional fit is associated with their level of relational well-being, and that (2) the link between emotional fit and relational well-being is particularly strong when emotional fit is measured for situations pertaining to relationships (rather than for situations that are self-focused). Together, the current studies suggest that people may benefit from emotionally "fitting in" to their culture.
Foster, Mindi D
Although collective action has psychological benefits in non-gendered contexts (Drury et al., 2005, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 44, 309), the benefits for women taking action against gender discrimination are unclear. This study examined how a popular, yet unexplored potential form of collective action, namely tweeting about sexism, affects women's well-being. Women read about sexism and were randomly assigned to tweet or to one of three control groups. Content analyses showed tweets exhibited collective intent and action. Analyses of linguistic markers suggested public tweeters used more cognitive complexity in their language than private tweeters. Profile analyses showed that compared to controls, only public tweeters showed decreasing negative affect and increasing psychological well-being, suggesting tweeting about sexism may serve as a collective action that can enhance women's well-being. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ and the relation between humor and psychological well-being within the context of Italy. A total of 293 (178 females, 115 males Italian high school and undergraduate university students – whose ages ranged from 14 to 25 years – completed the Italian versions of the HSQ and the Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being scales (RPWB. The HSQ scale reliabilities were generally acceptable, and intercorrelations among the scales were rather low; the confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure. Males reported significantly more use of Aggressive humor than did females; no differences were found between adolescents and young adults in the use of humor styles. Affiliative and Self-enhancing humor styles were positively associated with the six dimensions of the RPWB, whereas Self-defeating humor was negatively correlated with the RPWB scales. SEM analysis showed a significant and positive relationship between humor as measured by the HSQ and psychological well-being as assessed by the RPWB. Overall, the findings supported the theoretical structure and usefulness of the HSQ in an Italian context and the differential role of humor components in the various dimensions of psychological well-being.
James R. Hull
Full Text Available In this paper the theoretical tradition of coping strategies and capital portfolios is used as the basis for adaption and combination of existing methodologies to analyze well-being in rural households. Special attention is given to comparisons among different contexts. First we estimate a multidimensional measurement of poverty based on fuzzy logic for two areas of rural frontiers: Nang Rong, Thailand, and Altamira, in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. To enable a cross-contextual comparison we calculated a second estimate using a subset of shared measurements in the two areas. The findings suggest that the pattern of responses on a range of numerous key variables - including education, income and demographic dependency ratio - is robust for the model specification. It is concluded that comparative generalizations, useful in formulating cost-effective public policy interventions across contexts, could be satisfactorily identified in many situations. More generically, this approach provides researchers and policymakers with a framework for understanding the interaction of contexts with the subjective construction of well-being. The understanding of this interaction is useful for distinguishing stable corollaries of poverty from those that are volatile across contexts.
Woodhouse, Emily; Homewood, Katherine M; Beauchamp, Emilie; Clements, Tom; McCabe, J Terrence; Wilkie, David; Milner-Gulland, E J
Measures of socio-economic impacts of conservation interventions have largely been restricted to externally defined indicators focused on income, which do not reflect people's priorities. Using a holistic, locally grounded conceptualization of human well-being instead provides a way to understand the multi-faceted impacts of conservation on aspects of people's lives that they value. Conservationists are engaging with well-being for both pragmatic and ethical reasons, yet current guidance on how to operationalize the concept is limited. We present nine guiding principles based around a well-being framework incorporating material, relational and subjective components, and focused on gaining knowledge needed for decision-making. The principles relate to four key components of an impact evaluation: (i) defining well-being indicators, giving primacy to the perceptions of those most impacted by interventions through qualitative research, and considering subjective well-being, which can affect engagement with conservation; (ii) attributing impacts to interventions through quasi-experimental designs, or alternative methods such as theory-based, case study and participatory approaches, depending on the setting and evidence required; (iii) understanding the processes of change including evidence of causal linkages, and consideration of trajectories of change and institutional processes; and (iv) data collection with methods selected and applied with sensitivity to research context, consideration of heterogeneity of impacts along relevant societal divisions, and conducted by evaluators with local expertise and independence from the intervention. © 2015 The Authors.
Koenen, Karestan C; Lincoln, Alisa; Appleton, Allison
We conducted an ecologic analysis of the relation between women's status and child well-being in the 50 United States. State-level women's status was assessed via four composite indices: women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. Child well-being was measured via five outcomes: percentage of low birthweight babies, infant mortality, teen mortality, high school dropout rate, and teen birth rate. Higher state-level women's status on all indicators was associated with significantly better state-level child well-being in unadjusted analyses. Several associations remained significant after adjusting for income inequality and state racial composition. Women's political participation was associated with a significantly lower percentage of low birthweight babies (peconomic and social autonomy for women was associated with better child outcomes on all measures (ppolitical, economic, and social status. Women's status is an important aspect of children's social context which may impact their well-being. Multi-level analyses of the association between state-level women's status and child well-being are needed.
Tim M. Daw
Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe girls’ well-being in Northern Finland. Method: This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Results: Four main categories of girls’ well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls’ description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it.
Wiens, Varpu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Pölkki, Tarja
Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. The aim of this study was to describe girls' well-being in Northern Finland. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Four main categories of girls' well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls' description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it.
Full Text Available This special issue of the Journal of Psychosocial Intervention aims to contribute to the understanding ofhuman well-being as a matter of social justice. Inequities in health and well-being are closely linked tosocial inequalities and addressing them involves the improvement of the quality of life and living conditionsof communities. Although reaching a more just society requires systemic changes, actions aimed at groupsthat are at greater risk of multiple vulnerabilities must be intensified in order to reduce the slope of thesocial gradient of health and well-being. Community psychology embraces as one of its key principles toadvocate for social change through the empowerment of disadvantaged groups, such as children and youthliving in poverty, women suffering violence, people with disabilities and elderly immigrants. Thecontributions of this monograph offer courses of action for a scientific agenda whose goal is to provideopportunities for all individuals to achieve meaning and greater control over the resources they need fortheir well-being and prosperity.
Adams, Helen; Adger, W. Neil; Ahmad, Sate; Ahmed, Ali; Begum, Dilruba; Lázár, Attila N.; Matthews, Zoe; Rahman, Mohammed Mofizur; Streatfield, Peter Kim
Populations in resource dependent economies gain well-being from the natural environment, in highly spatially and temporally variable patterns. To collect information on this, we designed and implemented a 1586-household quantitative survey in the southwest coastal zone of Bangladesh. Data were collected on material, subjective and health dimensions of well-being in the context of natural resource use, particularly agriculture, aquaculture, mangroves and fisheries. The questionnaire included questions on factors that mediate poverty outcomes: mobility and remittances; loans and micro-credit; environmental perceptions; shocks; and women’s empowerment. The data are stratified by social-ecological system to take into account spatial dynamics and the survey was repeated with the same respondents three times within a year to incorporate seasonal dynamics. The dataset includes blood pressure measurements and height and weight of men, women and children. In addition, the household listing includes basic data on livelihoods and income for approximately 10,000 households. The dataset facilitates interdisciplinary research on spatial and temporal dynamics of well-being in the context of natural resource dependence in low income countries. PMID:27824340
Sujoldzić, Anita; De Lucia, Amelia
Physical, psychological and social changes that occur during adolescence can markedly affect dietary habits and nutritional health. Physical changes including rapid growth place extra nutritional requirements on adolescents, while culture and society require adjustments in all of the aspects of daily living, including psychosocial well-being. Adolescents become focused on the physical appearance and any deviation from the ideal figure can result in negative dieting behavior, social withdrawal, poor self-esteem and increased health vulnerability. The paper presents some of the results of an international comparative study on risk and protective factors of adolescent health and well being, related to BMI, dieting behavior and body image and their relationship to psychosocial well-being (somatic stress, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Within an ecological cultural framework, it looks at group-specific differences of Albanian and Bosnian adolescents within different socio-cultural contexts across six European countries: two EU members (Italy and Austria) and four communities in the state of socioeconomic and political transition (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania and Kosovo). The survey collected data from 2000 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. The study demonstrated a strong relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction, between body image and dietary habits, and strong effects of body image on all indicators of psychosocial health. In addition to expected marked gender differences in all countries, the obtained results indicate significant intracultural variations related to socioeconomic status as well as considerable intercultural variations due to variable influence specific social and cultural contexts.
Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E
Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.
Bassal, Catherine; Czellar, Judith; Kaiser, Susanne; Dan-Glauser, Elise S
So far, limited research has been carried out to better understand the interplay between the emotions, the use of emotion regulation strategies, and the well-being of professional caregivers of People with Dementia (PwD). This pilot study (N = 43 professional caregivers) aimed to (1) describe the type and frequency of emotions experienced at work; (2) analyze the associations between experienced emotions, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being; and (3) test whether the use of specific emotion regulation strategies moderates the relationship between experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. In the challenging context of professionally caring for PwD, results suggest that (1) caregivers experience positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions; (2) caregivers using relatively inappropriate regulation strategies are more likely to experience negative emotions, less likely to experience positive emotions, and have poorer physical and mental health; and (3) expressive suppression significantly moderates the relationship between positive experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. © The Author(s) 2015.
Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A; McPherson, Jenna L; Gutierrez, Estefania; Rodriguez, Andrea
Guided by theoretical (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997) and empirical work (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2005), this cross-sectional study examined whether sexual well-being (sexual self-acceptance, importance of mutual consent, importance of safe sex) was associated with life satisfaction among Mexican adolescents, and whether these associations were moderated by gender, age, and familism. Mexican adolescents (54% girls, 72% middle schoolers, 30% sexually active) completed surveys. Findings indicated that a greater belief in the importance of safe sex was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Greater sexual self-acceptance was associated with life satisfaction, and familism moderated this association. This association was stronger among adolescents who reported low familism. This study contributes to the understanding of sexual adolescent well-being and psychological adjustment in Mexico, an understudied cultural context. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vo-Thanh-Xuan, J; Rice, P L
This study attempts to understand the Vietnamese-Australian grandparenthood and their changing roles and psychological well-being. Using a qualitative approach, thirty-six grandparents participated in four focus group interviews. The findings reveal that Vietnamese grandparents play many important roles such as those of living ancestor, family historian, role model, teacher, mentor, nurturer, crony and mediator although at a reasonably modest level. Through assisting the parents, it creates a vital bridge between grandparents and grandchildren. Grandparents' most important roles are the maintenance of good emotional relationships and support, and the construction of harmony and continuity in their modified extended families. To be able to assume these roles grandparents need to actively explore and accept new values and to adapt values to new cultural context. A successful grandparenthood brings happiness to the family and this in turn positively influences grandparents' life satisfaction and psychological well-being and enhances their quality of life.
Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Holman, David; Headley, Tara
Individuals in a variety of social contexts try to regulate other people's feelings, but how does this process affect the regulators themselves? This research aimed to establish a relationship between people's use of interpersonal affect regulation and their own affective well-being. In a field study, self- and other-reported data were collected from prisoners and staff members in a therapeutic prison using two surveys separated in time. In a laboratory study, a student sample reported their affect before and after attempting to influence the feelings of talent show contestants in a role-play task. The results of both studies indicated congruent associations between the use of affect-improving and affect-worsening interpersonal affect regulation and strategy agents' affective well-being. Our findings highlight that, when performing interpersonal affect regulation, people may not be immune from the effects of their own actions.
Full Text Available Recently a compassionate love scale was developed to assess compassionate love or altruistic love for different targets (e.g., romantic partner, close others and all the humanity; Sprecher & Fehr, 2005. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Compassionate Love Scale in the Portuguese context. In addition, it has been examined how compassionate love for a romantic partner was related to socio-demographic variables, love styles, and subjective well-being. Two hundred and eighty one men and women participated (42% of women with a mean age of 21.89. All participants were currently in a romantic relationship. The Compassionate Love Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties. Furthermore, our predictions were supported, as those who experience high levels of compassionate love for a romantic partner are more likely to report Eros and altruistic love (Agape, and subjective well-being.
Juan González Hernández
Full Text Available Abstract Sportsmen who practise martial arts indicate, to general way, that practical this one produces effects psicosociales different (and major to the produced ones for other physical activities. Though all the sports can promote the psychological well-being, the processes and effects are not the same in martial arts and in other types of physical activities. Nevertheless, not always the findings of the investigations have joined with the programs of intervention. The ways of life and the opportunities of health, well-being and development of the young persons have a very narrow relation with the sociocultural context, facilitating or preventing this traffic towards the adult age. The context is a factor intervener and determinant in the behavior for what it turns out suitable bear in mind the environments perceived by the subject (Figueroa et al., 2005. In this respect, and in spite of the fact that nowadays the emotional intelligence is one of the topics of major study and interest inside the Psychology, this one is an aspect to make concrete inside the methodologies of training, both formative and competitive. One presents here a descriptive and transverse study in the one that has told himself with a sample of sports young women (N=45, that they practise different modalities of combative sports (karate and judo of the city of Murcia. The results suggest us that, so much the promotion of sports environments for the practice of martial arts as a sports activity organized, it influences positively in the perception of the psychological well-being, which benefits the development of the autoconcept and cognitive development of the same ones. Key words: psychological well-being, emotional intelligence, combative sports, indicators of performance
Juan González Hernández
Full Text Available AbstractSportsmen who practise martial arts indicate, to general way, that practical this one produces effects psicosociales different (and major to the produced ones for other physical activities. Though all the sports can promote the psychological well-being, the processes and effects are not the same in martial arts and in other types of physical activities. Nevertheless, not always the findings of the investigations have joined with the programs of intervention. The ways of life and the opportunities of health, well-being and development of the young persons have a very narrow relation with the sociocultural context, facilitating or preventing this traffic towards the adult age. The context is a factor intervener and determinant in the behavior for what it turns out suitable bear in mind the environments perceived by the subject (Figueroa et al., 2005. In this respect, and in spite of the fact that nowadays the emotional intelligence is one of the topics of major study and interest inside the Psychology, this one is an aspect to make concrete inside the methodologies of training, both formative and competitive. One presents here a descriptive and transverse study in the one that has told himself with a sample of sports young women (N=45, that they practise different modalities of combative sports (karate and judo of the city of Murcia. The results suggest us that, so much the promotion of sports environments for the practice of martial arts as a sports activity organized, it influences positively in the perception of the psychological well-being, which benefits the development of the autoconcept and cognitive development of the same ones. Key words: psychological well-being, emotional intelligence, combative sports, indicators of performance
Galina Dmitrievna Gritsenko
Full Text Available The article reflects the results of monitoring the social well-being of the labour community in the Russian environment. The level of stability in the region is largely determined by the social well-being of the population. In this context the most important aspect is a population estimation of the labor market and employment conditions. To this end there has been carried out questionnaire in 2006, 2009 and 2012, the sample - quota, the sample size - more than 1,000 people. The analysis of empirical material used the research “Monitoring the quality of life of the population of the Stavropol Territory” (2014. Comparative analysis of the data allows to suggest a narrowing of the labor market being accompanied by the outflow of labor, especially the young, and by the expansion of the share of pensioners. Detected trend is typical for economically underdeveloped areas. This creates a negative social well-being. However, the natural conditions in the Stavropol region are optimal for the development of agriculture and processing industry, which is especially important in the conditions of implementation of the policy of import substitution. The results confirm the low technological level of production in the economic region, the economic potential is insignificant. Social well-being of the labor community territory corresponds to national trends subsidized regions. This situation leads to the preservation of the investment unattractive edge, social and economic instability of the region, low labor activity of Stavropol region citizens. In the analyzed context must be entered in the policy of the regional authorities innovative mechanisms for socio-economic development of the region, must make the transition from the conservative version of social and economic development of the region in the moderately optimistic.
Stemeroff, M.; Richardson, D.; Wlodarczyk, T.L. [AECOM Canada Limited, Markham, ON (Canada)
Canada. Despite the wide use of different terminology, all relate to a similar set of goals, largely being the improvement of community and/or individual quality-of-life or state of well-being over the long-term. There is an old adage that says 'you get what you measure'. In this case, simply defining community well-being, no matter the nature or scope of it, is not enough to make it happen. For many, the process of measuring community well-being provides a concrete focus to engage local citizens and to strengthen communities through discussions about what matters most to them. The process of defining community well-being and developing community well-being indicators and community plans is seen by many as an excellent way to inform and involve local people and organizations, and it is a meaningful undertaking for local citizens. It enables them to identify their key issues, discuss their priorities and contribute to possible actions and plans for their community that they feel they have developed for themselves. Involving citizens in the process is more likely to lead to change (hopefully increase) in community well-being. It will be shown that local community stakeholders 'buy-in' to or adopt changes more readily when they are a part of the 'well-being assessment' process from the beginning and are involved in assessing how it directly applies to them. What this means for the nuclear industry in siting and implementing its projects and activities, (from uranium mining, milling and processing, power generation and transmission, to decommissioning and waste management), will be discussed. The end game is earning social acceptance by leveraging publically accessible and open communication medium (which we refer to as 'Open Source' approaches,), such as Facebook, Twitter, etc. In some sense this is the new reality of project approvals -- which we refer to later as Project Approvals 2.0. Using a community well-being framework is a
Stemeroff, M.; Richardson, D.; Wlodarczyk, T.L.
Canada. Despite the wide use of different terminology, all relate to a similar set of goals, largely being the improvement of community and/or individual quality-of-life or state of well-being over the long-term. There is an old adage that says 'you get what you measure'. In this case, simply defining community well-being, no matter the nature or scope of it, is not enough to make it happen. For many, the process of measuring community well-being provides a concrete focus to engage local citizens and to strengthen communities through discussions about what matters most to them. The process of defining community well-being and developing community well-being indicators and community plans is seen by many as an excellent way to inform and involve local people and organizations, and it is a meaningful undertaking for local citizens. It enables them to identify their key issues, discuss their priorities and contribute to possible actions and plans for their community that they feel they have developed for themselves. Involving citizens in the process is more likely to lead to change (hopefully increase) in community well-being. It will be shown that local community stakeholders 'buy-in' to or adopt changes more readily when they are a part of the 'well-being assessment' process from the beginning and are involved in assessing how it directly applies to them. What this means for the nuclear industry in siting and implementing its projects and activities, (from uranium mining, milling and processing, power generation and transmission, to decommissioning and waste management), will be discussed. The end game is earning social acceptance by leveraging publically accessible and open communication medium (which we refer to as 'Open Source' approaches,), such as Facebook, Twitter, etc. In some sense this is the new reality of project approvals -- which we refer to later as Project Approvals 2.0. Using a community well-being framework is a
Stemeroff, M.; Richardson, D.; Wlodarczyk, T. L. [AECOM Canada Limited, Markham, ON (Canada)
use of different terminology, all relate to a similar set of goals, largely being the improvement of community and/or individual quality-of-life or state of well-being over the long-term. There is an old adage that says 'you get what you measure'. In this case, simply defining community well-being, no matter the nature or scope of it, is not enough to make it happen. For many, the process of measuring community well-being provides a concrete focus to engage local citizens and to strengthen communities through discussions about what matters most to them. The process of defining community well-being and developing community well-being indicators and community plans is seen by many as an excellent way to inform and involve local people and organizations, and it is a meaningful undertaking for local citizens. It enables them to identify their key issues, discuss their priorities and contribute to possible actions and plans for their community that they feel they have developed for themselves. Involving citizens in the process is more likely to lead to change (hopefully increase) in community well-being. It will be shown that local community stakeholders 'buy-in' to or adopt changes more readily when they are a part of the 'well-being assessment' process from the beginning and are involved in assessing how it directly applies to them. What this means for the nuclear industry in siting and implementing its projects and activities, (from uranium mining, milling and processing, power generation and transmission, to decommissioning and waste management), will be discussed. The end game is earning social acceptance by leveraging publically accessible and open communication medium (which we refer to as 'Open Source' approaches,), such as Facebook, Twitter, etc. In some sense this is the new reality of project approvals -- which we refer to later as Project Approvals 2.0. Using a community well-being framework is a tactic that when applied in right measure and context, can be
Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Gärling, Tommy; Olsson, Lars
This chapter discusses how travel by different travel modes is related to primarily subjective well-being but also to health or physical well-being. Studies carried out in different geographic contexts consistently show that satisfaction with active travel modes is higher than travel by car and
BOAS, ANA ALICE VILAS; MORIN, ESTELLE M.
Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domai...
Kehr, Hugo M
Researchers widely understand that conflicts among goals inhibit the attainment of these goals. However, this notion comes close to tautological reasoning. To avert this problem, this study examined whether preexisting goal conflict also inhibits success in newly set goals. Using the context of management training, in which managers collectively set new goals, the study variables were assessed at 3 testing periods covering 5 months. Results indicate that goal conflicts that persevere over time were associated with inhibited attainment of new goals but not with decreased subjective well-being (SWB). Goal attainment, however, was positively related to SWB. Interactions of residual changes in goal conflict and goal attainment were associated with positive affect.
Russell, G.; Topham, P.
Background: This paper reports findings from two complementary web-surveys conducted in the UK, in\\ud which 787 university students described their experiences of social anxiety.\\ud \\ud Aims: The aim was to explore the impact of social anxiety on student learning and well-being in the context of higher education.\\ud \\ud Method: Participants self-selected using a screening tool and completed a web-based questionnaire.\\ud \\ud Results: The findings are consistent with previous research on social...
Na, Jinkyung; Chan, Micaela Y; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Park, Denise C
A consistent/stable sense of the self is more valued in middle-class contexts than working-class contexts; hence, we predicted that middle-class individuals would have higher self-concept clarity than working-class individuals. It is further expected that self-concept clarity would be more important to one's well-being among middle-class individuals than among working-class individuals. Supporting these predictions, self-concept clarity was positively associated with higher social class. Moreover, although self-concept clarity was associated with higher life satisfaction and better mental health, the association significantly attenuated among working-class individuals. In addition, self-concept clarity was not associated with physical health and its association with physical health did not interact with social class.
Evgeni L. Nikolaev
Full Text Available Background. A dentist’s professional activity requires a high level of personality traits that are usually regarded as a combination of both female and male traits. Androgynous gender identity corresponds to dentists’ professional requirements and allows the dentists to retain mental stability and psychological well-being. Objective. The goal of this study is to determine the specificity of the androgynous identity in dentists in the context of gender differences as indicators of mental health and subjective well-being. Design. The first stage of the research covered 129 dentists of both sexes to reveal their androgynous gender type using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. During the second stage, 117 androgynous dentists were studied using the SCL-90-R and Brief Subjective Well-being Questionnaire in an effort to reveal the specificity of the dentists’ mental health and self-esteem. Results. According to the results, individuals with an androgynous type of gender identity constitute the largest part of dentists (90.70 %, regardless of their biological sex. The expression of masculinity does not statistically differ from the expression of femininity within the androgynous sample. Regardless of their sex, these dentists are characterized by a higher level of mental health. No significant differences were revealed between androgynous men and androgynous women in their subjective well-being indicators — self-estimation of health, satisfaction with material status and success motivation. Conclusion. We concluded that androgyny is the most common type of gender identity in the men and women engaged in dentistry. The basic gender characteristic in the structure of androgynous identity in dentists is masculinity, which is closely interrelated with mental health and subjective well-being regardless of biological sex.
Full Text Available Anthony J Montgomery Department of Education and Social Policy, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: To date, research has established the individual and organizational factors that impair well-being. Thus, we are aware of the organizational “cogs and wheels” that drive well-being, and there is a sense that we can potentially utilize effective leadership to push and pull these in the appropriate directions. However, reviews of leadership in health care point to the lack of academic rigor and difficulty in reaching solid conclusions. Conversely, there is an accepted belief that the most important determinant of the development and maintenance of cultures is current – and future – leadership. Thus, leadership is assumed to be an important element of organizational functioning without the requisite evidence base. Medicine is a unique organizational environment in which the health of physicians may be a significant risk factor for inadequate patient safety and suboptimal care. Globally, physicians are reporting increasing levels of job burnout, especially among younger physicians in training. Not surprisingly, higher levels of physician burnout are associated with suboptimal care for patients and medical error, as well as maladaptive coping strategies among physicians that serve to exacerbate the former. This review is a scoping analysis of the existing literature to address the central question: is there a relationship between organizational leadership and physician well-being? The objectives of the review are as follows: 1 identify the degree to which physician health is under threat; 2 evaluate the evidence linking leadership with physician well-being; 3 identify alternative ways to approach the problem; and 4 outline avenues for future research. Finally, enhancing progress in the field is discussed in the contexts of theory, methodology, and impact. Keywords: leadership, physician well being, burnout, healthcare
James, Carrie; Davis, Katie; Charmaraman, Linda; Konrath, Sara; Slovak, Petr; Weinstein, Emily; Yarosh, Lana
Youth well-being, social connectedness, and personality traits, such as empathy and narcissism, are at the crux of concerns often raised about the impacts of digital life. Understanding known impacts, and research gaps, in these areas is an important first step toward supporting media use that contributes positively to youth's happiness, life satisfaction, and prosocial attitudes and behaviors. By examining existing work addressing these issues across domains, we found that a complex interplay of individual factors, type of digital media engagement, and experiences in media contexts informs outcomes related to well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism. We argue that further research is needed to uncover how, where, when, and for whom digital media practices support positive well-being and social connectedness outcomes. Specifically, research needs to move beyond correlational studies to uncover causal connections between traits like narcissism and media use. Longitudinal studies are also needed to explore patterns of media use over time and related impacts. Further research is needed to explore how specific technologies can be designed to support positive well-being, social outcomes, and prosocial personality traits. Finally, research is needed regarding parenting, educational practices, and policies that support positive digital media use and related outcomes. Although existing research suggests that digital life has mixed potentials and effects for well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism, we provide recommendations for clinicians, policy makers, and educators in partnering with caregivers and youth to support media use that promotes positive outcomes in these areas. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Orientation: It is important to investigate the determinants of well-being among working women. Given the unique demographic diversity within the South African context, differences in the experience of well-being among women are expected. Purpose: The study investigated the effects of age, race, marital status and educational status on psychological meaningfulness, life satisfaction, work–family conflict and social support of working women. Motivation: With the increase of women in the workplace, there is a need for knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the well-being of women. This study aims to investigate demographic variables as determinants of well-being among working women. Method: Cross-sectional surveys were used to gather data from a sample (n = 540 of women from various South African companies. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale (PMS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the WorkRole Conflict Scale and the Job Demands Resources Scale (JDRS were administered. Results: Significant relationships were found between life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement, respectively, and marital status. Higher levels of education showed significant relationships with life satisfaction and work-to-family conflict. Being white showed significant positive relationships with life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement. With regard to social support and psychological meaningfulness, race explained significant amounts of variance in psychological meaningfulness, as did age. Practical, managerial and methodological implications: The findings indicate that the experiences of well-being among women vary by age, race, marital status and educational status. It is therefore imperative that human resource practitioners appropriately measure these differences, accommodate them in policies through relevant supportive practices and also champion these
This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.
This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Liang See Tan
Full Text Available Researchers have argued for the importance of the classroom context in developing students’ creative potential. However, the emphasis on a performative learning culture in the classroom does not favour creativity. Thus, how creative potential can be realised as one of the educational goals in the classrooms remains a key question. This study measured creativity across three secondary schools using the Wallach-Kogan Creative Thinking Test (WKCT. A total of 283 students enrolled in the Express programme and 290 students enrolled in the Integrated Programme (IP volunteered in the study. The same cohort of students took the 38-item WKCT twice; once at the beginning of Secondary One and then at the end of Secondary Three. Four aspects of creativity, namely fluency, flexibility, unusualness, and uniqueness, were investigated. Our analyses showed that (i IP students showed a greater increase in scores over time when compared to Express students; (ii when Programme and PSLE (Primary School Leaving Examination were used to predict creativity scores in a multiple regression, the predictive power of Programme increased from Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 while that of PSLE decreased; and (iii flexibility scores were more resistant to change than fluency scores. These findings suggest that the classroom context matters and that the removal of high-stakes examination can provide room for the development of creative potential.
Full Text Available Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively, to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’ model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not
Arias, Benito; Ovejero, Anastasio; Morentin, Raquel
Love has been a recurrent topic throughout history, and especially, literature. Moreover, there is generalized agreement about its relevance for health emotional well-being, and quality of life. This study was carried out with a sample of 376 persons with ID. The goals of the work were to analyze a theoretical model of love in people with intellectual disabilities by means of the methodology of structural equations, and to analyze their perception of love and of amorous relations with regard to other aspects such as amorous satisfaction, perceived satisfaction, absence of family interference, self-determination, and emotional well-being. The results revealed that (a) the construct under study has three factors: Commitment, stability, and idealization, Passion and physiological excitement, and Intimacy and romanticism; (b) the perception of love in this collective is, in general, idealized and affected by the context; and (c) self-determination and the lack of family interference are relevant variables to explain both love and emotional well-being.
Koc, Yasin; Vignoles, Vivian L
In most parts of the world, hegemonic masculinity requires men to endorse traditional masculine ideals, one of which is rejection of homosexuality. Wherever hegemonic masculinity favours heterosexuality over homosexuality, gay males may feel under pressure to negotiate their conflicting male gender and gay sexual identities to maintain positive self-perceptions. However, globalization, as a source of intercultural interaction, might provide a beneficial context for people wishing to create alternative masculinities in the face of hegemonic masculinity. Hence, we tested if global identification would predict higher levels of gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being, via alternative masculinity representations for gay and male identities. A community sample of 219 gay and bisexual men from Turkey completed the study. Structural equation modelling revealed that global identification positively predicted gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being; however, alternative masculinity representations did not mediate this relationship. Our findings illustrate how identity categories in different domains can intersect and affect each other in complex ways. Moreover, we discuss mental health and well-being implications for gay men living in cultures where they experience high levels of prejudice and stigma. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Mackinnon, Sean P; Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Fraser, Ronald; Stewart, Sherry H
Partner-specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self-criticism, and socially prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well-being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed anger, hostility, and rejection) would mediate the relationship between dyadic PC and subjective well-being. Data from 203 romantic dyads (92.1% heterosexual) were collected using self-report surveys and a four-wave, 4-week longitudinal design. Participants were predominantly female (53.1%), young (M = 22.69 years), and Caucasian (82.3%). Data were analyzed using an actor-partner interdependence model with multilevel structural equation modeling. There were significant actor effects at the between-subjects and within-subjects levels, and significant partner effects for the relationship between PC and social negativity at the within-subject level. Social negativity mediated the relationships between PC and both negative affect and life satisfaction. However, positive affect was more weakly related to PC and social negativity. The social disconnection model was supported. PC was positively associated with one's own social negativity and evoked hostile behaviors from one's partner. Hostile, rejecting behaviors reduced the well-being of the actor, but not the partner. Results suggest perfectionism may be best understood within an interpersonal context. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sullivan, Cris M
Domestic violence (DV) victim service programs have been increasingly expected by legislators and funders to demonstrate that they are making a significant difference in the lives of those using their services. Alongside this expectation, they are being asked to describe the Theory of Change guiding how they believe their practices lead to positive results for survivors and their children. Having a widely accepted conceptual model is not just potentially useful to funders and policy makers as they help shape policy and practice -- it can also help programs continually reflect upon and improve their work. This paper describes the iterative and collaborative process undertaken to generate a conceptual model describing how DV victim services are expected to improve survivors' lives. The Social and Emotional Well-Being Framework guiding the model is an ideal structure to use to describe the goals and practices of DV programs because this framework: (1) accurately represents DV programs' goal of helping survivors and their children thrive; and (2) recognizes the importance of community, social, and societal context in influencing individuals' social and emotional well-being. The model was designed to guide practice and to generate new questions for research and evaluation that address individual, community, and systems factors that promote or hinder survivor safety and well-being.
Anderson, Cameron; Kraus, Michael W; Galinsky, Adam D; Keltner, Dacher
Dozens of studies in different nations have revealed that socioeconomic status only weakly predicts an individual's subjective well-being (SWB). These results imply that although the pursuit of social status is a fundamental human motivation, achieving high status has little impact on one's SWB. However, we propose that sociometric status-the respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups (e.g., among friends or coworkers)-has a stronger effect on SWB than does socioeconomic status. Using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal methodologies, four studies found consistent evidence for a local-ladder effect: Sociometric status significantly predicted satisfaction with life and the experience of positive and negative emotions. Longitudinally, as sociometric status rose or fell, SWB rose or fell accordingly. Furthermore, these effects were driven by feelings of power and social acceptance. Overall, individuals' sociometric status matters more to their SWB than does their socioeconomic status.
Pronk, Nicolaas P; Malan, Daniel; Christie, Gillian; Hajat, Cother; Yach, Derek
Health and well-being (HWB) are material to sustainable business performance. Yet, corporate reporting largely lacks the intentional inclusion of HWB metrics. This brief report presents an argument for inclusion of HWB metrics into existing standards for corporate reporting. A Core Scorecard and a Comprehensive Scorecard, designed by a team of subject matter experts, based on available evidence of effectiveness, and organized around the categories of Governance, Management, and Evidence of Success, may be integrated into corporate reporting efforts. Pursuit of corporate integrated reporting requires corporate governance and ethical leadership and values that ultimately align with environmental, social, and economic performance. Agreement on metrics that intentionally include HWB may allow for integrated reporting that has the potential to yield significant value for business and society alike.
Nepomuceno, Bárbara Barbosa; Cardoso, Antonio Alan Vieira; Ximenes, Verônica Morais; Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Leite, Jáder Ferreira
This article analyzes the relations between mental health and well-being in urban and rural contexts marked by poverty. The analysis takes as its basis a quantitative research conducted with 417 adult inhabitants of two communities, one rural and the other urban, in Northeastern Brazil. The data were constructed using questionnaires composed of sociodemographic data, the Personal Wellbeing Index and Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scales. We found significant differences between the inhabitants of the rural and urban communities regarding well-being and the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), with a higher average well-being score in the rural context; the urban sample had a higher average regarding the prevalence of CMD. The variable income significantly influenced the SRQ-20 average scores; the same was not observed with well-being scores. Besides, it was observed that there is a negative correlation with well-being and CMD.
Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura Je; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne
Context The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. Methods We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Findings Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Conclusions Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the
Schneider, Suzanne; Kingsolver, Karen; Rosdahl, Jullia
Physicians in the United States increasingly confront stress, burnout, and other serious symptoms at an alarming level. As a result, there is growing public interest in the development of interventions that improve physician resiliency. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceived impact of Physician Well-being Coaching on physician stress and resiliency, as implemented in a major medical center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 physician-participants, and three coaches of a Physician Well-being Coaching pilot focused on three main areas: life context, impacts of coaching, and coaching process. Interviewees were physicians who completed between three and eight individual coaching sessions between October 2012 and May 2013 through the Physician Well-being Coaching pilot program. Qualitative content analysis of the 11 physician interviews and three coach interviews using Atlas.ti to generate patterns and themes. Physician Well-being Coaching helped participants increase resilience via skill and awareness development in the following three main areas: (1) boundary setting and prioritization, (2) self-compassion and self-care, and (3) self-awareness. These insights often led to behavior changes and were perceived by physicians to have indirect but positive impact on patient care. Devaluing self-care while prioritizing the care of others may be a significant, but unnecessary, source of burnout for physicians. This study suggests that coaching can potentially help physicians alter this pattern through skill development and increased self-awareness. It also suggests that by strengthening physician self-care, coaching can help to positively impact patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dittmar, Helga; Bond, Rod; Hurst, Megan; Kasser, Tim
This meta-analysis investigates the relationship between individuals' materialistic orientation and their personal well-being. Theoretical approaches in psychology agree that prioritizing money and associated aims is negatively associated with individuals' well-being but differ in their implications for whether this is invariably the case. To address these and other questions, we examined 753 effect sizes from 259 independent samples. Materialism was associated with significantly lower well-being for the most widely used, multifaceted measures (materialist values and beliefs, r = -.19, ρ = -.24; relative importance of materialist goals, r = -.16, ρ = -.21), more than for measures assessing emphasis on money alone (rs = -.08 to -.11, ρs = -.09 to -.14). The relationship also depended on type of well-being outcome, with largest effects for risky health and consumer behaviors and for negative self-appraisals (rs = -.28 to -.44, ρs = -.32 to -.53) and weakest effects for life satisfaction and negative affect (rs = -.13 to -.15, ρs = -.17 to -.18). Moderator analyses revealed that the strength of the effect depended on certain demographic factors (gender and age), on value context (study/work environments that support materialistic values and cultures that emphasize affective autonomy), and on cultural economic indicators (economic growth and wealth differentials). Mediation analyses suggested that the negative link may be explained by poor psychological need satisfaction. We discuss implications for the measurement of materialist values and the need for theoretical and empirical advances to explore underlying processes, which likely will require more experimental, longitudinal, and developmental research.
Lee, Nathaniel; Appelbaum, Nital; Amendola, Michael; Dodson, Kelley; Kaplan, Brian
Organizational effects on job satisfaction, burnout, work-life balance, and perceived support have not been studied in the context of the clinical learning environment. We evaluated the relationship between academic resources and resident well-being, the clinical learning environment, and in-service examination performance of surgical residents. Residents of general surgery and surgical specialty programs were recruited from March 2016 through June 2016 across the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast regions. Program directors were asked to allow distribution of a paper survey or to forward an electronic survey link onto residents. Five dichotomous questions were asked regarding access to academic resources. Validated measures were obtained assessing resident well-being and perceived clinical learning environment. Data were analyzed through t-tests and chi-squared test of independence. We received 276 respondents across 50 programs. Residents perceiving adequate support to succeed had less burnout (P = 0.008), better resilience (P = 0.009), better job satisfaction (P workplace climate (P < 0.001), better organizational support (P < 0.001), and were more likely to have high performance on the in-service examination (P = 0.001). Specific resources including educational stipends, review questions, in-service board prep, and support for poor performers correlated with improved well-being and perceived clinical learning environment. Provision of academic resources has implications beyond in-service examination performance, correlating with improved resident well-being and perceptions of the clinical learning environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Jin; Heim, Derek; Levy, Andrew
Studies indicate that those participating in sports are a high-risk population for hazardous alcohol use. Previous research identifies psychosocial drivers underpinning this link between sports participation and risky drinking behavior; however, the evidence is restricted to cross-sectional prevalence studies. Theoretical evaluations suggest that psychologically constructed identities are a defining factor for behaviors in this context. Therefore, the present study sought to examine longitudinally the relationships among sports-related identities, well-being, and alcohol behaviors in those participating in sports. Respondents completed self-report questionnaires on their alcohol consumption, drinking motives, athlete identity (personal identity), sports group identification (social identity), and general well-being. A sample of 475 participants (male = 55.6%; mean age = 20.2 years) provided data at Time 1 for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal associations were conducted with 92 participants (male = 42.4%; mean age = 20.8 years) who provided follow-up data (Time 1 and 6 months later). Cross-sectional results revealed an association between social identity and alcohol consumption, which was fully mediated by positive reinforcement drinking motives. Correlation analysis found a significant positive relationship between Time 1 alcohol consumption and social identity 6 months later. Furthermore, social identity was positively associated with consumption, whereas athlete identity was negatively associated therewith. Finally, well-being was positively associated only with sports group identification over time. Our findings suggest that sport-related drinking may be an avenue for building group identification, and this identification is linked to well-being.
Full Text Available The terms on which the integration of new generations of immigrants into Portuguese and Spanish societies happens will have a decisive influence in the future of both countries. Therefore, promoting their health, well-being, and psychosocial adaptation is a matter of strategic interest. This paper analyses psychosocial factors associated with well-being and psychological adjustment on a sample of 108 adolescents (55 males and 53 females, children of immigrants from Huelva (Spain and Algarve (Portugal, aged between 10 and 17 years. Adolescents were assessed for demographic characteristics and perceived well-being. We used the "KIDSCREEN-5", a self-report questionnaire that yields detailed profile information for children aged 8 to 18 years for the following ten dimensions: Physical well-being, Psychological well-being, Moods and emotions, Self-perception, Autonomy, Parental relationships and home life, Financial resources, Social support and peers, School environment, and Social acceptance (Bullying. Overall, significant differences were found between the Spanish and Portuguese samples on physical well-being, psychological well-being, mood, financial resources and social acceptance (bullying. Boys perceived themselves as having a better physical well-being than girls. Mothers' educational level was associated with psychological well-being and mood. Also, results suggested that residence location and other socio-demographical variables were not associated with the adolescents' well-being and psychological adjustment.
Full Text Available Baseball spectating is one of the most popular leisure activities in Asia. Leisure participants with high well-being levels usually demonstrate loyal behavior to the teams they follow. Previous research indicates that professional sport fans are serious leisure participants and their participation has career qualities. The goal of this research was to investigate the relationship of leisure involvement with the well-being of professional sport fans and the possible mediating effect of organizational commitment, a career-related characteristic, on well-being. Some 406 fans of the Brother Elephants Baseball Team in Taiwan were surveyed. The results showed that leisure involvement positively and significantly influenced fans’ well-being and organizational commitment partially mediated the influence of leisure involvement on well-being. This study pioneers the integration of leisure involvement, well-being and organizational commitment in the context of a Professional Baseball League team within Asia. Implications and future research directions are presented.
Vanessa L. Buechner
Full Text Available The arousal theory of color proposes that red is associated with arousal. Research on the color-in-context theory, in turn, states that the context in which red is perceived influences its valence-related meaning and behavioral responses to it. This study faces and integrates these theories by examining the influence of red on both arousal and valence perceptions of test-relevant and neutral stimuli, rendering a color 2 (red vs. blue × context 2 (test vs. neutral between-subjects design. Participants rated different pictures regarding their arousal and valence component, respectively. In line with the assumptions of both theories, red increased arousal perceptions of stimuli irrespective of their valence but a context × color interaction was found for valence perceptions: for participants viewing test-relevant pictures, red increased their perceptions of negativity compared to neutral pictures. The present study shows that both theories are actually compatible when differentiating the arousal and valence component.
Sheldon, Kennon M; Bettencourt, B Ann
Five candidate measures of psychological need-satisfaction were evaluated as predictors of high positive and low negative mood within the group, intrinsic motivation for group activities, and high commitment to the group. Consistent with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991), personal autonomy and interpersonal relatedness both predicted positive outcomes. Consistent with optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer, 1991), feeling included within the group, feeling personally distinctive within the group, and feeling that the group is distinctive compared to other groups, also predicted positive outcomes. Simultaneous regression analyses indicated that the five needs were differentially related to the different well-being indicators, and also suggested that group inclusion may be the most important need to satisfy within group contexts. Supplementary analyses showed that members of formal groups felt less personal autonomy, but more group distinctiveness, compared to informal group members.
Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe
), in satellite offices (intra-organizational work), or at the customers’ or clients’ locations (interorganizational work) (Verburg et al. 2013; Cropper et al. 2008). In inter-organizations, distance employees are employed by one company (the provider) but work at a different company (the customer) (Cropper et al...... either time or geography separate managers from their employees, it becomes more difficult to ensure both the employees psychosocial work environment and organizational performance. This paper explores distance managers’ preventive activities that ensure both employee well-being and performance across...... distances as part of their daily management. The study contributes to the discussion on management of prevention of work-related stress in the context of distance work. We applied a case study approach to explore the tools distance managers make use of to ensure employee wellbeing and organizational...
The author examined the relationship between cultural values, beliefs, and subjective well-being (SWB) in the context of the "cultural fit" proposition with 3 diverse Chinese samples from Taiwan and Mainland China (N = 581). The author found that beliefs regarding the independent self, the interdependent self, active control, and relationship harmony as forming individual-level culture were consistently related to SWB. Furthermore, the author found that the magnitude of cultural fit was associated with SWB for certain groups of the Chinese people. It is most interesting that the direction of cultural fit regarding independent self was also important for SWB. Specifically, people who endorsed higher independent self but expected lower societal endorsement of such views were better off in SWB than those of the opposite combination.
insight into the ways that student’s experience an intervention within the context of SDT. Methods The use of qualitative methods alongside quantitative effect-evaluation-research is useful to improve the understanding of the effects of complex interventions and the mechanisms through which changes occur......, by giving choices, or by granting responsibility for solving open tasks. The positive effect of these practices seems however to diminish, if they are given as a reward of good behavior, or if the student-teacher relationship is disrespectful. Conclusions Results of this study contribute with knowledge....... ‘Move for Wellbeing in Schools' is an ongoing multicomponent intervention- study based on a SDT-framework to target student’s autonomy, relatedness and competences compared to PA and well-being. Two out of 12 intervention-schools are selected as in-depth cases. During the course of seven months...
Gandy, William M; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y
The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between individual well-being and risk of a hospital event in the subsequent year. The authors hypothesized an inverse relationship in which low well-being predicts higher likelihood of hospital use. The study specifically sought to understand how well-being segments and demographic variables interact in defining risk of a hospital event (inpatient admission or emergency room visit) in an employed population. A retrospective study design was conducted with data from 8835 employees who completed a Well-Being Assessment questionnaire based on the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the impact of Individual Well-Being Score (IWBS) segments and member demographics on hazard ratios (HRs) for a hospital event during the 12 months following assessment completion. Significant main effects were found for the influence of IWBS segments, sex, education, and relationship status on HRs of a hospital event, but not for age. However, further analysis revealed significant interactions between age and IWBS segments (P=0.005) and between age and sex (Pwell-being and higher risk of an event in employees ages 44 years and older is mitigated in younger age groups. These results suggest that youth attenuates the risk engendered in poor well-being; therefore, methods to maintain or improve well-being as individuals age presents a strong opportunity for reducing hospital events.
Gandy, William M.; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E.
Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between individual well-being and risk of a hospital event in the subsequent year. The authors hypothesized an inverse relationship in which low well-being predicts higher likelihood of hospital use. The study specifically sought to understand how well-being segments and demographic variables interact in defining risk of a hospital event (inpatient admission or emergency room visit) in an employed population. A retrospective study design was conducted with data from 8835 employees who completed a Well-Being Assessment questionnaire based on the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the impact of Individual Well-Being Score (IWBS) segments and member demographics on hazard ratios (HRs) for a hospital event during the 12 months following assessment completion. Significant main effects were found for the influence of IWBS segments, sex, education, and relationship status on HRs of a hospital event, but not for age. However, further analysis revealed significant interactions between age and IWBS segments (P=0.005) and between age and sex (Pwell-being and higher risk of an event in employees ages 44 years and older is mitigated in younger age groups. These results suggest that youth attenuates the risk engendered in poor well-being; therefore, methods to maintain or improve well-being as individuals age presents a strong opportunity for reducing hospital events. (Population Health Management 2014;17:13–20) PMID:23560493
Chessman, Hollie M.
The voice of higher education student affairs professionals is under-represented in the well-being literature even though these campus community members are responsible for providing key programs and services that facilitate the holistic development of students. In order to understand the role of well-being in the work-life of these professionals,…
Ecosystems provide services to humans that support our well-being. Well-being is not only our health but also our quality of life. We rely upon the services provided by nature to help maintain good health and a high quality of life, including clean water, clean air, food and recr...
Sara L. Warber
Full Text Available The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708 were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, depression (Major Depressive Inventory, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity.
Weinberg, Michael; Harel, Hila; Shamani, Michal; Or-Chen, Keren; Ron, Pnina; Gil, Sharon
Exposure to war can lead to numerous traumatic experiences affecting the daily lives and personal well-being of the civilian population. However, no research to date has examined the associations between postwar well-being and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, tendency to forgive, and social support during and following war. Authors examined a sample of 160 Israeli civilians who were exposed to rocket and missile fire during the 2014 Gaza War. Time 1 (Tl) started approximately one week after the beginning of the war and ended four weeks later following the first 72-hour ceasefire declaration by the United Nations. Respondents were re-approached by personal e-mail approximately one month after T1. A structural equation model design showed that higher postwar tendency to forgive, and social support, are associated with higher postwar well-being. It is notable that higher social support during the war had a negative effect on postwar well-being. In addition, higher posttraumatic symptoms and well-being during the war had a positive effect on higher postwar well-being. The study findings reinforce the importance of personal variables in postwar well-being. However, increased awareness of both social support and PTSD symptoms as "double-edged sword" resources is advisable, considering the different effects of social support and PTSD symptoms on well-being both during and after the war. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Banks, James; Clark, Andrew E; Brown, Gordon D A
Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses affect well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined in relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective-well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the United Kingdom (N = 20,570), we found that losses in income have a larger effect on well-being than equivalent income gains and that this effect is not explained by diminishing marginal benefits of income to well-being. Our findings show that loss aversion applies to experienced losses, challenging suggestions that loss aversion is only an affective-forecasting error. By failing to account for loss aversion, longitudinal studies of the relationship between income and well-being may have overestimated the positive effect of income on well-being. Moreover, societal well-being might best be served by small and stable income increases, even if such stability impairs long-term income growth.
Full Text Available According to research that have been conducted in the field of gerontology, sociology and psychology of ageing, there is a relationship between the level of religious involvement and health status/ well-being/quality of life in older age. How does religiousness influence aging process and health status? The aim of the article is to review explanations of a positive relationship between religiousness and health that are discussed in the literature. Those explanations may be grouped in three broad categories reflecting three functions of religion that play a role for well-being in older age. Those functions are: (1 religiousness as a source of coherence and the role of religious coping and provision of meaning in dealing with stressful life events (including ageing losses (2 religiousness as a source of positive self-perception and a sense of personal control, (3 provision of social resources (i.e. social ties and social support within religious community and emphasis on interpersonal relations (with special focus on forgiveness as a norm in interpersonal relations. Those functions of religion are discussed in the context of their potential role in successful ageing, as determined by - among others - active engagement in life.
Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the effectiveness of a Positive Psychology Intervention in enhancing well-being in a multicultural school setting. 121 5th and 6th grade primary school male and female students participated in the study. 57.9% were native Greeks and 42.1% were migrant children. 81 students were allocated to the positive intervention group, while 40 students partook in a control group with no positive orientation. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire battery a day prior to the interventions and also fifteen days later. Results indicated that only the positive intervention was effective in enhancing positive emotional experiences, optimism and self-efficacy in peer interactions two weeks after its implementation. The results were mostly undifferentiated for gender, migrant and socioeconomic status as far as positive emotions are concerned, while the patterns of influence of demographic variables on the efficacy of the intervention concerning the participants’ benefits in optimism and self-efficacy are discussed. The PPI group, as opposed to the control group, evaluated the intervention as particularly helpful with respect to all well-being variables, an effect maintained two weeks after the intervention. This positive intervention appears appropriate as a universal mental health promotion vehicle, especially within a demanding multicultural classroom context.
Hanlon, Phil; Carlisle, Sandra
Evidence is accumulating that well-being in high-income societies may be static or in decline. One influential theory argues that this is because 'modern' societies are influenced by values of materialism, individualism and consumerism. Does this intellectual critique resonate with ordinary people? This article reports on interviews with purposefully selected groups in Scotland, where the relevance of the cultural critique was explored. Participants in the study believed that cultural values such as individualized consumerism do exert a damaging influence on well-being. They suggested that such values are given particular power in the context of widespread social change and increasing inequalities. Nevertheless, they also believed that individuals and communities possess the capacity to resist such trends. This article concludes that efforts to achieve material improvement for disadvantaged people may not suffice in redressing deep-seated inequalities, if the contribution of some subtle but pernicious effects of contemporary culture remains neglected. However, the research does suggest that positive responses are also possible.
Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.
Glidden, L M; Billings, F J; Jobe, B M
Parents with children with developmental disabilities (DD) encounter a variety of stressors associated with rearing their children and must develop effective coping mechanisms in order to adapt successfully to these challenges. Previous research has failed to establish the role of parental individual differences in the reported use of different coping strategies. The current study explores parental personality and whether children with DD were adopted or born into the families and their influence on the coping strategies used by mothers and fathers. A total of 97 mother-father dyads rearing at least one child with DD were participants. They narrated stressful situations related to their child and completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire twice. Data were also collected with regard to personality, depression and subjective well-being (SWB). Both adoptive and birth mothers and fathers used more problem-focused than emotion-focused strategies. Personality factors, Neuroticism especially, were predictive of coping strategy use. Higher levels of Positive Reappraisal were associated with higher levels of SWB, whereas higher levels of Escape-Avoidance were associated with lower levels of SWB, but only for mothers. Results were consistent with a dispositional model of strategy use in that frequency of use was associated with personality characteristics, was consistent over time, and for different children in the same families. Future research should focus on the persistence of the associations between strategy use and well-being and whether they hold true at different stages of the lifespan when coping contexts may change quite dramatically.
Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm
This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion.......g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees’ stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress...... and affective well-being. Leader behaviours, the relationship between leaders and their employees and specific leadership styles were all associated with employee stress and affective well-being. It is recommended that future studies include more qualitative data, use standardise questionnaires and examine...
Rountree, Jennifer; Smith, Addie
Mainstream child and family well-being indicators frequently are based on measuring health, economic, and social deficits, and do not reflect Indigenous holistic and strength-based definitions of health and well-being. The present article is a review of literature that features Indigenous communities' self-identified strength-based indicators of child and family well-being. The literature search included Indigenous communities from across the world, incorporating findings from American Indians and Alaska Natives, First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, and Sámi communities. Sorting the identified indicators into the quadrants of the Relational Worldview, an Indigenous framework for well-being based on medicine wheel teachings that views health and well-being as a balance among physical, mental, contextual, and spiritual factors, the authors discuss the findings.
Jan Alewyn Nel
Full Text Available Background In the last ten years, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI has been developed as an indigenous measurement of personality for the multi-cultural environment of South Africa. The aim of the SAPI is to assess personality in an unbiased and equivalent way. For the purpose of this study, we used an 82-item version of the SAPI which measures nine factors (Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Facilitating, Integrity, Intellect, Openness, Relationship Harmony and Soft-heartedness. Participants and procedure A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the SAPI, the General Health Questionnaire and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. A purposive sample was drawn from Black and White emerging adults (N = 990. We assessed the relationship between personality aspects and well-being across groups in a multiple group structural equation model (SEM using the SPSS and AMOS programs. Results Black emerging adults showed evidence of more individualistic-inclined personality features, while the White emerging adults seem to demonstrate more collectivistic features. In terms of health, the White emerging adults experience more life satisfaction than their Black counterparts. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, facilitating and openness predict well-being among emerging adults. Conclusions This study contributes to expanding the nomological network of the SAPI, and it enhances knowledge pertaining to the link between personality and well-being of emerging adults in South Africa. Understanding which factors contribute to poor mental health and lack of life satisfaction may lead to innovation programmes for emerging adults to assist them in dealing with negative health outcomes possibly associated with living in multicultural contexts.
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Blais-Lecours, Sarah; Labadie, Chloé; Bergeron, Sophie; Sabourin, Stéphane; Godbout, Natacha
Although findings concerning sexual outcomes associated with cyberpornography use are mixed, viewing explicit sexual content online is becoming a common activity for an increasing number of individuals. To investigate heterogeneity in cyberpornography-related sexual outcomes by examining a theoretically and clinically based model suggesting that individuals who spend time viewing online pornography form three distinct profiles (recreational, at-risk, and compulsive) and to examine whether these profiles were associated with sexual well-being, sex, and interpersonal context of pornography use. The present cluster-analytic study was conducted using a convenience sample of 830 adults who completed online self-reported measurements of cyberpornography use and sexual well-being, which included sexual satisfaction, compulsivity, avoidance, and dysfunction. Dimensions of cyberpornography use were assessed using the Cyber Pornography Use Inventory. Sexual well-being measurements included the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Sexual Avoidance Subscale, and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale. Cluster analyses indicated three distinct profiles: recreational (75.5%), highly distressed non-compulsive (12.7%), and compulsive (11.8%). Recreational users reported higher sexual satisfaction and lower sexual compulsivity, avoidance, and dysfunction, whereas users with a compulsive profile presented lower sexual satisfaction and dysfunction and higher sexual compulsivity and avoidance. Highly distressed less active users were sexually less satisfied and reported less sexual compulsivity and more sexual dysfunction and avoidance. A larger proportion of women and of dyadic users was found among recreational users, whereas solitary users were more likely to be in the highly distressed less active profile and men were more likely to be in the compulsive profile. This pattern of results confirms the existence of recreational and compulsive
Anna M. Zalewska
Full Text Available Background The aim of the research is to analyse pleasant (subjective well-being – SWB and meaningful life (Citizenship dimensions in the context of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism (HI, VI or Collectivism (HC, VC values (individual beliefs among adolescents living in the culture “in between individualism and collectivism”. Participants and procedure Second-year high (111 and secondary (98 school students filled in the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Questionnaire, the Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire, and SWB (Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with the Life Scale, Mood Questionnaire, Ladder of Need Scales. Participants were recruited in schools. Results Subjective well-being positively correlated with all Citizenship dimensions except Political Activity. All values predicted SWB, but higher VI predicted lower SWB and was not linked to Citizenship. Citizenship dimensions oriented to general good were predicted by Collectivism values, and those including personal benefits were predicted by HI and Collectivism values. Subjective well-being mediated relations between HC and Social Activity, and between HC, HI and Personal Activity. VC moderated relations between SWB and Passive as well as Semi-active Citizenship. Conclusions Among young Poles, pleasant life is linked with meaningful life. Individualism and Collectivism values are relatively independent, and their relations with SWB and Citizenship are complex. Higher Horizontal values facilitate the achievement of both pleasant and meaningful life, but higher VC can hinder the coherence between them. High SWB, engagement in Citizenship and links between them are required for attaining “authentic happiness” and living a truly full life; thus it is important to study variables that may influence them.
Su, Jenny C; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Lin, Wei-Fang; Oishi, Shigehiro
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in perceptions of relational mobility moderated the effects of social monitoring on cheating in a die-under-cup game. Specifically, social monitoring cues reduced the likelihood of cheating but only among participants who perceived their immediate social environment to be low in relational mobility. The same results were replicated in Study 3, an experiment in which participants' perception of relational mobility was manipulated before completing an online maze game that allowed them to earn extra cash. In the low mobility condition, the percentage of participants who continued working on the mazes after reaching the time limit decreased as a function of social monitoring; however, this pattern was not observed in the high mobility condition. Together, our findings suggest that socioecological context matters for understanding effective mechanisms of social control.
Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting. Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored. Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251. Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers. Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context. Contribution/value-add: This
Granek, Leeat; Nakash, Ora
In this paper, we situate and frame Israeli women's reproductive health within the social, historical, political, cultural, and geographical context of Israeli women's lives. We used a theoretical review in this paper. Militarism, patriarchy, and cultural values heavily shape and influence Jewish and Arab women's access to and experience of reproductive health when it comes to the imperative to have children, pregnancy, birth, access to contraception and abortion, and other reproductive healthcare services. We discuss five main factors pertaining to Israeli women's reproductive health including (1) fertility and emphasis on reproduction; (2) infertility; (3) pregnancy, birth, and miscarriage; (4) reproductive rights including contraception and abortion; and (5) maternity leave and accessible childcare. Israel is a pro-natalist country, in which both Jewish and Arab women share many of the consequences of the social imperative to have children. Though Arab women, as part of their double minority status, are exposed to more mental health risks pre- and postpartum, the personal and public reproductive health decisions and reproductive healthcare services are largely shaped by similar social forces. These include the patriarchal and religious culture that dictates a value system that highly cherishes motherhood, and within the military political context of the on-going Israeli-Palestinian conflict and past social and political traumas. We address four major gaps that need to be addressed in order to improve Israeli women's reproductive health and well-being that include the neoliberal gap, the information gap, the reproductive health services gap, and the leadership and policy gap.
Bos, Aline; Boselie, Paul; Trappenburg, Margo
Expanding the opportunities for for-profit nursing home care is a central theme in the debate on the sustainable organization of the growing nursing home sector in Western countries. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 10 years in order to determine the broad impact of nursing home ownership in the United States. Our review has two main goals: (a) to find out which topics have been studied with regard to financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being in relation to nursing home ownership and (b) to assess the conclusions related to these topics. The review results in two propositions on the interactions between financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being as they relate to nursing home ownership. Five search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 50 studies were included in the review. Relevant findings were categorized as related to financial performance (profit margins, efficiency), employee well-being (staffing levels, turnover rates, job satisfaction, job benefits), or client well-being (care quality, hospitalization rates, lawsuits/complaints) and then analyzed based on common characteristics. For-profit nursing homes tend to have better financial performance, but worse results with regard to employee well-being and client well-being, compared to not-for-profit sector homes. We argue that the better financial performance of for-profit nursing homes seems to be associated with worse employee and client well-being. For policy makers considering the expansion of the for-profit sector in the nursing home industry, our findings suggest the need for a broad perspective, simultaneously weighing the potential benefits and drawbacks for the organization, its employees, and its clients.
Page, Kathryn M.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A.
This paper examines the "what", "why" and "how" of employee well-being. Beginning with the "what" of well-being, the construct of mental health was explored with the aim of building a model of employee well-being. It was proposed that employee well-being consists of three core components: (1) subjective well-being; (2) workplace well-being and (3)…