WorldWideScience

Sample records for well-being context matters

  1. Tracking Context-Aware Well-Being through Intelligent Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio SILVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth of personal sensors and the ability to sensorize attributes connected with the physical beings and environments are increasing. Initiatives such as Internet of Things (IoT aim to connect devices and people through communication channels in order to automate and fuel interaction. Targeted approaches can be found on the Smart Cities projects which use the IoT to gather data from people and attributes related to city management. Though good for management of new cities, well-being should as well be of principal importance. It regards users higher than infrastructure and managerial data. Taking lessons from ergonomic studies, health studies and user habits it is possible to track and monitor user daily living. Moreover, the link between user living conditions and sparse events such as illness, indispositions can be tracked to well-being data through autonomous services. Such application is detailed in the approach categorized by this article and the research presented

  2. Well-Being in the Context of Workplace Ethnic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…

  3. Well-Being in the Context of Workplace Ethnic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…

  4. Happiness matters: the role of well-being in productivity

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the link between people’s subjective well-being, defined as an evaluation of one’s own life, and productivity. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that subjective well-being contributes to productivity using a two step approach: first, we establish whether subjective well-being can be a candidate variable to study Total Factor Productivity; second, we assess how much subjective well-being contributes to productivity at aggregate level through efficiency gains. We adopt ...

  5. Do family policy regimes matter for children's well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.

  6. Does Country Matter for Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukamp, Franz H.; Arino, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that characteristics of individuals explain only a part of the variations in Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between people. The country of origin of an individual accounts for a significant part of these differences. We study what drives the variations in SWB between countries after taking individual characteristics into account. We base…

  7. Events and subjective well-being: only recent events matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, E; Diener, E; Fujita, F

    1996-05-01

    The effect of life events on subjective well-being (SWB) was explored in a 2-year longitudinal study of 115 participants. It was found that only life events during the previous 3 months influenced life satisfaction and positive and negative affect. Although recent life events influenced SWB even when personality at Time 1 was controlled, distal life events did not correlate with SWB. SWB and life events both showed a substantial degree of temporal stability. It was also found that good and bad life events tend to covary, both between individuals and across periods of the lives of individuals. Also, when events of the opposite valence were controlled, events correlated more strongly with SWB. The counterintuitive finding that good and bad events co-occur suggests an exciting avenue for explorations of the structure of life events.

  8. Social Cognitive Career Theory and Subjective Well-Being in the Context of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has often been studied as a context-free construct, reflecting overall life satisfaction and characteristic levels of positive affect and negative affect. But there has also been much interest in domain-specific aspects of subjective well-being, such as job satisfaction. The authors provide a brief overview of the two primary…

  9. Working in a context of hostility toward women: implications for employees' well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Cortina, Lilia M

    2004-04-01

    This study examined how working in an organizational context perceived as hostile toward women affects employees' well-being, even in the absence of personal hostility experiences. Participants were 289 public-sector employees who denied any personal history of being targeted with general or gender-based hostility at work. They completed measures of personal demographics, occupational and physical well-being, and perceptions of the organizational context for women. Results showed that 2 contextual indices of hostility toward women related to declines in well-being for male and female employees. The gender ratio of the workgroup moderated this relationship, with employees in male-skewed units reporting the most negative effects. These findings suggest that all employees in the workplace can suffer from working in a context of perceived misogyny.

  10. The Changing Context and the Organizational Justice Impact on the Employee Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Fátima Nery

    Full Text Available Abstract The context of organizational change may affect the well-being, namely when this change generate unfairness perceptions on employees. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the organizational change context on the perception of organizational justice and well-being. We proposed a mediation model of perceived organizational justice between the context of organizational change and well-being. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted with 731 public employees in the energy sector. Participants answered three instruments which evaluate organizational change context, justice perception and well-being. Factorial analyses and regression analysis were performed in order to test the psychometric qualities of the scale and the mediation model, respectively. The results indicate that the relationship between context and welfare perception is mediated by justice perceptions. This study contributes to research on reactions to organizational change and its impacts on individuals, highlighting the influence of perceived justice on the affective outcomes of organizational change.

  11. Examining Well-Being in School Context: Weekly Experiences of Pupils and Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Tadic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the determinants and intercorrelations between teachers’ and pupils’ well-being and motivation in the school context. Based on self-determination theory and job demands-resources theory, we hypothesize that (a teachers’ weekly self-concordant work motivation promotes teachers’ weekly work-related well-being (i.e. work-related positive affect and work engagement, and (b that a crossover effect of teachers’ weekly work-related well-being on pupils’ weekly school-related well-being exists, while controlling for trait-level teachers’ antecedents of trait-level teachers’ work-related well-being: job demands and job resources. A quantitative weekly diary methodology is employed. Participants are primary school pupils and their teachers from six European countries.

  12. Household Context and Subjective Well-Being among the Oldest Old in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feinian; Short, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the importance of household context to subjective well-being among the oldest old (aged 80 years and older) in China. Using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, the authors find that living arrangements have strong implications for elderly emotional health. First, living alone is associated with…

  13. Revisiting the paradox of well-being: the importance of national context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Hannah J; Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Abrams, Dominic; Bratt, Christopher; Marques, Sibila; Lima, Maria-Luisa

    2014-11-01

    Despite age-related changes or declines in circumstances, health or income, many older people are able to maintain subjective well-being (SWB) in later life. This is known as the paradox of well-being. To date, much research has focused on either individual- (e.g., age, health, and income) or country-level (e.g., national wealth, inequality) differences in SWB. The present research investigates how these levels combine, and whether the paradox of well-being persists across different economic contexts. This research uses the 2008-2009 European Social Survey to test the multilevel hypothesis that economic circumstances, reflected by a country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), affect the paradox of well-being, that is, the relationship between age and SWB. Analyses also account for other relevant psychological, individual, and country differences. Possible avenues by which GDP affects SWB are also explored. The multilevel analysis revealed that GDP disproportionally affects the SWB of older people relative to younger people, and that the paradox of well-being is only observed in countries with higher GDP. The findings clarify the relationship between age and SWB by demonstrating that the paradox of well-being is conditional on the economic context. Implications for individual- and country-level strategies for successful aging are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Daily Well-Being Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Adults: Does Time or Type Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Blaxton, Jessica M

    2017-03-08

    There is little debate that maintaining some level of physical activity in later life conveys positive benefits both physically and psychologically. What is less understood is the extent to which the type of activity or the length of time spent doing it matters when it comes to these benefits on the daily level. Here, we investigated (a) whether the presence of daily purposeful exercise (Exercise) or non-exercise physical activity (Activity) is sufficient for experiencing day-level benefits, or if time spent matters, and (b) whether there are differential well-being benefits of Exercise and Activity on the daily level. Older adults (N = 127; aged 60-95, Mage = 79.4) filled out surveys for 14 days, reporting daily Exercise and Activity behaviors as well as Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA), Perceived Stress (PS), Perceived Health (PH), and Sleep Quality (SQ). Multilevel regression models showed that for purposeful exercise, more time spent was beneficial for PA, NA, and PH, but for PS, only the presence of exercise was important (time did not matter). For non-exercise activity, time did not have as great an influence as presence-doing any form of activity was beneficial for both PA and SQ. Exercise and Activity had largely independent (additive) effects. Results reveal that both purposeful exercise and non-exercise activity convey independent daily well-being benefits, and that for some aspects of daily well-being, duration does matter. Findings can be applied in the development of physical activity education or engagement programs for older adults.

  15. Cultural Socialization Across Contexts: Family-Peer Congruence and Adolescent Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D

    2016-03-01

    Racial/ethnic minority youth live at the intersection of diverse cultures, yet little is known about cultural socialization outside families or how cultural socialization in multiple settings conjointly influences adolescent well-being. In a sample of 236 8th graders (51 % female; 89 % Latinos, 11 % African Americans), we examined adolescents' perceptions of family and peer cultural socialization toward the heritage culture and the mainstream American culture. A variable-centered approach demonstrated that the socioemotional and academic benefits of family cultural socialization were most evident when peer cultural socialization was congruently high. Although family and peer cultural contexts are often assumed to be drastically different, we identified similar proportions of adolescents experiencing congruently high, congruently low, and incongruent cultural socialization from families and peers using a person-centered approach. Although the incongruent group received relatively high levels of cultural socialization in one setting, their well-being was similar to the congruently low group. The findings highlight the importance of considering cultural socialization across multiple developmental settings in understanding racial/ethnic minority youth's well-being.

  16. Subjective Well-Being of Children in the Context of Educational Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krampen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of two empirical studies is the analysis of the development of subjective well-being in kindergarten and elementary school students in the context of the educational transitions (1 from kindergarten to elementary school and (2 from elementary to secondary schools in two different national school systems. Semi-structured interviews on self-esteem and dysthymic mood (i.e., low spirits, feelings of depressiveness and of dejection were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and the first three elementary school years. Measurements were repeated three times each a year apart. Samples refer to 312 German and 244 Luxembourg children enrolled in educational systems with optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school, and educational placement thereafter (Germany versus obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school (Luxembourg. Time- and age-effects point to significant discontinuities in the development of subjective well-being. There are declines of self-esteem and increases of dysthymic mood just after school enrollment (“transition shock” in the Luxembourg sample, whereas quite similar developments are observed in the last elementary school year before educational placement for secondary education in the German sample. School enrollment and educational placement for secondary education are critical life events with significant impact on children’s well-being, which varies between different school systems.

  17. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K

    2013-07-01

    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. Models in the design of context-aware well-being applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2014-01-01

    Context-aware systems that make use of sensor information to reason about their context have been proposed in many domains. However, it is still hard to design effective context-aware applications, due to the absence of suitable domain theories that consider dynamic context and associated user

  19. Models in the design of context-aware well-being applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, Steven; Sinderen, van Marten

    2014-01-01

    Context-aware systems that make use of sensor information to reason about their context have been proposed in many domains. However, it is still hard to design effective context-aware applications, due to the absence of suitable domain theories that consider dynamic context and associated user requi

  20. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores how the context of competencies affects the way we see and value competence and how it thereby forms communication and strategies of action. The paper puts forward the view that the context of competence is often spoken of in incomprehensible terms and generally taken...... for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  1. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.

  2. Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Biggio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248, any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158, and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222. The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace.

  3. Towards model-driven requirements analysis for context-aware well-being systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the interest in the field of pervasive computing has increased. A specific class of applications in this domain is that of context-aware applications. These programs utilize context information to adapt to their current environment. This quality can be used, among others, when dealin

  4. Model-driven Development for User-centric Well-being Support: From Dynamic Well-being Domain Models to Context-aware Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Applications that can use information obtained through device sensors to alter their behavior are called context-aware. Design and development of such applications is currently done by modeling the application's context or by using novel requirements engineering methods. If the application is to

  5. Model-driven development for user-centric well-being support: from dynamic well-being domain models to context-aware applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, Steven; Sinderen, van Marten

    2015-01-01

    Applications that can use information obtained through device sensors to alter their behavior are called context-aware. Design and development of such applications is currently done by modeling the application's context or by using novel requirements engineering methods. If the application is to sup

  6. Professional Listening Competence Promoting Well-Being at Work in the Legal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Kortesmaa, Sanna; Isotalus, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative cross-cultural study sought to contribute to the understanding of listening competence, dialogic listening, and the use of human agency in promoting well-being at work. The participant groups ("N" = 103) consisted of "n" = 76 U.S.-American and "n" = 27 Finnish attorneys. Results suggest that in order…

  7. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in the Context of Relationships at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…

  8. Routine and Ritual Elements in Family Mealtimes: Contexts for Child Well-Being and Family Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Foley, Kimberly P.; Spagnola, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how the routine elements of family mealtimes such as assigned tasks and the more emotional ritual aspects such as recognition of feelings are related to children's well-being and the creation of a family identity. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  9. Models of Parenting: Implications for Adolescent Well-Being within Different Types of Family Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucksmith, J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines parenting models and parent-child relationships from early to middle adolescence. Focuses on implications for adolescent functioning, including school integration and psychological well being. Results identify four distinct types of parenting styles characterized by different degrees of acceptance and control of young people's behavior.…

  10. Adolescents' psychological well-being and self-esteem in the context of relationships at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim

  11. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in the Context of Relationships at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…

  12. Sexual Well-Being in Single, Sexually Active College Females: A Matter of Agency and Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Larissa Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explored multiple predictors of sexual well-being in a sample of 253 single, sexually active undergraduate females at a public Mid-Atlantic university. Several factors were identified from past research that might impact sexual well-being: casual sex, sexual agency, sexual attitudes, and sexual desire. Of the four factors, only sexual agency and sexual attitudes were found as significant predictors of sexual well-being. The results suggest that -- of single, sexually active undergr...

  13. Towards model-driven requirements analysis for context-aware well-being systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, Steven; Sinderen, van Marten

    2012-01-01

    Research interest in the domain of pervasive systems has seen a rapid increase, evident from the amount of research papers being published each year. These systems are to blend in with everyday life, being completely unobtrusive. Through the use of sensors, pervasive systems can become context-aware

  14. Jealousy in adolescents' daily lives: How does it relate to interpersonal context and well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennarz, H.K.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Granic, I.

    2017-01-01

    Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal context

  15. Volunteerism and Well-Being in the Context of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Using a community sample of New York City residents (N=1681) interviewed 1 and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we estimated several logistic regression equations to assess predictors of volunteerism and the relationship between volunteerism and later well-being. Multivariate results show that those with more education, higher exposure to WTCD events, many life-time traumatic events, and pre-WTCD mental health problems were more likely to report volunteerism post-WTCD. African Americans and Latinos were less likely to volunteer, compared to Whites. Respondents scoring high on the Srole Anomie scale and reporting physical disabilities were also less likely to report volunteering in the aftermath of the WTCD. Multivariate results with volunteerism as an independent variable suggest that people who engaged in this activity were less likely to have poor well-being as measured by the SF-12 physical and mental health scales. We discuss these results as they relate to identity theory, the stress process model, and resilience and how community disaster researchers need to pay closer attention to how people interpret and give meaning to traumatic events. PMID:25774097

  16. Volunteerism and Well-Being in the Context of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    Using a community sample of New York City residents (N=1681) interviewed 1 and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD), we estimated several logistic regression equations to assess predictors of volunteerism and the relationship between volunteerism and later well-being. Multivariate results show that those with more education, higher exposure to WTCD events, many life-time traumatic events, and pre-WTCD mental health problems were more likely to report volunteerism post-WTCD. African Americans and Latinos were less likely to volunteer, compared to Whites. Respondents scoring high on the Srole Anomie scale and reporting physical disabilities were also less likely to report volunteering in the aftermath of the WTCD. Multivariate results with volunteerism as an independent variable suggest that people who engaged in this activity were less likely to have poor well-being as measured by the SF-12 physical and mental health scales. We discuss these results as they relate to identity theory, the stress process model, and resilience and how community disaster researchers need to pay closer attention to how people interpret and give meaning to traumatic events.

  17. Social comparison and subjective well-being: does the health of others matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The importance of social comparison in shaping individual utility has been widely documented by subjective well-being literature. So far, income and unemployment have been the main dimensions considered in social comparison. This paper aims to investigate whether subjective well-being is influenced by inter-personal comparison with respect to health. Thus, we study the effects of the health of others and relative health hypotheses on two measures of subjective well-being: happiness and subjective health. Using data from the Italian Health Conditions survey, we show that a high incidence of chronic conditions and disability among reference groups negatively affects both happiness and subjective health. Such effects are stronger among people in the same condition. These results, robust to different econometric specifications and estimation techniques, suggest the presence of some sympathy in individual preferences with respect to health and reveal that other people's health status serves as a benchmark to assess one's own health condition.

  18. Happiness Matters: Towards a Pedagogy of Happiness and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffham, Stephen; Barnes, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The role of the emotions in learning has long been acknowledged but is often overlooked. This article considers the impact one particular emotion, happiness, has on learning and the school curriculum. Recent reports have drawn attention to the importance of happiness (or the lack of it) by highlighting concerns about childhood well-being. At the…

  19. Life Goals and Well-Being: Does Financial Status Matter? Evidence from a Representative Hungarian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Tamas; Kopp, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research with the Aspiration Index suggests that the importance of intrinsic life goals (e.g. personal growth and relationships) is in positive association with indicators of well-being, whereas an orientation toward extrinsic life goals (e.g. wealth and appearance) is connected with decreased positive functioning. Our study extended the…

  20. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Happiness Matters: Towards a Pedagogy of Happiness and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffham, Stephen; Barnes, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The role of the emotions in learning has long been acknowledged but is often overlooked. This article considers the impact one particular emotion, happiness, has on learning and the school curriculum. Recent reports have drawn attention to the importance of happiness (or the lack of it) by highlighting concerns about childhood well-being. At the…

  2. Patterns of Single Mothers' Work and Welfare Use: What Matters for Children's Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neblett, Nicole Gardner

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have captured the variation in single mothers' work and welfare experiences and the implications for children. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Child Development Study, this study examines patterns of wages, work hours, and time spent on welfare in relation to children's well-being (N = 820). Six patterns…

  3. Living alone and psychological well-being in mid-life: does partnership history matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demey, Dieter; Berrington, Ann; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have found that the duration since a union dissolution and the number of union dissolutions are associated with psychological well-being. However, these two aspects of partnership history have rarely been considered jointly in models of mental health. This study aims to investigate how the time since the most recent union dissolution and the number of union dissolutions are related to two indicators of psychological well-being-life satisfaction and the General Health Questionnaire-among middle-aged solo-living British men and women. Data from the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study from 2009 to 2010 are analysed for 1201 50-64 year olds who were living alone and have ever been in a co-resident union (472 men and 729 women). Logistic regression analysis is used to investigate how life satisfaction and General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) caseness are associated with partnership characteristics. GHQ-12 caseness is significantly and positively associated with the number of union dissolutions and negatively with the duration since the most recent union dissolution. This is the case among both genders, in models in which these partnership characteristics are entered separately and jointly, and in models controlling for parenthood status, socioeconomic status and physical health. The results suggest that there is a short-term deterioration in mental health after a partnership break-up and that experiencing multiple union dissolutions is detrimental for psychological well-being. The association between partnership characteristics and the two measures of psychological well-being differs, which is in line with previous research showing that negative affect and life satisfaction are two separate constructs.

  4. Improving context-aware applications for the well-being domain: Model-driven design guided by medical knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Computing applications for among others well-being and health become increasingly advanced as a result of their sensor-based awareness of the context in which they are used. Context-aware applications have the potential of providing enriched services to their users, i.e. services that are

  5. Improving context-aware applications for the well-being domain: Model-driven design guided by medical knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, Steven; Sinderen, van Marten

    2014-01-01

    Computing applications for among others well-being and health become increasingly advanced as a result of their sensor-based awareness of the context in which they are used. Context-aware applications have the potential of providing enriched services to their users, i.e. services that are appropriat

  6. Socio-Demographic Variables, General Psychological Well-Being and the Mental Health Continuum in an African Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, I. P.; Temane, Q. M.; Wissing, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and environmental setting explain different amounts of variance in psychological well-being and mental health. Inconsistent findings are reported for the socio-demographic variables in psychological well-being depending amongst others on the definition and measurement of…

  7. Development and Validation of the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI): Assessing Children's Well-Being and Assets across Multiple Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Guhn, Martin; Gadermann, Anne M; Hymel, Shelley; Sweiss, Lina; Hertzman, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Few instruments provide reliable and valid data on child well-being and contextual assets during middle childhood, using children as informants. The authors developed a population-level, self-report measure of school-aged children's well-being and assets-the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI)-and examined its reliability and validity. The MDI was designed to assess child well-being inside and outside of school on five dimensions: (1) Social and emotional development, (2) Connectedness to peers and to adults at school, at home, and in the neighborhood, (3) School experiences, (4) Physical health and well-being, and (5) Constructive use of time after school. This paper describes the theoretical framework, selection of items and scales for the survey, and four studies that were conducted to revise the MDI and examine its psychometric properties. The findings indicate a theoretically predicted factor structure, high internal consistency, and document the convergent and discriminant validity of the MDI scales. The discussion delineates a plan for future validation studies that address further validity questions, such as predictive validity, measurement invariance, and fairness/bias, and provides a brief outlook of how the MDI may be used by practitioners, educators, and decision makers in schools and communities to motivate and inform action in support children's well-being.

  8. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  9. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  10. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in the Context of Relationships at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…

  11. Ethnic differences in psychological well-being in adolescence in the context of time spent in family activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Maria J; Harding, Seeromanie

    2010-01-01

    In Britain and elsewhere there is ethnic variation in mental health in adulthood but less is known about adolescence. Few studies examining the role of family life in adolescent mental well-being have been based on a multi-ethnic UK sample. We explored whether family activities explain ethnic differences in mental health among adolescents in London, UK. These analyses are based on 4,349 Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi and White UK boys and girls aged 11-13, in 51 schools. Psychological well-being was measured as the total difficulties score from Goodman's strengths and difficulties questionnaire (increasing score represents increasing difficulties). Participation in family activities varied by ethnicity. Compared with the White UK group, all minority groups were more likely to visit friends and relatives and go other places as a family. Black Caribbeans and Nigerian/Ghanaians were less likely and South Asian groups more likely to eat a meal together as a family. In multivariate analyses all minority groups had better well-being scores compared to Whites, independent of family type and socio-economic status (SES). Although adjusting for family activities slightly attenuated the association for South Asians, the minority ethnic advantage in psychological well-being remained [regression coefficients for Black Caribbeans = -0.66 (95% CI = -1.13, -0.20); Nigerian/Ghanaians = -1.27 (-1.81, -0.74); Other Africans = -1.43 (-2.00, -0.86); Indians = -1.15 (-1.73, -0.58); Pakistani/Bangladeshis = -0.66 (-1.20, -0.12)]. In analyses based on the whole group, all activity variables were independent correlates of psychological well-being. Multivariate models, stratified by ethnicity, showed that meals was associated with poorer mental health for all groups, except Black Caribbeans, independent of family type and SES. Despite ethnic patterning of the frequency of family activities, adjusting for differences in these variables did not account for

  12. Deciphering the complex intermediate role of health coverage through insurance in the context of well-being by network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Myriam Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Recent initiatives that overstate health insurance coverage for well-being conflict with the recognized antagonistic facts identified by the determinants of health that identify health care as an intermediate factor. By using a network of controlled interdependences among multiple social resources including health insurance, which we reconstructed from survey data of the U.S. and Bayesian networks structure learning algorithms, we examined why health insurance through coverage, which in most countries is the access gate to health care, is just an intermediate factor of well-being. We used social network analysis methods to explore the complex relationships involved at general, specific and particular levels of the model. All levels provide evidence that the intermediate role of health insurance relies in a strong relationship to income and reproduces its unfair distribution. Some signals about the most efficient type of health coverage emerged in our analyses.

  13. Achievement goals and autonomy: how person--context interactions predict effective functioning and well-being during a career transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemeier, Heike; Wiese, Bettina S

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how achievement goals interact with autonomy to explain mastery of a challenging career transition. In a sample of women who were returning from maternity leave, we examined how autonomy interacted with achievement goals to explain two types of outcomes: effective functioning (i.e., self-rated work adjustment, coworker-rated work adjustment, and coworker-rated learning competence) and well-being at work (i.e., positive affect and life satisfaction). In a longitudinal design (249 employees), we found that achievement goals and autonomy had direct effects on successful return to work. Moreover, maladaptive motivational states hindered the effective use of workplace resources: Autonomy moderated the consequences associated with performance-prove and -avoidance goals. Among those who adopted performance-prove goals, autonomy improved work adjustment and learning. However, women who adopted performance-avoidance goals experienced a trade-off between effective functioning and well-being, when equipped with high autonomy.

  14. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  15. Becoming resilient: promoting the mental health and well-being of immigrant women in a canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonnell, Judith A; Dastjerdi, Mahdieh; Bokore, Nimo; Khanlou, Nazilla

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on grounded theory findings that are relevant to promoting the mental health and well-being of immigrant women in Canada. The findings illustrate how relationships among settlement factors and dynamics of empowerment had implications for "becoming resilient" as immigrant women and how various health promotion approaches enhanced their well-being. Dimensions of empowerment were embedded in the content and process of the feminist health promotion approach used in this study. Four focus groups were completed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada with 35 racialized immigrant women who represented diverse countries of origin: 25 were from Africa; others were equally represented from South Asia (5), Asia (5), and Central or South America and the Caribbean (5). Participants represented diverse languages, family dynamics, and educational backgrounds. One focus group was conducted in Somali; three were conducted in English. Constructivist grounded theory, theoretical sampling, and a critical feminist approach were chosen to be congruent with health promotion research that fostered women's empowerment. Findings foreground women's agency in the study process, the ways that immigrant women name and frame issues relevant to their lives, and the interplay among individual, family, community, and structural dynamics shaping their well-being. Implications for mental health promotion are discussed.

  16. Becoming Resilient: Promoting the Mental Health and Well-Being of Immigrant Women in a Canadian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. MacDonnell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on grounded theory findings that are relevant to promoting the mental health and well-being of immigrant women in Canada. The findings illustrate how relationships among settlement factors and dynamics of empowerment had implications for “becoming resilient” as immigrant women and how various health promotion approaches enhanced their well-being. Dimensions of empowerment were embedded in the content and process of the feminist health promotion approach used in this study. Four focus groups were completed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada with 35 racialized immigrant women who represented diverse countries of origin: 25 were from Africa; others were equally represented from South Asia (5, Asia (5, and Central or South America and the Caribbean (5. Participants represented diverse languages, family dynamics, and educational backgrounds. One focus group was conducted in Somali; three were conducted in English. Constructivist grounded theory, theoretical sampling, and a critical feminist approach were chosen to be congruent with health promotion research that fostered women’s empowerment. Findings foreground women’s agency in the study process, the ways that immigrant women name and frame issues relevant to their lives, and the interplay among individual, family, community, and structural dynamics shaping their well-being. Implications for mental health promotion are discussed.

  17. Sexual Closeness Discrepancies: What They Are and Why They Matter for Sexual Well-Being in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; McClelland, Sara I; Dettmann, Miranda

    2017-03-31

    This study examined the impact of sexual closeness on sexual well-being. We developed a nuanced and multifaceted conceptualization of sexual closeness in the form of a constellation of ideal sexual closeness with a partner, actual sexual closeness, and the discrepancy between the two. Data were obtained from a diverse sample of N = 619 participants who took part in the Lives and Relationships Study: A longitudinal survey of men and women in relationships living in the U.S. and Canada. Increases in sexual closeness discrepancies over a period of 1 year predicted concomitant decreases in two indicators of sexual well-being: sexual satisfaction and orgasm frequency evaluations. Decreases in sexual closeness discrepancies resulted in improvement in sexual well-being. Individuals who reported no sexual closeness discrepancies and experienced no changes in sexual closeness discrepancies tended to have the highest levels of sexual well-being. Importantly, sexual closeness discrepancies were robust predictors of sexual well-being, above and beyond individuals' actual sexual closeness, general relationship closeness, and other demographic and relationship characteristics known to be associated with sexual well-being. The present findings demonstrate that how close people feel sexually to their relationship partners is part of a general constellation of factors related to relationship closeness that, only when considered together, sufficiently explain the ways in which experiences of closeness impact sexual well-being in romantic relationships.

  18. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine King

    Full Text Available Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105 from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  19. Micro-breaks matter : A diary study on the effects of energy management strategies on occupational well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Brailsford, Holly A.; Parker, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Organizational researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in self-regulatory strategies employees can use at work to sustain or improve their occupational well-being. A recent cross-sectional study on energy management strategies suggested that many work-related strategies (e.g., sett

  20. What matters to the rich and the poor? Subjective well-being, financial satisfaction, and postmaterialist needs across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the importance of financial satisfaction versus postmaterialist needs for subjective well-being (SWB). Using the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether financial satisfaction and postmaterialist needs (pertaining to autonomy, social support, and respect) were universal predictors of the different components of SWB across the world, and whether their effects were moderated by national affluence. Results showed that financial satisfaction was the strongest predictor of life evaluation, whereas respect was the strongest predictor of positive feelings. Both measures predicted negative feelings to some extent. Multilevel analyses also revealed moderating effects of societal wealth. The association between financial satisfaction and SWB and that between postmaterialist needs and SWB were stronger in richer nations compared with poorer ones. This suggests that developed economies should continue to focus on both material and psychological aspects, and not disregard economic gains, as both measures are essential to well-being.

  1. Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Blatný, M. (Marek); Šolcová, I. (Iva)

    2015-01-01

    The chapter first discusses two essential theoretical concepts of well-being: subjective well-being and psychological well-being. Then the main findings on the links between well-being and socio-demographic variables are summarized. The main focus of the chapter is on the analysis of the links between personality and well-being. In agreement with the present views on personality domains, the relationships between well-being and personality traits, characteristic adaptations and personal narra...

  2. Positives and Negatives: Reconceptualising Gender Attributes within the Context of the Sex role Identity and Well-Being Literature: An Examination within the South African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Bernstein

    2016-04-01

    ranged from 44% to 49% whilst 46% to 54% indicated the adoption of positive identities.Practical/managerial implications: This research is important as it highlights that investigations of SRI must assess both positive and negative sex role identities. Negative SRIs may have implications for critical individual and organisational outcomes. Furthermore, measures that assess both positive and negative identities may have implications for organisational processes, such as recruitment, selection and training, learning and development.Contribution/value-add: The findings of this research contribute to the South African body of literature investigating sex role identities. The present study’s finding of a high proportion of individuals endorsing negative identities has implications for future research. Future research needs to explore the relationship between both positive and negative identities and a wide variety of individual and organisational well-being indicators.Keywords: Sex role identity; positive sex role identity; negative sex role identity 

  3. Organizations and social worker wellbeing: the intra-organizational context of practice and its impact on a practitioner's subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Micheal L; Graham, John R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the varied factors that contribute to social worker subjective well-being (SWB) (the social science concept for happiness). Using qualitative methods of inquiry 19 social workers who reported having low to medium levels of workplace and profession satisfaction were interviewed to assess those factors within their lives that they perceived as impacting their well-being. One thematic category from the analysis was aspects of the intraorganizational context of workplaces that can impact social worker SWB. Respondents identified interpersonal workplace relationships, decision-making processes, management/supervisory dynamics, workload and workplace expectations, access to resources and infrastructure support, and inter-organizational relationships as key intra-organizational factors contributing to their overall wellbeing. In conclusion, these findings have practical application within organizations for structured policies and unstructured practices to improve social worker subjective well-being.

  4. well-being perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    well-being, namely: self-acceptance, personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations with others .... Sternberg, 2004] identifies the concepts of exploration and commitment from the work of ..... Clinical applications of well-being therapy.

  5. Change in brainstem gray matter concentration following a mindfulness-based intervention is correlated with improvement in psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eLazar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals can improve their levels of psychological well-being through utilization of psychological interventions, including the practice of mindfulness meditation, which is defined as the non-judgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment. We recently reported that an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR course lead to increases in gray matter concentration in several brain areas, as detected with voxel-based morphometry of MPRAGE MRI scans, including the pons/raphe/locus coeruleus area of the brainstem. Given the role of the pons and raphe in mood and arousal, we hypothesized that changes in this region might underlie changes in well-being.A subset of fourteen healthy individuals from a previously published data set completed anatomical MRI and filled out the Psychological Well-Being (PWB scale before and after MBSR participation. PWB change was used as the predictive regressor for changes in gray matter density within those brain regions that had previously shown pre- to post- MBSR changes. Results showed that scores on five PWB subscales as well as the PWB total score increased significantly over the MBSR course. The change was positively correlated with gray matter concentration increases in two symmetrically bilateral clusters in the brainstem. Those clusters appeared to contain the area of the pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus, nucleus raphe pontis, and the sensory trigeminal nucleus. No clusters were negatively correlated with the change in PWB. This preliminary study suggests a neural correlate of enhanced psychological well-being. The identified brain areas include the sites of synthesis and release of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin, which are involved in the modulation of arousal and mood, and have been related to a variety of affective functions as well as associated clinical dysfunctions.

  6. Emotional Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Nutrition Information (AICR) Emotional Well-Being Patient Empowerment Support Get Answers To Your Questions Meet Patients ... with kidney cancer, you may wish to seek professional assistance. These services may be covered by your ...

  7. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: the case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-08-07

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.

  8. The psychological portrait as a tool to improve the subjective well-being of the client in the context of personal sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the concept of relationship marketing is discussed. The notion of personal sale, which emphasizes the importance of knowing the psychology of customers, the ability to demonstrate significant competence and knowledge of modern techniques in sales by the seller is represented. The theory of marketing introduced by the concept of a "personal agent", most accurately reflects the activity of the seller in the context of relationship marketing. The necessity of the application of psychology in marketing is proved. This brief description of the four basic psychological concepts, which are the basis of the marketing strategy, is clarified by leading marketers. The three areas of application of differential psychology in marketing are suggested. The basis of the psychological techniques is represented by the typical characteristics of a person. The first point of the customer portrait is showed by the theory of spirits. The second point of psychological portrait is based on the theory of Socionics. The third point of the customer portrait refers to the theory of the types of perception of the world. Three stages of the process of building a psychological portrait of the client are proposed and described. Recommendations for dealing with clients of different psychological types are discussed. A technique of creation a psychological portrait of the client allows improving subjective well-being of customers and promotes the growth of the main indicators characterizing the effectiveness of personal sales.

  9. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Adolescents' Competence and the Balance of Adolescent Autonomy and Adolescent and Parent Well-Being in the Context of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A.; Osborn, Peter; Butler, Jorie M.; Godri, Carine; Fortenberry, Katie T.; Barach, Ilana; Le, Hai; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether intrafamily discrepancies in perceptions of the adolescent's competence and independence were associated with autonomy and well-being for adolescents and parents. The ways in which mothers and fathers consistently differed from their adolescent across measures of independence and competence regarding Type 1 diabetes, a…

  10. The interpersonal pollution, dark side of personality and its effect on group members’ well-being, and on culture of unity in organizational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrulewicz Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new concept of “interpersonal pollution” and its antecedents and effects, i.e. on organizational members’ health and well-being and on organizational outcomes are investigated. Building upon this work this presentation proposes a model and tentative definition of a broader construct, i.e. “organizational pollution”, and identifies its potential antecedents and explores its impact on humans’ health and well-being and organizational outcomes. In particular our model explores the roles played by leaders’ and members’ dark personalities and lack of environmental concern, by unethical leadership, by both the characteristics of the community and the organization, including the latter’s physical and ethical environment, and finally their link to organizational pollution. This new model implications for organizational and environmental psychology are discussed.

  11. Do work relationships matter? Characteristics of workplace interactions that enhance or detract from employee perceptions of well-being and health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health – an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The

  12. Insomnia and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale

    2007-01-01

    Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…

  13. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  14. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values......, it is common to mix pigs from different farmers in one area. Such mixing can cause fights between pigs, which can lead to additional stress or the animals being harmed. The unfamiliar environment also increases the animals’ stress levels. In some industrial slaughterhouses, up to 62,000 pigs per week...... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...

  15. The well-being questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    analyses were conducted. Group B (N = 736) was split up into four subgroups of male or female patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In these subgroups, confirmatory factor analyses were employed to test the model(s) developed in group A and the two models described in the literature (four-factor model......BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited....... This factor solution was stable across gender, type of diabetes and level of education. CONCLUSIONS: The best description of the factor structure of the Dutch translation of the W-BQ was given by a three-factor solution with 12 items (W-BQ12), measuring positive well-being (four items), negative well...

  16. Health and well-being at older ages: the interlinkage with family life histories, gender and national contexts: final report prepared in the context of the MAGGIE (Major Ageing and Gender Issues in Europe) research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, P.A.; Grundy, E.; Fokkema, C.M.; de Jong Gierveld, J.; Ploubides, G.B.; Read, S.; Tomassini, C.

    2009-01-01

    Some previous studies that did examine the late-life health and well-being implications of family-related developments are limited in terms of their scope.First, detailed examination of possible gender differences is still often neglected or, especially in research on childlessness or late parenthoo

  17. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  18. Well-being, capabilities and philosophical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention

  19. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  20. Measuring Well-Being and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Acci, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Well-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes an idea of well-being and progress being in equilibrium with each…

  1. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  2. Promoting Subjective Well-Being at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joyce E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Research has clearly shown the relationship between subjective well-being and work performance, even though there is debate over the causality of that relationship (i.e., does subjective well-being cause higher work performance or does greater work performance lead to subjective well-being?). Regardless, researchers and practitioners would agree…

  3. Sexual well-being and physical disability

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.; Fenge, Lee-Ann

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of sexual well-being for physically disabled people is a little researched area of social work practice. The traditionally hidden nature of sexuality and sexual well-being in disability research means that practitioners have little evidence based guidance to help offer inclusive person-centred care. Because sexual well-being is a sensitive topic, and one which professionals can feel uncomfortable discussing, the absence of guidance reinforces the barriers to its inclusion in pract...

  4. Well-being of young unemployed people

    OpenAIRE

    Takala, Johannes; Woge, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this Thesis was to find out how to promote health and well-being of young unemployed people. As well as to find out what is the well-being of young unemployed people in Finland based on researches made in Finland and internationally. This Thesis was done for RUORI project which aims to promote the well-being, health and employment of people. Aim: This Thesis was aimed for healthcare professionals and people interested in health and well-being of young unemployed. This ...

  5. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    -treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....

  6. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  7. Studying employee well-being : Moving forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilies, R.; Pluut, Helen; Aw, S.S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to integrate the commentaries to our position paper on intra-individual models of employee well-being (EWB; Ilies, R., Aw, S. S. Y., & Pluut, H. (2015). Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here? European Journal of

  8. Location and social context does matter when conducting consumer studies!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Kraggerud, Hilde; Bruun Brockhoff, Per

    2015-01-01

    an adequate level of research conducted in realistic eating contexts. In the aim to study how location and social context affected consumers’ feeling of food satisfaction and physical well-being a study was set up with, combined yoghurt with muesli products in two settings; a) in a sensory lab facility (n...... = 107), and b) a natural eating context (n = 132). In the natural eating context the consumer could bring the product along and eat it in a context where it felt natural. This further facilitated analysis of effect of eating location, social context and at which meal the product was consumed on feeling......, and food satisfaction, and one hour post intake of satisfaction. Overall the differences indicate that it takes more of a product to reduce appetite and increase food satisfaction in a natural context than it does in a lab context. Analysis of the natural eating context further showed an effect of social...

  9. Residential mobility, well-being, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    We tested the relation between residential mobility and well-being in a sample of 7,108 American adults who were followed for 10 years. The more residential moves participants had experienced as children, the lower the levels of well-being as adults. As predicted, however, the negative association between the number of residential moves and well-being was observed among introverts but not among extraverts. We further demonstrated that the negative association between residential mobility and well-being among introverts was explained by the relative lack of close social relationships. Finally, we found that introverts who had moved frequently as children were more likely to have died during the 10-year follow-up. Among extraverts, childhood residential mobility was unrelated to their mortality risk as adults. These findings indicate that residential moves can be a risk factor for introverts and that extraversion can be an interpersonal resource for social relationships and well-being in mobile societies.

  10. Work-related well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Soh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the different dimensions of well-being (namely, work engagement, job satisfaction, and psychological stress and possible predictors such as personality and perceived organizational support. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with a sample of 490 ambulance personnel in the United Kingdom. Significant correlations were found between the dimensions of job satisfaction, engagement, and stress. The results also supported a hierarchical model with job satisfaction, stress, and engagement loading onto one higher order factor of work well-being. Emotional stability and perceived organizational support were identified as significant predictors of well-being. The findings suggest the importance of measuring the work-related well-being of ambulance personnel holistically and present perceived organizational support as a possible area for interventions to improve well-being.

  11. Applying design thinking elsewhere: Organizational context matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design metho

  12. Applying design thinking elsewhere: Organizational context matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design

  13. Applying design thinking elsewhere: Organizational context matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design metho

  14. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  15. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  16. Age and occupational well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, P

    1992-03-01

    Two questions are examined through an investigation of 1,686 people employed in a wide range of jobs. First, is there a U-shaped relationship between age and occupational well-being, such that medium-aged workers report lower well-being than do both younger and older people? That pattern is found, in relationship to both job anxiety-contentment and job depression-enthusiasm. Second, can the observed associations between age and well-being be accounted for by 13 potentially explanatory factors, covering job position, job characteristics, work values, demographic factors, and family life cycle? After introducing these variables into stepwise regression equations, age remains significantly predictive of job well-being. Possible additional explanations of this positive association include other characteristics, an increasingly retrospective focus, and nonoccupational experiences.

  17. Achievement Goals and Student Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan; Maehr

    1999-10-01

    This study is concerned with the role that achievement goals may play in facilitating the psychological well-being of students. Specifically, we build on "goal theory" analysis of adaptive behavior in examining the relationship between task and ego goals, perceptions of school emphases on task and ego goals, and indices of well-being and disruptive behavior. Generally, task goals and perception of the school as emphasizing task goals were related to positive psychological well-being, and ego goals and perceiving the school as emphasizing ego goals were related to negative psychological well-being. This pattern was found for both African American and Euro-American students. However, path analyses pointed to possible different processes as operating for the African Americans and the Euro-Americans in the sample. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Well-Being, Science, and Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    according to which it originates in the idea that philosophers take well-being to be a single and general concept, and argue instead that it is likely to be the result of the different theoretical constraints under which philosophy and empirical science respectively operate. Finally, I show...... that communication can be strengthened by developing the empirical articulations of philosophical theories of well-being, and sketch how to do just that....

  19. Work and well-being in teams

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Karina

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines work and well-being in relationship to teamwork in two organisations employing professionals; one organising work in Japanese style teams and one with self-managing work teams. It offers a critique of current research on employee well-being in teams and outlines some ways forward for filling in the gaps in existing research. Using two case studies, the working conditions may be in teamwork organisations are investigated. Second, the moderating effects of teamwork on t...

  20. Understanding Well-being: Lessons for Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Indicators for Well -Being Assessment- Oxford Poverty Development Initiative (Sammans, 2007) – Satisfaction with Life (Diener, Emmons, & Griffin, 1985...Physical, mental, and social health-related quality of life – Well -being/ satisfaction – Participation in common activities Health-Related Quality...either of two sets of subjective or psychological attributes: – life satisfaction , higher positive/lower negative affect, by self-assessment (the

  1. National accounts of subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    Diener (2000) proposed that National Accounts of Well-Being be created to complement existing economic and social indicators that reflect the quality of life in nations. These national accounts can provide valuable information to policymakers and other leaders. Systematic measurement of subjective well-being provides novel information about the quality of life in societies, and it allows for the accumulation of detailed information regarding the circumstances that are associated with high subjective well-being. Thus, accounts of subjective well-being can help decision makers evaluate policies that improve societies beyond economic development. Progress with well-being accounts has been notable: Prestigious scientific and international institutions have recommended the creation of such national accounts, and these recommendations have been adopted in some form in over 40 nations. In addition, increasing research into policy-relevant questions reveals the importance of the accounts for policy. Psychologists can enlarge their role in the formulation and adoption of policies by actively studying and using accounts of subjective well-being to evaluate and support the policies they believe are needed.

  2. Financial Well-being in Active Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.

  3. Religiosity and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondari, Angeliki; Gialamas, Vasilios

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being in a sample of Greek Orthodox Christians. Previous research has documented that personal devotion, participation in religious activities, and religious salience are positively associated with different criteria of psychological well-being. The sample (83 men and 280 women) with an age range from 18 to 48 years, was strongly skewed with respect to sex (77% female) and education level (95% were university students or university graduates). Religiosity was operationalized as church attendance, frequency of prayer and belief salience. In addition, a single item referring to beliefs about God was used. Depression, anxiety, loneliness, and general life satisfaction were selected as dependent variables because they reflect important dimensions of psychological well-being. Preliminary analyses showed that sex was significantly related to the three religiosity variables (church attendance, frequency of prayer, belief salience), with women being more religious than men. Consistent with previous research, correlations suggested that church attendance and belief salience were associated with better life satisfaction. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant positive association between anxiety and frequency of personal prayer. Finally, personal beliefs about God did not seem to relate to any of the psychological well-being measures. The results of the present study partially support the hypothesized association between religiosity and psychological well-being.

  4. Motivation in educational contexts: does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Girls and women now outperform boys and men on many indices of academic achievement. Gender differences in motivation may underlie these trends. In this chapter, I review and integrate research on gender differences in self-evaluation, self-regulation, and achievement goals. I argue for the existence of gendered tendencies "to prove" versus "to try and to improve," whereby males tend to orient to demonstrating and defending their abilities, and females to working hard and addressing deficiencies. I discuss how these motivations develop within social and educational contexts of learning, and intersect with gendered patterns of socialization, values, and behaviors in other arenas, especially relational ones. Recurring themes include the costs and benefits of differential emphases on competition and self-promotion versus affiliation and consideration of others in the family, peer group, and classroom. I conclude with some recommendations for creating classroom environments that might promote optimal motivation among all students, regardless of gender.

  5. Spiritual Well-Being; Background [and] Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, David O.; And Others

    This paper on Spiritual Well-Being provides information for leaders concerned with the problems of older people. The first four sections of the paper discuss: the need for religious organizations and society to develop and promote services and programs that will contribute to the spiritual needs of the elderly; goals proposed by previous groups…

  6. Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapteyn, Arie; Lee, Jinkook; Tassot, Caroline; Vonkova, Hana; Zamarro, Gema

    We use two waves of a population based survey (the RAND American Life Panel) to investigate the relations between various evaluative and experienced well-being measures based on the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, the Gallup Wellbeing Index, and a 12-item hedonic well-being module of the Health and Retirement Study. In a randomized set-up we administered several versions of the survey with different response scales. Using factor analysis, we find that all evaluative measures load on the same factor, but the positive and negative experienced affect measures load on different factors. We find evidence of an effect of response scales on both the estimated number of underlying factors and their relations with demographics. We conclude that finer response scales allowing more nuanced answers offer more reliability. The relation of evaluative and experienced measures with demographics are very different; perhaps the most striking aspect is the lack of a consistent relation of experienced well-being measures with income, while evaluative well-being is strongly positively related with income.

  7. On the Importance of Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    . This charge can be found in the recent work of both Joseph Raz and Thomas Scanlon. According to the latter the concept of well-being plays an unimportant role in an agent’s deliberation. As I will show, to claim this much is to undermine our initial claim; and to do that is to undermine some of the most...

  8. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    -treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  9. Social Goals and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.

    2017-01-01

    Students have various social reasons for doing well in school (social-academic goals). However, most studies have focused on competence-oriented achievement goals with little attention paid to social-academic goals. This study aims to examine the role of social-academic goals in students' general well-being (Study 1) and socioemotional functioning…

  10. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  11. Career Construction and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.; Taber, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Experienced happiness and reported life contentment represent cardinal elements of subjective well-being (SWB). Achieving happiness and contentment with work and other domains, such as love, play, and community, constitute fundamental life goals. Career construction offers a developmental theory of vocational behavior and a career assessment and…

  12. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  13. Global Developments, Markets, and Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship among global development, markets, and well-being is an important theoretical and methodologicalassociation to address and analyze theoretical ways of ‘value framing and talking’ among experts, institutions, and people.These relations may take the forms of interfaces, dislocations,

  14. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  15. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students...... (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...

  16. Relative deprivation and individual well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    People who are unable to maintain the same standard of living as others around them experience a sense of relative deprivation that has been shown to reduce feelings of well-being. Relative deprivation reflects conditions of worsening relative poverty despite striking reductions in absolute poverty. The effects of relative deprivation explain why average happiness has been stagnant over time despite sharp rises in income. Consumption taxes on status-seeking spending, along with official and t...

  17. MEASURING IMPROVEMENT IN WELL-BEING

    OpenAIRE

    Satya R. Chakravarty; Mukherjee, Diganta

    1999-01-01

    A measure of improvement in well-being aggregates increments in the attainment levels of different quality-of-life attributes. This paper first characterizes the entire family of additive improvement indices, where additivity requires that the overall index can be expressed as the arithmetic average of attribute-wise indices. Then we suggest a general family of nonadditive improvement indices, of which the Tsui (1996) index becomes a particular case. Both additive and nonadditive measures are...

  18. Personal Well-Being among Spanish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRAN CASAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although results from several samples of 12 to 16-year-old adolescents in Catalonia (region of N.E. Spain, obtained andpublished between 1999 and 2012, suggesting a constant decrease in adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB with age, untilnow no such data have been available for the general Spanish adolescent population. In this article we present results for arepresentative Spanish sample (N=5934, limited to students in the year of ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria orCompulsory Secondary Education (mean age = 12.09. aims of this article are twofold: (a to validate an adaptationof the PWI for Spanish adolescents of around 12-years-old, which we will call PWI8adp; and (b to identify variables whichshow rences in children’s subjective well-being (SWB – using the PWI8adp as an indicator of SWB – whendichotomically comparing groups or categories of children. With this sample, among other we observe that Spanishadolescents scoring highest in subjective well-being tend to live in semi-urban environments, were born in Spain, have notrepeated a school year, live in only one family household, have two adults at home with paid employment, have parents withsecondary education or higher and have more material and cultural belongings at home compared to children with lower SWB.Furthermore, the adolescents with higher subjective well-being are those that never worry about money, think otherpeople treat them well, feel greater personal safety, feel they are listened to, report doing daily activities together with their family,do physical exercise or sport every day, have been told children have rights, have experienced fewer important recent changes intheir lives and feel their time is well organized.

  19. On Punishment and Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Brandts, Jordi; Rivas, María Fernanda

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The existence of punishment opportunities has been shown to cause efficiency in some public goods experiments to increase considerably. In this paper we ask whether punishment also has a downside in terms of process dissatisfaction. We conduct an experiment to study the conjecture that an environment with strong punishment possibilities may lead to higher material payoffs but lower subjective well-being, in comparison with weaker punishment or no punishment possibilities a...

  20. Well-Being on Planet Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Diener

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gallup World Poll allows a look at how humanity is flourishing, based on the answers of survey respondents sampled from across the globe. Several conclusions are clear. First, how people are doing depends enormously on the society in which they live, and nations vary from doing very well to extremely poorly. In terms of subjective well-being, nations vary greatly, in both judgments of overall life and in positive and negative emotions. The best predictors of global life judgments were income and ownership of modern conveniences, whereas the best predictors of emotions were social factors such as the control of corruption and being able to count on others, and personal factors such as learning new things and being able to control one’s day. Thus, the answer to the question of whether money makes people happy must be qualified by the measure of well-being that is being used. It is proposed that systematic measures of well-being across and within nations would allow individuals, leaders, and policy makers to make better decisions.

  1. [Media and children's well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Roine, Mira; Korhonen, Piia; Valkonen, Satu; Pennonen, Marjo; Partanen, Jukka; Lahikainen, Anja Riitta

    2011-01-01

    Watching television, video and computer games, and internet constitute a significant part of children's leisure time. High media exposure, however, increases the risk of psychosocial symptoms in children, such as aggressions, difficulties of behavioral regulation and concentration. In particular, media violence is thought to be harmful for children's well-being. Although the risks associated with media exposure may at least partly reflect the accumulation of social risk factors, they also seem to have an independent role as a factor increasing the symptoms. It is likely that the adverse effects of media can be lessened by providing guidance for parents.

  2. Well-being and the complexity of poverty: A subjective well-being approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Mariano

    2004-01-01

    This investigation studies human well-being from a subjective well-being approach. On the basis of a Mexican database the investigation shows that there is a weak relationship between subjective well-being and indicators of well-being such as income and consumption. Therefore, subjective well-being provides additional useful information to study human well-being and, in consequence, poverty. Three reasons for the existence of a weak relationship are studied: First, the fact that a person is m...

  3. Life Events and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2014-01-01

    The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper.......The first is the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) with data collected over 8 annual waves from 1994 to 2001 in 15 EU member countries. Observations are available for up to 15 countries with big differences in fertility levels, child care institutions and labour force participation for married women...... background factors. This presents a unique opportunity to combine the cross country perspective in the ECHP data with the possibility presented by the GSOEP of following the impact from giving birth over a significantly longer period including approximately 11.000 households....

  4. Discriminant validity of well-being measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R E; Diener, E; Suh, E

    1996-09-01

    The convergent and discriminant validities of well-being concepts were examined using multitrait-multimethod matrix analyses (D. T. Campbell & D. W. Fiske, 1959) on 3 sets of data. In Study 1, participants completed measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and optimism on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart and also obtained 3 informant ratings. In Study 2, participants completed each of the 5 measures on 2 occasions 2 years apart and collected informant reports at Time 2. In Study 3, participants completed 2 different scales for each of the 5 constructs. Analyses showed that (a) life satisfaction is discriminable from positive and negative affect, (b) positive affect is discriminable from negative affect, (c) life satisfaction is discriminable from optimism and self-esteem, and (d) optimism is separable from trait measures of negative affect.

  5. Life Events and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2014-01-01

    we focus on the eventual impact on SWB from having children. The dominant result in the rather few studies until now is the finding of no – or even a negative – impact on subjective well being following birth of a child. We focus on the impact from having children using two very big panel data sets.......The first is the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) with data collected over 8 annual waves from 1994 to 2001 in 15 EU member countries. Observations are available for up to 15 countries with big differences in fertility levels, child care institutions and labour force participation for married women....... At the same time, the ECHP data contains a lot of relevant demographic and labour market background variables to be included in the econometric analyses of the SWB impact from children. The second data set is The German Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP). Like the ECHP, the GSOEP data contains many relevant...

  6. Pedagogical Well-Being: Reflecting Learning and Well-Being in Teachers' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Tiina; Pyhalto, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' learning and occupational well-being is crucial in attaining educational goals both in the classroom and at the school community level. In this article teachers' occupational well-being that is constructed in teaching-learning processes within the school community is referred to as pedagogical well-being. The article focuses on exploring…

  7. Growth Following Adversity and Its Relation with Subjective Well-Being and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, John; Joseph, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that posttraumatic growth is associated with greater well-being. However, it is not clear whether posttraumatic growth is related to subjective well-being (SWB) or psychological well-being (PWB). Whereas SWB is derived from the hedonistic tradition, PWB is derived from the eudaimonic tradition. In a sample of 125 college…

  8. Psychological assessment of psychological well being in Argentine adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Casullo, María; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop a brief scale to assess perceived well being in adolescentpopulation. Besides verifying psychometric properties, we identified individual differences between genders, context and age. Participants were adolescent students recruited in three different areas of Argentina (Metropolitan area -Buenos Aires-, Norwest area- Tucuman- and Southwest area­ Patagonia- ). aged 13 Th. 18. Instruments administered consisted of BIEPS (well being scale) other classics...

  9. A curiosity about the dust matter in the cosmological context

    CERN Document Server

    Ghalee, Amir

    2013-01-01

    We propose a model for the dust matter in the cosmological context. The model contains a scalar field with a kinetic term non-minimally coupled to gravity. By investigating the background and perturbative equations, it is demonstrated that the scalar field has the same dynamics as the dust matter. We have also considered the cosmological constant in the model. It turns out that the model has not exotic behaviour. Thus, a universe including the scalar field and the cosmological constant, evolves just as the our universe. Moreover, we have added the quadratic term in the action. It is shown that the quadratic term can be ruled out by its consequences.

  10. Effects of spiritual well-being on subsequent happiness, psychological well-being, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowold, Jens

    2011-12-01

    Recently, Gomez and Fisher (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) proposed that four facets of spiritual well-being exist, namely, personal, communal, environmental, and transcendental spiritual well-being. Based on data from three independent studies, the present research effort tested the validity of a German version of (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ-G). It was found that the SWBQ-G was factorially valid and that each of the four SWBQ-G scales was discriminant to mental, physical, and emotional well-being. Also, it was found that the SWBQ-G predicted levels of subsequent happiness, psychological well-being (positive relationship), and stress (negative relationship). These results add to our knowledge about the validity of the construct of spiritual well-being.

  11. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  12. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p < .001, η2p = .523). When the context of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “I like being around non-autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p < .001, η2p = .541). When the reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “According to non-autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and

  13. Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes-with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes.

  14. Online intimacy and well-being in the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Lomanowska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in intimate social interactions and relationships has an important influence on well-being. However, recent advances in Internet and mobile communication technologies have lead to a major shift in the mode of human social interactions, raising the question of how these technologies are impacting the experience of interpersonal intimacy and its relationship with well-being. Although the study of intimacy in online social interactions is still in its early stages, there is general agreement that a form of online intimacy can be experienced in this context. However, research into the relationship between online intimacy and well-being is critically limited. Our aim is to begin to address this research void by providing an operative perspective on this emerging field. After considering the characteristics of online intimacy, its multimodal components and its caveats, we present an analysis of existing evidence for the potential impact of online intimacy on well-being. We suggest that studies thus far have focused on online social interactions in a general sense, shedding little light on how the level of intimacy in these interactions may affect well-being outcomes. We then consider findings from studies of different components of intimacy in online social interactions, specifically self-disclosure and social support, to indirectly explore the potential contribution of online intimacy to health and well-being. Based on this analysis, we propose future directions for fundamental and practical research in this important new area of investigation.

  15. The relations among well-being outcomes, religiosity, and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghababaei Naser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A major focus of attention in psychology has been on the consequences and determinants of well-being. Religiosity and personality have both been shown to predict mental health and well-being, but the two predictors have not often been investigated together. In 4 studies involving 7 surveys (total N = 1,530 in various social and religious contexts, the relations among well-being, religious orientation, and personality factors were studied. Results showed that Extraversion was the single strongest correlate of higher levels of subjective and psychological well-being. Religiosity had null or weak positive relationships with well-being, and managed to explain variance in some aspects of positive functioning beyond personality factors. The null or week relationship of religiosity with well-being beyond personality was consistent across the HEXACO and the Big Five models of personality structure. It has been suggested that religion is relatively more important for eudaimonic than for hedonic way of living.

  16. Multicultural Education and teacher’s social well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Taboada, Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The configuration of new intergroup and interpersonal relations that take place in the receiving social context as a result of migratory processes, owns direct influences over the school scene. Having in account there are different paradigms and models in multicultural education (Banks, 2009, the aim of the study is to analyse the impact that has on teacher’s social well-being, the main or minor percentage of immigrant students in the schools. The Social Well-Being Scale of Keyes (1998, adapted by Blanco & Diaz (2005 was applied on a sample of 281 primary education teachers from Guipúzcoa, (Spain. They were distributed in three groups for its comparison. The results indicate, that those teachers that carry out their work in schools with greater concentration of immigrant students, presented the greater level of social well-being with respect to their colleagues who belong to schools characterized by the sociocultural homogeneity of the pupils.

  17. Belonging, occupation, and human well-being: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2014-02-01

    Researchers identify the importance of belonging to human well-being and provide evidence-based support for occupation as a medium for expressing and achieving a sense of belonging and connectedness. The purpose of this article is to highlight the imperative for occupational therapy theory and practice to address occupations concerned with belonging needs. Dominant occupational therapy models emphasise doing self-care, productive, and leisure occupations, thereby ignoring occupations undertaken to contribute to the well-being of others, occupations that foster connections to nature and ancestors, collaborative occupations, and those valued for their social context and potential to strengthen social roles. Belonging, connectedness, and interdependence are positively correlated with human well-being, are prioritized by the majority of the world's people, and inform the meanings attributed to and derived from the occupations of culturally diverse people. If occupational therapy is to address meaningful occupations, attention should be paid to occupations concerned with belonging, connecting, and contributing to others.

  18. Risky choice in younger versus older adults: Affective context matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.

  19. Experiences of well-being and suffering after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during...... rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life after hip fracture. Identifying the meaning of a hip fracture in older people can provide a deeper understanding of what matters during rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life. Aim: To aggregate, appraise, interpret and synthesize findings from...... qualitative studies of lived experiences of well-being and suffering within one year after discharge with hip fracture. Method: Following the methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute, a three-step literature search strategy was developed. Initially, a structured search was performed in the databases CINAHL...

  20. Sources of spiritual well-being in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Christopher; Zimmermann, Camilla; Gagliese, Lucia; Li, Madeline; Rodin, Gary

    2011-09-01

    To test a conceptual model of sources of spiritual well-being in patients facing life-limiting disease. Cross-sectional survey. Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada. 747 patients with stage IV gastrointestinal, breast, genitourinary or gynaecological cancer, or stage IIIA, IIIB or IV lung cancer, recruited from 2002 to 2008. Spiritual well-being as assessed by the FACIT-Sp-12. Using structural equation modelling, spiritual well-being was specified as being predicted by religiosity, self-esteem, social relatedness and the physical burden of disease. The model had a good fit, Comparative Fit Index=0.96, Non-normed Fit Index=0.94, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.057. Standardised path coefficients relating each factor to spiritual well-being were as follows: religiosity 0.50, social relatedness 0.28, self-esteem 0.26 and physical burden -0.11. The authors confirmed our theoretical model in which spiritual well-being is positively associated with religiosity, self-esteem and social relatedness, and is negatively associated with physical suffering. Our findings support a multidimensional approach to spiritual well-being that addresses not only religious issues, but also pain and symptom control, and the potentially damaging effects of advanced disease on self-worth and close relationships. The spiritually informed clinical encounter may be one in which sufficient time and opportunity for reflection are afforded to consider illness trajectories and treatment decisions in the context of religious beliefs and personal values, self-worth, support systems and concerns about dependency.

  1. Galaxy Clusters in the Context of Superfluid Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hodson, Alistair; Khoury, Justin; Famaey, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been proposed, by assuming that dark matter is a superfluid, that MOND-like effects can be achieved on small scales whilst preserving the success of $\\Lambda$CDM on large scales. Here we aim to provide the first set of spherical models of galaxy clusters in the context of superfluid dark matter. We first outline the theoretical structure of the superfluid core and the surrounding "normal phase" dark halo of quasi-particles in thermal equlibrium. The latter should encompass the largest part of galaxy clusters. Here, we set the SfDM transition at the radius where the density and pressure of the superfluid and normal phase coincides, neglecting the effect of phonons in the suprefluid core. We then apply the theory to a sample of galaxy clusters, and directly compare the SfDM predicted mass profiles to data. We find that the superfluid formulation can reproduce the X-ray dynamical mass profile of clusters, with less free parameters than the corresponding CDM fits with NFW profiles. The SfDM fits h...

  2. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness.

  3. Personal construct theory and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, E

    1983-12-01

    The concept of 'psychological well-being' (as opposed to 'psychological disorder') is considered from the standpoint of George Kelly's personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). It is argued that the origin of psychological disorder lies in a difficulty in 'person construing', with particular reference to 'self-construing'. For some (like schizophrenics) this may be a relatively permanent state of affairs, whereas for others it may reflect a temporary crisis or transition. It seems that the ability to maintain a relatively stable, yet flexible, self-construction may be crucial. Social relationships, however, although potentially validating, also carry the risk of invalidating our self-construction. An individual's particular response to 'invalidation' may be substantially determined by commonality of construing in his particular context, e.g. an adolescent female may turn to slimming whereas a young male may turn to alcohol. Although the theory has proved to be most useful at an explanatory level, it has been applied therapeutically only to a limited extent. It is argued that psychologists may make a greater contribution to the enhancement of psychological well-being by applying constructive alternativism within a learning or educational context rather than the clinical setting.

  4. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being

  5. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  6. Is sexual well-being part of subjective well-being? An empirical analysis of Belgian (Flemish) survey data using an extended well-being scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hooghe, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Most conventionally used subjective well-being scales do not include any measurement of sexual well-being, despite the fact most available research and theories indicate that sexuality is to be considered an important and integral part of human well-being. In this paper we propose a five-item subjective well-being scale, including sexual well-being. A representative pilot survey in Belgium (n=2,080) indicates that item non-response on the sexual item remains limited. The new scale is strongly...

  7. Music, health, and well-being: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Raymond A R

    2013-08-07

    The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.

  8. Music, health, and well-being: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYMOND A. R. MacDonald

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.

  9. Music, health, and well-being: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components. PMID:23930991

  10. Individual production of social well-being : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, Alida Christina van

    2001-01-01

    Improvement of well-being is a central objective in most policy making and individual behaviour. The pursuit of well-being is so common that it is almost trivial. What well-being is however, and how subjective well-being is affected by objective conditions, are by no means trivial questions. In this

  11. Dopaminergic Modulation of Decision Making and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robb B; Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-01

    The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach-avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning.

  12. Psychology's contribution to the well-being of older americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Can a Community's 'Well-Being' Help You Live Longer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161961.html Can a Community's 'Well-Being' Help You Live Longer? Study found ... News) -- The level of "well-being" in a community -- including people's emotional health and life satisfaction -- may ...

  14. Predictors of Well-Being among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, S. Lee; Newton, Karen S.; Staten, Ruth R.; Crawford, Timothy N.; Hall, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Identification of health-related risk behaviors associated with well-being in college students is essential to guide the development of health promotion strategies for this population. The purposes were to evaluate well-being among undergraduate students and to identify health-related risk behaviors that predict well-being in this…

  15. Spiritual Well-Being and Suicidal Ideation among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explored whether specific dimensions of spiritual well-being (religious well-being and existential well-being) relate to reduced suicidal ideation, and whether associations persisted after controlling for religiosity and psychosocial variables associated with suicide. Participants: Participants were 457 college students who…

  16. Virtues and Well-Being of Korean Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…

  17. The Relation Between Mental Well-Being and Marital Satisfaciton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Iman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Functional value of the social institution of family is important in any social system. Any society with its values ​​ is beginning to look into family to train its future citizens. One of the important issues in this institution is the quality of relationships between parents (spouses. When a relation between the two is satisfactory in a relaxed family on which the ruling family in public life will improve performance. One of the affective factors that impact the process of making marital satisfaction effective is psychological issues. Therefore, according to a mental health problem of the couples can enhance their marital satisfaction and ultimately improve the efficiency of the family. Previous studies indicate that the level of psychological well-being is an affective factor in marital satisfaction of women than men. Also as known the cultural roots in modern cities have been weaken and divorce rate has been increased (Shirazi, 2007; Shie, 2001. While the studies and research in this regard is less. Thus pay attention to mental well-being with regard to the role of social context causes to increase the survival rates of marital satisfaction of women in particular and families in general. We choosed Najafabad and Fooladshahr as different social contexts, because of their cultural, demographic and historical distinctions. In one hand Najafabad is an old and passing city which could maintain its ancient structure and in the other hand has been accepted elements of modern and industrial life. But Fooladshahr is a new and immigrant town which because of this character, it has no homogenous and specific culture and diversity of cultures and ethnos in this city has been caused different positive and negative problems in habitant's lives. The statistics show that the immigration of Fooladshahr is more than Najafabad. Therefore, the total goal of this paper is answering to these questions: what kind of relation is there between

  18. Valuation of morbidity and mortality risk reductions. Does context matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seested Nielsen, Jytte; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kjær, Trine

    2012-01-01

    The main research purpose of the present study was to test for any differences in the valuation of morbidity and mortalityriskreductions across two contexts; traffic and health. A contingent valuation study on preferences for morbidity and mortalityrisk was carried out in Denmark in 2007....... Respondents were randomised into two different arms: one arm in which the valuation took place in the context of health and another arm in which the context was traffic. In both contexts, the inferior health state was described by way of the standardized EQ-5D descriptive system. We obtained a total sample...... of 520 respondents from an online database. In the present study we found clear evidence of a context effect on expressed valuations of identical riskreductions. This was true irrespective of whether the adverse outcome in question was death or inferior health. This result suggests that interventions...

  19. Well-being at work--overview and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul; Vainio, Harri

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of and perspective on the concept of well-being at work. Well-being is a term that reflects not only on one's health but satisfaction with work and life. Well-being is a summative concept that characterizes the quality of working lives, including occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects, and it may be a major determinant of productivity at the individual, enterprise and societal levels. Based on a review of the literature and a recent conference, we suggest a model linking workforce well-being, productivity, and population well-being. To appraise the validity of the model, we consider five questions: (i) is there a robust and usable definition of workplace well-being? (ii) have the variables that influence well-being been aptly described and can they be measured and used in risk assessments? (iii) what is the nature of evidence that well-being is linked to productivity? (iv) what is the state of knowledge on the effectiveness of interventions to promote workplace well-being? and (v) should interventions aimed at improving well-being at work focus on more than work-related factors?

  20. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of

  1. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective

  2. Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Children: The Development and Validation of the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…

  3. Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Children: The Development and Validation of the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…

  4. Subjective well-being in schizophrenia as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to evaluat

  5. The Network Theory of Well-Being: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bishop

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a novel approach to investigating the nature of well-being and a new theory about well-being. The approach is integrative and naturalistic. It holds that a theory of well-being should account for two different classes of evidence – our commonsense judgments about well-being and the science of well-being (i.e., positive psychology. The network theory holds that a person is in the state of well-being if she instantiates a homeostatically clustered network of feelings, emotions, attitudes, behaviors, traits, and interactions with the world that tends to have a relatively high number of states that feel good, that lead to states that feel good, or that are valued by the agent or her culture.

  6. Assessment of well-being in kindergarten children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye

    2013-01-01

    study and from a parallel qualitative interview study and discusses how the disparate findings communicate. The strategy of choosing a standard survey did not provide valuable data, but the meaning ascribed to well-being in the two approaches are compared and the article points to development......Child well-being is a major concern in Danish kindergartens, but well-being is a multi-dimensional concept that may be evaluated in a variety of ways. This article explores the well-being of kindergarten children from a methodological perspective. It presents results from a quantitative survey...

  7. The relationship between grit and resident well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Arghavan; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Mueller, Claudia M

    2014-02-01

    The well-being of residents in general surgery is an important factor in their success within training programs. Consequently, it is important to identify individuals at risk for burnout and low levels of well-being as early as possible. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that resident well-being may be related to grit, a psychological factor defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals. One hundred forty-one residents across 9 surgical specialties at 1 academic medical center were surveyed; the response rate was 84%. Perseverance was measured using the Short Grit Scale. Resident well-being was measured with (1) burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and (2) psychological well-being using the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Scale. Grit was predictive of later psychological well-being both as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (B = -.20, P = .05) and as measured by the Psychological General Well-Being Scale (B = .27, P < .01). Measuring grit may identify those who are at greatest risk for poor psychological well-being in the future. These residents may benefit from counseling to provide support and improve coping skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Merging capabilities and livelihoods: analyzing the use of biological resources to improve well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Lienert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Especially poor people in developing countries depend on biological resources to manage their livelihoods and to generate income. Because these resources are usually public goods, their use is often subjected to what is known as the tragedy of the commons, potentially leading to resource depletion, environmental degradation, and loss of biodiversity, which consequently undermines the availability and capacity of resources to contribute to residents' well-being in the long run. We suggest addressing this typical sustainability issue from a new angle. Against the backdrop of identifiable shortcomings within two popular analytic approaches, the capability approach (CA and the sustainable livelihood approach (SLA, we argue for an improved sustainability framework for analyzing the issue in question. Although we view the CA as encompassing our core ideas regarding human well-being, we propose to enrich it by merging it with the SLA to more adequately include social and environmental capital. To test the framework's usefulness, we apply it to a case study on the use of medicinal and aromatic plants in the rural livelihood context of Nepal. Thereby, we reveal not only that the creation of capabilities is strongly dependent on the set of capital assets available, particularly in the form of natural capital, but also that the framework provides new perspectives: What matters is developing livelihood strategies that increase people's opportunity spaces rather than focusing only on those that compensate for missing capabilities or enable people to cope with shocks and vulnerability.

  9. Well-being in schools: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konu, Anne; Rimpelä, Matti

    2002-03-01

    Health and well-being have mostly been separated from other aspects of school life. Health services and health education have been available for school-aged children in Western societies for a long time. Recently, more comprehensive school health programmes have been developed, e.g. the WHO 'health promoting school' and 'coordinated school health programme' in the USA. They focus on how to implement health promotion and health education in school. However, a theoretically grounded model based on the sociological concept of well-being is needed for planning and evaluation of school development programmes. The School Well-being Model is based on Allardt's sociological theory of welfare and assesses well-being as an entity in school setting. Well-being is connected with teaching and education, and with learning and achievements. Indicators of well-being are divided into four categories: school conditions (having), social relationships (loving), means for self-fulfilment (being) and health status. 'Means for self-fulfilment' encompasses possibilities for each pupil to study according to his/her own resources and capabilities. 'Health status' is seen through pupils' symptoms, diseases and illnesses. Each well-being category contains several aspects of pupils' life in school. The model takes into account the important impact of pupils' homes and the surrounding community. Compared with others, The School Well-being Model's main differences are the use of the well-being concept, the definition of health and the subcategory means for self-fulfilment. Making the outline of the well-being concept facilitates the development of theoretically grounded subjective and objective well-being indicators.

  10. Starting school: The effect of early childhood factors on child well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette; Rosenstjerne Andersen, Angelo

    Children’s well-being around the age when they start school is crucial for their future success in the educational system. Factors in the first 3 years of a child’s life matter for the child’s well-being when he or she starts school. This article analyzes the relationship between early childhood...

  11. The significance of deaf identity for psychological well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory...

  12. The significance of deaf identity for psychological well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory...

  13. Occupational Well-Being and Leadership in a School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Ryhänen, Eva; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present well-being, leadership, and the development of each from a communal perspective in a Finnish primary school in the years 2000-2009. Design/methodology/approach: The study included five sets of data. The quantitative research data were collected from the school staff using the Well-Being at Your Work…

  14. Parenting Styles and Youth Well-Being across Immigrant Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Anne K.; Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines generational patterns of parenting styles, the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent well-being among youth of Mexican origin, and the role of generational parenting style patterns in explaining generational patterns in youth behavior (delinquency and alcohol problems) and psychological well-being (depression…

  15. WELL-BEING IN THE NETHERLANDS : A SPATIAL PERSPECTIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellenbarg, Piet H.; Van Steen, Paul J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Both scientists and politicians increasingly emphasise the importance of well-being as an indicator for economic performance, next to purely financial indicators such as national income and product accounts. There is an ongoing discussion about the most appropriate indicators to measure well-being.

  16. Career Adaptability, Well-being, and Possible Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimmer, Geoffrey; Smith, Mike; Duggan, Michael; Englert, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Similar themes related to the concept of adaptability and well-being psychology include long-term perspective, relationships, self-development, and future focus. These themes may be combined into the construct of "possible selves," which links well-being and career development. (SK)

  17. Vibrotactile and Vibroacoustic Interventions into Health and Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann Judith; Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Knoche, Hendrik Ole

    2016-01-01

    the responsive vibroacoustic environment and the vibrotactile vest. We found compelling evidence to support further exploration into vibrotactile and vibroacoustic solutions for improving health and well-being. Conclusions: The work demonstrates capacity for health and well-being solutions with multiple use...

  18. Psychological Well-Being and Internet Addiction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…

  19. Spiritual well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahbakhshian, Maryam; Jafarpour, Mahshid; Parvizi, Soroor

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spiritual well-being is one of the fundamental concepts in chronic diseases which create meaning and purpose in life and is an important approach in promoting general health and quality of life. This study performed to determine the level of spiritual health and its dimensions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: 236 members of Iranian MS Society were volunteered to participate in a descriptive co-relational study. Spiritual well-being was evaluated by The Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) questionnaires in two religious and Existential dimensions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The majority of patients (% 97.9) showed moderate spiritual well-being (mean score = 74.3, SD= 8.90). Although Existential well-being (mean score = 40.3, SD= 5.51) was higher than religious well- being (mean score = 33.9, SD= 4.88). A significant relationship was seen between economic status and the spiritual well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize on the necessity of spiritual well-being as an effective factor on different aspects of these patients’ life. This key point is useful and even necessary to be considered to design programs of care and cure for these patients in a country (like Iran) with cultural and religious beliefs. On the other hand, patients’ economic status should be considered. PMID:22224107

  20. Affluence, Feelings of Stress, and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed; Aurora, Raksha; Harter, James

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Gallup World Poll highlighted the differential relations between perceived stress, well-being, and wealth at the individual- versus nation-level. At the nation level, stress was a distinct concept from negative affect (NA). It correlated positively with well-being (positive affect, life satisfaction, and domain satisfaction) and…

  1. Personality and Motivation in Positive Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj

    Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB).......Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB)....

  2. Factors influencing the occupational well-being of experienced nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangping Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: By identifying the factors that contribute to a nurse's occupational well-being, the nursing management is better able to address the nurse's needs to maintain a positive well-being. This in turn will decrease the burnout and increase retention of experienced nurses, which will raise the quality of patient care.

  3. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  4. Direction Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Laura Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people wit

  5. Direction: happiness : improving well-being of vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Laura Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people wit

  6. Parenting Styles and Youth Well-Being across Immigrant Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Anne K.; Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines generational patterns of parenting styles, the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent well-being among youth of Mexican origin, and the role of generational parenting style patterns in explaining generational patterns in youth behavior (delinquency and alcohol problems) and psychological well-being (depression…

  7. Evaluating the Well-Being of Public Library Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, Bridget; Bellamy, Pat; White, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and pilot a questionnaire to determine the ways in which working in a UK public library system can impact the well-being of those deployed in the sector. The methodological framework was based on an approach used to evaluate the well-being of patients in a clinical setting. Based on the responses of 466 employees, the…

  8. Designing for crowd well-being: needs and design suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; De Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the needs or criteria for sustaining well-being in crowded situations through two focus group discussions with a total of ten participants. We conclude that pursuing crowd well-being could be divided into two different cases: one is obtaining the enhancement of the current st

  9. Students' Technology Use and the Impacts on Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Shelia R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews technology use patterns and the social impacts of technology on well-being among college students. It provides empirical evidence delineating the processes through which Internet use affects well-being among college students, and provides suggestions for ways to advance future studies in this area and for higher education…

  10. Child Maltreatment and Adult Socioeconomic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Little empirical research has examined the impact that child maltreatment may have on victims' long-term socioeconomic well-being. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and several indicators of socioeconomic well-being in adulthood. Method: Data…

  11. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  12. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  13. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  14. Familial Reciprocity and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…

  15. Near-death experiences and spiritual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Surbhi; Greyson, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    People who have near-death experiences often report a subsequently increased sense of spirituality and a connection with their inner self and the world around them. In this study, we examined spiritual well-being, using Paloutzian and Ellison's Spiritual Well-Being Scale, among 224 persons who had come close to death. Participants who reported having near-death experiences reported greater spiritual well-being than those who did not, and depth of spiritual well-being was positively correlated with depth of near-death experience. We discussed the implications of these findings in light of other reported aftereffects of near-death experiences and of spiritual well-being among other populations.

  16. Job satisfaction and subjective well-being among Czech nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurková, Elena; Haroková, Sylvie; Džuka, Jozef; Žiaková, Katarína

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between domains of the job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in nurses. A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited from six hospitals in Czech Republic. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, the Negative Affect Scale and the Personal Well-being Index. We confirmed low association between job satisfaction and subjective well-being of nurses. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, co-workers and family/work balance accounted for only a small percentage of variance in cognitive component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling. Negative affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling and intention to leave the actual workplace. Low percentage of the variance suggests that subjective well-being is not strongly influenced by job satisfaction.

  17. Ecosystems and indigenous well-being: An integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljit K. Sangha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, role of natural resources in Indigenous well-being is completely ignored to date which further leads to inappropriate and ineffective well-being policies. This research addresses the need to develop an appropriate indigenous well-being approach that incorporates indigenous values in relation to natural systems. It focuses on Indigenous people in Australia and examines the available well-being frameworks from global as well as from local (i.e. Australian and Indigenous, perspectives. It applies a holistic approach to assess the role of natural systems in indigenous well-being demonstrating how people’s social, economic and cultural worlds, and how people’s capabilities relate to their natural systems. It integrates various social, economic and ecological values through the application of Capability Approach and the Millennium Assessment Approach. The study proposes an integrated framework that focuses on people’s belongingness to nature i.e. people’s values and capabilities that link to well-being. It emphasises the importance of each connection that people may have with their country in terms of people’s capabilities. The proposed framework can contribute to improved and better-informed policies on indigenous well-being as well as on the use, value and management of natural systems.

  18. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.

  19. Play or hard work: unpacking well-being at preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S

    2015-03-01

    Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment.

  20. Improving the well-being of children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Background: The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children...... (general physical self-worth) and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being) that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE...... future practice....

  1. Does Group-Level Commitment Predict Employee Well-Being?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina

    2015-01-01

    -level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances (T2). The association between group-level AOC (T1) and psychological well-being (T2) was fully mediated by individual-level AOC (T1), and the associations between group-level AOC (T1) and self-reported sickness absence and sleep......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services...

  2. Job-Related Well-Being Through the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    GREEN, F.; Felstead, A.; Gallie, D.; Inanc, H.

    2016-01-01

    We study how job-related well-being (measured by Warr’s ‘Enthusiasm’ and ‘Contentment’ scales) altered through the Great Recession, and how this is related to changing job quality. Using nationally representative data for Britain, we find that job-related well-being was stable between 2001 and 2006, but then declined between 2006 and 2012. We report relevant changes in job quality. In modelling the determinants of job-related well-being, we confirm several previously-studied hypotheses and pr...

  3. Self-Compassion and Well-being among Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Ashley Batts; Goldwasser, Eleanor R.; Leary, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies assessed the role of self-compassion as a moderator of the relationship between physical health and subjective well-being in the elderly. In Study 1, 132 participants, ranging in age from 67–90 years, completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of their physical health, self-compassion, and subjective well-being. Participants who were in good physical health had high subjective well-being regardless of their level of self-compassion. However, for participants with po...

  4. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie

    2014-01-01

    Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...

  5. The Erosion of Well-being: a Heuristic Mathematical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thron, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a heuristic mathematical model of the changes over time in the statistical distribution of well-being of individuals in a society. The model predicts that when individuals overvalue the more overtly conspicuous aspects of well-being in their lifestyle choices, then under certain conditions the average well-being of the overall population may experience continuous decline. We investigate the influence of various effects, including the incidence of personal misfortune, heterogeneity in the population, and economic and/or technological progress.

  6. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  7. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  8. Faculty Agency: Departmental Contexts That Matter in Faculty Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corbin M.; O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2014-01-01

    In a modern context of constrained resources and high demands, faculty exert agency to strategically navigate their careers (Baez 2000a; Neumann et al. 2006). Guided by the O'Meara et al. (2011) framework on agency in faculty professional lives, this study used Structural Equation Modeling to investigate which departmental factors…

  9. Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... X Y Z Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Video of Scientific ...

  10. Exercise and HRT for women well-being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kye Soon Park

    2007-01-01

    @@ How HRT & Exercisc provide the Effect of Women Well - being is discussed here with the Presentation about (1) Information on Hormone & HRT; (9) Introduction to Estrogen Replacemen; (3) Review of Relational Studies.

  11. Presidential Immigration Policies: Endangering Health and Well-being?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva; O Gostin, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?...

  12. Environment and Personal Well-being in Urban China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yuwen; Yang Wenya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between environment and personal well-being using a sample of 562 urban employees from three cities in Liaoning province in the People's Republic of China. In contrast to previous studies, this study controlled positive affectivity (PA), negative affectivity (NA), job satisfaction and Big Five personality traits. In addition, the research variables of personal well-being index (PWI), positive affectivity, negative affectivity, job satisfaction, Big Five, and environmental satisfaction are measured with multi-item scales. The research finds that environmental satisfaction is positively related to personal well-being, suggesting that improvement of the natural surroundings in the cities can improve people's well-being.

  13. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie;

    2014-01-01

    Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...... to engage with their natural surroundings should be considered a strategy for fostering human well-being. ...

  14. Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-06-01

    Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.

  15. Internet addiction and cyberchondria - Their relationship with Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Ivanova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results from some research on the relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria, and different aspects of well-being. The information available on the Internet, which is not necessarily truthful and accurate, can unreasonably amplify users health concerns. Problematic Internet use, health anxiety aroused by online searches for health information and escalation of health concerns as an indicator of cyberchondria, are all associated with a decrease in subjective and eudaimonic well-being as well as in self-esteem. The analyses indicate positive relationships between depressive symptoms on the one hand, and Internet addiction and health anxiety, on the other. A conclusion regarding the existence of a relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria and decreased levels of well-being could be drawn from the research. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-esteem and eudaimonic well-being correlate positively with the number of people with whom users communicate online.

  16. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  17. The Importance of Resilience for Well-Being in Retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Nalin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.

  18. Aerobic exercise improves quality of life, psychological well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic exercise improves quality of life, psychological well-being and systemic ... Methods: Forty Alzheimer elderly subjects were enrolled in two groups; the first ... interleukin-6 (IL-6), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES),Beck Depression ...

  19. Subjective well-being in socially vulnerable children and adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michele Poletto; Silvia Helena Koller

    2011-01-01

    .... This study aimed to investigate the subjective well-being of children and adolescents attending school and living with their families as compared to those living in youth offenders institutions...

  20. Psychological well-being in adolescents from a qualitative viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Benatuil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the thematic of the psychological well-being has generated great interest among the psychologists. In this article a brief revision of the main definitions and investigations is carried out on the topic. The results of a study are presented on the selfperception of the psychological well-being carried out with 271 Argentinean adolescents. For this study one three instruments have been used: a qualitative survey, the scale BIEPS and the SWLS. The data have been analyzed from a qualitative focus. From the results obtained in the scales BIEPS and SWLS they conformed two groups; one with high and the other with low selfperception well-being. The differences are analyzed in each one of these groups, exemplifying with some protocols. The dimensions of personal bonds and acceptance of oneself state the difference between the youths with high and low well-being

  1. Subjective well-being among primary health care patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozcakir, Alis; Oflu Dogan, Fatma; Cakir, Yakup Tolga; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal...

  2. NATURE’S MEANINGS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2013-01-01

    The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosom...

  3. Well-being, job satisfaction and labour mobility

    OpenAIRE

    GREEN, F.

    2010-01-01

    I investigate whether two indicators of job-related well-being predict subsequent quitting. I find that both the Depression-Enthusiasm scale and the Anxiety-Comfort scale predict quitting, the former more strongly, and this contributes an element of criterion validity to their use as welfare measures. However, overall job satisfaction, which implicitly captures well-being relative to outside job opportunities, predicts job mobility better than either the Depression-Enthusiasm or the Anxiety-C...

  4. Psychological Well being In Predicting Loneliness Among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEÇEN, Yrd. Doç. Dr. A. Rezan; CENKSEVEN, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Fulya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how university students’ loneliness are predicted by their level of psychological well being self acceptance personal growth purpose in life positive relations with others environmental mastery and autonomy To collect data UCLA R Loneliness Russell Peplau Cutrona 1980 and Psychological Well Being Scales Ryff 1989a were used The sample was consisted of 268 university students from Cukurova University Adana Turkey For the analysis of...

  5. HRM, company performance and employee well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhala, Sinikka; Tuomi, Kaija

    2006-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the relationships between HRM, company performance and employee well-being. The relationship between S/HRM and company performance has received much attention in prior literature, while the employee perspective has been widely neglected in this research tradition. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to identify and evaluate how company performance and employee well-being are related, and, secondly, to evaluate the possibilities of HR policies and practices...

  6. Factor Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Subjective well-being is predominantly conceived as having 3 components: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. This article reports 2 studies that seek to investigate the factor structure of subjective well-being in Iran. One-, two-, and three-factor models of subjective well-being were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). The results of Study 1 (N = 2,197) and Study 2 (N = 207) show that whereas the 1- and 2-factor models do not fit the data well, the 3-factor model provides an adequate fit. These results indicate that the 3 components of subjective well-being constitute 3 interrelated, yet distinct, factors. The analyses demonstrate how traditional CFA and ESEM can be combined to obtain a clear picture of the measurement model of subjective well-being and generate new insights about individual items and cross-loadings needed to derive more parsimonious measures. Nuances relating to the assessment of subjective well-being in more collectivist and Muslim countries are discussed.

  7. Beyond Money: Toward an Economy of Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Seligman, Martin E P

    2004-07-01

    Policy decisions at the organizational, corporate, and governmental levels should be more heavily influenced by issues related to well-being-people's evaluations and feelings about their lives. Domestic policy currently focuses heavily on economic outcomes, although economic indicators omit, and even mislead about, much of what society values. We show that economic indicators have many shortcomings, and that measures of well-being point to important conclusions that are not apparent from economic indicators alone. For example, although economic output has risen steeply over the past decades, there has been no rise in life satisfaction during this period, and there has been a substantial increase in depression and distrust. We argue that economic indicators were extremely important in the early stages of economic development, when the fulfillment of basic needs was the main issue. As societies grow wealthy, however, differences in well-being are less frequently due to income, and are more frequently due to factors such as social relationships and enjoyment at work. Important noneconomic predictors of the average levels of well-being of societies include social capital, democratic governance, and human rights. In the workplace, noneconomic factors influence work satisfaction and profitability. It is therefore important that organizations, as well as nations, monitor the well-being of workers, and take steps to improve it. Assessing the well-being of individuals with mental disorders casts light on policy problems that do not emerge from economic indicators. Mental disorders cause widespread suffering, and their impact is growing, especially in relation to the influence of medical disorders, which is declining. Although many studies now show that the suffering due to mental disorders can be alleviated by treatment, a large proportion of persons with mental disorders go untreated. Thus, a policy imperative is to offer treatment to more people with mental disorders, and

  8. [Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors.

  9. Religion, Time Use, and Affective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaeyoon Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether religious people experience more positive affect and less negative affect in everyday life and, if they do, whether it is because of the differences in how they allocate time to different activities or because they feel differently during similar activities. Using the well-being module from the 2010–13 American Time Use Survey (ATUS, I show that churchgoers enjoy a significantly higher level of affective well-being on Sunday than non-churchgoers do. The supplementary analysis of the Gallup Daily Poll data suggests that this higher level of affective well-being among churchgoers is found throughout the rest of the week as well. Further analyses of the ATUS demonstrate that about 40 percent of the affective well-being gap between churchgoers and non-churchgoers on Sunday can be explained by how they spend their time differently. Churchgoers spend more time on Sunday participating in pleasant activities shared with family members and friends than non-churchgoers do. More than half of the gap, however, remains unexplained, implying that it has to do with how they feel during similar activities rather than the activities in which they participate. I discuss the implications of these findings on the mechanisms underlying the link between religion and subjective well-being.

  10. Relationship Between Empathy and Well-Being Among Emergency Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Patricia; Lavoie, Stephan; Paul-Savoie, Emilie; Grégoire, Maryse; Michaud, Cécile; Gosselin, Emilie; Johnston, Celeste C

    2015-07-01

    A large number of patients who are in pain upon arriving at the emergency department are still in pain when they are discharged. It is suggested that nurses' personal traits and their level of empathy can explain in part this issue in pain management. The purpose of this study was to better understand the shortfalls in pain management provided by emergency nurses by considering nurses' characteristics. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was used for this pilot study. French validated self-administrated questionnaires (sociodemographic characteristics, empathy, psychological distress, and well-being) were presented to 40 emergency nurses. Thirty emergency nurses completed all questionnaires during work hours. Descriptive statistics, group comparisons, and correlation analyses were used for the data analysis. Emergency nurses appear to have low levels of empathy. High levels of psychological distress and low levels of well-being were also observed in our sample. Among these variables, only empathy and well-being appear to be related, because we found higher empathy scores in nurses with higher well-being. The poor mental health we found among emergency nurses is alarming. A clear need exists for supportive interventions for nurses. Finally, well-being was the only variable related to empathy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report this relationship in nurses. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting well-being: The contribution of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Di Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI, assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TeiQue were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait emotional intelligence in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.

  12. Promoting Well-Being: The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed. PMID:27582713

  13. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Resident Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dana T; Liebert, Cara A; Tran, Jennifer; Lau, James N; Salles, Arghavan

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing recognition that physician wellness is critical; it not only benefits the provider, but also influences quality and patient care outcomes. Despite this, resident physicians suffer from a high rate of burnout and personal distress. Individuals with higher emotional intelligence (EI) are thought to perceive, process, and regulate emotions more effectively, which can lead to enhanced well-being and less emotional disturbance. This study sought to understand the relationship between EI and wellness among surgical residents. Residents in a single general surgery residency program were surveyed on a voluntary basis. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Resident wellness was assessed with the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form. Emotional intelligence and wellness parameters were correlated using Pearson coefficients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of well-being. Seventy-three residents participated in the survey (response rate 63%). Emotional intelligence scores correlated positively with psychological well-being (r = 0.74; p emotional exhaustion (r = -0.69; p emotional exhaustion (β = -0.63; p Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of resident well-being. Prospectively measuring EI can identify those who are most likely to thrive in surgical residency. Interventions to increase EI can be effective at optimizing the wellness of residents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Promoting Well-Being: The Contribution of Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.

  15. Well-being in Dinka refugee women of southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health and well-being of Sudanese refugee women who were resettled with their children to the United States. The design was an interpretive ethnography using individual interviews and participant observation with extensive field notes. The findings describe personal factors as well as community and social conditions that influenced the health and well-being of the refugee women and their families. These influences are captured in the three themes that emerged from the study: (1) liminality--living between two cultures, (2) self-support--standing on our own two legs, and (3) hope for the future. These themes describe a process of how refugee women achieve well-being in the transition to a new country and culture. The study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how to develop culturally congruent interventions for resettled refugees.

  16. Internet Gaming Disorder and Well-Being: A Scale Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarda, Elisa; Bègue, Laurent; Bry, Clémentine; Gentile, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    The overuse of online games is known to be inversely related to various indicators of well-being. This article validates the DSM-5 criteria of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and analyzes its links with five indicators of well-being: life satisfaction, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and academic performance in a French-speaking sample of 693 gamers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed a one-factor structure of IGD criteria. The IGD scale showed satisfactory validity and reliability and was related in a consistent way with well-being measures. The IGD scale appears to be an appropriate measure to assess video game addiction and will contribute to increase the comparability of international research on video game addiction.

  17. Allowing for heterogeneity in monetary subjective well-being valuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil

    2011-03-01

    Recent research on 'happiness' regression equations has shown how monetary values can be put on the well-being effects of many life events (like health problems, marriage or the death of a spouse). Potentially, such work has practical implications for policy-makers and the courts. However, this article argues that we need to be careful in such work to use the appropriate statistical method. It goes beyond previous research and allows for heterogeneity in the subjective well-being scales. Using less restrictive models than the current literature, the article argues that standard linear or ordered response models seem consistently to overstate valuations. With data from the UK, it provides new monetary estimates of the well-being consequences of a number of health problems, social capital indicators, marital status changes and social relationships.

  18. Occupational health and psychological well-being of industrial employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bhardwaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.

  19. Monitoring of psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461......-being Questionnaire was used for this purpose. Primary outcomes were mood, HbA(1c), and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care at 1-year follow-up. The number of referrals to the psychologist was analyzed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. RESULTS: The monitoring group...... reported better mood compared with the standard care group, as indicated by significantly lower negative well-being and significantly higher levels of energy, higher general well-being, better mental health, and a more positive evaluation of the quality of the emotional support received from the diabetes...

  20. Income Distribution and Economic Well-Being within European Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being....... the family. However, it is still an open ended question, if this means an equal distribution of economic well-being within the family. The paper exercises data from the European Community Household Panel and covers the situation in most of the European Community countries. In most countries husbands economic...

  1. Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García-Alandete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.

  2. The relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhesam Khajeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.

  3. Explaining social class differences in depression and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, S A; Head, J; Marmot, M G

    1998-01-01

    Work characteristics, including skill discretion and decision authority, explain most of the socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression in middle-aged British civil servants from the Whitehall II Study, London. Social support explained about one-third of the gradient, life events and material difficulties less than one-third. Socioeconomic status was measured by employment grade. Work characteristics were based on the Karasek model, social support was measured by the Close Persons Questionnaire, depression by the General Health Questionnaire and well-being by the Affect Balance Scale. Despite a small contribution from social selective factors measured by upward mobility, the psychosocial work environment explained most of the cross-sectional socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression.

  4. Subjective Well-Being and Social Integration of College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Imaginário

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The student’s transition from secondary school to higher education consists of a series of changes that can have serious consequences if not satisfactorily overcome, including academic failure and college dropout. There are many variables than can influence this process of adjustment to higher education, with a particular emphasis given to social integration, especially because, often, this transition involves a change of residence. Using a sample of 339 students from the University of Algarve, this study aims to deepen our understanding of the relationship between student’s subjective well-being and their social integration in higher education. The results show that the variables of social integration in higher education, interpersonal relationship, personal well-being and emotional balance are predictors of the level of subjective well-being experienced by the students. On the other hand, a significant relation between socio-demographic variables and the student’s happiness was not obtained.

  5. Ubiquitous games and gamification for well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ferron

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous games and gamification have recently become a widely applied approach for promoting well-being and improving health behaviours such as a physically active lifestyle. In this Special Issue of the Journal ICST Transactions on Ambient Systems, we collected a selection of high-quality papers presented at the workshop on “Ubiquitous games and gamification for promoting behaviour change and wellbeing”, held at the 2013 CHItaly Conference. The articles explore different areas where ubiquitous games and gamification can influence the attitudes, health and behaviours of people towards well-being, from the management of diseases to eco-sustainable mobility, from serious moral games to the monitoring of burnout levels and the well-being of small groups during social occasions such as museum visits.

  6. Institutional Factors That Positively Impact First-Year Students' Sense of Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmening, Debra S.; Jacob, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study conducted at a single institution in the Midwest examines how institutional context and environment impact college students' sense of well-being. Twenty-seven first-year students participated in one to two hour, in-depth interviews where they talked about their first-year experiences, their concepts of well-being, and…

  7. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if t

  8. Job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Walshe, Kieran; Parker, Dianne; Noyce, Peter R; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-12-01

    Healthcare practitioners' fitness to practise has often been linked to their personal and demographic characteristics. It is possible that situational factors, such as the work environment and physical or psychological well-being, also have an influence on an individual's fitness to practise. However, it is unclear how these factors might be linked to behaviours that risk compromising fitness to practise. The aim of this study was to examine the association between job characteristics, well-being and behaviour reflecting risky practice amongst a sample of registered pharmacists in a region of the United Kingdom. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional self-report survey of 517 pharmacists. These data were subjected to principal component analysis and path analysis, with job characteristics (demand, autonomy and feedback) and well-being (distress and perceived competence) as the predictors and behaviour as the outcome variable. Two aspects of behaviour were found: Overloading (taking on more work than one can comfortably manage) and risk taking (working at or beyond boundaries of safe practice). Separate path models including either job characteristics or well-being as independent variables provided a good fit to the data-set. Of the job characteristics, demand had the strongest association with behaviour, while the association between well-being and risky behaviour differed according to the aspect of behaviour being assessed. The findings suggest that, in general terms, situational factors should be considered alongside personal factors when assessing, judging or remediating fitness to practise. They also suggest the presence of different facets to the relationship between job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists.

  9. Building a neuroscience of pleasure and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness...... the higher pleasures. This in turn may be linked to how hedonic systems interact with other brain systems relevant to self-understanding and the meaning components of eudaimonic happiness. Finally, we speculate a bit about how brains that generate hedonia states might link to eudaimonia assessments to create...... properly balanced states of positive well-being that approach true happiness....

  10. The social life of well-being assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    in the day-care institutions within the Copenhagen area (Mehlbye and Andersen, 2012). The tool does not present a definition of child well-being but rather seeks to encourage reflection and dialogue among practitioners, acknowledging that perceptions of well-being are complex, dynamic, and often contextually...... verbalization among practitioners and thus a move towards shared understandings of what it means to fare well. Ideally, this should lead to timely pedagogical interventions to improve the lives of children who are not perceived to be thriving. In this manner, the tool addresses larger concerns around the role...

  11. Psychological well-being in adolescents from a qualitative viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Benatuil

    2016-01-01

    In the last years the thematic of the psychological well-being has generated great interest among the psychologists. In this article a brief revision of the main definitions and investigations is carried out on the topic. The results of a study are presented on the selfperception of the psychological well-being carried out with 271 Argentinean adolescents. For this study one three instruments have been used: a qualitative survey, the scale BIEPS and the SWLS. The data have been analyzed from ...

  12. Liquid marbles: topical context within soft matter and recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, G; Newton, M I

    2015-04-07

    The study of particle stabilized interfaces has a long history in terms of emulsions, foams and related dry powders. The same underlying interfacial energy principles also allow hydrophobic particles to encapsulate individual droplets into a stable form as individual macroscopic objects, which have recently been called "Liquid Marbles". Here we discuss conceptual similarities to superhydrophobic surfaces, capillary origami, slippery liquids-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) and Leidenfrost droplets. We provide a review of recent progress on liquid marbles, since our earlier Emerging Area article (Soft Matter, 2011, 7, 5473-5481), and speculate on possible future directions from new liquid-infused liquid marbles to microarray applications. We highlight a range of properties of liquid marbles and describe applications including detecting changes in physical properties (e.g. pH, UV, NIR, temperature), use for gas sensing, synthesis of compounds/composites, blood typing and cell culture.

  13. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Malaysian Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…

  15. Work Hours and Well Being: An Investigation of Moderator Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria C.; Coelho, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between work hours and subjective well being is marked by contradictory findings, thereby implying that it is far from being completely understood. A study of moderator effects can help explain variations in results across studies and, thus, overcome inconsistencies in past research. Accordingly, the current study aims to…

  16. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  17. Youth and Well-Being: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiwane, Monde; Kwizera, Stella

    2009-01-01

    This paper was a result of an analysis from various data sources with a purpose to develop a better understanding of the level of socio-economic well being of young people in South Africa. Such understanding is aimed at enabling government to plan and implement well-structured and integrated development programmes that are relevant to the…

  18. Agency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Christian; Inglehart, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that feelings of agency are linked to human well-being through a sequence of adaptive mechanisms that promote human development, once existential conditions become permissive. In the first part, we elaborate on the evolutionary logic of this model and outline why an evolutionary perspective is helpful to understand changes in…

  19. Holiday travel, staycations, and subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J. de; Nawijn, J.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Korpela, K.

    2017-01-01

    The tourism industry thrives on the notion that holiday travel improves well-being. However, scientific evidence that holiday travel is more beneficial than spending free time at home is lacking. Using the Effort-Recovery and the Limited Resources model as theoretical basis, this study investigates

  20. The psychological well-being of early identified gifted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesbergen, E.H.; Hooijdonk, M.; van Viersen, S.; Middel-Lalleman, M.M.N.; Reijnders, J.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychological well-being of gifted primary school children. From a screening sample of 233 children in Grades 1 and 2 across five schools in the Netherlands, 35 children achieving high scores on two out of three selection criteria (teacher nomination, creativity, and nonverba

  1. Career Coping and Subjective Well-Being among University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odirile, Bonkamile E.; Mpofu, Elias; Montsi, Mercy R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined coping strategies by higher education employees to handle work stress as differentiated by personnel variables. We further examined levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in the same employees. Sixty-three higher education employees participated (males = 30; females = 33; mean age = 41.3 years). The participants completed the Coping…

  2. Subjective well-being and social production functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Steverink, N.; Verbrugge, L.M.

    Recent reviews of scientific work on subjective well-being (SWB) reveal disagreements in conceptualization, measurement, and explanation of the concept. We propose Social Production Function theory as a framework to resolve them. Social Production Function (SPF) theory integrates strengths of

  3. Deprivation, Social Exclusion and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…

  4. For the Well-Being of Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Eleonora, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for use by adult education teachers of all kinds, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parents, this publication contains 16 short papers concerning the well-being of Malaysian children in particular and of all children in general. Covered by the papers are issues such as responsible parenthood; the nutritional need and status of…

  5. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…

  6. Family, housing and well-being in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbers, Daniël Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of many western populations calls for a better understanding of the factors related to well-being in later life. Family and housing are two domains that become increasingly important at older ages. At older ages people generally spend more time in and around the home, and social networks

  7. Talking about Happiness: Interview Research and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In addition to teaching research and writing skills, First-Year Composition classes are well situated to help students develop strategies for managing stress and increasing well-being. I describe an assignment sequence in which students interview others from three generations about topics related to happiness and wellbeing, analyze shared…

  8. Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... R S T U V W X Y Z Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Video of Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being— ... second installment in NCCIH’s video series entitled The Science of Mind and Body Therapies . The first video, ...

  9. BATHROOM TRANSFORMATION: FROM HYGIENE TO WELL-BEING?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....

  10. Well-being in first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardelli, Gina; Sim, Wonjin; Borges, Nicole; Roman, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the well-being, attitudes toward counseling, willingness to seek counseling, and coping strategies of first year medical students. Gender differences in attitudes toward and willingness to seek counseling were also explored. One hundred five first year medical students (98 % response rate) were administered a 59-item questionnaire about well-being, attitudes toward counseling, willingness to seek counseling, and coping strategies during the first week of medical school. The data were analyzed with hierarchical regression and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Female medical students were less willing to seek counseling and had more negative attitudes toward counseling compared to male medical students. Most students indicated that they chose not to seek counseling because they did not feel a need for it. Three students reported that stigma prevented them from seeking counseling. Unhealthy coping strategies (denial, self-blame, and substance use) were negatively associated with well-being while healthy coping strategies (active coping, emotional support, and instrumental support) did not correlate with well-being. Medical schools should continue efforts to make counseling accessible. Conversations about counseling may help address the more negative attitudes of female students toward counseling, a finding which merits further investigation given that women typically have more positive attitudes toward counseling than men. Use of unhealthy coping strategies can be addressed in classes, clubs, and by advisors and mentors. Limitations of this study include that only first year medical students were surveyed and that it was a cross sectional study.

  11. Feelings of Well-Being Before and After an Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, Amy

    1987-01-01

    Examined feelings of well-being in 217 women who had abortions. Results suggest that, compared to women who have not had abortions, those who choose abortion feel more negatively. Of women choosing abortion, those who are already mothers are most likely to be depressed and lonely, followed by those from lower educational and socioeconomic…

  12. Career Coping and Subjective Well-Being among University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odirile, Bonkamile E.; Mpofu, Elias; Montsi, Mercy R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined coping strategies by higher education employees to handle work stress as differentiated by personnel variables. We further examined levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in the same employees. Sixty-three higher education employees participated (males = 30; females = 33; mean age = 41.3 years). The participants completed the Coping…

  13. Revitalizing urban waterfronts: identifying indicators for human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Nam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Waterfront cities worldwide have begun the process of regenerating and developing their formerly industrial waterfronts into land uses that reflect a post-industrial economic vision of mixed urban uses supporting a diverse economy and wide range of infrastructure. These revitalization projects require distinct planning and management tactics to determine project-defined successes inclusive of economic, ecological, and human well-being perspectives. While empirically developed templates for economic and ecological measures exist, the multi-dimensionality and subjective nature of human well-being is more difficult to assess. Through an extensive review of indicator frameworks and expert interviews, our research proposes an organizational, yet adaptable, human well-being indicators framework for the management and development of urban waterfront revitalization projects. We analyze the framework through the lens of two waterfront projects in the Puget Sound region of the United States and identify several key factors necessary to developing project-specific human well-being indicator frameworks for urban waterfront revitalization projects. These factors include: initially specify goals and objectives of a given project, acknowledge contextual conditions including prospective land uses and projected users, identify the stage of development or management to use appropriate indicators for that stage, and develop and utilize data sources that are at a similar scale to the size of the project.

  14. Women's well-being : The role of individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between physical and psychological well-being, personality characteristics and demographic variables related to motherhood, work and marital status in a sample of 3,723 Dutch women. Analysis revealed several interesting relationships. First, whereas neurot

  15. The Interconnectedness between Well-Being and the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Johanna G.; Venter, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine participants' perceptions of the positive influence of the natural environment on their well-being. Through a qualitative study, semistructured interviews were held with selected participants who enjoy activities in the natural environment. From the data analysis, particular themes emerged, namely the…

  16. The Mindful Teacher: Translating Research into Daily Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Amy L.; Thayer, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    This article features a stress management approach that is becoming increasingly influential in schools: mindfulness-based stress reduction. The authors describe what it is, provide research-based evidence of its usefulness, and highlight mindfulness resources that educators can use to manage stress and improve their well-being (including…

  17. Work Hours and Well Being: An Investigation of Moderator Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria C.; Coelho, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between work hours and subjective well being is marked by contradictory findings, thereby implying that it is far from being completely understood. A study of moderator effects can help explain variations in results across studies and, thus, overcome inconsistencies in past research. Accordingly, the current study aims to…

  18. Objective Academic Achievement and Subjective Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…

  19. Adult Learning, Health and Well-Being--Changing Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly important for adult educators to articulate more clearly their understanding of the benefits and outcomes of adult learning. This paper reviews existing evidence of the impact of participation in education, and particularly explores the relevance of recent studies of how learning has influenced adults' health and well-being.…

  20. Well-Being: An Essential Outcome for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    For over a decade, the national Bringing Theory to Practice (BTtoP) project has promoted the idea that well-being is an essential outcome of college students' learning and civic engagement. The project emphasizes the full promise of a liberal education: to be liberally educated is to possess the complex skills and abilities necessary for…

  1. Spiritual Well-Being: Scale Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kardaş

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The spiritual well-being scale was developed as a way of assessing how well adults’ lives align with their values and their understanding of ultimate meaning in personal, social, environmental, and transcendental terms. The items on the scale were selected based on existing literature and essays addressing spirituality. The scale was then shown to 17 specialists in spirituality and edited in response to their comments to produce the last version of each item. The scale, composed of 49 items, was then administered to 865 adults (498 women, 57.6%; 367 men, 42.4%. Based on the results, the item set was then resolved to a 29-item scale, and Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed three significant dimensions of spirituality, which are transcendence, harmony with nature, and anomie. Construct validity and reliability were empirically ascertained and the goodness of fit was determined for the proposed model of spiritual well-being. (KMO: 951, when eigenvalue is 2; total item explanation variance: 58.337 %. The ensemble of the model’s coefficients are x²/sd = 4.11, RMESEA = .06, SRMR = .50, NFI = .90, CFI = .92. The results show that the Spiritual Well-Being Scale has the ability to measure adults’ spiritual well-being in a valid and reliable manner.

  2. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  3. A null relationship between media multitasking and well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-I Shih

    Full Text Available There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently. In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument--the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD--to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM.

  4. Income Distribution and Economic Well-Being within European Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within th...

  5. Understanding Students' Experiences of Well-Being in Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Alisa; Zandvliet, David; Dhaliwal, Rosie; Black, Tara

    2016-01-01

    With the recent release of a new international charter on health promoting universities and institutions of higher education, universities and colleges are increasingly interested in providing learning experiences that enhance and support student well-being. Despite the recognition of learning environments as a potential setting for creating and…

  6. Using Capabilities as an Alternative Indicator for Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of self-reported information on capabilities as an alternative indicator and aggregator for well-being. We survey a population of 18 year old first-year Bachelor students in applied economics and business studies and demonstrate a way in which capabilities can be measured on the level of life domains as well as on…

  7. Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…

  8. Women's well-being : The role of individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between physical and psychological well-being, personality characteristics and demographic variables related to motherhood, work and marital status in a sample of 3,723 Dutch women. Analysis revealed several interesting relationships. First, whereas neurot

  9. Identity Support, Identity Devaluation, and Well-Being among Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2005-01-01

    This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…

  10. Holiday travel, staycations, and subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J. de; Nawijn, J.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Korpela, K.

    2017-01-01

    The tourism industry thrives on the notion that holiday travel improves well-being. However, scientific evidence that holiday travel is more beneficial than spending free time at home is lacking. Using the Effort-Recovery and the Limited Resources model as theoretical basis, this study investigates

  11. Technology and Well-Being- An Evocative Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satabdi Roy CHOUDHURY

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the objective behind the progressive technologies and societal subjective judgement towards well-being. The association of both the variables (technology and well-being illuminates the impact of technology upon the well-being and its interconnected dimensions which consists of people health, community, happiness, prosperity, welfare and nation as a whole. The paper also focuses on the question- does these developing technologies leads towards positive well-being in general or does also leads to increasing negative effects upon the society. The paper provides a practical overview on the complementary relationship on how scientific advancement and technological innovations are important drivers to increase the ease of human life and how the societal demand to lead a comfortable life, directs the origin of new technologies. In this paper presents a brief empirical evidence delineating the implication of technology in our value system, culture and attitude in common and as well as the emerging known and unknown issues coming in the near future. Classification-JEL: A23

  12. Learning for Well-Being: Creativity and Inner Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jean; O'Toole, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the perspective that well-being and creativity can be nurtured in children through understanding and addressing the diverse ways in which children learn, communicate, and develop (inner diversity). In particular, our working hypothesis is that focusing children's and young people's learning towards the realization of their…

  13. The Well-Being Outcomes of Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for career guidance to impact on well-being has received insufficient attention in the UK. There are both conceptual and empirical reasons to expect that the impacts may be positive, but a lack of evidence directly testing this proposition. Career guidance has commonalities with therapeutic counselling suggesting analogous effects,…

  14. The Mindful Teacher: Translating Research into Daily Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Amy L.; Thayer, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    This article features a stress management approach that is becoming increasingly influential in schools: mindfulness-based stress reduction. The authors describe what it is, provide research-based evidence of its usefulness, and highlight mindfulness resources that educators can use to manage stress and improve their well-being (including…

  15. Personality and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Shang E.; Kim, Seokho

    2013-01-01

    Although the statistically significant relationship between personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., self-reported happiness and life satisfaction) is well-known in the field of positive psychology, some scholars still cast doubt on the external validity of this finding and the strength of personality dimensions vis-a-vis other…

  16. Computer-Mediated Communication Modality and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ess, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of Internet usage in American society has added new modes of communication, primarily through computer-mediated communication (CMC)on the Internet. Research on the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being has been mixed and this study attempted to reconcile the discrepancies in results by exploring the…

  17. International Migration and Transnational Ethics of Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Migration involves a search for well-being and security, but is not guaranteed to bring either. In the short run it quite often reduces both. What are the hoped for benefits for which the risks are undertaken? Insecurity can generate migration, and in the case of refugees f

  18. Identity Support, Identity Devaluation, and Well-Being among Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2005-01-01

    This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…

  19. Role interference and subjective well-being among expatriate families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, KI; Salome, E

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation of demands and social support, and positive and negative Work-Home (WHI) and Home-Work interference (HWI) with the subjective well-being of expatriates. Moreover, we were also interested in crossover effects of expatriate interference to the subjective wellbei

  20. Career Decidedness as a Predictor of Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…

  1. Social Relationships and Children's Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Haridhan

    2012-01-01

    The quality of relationships is now recognised as an important aspect of children's subjective well-being. This article focuses on both positive and negative quality of relationships. It includes six areas of children's relationships--family, neighbourhood adults, positive affect friendship, negative affect friendship, experiences of being bullied…

  2. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

  3. Eudaimonic well-being and community arts participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindells, Rachel; Lawthom, Rebecca; Rowley, Kevin; Siddiquee, Asiya; Kilroy, Amanda; Kagan, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This article considers eudaimonic models of psychological well-being in relation to qualitative data previously gathered as part of Manchester Metropolitan University's Invest to Save Arts in Health programme (2004-07). The research draws from 21 interviews with participants involved in Invest to Save arts projects for older people and adults with a mental health diagnosis. Using a collaborative team approach, a hybrid thematic analysis was undertaken alongside an updated literature review framed by positive psychology and with a focus on well-being. The analysis identified eudaimonic themes of autonomy/intrinsic motivation and challenge to be particularly pertinent to participants' experiences of the scheme. Findings suggest that the programme provided a sense of purposeful occupation, cognitive and creative challenge and opportunities for autonomous self-expression and heightened concentration (flow). Many participants identified with the arts activities on offer and, while not necessarily aspiring to achieve any particular status, were intrinsically motivated to develop what they considered to be their innate creative potential. Some also reported that sustained engagement was important to their continued psychological well-being. Arts and health researchers might usefully draw from theories of well-being from positive psychology. Both fields are compatible in that they share an interest in human flourishing and understanding of wellness as more than an absence of dysfunction or disease. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the limited results presented here are representative of other populations. What does seem evident is that arts projects have a broad appeal and can be highly inclusive, accommodating participants with diverse needs. More generally the investigation raises questions about the cultural scaffolds that are in place to support eudaimonic well-being across the lifespan, as well as the consequences of restricting such opportunities for

  4. Patentable subject matter: morally neutral and context free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dov

    2011-08-01

    AMP v. USPTO otherwise known as the ACLU/Myriad "gene patenting" case has famously pitted the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) against Myriad Genetics. DNA patent litigation is not novel, but this case is distinct from typical cases involving commercial rivals; heretofore neither side has an interest in the commercially suicidal attacking of the underlying concept of DNA patents. The ACLU, representing the plaintiffs, has no such qualms. And the ACLU is fighting dirty: the United States patent system is effectively moral and social-context neutral, but the ACLU has succeeded in making social and political concerns the highlight of their legal case, even reframing DNA as per our human understanding, as information, and as distinct from a simple double helical macromolecule. The relevance of the case exceeds the bounds of DNA patents, as reflected in the number of amicus briefs filed, and threatens many other industries, particularly those that rely on extracted biomaterials.

  5. Context Matters: Systematic Observation of Place-Based Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or are at a loss regarding the assessment of physical activity in explicit locations, especially in open environments where many people come and go in a seemingly indiscriminate fashion. Direct, systematic observation exceeds other methods in simultaneously assessing physical activity and the contexts in which it occurs. This commentary summarizes the development and use of 2 validated observation tools: the System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY) and System for Observing Play and Active Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). Their use is well supported by both behavior-analytic principles and social-ecological theory, and their methods have utility for both researchers and practitioners.

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognition and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Van Niekerk, J K; Herbert, J

    2000-01-01

    In view of the theoretical rationale for beneficial effects of DHEA and DHEAS in aging and dementia, we believe it is timely to undertake a thorough investigation of well-conducted studies in this area. This will provide a basis for confirmation of any effect of DHEA/S administration in humans, in large-scale and properly controlled trials, which would evaluate effective dosage, acceptable route and duration of administration and side effect profiles. This is especially pertinent at this time as DHEA is currently being sold in large quantities in health food stores, particularly in the USA. In some cases the recommended dose is different for men and women (50mg/day for men and 25mg/day for women) and the basis for this recommendation needs to be explored. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves psychological well-being and/or improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in older adults or in individuals with dementia. All available electronic databases, hand searched journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials of DHEA in well-being and cognition. The total yield from searching was 415 and the detailed breakdown is given in the body of this review. All relevant randomised controlled trials of DHEA or DHEAS were considered for inclusion in the review. Studies where groups are matched, rather than randomised, were also considered. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (FAH & JvN) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. Where possible and appropriate, data were pooled and the mean differences estimated. The published DHEA trials fall into 2 categories: 1. four German studies in which DHEA was administered for a period of two weeks or less; 2. a USA study in which DHEA was administered for three months. Well-being was assessed in both sets of studies and a significant

  7. Effects of yoga on functional capacity and well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled. Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE on modified Borg′s scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions. Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000, RPE (P value < 0.000, recovery time (P value < 0.000 and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000. Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults. Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient′s functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the

  8. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  10. Well-being and stress among leaders and employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this PhD-thesis is to summarise the results of a PhD project on the relationship between leaders’ stress and employees stress and wellbeing. The overall aim of the PhD project was to promote a better understanding of the relationship between leader and employee stress and wellbeing......, thus of how employees may be affected by leader stress. A mixed methods approach was applied in order to obtain methodological complementarity: The project includes a systematic review of three decades of research in the field, and quantitative- as well as qualitative study components, presented...... in five papers. In conclusion, the overall findings bring together a negative leader-employee circle in terms of stress on one and a positive leader-employee circle in terms of well-being on the other side. Moreover, a cascade model of support illustrates stress and well-being dynamics; showing how...

  11. The interrelation between mindfulness and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelikson D.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of mindfulness and its relationship to subjective well-being. The main objective of the study was the empirical confirmation of the relationship between mindfulness and components of hedonic model of subjective well-being. To this end, we held a correlation study with the participation of 94 men and 137 women (average age totaled 27.35 years. The participants filled out a questionnaire “Scale of life satisfaction” by E. Dinera, questionnaire" Mindfulness and awareness” as well as a modified version of the questionnaire "Scale differential emotions". A positive relationship of mindfulness and positive emotions, life satisfaction and the ratio of positive and negative emotions. We detected the negative relationship of negative emotions and mindfulness with life satisfaction. The obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies and suggest that there exists an interaction between emotional and cognitive processes.

  12. Parenting practice and children's well-being in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mengtong; 陈孟彤.

    2016-01-01

    Parental absence is generally linked to poorer child well-being. In China, over 61 million rural children are left behind with other caregivers when one or both parents have to migrate to urban areas to work. A meta-analysis of 106 empirical studies reveals that left-behind children in rural China are generally more disadvantaged compared with non-left-behind children, in regard to psychological adjustment, behavioral health, school-related outcomes, child safety, and other protective outcome...

  13. Military Families In Transition: Stress, Resilience, And Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Army will also be more populated with this younger generation. How will a bunch of Generation Xers manage with a bunch of Millennials being in the...also published a paper showing that physical well-being is related to reduced risk of violence, better pain management and better sleep habits ...implementation framework. Our group conducts clinical trials and because we are in a “help it happen” system, we get buy -in up front. There is not enough

  14. Internet addiction and cyberchondria - Their relationship with Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Ivanova

    2013-01-01

    The current paper presents the results from some research on the relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria, and different aspects of well-being. The information available on the Internet, which is not necessarily truthful and accurate, can unreasonably amplify users health concerns. Problematic Internet use, health anxiety aroused by online searches for health information and escalation of health concerns as an indicator of cyberchondria, are all associated with a decrease in ...

  15. Conceptualising and measuring the well-being of people with psychosis: systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Beate; Bird, Victoria; Tylee, Andre; Coggins, Tony; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2013-09-01

    Well-being has become a prominent term in the political arena in recent years. However, in research the concept and use of well-being has been unclear, especially in the context of severe mental illness such as psychosis. This systematic review aims to characterise the evidence base relating to well-being in people with psychosis, by reviewing how well-being is measured, developing a new conceptual framework, and summarising empirical evaluations of psychosocial interventions to improve well-being. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of controlled trials of interventions investigating well-being in people with psychosis. The 28 studies meeting the inclusion criteria used 20 different measures of well-being. Five dimensions of well-being emerged: non-observable, observable, proximal, distal, and self-defined. Interventions to improve well-being vary widely. The investigated interventions have been targeted at non-observable, observable and proximal levels, while evaluation measures span all five dimensions. This review offers an evidence based conceptual framework of well-being which can provide an empirical basis for organising future well-being research in psychosis. The review also shows that the evidence base for interventions is small and methodologically weak. Recommendations are made for choosing well-being measures for future research.

  16. Psychological well-being of Thai nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Wang, Chia-Chih D C

    2011-05-01

    The psychological well-being of nursing students is a very important component in the training and development of future nurses. While previous studies have explored different aspects of nursing students' mental and psychological health in various countries, they have given little attention to comparing nursing students with their non-nursing student peers. The present study investigated the differences between nursing students and non-nursing students in Thailand with regard to their psychological well-being. The gender effect was also examined. Four hundred students were included in this study (200 nursing students and 200 non-nursing students). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and four psychological instruments that examined their self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and social difficulties. Overall, compared to their non-nursing counterparts, nursing students were found to score significantly higher on self-esteem and life satisfaction and reported lower levels of depression and social difficulties. Gender was also found to have a significant main effect on participants' social difficulties. Several recommendations for improving the mental health and psychological well-being of nursing students are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  18. Tennis enhances well-being in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bulent Yazici

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt- Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students’ pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people.

  19. Physician Satisfaction and Physician Well-Being: Should Anyone Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence P. Casalino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a model of hypothesized relationships between physician satisfaction, physician well-being and the quality of care, in addition to a review of relevant literature. The model suggests that physicians who are stressed, burned out, depressed, and/or have poor self-care are more likely to be dissatisfied, and vice-versa. Both poor physician well-being and physician dissatisfaction are hypothesized to lead to diminished physician concentration, effort, empathy, and professionalism. This results in misdiagnoses and other medical errors, a higher rate of inappropriate referrals and prescriptions, lower patient satisfaction and adherence to physician recommendations, and worse physician performance in areas not observed by others. Research to date largely supports the model, but high quality studies are few. Research should include studies that are prospective, larger, and have a stronger analytic design, ideally including difference in differences analyses comparing quality of care for patients of physicians who become dissatisfied to those who remain satisfied, and vice versa.Keywords: physician satisfaction, physician dissatisfaction, quality of care, physician well-being, physician burnout 

  20. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.

  1. Tennis Enhances Well-being in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Ahmet Bulent; Gul, Mine; Yazici, Esra; Gul, Gazanfer Kemal

    2016-05-18

    Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey) who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt-Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students' pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people.

  2. Caregiver Well-Being: Intersections of Relationship and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Neena L; Dujela, Carren; Smith, André

    2015-08-01

    We know much about caregiving women compared with caregiving men and caregiving spouses compared with caregiving adult children. We know less about the intersections of relationship and gender. This article explores this intersection through the well-being (burden and self-esteem) of caregivers to family members with dementia. Throughout British Columbia, Canada, 873 caregivers were interviewed in person for on average, over 1½ hours. The results reveal that daughters experience the highest burden but also the highest self-esteem, suggesting the role is less salient for their self-identities. Wives emerge as the most vulnerable of the four groups when both burden and self-esteem are considered. The data confirm the usefulness of the intersectionality framework for understanding co-occupancy of more than one status and indicate that positive cognitive well-being and negative affective well-being can be differentially related. Multivariate analyses confirm the importance of caregiver, not patient, characteristics for burden and self-esteem. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Quality Education for Social Development and Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Education as a phenomenon is rather complex which makes it difficult to define its quality. Definitions of quality must be open to change and evolution based on information, changing contexts, and new understandings of the nature of education's challenges. The main objective of the paper is to find out the significance of quality education for…

  4. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Lauren; Tay, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning-an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  5. Marriage and the well-being of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jeremy R; Lantos, John D

    2013-03-01

    Children's well-being has become the focal consideration in legal and public policy debates regarding same-sex marriage. In this article, we critically examine and rebut the central moral argument made by opponents of same-sex marriage: that the state should not license any domestic arrangement other than "traditional marriage" because doing so would be detrimental to children's well-being. Although many have challenged the empirical premise that children raised by same-sex couples fare worse than children in other arrangements, we focus primarily on the normative premises for exclusively licensing traditional (that is, monogamous, heterosexual) marriage. We argue that even if the empirical support for its claims was strong, the argument is morally insufficient for denying state recognition to other types of relationships. Importantly, we affirm the state's vital role in promoting children's well-being. We question, however, the approach of delegitimizing certain relationships as a means to that end. Instead, we argue, the state should encourage and support individuals who want to care for children, presume that any couple or individual is capable of adequate child-rearing, and ensure that all adults who are raising children (whether married or not) have the material resources and support necessary to be good parents. Such a policy would (1) set a reasonable minimal threshold for state recognition, (2) be vigilant in identifying cases falling below this threshold, and then (3) either assist or disqualify underperforming arrangements. It would also, appropriately, decouple arguments about legitimate and illegitimate types of relationships from arguments about what is best for children.

  6. ENTERPRISE STAKEHOLDER WELL-BEING ATTAINED WITH RESPONSIBLE ENTERPRISE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sternad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the currentdifficultglobal economic situationit is beneficialforanycountryto havecreateda solidfoundationsupportive of socio-economic growthand development,includingcompetitivenessand quality of lifeof all residents. This requires all availablecreativity and innovation, including enterprise policy (corporate governance innovation. Here we introduceSIEDES responsible enterprise policy that should provide better stakeholder quality of lifeto show how the enterprise policy should be; as a possible consequencewe presentthe results ofthe OECD ‘Better LifeIndex of well-being measurement’ comparing e.g. Slovenia to OECD countries average,that may follow frommore or lessresponsible enterprisepolicyofSlovenianenterprises. We conclude with some suggestions about education that should enable the desired innovation.

  7. Design of systems for productivity and well being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some...... research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling...

  8. Need for Approval and Children's Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Caldwell, Melissa S.; CONLEY, COLLEEN S.

    2005-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that a tendency to base one's self-worth on peer approval is associated with positive and negative aspects of children's well-being. 153 4th - 8th graders (9.0 to 14.8 years) reported on need for approval (NFA), global self-worth, social-evaluative concerns, anxiety and depression, and exposure to victimization. Teachers reported on social behavior. Results confirmed that NFA is a two-dimensional construct composed of positive (enhanced self-worth in the ...

  9. Parental involvement and mental well-being of Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasumi, Takahiro; Ahsan, Fatimah; Couper, Caitlin M; Aguayo, Jose L; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between parental involvement and mental well being among the 6721 school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years who participated in Indias nationally representative Global School based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2007. Parental involvement (homework checking, parental understanding of their childrens problems, and parental knowledge of their childrens freetime activities) was reported by students to decrease with age, while poor mental health (loneliness, insomnia due to anxiety, and sadness and hopelessness) increased with age. Age adjusted Logistic regression models showed that high levels of reported parental involvement were significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of poor mental health.

  10. Dimensions of Well-Being: Earnings, Happiness and Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    CARMO DOS SANTOS, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks at three important aspects of the well-being of individuals. The first chapter looks at earnings and tries to estimate earnings over the life course accounting for selection. It does so by being silent a priori about the relative productivity of those who stay out of work and instead lets the data speak. Data suggest that nonworkers are not always worse than workers, and it also suggests cohort effects are also important when lifecycle profiles do not follow the same people ...

  11. Social enterprise: new pathways to health and well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel; Kay, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In this article we attempt to make sense of recent policy directions and controversies relating to the 'social enterprise' and 'health' interface. In doing so, we outline the unrecognised potential of social enterprise for generating health and well-being improvement, and the subsequent challenges for government, the sector itself, and for the research community. Although we focus primarily upon the U.K. policy landscape, the key message--that social enterprise could represent an innovative and sustainable public health intervention--is a useful contribution to the ongoing international debate on how best to address the challenge of persistent and widening health inequalities.

  12. Well-being and control in older persons: the prediction of well-being from control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, C H; Deeg, D J; Bosscher, R J

    1995-01-01

    The interrelation of six facets of control and their ability to predict well-being in older persons were studied in an age and gender stratified community sample aged fifty-five to eighty-nine. An extended conceptual framework of control facets is introduced including "established" facets, such as mastery, self-efficacy and internal health locus of control and "new" control facets such as neuroticism, social inadequacy, and sense of coherence. An interview and a postal questionnaire included measures of the control facets and the Affect Balance Scale. Correlations between control measures were mostly modest. Negative affect was predicted by neuroticism and sense of coherence. Tendencies of independent association of mastery with global well-being and of social inadequacy with positive affect were established.

  13. Dance practice and well-being correlates in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Artero, Natàlia

    2016-10-04

    Clinical research has shown the mental health benefits of dance practice. This has become a significant subject of inquiry in psychotherapeutic settings for the elderly and adolescents. However, the relationship between dance practice and correlates of psychological well-being, such as mindfulness and life satisfaction (LS)-two relevant indicators of mental health, has been explored relatively little in young women. The present study contrasted mindfulness and LS in young women (n = 81) who practiced dance regularly in three modern dance schools in the Province of Barcelona with a control group of non-practitioners (n = 120) studying at a university in Barcelona. The data were collected during the first semester of 2015, and the total sample had an average age of 20.88 ± 3.36 years. Analyses of covariance showed higher levels of both mindfulness and LS in the dance practitioners, while a multiple regression analysis showed that, after controlling for age, dance was the factor most strongly associated with LS, explaining 28% of the variance in LS. These results are discussed in terms of the embodiment theory, and conclusions suggest that dance may be an effective gender-focused practice to enhance well-being and promote mental health in young women.

  14. 'Mixed' religion relationships and well-being in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloney, Kareena

    2014-08-01

    Religion plays a pivotal role in intergroup and interpersonal relationships in Northern Ireland, and individuals traditionally marry within their own religious group. However, 'mixed' marriages between Catholics and Protestants do occur and present an interesting, yet under researched, dynamic within this divided society. Both religion and committed relationships have been associated with physical and psychological health, but little is known about how divergence in religious beliefs within relationships impacts on health. A secondary data analysis of the Northern Ireland cohort of the Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study was conducted to investigate the impact of mixed religion relationships on physical and psychological well-being in Northern Ireland. Less than 10% of relationships were mixed religion relationships, and being in a mixed relationship was associated with poorer mental health but not with physical health. Mixed religion relationships in Northern Ireland are relatively uncommon in Northern Ireland, but are an important form of intergroup contact, as such it is important to fully understand the implications for the individuals involved and develop mechanisms to support those individuals psychological well-being.

  15. ETHOS OF MUSIC ART AND HUMAN WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COZMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.

  16. NATURE’S MEANINGS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosomatic functioning, a holistic approach would become possible. Results of public data will be discussed as a way of expanding the explanation framework. Also a theoretical framework will be presented so that all these would have a meaning for practitioners. Finally, acknowledging the fact that the environments’ benefits have been known and consciously used for human growth in several aspects, as in yoga or martial arts, some recent application will be discussed such as those in psychotherapy (nature psychotherapy or unification experiential psychotherapy.

  17. Physical activity and mental well-being in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Clare L

    2012-04-01

    There is strong evidence that suggests physical activity can enhance mental well-being. However, this relationship has not been widely investigated in student nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between physical activity and mental well-being in undergraduate student nurses (n=215). Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Other outcomes included self-esteem, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. Almost, a quarter (23.8%) of the total sample, were meeting the Department of Health's physical activity guideline. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.0 with 40% being in the overweight to morbidly obese category. Self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with total physical activity (r=0.16, p=0.038) and moderate intensity activity (r=0.17, p=0.021). No other significant relationships were found between anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life and physical activity. Outcome expectations for exercise and self-efficacy were significantly positively correlated with moderate (r=0.17, p=0.019) and vigorous (r=0.28, p=0.000) intensity activity and total physical activity (r=0.29, p=0.000). BMI was significantly positively correlated with age (r=0.242, p=0.001), significantly negatively correlated with self-efficacy for exercise (r=0.257, p=0.000) and satisfaction with life (r=-0.144, p=0.041). Regression analysis showed that low self efficacy for exercise and increasing age were significant predictors of BMI with a small effect size r(2)=0.126, adjusted r(2)=0.112. BMI and physical activity variables collectively explained only 2% of the variance for anxiety, 4% for depression, 5% for self esteem and 6% for satisfaction with life. BMI was a significant predictor of satisfaction with life (Beta=-0.171, p=0.027). Participation in physical activity may be influential in improving mental well-being in student nurses. Promoting physical

  18. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the benefits they bring. Benefits considered are more social trust, less stress, better health, and more social support. Results confirm that higher frequency of contacts and higher number of friends, as well as lower heterogeneity of the friendship network are related to more social trust, less stress, and a better health. Frequency of contact and number of friends, as well as more heterogeneity of the friendship network increase the chance of receiving help from friends. With the exception of receiving help from friends, these benefits are in turn related to higher levels of SWB. Only the frequency of meeting friends face-to-face has a remaining positive direct influence on SWB.

  19. On the well-being of adult expremies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Marianne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Jensen, Claus;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study health, well-being in daily life, educational level and socio-economic status in adulthood in moderately premature infants and the relationship to gender and socio-economic status at birth. METHODS: Prospective long-term follow-up study of a cohort of infants with a gestational age......). Questionnaires were returned by 69 participants who were born moderately premature and 304 participants who were born at term (53 and 57%, respectively, of the original cohort). Multivariate analysis showed that social status and level of education at 32 years were predicted by social status and maternal...... educational level at birth with no demonstrable effects due to gestation or gender. CONCLUSION: Moderately premature infants, born before the era of intensive care, at the age of 32 years with regard to health, quality of life, education and social status proved to fare as well as their term counterparts....

  20. Happy house: spousal weight and individual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; Etilé, Fabrice

    2011-09-01

    We use life satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) information from three waves of the GSOEP to test for social interactions in BMI between spouses. Social interactions require that the cross-partial effect of partner's weight and own weight in the utility function be positive. Using life satisfaction as a utility proxy, semi-parametric regressions show that the correlation between satisfaction and own BMI is initially positive, but turns negative after some threshold. Critically, this latter threshold increases with partner's BMI when the individual is overweight. The negative well-being impact of own BMI is thus lower when the individual's partner is heavier, which is consistent with social contagion effects in weight. However, this relationship may also reflect selection on the marriage market or omitted variables, and it is difficult to think of convincing instruments that would allow causality to be clearly established.

  1. The health of healthcare: Emergency department physician well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gagne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physician health and well-being is an important issue that ultimately affects job performance. We compared the self-reported incidence of known medical issues, physical and mental health symptoms, and health behaviors of Emergency Physicians (EPs with the general public in the United States. Methods: Questions selected from a national survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC about public health trends were distributed to via Facebook to a private group of 12,917 EPs. Responses were compared between EPs and the general population using Chi-square tests of independence. Results: Our results demonstrated that EPs suffer less from chronic diseases, especially those related to the cardiopulmonary system; however, they suff er from a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain and infectious disease complaints. EPs also exhibit higher rates of mental health symptoms, sleep-related complications, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Awareness, education, and advocacy may help improve physician health and ultimately job performance.

  2. Letters of gratitude: Improving well-being through expressive writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Toepfer & Kathleen Walker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have shown that about 40% of our happiness is accounted for by intentional activity whereas 50% is explained by genetics and 10% by circumstances (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon & Schkade, 2005. Consequently, efforts to improve happiness might best be focused in the domain of intentional activity: willful and self-directed activity (Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2007. Such activity is nested in the "sustainable happiness model" proposed by Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, and Schkade (2005 which states that happiness is in part within our ability to manage. Earlier work (Fordyce, 1977; 1983 supports the premise that individuals can sustain levels of happiness through volitional behavior. The current pilot study explored one such intentional activity - composing letters of gratitude. It was hypothesized that writing three letters of gratitude over time would enhance important qualities of subjective well-being in the author; happiness, life-satisfaction, and gratitude.

  3. Design of systems for productivity and well being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling the process' different types of knowledge; and (4) emphasizing that performance management systems, key performance indicators (KPIs), and leadership are also part of the system design and must be given attention. With the examples presented, we argue that knowledge does exist to help system design facilitators address these basic issues.

  4. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  5. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Assessment of Fetal Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lynn; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Dudiak, Kika M; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Henrichsen, Tara L; Meyer, Benjamin J; Nyberg, David A; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-12-01

    Although there is limited evidence that antepartum testing decreases the risk for fetal death in low-risk pregnancies, women with high-risk factors for stillbirth should undergo antenatal fetal surveillance. The strongest evidence supporting antepartum testing pertains to pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. The main ultrasound-based modalities to determine fetal health are the biophysical profile, modified biophysical profile, and duplex Doppler velocimetry. In patients at risk for cardiovascular compromise, fetal echocardiography may also be indicated to ensure fetal well-being. Although no single antenatal test has been shown to be superior, all have high negative predictive values. Weekly or twice-weekly fetal testing has become the standard practice in high-risk pregnancies. The timing for the initiation of assessments of fetal well-being should be tailored on the basis of the risk for stillbirth and the likelihood of survival with intervention. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hunting for health, well-being, and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Svensson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Health, well-being, quality of life, and lifestyle are central concepts within health science, although generally accepted definitions are still lacking. Lifestyle can either be seen as an independent variable and the cause of unhealthy behaviour or as a dependent variable, which is affected by conditions in the society. In the first case, the attention is directed on each individual case: maintaining or improving health requires changes in lifestyle and living habits. In this perspective, diet and physical activity are important features for health promotion. In the second case the attention is rather directed on structural conditions in society, for example the food industry, the lunches for children at school, and the “fast food” industry should be influenced to protect human health. The structural perspective has, so far, received restricted impact when it concerns prevention and promotion of health. Processes of individualisation in the society have to an increasing extent viewed health as an affair for the individual. The benefits of physical activity, healthy food and beverage, social support, and joy are documented scientifically. In general, the trend towards increasing responsibility for one's lifestyle and health is positive, but might reinforce the inequality in health. With an even harder climate in society there might be a risk that individual health projects undermine the solidarity and the will to accept costs for medical treatment and care for people who risk their health through an unhealthy and risk-taking lifestyle. However, we argue that peoples’ well-being and quality of life presupposes a society that stands up for all people.

  7. Beyond positive psychology? Toward a contextual view of psychological processes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Fincham, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes-forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness-can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.

  8. Time with children and employed parents' emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Shira

    2014-09-01

    Using the experience sampling method and survey data from the 500 Family Study this study examined how parents feel when they spend time with their children and whether their emotional experiences differ by type of activity and the parent's gender. I found that mothers spent more time in childcare than fathers but this disparity was primarily due to mothers' more frequent engagement in activities that were not child-centered (i.e., non-focused and passive childcare). Multilevel models further showed that engagement in these activities was related to higher positive affect. Shared meals and leisure activities were particularly beneficial to parents' emotional well-being and the likelihood of engaging in them was not affected by parents' paid work hours. By contrast, routine childcare was associated with increased stress and lower engagement but only among mothers. Mothers were also less likely to provide childcare in conjunction with their spouse. These findings reveal the subtle dimensions of the unequal division of childcare by gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematic review: complementary therapies and employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravalier, J M; Wegrzynek, P; Lawton, S

    2016-08-01

    A variety of workplace-based interventions exist to reduce stress and increase productivity. However, the efficacy of these interventions is sometimes unclear. To determine whether complementary therapies offered in the workplace improve employee well-being. We performed a systematic literature review which involved an electronic search of articles published between January 2000 and July 2015 from the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and PubMed. We also undertook a manual search of all applicable article reference lists to ensure that no relevant studies were missed. We only selected published, full-length, English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Articles had to address the research objective using valid and reliable measures. We excluded articles concerning return to work or whose populations had been adversely affected by work resulting in the development of health issues. We included 10 articles in the review from 131 identified. Mindfulness and meditation-based interventions were most effective in improving workplace health and work performance; the latter demonstrating some evidence of maintaining gains up to 3 months later. The evidence for relaxation interventions was inconclusive. Mindfulness and meditation interventions may be helpful in improving both psychosocial workplace health and work performance, but long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Thought recognition, locus of control, and adolescent well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, T M; Stack, S A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the underlying assumptions and principles of a new psychological paradigm, Psychology of Mind/Health Realization (POM/HR). A core concept of POM/HR, thought recognition, is then compared with locus of control (LOC), a well-known psychological construct. Next, the relationship of LOC to self-reported happiness and satisfaction is examined from the perspective of POM/HR, using a sample of 1,872 at-risk adolescents from 17 nations. The findings support POM/HR predictions that (1) locus of control would account for a slight portion of the variance in adolescent happiness and satisfaction, (2) circumstances that are external in nature would account for additional variance in happiness and satisfaction, and (3) there would be little difference in self-reported happiness and satisfaction between adolescents self-reporting high and low internal LOC. Further, it was conjectured that the adolescents mistook superficial emotions, such as excitement and security, for genuine feelings of well-being. Finally, the implications for prevention and intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents are discussed.

  11. Handbook of smart homes, health care and well-being

    CERN Document Server

    Demiris, George; Wouters, Eveline

    2017-01-01

    Smart homes, home automation and ambient-assisted living are terms used to describe technological systems that enrich our living environment and provide means to support care, facilitate well-being and improve comfort. This handbook provides an overview of the domain from the perspective of health care and technology.  In Part 1, we set out to describe the demographic changes in society, including ageing, and diseases and impairments which lead to the needs for technological solutions. In Part 2, we describe the technological solutions, ranging from sensor-based networks, components, to communication protocols that are used in the design of smart homes. We also deal will biomedical features which can be measured, and services that can be delivered to end-users as well as the use of social robots.  In Part 3, we present best practices in the field. These best practices mainly focus on existing projects in Europe, the USA and Asia, in which people receive help through dedicated technological solutions being p...

  12. Modern Medicine: Towards Prevention, Cure, Well-being and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine′s other big challenge. Advances in vaccines for hypertension, diabetes, cancers etc, deserve attention; as also, the role of meditation, yoga, spirituality etc in preventing disease at various levels. Studies on longevity, life style changes and healthy centenarians deserve special scrutiny to find what aids longevity with wellbeing. A close look at complementary and alternative medicine is needed to find any suitable models they may have, cutting aside their big talk and/or hostility towards mainstream medical care. Medicine is a manifestation of the human eros, and should not become a means of its thanatos. It must realise its true potential, so that eros prevails, and thanatos prevails only ultimately, not prematurely.

  13. Design for Health and Well Being: Knitted Products for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.

  14. The work environment, stress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, E J K; Chaplin, K S; Smith, A P

    2010-12-01

    Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. To consider the effect sizes seen at different ends of job characteristic dimensions and to compare the impact of the presence and absence of job characteristics in association with mental health and well-being outcomes. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.

  15. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattner Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  16. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.

  17. Sleep Duration and Child Well-Being: A Nonlinear Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sarah; Hale, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous studies among adults have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and health outcomes, fewer studies have investigated the theory that children also have an optimal sleep duration range, with both lower and upper limits. We evaluated whether children's sleep duration at ages 5 and 9 has a U-shaped association with both behavioral problems and physical health at age 9. We analyzed data from 1,965 participants in a longitudinal birth cohort, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. This sample of children was 52% male and approximately 22% non-Hispanic White, 52% non-Hispanic Black, 23% Hispanic, and 3% some other race/ethnicity. The child's primary caregiver reported the predictor of interest: sleep duration at age 5 and age 9. Both children and primary caregivers reported on outcomes of the child's behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) and overall physical health. We found that the association between children's sleep duration and well-being was typically nonlinear and U-shaped. Adjusting for their sleep duration at age 5, children who sleep either too much or too little at age 9 had higher levels of behavior problems and scored lower on a global measure of physical health. These nonlinear patterns were similar whether children or primary caregivers reported child outcomes, with the exception that there was a linear and increasing association of longer sleep duration and caregiver-rated child health. This study highlights that both short and long sleep duration may be risk factors for adverse behavioral and health outcomes in school-age children.

  18. BEAUTY, HEALTH AND WELL-BEING WITH COSMETOTEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRETU Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cosmetotextiles, as another aspect of new beauty and health marques a growing success. This hybrid fabric, is definite as a textile article that contains a substance that is release sustainable on the human body skin pointed to perfume, change of appearance, maintenance in good condition, protection, or correction of body odors. Cosmetotextiles are created by microencapsulating different substances for body care or health, that are gradually transfer to the skin, by movement, pressure or the effect of the skin’s natural warmth and enzymes. The paper presents some elements regarding to the microencapsulating process (the major components of them general structure, the major advantages compare to usual presentation of cosmetic substances, some of the used active ingredients and them specific cosmetic and health benefits and the new generation of cosmetotextiles that bring together the latest innovations in fiber and textile structures and products. So, one of the manufacturing processes of a cosmetotextile is based on functionalisation of fibers by fixing microcapsules in them structure, resulting fibers as Novorel, Tencel C, Nilit Breeze, Emana, or by the functionalisation of fabrics, so of products made by these fabrics, where microcapsules are fixed on the external surface of the fabric, resulting in revolutionary “fabrics’ treatments” for beauty, health-care and well-being. Among these cosmeto fabrics and products are Sensitive Ultra Light Firming fabric, Sensitive Fabric Body ware, textile fabrics with the revolutionary Quiospheres technology, Doubleskin and different cosmeto-knitted products including specific placed areas with micro encapsulated ingredients, depending on them destinations (slimming, anti-cellulite treatment, corrective effect

  19. [Personal resources relevant to psychological well-being in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Women's status and child well-being: a state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Lincoln, Alisa; Appleton, Allison

    2006-12-01

    We conducted an ecologic analysis of the relation between women's status and child well-being in the 50 United States. State-level women's status was assessed via four composite indices: women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment and earnings, and reproductive rights. Child well-being was measured via five outcomes: percentage of low birthweight babies, infant mortality, teen mortality, high school dropout rate, and teen birth rate. Higher state-level women's status on all indicators was associated with significantly better state-level child well-being in unadjusted analyses. Several associations remained significant after adjusting for income inequality and state racial composition. Women's political participation was associated with a significantly lower percentage of low birthweight babies (prights were associated with significantly lower infant mortality (pchildren's social context which may impact their well-being. Multi-level analyses of the association between state-level women's status and child well-being are needed.

  1. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance

  2. Multidimensional aspects related to shiftworkers' health and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of shift and night work on health shows a high inter- and intra-individual variability, both in terms of kind of troubles and temporal occurrence, related to various intervening factors dealing with individual characteristics, lifestyles, work demands, company organisation, family relations and social conditions. The way we define "health" and "well-being" can significantly influence appraisals, outcomes and interventions. As the goal is the optimisation of shiftworkers' health, it is necessary to go beyond the health protection and to act for health promotion. In this perspective, not only people related to medical sciences, but many other actors (ergonomists, psychologists, sociologists, educators, legislators, as well as shiftworkers themselves. Many models have been proposed aimed at describing the intervening variables mediating and/or moderating the effects; they try to define the interactions and the pathways connecting risk factors and outcomes through several human dimensions, which refer to physiology, psychology, pathology, sociology, ergonomics, economics, politics, and ethics. So, different criteria can be used to evaluate shiftworkers' health and well-being, starting from biological rhythms and ending in severe health disorders, passing through psychological strain, job dissatisfaction, family perturbation and social dis-adaptation, both in the short- and long-term. Consequently, it appears rather arbitrary to focus the problem of shiftworkers' health and tolerance only on specific aspects (e.g. individual characteristics, but a systemic approach appears more appropriate, able to match as many variables as possible, and aimed at defining which factors are the most relevant for those specific work and social conditions. This can support a more effective and profitable (for individuals, companies, and society adoption of preventive and compensative measures, that must refer more to "countervalues" rather than to

  3. The authentic worker's well-being and performance: the relationship between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Ralph; Taris, Toon W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on authenticity has mainly focused on trait conceptualizations of authenticity (e.g., Wood et al., 2008), whereas in specific environments (e.g., at work) state conceptualizations of authenticity (cf. Van den Bosch & Taris, 2013) are at least as relevant. For example, working conditions are subject to change, and this could well have consequences for employees' perceived level of authenticity at work. The current study employs a work-specific, state-like conceptualization of authenticity to investigate the relations between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes. A series of ten separate hierarchical regression analyses using data from 685 participants indicated that after controlling for selected work characteristics and demographic variables, authenticity at work accounted for on average 11% of the variance of various wellbeing and work outcomes. Of the three subscales of authenticity at work (i.e., authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting influence), self-alienation was the strongest predictor of outcomes, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence, respectively. These findings are discussed in the light of their practical and theoretical implications.

  4. Learning for Well-Being: Personal, Social and Health Education and a Changing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Fergus

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the current context for personal, social and health education (PSHE) in English schools, and examines what the implications of the "Every Child Matters" (ECM) agenda are for schools in the future and how these changes may affect the profile and provision of PSHE in the curriculum. The author begins by revisiting the…

  5. Well-being and social justice among Moroccan migrants in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloma, Virginia; García-Ramírez, Manuel; Camacho, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The decision to migrate is normally based on expectations of improving one's actual living conditions and therefore, one's well-being. However, these expectations are not usually met in receiving contexts that relegate newcomers to lower power positions. From a liberating community psychology approach, this study aims to develop a predictive model of the well-being of Moroccan migrants living in southern Spain. Data were collected from a survey sample of 633 migrants (the average age was 31.9 years and 51.8 % were women) from 20 territorial units of Andalusia. Through a process of multilevel regression analysis, this study reveals that the well-being of the Moroccan community is closely determined by the following: (a) the level of social justice in the receiving context (openness to diversity of receiving communities, cultural sensitivity of community services, and residential integration); and (b) the individual strengths of the population (use of active coping strategies, satisfaction with the receiving context, and temporal stability in the new environment). These results empirically support the impact that different ecological levels of analysis have on well-being. Major theoretical contributions of the model and useful suggestions for improving migrant well-being are discussed.

  6. Human Well Being: A Decile Group Analysis on Indian Household Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This is an attempt to measure human well being across different sections of the society in India over time where sections have been made in terms of ten decile groups of income. In this context, the extent to which rural sector is lagging behind the urban sector is another dimension of the study. The study uses grouped household data, collected…

  7. Towards model-driven requirements analysis for context-aware well-being systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosems, S.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2012-01-01

    Research interest in the domain of pervasive systems has seen a rapid increase, evident from the amount of research papers being published each year. These systems are to blend in with everyday life, being completely unobtrusive. Through the use of sensors, pervasive systems can become

  8. Review of Well-Being in the Context of Suicide Prevention and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    construct is the well-researched construct of quality of life ( QoL ) [15]. The WHO provided the following definition of QoL : “An individual’s...DCoE. Their members included Jeff Greenberg, PhD; Kate Blaney, MS ; Cree Scott, PsyD; Deirdre Farrell, MA; Angela Fix, MPH; and Maria Mouratidis, PsyD...resilience and prevention. These staff members include in alphabetical order: Paul Bartone, PhD; David Brown, PsyD; Colanda Cato, PhD; George Durgin, MS

  9. Psychological Well-Being and Motivation in a Turkish Physical Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    Using Self Determination as a framework, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, self-esteem, subjective vitality, and social physique anxiety in physical education. One thousand and eighty two high school students aged between 14 and 19 [mean (M) = 15.89 ± 0.95 years]…

  10. Assessing the Relationship Between Human Well-being and Ecosystem Services: A Review of Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the most impoverished populations, we critically review and synthesise key themes from dominant frameworks for assessing the relationship between well-being and ecosystem services in developing countries. This requires a differentiated approach to conceptualising well-being that appropriately reflects the perspectives of the poorest-those most directly dependent on ecosystem services, and their vulnerability to external and policy-driven environmental change. The frameworks analysed draw upon environmental sciences, economics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, and were selected on the basis of their demonstrated or potential ability to illustrate the relationship between environmental change and human well-being, as well as their prevalence in real world applications. Thus, the synthesis offered here is informed by the various theoretical, methodological, and hermeneutical contributions from each field to the notion of well-being. The review highlights several key dimensions that should be considered by those interested in understanding and assessing the impact of environmental change on the well-being of the world′s poorest people: the importance of interdisciplinary consideration of well-being, the need for frameworks that integrate subjective and objective aspects of well-being, and the central importance of context and relational aspects of well-being. The review is of particular interest to those engaged in the post-2015 development agenda.

  11. The relationship between job insecurity and well-being among Peruvian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarco, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study’s aims are twofold: to introduce job insecurity research in Peru, and to investigate the relationship between job insecurity and a broad range of well-being indicators, including optimal and impaired, and general and work-related well-being. We hypothesise that job insecurity (1 relates negatively to work-related optimal well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, career satisfaction and work engagement and positively to work-related impaired well-being (i.e., burnout, and (2 negatively to general optimal well-being (i.e., life satisfaction and positively to general impaired well-being (i.e., psychological distress. In 2008, we administered questionnaires to employees from eight organizations based in Metropolitan Lima, yielding a convenience sample of 651 respondents. We used hierarchical regression analyses and controlled for organizations, age, gender, job-related (e.g., occupational position and family-related (e.g., financial contribution to the household variables. Results supported our hypotheses. We conclude that job insecurity shows a strong association with impaired well-being. A particular strength of this study is that it is situated in Lima, Peru, and in a context of economic growth. It also contributes to understand the association of job insecurity with work-related well-being by including rarely studied variables such as career satisfaction, work engagement and burnout.

  12. Cultural perspectives on aging and well-being: a comparison of Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Mayumi; Curhan, Katherine B; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu S; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Radler, Barry T; Ryff, Carol D

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated age differences in multiple aspects of psychological well-being among midlife and older adults in Japan (N = 482) and the United States (N = 3,032) to test the hypothesis that older Japanese adults would rate aspects of their well-being (personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations with others) more highly that older U.S. adults. Partial support was found: older adults in Japan showed higher scores on personal growth compared to midlife adults, whereas the opposite age pattern was found in the United States. However, purpose in life showed lower scores for older adults in both cultural contexts. Interpersonal well-being, as hypothesized, was rated significantly higher, relative to the overall well-being, among Japanese compared to U.S. respondents, but only among younger adults. Women in both cultures showed higher interpersonal well-being, but also greater negative affect compared with men. Suggestions for future inquiries to advance understanding of aging and well-being in distinct cultural contexts are detailed.

  13. CTA in the Context of Searches for Particle Dark Matter - a glimpse

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, CTAs potential role in detection of particle dark matter in the context of other detection approaches is briefly discussed for an audience of gamma-ray astronomers. In particular searches for new particles at the large hadron collider and detection of dark matter particles in deep underground detectors are considered. We will focus on Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP). Approaches will be compared in terms of (a) robustness of sensitivity predictions, (b) timeline and (c) reach. The estimate of the reach will be model-dependent. Given our ignorance about the nature of dark matter, and the complementarity of detection techniques even within a given framework (e.g. Supersymmetry), the trivial conclusion is that we might need all approaches and the most sensitive experiments. Our discussion will be somewhat more restrictive in order to be able to be more concrete. With the caveat of incompleteness, under the assumption that the WIMP paradigm describes nature, CTA is more likely to ...

  14. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Kuykendall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning—an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  15. Centrality of women's multiple roles: beneficial and detrimental consequences for psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, L M; Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L

    2000-03-01

    Theorists have proposed that greater centrality (personal importance) of a social role is associated with better psychological well-being but that role centrality exacerbates the negative effects of stress in that same social role on well-being. The present study found evidence to support both hypotheses in a sample of 296 women who simultaneously occupied the roles of parent care provider, mother, wife, and employee. Greater centrality of all four roles was related to better psychological well-being. As predicted, wife centrality exacerbated the effects of wife stress on life satisfaction, and employee centrality exacerbated the effects of employee stress on depressive symptoms. Contrary to prediction, centrality of the mother role buffered women from the negative effects of mother stress on depressive symptoms. These findings point to an aspect of role identity that can benefit well-being but that has complex effects in the context of role stress.

  16. Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being: a Participatory Study in a Mountain Community in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Miguel Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are essential for human well-being, but the links between ecosystem services and human well-being are complex, diverse, context-dependent, and complicated by the need to consider different spatial and temporal scales to assess them properly. We present the results of a study in the rural community of Sistelo in northern Portugal that formed part of the Portugal Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The main purpose of our study was to assess the linkages between human well-being and ecosystem services at the local level, as perceived by the community. We used a range of tools that included participatory rural appraisal and rapid rural appraisal as well as other field methods such as direct observation, familiarization and participation in activities, semistructured interviews, trend lines, well-being ranking, and other ranking and scoring exercises. Sistelo has a unique landscape of agricultural terraces that are now being abandoned because of the depopulation of the region, a common trend in mountainous rural areas of Europe. From the community perspective, some components of well-being such as material well-being have been improving, whereas some ecosystem services, e.g., food production, have been declining. Although a few of the local criteria for well-being are closely related to local ecosystem services, most of them are not. People recognize many of the services provided by ecosystems, in particular, provisioning, cultural, and regulating services, although they feel that provisioning services are the most important for well-being. It is apparent that, for the Sistelo community, there is an increasing disconnect between local well-being and at least some local ecosystem services. This disconnect is associated with greater freedom of choice at the local level, which gives the local inhabitants the power to find substitutes for ecosystem services. The consequences of land abandonment for human well-being and ecosystem services

  17. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Freire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.

  18. Advances in children's rights and children's well-being measurement: implications for school psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Jiang, Xu; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Huebner, E Scott

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children's rights agenda and advances in children's well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of children's rights has developed, which is best expressed in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Convention outlines the conditions necessary to ensure and promote children's well-being and calls for the ongoing monitoring of children's well-being for accountability purposes. We articulate advances in children's rights and children's well-being measurement in the context of children's schooling experiences in general and for school psychology in particular. We highlight implications for the assessment roles of school psychologists, who occupy a unique position at the intersection of multiple subsystems of children's overall ecosystems. We argue that the synergy between a rights-based agenda and advances in children's well-being assessment methodology can provide valuable opportunities for school psychology. This synergy can help school communities establish perspective and goals for children's well-being in rights respecting ways, using the most promising well-being assessment strategies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. What children think about their rights and their well-being: A cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita; Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have brought a growing social and public commitment to the promotion of children's rights and children's well-being around the world, and these have become important goals of all those striving to improve children's lives. In spite of the intimate ideological connection between the concepts of children's rights and children's well-being, they have evolved separately both theoretically and empirically. In the current article, we present a study exploring the empirical association between these 2 concepts based on data from the International Survey on Children's Well-Being. This unique survey explores children's own perspectives on their well-being (subjective well-being), their perceptions and knowledge of their rights, and their reports on their right to participation. It includes data from more than 54,000 children aged 8-12 from 16 countries around the world. Our results showed clear cross-national differences between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights and their reports on participation. Also, children's participation in different contexts in their lives showed an association with their subjective well-being; a weaker association was found between children's knowledge and perceptions of their rights. These results indicate that children's right to participation and, to some degree, their knowledge and thinking about their rights is an indicator of their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The bright side of migration: hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in immigrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowik, Magdalena; Basabe, Nekane; Páez, Darío

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the multi-dimensional structure of well-being in immigrant population, as well as to explore the complexity of well-being disparities between immigrants and host nationals. We analyzed hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in a sample of 1250 immigrants from Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco, Romania and Sub-Saharan Africa, together with that of 500 matched host nationals from Spain. Participants were selected by means of probability sampling with stratification by age and sex. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the re-specified tripartite model of well-being, including hedonic, psychological, and social components of the individual's functioning, was the best fitting model, as compared to alternative models. Importantly, after adjustment for perceived friendship and support, marital status, income, sex and age, immigrants presented higher levels of well-being than host nationals. Compared to host nationals, immigrants reported especially higher eudaimonic well-being: social contribution and actualization, personal growth, self-acceptance, and purpose in life, and lower levels of well-being only in terms of positive relations with others and negative affect. These results are discussed in the context of positive psychology.

  1. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.

  2. Longitudinal Relation Between General Well-Being and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, Charlotte S; van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem of male adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the transition out of secure residential care was studied. Adolescents ( N = 172) were assessed three times with 6 months between each assessment. The sample comprised adolescents who were admitted throughout the entire study ( n = 116) and who had been discharged at 6/12 months follow-up ( n = 56). General well-being and self-esteem were stable concepts over time. The relation between general well-being and self-esteem differed for both groups. Among the admitted group general well-being positively predicted self-esteem and self-esteem negatively predicted general well-being from Time 2 to Time 3. Among the discharged adolescents, self-esteem at Time 1 positively predicted general well-being at Time 2 and general well-being at Time 2 positively predicted self-esteem at Time 3. Changing social contexts, as well as problems experienced during the transition out of secure care, might affect this relationship.

  3. [Effects of recollecting autobiographical memories on the emotional well-being of older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, G J; Lamers, S M A; de Vries, D R S L

    2010-02-01

    This experiment examined the effect of different ways of recollecting autobiographical memories on emotional well-being. Participants between 65 and 80 years old (N = 70) were instructed to write about a memory from their life when they were 15 to 30 years old. They were asked to do this in a narrative way about a positive memory, in a narrative way about a negative memory or in an interpretative way about a negative memory. We also examined whether spontaneous reminiscence types in everyday life moderate the effects of the experimental manipulation on emotional well-being. Narrating positive memories is more favourable for negative affect than narrating or interpreting negative memories. There is no moderating role for everyday reminiscence types, even though these are related to emotional well-being. Manipulated and spontaneous reminiscence are therefore different. This is a favourable finding for reminiscence interventions, because they can stimulate positive memories, no matter how older people are used to memorize their past.

  4. Differences in housing, health, and well-being among HIV-positive women living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavega, Elena; Lennon-Dearing, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The social context of living in poverty has a direct and indirect impact on a woman's health and well-being. This cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between housing and adherence to treatment, emotional wellness, environmental safety, physical health status, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive women receiving services from an AIDS service organization in the mid-South. Significant differences were found between stably housed and unstably housed women on the dependent outcome variables. Results suggest that housing services for HIV-positive women may be an effective way to increase their health and well-being as well as prevent transmission to others.

  5. Social Capital or Social Cohesion: What Matters for Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the concepts of social capital and of social cohesion shows that social capital should be considered as a micro concept whereas social cohesion, being a broader concept than social capital, is a more appropriate concept for macro analysis. Therefore, we suggest that data on the individual level should only be used to…

  6. Social Capital or Social Cohesion: What Matters for Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the concepts of social capital and of social cohesion shows that social capital should be considered as a micro concept whereas social cohesion, being a broader concept than social capital, is a more appropriate concept for macro analysis. Therefore, we suggest that data on the individual level should only be used to…

  7. Persistent Deterioration of Functioning (PDF) and change in well-being in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Angèle A; Comijs, Hannie C; Knipscheer, Kees C; Deeg, Dorly J

    2008-10-01

    It is often assumed that aging is accompanied by diverse and constant functional and cognitive decline, and it is therefore surprising that the well-being of older persons does not appear to decline in the same way. This study investigates longitudinally whether well-being in older persons changes due to Persistent Deterioration of Functioning (PDF). Data were collected in the context of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Conditions of PDF are persistent decline in cognitive functioning, physical functioning and increase in chronic diseases. Measurements of well-being included life satisfaction, positive affect, and valuation of life. T-tests were used to analyse mean difference scores for well-being, and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine changes in three well-being outcomes in relation to PDF. Cross-sectional analyses showed significant differences and associations between the two PDF subgroups and non- PDF for well-being at T3. In longitudinal analyses, we found significant decreases in and associations with wellbeing over time in respondents fulfilling one PDF condition (mild PDF). For respondents fulfilling two or more PDF conditions (severe PDF), longitudinally no significant associations were found. Cognitive aspects of well-being (life satisfaction and valuation of life) and the affective element (positive affect) of well-being appear to be influenced negatively by mild PDF, whereas well-being does not seem to be diminished in persons with more severe PDF. This may be due to the ability to accept finally the inevitable situation of severe PDF.

  8. The Facebook Paradox: Effects of Facebooking on Individuals’ Social Relationships and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–offline social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–offline social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, social interaction anxiety, and psychological well-being. Personality differences on each of those paths were also assessed. Employing a sample of 342 American university students, results indicated that intensive Facebooking was positively associated with users’ psychological well-being through online social relationship satisfaction, and simultaneously negatively linked to users’ psychological well-being through offline social relationship satisfaction. Multiple group analyses revealed that the linkage between perceived social support and psychological well-being was stronger for introverts than for extraverts. Our findings indicate that the benefits or detriments of Facebooking are contingent upon both personality characteristics and online–offline social contexts. PMID:28197114

  9. A Network Based Theory of Health Systems and Cycles of Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Michael Grant

    2013-06-01

    There are two dominant approaches to describe and understand the anatomy of complete health and well-being systems internationally. Yet, neither approach has been able to either predict or explain occasional but dramatic crises in health and well-being systems around the world and in developed emerging market or developing country contexts. As the impacts of such events can be measured not simply in terms of their social and economic consequences but also public health crises, there is a clear need to look for and formulate an alternative approach. This paper examines multi-disciplinary theoretical evidence to suggest that health systems exhibit natural and observable systemic and long cycle characteristics that can be modelled. A health and well-being system model of two slowly evolving anthropological network sub-systems is defined. The first network sub-system consists of organised professional networks of exclusive suppliers of health and well-being services. The second network sub-system consists of communities organising themselves to resource those exclusive services. Together these two network sub-systems interact to form the specific (sovereign) health and well-being systems we know today. But the core of a truly 'complex adaptive system' can also be identified and a simplified two sub-system model of recurring Lotka-Volterra predator-prey cycles is specified. The implications of such an adaptive and evolving model of system anatomy for effective public health, social security insurance and well-being systems governance could be considerable.

  10. Consequences of Dating for Post-Divorce Maternal Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Michael R; Anderson, Edward R; Greene, Shannon M

    2016-08-01

    Repartnering has been linked to health benefits for mothers, yet few studies have examined relationship quality in this context. According to the divorce-stress-adaptation perspective, relationship quality may influence the relationship between maternal well-being and dating after divorce. The current study examines the consequences of dating, relationship quality, and dating transitions (breaking up and dating new partners) on maternal well-being (negative affect and life satisfaction). Using monthly surveys completed by mothers over a two-year period after filing for divorce, we examined changes in intercepts and slopes of dating status and transitions for maternal well-being while also testing the effects of relationship quality. Mothers entering high-quality relationships were likely to report boosts in well-being at relationship initiation compared to single mothers and mothers entering low-quality relationships. Mothers entering lower-quality relationships were likely to report lower levels of well-being than single mothers. Dating transitions were associated with increases in well-being. Implications for maternal adjustment are discussed.

  11. Care interaction adding challenges to old patients’ well-being during surgical hospital treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Uhrenfeldt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, hospitals offer surgical treatment within a short hospital admission. This brief interaction may challenge the well-being of old patients. The aim of this study was to explore how the well-being of old hospitalized patients was affected by the interaction with staff during a fast-track surgical treatment and hospital admission for colon cancer. We used an ethnographic methodology with field observations and unstructured interviews focusing on one patient at a time (n=9 during a full day; the hours ranging from 7:45 a.m. to 8 p.m. Participants were between 74 and 85 years of age and of both sexes. The study was reported to the Danish Data Protection Agency with reference number (2007-58-0010. The encounter between old patients and the staff was a main theme in our findings elucidating a number of care challenges. The identified care challenges illustrated “well-being as a matter of different perspectives,” “vulnerability in contrast to well-being,” and “staff mix influencing the care encounter.” The experience of well-being in old cancer patients during hospital admission was absent or challenged when staff did not acknowledge their individual vulnerability and needs.

  12. Ergonomics Climate Assessment: A measure of operational performance and employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Krista; Gibbons, Alyssa; Schwatka, Natalie; Rosecrance, John

    2015-09-01

    Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being.

  13. Tweeting about sexism: The well-being benefits of a social media collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mindi D

    2015-12-01

    Although collective action has psychological benefits in non-gendered contexts (Drury et al., 2005, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 44, 309), the benefits for women taking action against gender discrimination are unclear. This study examined how a popular, yet unexplored potential form of collective action, namely tweeting about sexism, affects women's well-being. Women read about sexism and were randomly assigned to tweet or to one of three control groups. Content analyses showed tweets exhibited collective intent and action. Analyses of linguistic markers suggested public tweeters used more cognitive complexity in their language than private tweeters. Profile analyses showed that compared to controls, only public tweeters showed decreasing negative affect and increasing psychological well-being, suggesting tweeting about sexism may serve as a collective action that can enhance women's well-being.

  14. The psychological well-being of women of Menoufiya, Egypt. Relationships with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila

    2003-03-01

    Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.

  15. Reviewing the meanings of wellness and well-being and their implications for food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Anne-Therese; Williams, Peter; Tapsell, Linda

    2010-11-01

    Wellness and well-being are terms found in a broad range of literature such as economics, social science, food marketing and general social commentary. These terms are often used in contexts that encompass mental, physical and emotional health as well as broader more esoteric aspects of life satisfaction such as happiness. The terms wellness and well-being are also used ubiquitously and variably in health practice. However, there is limited understanding about how they are used in the broader health promotion context and how consumers might interpret these terms in the context of food and nutrition messages. The primary aim of this paper is to review how the terms wellness and well-being are being used within a number of disciplines and describe implications for food choice. It is proposed that identifying the way these terms are used by key players in the food industry would enable more effective communication across sectors. This may assist in the collaborative development of public health food and nutrition messages with a consistent meaning.

  16. Rebuilding Babel: finding common development solutions using cross-contextual comparisons of multidimensional well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hull

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the theoretical tradition of coping strategies and capital portfolios is used as the basis for adaption and combination of existing methodologies to analyze well-being in rural households. Special attention is given to comparisons among different contexts. First we estimate a multidimensional measurement of poverty based on fuzzy logic for two areas of rural frontiers: Nang Rong, Thailand, and Altamira, in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. To enable a cross-contextual comparison we calculated a second estimate using a subset of shared measurements in the two areas. The findings suggest that the pattern of responses on a range of numerous key variables - including education, income and demographic dependency ratio - is robust for the model specification. It is concluded that comparative generalizations, useful in formulating cost-effective public policy interventions across contexts, could be satisfactorily identified in many situations. More generically, this approach provides researchers and policymakers with a framework for understanding the interaction of contexts with the subjective construction of well-being. The understanding of this interaction is useful for distinguishing stable corollaries of poverty from those that are volatile across contexts.

  17. The Accountability-Well-Being-Ethics framework: a new philosophical foundation for occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Steven D; Bakhshi, Parul; Babulal, Ganesh M

    2014-12-01

    The context that supported occupational therapy's inception has been replaced with new challenges brought on by globalization and dramatic changes in health care. Thus, the profession's philosophical grounding needs to be reframed to (a) achieve balance between science-driven and holistic elements, (b) operate within larger contexts on problems brought on by sociopolitical and natural determinants of health, and (c) maintain an ethical identity across all arenas of practice. This paper presents a brief discussion of the philosophical underpinnings in occupational therapy's history, outlines new global challenges for the profession, and proposes a new framework to address these challenges through education, practice, and research. Occupational therapy finds itself practising in a growing number of middle- and low-income countries where its roles and values need to be context and culture specific. The Accountability-Well-Being-Ethics framework guides the three domains of education, research, and practice to be relevant in an increasingly complex world.

  18. Role of Student Well-Being: A Study Using Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P; Ngu, Bing H; Alrashidi, Oqab

    2016-08-01

    The present study explored the effects of academic and social self-efficacy beliefs on students' well-being at school, academic engagement, and achievement outcome. Well-being at school is conceptualized as a central mediator of students' engagement and learning in achievement contexts. It was hypothesized that well-being at school would mediate the effects of social and academic self-efficacy beliefs on engagement and achievement outcome. This research focus has credence and may provide grounding for educational-social interventions. A cohort of 284 (122 girls, 162 boys) Year 11 secondary school students participated in this correlational study. A theoretical-conceptual model was explored and tested using structural equation modeling. Subsequent structural equation modeling analyses provided moderate support for the hypothesized model. The results showed that both academic and social self-efficacy depended on each other in their effect on well-being at school. Both academic engagement and well-being at school served as partial mediators of the effects of academic and social self-efficacy on academic engagement.

  19. Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Daw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and

  20. Effort in emotion work and well-being: The role of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elena; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that regulating one's emotion display in social settings entails psychological costs such as lower well-being. However, regulating emotion display may also help achieving goals, and goal attainment is known to enhance well-being. We therefore investigated the hypothesis that success in attaining goals during social interactions would reduce the negative impact of regulatory effort on well-being. In an experience sampling study, 115 Swiss employees reported their social encounters for 7 consecutive days. For each interaction, participants were asked to report their effort in regulating their emotions, their level of goal attainment, and their momentary well-being after the interaction. Data being nested (Level 1: interactions; Level 2: person), multilevel analyses were conducted. Continuous level 1 predictors were group mean centered, implying that their effects on well-being were strictly intraindividual. Gender, age, extraversion, and neuroticism were controlled on the person level, the context of the interaction (private vs. work) as well as positive and negative emotions felt during the social encounter were controlled on the situation level. Analysis of 1,674 social interactions containing a goal confirmed that regulatory effort predicted lower well-being after social interactions (Hypothesis 1), that degree of goal attainment predicted better well-being after these interactions (Hypothesis 2), and that degree of goal attainment buffered the negative effect of effort (Hypothesis 3). Research and theory should pay more attention to the fact that emotions often are regulated in the service of goals, and that attaining these goals may, at least partially, compensate for the effort invested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A descriptive qualitative study of adolescent girls’ well-being in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Wiens

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe girls’ well-being in Northern Finland. Method: This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Results: Four main categories of girls’ well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls’ description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it.

  2. Community psychology contributions to the study of social inequalities,well-being and social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Journal of Psychosocial Intervention aims to contribute to the understanding ofhuman well-being as a matter of social justice. Inequities in health and well-being are closely linked tosocial inequalities and addressing them involves the improvement of the quality of life and living conditionsof communities. Although reaching a more just society requires systemic changes, actions aimed at groupsthat are at greater risk of multiple vulnerabilities must be intensified in order to reduce the slope of thesocial gradient of health and well-being. Community psychology embraces as one of its key principles toadvocate for social change through the empowerment of disadvantaged groups, such as children and youthliving in poverty, women suffering violence, people with disabilities and elderly immigrants. Thecontributions of this monograph offer courses of action for a scientific agenda whose goal is to provideopportunities for all individuals to achieve meaning and greater control over the resources they need fortheir well-being and prosperity.

  3. A Network Based Theory of Health Systems and Cycles of Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Grant Rhodes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two dominant approaches to describe and understand the anatomy of complete health and well-being systems internationally. Yet, neither approach has been able to either predict or explain occasional but dramatic crises in health and well-being systems around the world and in developed emerging market or developing country contexts. As the impacts of such events can be measured not simply in terms of their social and economic consequences but also public health crises, there is a clear need to look for and formulate an alternative approach. This paper examines multi-disciplinary theoretical evidence to suggest that health systems exhibit natural and observable systemic and long cycle characteristics that can be modelled. A health and well-being system model of two slowly evolving anthropological network sub-systems is defined. The first network sub-system consists of organised professional networks of exclusive suppliers of health and well-being services. The second network sub-system consists of communities organising themselves to resource those exclusive services. Together these two network sub-systems interact to form the specific (sovereign health and well-being systems we know today. But the core of a truly ‘complex adaptive system’ can also be identified and a simplified two sub-system model of recurring Lotka-Volterra predator-prey cycles is specified. The implications of such an adaptive and evolving model of system anatomy for effective public health, social security insurance and well-being systems governance could be considerable.

  4. Familism, Social Network Characteristics, and Well-being among Older Adults in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Antonucci, Toni C

    2016-03-01

    Familism, is a cultural value considered to be central to Mexican culture. Older generations are thought to more strongly adhere to familistic values; however, little is known about the implications of familism in late-life. The goal of the current study was to examine links between familism, social network characteristics, and well-being among Mexican older adults. A sample of 556 older adults (50-99 years old) was drawn from the Study of Social Relations and Well-being in Mexico. Various aspects of social network characteristics and familism varied by age, gender, and education status. Familism was correlated with contact frequency and geographic proximity, but not proportion of family in network. Regression analyses indicated higher familism was associated with better psychological and physical well-being, yet familism interacted with proportion of family to predict both self-rated health and chronic conditions indicating that a discrepancy between familistic values and actual family support may be detrimental for older Mexicans' physical health. The discussion highlights the complex interrelationships and potential protective effects of familism. Future research should continue to examine the implications of familism and family relationships in the Mexican context; in particular, how generational shifts in familism influence intergenerational relations and well-being.

  5. Measuring hospital nurses' well-being at work - psychometric testing of the scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päätalo, Kati; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2016-12-01

    Valid and reliable methods to measure nurses' well-being at work are needed. Well-being at work refers to a positive viewpoint and experience in a work context. The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of nurses' well-being at work-scale (NWB-scale). The NWB-scale was tested in a Finnish hospital (N = 233) using statistical methods. The NWB-scale consists of 67 items and 12 factors: patients' experience of high-quality care, assistance and support among nurses, nurses' togetherness and collaboration, satisfying practical organization of work, challenging and meaningful work, freedom to express diverse feelings in a work community, well-conducted everyday nursing, status related to the work itself, fair and supportive leadership, opportunities for professional development, fluent communication with other professionals, and being together with other nurses in an informal way. Content validity was good based on expert evaluations. Construct validity of the scale was also very good based on exploratory factor analysis. Reliability (internal consistency) was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which ranged from 0.66 to 0.91. Based on psychometric properties, NWB is a valid and reliable scale to measure hospital nurses' well-being at work. Extrapolation to other professionals and settings needs required modification and careful testing.

  6. Perceived variety, psychological needs satisfaction and exercise-related well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Benjamin D; Standage, Martyn; Dowd, A Justine; Martin, Luc J; Sweet, Shane N; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Perceived variety represents a psychosocial experience that gives rise to, and supports the maintenance of, an individual's well-being. In this study, we developed an instrument to measure perceived variety in exercise (PVE), and examined whether ratings of PVE predict unique variance in indices of exercise-related well-being in addition to that explained by satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (for competence, relatedness and autonomy) embedded within self-determination theory (SDT). We also examined the extent to which variance in perceived variety is empirically distinct from (or subsumed by) competence, relatedness and autonomy in the context of exercise. A convenience sample of community adults (N = 507) completed online surveys twice over a six-week period (n = 367). PVE was found to prospectively predict unique variance in indices of exercise-related well-being, in addition to that explained by perceived competence, relatedness and autonomy. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic procedures, perceived variety was found to be empirically distinct from perceived competence, relatedness and autonomy. Results from this work suggest that perceived variety holds potential for theoretical and applied advancements in understanding and predicting well-being in exercise settings.

  7. Compassionate love for a romantic partner, love styles and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently a compassionate love scale was developed to assess compassionate love or altruistic love for different targets (e.g., romantic partner, close others and all the humanity; Sprecher & Fehr, 2005. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Compassionate Love Scale in the Portuguese context. In addition, it has been examined how compassionate love for a romantic partner was related to socio-demographic variables, love styles, and subjective well-being. Two hundred and eighty one men and women participated (42% of women with a mean age of 21.89. All participants were currently in a romantic relationship. The Compassionate Love Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties. Furthermore, our predictions were supported, as those who experience high levels of compassionate love for a romantic partner are more likely to report Eros and altruistic love (Agape, and subjective well-being.

  8. Brief report: The role of three dimensions of sexual well-being in adolescents' life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A; McPherson, Jenna L; Gutierrez, Estefania; Rodriguez, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Guided by theoretical (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997) and empirical work (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2005), this cross-sectional study examined whether sexual well-being (sexual self-acceptance, importance of mutual consent, importance of safe sex) was associated with life satisfaction among Mexican adolescents, and whether these associations were moderated by gender, age, and familism. Mexican adolescents (54% girls, 72% middle schoolers, 30% sexually active) completed surveys. Findings indicated that a greater belief in the importance of safe sex was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Greater sexual self-acceptance was associated with life satisfaction, and familism moderated this association. This association was stronger among adolescents who reported low familism. This study contributes to the understanding of sexual adolescent well-being and psychological adjustment in Mexico, an understudied cultural context. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional Well-Being Following Religious Conversion Among Women in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenwong, Suangsuda; Chirawatkul, Siriporn; Manderson, Lenore

    2017-02-01

    Religious conversion can have a profound impact on individual mental health and emotional well-being. These changes may need specific nursing care. In this article, we describe the lived experiences of 21 women who converted from Buddhism to Islam and who live in Isan, the northeast region of Thailand. The data derive from in-depth interviews, natural conversations, and observations. Thematic analysis revealed two dominant themes: women's sense of happiness in their new faith, and their suffering following from and as a result of their conversion. To provide appropriate care to and prevent mental health problems among Isan women who convert from Buddhism to Islam, and other women in similar contexts, health providers need to enhance their understanding of conversion and to be aware of life experiences that impact on their emotional well-being.

  10. Relationship Between Emotions, Emotion Regulation, and Well-Being of Professional Caregivers of People With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassal, Catherine; Czellar, Judith; Kaiser, Susanne; Dan-Glauser, Elise S

    2016-05-01

    So far, limited research has been carried out to better understand the interplay between the emotions, the use of emotion regulation strategies, and the well-being of professional caregivers of People with Dementia (PwD). This pilot study (N = 43 professional caregivers) aimed to (1) describe the type and frequency of emotions experienced at work; (2) analyze the associations between experienced emotions, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being; and (3) test whether the use of specific emotion regulation strategies moderates the relationship between experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. In the challenging context of professionally caring for PwD, results suggest that (1) caregivers experience positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions; (2) caregivers using relatively inappropriate regulation strategies are more likely to experience negative emotions, less likely to experience positive emotions, and have poorer physical and mental health; and (3) expressive suppression significantly moderates the relationship between positive experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion.

  11. Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/114422729; Friman, M.; Gärling, Tommy; Olsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses how travel by different travel modes is related to primarily subjective well-being but also to health or physical well-being. Studies carried out in different geographic contexts consistently show that satisfaction with active travel modes is higher than travel by car and publ

  12. Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Gärling, Tommy; Olsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses how travel by different travel modes is related to primarily subjective well-being but also to health or physical well-being. Studies carried out in different geographic contexts consistently show that satisfaction with active travel modes is higher than travel by car and publ

  13. SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF STAVROPOL IN EMPLOYMENT: THE RUSSIAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Dmitrievna Gritsenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the results of monitoring the social well-being of the labour community in the Russian environment. The level of stability in the region is largely determined by the social well-being of the population. In this context the most important aspect is a population estimation of the labor market and employment conditions. To this end there has been carried out questionnaire in 2006, 2009 and 2012, the sample - quota, the sample size - more than 1,000 people. The analysis of empirical material used the research “Monitoring the quality of life of the population of the Stavropol Territory” (2014. Comparative analysis of the data allows to suggest a narrowing of the labor market being accompanied by the outflow of labor, especially the young, and by the expansion of the share of pensioners. Detected trend is typical for economically underdeveloped areas. This creates a negative social well-being. However, the natural conditions in the Stavropol region are optimal for the development of agriculture and processing industry, which is especially important in the conditions of implementation of the policy of import substitution. The results confirm the low technological level of production in the economic region, the economic potential is insignificant. Social well-being of the labor community territory corresponds to national trends subsidized regions. This situation leads to the preservation of the investment unattractive edge, social and economic instability of the region, low labor activity of Stavropol region citizens. In the analyzed context must be entered in the policy of the regional authorities innovative mechanisms for socio-economic development of the region, must make the transition from the conservative version of social and economic development of the region in the moderately optimistic.

  14. The relationship between demographic variables and well-being of women in South African workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is important to investigate the determinants of well-being among working women. Given the unique demographic diversity within the South African context, differences in the experience of well-being among women are expected.Purpose: The study investigated the effects of age, race, marital status and educational status on psychological meaningfulness, life satisfaction, work–family conflict and social support of working women.Motivation: With the increase of women in the workplace, there is a need for knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the well-being of women. This study aims to investigate demographic variables as determinants of well-being among working women.Method: Cross-sectional surveys were used to gather data from a sample (n = 540 of women from various South African companies. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale (PMS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the WorkRole Conflict Scale and the Job Demands Resources Scale (JDRS were administered.Results: Significant relationships were found between life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement, respectively, and marital status. Higher levels of education showed significant relationships with life satisfaction and work-to-family conflict. Being white showed significant positive relationships with life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement. With regard to social support and psychological meaningfulness, race explained significant amounts of variance in psychological meaningfulness, as did age.Practical, managerial and methodological implications: The findings indicate that the experiences of well-being among women vary by age, race, marital status and educational status. It is therefore imperative that human resource practitioners appropriately measure these differences, accommodate them in policies through relevant supportive practices and also champion these practices for

  15. The relationship between leadership and physician well-being: a scoping review

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    Montgomery AJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Montgomery Department of Education and Social Policy, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: To date, research has established the individual and organizational factors that impair well-being. Thus, we are aware of the organizational “cogs and wheels” that drive well-being, and there is a sense that we can potentially utilize effective leadership to push and pull these in the appropriate directions. However, reviews of leadership in health care point to the lack of academic rigor and difficulty in reaching solid conclusions. Conversely, there is an accepted belief that the most important determinant of the development and maintenance of cultures is current – and future – leadership. Thus, leadership is assumed to be an important element of organizational functioning without the requisite evidence base. Medicine is a unique organizational environment in which the health of physicians may be a significant risk factor for inadequate patient safety and suboptimal care. Globally, physicians are reporting increasing levels of job burnout, especially among younger physicians in training. Not surprisingly, higher levels of physician burnout are associated with suboptimal care for patients and medical error, as well as maladaptive coping strategies among physicians that serve to exacerbate the former. This review is a scoping analysis of the existing literature to address the central question: is there a relationship between organizational leadership and physician well-being? The objectives of the review are as follows: 1 identify the degree to which physician health is under threat; 2 ­evaluate the evidence linking leadership with physician well-being; 3 identify alternative ways to approach the problem; and 4 outline avenues for future research. Finally, enhancing progress in the field is discussed in the contexts of theory, methodology, and impact. Keywords: leadership, physician well being, burnout, healthcare

  16. Basic Beliefs and Cultural Attitudes as Predictors of Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Urban and Rural Populations

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    Shamionov R.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses outcomes of a research on cultural attitudes and basic beliefs as predictors of psychological and emotional well-being in urban and rural populations. As it was revealed, beliefs contribute to the emotional and psychological well-being of both people living in urban and in rural areas. The rates of regression explaining the variations in psychological well-being by beliefs are higher in those living in rural areas, whereas the rates explaining emotional well-being are higher in urban population. The most significant predictor of the subjective well-being is one’s belief in the worth of his/her Self and in other people’s kindness. Also, of much importance for the well-being of those living in the cities (in contrast to the rural population is their belief in luck. The impact of cultural context on the psychological well-being is higher in the rural population, while its impact on their emotional well-being remains unclear. However, if the city represents the impact of vertical individualism, in the rural areas it is horizontal individualism and collectivism that play an important role in the prediction. Thus beliefs and cultural context to a greater extent account for the variations in the psychological well-being in the rural population than in the urban one. Inclusion in a social territorial community also predetermines the differences in the prediction of the emotional and psychological well-being.

  17. Recomposing consumption: defining necessities for sustainable and equitable well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  18. POVERTY, WELL-BEING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: OFFICIAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MEASURES IN POSTMODERN SOCIETIES

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    RALUCA I. IORGULESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and well-being are concepts that cannot be separated, and research on poverty is implicitly linked to welfare economics. Poverty, in the complex conditions of modern societies affected by financial and economic crises, requires a clear definition and measures as accurate as possible. The paper presents some issues related to official methods and techniques for estimating poverty. Three steps necessary for poverty measurement are introduced and, also, multidimensional and poverty dynamics analyses are highlighted as important issues for poverty eradication policies. Results on youth poverty dynamics, the duration and recurrence of poverty and the perpetuation of poverty in EU countries are presented. The concepts of poverty risk, as well as some results of the search for key factors influencing the likelihood of being at risk of poverty, is discussed. Traditionally the living standard of households is measured by income, but recently other tools for measuring well-being in the broader framework of postmodern societies have been developed. As examples are some experimental methods and techniques for estimating poverty introduced in the U.S. and the European Union. Also, in the context of discussions related to the design of policies for sustainable development, some aspects of well-being measures in ecological economics are presented.

  19. Love and emotional well-being in people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Benito; Ovejero, Anastasio; Morentin, Raquel

    2009-05-01

    Love has been a recurrent topic throughout history, and especially, literature. Moreover, there is generalized agreement about its relevance for health emotional well-being, and quality of life. This study was carried out with a sample of 376 persons with ID. The goals of the work were to analyze a theoretical model of love in people with intellectual disabilities by means of the methodology of structural equations, and to analyze their perception of love and of amorous relations with regard to other aspects such as amorous satisfaction, perceived satisfaction, absence of family interference, self-determination, and emotional well-being. The results revealed that (a) the construct under study has three factors: Commitment, stability, and idealization, Passion and physiological excitement, and Intimacy and romanticism; (b) the perception of love in this collective is, in general, idealized and affected by the context; and (c) self-determination and the lack of family interference are relevant variables to explain both love and emotional well-being.

  20. Work, malaise, and well-being in Spanish and Latin-American doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Paola; Blanch, Josep M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relations between the meanings of working and the levels of doctors work well-being in the context of their working conditions. METHOD The research combined the qualitative methodology of textual analysis and the quantitative one of correspondence factor analysis. A convenience, intentional, and stratified sample composed of 305 Spanish and Latin American doctors completed an extensive questionnaire on the topics of the research. RESULTS The general meaning of working for the group located in the quartile of malaise included perceptions of discomfort, frustration, and exhaustion. However, those showing higher levels of well-being, located on the opposite quartile, associated their working experience with good conditions and the development of their professional and personal competences. CONCLUSIONS The study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between contextual factors and the meanings of working for participants with higher levels of malaise, and of the importance granted both to intrinsic and extrinsic factors by those who scored highest on well-being. PMID:27191157

  1. Professionalism and Occupational Well-Being: Similarities and Differences Among Latin American Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina. Internal reliability was calculated. Gender and discipline were used as explanatory variables in comparison analysis. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine differences due to the main effects of the gender, and discipline, and to determine possible combined effects. Correlation analysis was performed to measure associations between collateral effects and age, and between collateral effects and professionalism. Results: A total of 353 (68%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. No differences were found among countries for collateral effects. Correlation analysis confirmed in physicians an inverse association between empathy and collateral effects (P = -0.16; p gender confirmed higher somatization in women physicians and nurses than in men groups (p stereotypes, play in the interaction between professionalism and occupational well-being. PMID:28179893

  2. Global identification predicts gay-male identity integration and well-being among Turkish gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Yasin; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2016-12-01

    In most parts of the world, hegemonic masculinity requires men to endorse traditional masculine ideals, one of which is rejection of homosexuality. Wherever hegemonic masculinity favours heterosexuality over homosexuality, gay males may feel under pressure to negotiate their conflicting male gender and gay sexual identities to maintain positive self-perceptions. However, globalization, as a source of intercultural interaction, might provide a beneficial context for people wishing to create alternative masculinities in the face of hegemonic masculinity. Hence, we tested if global identification would predict higher levels of gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being, via alternative masculinity representations for gay and male identities. A community sample of 219 gay and bisexual men from Turkey completed the study. Structural equation modelling revealed that global identification positively predicted gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being; however, alternative masculinity representations did not mediate this relationship. Our findings illustrate how identity categories in different domains can intersect and affect each other in complex ways. Moreover, we discuss mental health and well-being implications for gay men living in cultures where they experience high levels of prejudice and stigma. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Mental health, well-being, and poverty: A study in urban and rural communities in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Bárbara Barbosa; Cardoso, Antonio Alan Vieira; Ximenes, Verônica Morais; Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Leite, Jáder Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the relations between mental health and well-being in urban and rural contexts marked by poverty. The analysis takes as its basis a quantitative research conducted with 417 adult inhabitants of two communities, one rural and the other urban, in Northeastern Brazil. The data were constructed using questionnaires composed of sociodemographic data, the Personal Wellbeing Index and Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scales. We found significant differences between the inhabitants of the rural and urban communities regarding well-being and the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), with a higher average well-being score in the rural context; the urban sample had a higher average regarding the prevalence of CMD. The variable income significantly influenced the SRQ-20 average scores; the same was not observed with well-being scores. Besides, it was observed that there is a negative correlation with well-being and CMD.

  4. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers’ perception and actual well-being of volunteers [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Gitte Kragh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively, to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’ model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not

  5. Fostering Creativity in the Classroom for High Ability Students: Context Does Matter

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    Liang See Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have argued for the importance of the classroom context in developing students’ creative potential. However, the emphasis on a performative learning culture in the classroom does not favour creativity. Thus, how creative potential can be realised as one of the educational goals in the classrooms remains a key question. This study measured creativity across three secondary schools using the Wallach-Kogan Creative Thinking Test (WKCT. A total of 283 students enrolled in the Express programme and 290 students enrolled in the Integrated Programme (IP volunteered in the study. The same cohort of students took the 38-item WKCT twice; once at the beginning of Secondary One and then at the end of Secondary Three. Four aspects of creativity, namely fluency, flexibility, unusualness, and uniqueness, were investigated. Our analyses showed that (i IP students showed a greater increase in scores over time when compared to Express students; (ii when Programme and PSLE (Primary School Leaving Examination were used to predict creativity scores in a multiple regression, the predictive power of Programme increased from Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 while that of PSLE decreased; and (iii flexibility scores were more resistant to change than fluency scores. These findings suggest that the classroom context matters and that the removal of high-stakes examination can provide room for the development of creative potential.

  6. The Relationship among Subjective Well-being, Psychological Well-being and Social Well-being%主观幸福感、心理幸福感与社会幸福感的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩彬; 苗元江

    2012-01-01

    本研究以403名在校大学生为研究对象,探讨了主观幸福感、心理幸福感与社会幸福感之间的关系。结果表明:(1)主观幸福感、心理幸福感与社会幸福感三者之间在概念意蕴上相互独立,在个体体验上相互分离,但在理论结构上相互关联;(2)幸福感是一个多层次、多维度的结构,包括主观幸福感、心理幸福感和社会幸福感三个因素,该理论结构可以作为今后进一步研究的基础。%With 403 college students as the research objects, this artical discusses the relationship among subjective well-being, psychological well-being and social well-being. The results show that: (1) Subjec- tive well-being, psychological well-being and social well-being are independent in concept connotation, separated in the individual experience, but related in the theoretical structure; (2) Well-being is a multi- level and multi-dimensional structure, including three factors of subjective well-being, psychological well- being and social well-being, this theoretical structure can be used as the basis for the future study.

  7. Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecl, Gretta T; Araújo, Miguel B; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia; Bonebrake, Timothy C; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Evengård, Birgitta; Falconi, Lorena; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Jarzyna, Marta A; Jennings, Sarah; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif I; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; Mitchell, Nicola J; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Popova, Ekaterina; Robinson, Sharon A; Scheffers, Brett R; Shaw, Justine D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Sunday, Jennifer M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wernberg, Thomas; Wapstra, Erik; Williams, Stephen E

    2017-03-31

    Distributions of Earth's species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by human-mediated climate change. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond conservation of natural systems, how and why does this matter? We review evidence that climate-driven species redistribution at regional to global scales affects ecosystem functioning, human well-being, and the dynamics of climate change itself. Production of natural resources required for food security, patterns of disease transmission, and processes of carbon sequestration are all altered by changes in species distribution. Consideration of these effects of biodiversity redistribution is critical yet lacking in most mitigation and adaptation strategies, including the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. The relationship between materialism and personal well-being: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Bond, Rod; Hurst, Megan; Kasser, Tim

    2014-11-01

    This meta-analysis investigates the relationship between individuals' materialistic orientation and their personal well-being. Theoretical approaches in psychology agree that prioritizing money and associated aims is negatively associated with individuals' well-being but differ in their implications for whether this is invariably the case. To address these and other questions, we examined 753 effect sizes from 259 independent samples. Materialism was associated with significantly lower well-being for the most widely used, multifaceted measures (materialist values and beliefs, r = -.19, ρ = -.24; relative importance of materialist goals, r = -.16, ρ = -.21), more than for measures assessing emphasis on money alone (rs = -.08 to -.11, ρs = -.09 to -.14). The relationship also depended on type of well-being outcome, with largest effects for risky health and consumer behaviors and for negative self-appraisals (rs = -.28 to -.44, ρs = -.32 to -.53) and weakest effects for life satisfaction and negative affect (rs = -.13 to -.15, ρs = -.17 to -.18). Moderator analyses revealed that the strength of the effect depended on certain demographic factors (gender and age), on value context (study/work environments that support materialistic values and cultures that emphasize affective autonomy), and on cultural economic indicators (economic growth and wealth differentials). Mediation analyses suggested that the negative link may be explained by poor psychological need satisfaction. We discuss implications for the measurement of materialist values and the need for theoretical and empirical advances to explore underlying processes, which likely will require more experimental, longitudinal, and developmental research.

  9. Physician coaching to enhance well-being: a qualitative analysis of a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Suzanne; Kingsolver, Karen; Rosdahl, Jullia

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the United States increasingly confront stress, burnout, and other serious symptoms at an alarming level. As a result, there is growing public interest in the development of interventions that improve physician resiliency. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceived impact of Physician Well-being Coaching on physician stress and resiliency, as implemented in a major medical center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 physician-participants, and three coaches of a Physician Well-being Coaching pilot focused on three main areas: life context, impacts of coaching, and coaching process. Interviewees were physicians who completed between three and eight individual coaching sessions between October 2012 and May 2013 through the Physician Well-being Coaching pilot program. Qualitative content analysis of the 11 physician interviews and three coach interviews using Atlas.ti to generate patterns and themes. Physician Well-being Coaching helped participants increase resilience via skill and awareness development in the following three main areas: (1) boundary setting and prioritization, (2) self-compassion and self-care, and (3) self-awareness. These insights often led to behavior changes and were perceived by physicians to have indirect but positive impact on patient care. Devaluing self-care while prioritizing the care of others may be a significant, but unnecessary, source of burnout for physicians. This study suggests that coaching can potentially help physicians alter this pattern through skill development and increased self-awareness. It also suggests that by strengthening physician self-care, coaching can help to positively impact patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS: development and UK validation

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    Weich Scott

    2007-11-01

    with the results of other population surveys. Test-retest reliability at one week was high (0.83. Social desirability bias was lower or similar to that of other comparable scales. Conclusion WEMWBS is a measure of mental well-being focusing entirely on positive aspects of mental health. As a short and psychometrically robust scale, with no ceiling effects in a population sample, it offers promise as a tool for monitoring mental well-being at a population level. Whilst WEMWBS should appeal to those evaluating mental health promotion initiatives, it is important that the scale's sensitivity to change is established before it is recommended in this context.

  11. A comparative study on the health and well-being of adolescent immigrants in Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Hernando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The terms on which the integration of new generations of immigrants into Portuguese and Spanish societies happens will have a decisive influence in the future of both countries. Therefore, promoting their health, well-being, and psychosocial adaptation is a matter of strategic interest. This paper analyses psychosocial factors associated with well-being and psychological adjustment on a sample of 108 adolescents (55 males and 53 females, children of immigrants from Huelva (Spain and Algarve (Portugal, aged between 10 and 17 years. Adolescents were assessed for demographic characteristics and perceived well-being. We used the "KIDSCREEN-5", a self-report questionnaire that yields detailed profile information for children aged 8 to 18 years for the following ten dimensions: Physical well-being, Psychological well-being, Moods and emotions, Self-perception, Autonomy, Parental relationships and home life, Financial resources, Social support and peers, School environment, and Social acceptance (Bullying. Overall, significant differences were found between the Spanish and Portuguese samples on physical well-being, psychological well-being, mood, financial resources and social acceptance (bullying. Boys perceived themselves as having a better physical well-being than girls. Mothers' educational level was associated with psychological well-being and mood. Also, results suggested that residence location and other socio-demographical variables were not associated with the adolescents' well-being and psychological adjustment.

  12. Putting different price tags on the same health condition: re-evaluating the well-being valuation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; van den Berg, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Many recent writings in health policy have proposed that health be valued directly and in monetary terms using the new well-being valuation method. Yet there is no clear consensus on what the best measure of individual's experience may be for the evaluation process. To shed light on this issue, monetary values for a number of health problems are compared across different well-being measures within the same UK data set. We find that, whilst there is strong internal consistency of health impacts within each well-being measure, hugely different monetary valuations are obtained for the same health problem across different well-being measures. Our results, although should only viewed as illustrative, call for economists to rethink about which measure of well-being or experienced utility to be used in the well-being valuation method, should the approach ever be implemented in real policy contexts.

  13. Spirituality and psychological well-being: testing a theory of family interdependence among family caregivers and their elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Reed, Pamela G; Hayward, R David; Kang, Youngmi; Koenig, Harold G

    2011-04-01

    The family spirituality-psychological well-being model was developed and tested to explore how spirituality influences psychological well-being among elders and caregivers in the context of Korean family caregiving. The sample consisted of 157 Korean elder-family caregiver dyads in Seoul, Korea. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the actor-partner interdependence statistical model were used to analyze the data. There were significant correlations between elders' and caregivers' spirituality and between elders' and caregivers' psychological well-being. Elders' and caregivers' spirituality significantly influenced their own psychological well-being. The caregiver's spirituality significantly influenced the elder's psychological well-being, but the elder's spirituality did not significantly influence the caregiver's psychological well-being. Findings suggest that elders' and caregivers' spirituality should be assessed within the family to provide holistic nursing interventions.

  14. Review of 99 self-report measures for assessing well-being in adults: exploring dimensions of well-being and developments over time

    OpenAIRE

    Linton, Myles-Jay; Dieppe, Paul; Medina-Lara, Antonieta

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigators within many disciplines are using measures of well-being, but it is not always clear what they are measuring, or which instruments may best meet their objectives. The aims of this review were to: systematically identify well-being instruments, explore the variety of well-being dimensions within instruments and describe how the production of instruments has developed over time. Design Systematic searches, thematic analysis and narrative synthesis were undertaken. Data s...

  15. Providing Context for Ambient Particulate Matter and Estimates of Attributable Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O

    2016-09-01

    Four papers on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) by Anenberg et al., Fann et al., Shin et al., and Smith contribute to a growing body of literature on estimated epidemiological associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and increases in health responses relative to baseline notes. This article provides context for the four articles, including a historical review of provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1970, requiring the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants such as particulate matter (PM). The substantial improvements in both air quality for PM and population health as measured by decreased mortality rates are illustrated. The most recent revision of the NAAQS for PM2.5 in 2013 by the Environmental Protection Agency distinguished between (1) uncertainties in characterizing PM2.5 as having a causal association with various health endpoints, and as all-cause mortality, and (2) uncertainties in concentration--excess health response relationships at low ambient PM2.5 concentrations below the majority of annual concentrations studied in the United States in the past. In future reviews, and potential revisions, of the NAAQS for PM2.5 , it will be even more important to distinguish between uncertainties in (1) characterizing the causal associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes, such as all-source mortality, irrespective of the concentrations, (2) characterizing the potency of major constituents of PM2.5 , and (3) uncertainties in the association between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes at various ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The latter uncertainties are of special concern as ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health morbidity and mortality rates approach background or baseline rates.

  16. Psychological well-being, family relations, and developmental issues of children left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Giovanni G; Colombo, Chiara

    2012-12-01

    The phrase "children left behind" refers to minors who are left in their home country while one or both of their parents emigrate for work for at least six months. From a quantitative point of view, children left behind in countries with strong migratory pressure are many. Separation of families in migration is tied to implications about well-being of the people involved-mainly the children-and of the communities to which they belong. The emotional neglect felt by these children is associated with lack of affection and physical intimacy. Through a review of the literature, the purpose of this paper was to show that distress in this pattern of deprivation is manifested by the children in several ways and in different contexts: low school performance, drop-out from school, conflicts with teachers and peers, anxiety low self-esteem, tendency to feel depressed, apathy, suicidal behaviour, and substance abuse.

  17. Psychological well-being and social support among elders employed as lay helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammonley, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Impacts on lay helpers of participation in part-time work supporting rural elders with severe mental illness were explored in a group of 17 older adults employed in a demonstration project. Self-rated well-being and social support were assessed over 1 year. Ratings of autonomy and positive relations with others varied over 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of social support provided showed a trend toward improvement at 1 year. Results are considered in the context of role theory and illustrated with an ethnographic case study of the service environment. The lay helper role is a form of productive engagement through paid caregiving, with potential to supplement rural mental health service systems while supporting elders' needs for meaningful civic engagement.

  18. Light and color as biological stimuli for the well-being in space long duration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacht, I.; Masali, M.; Ferrino, M.

    Foreword In a microgravitational space environment the human biorhythm its sensory perception and all its psycho-physiological system comes completely upset by the absence of gravity and of external terrestrial references beyond the effects of constraint in a limited space This type of environment is defined extreme confined In order to create a human centered design in sight of missions of long duration We will have to consider above all these factors in order to try to increase the well-being the comfort and the productivity of the astronauts In this context we have elaborated a design concept that forecasts to resume the variety and the variability of the terrestrial stimuli through factors like the light and the color so as to recreate the input of the normal circadian cycle subsubsection Light and color and psycho-physiological well-being The human circadian rhythms day all around cycle of the organism s function are regulated by a sort of biological clock presumably localized in the hypothalamus The more obvious examples of this clock are the heartbeat the menstrual cycle the variation of the body temperature and the hormonal production during the day the behavior of plants and animals Those organism functions are influenced by the variation of the light around of the 24 hours The emission of an environmental light can restore sout s the earthly solar cycle irradiating the subject with the same frequency beams present on the Earth this irradiation should vary the intensity during the day like the

  19. Current opinion in clinical sport psychology: from athletic performance to psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zella E; Bonagura, Kehana

    2017-08-01

    Clinical sport psychology (CSP) is a contemporary, empirically informed model that employs a scope, style, and mode of practice built upon cutting-edge findings from both clinical and sport sciences, and that follows the sound methodological traditions of clinical psychology [1(••)]. Conceptualizing athletic performance and well-being through the context of empirical research in both athletic and nonathletic domains of functioning, CSP practice can involve the enhancement of athletic performance, and also the personal development and psychological well-being of performers. CSP intervention options expand (if desired) to include those currently considered to be outside of the purview of traditional sport psychology and within the domains of clinical/counseling psychology. Importantly, CSP does not imply that its practitioners must choose a population. CSPers can, if appropriate, assess and intervene with psychological disorders, performance dysfunction, and performance improvement, and/or can make appropriate referrals. Despite whether one personally addresses the variety of interpersonal, non-diagnosable, and clinical issues potentially presented, they must support a comprehensive, client-specific approach and engage in interventions based on sound evidence. Expanding practice boundaries, and with it one's roles and responsibilities, also results in expanded job opportunities. This scope highlights the clinical sport psychologist as the human behavior expert in the athletic milieu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is 'modern culture' bad for our health and well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Phil; Carlisle, Sandra

    2009-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that well-being in high-income societies may be static or in decline. One influential theory argues that this is because 'modern' societies are influenced by values of materialism, individualism and consumerism. Does this intellectual critique resonate with ordinary people? This article reports on interviews with purposefully selected groups in Scotland, where the relevance of the cultural critique was explored. Participants in the study believed that cultural values such as individualized consumerism do exert a damaging influence on well-being. They suggested that such values are given particular power in the context of widespread social change and increasing inequalities. Nevertheless, they also believed that individuals and communities possess the capacity to resist such trends. This article concludes that efforts to achieve material improvement for disadvantaged people may not suffice in redressing deep-seated inequalities, if the contribution of some subtle but pernicious effects of contemporary culture remains neglected. However, the research does suggest that positive responses are also possible.

  1. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  2. Subjective well-being and Citizenship dimensions according to individualism and collectivism beliefs among Polish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Zalewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research is to analyse pleasant (subjective well-being – SWB and meaningful life (Citizenship dimensions in the context of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism (HI, VI or Collectivism (HC, VC values (individual beliefs among adolescents living in the culture “in between individualism and collectivism”. Participants and procedure Second-year high (111 and secondary (98 school students filled in the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Questionnaire, the Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire, and SWB (Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with the Life Scale, Mood Questionnaire, Ladder of Need Scales. Participants were recruited in schools. Results Subjective well-being positively correlated with all Citizenship dimensions except Political Activity. All values predicted SWB, but higher VI predicted lower SWB and was not linked to Citizenship. Citizenship dimensions oriented to general good were predicted by Collectivism values, and those including personal benefits were predicted by HI and Collectivism values. Subjective well-being mediated relations between HC and Social Activity, and between HC, HI and Personal Activity. VC moderated relations between SWB and Passive as well as Semi-active Citizenship. Conclusions Among young Poles, pleasant life is linked with meaningful life. Individualism and Collectivism values are relatively independent, and their relations with SWB and Citizenship are complex. Higher Horizontal values facilitate the achievement of both pleasant and meaningful life, but higher VC can hinder the coherence between them. High SWB, engagement in Citizenship and links between them are required for attaining “authentic happiness” and living a truly full life; thus it is important to study variables that may influence them.

  3. Professionalism and Occupational Well-Being: Similarities and Differences Among Latin American Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina. Internal reliability was calculated. Gender and discipline were used as explanatory variables in comparison analysis. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine differences due to the main effects of the gender, and discipline, and to determine possible combined effects. Correlation analysis was performed to measure associations between collateral effects and age, and between collateral effects and professionalism. Results: A total of 353 (68%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. No differences were found among countries for collateral effects. Correlation analysis confirmed in physicians an inverse association between empathy and collateral effects (P = -0.16; p teamwork, and lifelong learning have in practitioners' health and welfare, and the role that cultural behaviors, associated to work professional models and social stereotypes, play in the interaction between professionalism and occupational well-being.

  4. The meaning of health and well-being: voices from older rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rue, M; Coulson, I

    2003-01-01

    The impact of geographical location on the maintenance of older rural women's health and well-being has been largely unexamined in the research literature. Contextual explanations of environmental impact on health status have been traditionally been assigned to a narrow picture of rural life which emphasized occupational health at the expense of sociological aspects. There have been many research programs about ageing Australian people in urban areas but few concerning the older rural population. Few clues can be found as to how their needs and expectations may differ from those of their urban counterparts. The size of Australia's older population is increasing and steadily becoming feminised. Approximately 37% of these older women live outside capital cities in rural and remote areas. For those planning services for this group of older women, the influence of the rural and remote social and physical context on health and well-being must be understood and considered. Data were collected in 2001 for this qualitative study from the five old (78-88 years), widowed rural women participants who had lived most of their lives on farms, by in-depth interviewing regarding life history, and by using personal document strategies. The life history research approach guided data collection, while thematic analysis was employed to avoid examining isolated themes. Social constructionism and socio-environmental theory of gerontology provided the philosophical boundaries to the central research question. While each informant's life history was unique, it was found that the informants' health and well-being were profoundly influenced by the geographical location of living on the land. This small study, which should be extended by a larger study, may be seen as a beginning step in defining health promotional activities, policy development and service programs for older rural women that are both person-centered and sensitive to their unique lifestyle.

  5. Walking for Well-Being: Are Group Walks in Certain Types of Natural Environments Better for Well-Being than Group Walks in Urban Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Warber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708 were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, depression (Major Depressive Inventory, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity.

  6. Working Nonstandard Schedules and Variable Shifts in Low-Income Families: Associations with Parental Psychological Well-Being, Family Functioning, and Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal data from the New Hope Project--an experimental evaluation of a work-based antipoverty program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin--was used to explore concurrent and lagged associations of nonstandard schedules and variable shifts with parental psychological well-being, regularity of family mealtimes, and child well-being among low-income…

  7. Subjective Well-Being and Social Capital in Belgian Communities. The Impact of Community Characteristics on Subjective Well-Being Indicators in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of individual and community level characteristics on subjective well-being in Belgium. Various indicators for subjective well-being are being used in a multilevel analysis of the 2009 SCIF survey (n = 2,080) and the 2006 Belgian ESS sample (n = 1,798). On the individual level, most hypotheses on the…

  8. Subjective Well-Being and Social Capital in Belgian Communities. The Impact of Community Characteristics on Subjective Well-Being Indicators in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of individual and community level characteristics on subjective well-being in Belgium. Various indicators for subjective well-being are being used in a multilevel analysis of the 2009 SCIF survey (n = 2,080) and the 2006 Belgian ESS sample (n = 1,798). On the individual level, most hypotheses on the…

  9. Are leaders' well-being, behaviours and style associated with the affective well-being of their employees? A systematic review of three decades of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm

    2010-01-01

    This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion.......g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees’ stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress...... and affective well-being. Leader behaviours, the relationship between leaders and their employees and specific leadership styles were all associated with employee stress and affective well-being. It is recommended that future studies include more qualitative data, use standardise questionnaires and examine...

  10. Well-being in wounds inventory (WOWI): development of a valid and reliable measure of well-being in patients with wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, D; Upton, P; Alexander, R

    2016-03-01

    Physical and psychosocial deficits have been reported in people living with chronic wounds. While the negative impact of these factors on an individual's quality of life (QoL) is well documented, there has been little research into the well-being of those living with chronic wounds, despite recent calls for increased attention to this related, yet distinct construct. This paper introduces the Well-being in Wounds Inventory (WOWI) and provides support for the WOWI as a valid and reliable measure of well-being in patients living with chronic wounds. A draft questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of individuals with chronic wounds (n=85) and the resulting data subject to factor analysis in order to refine the structure of the questionnaire. The reliability, validity and responsiveness of the resulting questionnaire were then tested by administration to a second sample of individuals with wounds (n=49). Socio-demographic data, issues affecting patient well-being and well-being factors, such as, emotions; perceived coping skills; social support; personal control; hope for the future, were measured. Results confirmed the WOWI as a reliable and valid measure of well-being. Items loaded onto two subscales, 'personal resources' and 'wound worries'. Analysis revealed the WOWI to be highly feasible measure of well-being, with good test-retest reliability and responsiveness to changes in health status. The current study highlights the importance of assessing well-being factors in individuals living with chronic wounds. It introduces the WOWI as a valid and reliable measure of well-being in chronic wound patients. The authors recommend health-care practitioners take account of well-being as part of a holistic treatment plan in order to maximise patient outcomes. This project was funded by Urgo Medical. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

  11. Thinking About One's Subjective Well-Being: Average Trends and Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-08-01

    In two studies, participants reported what they had been thinking about while completing measures of subjective well-being (SWB). These thought reports were analyzed with respect to life domain, valence, and how strongly they were related to actual levels of SWB. Most people focused on their life circumstances (e.g., career) rather than on dispositional predictors (e.g., personality) of SWB. The domains mentioned most frequently (career, family, romantic life) were also the ones that were most strongly related to actual SWB, indicating that most of people think about things that actually contribute to their SWB. Some domains are predominantly mentioned in positive contexts (e.g., family) whereas others are predominantly mentioned in negative contexts (e.g., money). On average, people thought more about positive than about negative things, a result that is magnified for respondents high in extraversion or emotional stability. In sum, these findings provide insight into what people think contributes to their SWB; beliefs that may guide them as they make important decisions.

  12. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Peral

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting.Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored.Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251.Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers.Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context.Contribution/value-add: This study

  13. Subjective Well-Being and Social Capital in Belgian Communities. The Impact of Community Characteristics on Subjective Well-Being Indicators in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of individual and community level characteristics on subjective well-being in Belgium. Various indicators for subjective well-being are being used in a multilevel analysis of the 2009 SCIF survey (n = 2,080) and the 2006 Belgian ESS sample (n = 1,798). On the individual level, most hypotheses on the determinants of subjective well-being were confirmed. Living with a partner and age were shown to have strong effects, but also social capital indicators...

  14. Cognitive deficits are a matter of emotional context: inflexible strategy use mediates context-specific learning impairments in OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Westermann, Stefan; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the interplay between cognitive deficits and emotional context in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP). Specifically, this study examines whether the inflexible use of efficient learning strategies in an emotional context underlies impairments in probabilistic classification learning (PCL) in OCD, and whether PCL impairments are specific to OCD. Twenty-three participants with OCD, 30 participants with SP and 30 healthy controls completed a neutral and an OCD-specific PCL task. OCD participants failed to adopt efficient learning strategies and showed fewer beneficial strategy switches than controls only in an OCD-specific context, but not in a neutral context. Additionally, OCD participants did not show any explicit memory impairments. Number of beneficial strategy switches in the OCD-specific task mediated the difference in PCL performance between OCD and control participants. Individuals with SP were impaired in both PCL tasks. In contrast to neuropsychological models postulating general cognitive impairments in OCD, the present findings suggest that it is the interaction between cognition and emotion that is impaired in OCD. Specifically, activated disorder-specific fears may impair the flexible adoption of efficient learning strategies and compromise otherwise unimpaired PCL. Impairments in PCL are not specific to OCD.

  15. Is Group Singing Special? Health, Well-Being and Social Bonds in Community-Based Adult Education Classes Group singing, well-being and social bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, E; Launay, J.; A. Machin; Dunbar, RIM

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (fo...

  16. The Earth Sciences, Human Well-Being, and the Reduction of Global Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Poverty is not solely a social or political matter, nor is it caused simply by population pressures as Thomas Malthus postulated in 1798. A new understanding of poverty is emerging in which natural and environmental drivers, together with social, political, and demographic causes, underpin livelihoods. The Earth sciences, therefore, play a critical role in identifying the deep causes of human suffering and in identifying solutions. The State of the Planet: Why Are So Many So Poor? For far too many, the state of human well-being is bleak. Around one in six human beings-1 billion people-live in extreme poverty, struggling to survive on less than $1 a day; another one sixth of humanity ekes out existence on $2 per day (U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2004; http://hdr.undp.org/2004/). The extreme poor lack all normal attributes of a decent, dignified life: adequate food, housing, sanitation, health care, education, and employment. Some 800 million people lack sufficient nourishment almost every day. It stunts their mental and physical development and shortens their lives, making them susceptible to common illnesses that attack their hunger-weakened bodies. Poor nutrition in mothers and infants is the leading cause of reduced disability-adjusted life years in poor countries [ Economist, 2004].

  17. Well-Being in a Globalized World: Does Social Work Know How to Make It Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Dorothy N.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ubiquitous uses of the term "well-being" in social work codes, values, and literature. It reviews international concepts of well-being as well as those within social work to consider a deeper exploration of the meanings of well-being. Dimensions of well-being that resonate with social work values include eliminating…

  18. The Association of Well-Being with Health Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Waterman, Alan S.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Vernon, Michael; Caraway, S. Jean; Kim, Su Yeong; Forthun, Larry F.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ham, Lindsay S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the associations of well-being with engagement in illicit drug use, sexual risk taking, and impaired driving in a sample of 9,515 students from 30 U.S. colleges and universities. Participants completed measures of subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and eudaimonic well-being, and indicated how many times…

  19. Lifelong Education for Subjective Well-Being: How Do Engagement and Active Citizenship Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the question: how can lifelong education contribute to subjective well-being by engaging learners and fostering active citizenship? The question arises due to the fact that governments in the western world have identified well-being as an important policy driver. Well-being research suggests that subjective well-being,…

  20. Promoting well-being through creativity: how arts and public health can learn from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Marsaili; Crane, Nikki; Ings, Richard; Taylor, Karen

    2013-01-01

    For many years, participatory arts projects have been observed to make a significant contribution to the health and well-being of local communities - only for beneficial outcomes to disappear without trace when short-term project funding runs out. At the same time, there has been mounting evidence, commissioned by both arts and health bodies, to show that creativity and the arts do indeed make a significant difference to people's health and well-being and to how they feel about, and interact with, their neighbours. What can be done to build on and develop the evidence base? Particularly in times of austerity, there is also a need to draw on that evidence to develop principles and recommendations for bodies wishing to commission, and artists wishing to lead, participatory or public art initiatives that are most likely to result in sustained benefit to local people and communities. This paper suggests ways in which arts and public health professionals can learn from each other and go on to work more effectively together and with local communities. The paper is based on a qualitative evaluation study of a wide-ranging and innovative initiative, Be Creative Be Well (part of a wider programme, Well London) that nurtured around 100 different small participatory arts projects across 20 of London's most disadvantaged areas. Through analysis of case studies and desk research, the paper presents a summary of what exactly the artist and the creative process bring to a community context and how that can best be supported by policy makers and funders.

  1. Sexual Health and Positive Subjective Well-Being in Partnered Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-07-01

    We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative, and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people. Using data from a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q) in Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexual behavior and function and then examined their link to SWB. Eudemonic SWB was measured using a revised 15-item version of the CASP-19, evaluative SWB using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and affective SWB using the 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Sexual behavior and function was best described by six classes among men and five classes among women. These ranged from high sexual desire, frequent partnered sexual activities, and few sexual problems (Class 1) to low sexual desire, infrequent/no sexual activity, and problems with sexual function (Class 5([women])/6([men])). Men and women who reported either infrequent/no sexual activity, or were sexually active but reported sexual problems, generally had lower SWB than those individuals identified in Class 1. Poorer SWB in men was more strongly associated with sexual function difficulties, whereas in women desire and frequency of partnered activities appeared more important in relation to SWB. Within the context of a partnered relationship continuing sexual desire, activity and functioning are associated with higher SWB, with distinctive patterns for women and men. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Teacher Perceptions of School Culture and Their Organizational Commitment and Well-Being in a Chinese School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Li, Yifei

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to analyze and validate the dimensions and specific features of a school culture in a Chinese context. A sample of 181 teachers from a Chinese primary and secondary school in Beijing participated in a survey that measures school organizational cultural characteristics and teacher organizational commitment and well-being as outcomes…

  3. Teacher Perceptions of School Culture and Their Organizational Commitment and Well-Being in a Chinese School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Li, Yifei

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to analyze and validate the dimensions and specific features of a school culture in a Chinese context. A sample of 181 teachers from a Chinese primary and secondary school in Beijing participated in a survey that measures school organizational cultural characteristics and teacher organizational commitment and well-being as outcomes…

  4. Emotional intelligence and spiritual well-being: implications for spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Audrey; Stewart, Julie G; DeNisco, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence spiritual well-being may improve nurses' spiritual caregiving. This study examined relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual well-being (SWB) in undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) relationships were found between managing emotion and spiritual well-being, and managing emotion and existential well-being. Implications for education and practice are discussed.

  5. PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING AS AN INDICATOR OF SOCIAL SECURITY OF PERSON AND SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2016-01-01

    Summarizes theoretical approaches to the definition of psychosocial well-being. It shows the relationship of psychosocial well-being, social tension, social security and social health. As the methodology of research used the environmental approach. Actualized the problem of psychosocial well-being of students in modern conditions. It shows the results of the study of subjective well-being of the students using the technique of «Scale of subjective well-being» (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelssohn and...

  6. From "one medicine" to "one health" and systemic approaches to health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, J; Schelling, E; Waltner-Toews, D; Tanner, M

    2011-09-01

    Faced with complex patterns of global change, the inextricable interconnection of humans, pet animals, livestock and wildlife and their social and ecological environment is evident and requires integrated approaches to human and animal health and their respective social and environmental contexts. The history of integrative thinking of human and animal health is briefly reviewed from early historical times, to the foundation of universities in Europe, up to the beginning of comparative medicine at the end of the 19th century. In the 20th century, Calvin Schwabe coined the concept of "one medicine". It recognises that there is no difference of paradigm between human and veterinary medicine and both disciplines can contribute to the development of each other. Considering a broader approach to health and well-being of societies, the original concept of "one medicine" was extended to "one health" through practical implementations and careful validations in different settings. Given the global health thinking in recent decades, ecosystem approaches to health have emerged. Based on complex ecological thinking that goes beyond humans and animals, these approaches consider inextricable linkages between ecosystems and health, known as "ecosystem health". Despite these integrative conceptual and methodological developments, large portions of human and animal health thinking and actions still remain in separate disciplinary silos. Evidence for added value of a coherent application of "one health" compared to separated sectorial thinking is, however, now growing. Integrative thinking is increasingly being considered in academic curricula, clinical practice, ministries of health and livestock/agriculture and international organizations. Challenges remain, focusing around key questions such as how does "one health" evolve and what are the elements of a modern theory of health? The close interdependence of humans and animals in their social and ecological context relates to the

  7. Religiosity and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours in Malaysian Muslims: The Mediating Role of Subjective Well-Being and Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Swan Ee; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah; Golden, Karen Jennifer

    2017-06-24

    Past research on healthy lifestyle behaviours has been primarily conducted within Western or Judeo-Christian contexts, while non-Western or Muslim contexts remain under-represented. This study examined predictors of healthy lifestyle behaviours (religiosity, goal-setting, impulse control, and subjective well-being) in Malaysian Muslims and explored the mechanisms underlying the relationship between religiosity and healthy lifestyle behaviours. Self-report survey responses from 183 healthy adults (M age = 28.63 years, 18-50 years) were analysed using regression and multiple mediation analyses. The results indicated that subjective well-being emerged as the strongest predictor, followed by goal-setting. Furthermore, subjective well-being and goal-setting mediated the religiosity-healthy lifestyle behaviour relationship. The findings provide guidance for future health-promoting interventions.

  8. Psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors in Brazil and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice Vilas Boas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domain?”. This paper assesses psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors working in these two countries and test for their differences. The sample consists of 354 Brazilian professors and 317 Canadian professors. Data were collected through an on-line questionnaire assessing the following mental health indicators: anxiety, depression, loss of control, general positive affect and emotional ties. We compared the components of psychological distress and psychological well-being to analyse their relations. Additionally, we compared these components with work-life balance indicator. Reliability analyses demonstrated that all tested components are consistent to evaluate mental health. There are small mean differences between Brazilian and Canadian professors in all five components of mental health, but these differences are not statistically significant. Mean differences for work-life balance, gender, age, and bias of conformity are statistically different, although the size effects are small. Linear regression analysis, step by step, controlled for life events, showed that general positive affect, anxiety and emotional ties predict 31.5% of the scores of work-life balance. Additionally, we observed that Brazilian professors find more balance between professional and private life than do their Canadian colleagues. Promoting mental health is a challenge for public management sector, thus, public managers and governmental organizations can

  9. Self-esteem and social well-being of children with cochlear implant compared to normal-hearing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Gudman, M.

    2008-01-01

    -hearing children (NH). Parental questionnaires, used in a national survey assessing the self-esteem and well-being of normal-hearing children, were applied to the cochlear implanted group, in order to allow direct comparisons. Results: The children in the CI group rated significantly higher on questions about well...... overall self-esteem or number of friends. The two groups of children scored similarly on being confident, independent, social, not worried and happy. Conclusion: Children with cochlear implant score equal to or better than their normal-hearing peers on matters of self-esteem and social well-being. (C...

  10. Consultation and remediation in the north: meeting international commitments to safeguard health and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Banfield

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . International commitments exist for the safeguarding of health and the prevention of ill health. One of the earliest commitments is the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978, which provides 5 principles guiding primary health care: equity, community participation, health promotion, intersectoral collaboration and appropriate technology. These broadly applicable international commitments are premised on the World Health Organization's multifaceted definition of health. The environment is one sector in which these commitments to safeguarding health can be applied. Giant Mine, a contaminated former gold mine in the Northwest Territories, Canada, represents potential threats to all aspects of health. Strategies for managing such threats usually involve an obligation to engage the affected communities through consultation. Objective . To examine the remediation and consultation process associated with Giant Mine within the context of commitments to safeguard health and well-being through adapting and applying the principles of primary health care. Methods . Semi-structured interviews with purposively selected key informants representing government proponents and community members were conducted. Results . In reviewing themes which emerged from a series of interviews exploring the community consultation process for the remediation of Giant Mine, the principles guiding primary health were mapped to consultation in the North: (a “equity” is the capacity to fairly and meaningfully participate in the consultation; (b “community participation” is the right to engage in the process through reciprocal dialogue; (c “health promotion” represents the need for continued information sharing towards awareness; (d “intersectoral collaboration” signifies the importance of including all stakeholders; and (e “appropriate technology” is the need to employ the best remediation actions relevant to the site and the community. Conclusions . Within

  11. Exploring Subjective Well-being in Older Age by Using Participant-generated Word Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Linden; Steverink, Nardi; Hutter, Inge; Meijering, Louise

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has overlooked the heterogeneity in older adults' personal conceptions of subjective well-being (SWB), by not taking into account intradomain differences in the conceptions of SWB for different groups of older adults. The aim of this article is therefore to explore (a) older adults' own views on which aspects, categorized under domains, are important to their SWB and (b) which domains and aspects are important to older adults in different contexts and with different characteristics: to men and women, of different ages, and in different housing arrangements. Sixty-six older adults (aged 65 and older) participated in our study. We asked the participants to freely nominate aspects of SWB that are important to them, using participant-generated word clouds as our exploratory, qualitative data collection method. The data were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. We found 15 domains based on our participants' conceptions of SWB. The multidimensional domains of social life, activities, health, and space and place were most important to our participants. The domains and aspects were defined and prioritized differently by different groups of participants. SWB should be studied as a multidimensional, individualized, and contextualized process to generate meaningful empirical information for researchers and policymakers.

  12. Becoming invisible: The effect of triangulation on children's well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Lakus, Katarzyna; Cahart, Marie-Stephanie; McKenzie, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    The study explored children's experience of triangulation in their families. In all, 15 children aged 11-16 years, who were attending an early intervention family therapy service, participated in the study. The children's understandings and emotional experience of triangulation were explored by comparing their responses to pictures from the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT) and a set of pictures designed for the study depicting a variety of triangulation conflicts in families. An interview regarding the children's personal family experiences of triangulation was also undertaken and clinical information about the children's family contexts was also utilised. Statistical analysis was conducted based on eight of children for whom a full data set was available. This indicated that children showed greater levels of anxiety in response to the triangulation as opposed to the separation scenarios. Qualitative analysis supported this finding and revealed that many of the children felt 'invisible' due to parents' pre-occupation with marital conflict, felt caught in the middle of conflicts and coerced to take sides. Although able to describe their reactions and showing greater negative emotional responses to the triadic pictures, they were not consciously aware of the negative impacts of triangulation on their sense of well-being. Clinical implications are discussed with a focus on encouraging child-centred approaches to family therapy.

  13. The CDC Foundation's Health and Well-Being for All Meeting-in-a-Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pember, Sarah E

    2017-09-01

    The conditions in which people live, work, play, and age-the social determinants of health (SDOH)-have an impact on their health outcomes and behavior, sense of security, and patterns of community engagement. To encourage training and education related to the health effects of the SDOH, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foundation created the Health and Well-Being for All meeting-in-a-box resource. This online resource acts as a guide for group collaboration and education related to understanding SDOH effects on health and practicing methods for addressing those effects at the community level, and can be used with a variety of groups, including community coalitions, health education students, and medical professionals. Three case study-based modules-asthma, obesity, and gang violence-lead participants through a six-step process of activities that address the SDOH in context, identifies opportunities and threats, and provides practice in developing collaborations and enacting change in the community. Despite some potential limitations with length and group dynamics, the experience of evaluating a health condition through the lens of the SDOH can encourage holistic views of health and increase attention to the upstream causes of negative health outcomes.

  14. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda eSteinmayr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB, research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is however still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57 completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of one year. Grade Point Average (GPA indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction. Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  15. Caring teaching practices in multiethnic mathematics classrooms: attending to health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Robin

    2012-06-01

    Factors that contribute to strong teacher-student relationships are vital to understand because of the influence these relationships have on achievement and motivation, particularly for minority group students. This article draws from a substantial quantity of empirical data, grounded in a wide theoretical and cultural base, regarding aspects of caring teacher practice to discuss mathematics teacher behaviours in relation to an existing model of health and well-being that encompasses cognitive, social, spiritual, and physical dimensions. Drawing from 100 Year 10 mathematics lesson observations involving six teachers and their classes across three urban schools, evidence emerged that for many indigenous (Māori), New Zealand Pacific, and New Zealand European students, caring teacher behaviours important for student engagement and achievement both include, and range beyond, traditional teaching practices. Examples include capitalising on student reactions and shared endeavours within the context of mathematics learning, expecting mathematical progress, showing respect for students and for their mathematics learning, being explicit about practice and expectations, incorporating one-to-one interactions, making opportunities within mathematics learning for sharing personal identities, and incorporating movement. This research illustrates how mathematics educators can attend to the specific and holistic mathematical learning needs of their students, including those often marginalised.

  16. Nonformal Learning and Well-Being among Older Adults: Links between Participation in Swedish Study Circles, Feelings of Well-Being and Social Aspects of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, Pelle

    2016-01-01

    How does participation in nonformal learning influence the self-perceived well-being among older adults? This article looks into that issue through a study of people aged 65 years or older who have participated in Swedish study circles. The data analyzed consists of a nation-wide survey of study circle participants. The results show that there are…

  17. Working on Well-Being: Researchers' Experiences of a Participative Approach to Understanding the Subjective Well-Being of Disabled Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Bryony

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the experiences of working with a group of disabled young people over a 12-month period, during which perspectives of subjective well-being were explored. Methodological experiences, and particularly strategies which facilitated accessing young people's views, are described. The paper then moves on to focusing on the challenges…

  18. Iranian and Swedish adolescents: differences in personality traits and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N.E. Kjell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011 in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose.Methods. Iranian (N = 122, mean age 15.23 years and Swedish (N = 109, mean age 16.69 years adolescents were asked to fill out a Big Five personality test, as well as questionnaires assessing subjective well-being and psychological well-being.Results. Swedes reported higher subjective and psychological well-being, while Iranians reported higher degree of Agreeableness, Openness and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Extraversion did not differ between cultures. Neuroticism was related to well-being within both cultures. Openness was related to well-being only among Iranians, and Extraversion only among Swedes. A mediation analysis within the Swedish sample, the only sample meeting statistical criteria for mediation analysis to be conducted, demonstrated that psychological well-being mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and subjective well-being as well as between Extraversion and subjective well-being.Conclusions. Certain personality traits, such as Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, relate differently to well-being measures across cultures. Meanwhile, Neuroticism seems to relate similarly across cultures at least with regard to subjective well-being. Furthermore, the results give an indication on how psychological well-being might mediate the relationship between certain personality traits and subjective well-being. Overall, the complexity of the results illustrates the need for more research whilst supporting the importance of contextualizing well-being

  19. Associations Among Individuals' Perceptions of Future Time, Individual Resources, and Subjective Well-Being in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of future time are of key interest to aging research because of their implications for subjective well-being. Interestingly, perceptions about future time are only moderately associated with age when looking at the second half of life, pointing to a vast heterogeneity in future time perceptions among older adults. We examine associations between future time perceptions, age, and subjective well-being across two studies, including moderations by individual resources. Using data from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; Mage = 85 years), we link one operationalization (subjective nearness to death) and age to subjective well-being. Using Health and Retirement Study data (N = 2,596; Mage = 77 years), we examine associations of another future time perception indicator (subjective future life expectancy) and age with subjective well-being. Consistent across studies, perceptions of limited time left were associated with poorer subjective well-being (lower life satisfaction and positive affect; more negative affect and depressive symptoms). Importantly, individual resources moderated future time perception-subjective well-being associations with those of better health exhibiting reduced future time perception-subjective well-being associations. We discuss our findings in the context of the Model of Strength and Vulnerability Integration.

  20. The Six Dimensions of Child Welfare Employees' Occupational Well-Being

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreas Baldschun

    2014-01-01

    ... the complexity of well-being in child welfare professions. The model presented here is based on an analysis of theoretical concepts and empirical studies addressing child welfare workers' mental distress and well-being...

  1. The effect of the Tomatis Method on the psychological well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the Tomatis Method on the psychological well-being and piano ... Since features inherent in student pianists' training may contribute to psychological ... enhance psychological well-being, academic functioning and possibly music ...

  2. The Development of a Human Well-Being Index for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a human well-being index (HWBI) that assesses the over-all well-being of its population at the county level. The HWBI contains eight domains and represents social, economic and environmental well-being. These domains inc...

  3. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  4. Quality of life considered as well-being: views from philosophy and palliative care practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, G.J.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The main measure of quality of life is well-being. The aim of this article is to compare insights about well-being from contemporary philosophy with the practice-related opinions of palliative care professionals. In the first part of the paper two philosophical theories on well-being are introduced:

  5. Volunteering and Psychological Well-Being among Young-Old Adults: How Much Is Too Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Timothy D.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Rodgers, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Research concerned with the relationship between volunteer activity and psychological well-being has typically reported higher levels of well-being among older adult volunteers relative to nonvolunteers. However, few studies have examined nonlinear associations between frequency of volunteer activity and well-being. We examined nonlinear…

  6. Occupational Well-Being of School Staff Members: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, Terhi; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Vertio, Harri

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a theoretical basis for the promotion of school staff's occupational well-being. The "Content Model for the Promotion of School Community Staff's Occupational Well-being" describes the four aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being ("working conditions", "worker and work", "working community" and "professional…

  7. Parents' Risk and Protective Factors as Predictors of Parental Well-Being and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voydanoff, Patricia; Donnelly, Brenda W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines a model in which protective factors are expected to reduce the impact of economic, family, and community risk factors on parental well-being. Marital happiness and perceived school environment are positively related to parental well-being. Parental well-being, marital happiness, and parents' community resources show modest positive…

  8. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  9. The Relative Importance of Psychological Acceptance and Emotional Intelligence to Workplace Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma J.; Bond, Frank W.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job…

  10. Existential Well-Being as a Factor in the Adjustment of Adults Sexually Abused as Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie; Middleton, Kenneth C.; Hilton, Gil H.

    2003-01-01

    Study seeks to determine if existential well-being has a positive impact on survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Findings reveal that severity of abuse was associated with the level of existential well-being present in the survivor. The relationship between abuse and existential well-being is unclear. (Contains 23 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  11. Multiple Roles and Well-Being: A Study of Mothers of Preschool Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Rosalind C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of well-being to involvement in multiple roles for 134 Caucasian women who were married and mothers; 50 were also paid workers. Two indices of well-being were used, self-esteem and satisfaction with one's current role pattern. No differences in level of well-being were found. (Author/JAC)

  12. Subjective and Occupational Well-Being in a Sample of Mexican Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Francisco Diaz; Gonzalez, Maria Julia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the well-being of workers, observing that subjective and occupational well-being are interrelated but independent dimensions and analyzing their interaction with their modulating factors. Specifically, the relationships between well-being and personal value structures are examined, hypothesizing that congruence between…

  13. Self-esteem and social well-being of children with cochlear implant compared to normal-hearing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Gudman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to make a quantitative comparison of parameters of self-esteem and social well-being between children with cochlear implants and normal-hearing children. Material and methods: Data were obtained from 164 children with cochlear implant (CI) and 2169 normal......-hearing children (NH). Parental questionnaires, used in a national survey assessing the self-esteem and well-being of normal-hearing children, were applied to the cochlear implanted group, in order to allow direct comparisons. Results: The children in the CI group rated significantly higher on questions about well...... overall self-esteem or number of friends. The two groups of children scored similarly on being confident, independent, social, not worried and happy. Conclusion: Children with cochlear implant score equal to or better than their normal-hearing peers on matters of self-esteem and social well-being. (C...

  14. Neo-Industrialization of Russian Economy as a Source of Social Well-Being Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Klemasheva, Elena Igorevna; Gasanov, Magerram Ali Ogly; Zeremskaya, Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    2016-01-01

    The subject of well-being is an essential one for every society. Nowadays, a lot of scientific researchers have been doing to understand the concept of well-being, to find perfect conditions for individual social well-being and to outline the perfect design and content of well-being. Thus, the key economic goal of a modern society is a social well-being of its population. The concept “social well-being” is examined in different scientific fields, but there is no one unique definition for this...

  15. Socio-economic, psychological and ecological aspects of lifelong well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Baryshev Aleksey A.; Irina Kashchuk

    2016-01-01

    Modern state strategies and development programs of the society are aimed at the improvement of the population quality of life and its well-being. Well-being and ageing of population have become the important theme in the global science. However, there is no separate science or field of knowledge which studies well-being of people and society. This is because of unclear definition of well-being. There is no unique research approach and importance value of well-being for people and society on ...

  16. Feeling good and doing great: the relationship between psychological capital and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Satoris S; Fullagar, Clive J; Mills, Maura J

    2010-10-01

    This study seeks to determine the relationship between psychological capital and an employee's eudaimonic and hedonic well-being. Panel data were collected from 102 extension agents over a 2-week interval. In addition, daily surveys were collected from 67 of the participants. Results from the panel data indicated that the relation between psychological capital and hedonic well-being, measured two weeks later, is mediated by eudaimonic well-being. Results from the daily surveys found that daily eudaimonic work well-being was significantly associated with both daily positive mood and daily life satisfaction and that variance in eudaimonic work well-being was predicted by one's psychological capital.

  17. Positive mental health and well-being among a third level student population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS.

  18. Is well-being associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian; Iversen, Helle K.;

    2011-01-01

    stroke patients were invited to complete The WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) and a LUTS instrument, the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire. Of 519 stroke patients invited, 482 subjects were eligible and 407 (84%) respondents answered the questionnaires. Results. Poor well-being......Objective. This study aimed to assess self-reported well-being in a clinical sample of stroke patients and to identify possible associations with prevalence, severity and bother of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, clinical survey was initiated whereby...... (sum score well-being was significantly (p well-being was significantly (p...

  19. Original article Entitlement and subjective well-being: a three-nations study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB: hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological. Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998 and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300. To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF. Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.

  20. Socio-economic, psychological and ecological aspects of lifelong well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baryshev Aleksey A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern state strategies and development programs of the society are aimed at the improvement of the population quality of life and its well-being. Well-being and ageing of population have become the important theme in the global science. However, there is no separate science or field of knowledge which studies well-being of people and society. This is because of unclear definition of well-being. There is no unique research approach and importance value of well-being for people and society on the whole. The article deals with a new term «common well-being» through indicators of four main aspects: economic, social, psychological and ecological. An indicator system of common well-being for modern people was develop ed based on two approaches: objective and subjective.