WorldWideScience

Sample records for welfare techno system

  1. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a welfare techno-system; 1998 nendo welfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Sapporo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The surveys and studies having been performed in the present fiscal year are as follows: (1) in the surveys and studies on self-reliant and at-home care-taking for elderly people living in residential houses, using biological information of snowy and cold districts as the parameters, (a) effect of changing the attitude in two-step ascent and descent motions was studied, (b) stair ascent and descent motions were analyzed, (c) standing-up motion using a sitting position handrail was analyzed, and (d) stride-over motion patterns and hip joint movements were experimented; (2) in the studies of a living environment system to support self-reliant way of living of elderly and physically handicapped people in snowy and cold districts, studies were made on (a) shapes of entrance and exit spaces of a residential house, and features of moving motions of elderly and physically handicapped people, (b) living activity patterns and pleasantness centering around the living section in the house of the at-home elderly people, (c) forms of approach spaces for independent residential houses that consider snow disposal: (3) in development and improvement of care-taking devices with importance placed on physical and psychological adapting function of the users and harmony with the users, studies were given on (a) noise characteristics of rooms in which at-home welfare devices are installed, (b) colors and recognizability of switches on welfare devices for elderly persons, (c) drive experiments of moving devices in winter, and (d) motion simulation of ridable devices; and studies were made on (4) moving and riding welfare device systems for elderly and physically handicapped people in snowy and cold districts, and (5) user interface of motor-driven wheelchairs. (NEDO)

  2. E-healthcare at an experimental welfare techno house in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Kawarada, Atsushi; Nambu, Masayuki; Tsukada, Akira; Sasaki, Kazuo; Yamakoshi, Ken-Ichi

    2007-01-01

    An automated monitoring system for home health care has been designed for an experimental house in Japan called the Welfare Techno House (WTH). Automated electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements can be taken while in bed, in the bathtub, and on the toilet, without the subject's awareness, and without using body surface electrodes. In order to evaluate this automated health monitoring system, overnight measurements were performed to monitor health status during the daily lives of both young and elderly subjects.

  3. Techno-Anthropological Ethics and Health Information Systems Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsen, Tom; Danborg, Pia Brandt

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important Techno-Anthropological intellectual virtues is the ability to make contextualized ethical judgments of new and emerging technologies. This Techno-Anthropological core competence is especially relevant in Health Information Systems Technologies, which is a field characterized by inherent ethical dilemmas such as the pros and cons of regulation of research databases with sensitive information, or storing and application of tissue and blood samples. In this paper we present a method to make 'proper and quick' ethical estimates in Health Information. The method guides its user to make ethical judgments by splitting the judgment process into four steps: (1) Identification of intended beneficial consequences, potential misuse, unintended side effects and long-term consequences for culture and society. (2) Linkage of intended consequences, misuse, side effects and cultural implications to appropriate ethical values. (3) Identification of ethical dilemmas related to a specific use of the Health Information Systems Technology under assessment. (4) Formulation of appropriate technological and institution design criteria that can transcend the identified ethical dilemmas. The methodology will be applied to a the discussions at a hearing on ethical challenges accompanying research involving health data organized by the Danish Council of Ethics and the case of risk reducing breast cancer surgery based on diagnosed genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

  4. Autopoiesis of the techno-social systems as a factor of social risks proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D E Orlov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of the unpredictable proliferation and complication of techno-social systems (such as Internet and financial markets. The authors try to explicate the social risks generated by these systems with the theoretical resources of the system theory of communication (N. Luhmann, which is based on the concepts of ‘recursion’, ‘process’ (‘operation’, ‘operationally closed system’, ‘autopoiesis’, etc. The authors believe that the autopoietic system response to external stimuli cannot be predicted by classical means of sociology and cybernetics. Turbulence and continuous complication of techno-social objects let the authors suggest that the dynamics of the systems under consideration contains some features of autopoiesis. Thus, the analysis of the financial market as a complex techno-social object based on the ideas of G. Akerlof (theory of irrational economic behavior and K. Knorr Cetina (object-centric sociology allows to better understand the phenomenon of unpredictable market dynamics (the risk of proliferation of market expectations, inability to capture the control level by any of the participants, etc. The authors believe that such a conceptualization helps to bring together sociological practices of the techno-social objects research and perspective methods of applied mathematics (fractal geometry, theory of reflexive relations, ‘soft’ models, etc., as well as contributes to the search of effective tools for modeling complex techno-social objects, and, thus, social risks accompanying them.

  5. Retro-Techno-Economic Analysis: Using (Bio)Process Systems Engineering Tools to Attain Process Target Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Felipe F.; Costa, Caliane B B; Secchi, Argimiro R.

    2016-01-01

    Economic analysis, allied to process systems engineering tools, can provide useful insights about process techno-economic feasibility. More interestingly, rather than being used to evaluate specific process conditions, this techno-economic analysis can be turned upside down to achieve target valu...

  6. Animal Welfare in organic framing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to or

  7. The Struggle for Recognition: Embracing the Islamic Welfare Effort in Indonesian Welfare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirojudin Abbas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the struggle of Indonesian Muslims to integrate Islam welfare programs into the statutory social welfare policy and provisions in Indonesia. Indonesia Muslims have gone through a long process of political struggle and negotiation to be able to embrace religious based social welfare programs as one element of a pluralistic social welfare system. The enactment of Law number 38/1999 on zakat administration and its utilization of Islamic welfare purposes signifies the formal accomodation of Islamic welfare effort into social welfare policies in Indonesia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v12i1.645

  8. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  9. Techno-economic analysis of bioenergy systems; Bioenergiasysteemien teknistaloudellinen analyysi. IEA Bioenergy Agreement Techno-economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels. To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on techno-economic basis to establish future development needs. To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The

  11. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The prototy

  12. TechnoGIN3: a generic tool for analysing cropping systems : Application of prototype for West-African conditions within the VINVAL project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Ponsioen, T.C.; Hengsdijk, H.

    2004-01-01

    TechnoGIN-3 has been developed for quantifying inputs and outputs of main current and future-oriented production activities (i.e. cropping systems) in regions in the Philippines, P.R. China and Vietnam. TechnoGIN stands for Technical coefficient generator for Ilocos Norte province, Philippines, as i

  13. Assessing the techno-economics of modular hybrid solar thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Han; Chinnici, Alfonso; Dally, Bassam; Nathan, Graham

    2017-06-01

    A techno-economic assessment was performed on modular hybrid solar thermal (in particular, solar power tower) systems with combustion from natural gas as backup to provide a continuous supply of electricity. Two different configurations were compared, i.e. a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device, and a Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH), which is a reference hybrid solar thermal system with a standalone solar-only cavity receiver and a backup boiler. The techno-economic benefits were assessed by varying the size of the modular components, i.e. the heliostat field and the solar receivers. It was found that for modularization to be cost effective requires more than the increased learning from higher production of a larger number of smaller units, such as access to alternative, lower-cost manufacturing methods and/or the use of a low melting point Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) such as sodium to reduce parasitic losses. In particular, for a plant with 30 units of 1MWth modules, the Levelized Cost of Electricity is competitive compared with a single unit of 30MWth after ˜100 plants are installed for both the HSRC and SGH if the systems employ the use of sodium as the heat transfer fluid.

  14. Techno-economic Appraisal of Concentrating Solar Power Systems (CSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Gasti, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of Concentrating Solar Power Systems (CSP) systems is currently taking place at a much slower pace than photovoltaic (PV) power systems. This is mainly because of the higher present cost of the solar thermal power plants, but also for the time that is needed in order to build them. Though economic attractiveness of different Concentrating technologies varies, still PV power dominates the market. The price of CSP is expected to drop significantly in the near future and wide sprea...

  15. Techno-economic optimisation of energy systems; Contribution a l'optimisation technico-economique de systemes energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla Pellen, Ch

    2006-07-15

    The traditional approach currently used to assess the economic interest of energy systems is based on a defined flow-sheet. Some studies have shown that the flow-sheets corresponding to the best thermodynamic efficiencies do not necessarily lead to the best production costs. A method called techno-economic optimisation was proposed. This method aims at minimising the production cost of a given energy system, including both investment and operating costs. It was implemented using genetic algorithms. This approach was compared to the heat integration method on two different examples, thus validating its interest. Techno-economic optimisation was then applied to different energy systems dealing with hydrogen as well as electricity production. (author)

  16. Techno-economic prospects for CO2 capture from distributed energy systems, , 19(March 2013), 2013, pp. 328-347

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838683; Ramirez, C.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2013-01-01

    CO2 emissions from distributed energy systems are expected to become increasingly significant, accounting for about 20% for current global energy-related CO2 emissions in 2030. This article reviews, assesses and compares the techno-economic performance of CO2 capture from distributed energy systems

  17. Techno-Economic Modeling and Analysis of Redox Flow Battery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Noack

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic model was developed to investigate the influence of components on the system costs of redox flow batteries. Sensitivity analyses were carried out based on an example of a 10 kW/120 kWh vanadium redox flow battery system, and the costs of the individual components were analyzed. Particular consideration was given to the influence of the material costs and resistances of bipolar plates and energy storage media as well as voltages and electric currents. Based on the developed model, it was possible to formulate statements about the targeted optimization of a developed non-commercial vanadium redox flow battery system and general aspects for future developments of redox flow batteries.

  18. Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

    2011-05-01

    This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex

  19. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  20. Feasibility Study and Techno-Economic Optimization Model for Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the feasibility of employing a battery thermal management system (BTMS) in different applications based on a techno economic analysis considering the battery lifetime and application profile, i.e. current requirement. The preliminary objective is to set the decision criteria....... Hence, the objective of this paper is to develop and detail the method of the feasibility for commissioning BTMS called “The decision tool frame-work” (DTF) and to investigate its sensitivity to major factors (e.g. lifetime and application requirement) which are well-known to influence the battery pack...... conditions. The results provide insight into the feasibility and the required specifi-cation and configuration of a BTMS....

  1. Feasibility Study and Techno-Economic Optimization Model for Battery Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the feasibility of employing a battery thermal management system (BTMS) in different applications based on a techno economic analysis considering the battery lifetime and application profile, i.e. current requirement. The preliminary objective is to set the decision criteria....... Hence, the objective of this paper is to develop and detail the method of the feasibility for commissioning BTMS called “The decision tool frame-work” (DTF) and to investigate its sensitivity to major factors (e.g. lifetime and application requirement) which are well-known to influence the battery pack...... conditions. The results provide insight into the feasibility and the required specifi-cation and configuration of a BTMS....

  2. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A. [TERI, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, T.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society. (author)

  3. Techno-economic Analysis of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in the South Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireddine Allali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy is often produced with the help of diesel generators in isolated areas in the Saharan region. While the latter requiring relatively little investment because is generally expensive to exploit due to the transportation to remote areas adds extra cost, significant fuel consumption and relatively high maintenance cost, etc. Moreover, the electricity production by the diesel is ineffective, presents significant environmental risks. But these isolated areas have significant wind energy potential; which is good position for the exploitation of clean and sustainable wind energy. The use of wind-diesel power system is widely recommended especially to reduce fuel consumption and in this way to reduce system operating costs and environmental impact. The subject of this paper is to present the techno-economic analysis of a wind-diesel hybrid power system. In this context, the contribution envisaged with this research is to collaborate on the optimal design of a hybrid power system including a wind turbine generator, a diesel generator and an energy storage system for powering a continuous way an isolated site in the South Algerian installed power of 120 kW.This system has a high control strategy for the management of different power sources (wind, diesel, battery that depending to weather conditions, especially wind speed values and the power demanded by the consumer load.

  4. Techno-economical study of hybrid power system for a remote village in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himri, Y. [Electricity and Gas National Enterprise (Sonelgaz), Bechar, 05 rue Mokadem Ahmed, Bechar (08000) (Algeria); Boudghene Stambouli, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran (Algeria); Draoui, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bechar (Algeria); Himri, S. [Department of Fundamental Sciences, University of Bechar (Algeria)

    2008-07-15

    The share of renewable energy sources in Algeria primary energy supply is relatively low compared with European countries, though the trend of development is positive. One of the main strategic priorities of NEAL (New Energy Algeria), which is Algeria's renewable energy agency (government, Sonelgaz and Sonatrach), is striving to achieve a share of 10-12% renewable energy sources in primary energy supply by 2010.This article presents techno-economic assessment for off-grid hybrid generation systems of a site in south western Algeria. The HOMER model is used to evaluate the energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reduction for this study. In the present scenario, for wind speed less than 5.0 m/s the existing diesel power plant is the only feasible solution over the range of fuel prices used in the simulation. The wind diesel hybrid system becomes feasible at a wind speed of 5.48 m/s or more and a fuel price of 0.162$/L or more. If the carbon tax is taken into consideration and subsidy is abolished, then it is expected that the hybrid system will become feasible. The maximum annual capacity shortage did not have any effect on the cost of energy, which may be accounted for by larger sizes of wind machines and diesel generators. (author)

  5. Techno-economic analysis of horseradish peroxidase production using a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, David Richard; Huddy, Suzanne M; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advantages of plant-based transient expression systems relative to microbial or mammalian cell systems, the commercial production of recombinant proteins using plants has not yet been achieved to any significant extent. One of the challenges has been the lack of published data on the costs of manufacture for products other than biopharmaceuticals. In this study, we report on the techno-economic analysis of the production of a standard commercial enzyme, namely, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), using a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana. Based on the proven plant yield of 240 mg HRP/kg biomass, a biomass productivity of 15-kg biomass/m(2)/year and a process yield of 54 % (mg HRP product/mg HRP in biomass), it is apparent that HRP can be manufactured economically via transient expression in plants in a large-scale facility (>5 kg HRP/year). At this level, the process is competitive versus the existing technology (extraction of the enzyme from horseradish), and the product is of comparable or improved activity, containing only the preferred isoenzyme C. Production scale, protein yield and biomass productivity are found to be the most important determinants of overall viability.

  6. Techno-economical assessment of solar detoxification systems with compound parabolic collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Milow, B.; Maldonado, M.I. [CIEMAT- Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia, Madrid (Spain); Fallmann, H.; Krutzler, T.; Bauer, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, TU Vienna (Italy)

    1999-03-01

    This paper is focussed on a techno-economical analysis comparing TiO{sub 2}-Persulfate and Photo-Fenton methods for Solar Detoxification of pesticides from an industrial point of view and considering the photocatalytic system coupled with a pesticide bottles recycling plant. The analysis is based on the experiments performed at PSA Solar Detox facility with 250 L of a mixture of 10 commercial pesticides, which have been treated with both photocatalytic methods in the same CPC-type reactor system. The initial TOC of the pollutants was 100 mg/L (considering not only the active ingredient but also the rest of the commercial formulation components) and the final TOC 10 mg/L (plant design parameters). Different experiments have been performed to optimize both treatments. In the experiments with Photo-Fenton 80% of the initial TOC were removed in 75 to 90 minutes and 90% in approximately 2 hours. In the experiment with TiO{sub 2}-Persulfate, 80% of the TOC was removed in 3 hours and 90% of the TOC after 4 hours. (authors)

  7. Expanding the welfare system: a proposal for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Orszag, Jonathan Michael; Snower, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The proposal involves the establishment of ?welfare accounts? for every person in a country. There are to be four accounts: a retirement account (covering pensions), an unemployment account (covering unemployment support), a human capital account (covering education and training), and a health account (covering insurance against sickness and disability). Instead of the current welfare state systems - where welfare services are financed predominantly out of general taxes - people would make on...

  8. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  9. Welfare systems, ageing and work: an OECD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Visco

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.

  10. Modelling of animal welfare : the development of a decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A computer-based decision support system for welfare assessment in pregnant sows was constructed. This system uses a description of a husbandry system as input and produces a welfare score on a scale from 0 to 10 as output. Pregnant sows were chosen as a case in search for a formalised, i.e. structu

  11. Quail (Coturnixcoturnix japonica welfare in two confinement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Nordi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of animal production systems presents a potential impact on the welfare of animals. The objective of this work was to assess the welfare of quail Coturnixcoturnix japonicain two maintenance systems: battery cages (BC,and enriched aviary (EA,with saw-dust bedding, sand-bathing area and nests. The experiment procedure involved eight animals per holding area and four repetitions per treatment, an overall of 64 quails. Welfare was assessed through behavioral freedom, sanitary freedom (feather condition and injuries, blood analyses and glicocorticoid metabolites measurement in droppings. Results are presented in the BC order, followed by EA. Water drinking behavior and agonistic behavior were different between treatments (P<0.05. Feather condition was adequate in both treatments, except for the head in BC quails. Blood data were statistically different forred blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood proteins, eosinophils, heterophils, lymphocytes and heterophil: lymphocyte ratio. Glicocorticoid metabolites levels were significantly different between maintenance systems. The behavioral and physiological welfare indicators showed higher welfare degree for quails in enriched aviary as compared to battery cages system.

  12. Three worlds of educational welfare states? A comparative study of higher education systems across welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Willemse; P. de Beer

    2012-01-01

    Although education is generally considered to be an important part of the welfare state, it is largely absent in the comparative welfare state literature. This article tries to fill this void by applying the central concepts of welfare state analysis of decommodification and stratification, as propo

  13. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  14. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of imp

  15. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  16. [The health and welfare system for elderly in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, C; Ogawa, K; Tsuji, I; Hisamichi, S

    1998-07-01

    Dichotomy is the main characteristic of the Health and Welfare system in France. This system lies on two distinct fields, the medical field which is managed by the National Government, and the social field managed by the Local Government. The French home care policy for the elderly has developed a large number of services to assist in activities of daily living, to provide nursing and medical care at home, to improve living conditions, to maintain social relationships, and to postpone institutionalization and hospitalization, respectively. The main home care service is represented by "home helpers" who provide maid Notiniralics services. The second widely used service is the "home care service" performed by a team of nurses, assistant-nurses, psychologists, physiotherapists. This team provides nursing care and assistance in activities of daily living. As for institutions for the elderly, they are divided into welfare and medical institutions. The welfare institutions include social establishments like shelter homes and nursing homes. The medical institutions are mostly represented by long-term care hospitals. One of the main goals of the aging policy is to create medical wards in welfare institutions in response to the increased dependency of the institutionalized elderly. Recent experimental and innovative concepts have been established, such as "shelter homes for dependent elderly" for physically or cognitively impaired elderly.

  17. Higher Education System, Skill Premium and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorel, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Our paper contributes to explore differences in high-education systems, and to highlight the role of competition among tertiary education providers and more generally of tertiary education systems viewed from a general equilibrium perspective to explain changes in returns to skill, wage inequalities and output. An objective function is introduced…

  18. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Survey consigned to NEDO of the development of energy use rationalization home welfare equipment systems; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu chosa. Itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of constructing new home welfare equipment systems of an energy effective use type, an investigational analysis was conducted of characteristics of the structure of houses considered of aged people, characteristics of the use of home welfare equipment, etc. As to the subject on space warming/cooling, it was found that the hour of stay-at-home of the aged tends to be longer, and the hour to be required for warming/cooling is longer, that the aged gradually lose senses regarding the peripheral environmental temperature, and the temperature to be considered should be at warmer/cooler levels, and that they are weak in heat shock, and the space of house where the temperature is uneven should be removed. Further, from the study in each welfare techno-house, possibilities were pointed out of further energy conservation in houses considered of the aged and home welfare equipment systems like the weight reduction of home welfare equipment systems and reduction of stand-by power, high air-tightness/high thermal insulation of houses for the aged, use of waste heat from air conditioners, introduction of solar energy to stand-by power and electrically-driven wheel chairs. 257 figs., 89 tabs.

  19. Techno-Economic Investigation of Solar Powered Electric Auto-Rickshaw for a Sustainable Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Reddy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Technologies influencing alternative means of transportation have been expanding in recent years due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In this paper, a solar powered electric auto-rickshaw (SPEA is designed and developed for Indian conditions. The vehicle developed is comprehensively analyzed techno-economically for its viability in the Indian market. The performance analysis of SPEA results in an optimal charging rate of 2 kWh per day with an average solar irradiance of 325 W/m2 on a typical sunny day. The discharging characteristics are studied based on different loading conditions. The vehicle achieved a maximum speed of 21.69 km/h with battery discharge rate of 296 W at 90 kg load and also reached a maximum discharge rate of 540 W at 390 kg loading with a maximum speed of 12.11 km/h. Environmental analysis of SPEA indicated that the yearly CO2 emissions of 1777 kg, 1987 kg and 1938 kg from using Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and gasoline engines respectively can be mitigated using SPEA. The financial analysis of SPEA concluded that the investor’s payback duration is 24.44% less compared to a gasoline-run vehicle. Socio-Economic analysis of SPEA discussed its significant advantages and showed 15.74% and 0.85% increase in yearly income over gasoline driven and battery driven vehicles.

  20. 45 CFR 1355.52 - Funding authority for statewide automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... welfare information systems (SACWIS). 1355.52 Section 1355.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... welfare information systems (SACWIS). (a) States may receive Federal reimbursement at the 75 percent match... information system, to the extent such system: (1) Provides for the State to collect and electronically...

  1. Techno-economic analysis of hybrid power system sizing applied to small desalination plants for sustainable operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nagaraj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water and energy are two inseparable commodities that govern the lives of humanity and promote civilization. Energy can be used to produce water in case of scarcity in water. Ironically most of the places that are water stressed are also energy stressed. The cost of extending grid power may be prohibitively high in those cases. Rural/remote locations like hills and islands multiply the problem to a larger magnitude. Use of renewable sources like solar, wind, biomass and other locally available energy sources is the only solution. But these renewable sources are of intermittent nature and have poor availability. Hence, it is practically difficult to produce water with a single source of energy. Naturally, combining two or more sources of energy, known as hybrid power system, is the next available option. This paper carries out a techno-economic analysis of various sizing combinations of systems with solar photo voltaic, wind energy and stored energy in batteries for production of drinking water from a brackish water source. The system can operate the RO plant whenever the power is available, produce drinking water and store in a tank. This paper analyses the model of the entire hybrid power system in MATLAB to simulate the performance of the hybrid power system for different combinations of capacities. Results of the analysis under various input conditions are analyzed.

  2. Information Systems for Social Welfare: Educational Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a successful research seminar offered for five years to second-year students in a master's program at the Jane Addams School of Social Work. Included are rationale, objectives, content, and teaching and learning experiences covering the function and design of information systems for accountability, planning, management, supervision,…

  3. Information Systems for Social Welfare: Educational Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a successful research seminar offered for five years to second-year students in a master's program at the Jane Addams School of Social Work. Included are rationale, objectives, content, and teaching and learning experiences covering the function and design of information systems for accountability, planning, management, supervision,…

  4. Welfare, invecchiamento della popolazione e lavoro: una prospettiva OCSE (Welfare Systems, Ageing and Work: An OECD Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Visco

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.

  5. Techno-economic and Fluid Dynamics Analysis for Growing Microalgae with the Intent of Producing Biofuel Using a System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaeli, Leah R.

    Techno-economic and systems studies on microalgal growth scenarios to date are abbreviated and missing a number of important variables. By including these variables in a detailed model integrating biology, chemistry, engineering, and financial aspects, a more defined systems analysis is possible. Through optimizing the model productivity based on the resulting net profit, the system analysis results in a more accurate assessment of environmental and economic sustainability of specific algal growth scenarios. Photobioreactor algal growth scenario optimization in the system model has resulted in realistic engineering design requirements based on algal growth requirements and fluid dynamics analysis. Results show feasibility for photobioreactor growth scenarios to be economically sustainable when co-products are included, but definite technological advancements and productivity improvements must be made. The main factors inhibiting a cost effective photobioreactor growth scenario are culture density, temperature, and lighting distribution for solar illuminated photobioreactors, and lighting cost for artificially illuminated photobioreactors. Open pond algal growth scenarios do not show any prospect of economic or environmental sustainability with current technology due to the large amount of surface area required, inefficient water use, and low culture density. All algal growth scenarios are inferior to petro-diesel regarding energy inputs, carbon emissions, and environmental sustainability. No algal growth scenarios analyzed in this study meet the U.S. requirement of biofuel emitting at least 20% less carbon emissions than diesel from crude oil.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of integrated onshore and offshore UCG-CCS systems to produce electricity, SNG and urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study, we investigate site-specific commercial-scale onshore and offshore UCG-systems combined with carbon capture and storage (CCS) in line with electricity, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and fertilizer (urea) production based on data of in-situ trail undertaken at the Wieczorek coal mine (Silesian Basin, Poland) [1] and ex-situ tests on different Polish coals. Hereby, techno-economic modeling approaches according to Kempka et al. [2] and Nakaten et al. [3] have been applied to determine onshore and offshore levelized end-use product costs as well as cost bandwidths resulting from economical, technical and geological uncertainties. Our analysis results show that the investigated onshore UCG end-use options are by 3 % (SNG), 27 % (electricity) and 47 % (urea) lower than the according market prices, and thus competitive on the Polish energy market. However, due to high costs for the offshore platform and the related infrastructure, offshore UCG end-use products are not economic in view of the EU raw materials and energy market. For UCG-CCS systems, a relevant approach to decrease production costs is a precise management of the oxidizer composition: an oxygen ratio below 30 % by volume and a high UCG-to-syngas conversion efficiency favor the economics of electricity and SNG production, whereby cost-effective urea production under the given boundary conditions is characterized by high CO2 and H2 ratios in the synthesis gas composition. As drilling costs have a limited share on total levelized production costs of 3 % in maximum, uncertainties related to model input parameters affected by drilling costs, e.g., UCG reactor width, are negligible. From our techno-economic modeling results, we conclude that competitiveness of the investigated onshore UCG-CCS end-use options will be even more

  7. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  8. The Value of Family Welfare Conferencing within the Child Protection and Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Carmel; Byrne, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Family Welfare Conference (FWC) is a model used within the child protection and welfare services to address concerns about the needs of children and their family's ability to respond to these needs. The FWC model operates in partnership with family members, who participate in identifying both the issues of concern and potential responses to…

  9. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  10. Techno-Velcro to Techno-Memoria: Technology, Rhetoric, and Family in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia Freitag; Muhlhauser, Paul

    2011-01-01

    "Techno-velcro to Techno-memoria" is an intergenerational collection of techno-memories illustrating the impact of techno-literacies on family communication practices. Guests participating in "Techno-velcro to Techno-memoria" add their voices to create a rich resource of techno-rhetorical connections. Our guest-collaborators remember and describe…

  11. A Scenario Analysis on the Implementation of a Farm Animal Welfare Assessment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Butterworth, A.; Keeling, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There have been important developments in the measurement of farm animal welfare in recent years. Measuring animal welfare is one thing, implementing a farm animal welfare assessment system another. The implementation of such a system occurs in an environment that is influenced by economic, politica

  12. Techno-Globalism and Techno-Nationalism: an Interpretative Framework

    OpenAIRE

    S. Montresor

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the globalisation process and with the tensions between national, super-national and sub-national forces it entails. A taxonomy is put forward in order to examine the question at different levels, distinguishing aspects of ‘techno-territoriality’, ‘techno-sovereignty’, ‘techno-citizenship’ and ‘techno-nationality’, pertaining to, respectively, geographical borders, governance structures and policy making, strategic behaviors and accountability, socio-cultural distances a...

  13. Patient Centred Systems: Techno-Anthropological reflections on the challenges of 'meaningfully engaging' patients within health informatics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Chao; Almond, Helen; Cummings, Elizabeth; Roehrer, Erin; Showell, Chris; Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how Techno-Anthropology can contribute to more explicitly professional and ethically responsible reflections on the socio-technical practices involved in meaningfully engaging patients in health informatics research. The chapter draws on insights from health informatics research projects focused on chronic disease and self-management conducted in Tasmania during the last 10 years. Through these projects the paper explores three topics of relevance to 'meaningful engagement' with patients: (i) Patient Self-Management and Chronic Disease (ii) Patients as Users in Health Informatics research, and, (iii) Evaluations of outcomes in Health and Health Informatics Interventions. Techno-Anthropological reflections are then discussed through the concepts of liminality, polyphony and power. This chapter argues that beyond its contribution to methodology, an important role for Techno-Anthropology in patient centred health informatics research may be its capacity to support new ways of conceptualising and critically reflecting on the construction and mediation of patients' needs, values and perspectives.

  14. Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Alan J; Lee, Ronald

    2011-02-01

    Using stochastic simulations we analyze how public pension structures spread the risks arising from demographic and economic shocks across generations. We consider several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US Social Security system with annual adjustments of taxes or benefits to maintain fiscal balance; (2) Sweden's Notional Defined Contribution system and several variants developed to improve fiscal stability; and (3) the German system, which also includes annual adjustments to maintain fiscal balance. For each system, we present descriptive measures of uncertainty in representative outcomes for a typical generation and across generations. We then estimate expected utility for generations based on simplifying assumptions and incorporate these expected utility calculations in an overall social welfare measure. Using a horizontal equity index, we also compare the different systems' performance in terms of how neighboring generations are treated.While the actual Swedish system smoothes stochastic fluctuations more than any other and produces the highest degree of horizontal equity, it does so by accumulating a buffer stock of assets that alleviates the need for frequent adjustments. In terms of social welfare, this accumulation of assets leads to a lower average rate of return that more than offsets the benefits of risk reduction, leaving systems with more frequent adjustments that spread risks broadly among generations as those most preferred.

  15. Feasibility study and techno-economic analysis of an SOFC/battery hybrid system for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, P.; Brett, D. J. L.; Brandon, N. P.

    A feasibility study and techno-economic analysis for a hybrid power system intended for vehicular traction applications has been performed. The hybrid consists of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) operating at 500-800 °C and a sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery operating at 300 °C. Such a hybrid system has the benefits of extended range and fuel flexibility (due to the IT-SOFC), high power output and rapid response time (due to the battery). The above hybrid has been compared to a fuel cell-only, a battery-only and an ICE vehicle. It is shown that the capital cost associated with a fuel cell-only vehicle is still much higher than that of any other power source option and that a battery-only option would potentially encounter weight and volume limitations, particularly for long drive times. It is concluded that increasing drive time per day decreases substantially the payback time in relation to an ICE vehicle running on gasoline and thus that the hybrid vehicle is an economically attractive option for commercial vehicles with long drive times. In the case where the battery has reached volume production prices at £70 kWh -1 and current fuel duty values remain unchanged then a payback time gasoline equivalent fuel economy of 25.1 km L -1, almost twice that of a gasoline fuelled ICE vehicle of the same size, and CO 2 emissions of 71.6 g km -1, well below any new technology target set so far. It is therefore recommended that a SOFC/ZEBRA demonstration be built to further explore its viability.

  16. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  17. Playgrounding Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    Since 2015, TANTlab has served as hub for experimentation with digital methods among the researchers in the Techno-Anthropology Research Group at the Department of Learning and Philosophy. TANTlab was founded on the basis of several years work on researching and teaching digital methods, not least...... for the bachelor and master programs in Techno-anthropology at AAU. At the same time, the lab was founded to facilitate a growing portfolio of collaborative relationships with non-university actors. TANTlab has adopted a deliberately playful attitude in this position between research, teaching and external...

  18. Family and Gender in the Spanish Welfare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Klose, Pau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This document is an attempt to understand how family and gender policies have developed within the general process of consolidation of the Spanish welfare system. The study examines different factors that account for an “atypical trajectory of change”: institutional predispositions, the timing of key political and social developments, the role of external pressures, societal changes, the activity of political actors and the enactment of broader policy reforms. The paper poses as research question the extent to which and the ways in which the Spanish welfare system has responded to new social risks, setting up new arrangements to meet emerging needs and demands related to care and the reconciliation of work and family life. The work that is presented here is the result of a systematic review of research conducted by Spanish scholars in the last two decades and my own work in the field, which includes both quantitative analyses of the main existing survey data about these issues as well as in-depth interviews with key actors in these policy domains.

  19. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN TECHNO PARK PERIKANAN BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Emmawati Hadie

    2016-10-01

    technology in the country in the adoption by the industry or other users of the technology. This communication gap needs to be connected, so that the user of the technology adoption can take place optimally. One alternative is to develop a techno park which is the strategy of human resource development, science and technology. Techno park is a means to initiate and carry knowledge and technology amongst universities, R & D institutions, industry and market. Policy analysis techno park development strategys implemented with the approach of SWOT. Result of SWOT analysis indicate that strategy needs to be done by the Research Agency are: 1 Build a techno park based aquaculture in the region to develop fishery commodities as the main program of Local Government, and build regional innovation system; 2 Build a joint venture with National and Local Government; 3 Using an operation unit that has existed scope of the Agency for Research and Development, Directorate General of Fisheries, the National Human Resource Development and technical implementation unit of Regions as a partner in the adaptation of fisheries technology, and 4 Develop a techno park with the approach of knowledge-based community, to support the sustainability of techno park. This strategy will have an impact on the increase in fishery productivity significantly.

  20. Techno-economic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Point, J.C.; Million, P.

    A techno-economic model for analysing and comparing broadband deployment strategies has been established. The resulting simulation model can compare Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) of dominating broadband technologies in different types of demographic areas. The study reveals the competitiveness...... and applicability of different access technologies in the future broadband market as well as providing sensitivity analysis of the most influential factors controlling market development....

  1. Children with problematic sexualized behaviors in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy J L; Gries, Len; Schneiderman, Mel; Parker, Rob; Archer, Marc; Friedrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in a child welfare sample. In this study, 97 children from ages 10 to 12 from either foster boarding homes or a residential treatment center participated. Researchers interviewed foster parents or primary therapists about children's sexual behavior, traumatic events, clinical symptoms, and their attitudes toward the child. Findings revealed that problematic sexualized behaviors were more prevalent in the residential treatment center (RTC) sample than they were in a normative sample. The pattern of associations between sexual behavior problems, traumatic events, and clinical syndromes in both the RTC and the foster boarding home (FBH) samples was similar to what has been found in samples in which biological custodial parents were the respondents. Analyses comparing youth who met the criterion for having problematic sexualized behaviors and youth who did not meet the criterion revealed that the two groups differed on clinical symptoms, prior traumatic events, and negative reports by caregivers. Results confirm the utility of the CSBI measure for this population and highlight several important clinical and programmatic concerns for addressing problematic sexual behavior in children in the child welfare system.

  2. Welfare, invecchiamento della popolazione e lavoro: una prospettiva OCSE (Welfare Systems, Ageing and Work: An OECD Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Visco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.  JEL Codes: H55, H53, J14, E62Keywords: Ageing, Demographics, Macroeconomics, Older Workers, Pension, Public Pension 

  3. Development of a Techno-economic Model of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for Deployment in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Tadayoni, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is about the development and deployment of advanced Traffic Management Systems, Traveler Information Systems, Commercial Vehicle Operations, Public and Private Transportation Systems, and Rural Transportation Systems. Several key technologies....... The results show that deployment of Intelligent Vehicle Tracking Technology (IVTT) will address the problems of inefficiencies experienced in the Ghanaian road transport haulage tracking industry. Research for ITS development and eployment in these countries should be cost effective....

  4. Techno-economic analysis of a hybrid mini-grid system for Fiji islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, Sandeep; Raturi, Atul [Univ. of South Pacific, Suva (Fiji). School of Engineering and Physics

    2012-07-01

    The Pacific Island Countries constantly struggle with the challenges of high petroleum dependence for their electricity production and lack of adequate energy services. It is possible to alleviate the energy poverty by utilizing abundant renewable energy resources available in the region. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of a wind/solar photovoltaic/diesel generator-based hybrid power system in a remote location in Fiji islands. We used the Hybrid Optimisation Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software to simulate the system and perform system optimisation analysis. The system characteristics were studied in terms of optimal configuration, net present cost and the cost of energy. An entirely renewable energy-based configuration is feasible if 10% annual capacity shortage is allowed, while for a scenario with no capacity shortage, addition of a diesel generator is necessary. The addition of renewable energy components results in greenhouse gas reduction which could be used for carbon trading. (orig.)

  5. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai [Dept. of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 EUR kW h{sup -1}. As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate. (author)

  6. Techno-economic and Exergoeconomic Analysis of a micro cogeneration system for a residential use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Antonio Ochoa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present an economic analysis of a micro cogeneration system using financial analysis (energy view and exergoeconomic analysis (exergy view. This system uses a natural gas-fueled 30 kW microturbine to generate electricity, and to produce hot water by recovering energy from the waste heat in the exhaust gases by using a heat exchanger, which serves as the drive source of an absorption chiller with a nominal capacity of 35 kW. In the financial analysis economic indicators such as payback, net present value and internal rate of return were used to verify the economic feasibility of this system, while in the exergoeconomic analysis, the Theory of Exergetic Cost was used to determine the exergetic monetary costs. A thermodynamic model was developed on the EES-32 (Engineering Equation Solver platform. On applying the financial analysis, the results showed that the micro cogeneration system is feasible with positive values of R$ 206,540.00 for NPV, 27% IRR and a 6-year payback. Based on the exergoeconomic analysis, the cogeneration system is also feasible since the monetary cost of the electricity is lower than that charged by the electricity company but this is only possible after the 5th year.

  7. Techno-economic and Monte Carlo probabilistic analysis of microalgae biofuel production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batan, Liaw Y; Graff, Gregory D; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-11-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of the technical and economic feasibility of an enclosed photobioreactor microalgae system with annual production of 37.85 million liters (10 million gallons) of biofuel. The analysis characterizes and breaks down the capital investment and operating costs and the production cost of unit of algal diesel. The economic modelling shows total cost of production of algal raw oil and diesel of $3.46 and $3.69 per liter, respectively. Additionally, the effects of co-products' credit and their impact in the economic performance of algal-to-biofuel system are discussed. The Monte Carlo methodology is used to address price and cost projections and to simulate scenarios with probabilities of financial performance and profits of the analyzed model. Different markets for allocation of co-products have shown significant shifts for economic viability of algal biofuel system.

  8. A techno-economic assessment of grid connected photovoltaic system for hospital building in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Isa, Normazlina; Tan, Chee Wei; Yatim, AHM

    2017-07-01

    Conventionally, electricity in hospital building are supplied by the utility grid which uses mix fuel including coal and gas. Due to enhancement in renewable technology, many building shall moving forward to install their own PV panel along with the grid to employ the advantages of the renewable energy. This paper present an analysis of grid connected photovoltaic (GCPV) system for hospital building in Malaysia. A discussion is emphasized on the economic analysis based on Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) and total Net Present Post (TNPC) in regards with the annual interest rate. The analysis is performed using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software which give optimization and sensitivity analysis result. An optimization result followed by the sensitivity analysis also being discuss in this article thus the impact of the grid connected PV system has be evaluated. In addition, the benefit from Net Metering (NeM) mechanism also discussed.

  9. Techno-economic analysis of CHP system supplied by waste forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A; Klonowicz, P; Król, D; Wiśniewski, S; Zwarycz-Makles, K

    2015-08-01

    Poland, as for Europe, is a country with an average forest cover of approximately 30%. In these forests, more than 37M m3 of wood, mostly coniferous (over 80%), is harvested per year. In 2012, 4.2M m3 of sawn timber was produced (sawn timber without factory lumber). At the same time, in Poland there are over 8000 sawmills, whereas only about 700 of them saw over 90% of the harvested timber. So much fragmentation is a major cause of low sawmills innovation, particularly of those small ones. However, in recent years, a trend of development in this sector is noticeable, and it is through rationalisation of material and energy economy. One of the methods to increase the technical and economic effectiveness of enterprises involved in woodworking is to build in the combined heat and power system (CHP) plant with the ORC system into the existing infrastructure, which will be matched to the needs of the company. This article presents an analysis of the profitability of the investment based on the example of a medium-sized company sawing approximately 50,000 m3 of timber per year, and the economic analysis was performed for prices and costs valid in Poland. The analysis made for the 1650 kW(el) organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system, has resulted in a profitability index PI = 1.3, on the assumptions that the ORC system operates for 6000 h y(-1), will be purchased at the price of 4500 € kW(el)(-1) and at the price of electricity sales of 130 € MWh(-1). © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Ontological assumptions in techno-anthropological explorations of online dialogue through information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Andrule, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    that focus on understanding the kind of dialogue that can be captured between different expert groups when they utilize information systems. We present the notion of ‘dialogic’ by Mikhail Bakhtin and contextualize it through an analysis of online dialogue. Dialogic or ‘conversation and inquiry’ is discussed...... as being mediated through human relationships. Acknowledging the existence of at least two voices the underlying differences between dialogue partners are highlighted....

  11. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  12. Resources within "Reason": Resources for Supporting Young Children in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura H.; Catlett, Camille

    2011-01-01

    For teachers, working with young children in the child welfare system can be challenging. A high-quality early learning environment has been linked to long-term positive developmental and academic success. But for children in the child welfare system who are facing significant early challenges, a high quality environment can provide the…

  13. Resources within "Reason": Resources for Supporting Young Children in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura H.; Catlett, Camille

    2011-01-01

    For teachers, working with young children in the child welfare system can be challenging. A high-quality early learning environment has been linked to long-term positive developmental and academic success. But for children in the child welfare system who are facing significant early challenges, a high quality environment can provide the…

  14. Welfare Systems, Support Networks and Subjective Well-Being among Retired Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Felix

    2010-01-01

    In this article welfare systems and support networks are empirically analyzed to determine which generate the highest level of subjective well-being among retired persons. Propositions derived from support network theories and national welfare system typologies have been analyzed using causal models that indicate the influence of the various…

  15. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    , and hot tap water demand, balancing fluctuating wind power and both solar power and solar thermal supply utilizing advanced heat pump and both electro-chemical electricity storage, and hot and cold thermal storages. Our research is basically concerned with the question of how to design 100 % renewable...... for a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables based Smart House (SH). We have devised and analysed an innovative high-efficiency approach to residential energy supply. The analysis involves detailed technical specifications and considerations for providing optimal supply of electricity, heating, cooling...... technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...

  16. New developments in modeling network constraints in techno-economic energy system expansion planning models. An overview of existing models and prospects for future approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Martin; Esser-Frey, Anke; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Chair of Energy Economics; Schick, Michael; Heuveline, Vincent [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engineering Mathematics and Computing Lab.; Leibfried, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Electric Energy Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    2012-03-15

    This paper is based on Groschke et al. (Z. Energiewirtsch. 33(1):14-22 2009) and continues the description of new developments in modeling network constraints in techno-economic energy system models with a focus on capacity expansion planning and a long-term time horizon. Based on the presentation of recent and future developments in the German energy system, current challenges in energy system modeling are derived. The following analysis of the state of research reveals a lack of high-precision load flow calculation in current energy system models with a long-term time horizon. Hence, this paper presents an outlook on a new mathematical approach, which already proved as a promising method to meet the challenges identified. (orig.)

  17. Techno-Economic Performance Evaluation for Olive Mills Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidio Rabaza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due to the rise in petroleum prices and greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy has been recommended as a power source for different types of facilities. For the period 2010 to 2020 the European Commission has established three key objectives related to climatic change and energy sustainability, such as reductions of CO2 emissions, increases in the use of renewable energy, and improvements in energy efficiency. A key industry is olive oil production in olive mills, where there is a great opportunity to reduce electricity consumption, increase additional profits related to the reduction of technologies that are harmful to the environment, and to cut back maintenance costs. For this reason, a feasibility study of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV systems has been carried out for different types of olive mills in Andalusia (southern Spain. This region is highly energy dependent, but has an abundance of “green” resources to be exploited. The results of this study contemplate a reduction in spending on electrical power of between 2% and 37%, and an increase in the use of renewable energy of between 2% and 26%. These results are according to the self-consumption or net metering policy and the production capacity of olive oil.

  18. Structuring the agora of techno-organisational change

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniadakis, Antonios

    2009-01-01

    The Agora of Techno-Organisational Change refers to the global emergence and expansion of a marketplace for the resources necessary to carry out technological changes in business organisations. These resources include technologies such as information systems and software packages, specialised technical and business expertise, change methodologies, project management, etc. The Agora of Techno-Organisational Change is populated by various diverse and heterogeneous actors (suppliers, users, inte...

  19. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them......Animal health and welfare is an important part of organic husbandry, both in terms of the organic principles and owing to the consumer interest. But problems in the organic egg production resulting in high mortality and feather pecking, have led to the need for management tools in order to secure...... animal health and welfare. The aim of the project is to develop management tools for the organic egg production, aimed to secure animal health and welfare in the flocks. In the first part of the project a welfare assessment system for organic egg production was developed and tested on 10 fl ocks during...

  20. Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Lacey; Norwood, F Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the premium they extract exceeds the corresponding increase in cost. To better understand the relationship between animal welfare and production costs under different farm systems, this study investigates 4 stylized hog production systems. The results show that increasing animal welfare for all hogs in the United States will increase retail pork prices by a maximum of 2% for a small welfare increase and 5% for a large welfare increase. The cost of banning gestation crates measured by this study is lower than the consumer willingness-to-pay from other studies.

  1. NEDO medical and welfare equipment development subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO iryo fukushi kiki kaihatsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Outlining the development of medical and welfare equipment, Masanori Fujita, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, introduces 13 themes, including a trace cell information detection system, a highly sensitive DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) optical inspection device, and a very high speed high-precision cerebral function measuring MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) apparatus. In relation with the welfare techno-house project, it is reported that techno-houses are complete at 13 locations across Japan and that development of welfare systems for home care was carried out by use of techno-houses. A report is delivered concerning the practical welfare apparatus development promotion project, which refers to subsidies for development being granted and to the commercialization of items falling under 21 themes. Panel discussion is conducted over teeth and health, the discussed themes covering the 'completion of the effort to develop the oral device engineering system for the next generation,' 'physical health and dental health,' 'dental health and aesthetics,' 'denture manufacturer's view of dental health,' and so forth. (NEDO)

  2. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, S. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Driftmier Engineering Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Sokhansanj, S.; Turhollow, A.F. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Tagore, S. [Office of Biomass Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam{sup 3}). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery. (author)

  4. The effect of the housing system on the welfare quality of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the housing systems (loose vs tie-stall on the welfare of dairy cows and to test the hypothesis that dairy cows in loose housing systems have a better welfare quality than those kept in tie-stalls. Sixty commercial dairy farms (30 with loose and 30 with tie-stall housing system were selected for evaluation, using mainly animal-based measures, as the applied Welfare Quality® protocol allows it. A total number of 2624 milking cows were assessed in the winter period. There were significant differences between the two housing systems for the majority of the parameters within the four welfare principles. Significant differences were also found in terms of the mean scores of the welfare criteria and principles, with the majority pointing out the loose system as better. Based on the scores of the four principles, most of the farms with loose housing were classified as enhanced, while the majority of the tie-stall farms were acceptable. The results show that the welfare quality of dairy cows is greatly influenced by the housing system, and that the loose system is more advantageous when it comes to the feeding, housing and behaviour of the dairy cow.

  5. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  6. [Aspects of animal welfare with regard to the production of farmed fish in aquaculture systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleingeld, D W

    2005-03-01

    The most important aspects on animal welfare with reference to fish are presented in this paper. World-wide a fast growing trend with regard to the production of aquatic organisms in aquaculture systems is observed. For the future an increase of the number of basic questions with relevance to animal welfare in this area is to be expected. The main precondition for the creation of appropriate welfare conditions with regard to the farmed fish species is the optimisation of the environmental quality. Careful handling in the course of necessary farming activities minimises the appearance of distrees and damages in live fish.

  7. Method of estimation of selected hens welfare elements in an alternative maintenance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Domagalski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Broody hens welfare in an alternative maintenance system was the focus of the undertaken attempt. Both behavioural and health aspects, as well as numerous physiological indicators are taken into consideration while applying animal welfare estimation methods. The described evaluation complies with the EU recommendations for the applied spot method TG-200. It serves to evaluate the conformity of both buildings and technology of breeding with the requirements of regulations and those defined in the process of the carried out hens research. The following functional areas were focused on while assessing the welfare: terms of mobility, feed intake, herding behaviour, resting conditions, comfort of living, nesting conditions, herd health and care.

  8. Citizens’ View on Veal Calves’ Fattening System in Italy and Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to assess citizens’ view on the current veal calves’ fattening system in Italy and on animal welfare, and to find relationships with veal meat consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, veal meat consumption habits, knowledge of veal calves rearing system and animal welfare attitudes of 100 citizens were investigated through a questionnaire submitted on a voluntary base in supermarkets/butcher shops. Results showed that 61 respondents were veal meat consumers and the remaining 39 were non-consumers. A large proportion of respondents were aware of the modern veal calves rearing system but their knowledge as such did not affect veal meat consumption. Non-consumers declared they didn’t like veal meat organoleptic characteristics, opposed the production system or considered it too expensive. Most citizens sustained animal welfare but no correlations were found between concerns for animal welfare and veal meat consumption/purchase (rs 0.05. Citizens conceptualized animal welfare through the aspects of care animals received by the farmer and veterinarian and of healthy feed for animals. It could be concluded that consumers don’t really think of animal welfare while buying or having meat, and they still have idealised notions of naturality, traditional farming, free-range and small scale production linked to farm animal production.

  9. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market.

  10. Agency Culture and Climate in Child Welfare: Do Perceptions Vary by Exposure to the Child Welfare System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielfogel, Jill E; Leathers, Sonya J; Christian, Errick

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture and climate play a critical role in worker retention and outcomes, yet little is known about whether perceptions of culture and climate vary depending on the demands of particular roles. In this study, 113 staff from a child welfare agency completed Organizational Social Context profiles. Staff were divided into three groups according to their proximity to child welfare tasks to assess whether involvement in higher stress child welfare tasks is related to perceptions of the social context. Findings suggest possible differences across groups, with those involved in core child welfare tasks appearing to perceive higher resistance to new ways of providing services and those with the least involvement in traditional child welfare perceiving a more positive social context overall.

  11. Techno-Economic Feasibility Study of Renewable Power Systems for a Small-Scale Plasma-Assisted Nitric Acid Plant in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Anastasopoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The expected world population growth by 2050 is likely to pose great challenges in the global food demand and, in turn, in the fertilizer consumption. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations has forecasted that 46% of this projected growth will be attributed to Africa. This, in turn, raises further concerns about the sustainability of Africa’s contemporary fertilizer production, considering also its high dependence on fertilizer imports. Based on these facts, a novel “green” route for the synthesis of fertilizers has been considered in the context of the African agriculture by means of plasma technology. More precisely, a techno-economic feasibility study has been conducted for a small-scale plasma-assisted nitric acid plant located in Kenya and South Africa with respect to the electricity provision by renewable energy sources. In this study, standalone solar and wind power systems, as well as a hybrid system, have been assessed for two different electricity loads against certain economic criteria. The relevant simulations have been carried out in HOMER software and the optimized configurations of each examined renewable power system are presented in this study.

  12. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  13. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  14. Fish welfare assurance system: initial steps to set up an effective tool to safeguard and monitor farmed fish welfare at a company level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vis, J W; Poelman, M; Lambooij, E; Bégout, M-L; Pilarczyk, M

    2012-02-01

    The objective was to take a first step in the development of a process-oriented quality assurance (QA) system for monitoring and safeguarding of fish welfare at a company level. A process-oriented approach is focused on preventing hazards and involves establishment of critical steps in a process that requires careful control. The seven principles of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) concept were used as a framework to establish the QA system. HACCP is an internationally agreed approach for management of food safety, which was adapted for the purpose of safeguarding and monitoring the welfare of farmed fish. As the main focus of this QA system is farmed fish welfare assurance at a company level, it was named Fish Welfare Assurance System (FWAS). In this paper we present the initial steps of setting up FWAS for on growing of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Four major hazards were selected, which were fish species dependent. Critical Control Points (CCPs) that need to be controlled to minimize or avoid the four hazards are presented. For FWAS, monitoring of CCPs at a farm level is essential. For monitoring purposes, Operational Welfare Indicators (OWIs) are needed to establish whether critical biotic, abiotic, managerial and environmental factors are controlled. For the OWIs we present critical limits/target values. A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a factor must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate or reduce a hazard to an acceptable level. For managerial factors target levels are more appropriate than critical limits. Regarding the international trade of farmed fish products, we propose that FWAS needs to be standardized in aquaculture chains. For this standardization a consensus on the concept of fish welfare, methods to assess welfare objectively and knowledge on the needs of farmed fish are required.

  15. 加拿大的动物福利制度%The Animal Welfare System of Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2005-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis on the animal wefare system and takes emphasis on the anmal welfare system of Canda and the resaon Canda takes this system Also.the paper evaluates the resaonableness of this system and wants to give the examples of the tegislation of animal welfare system in our country.

  16. Professional Responsibility and the Welfare System in Spain at the Turn of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Sanz, Pilar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the attitudes of physicians prior to the establishment of a social welfare system in Spain, based on professional sources from 1890-1910. Firstly we revised the Systems of Collectivised Assistance during the Transition from the 19th to the 20th Century; then, the article discusses the corporativist reaction of Physicians to the different Welfare Systems. We observe that the criticism of insurance companies was unanimous. Nonetheless, there was a diversity of opinions regarding mutual societies and the associations of mutual assistance. The professional arguments used against the associations, mutuals and insurance companies were formulated around, in addition to the professional instability of the times, the changes in civil and criminal responsibility of the physician as a result of new legal regulations. We found physicians in favour of establishing a welfare system that was not exclusively public and which, in addition to benefiting the needy, would benefit the interests of the profession as well.

  17. The community-based rural welfare system in the People's Republic of China: 1949-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J

    1982-01-01

    The development of China's rural welfare system is traced from its beginning in the early 1950s to 1979. Traditionally, peasants relied on families for welfare support. After the Communist Party's (CCP) assumption of power in 1949, an estimated 3-5% of the rural population was old, infirm, orphaned, invalid, or without means of support. The concept of mutual aid was encouraged in which neighbors assisted each other in times of need. With the redistribution of land and the collectivization movement came the creation of the rural welfare system. Public welfare funds were secured from a percentage of the annual incomes of the agricultural producers' cooperatives and ranged from 1-5%. By March 1957, 97.3% of the peasant households had been organized into advanced cooperatives and the 5 guarantees system was introduced. Although varying considerably between cooperatives, the 5 guarantees included food, clothing, burial expenses, and either fuel and children's education or medical care and housing. The welfare system was based on 1/2 free supply and 1/2 cash relief. With the development of the rural communes in 1958, 2 significant changes occurred: welfare responsibility shifted to the commune, away from the family; and support shifted from a categorical approach to a universal approach. Communal services included: public mess halls, homes for the aged, nurseries and kindergartens, sewing, shoemaking and laundry teams. Income support was available at the discretion of the commune CCP committee. The failure of the Great Leap Forward brought another series of adjustments to the welfare system. The family was reemphasized, categorical assistance reemerged, communal services and facilities disappeared and welfare administration was decentralized and became the responsibility of production teams. 5 categories of families were assisted: those of servicemen, "Revolutionary Martyrs," cadres, model workers, and households with difficulties. Rural welfare reform in the wake of the

  18. Features of the development of a welfare system for visually disabled people in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    2004-01-01

    ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people......ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people...

  19. A Grassroots Prototype for Trauma-Informed Child Welfare System Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James; Richardson, Margaret; Black-Pond, Connie; Sloane, Mark; Atchinson, Ben; Hyter, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    The development of trauma-informed child welfare systems (TICWSs) that advance individual agency practice to target transformation of the system as a whole has been conceptualized but not documented. A grassroots effort to build a TICWS with key participants (e.g., Department of Human Services, Community Mental Health, Family Court, schools) in…

  20. A national study of male involvement among families in contact with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    Few studies inform the frequency and type of adult male involvement in families in contact with child welfare, and even fewer explore how male involvement relates to child welfare outcomes. This study employed data from a sample of 3,978 families in contact with the U.S. child welfare system, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. The nature of male involvement in these families and its relationship to (a) caseworkers' perception of children's risk for maltreatment rereport and (b) entry into out-of-home care were explored. Results indicate that most caregivers report male involvement, distinct types of male involvement are related to the likelihood of out-of-home care, and households that include nonparental adult males are perceived by caseworkers as relatively risky. No male involvement indicator tested, however, was related to maltreatment rereport. Implications include the need to appropriately assess, include, and engage adult male family members across diverse family systems.

  1. Current available strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in livestock systems: an animal welfare perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; Haskell, M J; Dewhurst, R J; Turner, S P

    2017-02-01

    Livestock production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so will play a significant role in the mitigation effort. Recent literature highlights different strategies to mitigate GHG emissions in the livestock sector. Animal welfare is a criterion of sustainability and any strategy designed to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock production should consider animal welfare amongst other sustainability metrics. We discuss and tabulate the likely relationships and trade-offs between the GHG mitigation potential of mitigation strategies and their welfare consequences, focusing on ruminant species and on cattle in particular. The major livestock GHG mitigation strategies were classified according to their mitigation approach as reducing total emissions (inhibiting methane production in the rumen), or reducing emissions intensity (Ei; reducing CH4 per output unit without directly targeting methanogenesis). Strategies classified as antimethanogenic included chemical inhibitors, electron acceptors (i.e. nitrates), ionophores (i.e. Monensin) and dietary lipids. Increasing diet digestibility, intensive housing, improving health and welfare, increasing reproductive efficiency and breeding for higher productivity were categorized as strategies that reduce Ei. Strategies that increase productivity are very promising ways to reduce the livestock carbon footprint, though in intensive systems this is likely to be achieved at the cost of welfare. Other strategies can effectively reduce GHG emissions whilst simultaneously improving animal welfare (e.g. feed supplementation or improving health). These win-win strategies should be strongly supported as they address both environmental and ethical sustainability. In order to identify the most cost-effective measures for improving environmental sustainability of livestock production, the consequences of current and future strategies for animal welfare must be scrutinized and contrasted against their effectiveness

  2. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  3. Factors Associated with Service Use among Immigrants in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated child, caregiver, and caseworker factors associated with greater use of family support services by immigrant families in the U.S. child welfare system. Among child factors, higher levels of internalizing behavior problems (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 3.60), externalizing behavior problems (O.R. = 2.62) and a history of neglect…

  4. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  5. The Laywell project: welfare implications of changes in production systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Fiks, T.G.C.M.; Bessei, W.; Elson, H.A.; Guémené, D.; Kjaer, J.B.; Maria Levrino, G.A.; Nicol, C.J.; Tauson, R.K.; Weeks, C.A.; Weerd, v.d. H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The conditions under which laying hens are kept remain a major animal welfare concern. It is one of the most intensive forms of animal production and the number of animals involved is very high. Widespread public debate has stimulated the call for more animal friendly, alternative systems to barren

  6. Biological Systems, Energy Sources, and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Michael; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This five-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on biological systems as energy sources and on the teaching of this subject area. Chapter 1 discusses various topics related to energy and ecology, including biomass, photosynthesis and world energy balances, energy flow through ecosystems, and others. Chapter 2…

  7. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  8. Sports policy systems in regulated Rhineland welfare states : Differences in financial structures of sports clubs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Steven; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the resource dependencies of voluntary sports club in two Rhineland welfare states with differences in their organizational arrangements of sports (e.g. the centralization of the Sport for All policy). On the basis of the VOCASPORT typology of sports policy systems and the res

  9. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children in the Child Welfare System. Issue Brief No. 59, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that children in the child welfare system are given psychotropic medication at rates approximately three times higher than children and adolescents in the general population. Using data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, authors Wendy Walsh and Marybeth Mattingly report that among…

  10. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Strong Beginnings: Raising Awareness across Early Childhood and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Catherine; Danner, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Abuse or neglect and disability often go hand in hand. Unfortunately, most professionals who work with maltreated young children are not aware of early childhood and disability-related resources and services available. In order to raise awareness across early childhood and child welfare systems, a five-week advanced training for volunteer child…

  11. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  12. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Fish welfare assurance system: initial steps to set up an effective tool to safeguard and monitor farmed fish welfare at a company level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, van de J.W.; Poelman, M.; Lambooij, E.; Bégout, M.L.; Pilarczyk, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to take a first step in the development of a process-oriented quality assurance (QA) system for monitoring and safeguarding of fish welfare at a company level. A process-oriented approach is focused on preventing hazards and involves establishment of critical steps in a process tha

  14. Dual-System Families: Cash Assistance Sequences of Households Involved with Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, JiYoung; Romich, Jennifer L; Hook, Jennifer L; Lee, JoAnn S; Marcenko, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Dual-system families, those involved with the child welfare system and receiving public cash assistance, may be more vulnerable than families only connected to either of the two systems. This study advances our understanding of the heterogeneous and dynamic cash assistance histories of dual-system families in the post-welfare reform era. With merged administrative data from [state name removed] over the period 1998 to 2009, we use cluster analysis to group month-to-month sequences of cash assistance use among households over the 37-month period surrounding child removal. Close to two thirds of families who received any assistance either had a short spell of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) or lost TANF. Smaller percentages had steady support. Families who lose assistance are less likely than average to reunify while those who connect to benefits are more likely, suggesting coordination between systems may serve dual-system families well.

  15. The techno-entrepreneur of the future: Perspectives and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesteijn, W.; Sjoer, E.

    2010-01-01

    Present sustainability problems require a new type of techno-entrepreneurship, in which traditional entrepreneurial qualities are combined with new capabilities related to the role, mission and responsibilities of future engineers. There are two sources of these new capabilities: Innovation Systems

  16. The techno-entrepreneur of the future: Perspectives and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesteijn, W.; Sjoer, E.

    2010-01-01

    Present sustainability problems require a new type of techno-entrepreneurship, in which traditional entrepreneurial qualities are combined with new capabilities related to the role, mission and responsibilities of future engineers. There are two sources of these new capabilities: Innovation Systems

  17. Techno-economic assessment of the need for bulk energy storage in low-carbon electricity systems with a focus on compressed air storage (CAES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, Hossein

    Increasing electrification of the economy while decarbonizing the electricity supply is among the most effective strategies for cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to abate climate change. This thesis offers insights into the role of bulk energy storage (BES) systems to cut GHG emissions from the electricity sector. Wind and solar energies can supply large volumes of low-carbon electricity. Nevertheless, large penetration of these resources poses serious reliability concerns to the grid, mainly because of their intermittency. This thesis evaluates the performance of BES systems - especially compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology - for integration of wind energy from engineering and economic aspects. Analytical thermodynamic analysis of Distributed CAES (D-CAES) and Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) suggest high roundtrip storage efficiencies ( 80% and 70%) compared to conventional CAES ( 50%). Using hydrogen to fuel CAES plants - instead of natural gas - yields a low overall efficiency ( 35%), despite its negligible GHG emissions. The techno-economic study of D-CAES shows that exporting compression heat to low-temperature loads (e.g. space heating) can enhance both the economic and emissions performance of compressed air storage plants. A case study for Alberta, Canada reveals that the abatement cost of replacing a conventional CAES with D-CAES plant practicing electricity arbitrage can be negative (-$40 per tCO2e, when the heat load is 50 km away from the air storage site). A green-field simulation finds that reducing the capital cost of BES - even drastically below current levels - does not substantially impact the cost of low-carbon electricity. At a 70% reduction in the GHG emissions intensity of the grid, gas turbines remain three times more cost-efficient in managing the wind variability compared to BES (in the best case and with a 15-minute resolution). Wind and solar thus, do not need to wait for availability of cheap BES systems to cost

  18. Do pairing systems improve welfare of captive Red-Legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in laying cages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, R; Sánchez-García, C; Alonso, M E; Rodríguez, P L; Gaudioso, V R

    2012-08-01

    Although animal welfare has become an important premise in poultry, little attention has been paid to the effects of present-day rearing methods on the welfare of game birds, species released for hunting and re-establishment purposes. This work studied the effect of pairing methods on the welfare of the Red-Legged partridge kept in laying cages (4,500 cm2), a commonly hunted game species in Western Europe. Agonistic behavior and possible injuries caused by aggression were studied during the pairing and laying period in 2 types of couples: the forced type (n=24), 1 male and 1 female randomly chosen and placed in the same cage, and the free type (n=24), where the female had the opportunity to chose between 4 males, using the time spent by the female near each male as female choice parameter. Welfare of partridges was affected by pairing system, as aggressive behavior, divorces and injuries were observed in a higher rate in forced pairs (25% of pairs did not finish the productive cycle) than in free pairs (16.6%). In addition, more females were attacked in forced pairs, whereas in free pairs, the number of attacked males and mutual aggression was increased. Males tended to display more aggressive behavior than females, pecking mainly on the head and back of females. Although injuries were observed in a minor rate in free pairs, a higher mortality was reported in females compared with males from both free and forced pairs (6 females died in total). The poor welfare in a high percentage of laying pairs hampers the development of sustainable rearing methods for the species. Thus, farmers should consider avoiding forced pairing.

  19. Samotne rodzicielstwo w systemie pomocowym państwa/ Single parenthood in the government welfare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EWA JURCZYK-ROMANOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on the subject of government welfare system aimed at single parents are presented in the article. Changes of civilisation are a cause of an escalation of the phenomenon of single parenthood in Poland, with the number of divorces rising year by year and an increase in the number of people who decide to live in concubinates or become single parents of children born out of wedlock. The withdrawal of the government from numerous forms of support for that social group is observed simultaneously with the aforementioned changes. A choice of labour law, social security and family law regulations is analysed at length in the article dedicated to single parenthood in the government welfare system.

  20. Making It Work Without a Family Drug Court: Connecticut's Approach to Parental Substance Abuse in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungemack, Jane; Giovannucci, Marilou; Moy, Samuel; Ohrenberger, Karen; Dematteo, Thomas; Smith, Staceyann

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse presents, complex challenges for the child welfare system and courts. This article describes the State of Connecticut's experience implementing the Recovery Specialist Voluntary Program (RSVP), a recovery support program designed to confront the problem of parental substance abuse within the child welfare system without, a family drug court. The state-level collaboration efforts, system changes, factors affecting development and implementation of RSVP, program participants, and preliminary outcomes are described.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic/wind/battery/hydrogen systems for very small-scale applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of three stand-alone hybrid power systems based on renewable energy sources which supply a specific group of low-power consumers. This particular case includes measuring sensors and obstacle lights on a meteorological mast for wind measurements requiring an uninterrupted power supply in cold climate conditions. Although these low-power (100 W measuring sensors and obstacle lights use little energy, their energy consumption is not the same as the available solar energy obtained on a daily or seasonal basis. In the paper, complementarity of renewable energy sources was analysed, as well as one of short-term lead-acid battery-based storage and seasonal, hydrogen-based (electrolyser, H2 tank, and fuel cells storage. These relatively complex power systems were proposed earlier for high-power consumers only, while this study specifically highlights the role of the hydrogen system for supplying low-power consumers. The analysis employed a numerical simulation method using the HOMER software tool. The results of the analysis suggest that solar and wind-solar systems, which involve meteorological conditions as referred to in this paper, include a relatively large number of lead-acid batteries. Additionally, the analysis suggests that the use of hydrogen power systems for supplying low power-consumers is entirely justifiable, as it significantly reduces the number of batteries (two at minimum in this particular case. It was shown that the increase in costs induced by the hydrogen system is acceptable.

  2. Compressed Air Energy Storage: Optimal Performance and Techno-Economical Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vadasz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic and techno-economical analysis of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system subjected to an exogenous periodic electricity price function of the interconnection is presented. The fundamental parameters affecting the thermodynamic performance and the techno-economical cost-benefit indices are identified and corresponding optimisation problems are formulated. The results of the analysis permit to obtain the optimal values of the fundamental plant parameters to be used in the design process.

  3. A techno-economic assessment of primary heat transport system decontamination in support of decommissioning Pickering Nuclear Generating Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, A.; Krasznai, J. [Kinectrics, Inc., Analytical and Waste Services Dept., Toronto, Ontario, (Canada); Vijay, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Nuclear Decommissioning Organization, Toronto, Ontario, (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The operating reactor units at Pickering are expected to be permanently shut down by approximately 2020 (this nominal date is for planning purposes only) and then decommissioned. OPG has adopted the 'Deferred Dismantling' strategy for decommissioning its nuclear plants. In contrast with prompt dismantling, radioactive decay leads to reduced dose expenditure during deferred dismantling. As part of the decommissioning strategy, chemical decontamination of the primary heat transport (PHT) system may be undertaken prior to Safe Storage. Decommissioning costs depend significantly on the chosen deferral period. The overall objective of the present work was to contribute to the optimization of the existing decommissioning plan by assessing the benefits of decontamination. Accordingly, an overall cost-benefit analysis for PHT system decontamination was performed. Details are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Multiple Response System: Evaluation of Policy Change in North Carolina's Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C Nicole; Rosanbalm, Katie D; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-11-01

    Systemic challenges within child welfare have prompted many states to explore new strategies aimed at protecting children while meeting the needs of families, but doing so within the confines of shrinking budgets. Differential Response has emerged as a promising practice for low or moderate risk cases of child maltreatment. This mixed methods evaluation explored various aspects of North Carolina's differential response system, known as the Multiple Response System (MRS), including: child safety, timeliness of response and case decision, frontloading of services, case distribution, implementation of Child and Family Teams, collaboration with community-based service providers and Shared Parenting. Utilizing Child Protective Services (CPS) administrative data, researchers found that compared to matched control counties, MRS: had a positive impact on child safety evidenced by a decline in the rates of substantiations and re-assessments; temporarily disrupted timeliness of response in pilot counties but had no effect on time to case decision; and increased the number of upfront services provided to families during assessment. Qualitative data collected through focus groups with providers and phone interviews with families provided important information on key MRS strategies, highlighting aspects that families and social workers like as well as identifying areas for improvement. This information is useful for continuous quality improvement efforts, particularly related to the development of training and technical assistance programs at the state and local level.

  5. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Flaviana Gottardo; Marta Brscic; Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and ...

  6. Strategies for optimal penetration of intermittent renewables in complex energy systems based on techno-operational objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Alessandro; Salza, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Energetica ' ' L. Poggi' ' , Universita di Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 2, 56126 PISA (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are mainly used in the electrical sector. Electricity is not a storable commodity. Hence it is necessary to produce the requested quantity and distribute it through the system in such a way as to ensure that electricity supply and demand are always evenly balanced. This constraint is actually the main problem related to the penetration of new renewables (wind and photovoltaic power) in the context of complex energy systems. Moreover the design of optimal energy resource mixes in climate change mitigation actions is a challenge faced in many places. The paper analyzes the problem of new renewable energy sources penetration. The case of Italian scenario is considered as a meaningful reference due to the characteristic size and the complexity of the same. The various energy scenarios are evaluated with the aid of a multipurpose software taking into account the interconnections between the different energetic uses. In particular it is shown how the penetration of new renewable energy sources is limited at an upper level by technological considerations and it will be more sustainable if an integration of the various energy uses (thermal, mobility and electrical) will be considered. A series of optimized scenarios are developed. In each case the maximum RES penetration feasible with the constraints was defined. Then analysis is applied to an energy system model of Italy showing how an integrated development of CHP and electric mobility can aid a further integration of wind and photovoltaic energy power. Finally the primary energy consumption saving possible in case of consistent penetration of intermittent renewables and CHP was identified. (author)

  7. Techno-economic analysis of a roof-integrated solar air heating system for drying fruit and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekumar, A. [Dept. of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022 (India)

    2010-11-15

    The solar air heater was 46 m{sup 2} and recorded a maximum temperature of 76.6 C. The dryer was loaded with 200 kg of fresh pineapple slices 5 mm thick. The initial moisture content of 82% was reduced to the desired level (<10%) within 8 h. The performance of the dryer was analyzed in detail by three methods namely annualized cost, present worth of annual savings, and present worth of cumulative savings. The cost of drying 1 kg pineapple worked out to Rs. 11 which was roughly half of that of an electric dryer. The payback period worked out to 0.54 year, much less than the estimated life of the system (20 years). (author)

  8. The welfare evaluation of laying hens reared with alternative housing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bertuzzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hens housed in battery cages are more concentrated per surface unit (450 cm2/bird. Associated to this breeding system are economic, hygienic and healthy advantages. However, the battery cage housing of laying hens is strongly criticised for the poor bird’s “quality of life”. For this reason EU regulations will exclude the use of battery cages in the near future. Several papers have emphasised that in any particular system there are certain specific aspects, which are critical to the welfare of birds housed in it (Appleby and Hughes, 1991....

  9. Stress and Welfare of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 in a Coupled Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Baßmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were investigated for physiological stress parameters to assess the influence of different cultivation techniques on fish welfare. The fish were reared in two conceptually identical recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS constructed in a greenhouse. One system was combined with a floating raft hydroponic unit to culture cucumbers (Cucumis sativus only using the process water. The second system remained without the plant cultivation unit and functioned as the control. Water quality was monitored regularly by measuring dissolved nutrients and physical water parameters. During 87 days, a total of 71 fish from each system (n = 142 were studied, with a final sampling of all fish (n = 107 at the end of the experiment. Blood from the caudal vein was analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol and the glucose concentration. In addition, fish were investigated for external injuries on their skin, fins and barbels. The results demonstrate that the system design had no influence on fish mortalities and growth rates. Furthermore, cortisol and blood glucose levels did not differ significantly between the two systems. However, the number of external injuries was significantly lower in the aquaponics, providing evidence that co-cultivation of fish and plants might offer benefits to the welfare of the fish.

  10. Vint Cerf. TECHNOS Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Mardell

    1998-01-01

    Discussion with Vinton G. Cerf, widely known as father of the Internet and creator of the original email system, focuses on societal implications of the Internet; filtering; hypertext; email; the need for a global legal framework; e-commerce and potential for Web-based businesses; and implications of the Internet for education. (LRW)

  11. Vint Cerf. TECHNOS Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Mardell

    1998-01-01

    Discussion with Vinton G. Cerf, widely known as father of the Internet and creator of the original email system, focuses on societal implications of the Internet; filtering; hypertext; email; the need for a global legal framework; e-commerce and potential for Web-based businesses; and implications of the Internet for education. (LRW)

  12. Samotne rodzicielstwo w systemie pomocowym państwa/ Single parenthood in the government welfare system

    OpenAIRE

    EWA JURCZYK-ROMANOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Reflections on the subject of government welfare system aimed at single parents are presented in the article. Changes of civilisation are a cause of an escalation of the phenomenon of single parenthood in Poland, with the number of divorces rising year by year and an increase in the number of people who decide to live in concubinates or become single parents of children born out of wedlock. The withdrawal of the government from numerous forms of support for that social group is observed simul...

  13. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  14. Alternative farrowing accommodation: welfare and economic aspects of existing farrowing and lactation systems for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, E M; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2012-01-01

    There is growing societal pressure, expressed through government legislation and consumers' purchasing choices, to abolish livestock systems considered detrimental to farm animal welfare. Such systems include farrowing crates, which are behaviourally and physically restrictive for sows. Therefore, identifying less restrictive farrowing systems for commercial implementation has become an important focus of pig research. Despite numerous attempts to develop indoor alternatives to crates, there is as yet no universal acceptance of such systems at the commercial level. The primary concern is piglet survival, because often favourable figures are reported at the experimental level, but not replicated in commercial evaluation. Alternative farrowing systems should equal or surpass survival levels in conventional systems and perform consistently across a range of farm circumstances for widespread commercial implementation. In addition, it is important that alternatives consider ease of management, operator safety and economic sustainability. Utilising a large database of literature, 12 existing alternative indoor systems were identified and compared against each other, conventional crates and outdoor systems. An assessment of how well alternative systems satisfy the design criteria for meeting animals' biological needs was carried out by developing a welfare design index (WDI). The physical and financial performance of these systems was also evaluated and summarised. The derived WDI yielded values of 0.95 for conventional crates, with higher scores for commercial outdoor systems of 1.10 and indoor group farrowing or multi-suckling systems (e.g. Thorstensson = 2.20). However, the high total piglet mortality (23.7% ± s.e. 2.26) in indoor group systems compared with conventional crates (18.3% ± s.e. 0.63) and outdoor systems (17.0% ± s.e. 2.05), together with the added capital cost (92% more than conventional crates, 249% more than commercial outdoor huts), mainly as a

  15. Techno-Anthropologists as Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone Stub

    2015-01-01

    study of practice change the researchers perspective. For Techno-Anthropologist, this means that asking in specific ways about technology and having a focus on technology in the data collection and fieldwork will (should) influence what they see, the data they collect and their analysis – and also...... the way the informants think and the way people talk about practice and technology. The Techno-Anthropological researcher should be aware and actively use the potential for change in the empirical study of technology. In this chapter I exemplify and examine how and why change can be embraced and seen...... as an integral part of Techno-Anthropological studies in Health Informatics and beyond. This statement is supported through reflections on empirical examples, qualitative methods, and ethical and philosophical considerations on research and change. The chapter concludes that Techno-Anthropologists should...

  16. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems may have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part II-Ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Bruce; Mejdell, Cecilie; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Moe, Randi Oppermann

    2015-09-03

    The EU ban on conventional barren cages for laying hens from 2012 has improved many aspects of laying hen welfare. The new housing systems allow for the expression of highly-motivated behaviors. However, the systems available for intensive large-scale egg production (e.g., aviaries, floor housing systems, furnished cages) may cause other welfare challenges. We have reviewed the literature regarding the health, behavior, production characteristics, and welfare of laying hens when exposed to ammonia in their housing environment. Concentrations of ammonia gas are commonly high in aviaries and floor housing systems in which manure is not regularly removed, whereas they are usually lower in furnished cages. High levels are found during the cold season when ventilation flow is often reduced. Ammonia is a pungent gas, and behavioral studies indicate chickens are averse to the gas. High concentrations of gaseous ammonia can have adverse health effects and, when very high, even influence production performance. The most profound effects seen are the occurrence of lesions in the respiratory tract and keratoconjunctivitis. There is also evidence that high ammonia concentrations predispose poultry to respiratory disease and secondary infections. We conclude that there are animal welfare challenges related to high ammonia levels, and that immediate actions are needed. Development of improved systems and management routines for manure removal and ventilation will be important for the reduction of ammonia levels and hence will contribute to safeguarding hen welfare.

  17. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems may have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part II—Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce David

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU ban on conventional barren cages for laying hens from 2012 has improved many aspects of laying hen welfare. The new housing systems allow for the expression of highly-motivated behaviors. However, the systems available for intensive large-scale egg production (e.g., aviaries, floor housing systems, furnished cages may cause other welfare challenges. We have reviewed the literature regarding the health, behavior, production characteristics, and welfare of laying hens when exposed to ammonia in their housing environment. Concentrations of ammonia gas are commonly high in aviaries and floor housing systems in which manure is not regularly removed, whereas they are usually lower in furnished cages. High levels are found during the cold season when ventilation flow is often reduced. Ammonia is a pungent gas, and behavioral studies indicate chickens are averse to the gas. High concentrations of gaseous ammonia can have adverse health effects and, when very high, even influence production performance. The most profound effects seen are the occurrence of lesions in the respiratory tract and keratoconjunctivitis. There is also evidence that high ammonia concentrations predispose poultry to respiratory disease and secondary infections. We conclude that there are animal welfare challenges related to high ammonia levels, and that immediate actions are needed. Development of improved systems and management routines for manure removal and ventilation will be important for the reduction of ammonia levels and hence will contribute to safeguarding hen welfare.

  18. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and....../or the recording frequency, reducing sample sizes, more intensive use of existing data and by exchanging external for internal recordings....

  19. Research Group Introduction : Welfare System Laboratory, Dept.of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    関, 弘和

    Welfare system laboratory in Chiba Institute of Technology consists of twenty students. The research subjects include the driving control system of electric powered wheelchairs, myoelectric hand control based on EMG signal analysis and non-daily behavior detection monitoring system for elderly people.

  20. Welfare assessment of dairy cows housed in a tie-stall system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vučemilo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare assessment methods and techniques developed as a result of great interest of scientific and consumer populations regarding the welfare of animals housed in farms. In view of the fact that welfare by definition includes both physical and mental health, the welfare quality assessment includes an extensive number of measures. Welfare assessment was performed in two stables in which cows are kept in tie-stall by using the specific method described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocol for Cattle. The measures included body condition score, qualitative behaviour assessment and body hygiene. The welfare assessment confirmed the importance of quality housing for ensuring better performance from animals, thus also affecting their health and productivity. It also pointed out the necessity of freeing animals by providing them with the possibility of free movement, whereat they can exhibit their physiological behaviour. It is definitely important to continue research, expand the number of researched measures in order to confirm the most useful indicators for welfare assessment and to identify the factors that within the animals’ physical and social environment affect the increase of their welfare.

  1. Dissemination of a Multilevel Evidence-Based System of Parenting Interventions with Broad Application to Child Welfare Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Parenting interventions are relevant to many touch points of the child welfare system. This paper describes a multilevel system of parenting interventions called "Triple P" that matches intervention intensities to families, builds on a strong scientific base, provides multiple access points for parents, and offers a destigmatized, cost-efficient…

  2. Normative contestation in transitions ‘in the making’: Animal welfare concerns and system innovation in pig husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Geels, F.; Leeuwis, C.; Mierlo, van B.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of system innovations mainly focused on historical cases that were driven by commercial motivations of pioneers and entrepreneurs. This article investigates a system innovation in the making that is driven by normative concerns, such as sustainability or animal welfare, initially fo

  3. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  4. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  5. Special health care needs among children in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeisen, Heather; Casanueva, Cecilia; Urato, Mathew; Cross, Theodore

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine levels of special health care need among children in the child welfare system and how these needs may affect children's functioning. Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, a national probability study of children investigated for child maltreatment. The sample consisted of 5496 children aged 0 to 15 years at baseline. For analysis, we used descriptive statistics to determine special health care needs and children's functioning from baseline to 3-year follow-up. Logistic regression was used to examine correlates of special health care needs. At any point in the study period, approximately one third of the children were identified as having special health care needs. Overall, across 3 years of follow-up data, 50.3% of the children were identified as having special health care needs. Boys were significantly more likely than girls to have had special health care needs, and children aged 0 to 2 years at baseline were significantly less likely to have had special health care needs than older children. Adopted and foster children were significantly more likely to have had special health care needs than children never placed out of the home. The most commonly reported type of chronic health condition was asthma. The most commonly reported type of special need was a learning disability. Special health care needs are prevalent among children in the child welfare system. Many children with special health care needs have cognitive, language, adaptive, social, or behavioral functional impairments. Mechanisms are needed to ensure that this vulnerable population has access to and receives coordinated health and related social services.

  6. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  7. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  8. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  9. Patterns of mental health, substance abuse, and justice system involvement among youth aging out of child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Jeffrey; Goodkind, Sara; Pohlig, Ryan T; Schelbe, Lisa; Herring, David; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-07-01

    Although research on youth aging out of the child welfare system has increased, there has been limited focus on how their experiences vary. In particular, there is a need to examine patterns in the involvement of these youth in other systems, which indicate constellations of challenges facing these young people as they transition out of care and into adulthood. Using administrative data from a large birth cohort of individuals born between 1985 and 1994 whose families have been involved in the child welfare system, this article presents an analysis of the mental health, substance abuse, juvenile justice, and criminal justice system involvement of youth who have aged out of child welfare. Using a 2-step cluster analysis, we identify 5 subgroups of youth. Two of these groups, accounting for almost half of the youth, have little other system involvement and have child welfare care careers of relative stability. The other 3 groups, consisting of just over half of the youth, have much more extensive other system involvement, as well as care careers marked by instability and a greater proportion of time spent in congregate care.

  10. Smart technologies for detecting animal welfare status and delivering health remedies for rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, S M

    2014-04-01

    Although the emerging field of precision livestock farming (PLF) is predominantly associated with intensive animal production, there is increasing interest in applying smart technologies in extensive rangeland systems. Precision livestock farming technologies bring the possibility of closely monitoring the behaviour, liveweight and other parameters of individual animals in free-ranging systems. 'Virtual fencing', ideally based on positive reinforcement, i.e. rewarding animals for moving in a specified direction, has the potential to gently guide foraging livestock towards areas of vegetation identified by remote sensing. As well as reducing hunger, this could be integrated with weather forecasting to help ensure that animals are automatically directed to areas with appropriate shelter when adverse weather is forecast. The system could also direct animals towards handling facilities when required, reducing the fear and distress associated with being mustered. The integration of the various data collected by such a 'virtual shepherd' system should be able to rapidly detect disease and injury, and sick animals could then be automatically shepherded to an enclosure for treatment. In general, rangeland livestock already have the freedom to express normal behaviour, but PLF technologies could facilitate this. By bringing levels of monitoring and control normally associated with intensive production to rangeland systems, PLF has the potential, with appropriate adoption, to enhance the capacity of rangeland livestock production systems to meet key areas of welfare concern highlighted by the Five Freedoms.

  11. Welfare assessment of laying hens in furnished cages and non-cage systems: assimilating expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.; Reu, de K.; Herman, L.; Zoons, J.; Sonck, B.

    2008-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to carry out an assessment of welfare in an entirely objective manner. The choice of welfare indicators, as well as the assignment of relative weightings to these indicators, both involve a certain degree of subjectivity. The aim of this study was to create a possible metho

  12. Understanding the Use of Psychotropic Medications in the Child Welfare System: Causes, Consequences, and Proposed Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Zakia; Calleja, Nancy G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the progressively increasing number of children prescribed psychotropic medication, while findings have illustrated significantly greater usage among child welfare-involved children. These findings have raised serious concerns among mental health and child welfare professionals as well as the general public. To…

  13. Suicide Ideation, Depressive Symptoms, and Out-of-Home Placement among Youth in the U.S. Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the association between type of placement, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation among a sample of youth (7 years and older) as they entered the child welfare system and to examine the longitudinal effect of prior out-of-home placements and prior depressive symptoms on subsequent suicide ideation…

  14. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  15. Experiences of working from a freestanding position as a case manager when supporting clients in the Swedish welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno

    2016-06-01

    The Swedish state uses a case management function known as Personligt Ombud (PO). The role as PO differs from the traditional professional roles. It has a freestanding position in the welfare system. The aim of this study was to investigate POs' experiences of working from a freestanding position when supporting clients. Telephone interviews were conducted with 22 POs across Sweden. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by latent qualitative content analysis. The findings were reflected in three categories - freedom-promoted flexibility, surfing through a complex welfare system, and working for legitimacy. POs developed a holistic view to both the client as well as to the welfare system. POs experienced solely representing the client, which is a positive feature because part of the POs' role is advocating for the clients rights. The PO service differs from the PO service from other existing case management models and may need to develop strategies for decision-making and support in their own role. For example, they may use group supervision teams or 'reflective teams'. The freestanding position may also entail problems in terms of lack of legitimacy. It is important for POs to develop good platforms with the surrounding actors among others things to improve the co-ordination process. It could be interesting if the PO model would be tested in other countries that have a fragmented welfare system. The PO model may also be useful to other 'target groups' who are in need of co-ordinated rehabilitation services.

  16. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  17. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  18. Collaborative Research in Child Welfare: A Rationale for Rigorous Participatory Evaluation Designs to Promote Sustained Systems Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Shackelford, Kim; Kelly, Michael; Martin-Galijatovic, Ramie

    2011-01-01

    Expansion of the child welfare evidence base is a major challenge. The field must establish how organizational systems and practice techniques yield outcomes for children and families. Needed research must be grounded in practice and must engage practitioners and administrators via participatory evaluation. The extent to which successful practices…

  19. Effects of the Truck Suspension System on Animal Welfare, Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Costa, Filipe Antônio; Lopes, Letícia S.; Dalla Costa, Osmar Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Transportation is a complex stressor in which animals are exposed to a series negatively stimuli, such as vibration, new environmental conditions, variation in temperature and humidity, social mixing, noises among other poor factors, which can result in welfare problems and economic losses such as increased skin lesions, poorer pork quality traits. Transport stress may be reduced through a vehicle suspension system that provides a much smoother ride during transport, and consequently is less aversive to pigs. However, air suspension systems are more expensive and have bigger maintenance costs. This increase in transportation cost must be supported by the benefits from improvements in quality of freight transport; otherwise, the truckers will be paying unnecessarily for a similar or equivalent ride quality. Thus, finishing pigs were assessed after transport to slaughter by the same two double-decked trucks using two types of commercial vehicle suspension, leaf-spring and air suspension, to compare effects on blood cortisol and lactate at exsanguination, behaviour during lairage, and carcass (skin lesions) and pork quality traits. The use of leaf-spring suspension system negatively affects the welfare of pigs due to the increased carcass damage and resulted in poorer pork quality traits. Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two types of commercial suspension (leaf-spring (LS) vs. air suspension (AS)) installed on two similar double-decked trucks on blood cortisol and lactate concentration, lairage behavior, carcass skin lesions and pork quality traits of 120 crossbred pigs. The suspension type neither influenced pig behaviour in lairage nor blood cortisol and lactate concentrations (p > 0.10). However, when compared with the AS suspension system, the use of LS increased the number of skin lesions in the back and thigh (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively) and produced thigh with lower pHu (p < 0.001) and yellower colour

  20. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I-Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Bruce; Moe, Randi Oppermann; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-07-09

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban.

  1. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I—Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce David

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages or no access to litter (conventional cages. The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban.

  2. THE TRIUMPH OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: CONTESTING CORPORATE MOTHERHOOD AND THE CORPORATE WELFARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Turn-of-the-century advocates of corporate welfare work promoted a familial model of labor relations which opened the doors of labor management to women. Scientific management experts argued instead for personnel management based on a consumer marketplace model. Scientific managers gained the upper hand during World War I. Their success depended, in part, on defining women as unfit for executive positions in labor relations, thereby closing the doors of labor management to women. This regendering masked an equally significant abandonment of the welfare system’s contention that companies bore an inherent responsibility for the general welfare of their workers.

  3. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J

    2013-05-15

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  4. Does the seal licensing system in Scotland have a negative impact on seal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Nunny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license holders and informal interviews were conducted with key stakeholder types. Between February 2011 and the end of October 2015, 1229 gray seals and 275 common seals were reported shot under license to the Scottish Government. The numbers of seals reported as shot has reduced year-on-year since the licensing system was put in place. While some license holders, notably fish farms, were using some non-lethal forms of deterrent to reduce seal-related damage, these were often used alongside seal shooting. Of the seals reported as shot to the Scottish Government, only a small percentage were also reported to the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme, despite this being a licensing requirement. Only 2.3% of the shot gray seals and 4.5% of the shot common seals were necropsied. There is evidence from these necropsies that some seals had not died instantly or had not been shot in the manner recommended by the Scottish Seal Management Code of Practice. These preliminary results show that more carcasses need to be recovered and necropsied if the welfare implications of current seal shooting practice are to be properly assessed. The current legislation does not specify closed seasons to protect breeding seals and thirty-five per cent of necropsied seals were pregnant gray seals. Seals have also been shot during their lactation periods when pups are dependent on their mothers. This raises significant welfare concerns. The re-introduction of closed seasons specific to each species of seal is recommended along with greater effort to deploy non-lethal methods. Independent assessment of the number of seals being killed

  5. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  6. Does Formal Integration between Child Welfare and Behavioral Health Agencies Result in Improved Placement Stability for Adolescents Engaged with Both Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline

    2012-01-01

    National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioral health care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioral health were in the same larger agency. Joint training…

  7. 20 CFR 663.620 - How do the Welfare-to-Work program and the TANF program relate to the One-Stop delivery system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do the Welfare-to-Work program and the... TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Priority and Special Populations § 663.620 How do the Welfare-to-Work program and the TANF program relate to the One-Stop delivery system? (a) The local...

  8. Techno-Optimism and Rational Superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    -causation, where the future is held to somehow have a retroactive effect on the past. This suggests, I argue, that the underlying mechanism by which techno-optimism is supposed to be instrumental in bringing about the future is fundamentally superstitious. But does this superstition not go against our common...

  9. [Immigration and health: social inequalities in health disparities in the health system, in welfare and work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullini, A

    2011-01-01

    Within the analysis of the socio-economic context and the data from hospital discharges, the themes of social inequalities, health disparities, determinants of health care are discussed. Regular immigrants versus irregular, wealthy people versus those in poverty, they have access to and receive different health treatments, besides presenting risk conditions significantly different in relation to their social situation. Through the analysis of hospital discharge records as well as data from injuries at work, besides underestimations in foreign people and the greater risk of injuries for immigrants, it is evident how the aspects of inequalities connected to socioeconomic determinants and the different access to health services are pivotal for our health and welfare and that a profound change is required to tackle them properly, focusing on intervention on health care system, according to models which take into account not only evidence based medicine, but also narrative medicine, not only health protection, but also health promotion, so that equity and quality of health care is warranted for everyone.

  10. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Welfare equipment (Development of human friendly care support intelligent equipment / Development of home welfare equipment system); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Fukushi kiki (human friendly kaigo shien chino kiki kaihatsu / zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Since disabled persons increase with a progress of an aging society, while a care power decreases with a decrease in birth rate, development and practical use of the welfare equipment contributing to self-support of aged and handicapped persons, reduction of doctors' or therapists' burdens, and as a result, reduction of medical care costs are desirable. Among them, R and D and practical use are expected of the advanced welfare equipment and system based on human engineering technology contributing to improvement of lives of aged and handicapped persons, and support of nurses and cares of disabled persons. In fiscal 1998, on both human friendly care support intelligent equipment and home welfare equipment system, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. For the former, 'heart disease diagnosis and treatment total support system,' and for the latter, 'body function rehabilitation support system' were surveyed. (NEDO)

  11. Techno-economic performance evaluation of solar tower plants with integrated multi-layered PCM thermocline thermal energy storage - A comparative study to conventional two-tank storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedéz, Rafael; Ferruzza, Davide; Arnaudo, Monica; Rodríguez, Ivette; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Hassar, Zhor; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Solar Tower Power Plants with thermal energy storage are a promising technology for dispatchable renewable energy in the near future. Storage integration makes possible to shift the electricity production to more profitable peak hours. Usually two tanks are used to store cold and hot fluids, but this means both higher investment costs and difficulties during the operation of the variable volume tanks. Instead, another solution can be a single tank thermocline storage in a multi-layered configuration. In such tank both latent and sensible fillers are employed to decrease the related cost up to 30% and maintain high efficiencies. This paper analyses a multi-layered solid PCM storage tank concept for solar tower applications, and describes a comprehensive methodology to determine under which market structures such devices can outperform the more conventional two tank storage systems. A detail model of the tank has been developed and introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results show that under current cost estimates and technical limitations the multi-layered solid PCM storage concept is a better solution when peaking operating strategies are desired, as it is the case for the two-tier South African tariff scheme.

  12. Performance and welfare of dairy cows in an alternative housing system in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberg, A E; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Reneau, J K

    2007-03-01

    The compost bedded pack dairy barn is an alternative housing system for lactating cows that has received increased attention in the last 2 yr. No descriptive data were available about this housing system. Therefore, a study of 12 compost dairy barns in Minnesota was conducted between late June 2005 and September 2005. The objectives of this study were to describe the housing system, identify management practices used in these herds, observe cow welfare, analyze herd performance and udder health prior to and following the change in housing system, and measure producer satisfaction with the system. Producers were interviewed on various aspects related to the housing system and herd management, samples of milk were collected, and cows were scored for locomotion, body condition, hygiene, and hock lesions. In addition, historical bulk tank information and Dairy Herd Improvement Association data were collected when available. At the time of the visit, the Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) was 325,000 +/- 172,000 cells/mL, rolling herd average was 10,457 +/- 1,138 kg per cow, and herd size was 73 +/- 35.5 lactating cows. The body condition score was 3.04 +/- 0.11, the cow hygiene score was 2.66 +/- 0.19, and 7.8% of all cows were clinically lame (locomotion score > or = 3 on a 1 to 5 scale). No hock lesions were present on 74.9% of the cows; 24.1% of cows had a mild lesion (hair loss), and 1.0% had a severe lesion (swollen hock). Historical analysis of the bulk tank SCC showed that 3 out of the 7 herds analyzed had a significant reduction in bulk tank SCC when compared with the previous housing system. Mastitis infection rates decreased significantly by 12% on 6 of the 9 farms analyzed. Reproductive performance significantly improved for 4 out of the 7 herds analyzed, with 25.9 and 34.5% improvement in heat detection rates and pregnancy rates, respectively. The main reasons producers reported for building this type of housing system were for

  13. Service Receipt and Mental Disorders in Child Welfare and Mental Health Systems in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Brimhall, Kim C; Lim, Caroline; Lecklitner, Greg; Olson, Adrienne

    2017-08-01

    Use of administrative data from child welfare (CW) and mental health systems in Los Angeles County provided a unique opportunity to more closely examine mental health needs of children dually served by these systems. This study examined the presence of mental disorders and correlates of receipt of mental health services by diagnostic classification in this population. Data were obtained for 3,191 children receiving services from Los Angeles County's Department of Children and Family Services and Department of Mental Health (DMH) between July 2011 and July 2012. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models examined the relationship between sociodemographic and CW-related characteristics and receipt of outpatient services by clinician-diagnosed mental disorder. Of the 3,191 referred children, 68% met criteria for one of the four diagnostic classifications. Mood disorders were the most common diagnosis (30%), followed by anxiety disorders (20%), behavior disorders (9%), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (9%). Children with prior DMH involvement received more services regardless of diagnosis. Older children (ages ≥15) received more services than younger children, whereas younger children were more likely to receive family therapy. Race-ethnicity did not play a significant role in predicting service receipt. The unique mental health needs of CW-involved children were exemplified by the differences found in the percentages of children with diagnoses of mental disorders between this sample and children in the general population. Because of family and placement disruptions among CW-involved children, it is important that the provision of individual therapy is not overlooked in favor of family therapy.

  14. The effects of welfare-enhancing system changes on the environmental impacts of broiler and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of 2 alternative UK broiler production systems that aim to improve bird welfare (a lower stocking density indoor system and the same system combined with heat exchangers for ventilation air) were compared with the baseline standard indoor system of broiler production. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of egg production in the conventional battery cage system (banned in the European Union in 2012) and its replacement, the enriched colony cage system, were compared. All comparisons were based on data obtained from the UK poultry industry, and the life cycle assessment method from cradle to farm gate was applied in the analyses. The results show that the lower density system slightly increased the global warming potential (GWP) of broiler production (by 2%), compared with the standard indoor system, due to increased heating requirements. However, when combined with the heat exchanger, the GWP was actually reduced by 3% when compared with the standard system. Both alternative systems for broilers resulted in a reduction in the eutrophication potential (by up to 8%) and acidification potential (by up to 10%). The results also showed that the colony cage system had 8% lower primary energy use and 3% lower GWP than the baseline cage system, due to better energy use efficiency and slightly improved productivity. There were only minor differences in the eutrophication and acidification potentials between different egg production systems. The results suggest that welfare-friendly changes in chicken systems can be achieved without a compromise in their environmental impacts.

  15. Fish Welfare in Aquaponic Systems: Its Relation to Water Quality with an Emphasis on Feed and Faeces—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijran Yavuzcan Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture (fish and hydroponic cultivation of plants. This review examines fish welfare in relation to rearing water quality, fish feed and fish waste and faeces to develop a sustainable aquaponic system where the co-cultured organisms, fish, bacteria in biofilters and plants, should be considered holistically in all aquaponics operations. Water quality parameters are the primary environmental consideration for optimizing aquaponic production and for directly impacting fish welfare/health issues and plant needs. In aquaponic systems, the uptake of nutrients should be maximised for the healthy production of the plant biomass but without neglecting the best welfare conditions for the fish in terms of water quality. Measures to reduce the risks of the introduction or spread of diseases or infection and to increase biosecurity in aquaponics are also important. In addition, the possible impacts of allelochemicals, i.e., chemicals released by the plants, should be taken into account. Moreover, the effect of diet digestibility, faeces particle size and settling ratio on water quality should be carefully considered. As available information is very limited, research should be undertaken to better elucidate the relationship between appropriate levels of minerals needed by plants, and fish metabolism, health and welfare. It remains to be investigated whether and to what extent the concentrations of suspended solids that can be found in aquaponic systems can compromise the health of fish. Water quality, which directly affects fish health and well-being, is the key factor to be considered in all aquaponic systems.

  16. Issues of Formation and Use of Financial Resources of the Social Welfare System (Case Study of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Valentinovna Tikhomirova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the social welfare system in the Komi Republic and in the Russian Federation on the whole is undergoing gradual reforming, the main goals of which are as follows: improving the quality of life; supporting the poor and vulnerable segments of the population; mitigating possible negative consequences of reforms; improving pension provision; further improvement of targeted social assistance; streamlining social benefits; development of the social services market. In this regard, the study of methodological basis for the formation and use of financial resources of the social welfare system becomes more and more important. The goal of this work is to develop theoretical and methodical approaches to the improvement of financial mechanism for the social welfare system in the region. The paper considers the formation and use of financial resources for social protection of population in the Republic of Komi. The author reveals specifics of formation of budgets of all levels and the powers of federal and regional authorities in the field of mutual responsibility. The paper shows the imbalance of financial resources and obligations at all levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. Scientific novelty of the work consists in the fact that it defines social protection as a financial category that provides redistribution of financial resources emerging in the process of formation of centralized and decentralized financial resources, through a set of forms and types of social protection aimed to ensure its targeted provision. On the basis of the national accounts system, which in terms of methodology focuses on a single international standard, the author develops a structure of forms and types of social protection, which are the basis of its financial mechanism: state social guarantees and minimum social standards; social benefits (social insurance and social assistance benefits; and social services. The paper considers main directions

  17. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks powered by solar energy sources a long-term promising solution for the mobile cellular network industry. This paper addresses issues of deployment and operation of two solar-powered global system for mobile communications (GSM BSs that are being deployed at present (GSM BS 2/2/2 and GSM BS 4/4/4. The study is based on the characteristics of South Korean solar radiation exposure. The optimum criteria as well as economic and technical feasibility for various BSs are analyzed using a hybrid optimization model for electric renewables. In addition, initial capital, replacement, operations, maintenance, and total net present costs for various solar-powered BSs are discussed. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the proposed solar system is compared with conventional energy sources in urban and remote areas.

  18. Caseworkers' and Supervisors' Perceptions of Ohio's Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochis, Shelia P.

    2013-01-01

    Children represent the future of mankind and their safety, well-being, and permanency are goals of the Department of Health and Human Services. The Department of Health and Human Services is the primary funding source for child welfare and protection in the United States; their requirements, rules, and laws must be upheld and understood by every…

  19. The Geostrategic, Techno-Nationalist Push Into Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Johnson-Freese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technological benefits of space hardware are universally recognized. One is hard pressed to find an area of the world where satellite dishes for television reception, satellite use for data transmission, or the Global Positioning System (GPS for multiple purposes are not utilized. But utilization of commercial or of other countries’ space assets does not equate to being a space-faring nation. Space-faring nations have, to varying degrees, their own capabilities. The importance of status as a space-faring nation comes from two sources: not having to rely on others for access to the benefits of space assets, and prestige that can translate into geopolitical influence. Beyond users and space-faring nations, there are those countries actively asserting space leadership in some form, whether regional or global. What pushes countries to go beyond being a spacefaring nation and assert leadership potential, including potentially engaging in an implicit or explicit space race, is techno-nationalism, which for the purposes of this paper refers to nationalism that becomes the impetus for technology development as an indicator of geostrategic power. It is often triggered by a threat or perception of a threat, including a threat to perceived leadership. Techno-nationalism carries with it an inherent quest for leadership, by some definition.

  20. Techno-anthropology and the digital natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The ethnographic field guide was a short-lived genre in the annals of anthropology. In this chapter I experimentally attempt to revive it. The original guides provided the ethnographer with a set of practical pointers on how to organise fieldwork, set up camp, maintain relations, and negotiate ac...... access in a particular geographical region of the world. The present field guide attempts to do so while entertaining (and eventually discarding) the idea that the World Wide Web has similar areal qualities and constitutes a field in which the techno-anthropologist can go to do work...... of digital natives, and that maintaining relations with these natives presents a challenge of its own. I argue that these challenges must be taken seriously, and that techno-anthropology could be ideally suited to do just that....

  1. METHODS FOR CALF WELFARE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the welfare assessment with reference to calves. Assessment methods were divided into individual level and farm (system level. At the farm level the ANI 35L is discussed and the ANSVSA, Romanian evaluation from is presented. Also, the EFSA opinion on poor welfare in intensive calf farming systems is presented.

  2. Techno-Literacy Practices of Emergent Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razeale G. Fernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available – This research explored the techno-literacy practices of emergent readers. The study found that young children experienced a multi-literate practices in their homes that comprised not only print and paper-based literacies but also techno-literacies. That television, games on tablets and phones are the sources of textual pleasure of young children.Families reported that children watched television and play games on tablets/phones regularly. This is due to the limited options of leisure activities available to younger children. Emergent readers are highly focused to televisual text as they demonstrate meaningmaking practices when they constantly ask questions and talk about what they are watching,hence they are active meaning-makers. The learning opportunities which include hand eye coordination, parallel processing, and problem solving skills young children acquired through playing computer games and games on tablet/iPad . Aside from these, they also developed a number of literacy skills as well as how to behave as players.It can be concluded thatexposure to imagery in electronic technologies contributed to the children’s literacy development. The literate identities of emergent readers can be further enhanced as they begin formal schooling. Data indicated that young children are developing techno-literacy practices and this concurs to the findings of Marsh (2010. Therefore, technology serves as a tool for the literacy development of young children. That techno-literacy practices of young children should be valued in school. Future research should also consider attitude, behavior and practices of parents towards the use of technology by children.

  3. Necessary organizational changes according to Burke-Litwin model in the head nurses system of management in healthcare and social welfare institutions - the Slovenia experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filej, Bojana; Skela-Savic, Brigita; Vicic, Visnja H; Hudorovic, Narcis

    2009-05-01

    To discover which changes should be implemented in the system of head nursing management in Slovenian healthcare institutions and social welfare institutions. The questionnaire was distributed to 155 head nurses of Slovenian hospitals, primary healthcare centres and social welfare institutions. The Burke-Litwin organizational change model has been used to look at which changes have to be implemented in the management system of head nurses. In hospitals head nurses have greater independent competence for planning professional training of nursing employees (pBurke-Litwin organizational change model, the elements to which changes should be introduced include "external environment" for primary healthcare centres and social welfare institutions, and "system (policies and procedures)" for primary healthcare centres. According to results of our study, changes are needed in leadership and management of nursing in primary healthcare centres. In social welfare institutions changes are only required in leadership. Organizational changes are not necessary for any element of the Burke-Litwin model for hospitals.

  4. Child protection systems within the Danish, Finnish and Norwegian welfare states - time for a child centric approach?,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pösö, Tarja; Skivenes, Marit; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the child protection systems and the Nordic welfare state in Denmark, Finland and Norway. Despite an ideological focus on prevention and provision of a fair amount of universal services and in-home child protection services for families and children...... protection and related services. Consequently, many principles of the present child protection systems are – and will remain – challenged by a child-centric orientation, in which valuing children's needs, rights and voice in situ are central....

  5. Report on a comprehensive research study (home welfare apparatus system - lifestyle); Sogo chosa kenkyu (zaitaku fukushi kiki system - lifestyle) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted on evacuation of aged people at disaster, life maintenance, and welfare apparatus which is applicable to the future change of life style and its harmony with the living environment. In the study of care apparatus, reported were the apparatus operational interface using the indoor environmental control simulation system, safety on moving/transfer equipment, experiment on opening/closing power of sliding doors, study of electric-driven wheel chairs, study of the sitting pressure of various wheel chairs, etc. In relation to the living environment, the paper reported planning of houses introducing care apparatus, assessment of system kitchen, disaster prevention measures for aged/handicapped people, study on performance of the combined use in the living environment, assessment of drops in floor level in the living space, etc. Also reported were assessment on the living environmental control state of serious paralyzers of the limbs, study of a network to support care at home, etc. 48 refs., 117 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. Multi-omic data integration and analysis using systems genomics approaches: methods and applications in animal production, health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kogelman, Lisette J A; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2016-04-29

    In the past years, there has been a remarkable development of high-throughput omics (HTO) technologies such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics across all facets of biology. This has spearheaded the progress of the systems biology era, including applications on animal production and health traits. However, notwithstanding these new HTO technologies, there remains an emerging challenge in data analysis. On the one hand, different HTO technologies judged on their own merit are appropriate for the identification of disease-causing genes, biomarkers for prevention and drug targets for the treatment of diseases and for individualized genomic predictions of performance or disease risks. On the other hand, integration of multi-omic data and joint modelling and analyses are very powerful and accurate to understand the systems biology of healthy and sustainable production of animals. We present an overview of current and emerging HTO technologies each with a focus on their applications in animal and veterinary sciences before introducing an integrative systems genomics framework for analysing and integrating multi-omic data towards improved animal production, health and welfare. We conclude that there are big challenges in multi-omic data integration, modelling and systems-level analyses, particularly with the fast emerging HTO technologies. We highlight existing and emerging systems genomics approaches and discuss how they contribute to our understanding of the biology of complex traits or diseases and holistic improvement of production performance, disease resistance and welfare.

  7. Web Research: Ten Tips for the Techno-Challenged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Most school administrators have a good conceptual grasp of technology and understand its value in education. Yet many are "closet techno-incompetents" when it comes to personal use. In this article, the author presents ten tips for the techno-challenged. The "advanced search" option, among others, is a helpful way to search for information.…

  8. The Techno-Literacy Practices of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    In many analyses of children's "emergent literacy" (Clay, 1966) practices, there is little acknowledgement of children's engagement in techno-literacy practices. This article discusses findings from a survey undertaken in a working-class community in the north of England which aimed to identify the "emergent techno-literacy"…

  9. Welfare Reform: Employers' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Virginia's Initiative for Employment Not Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bernice B. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Welfare Reform: Employers' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Virginia's Initiative for Employment Not Welfare by Bernice B. Wilson Daisy L. Stewart, Chair Vocational and Technical Education (ABSTRACT) Welfare reform has been an issue in America for many years. The need to make positive changes to the welfare system escalated to the point that federal legislation was passed in 1996. This legislation mandated that each state establish welfare-t...

  10. Animal health and welfare in production systems for organic fattening pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Kristina; Bochicchio, Davide; Hegelund, Lene

    2014-01-01

    respiratory problems, skin lesions (including abscesses and hernias) and tail wounds compared to conventional pigs. On the other hand, remarks because of joint lesions and white spot livers were more common among organic pigs. The risk of parasitic infections in organic fattening pigs has been confirmed....... To control endoparasites, outdoor areas should be rotated with as long interval as possible, i.e. by including the pigs in the crop rotation. Outdoor housing with functional wallows and access to grass and roots or outdoor runs and roughage can enhance pig welfare and reduce pen-mate-directed oral activity...

  11. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  12. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-05

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  13. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Marwan M.; Ibrik, Imad H. [Energy Research Centre, An-Najah National University, Nablus, P.O. Box 721, West Bank (Palestine)

    2006-04-01

    As a contribution to the development program of rural areas in Palestine, this paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. A computer-aided dynamic economic evaluation method with five indicators is used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more feasible than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (author)

  14. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrik, Imad [An-Najah National Univ., Nablus (PS). Energy Research Centre; Lecumberri, Marta

    2010-07-01

    The energy situation in Palestine is somewhat unique when compared to other countries in the Middle East. There are virtually no available natural resources, and due to the ongoing political situation, the Palestinians rely (or have to rely) almost totally on Israel for their energy needs. This paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. Economic evaluation methods are used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more useful than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (orig.)

  15. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...

  16. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  17. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  18. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Energy Supply of Remote Dump Site in Jordan Badia by Photovoltaic Systems, Diesel Generators and Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Smairan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of energy sources in remote regions in Jordan at the brink of the 21st century, it is necessary to view the use of solar energy in all applications as one of the most promising new and renewable energy sources. As a contribution to the development program of remote areas in Jordan Badia, this paper presents three energy supply alternatives (photovoltaic system, diesel generator and electric grid for a dump site for providing the electrical loads to the dump site according to their energy requirements. The result of this study shows that remote dump site in Jordan Badia will require about 5.32 kWh/day or 1940 kWh/yr to meet their basic power requirements for such loads as lighting and electronic appliances-radios and fans. Four dynamic indicators were used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. It is found that providing electricity to a dump site in a remote zone using photovoltaic systems is very beneficial and competitive with the other types of conventional energy sources, especially considering the decreasing prices of these systems and their increasing efficiencies and reliability. They have also the advantage of maintaining a clean environment. It is recommended that solar photovoltaic-based dump site electrification application should be encouraged by the government, especially for those rural sites without access to a grid supply.

  19. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows-reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Stig; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Hultén, Fredrik; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Lundeheim, Nils; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-06-09

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  20. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows–reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  1. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  2. The Influence of Techno-Capital and Techno-Disposition on the College-Going Processes of Latina/O College Students in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Charles; Straubhaar, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Latina/o students are one of the least likely populations to access technology and possess the techno-capital necessary to succeed in postsecondary education. This phenomenological qualitative research study used interviews with 20 Latina/o college students in Central Texas to examine how techno-capital and techno-disposition interact in complex…

  3. Techno-economic comparison of centralized versus decentralized biorefineries for two alkaline pretreatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Ryan J; Del Pilar Orjuela, Andrea; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Williams, Daniel L; Dale, Bruce E; Hodge, David B; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-02-01

    In this work, corn stover subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)(1) pretreatment or alkaline pre-extraction followed by hydrogen peroxide post-treatment (AHP pretreatment) were compared for their enzymatic hydrolysis yields over a range of solids loadings, enzymes loadings, and enzyme combinations. Process techno-economic models were compared for cellulosic ethanol production for a biorefinery that handles 2000tons per day of corn stover employing a centralized biorefinery approach with AHP or a de-centralized AFEX pretreatment followed by biomass densification feeding a centralized biorefinery. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) of these scenarios shows that the AFEX process resulted in the highest capital investment but also has the lowest minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) at $2.09/gal, primarily due to good energy integration and an efficient ammonia recovery system. The economics of AHP could be made more competitive if oxidant loadings were reduced and the alkali and sugar losses were also decreased.

  4. Novel integrated mechanical biological chemical treatment (MBCT) systems for the production of levulinic acid from fraction of municipal solid waste: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Ng, Kok Siew; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2016-09-01

    This paper, for the first time, reports integrated conceptual MBCT/biorefinery systems for unlocking the value of organics in municipal solid waste (MSW) through the production of levulinic acid (LA by 5wt%) that increases the economic margin by 110-150%. After mechanical separation recovering recyclables, metals (iron, aluminium, copper) and refuse derived fuel (RDF), lignocelluloses from remaining MSW are extracted by supercritical-water for chemical valorisation, comprising hydrolysis in 2wt% dilute H2SO4 catalyst producing LA, furfural, formic acid (FA), via C5/C6 sugar extraction, in plug flow (210-230°C, 25bar, 12s) and continuous stirred tank (195-215°C, 14bar, 20min) reactors; char separation and LA extraction/purification by methyl isobutyl ketone solvent; acid/solvent and by-product recovery. The by-product and pulping effluents are anaerobically digested into biogas and fertiliser. Produced biogas (6.4MWh/t), RDF (5.4MWh/t), char (4.5MWh/t) are combusted, heat recovered into steam generation in boiler (efficiency: 80%); on-site heat/steam demand is met; balance of steam is expanded into electricity in steam turbines (efficiency: 35%).

  5. Techno-economic performance evaluation of direct steam generation solar tower plants with thermal energy storage systems based on high-temperature concrete and encapsulated phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédez, R.; Arnaudo, M.; Topel, M.; Zanino, R.; Hassar, Z.; Laumert, B.

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, direct steam generation concentrated solar tower plants suffer from the absence of a cost-effective thermal energy storage integration. In this study, the prefeasibility of a combined sensible and latent thermal energy storage configuration has been performed from thermodynamic and economic standpoints as a potential storage option. The main advantage of such concept with respect to only sensible or only latent choices is related to the possibility to minimize the thermal losses during system charge and discharge processes by reducing the temperature and pressure drops occurring all along the heat transfer process. Thermodynamic models, heat transfer models, plant integration and control strategies for both a pressurized tank filled with sphere-encapsulated salts and high temperature concrete storage blocks were developed within KTH in-house tool DYESOPT for power plant performance modeling. Once implemented, cross-validated and integrated the new storage model in an existing DYESOPT power plant layout, a sensitivity analysis with regards of storage, solar field and power block sizes was performed to determine the potential impact of integrating the proposed concept. Even for a storage cost figure of 50 USD/kWh, it was found that the integration of the proposed storage configuration can enhance the performance of the power plants by augmenting its availability and reducing its levelized cost of electricity. As expected, it was also found that the benefits are greater for the cases of smaller power block sizes. Specifically, for a power block of 80 MWe a reduction in levelized electricity costs of 8% was estimated together with an increase in capacity factor by 30%, whereas for a power block of 126 MWe the benefits found were a 1.5% cost reduction and 16% availability increase.

  6. Why all anthropology should be called techno-anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that if we follow a pragmatist understanding of humans and technologies, there is no reason to keep these phenomena strongly separated. The suggestion that all anthropology should be called techno-anthropology might provoke some readers, but it is first and foremost intended...... as an invitation to think in ambitious terms about what techno- anthropology might be(come). The main contribution of the chapter is to introduce Bruno Latour and John Dewey as techno-anthropologists. While these two thinkers are known for many other engagements, and wrote in different times, they share...... turn to Dewey’s understanding of technology as inquiry, a concept that deliberately ignores the physical/psychological dichotomy. The chapter concludes with a couple of empirical examples of how the pragmatist perspective might guide techno-anthropological analysis....

  7. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.;

    2011-01-01

    dimension of scoring and labelling does not mean that we should reject them, but it does mean that we need to make the normative and ethical background explicit. The Welfare Quality® scoring system is used as a case study in order to highlight the role of underlying value-based decisions. In this scoring......), and any welfare scoring system will reflect a focus upon one or other definition. In Welfare Quality® 12 welfare criteria were defined, and the entire list of criteria was intended to cover relevant definitions of animal welfare. Second, two dimensions can structure an overall evaluation of animal welfare...... state of the animals or give priority to worse-off animals. In the Welfare Quality® scoring system the worse-off animals are treated as much more important than the others, but all welfare problems, major or minor, count. Fourth, one has to decide whether good scores on certain criteria can compensate...

  8. Intimate Relationship Challenges in Early Parenthood among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples Adopting via the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Kinkler, Lori A; Moyer, April M; Weber, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner's undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate "couple time" and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood.

  9. Making a Noise – Making a Difference: Techno-Punk and Terra-ism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham St John

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the convergence of post-punk/post-settler logics in the techno-punk development in Australia. Exploring how punk would become implicated in the cultural politics of a settler society struggling for legitimacy, it maps the ground out of which Labrats sound system (and their hybrid outfit Combat Wombat arose. It provides an entry to punk through an analysis of the concept of hardcore in the context of cultural mobilisations which, following more than two centuries of European colonisation, evince desires to make reparations and forge alliances with indigenous people and landscape. To achieve this, the article traces the contours and investigates the implications of Sydney’s techno-punk emergence (as seen in The Jellyheads, Non Bossy Posse, Vibe Tribe and Ohms not Bombs, tracking the mobile and media savvy exploits of 1990s DIY sound systems and techno terra-ists, aesthetes and activists adopting intimate and tactical media technologies, committing to independent and decentralised EDM creativity, and implicated in a movement for legitimate presence.

  10. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL...... elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low......-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co...

  11. Sistema fuzzy para estimativa do bem-estar de matrizes pesadas System fuzzy for estimate of welfare of broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo F. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entender o comportamento e suas pequenas variações decorrentes das mudanças do ambiente térmico e desenvolver modelos que simulem o bem-estar a partir de respostas das aves ao ambiente constituem o primeiro passo para a criação de um sistema de monitoramento digital de aves em galpões de produção. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um sistema de suporte à decisão com base na teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy para a estimativa do bem-estar de matrizes pesadas em função de frequências e duração dos comportamentos expressos pelas aves. O desenvolvimento do sistema passou por cinco etapas distintas: 1 organização dos dados experimentais; 2 apresentação dos vídeos em entrevista com "especialista"; 3 criação das funções de pertinência com base nas entrevistas e na revisão da literatura; 4 simulação de frequências de ocorrências e tempos médios de expressão dos comportamentos classificados como indicadores de bem-estar utilizando equações de regressão obtidas na literatura, e 5 construção das regras, simulação e validação do sistema. O sistema fuzzy desenvolvido estimou satisfatoriamente o bem-estar de matrizes pesadas, tendo na sua última versão, com maior número de regras, acertado 77,8% dos dados experimentais, comparados com as respostas esperadas por um especialista. O sistema pode ser utilizado como instrumento matemático-computacional para apoiar decisões em galpões de produção de matrizes pesadas.To understand the behavior and its small variations originated from changes of the thermal environment and to develop models that simulate the welfare from broiler breeders' answer to the environment constitute the first step for the creation of a system for digital monitoring of broiler breeders housing. In this paper it was developed a system of decision support based on the fuzzy conjuncts' theory to estimate the welfare of broiler breeders in function of frequencies and times of occurrences of behaviors. The

  12. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... contractors with approved Public Health Service Welfare Assurances. (e) The Contractor may...

  13. The utilization of the Welfare Quality® assessment for determining laying hen condition across three housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, R A; Fulton, R M; Mench, J A

    2016-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(®) Assessment protocol for poultry ( WQA: ) provides animal-based measures allowing welfare comparisons across farms and housing systems. It was used to compare Lohmann LSL Classic White hens housed in an enriched colony ( EC: ), aviary ( AV: ), and conventional cage system ( CC: ) on a commercial farm over 2 flock cycles. Hens (n = 100/system) were scored on a variety of measures. A baseline measurement was made at placement at 19 wk of age for 1 flock, since AV hens had been reared in an aviary pullet facility ( AVP: while EC and CC hens were reared in a conventional pullet facility ( CCP: ). Hens in all systems were then assessed at 52 and 72 wk of age. Necropsies were performed on all mortalities 1 wk before and after the WQA sampling. WQAs were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests for prevalence and Fisher's exact tests for severity. There was an effect of rearing, with AVP having shorter claws (P = 0.01), dirtier feathers (P = 0.03), and more keel abnormalities (P hens, there were several significant housing system effects across flocks and age periods (all P ≤ 0.05). AV and EC hens had more keel abnormalities than CC hens. They also had fewer foot abnormalities than CC hens, although those in AV hens were more severe. AV hens had consistently dirtier feathers than EC and CC hens. While AV hens had the best overall feather cover, feather loss patterns suggested that loss was due to head pecking for AV, whereas in EC and CC it was due to cage abrasion. The necropsy findings and the WQA results were similar, except that the WQA failed to find enteritis at 19 wk, although it was detected in the necropsies during this sampling period. These results show that the WQA is a useful tool for detecting hen condition differences across housing systems.

  14. Sexual Abuse Histories of Young Women in the U.S. Child Welfare System: A Focus on Trauma-Related Beliefs and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breno, Angela L.; Galupo, M. Paz

    2007-01-01

    This research provides descriptive data regarding sexual abuse histories of high-functioning women (N = 84; 18-25 years old) previously in the child welfare system. Placement histories of foster youth who were sexually abused were distinct. Girls with a history of sexual abuse were more likely to have been in restrictive housing and changed…

  15. A techno-economic & environmental analysis of a novel technology utilizing an internal combustion engine as a compact, inexpensive micro-reformer for a distributed gas-to-liquids system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joshua B.

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) contribute to global warming, and must be mitigated. With GHG mitigation as an overarching goal, this research aims to study the potential for newfound and abundant sources of natural gas to play a role as part of a GHG mitigation strategy. However, recent work suggests that methane leakage in the current natural gas system may inhibit end-use natural gas as a robust mitigation strategy, but that natural gas as a feedstock for other forms of energy, such as electricity generation or liquid fuels, may support natural-gas based mitigation efforts. Flaring of uneconomic natural gas, or outright loss of natural gas to the atmosphere results in greenhouse gas emissions that could be avoided and which today are very large in aggregate. A central part of this study is to look at a new technology for converting natural gas into methanol at a unit scale that is matched to the size of individual natural gas wells. The goal is to convert stranded or otherwise flared natural gas into a commercially valuable product and thereby avoid any unnecessary emission to the atmosphere. A major part of this study is to contribute to the development of a novel approach for converting natural gas into methanol and to assess the environmental impact (for better or for worse) of this new technology. This Ph. D. research contributes to the development of such a system and provides a comprehensive techno-economic and environmental assessment of this technology. Recognizing the distributed nature of methane leakage associated with the natural gas system, this work is also intended to advance previous research at the Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy that aims to show that small, modular energy systems can be made economic. This thesis contributes to and analyzes the development of a small-scale gas-to-liquids (GTL) system aimed at addressing flared natural gas from gas and oil wells. This thesis includes system engineering around a design that

  16. Techno-Economic Assessment of Four CO2 Storage Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruson J.-F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA in their last projections (World Energy Outlook 2013 has considered only around 1% of global fossil fuel-fired power plants could be equipped with CCS by 2035. The SiteChar project funded by 7th Framework Programme of European Commission gives the opportunity to evaluate the most influential parameters of techno-economic evaluations of four feasible European projects for CO2 geological storage located onshore and offshore and related to aquifer storage or oil and gas reservoirs, at different stages of characterization. Four potential CO2 storage sites have been assessed in terms of storage costs per tonne of CO2 permanently stored (equivalent cost based. They are located offshore UK, onshore Denmark, offshore Norway and offshore Italy. The four SiteChar techno-economic evaluations confirm it is not possible to derive any meaningful average cost for a CO2 storage site. The results demonstrate that the structure of costs for a project is heterogeneous and the storage cost is consequently site dependent. The strategy of the site development is fundamental, the technical choices such as the timing, rate and duration of injection are also important. The way monitoring is managed, using observation wells and logging has a strong impact on the estimated monitoring costs. Options to lower monitoring costs, such as permanent surveys, exist and should be further investigated. Table 1 below summarizes the cost range in Euro per tonne (Discount Rate (DR at 8% for the different sites, which illustrates the various orders of magnitude due to the specificities of each site. These figures have how to be considered with care. In particular the Italian and Norwegian sites present very specific

  17. HIV Education and Welfare Services in Primary Care: An Empirical Model of Integration in Brazil’s Unified Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rahbel; Pinto, Rogério M.; Wall, Melanie M.

    2017-01-01

    Integration of health education and welfare services in primary care systems is a key strategy to solve the multiple determinants of chronic diseases, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, there is a scarcity of conceptual models from which to build integration strategies. We provide a model based on cross-sectional data from 168 Community Health Agents, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians in two municipalities in Brazil’s Unified Health System (UHS). The outcome, service integration, comprised HIV education, community activities (e.g., health walks and workshops), and documentation services (e.g., obtainment of working papers and birth certificates). Predictors included individual factors (provider confidence, knowledge/skills, perseverance, efficacy); job characteristics (interprofessional collaboration, work-autonomy, decision-making autonomy, skill variety); and organizational factors (work conditions and work resources). Structural equation modeling was used to identify factors associated with service integration. Knowledge and skills, skill variety, confidence, and perseverance predicted greater integration of HIV education alongside community activities and documentation services. Job characteristics and organizational factors did not predict integration. Our study offers an explanatory model that can be adapted to examine other variables that may influence integration of different services in global primary healthcare systems. Findings suggest that practitioner trainings to improve integration should focus on cognitive constructs—confidence, perseverance, knowledge, and skills. PMID:28335444

  18. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  19. 从“传统福利”到“积极福利”:我国困境儿童家庭支持福利体系构建研究%From “Traditional Welfare ” to “Positive Welfare ”:Constructing the Vulnerable Children Family Support Welfare System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满小欧; 王作宝

    2016-01-01

    社会转型与变迁使传统补缺型儿童救助政策已无法承载当前的困境儿童问题。与传统儿童福利制度相比,家庭支持福利制度既包括来自政府及福利机构提供的福利津贴也包括一系列支持性服务项目,体现了理念上的革新,注重以预防策略为主的积极性政策及专业社工服务的提供。构建我国困境儿童家庭支持福利制度即是在肯定“家庭”作为儿童福利制度设计核心要素的同时,从社会投资与能力建设视角出发,为家庭提供包括多层次津贴、专业社工服务及以社区为依托的支持性服务在内的综合福利体系。%The traditional residual child welfare has failed to solve the current problem of vulnerable children due to the social transformation.In comparison,the family support welfare system includes not only the welfare benefits and support services from government programs and welfare agencies,but also the informal support from communities,families and friends.It reflects the innovative concept, focusing on the positive intervention policies and professional social services. Constructing the vulnerable children family support welfare system in China means affirming “family”as the core element of system design,while providing the families with multi-level allowances,professional services and community-based supportive services from the perspective of social investment and capability building.

  20. Referring cruise ship patients to specialists in Norway--a welfare state with a national health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eilif

    2015-01-01

    Northern Europe is a popular cruise destination, but many non-Scandinavian cruise ship's doctors who are used to enthusiastic service from specialists ashore, get frustrated when referring passengers or crew to out-patient medical evaluation. Norway's national health care system is described and used as an example of medical conditions in a welfare state with a relatively well-functioning national health care system: Emergency cases are usually promptly admitted. Out-patient specialist consultations are available in public polyclinics, but waiting time can be considerable, also for patients from ships. Private specialists are fully booked weeks in advance and do not work from Friday to Monday and during holidays. Public and private medical service capacity is significantly reduced during the summer months. Hence, most specialists ashore are not eager to see demanding ship patients. Ship's doctors should limit referral to conditions that require specific procedures that are not available on the vessel but are necessary for the patient to be able to continue cruising or working aboard. Crewmembers who are unfit for work aboard, should instead be signed off and repatriated for diagnostic work-up and follow-up at home. In cases of hospitalisation or necessary referral ashore, the ship's doctor should always confer in advance with the company's ship's port agents and make necessary shore-side arrangements through them.

  1. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  2. Applying Legal Socialization to the Child Welfare System: Do Youths' Perceptions of Caseworkers Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivoski, Karen M.; Shook, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, Heath C.; Goodkind, Sara; Fusco, Rachel; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Legal socialization is the process through which young people develop beliefs in the legitimacy of the law and legal system. Research has examined how perceptions of interactions with authority figures influence beliefs regarding the legitimacy of laws and legal system, thereby shaping compliance with the law (Fagan and Tyler in…

  3. Techno-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldor Matthias

    2007-01-01

    udrulning af optiske fibre til slutbrugerne. De gamle teleoperatører besidder som oftest en veludbygget infrastruktur i kraft af deres eksisterende telenet (”det rå kobber”), og de vil typisk foretrække en xDSL-baseret strategi (forskellige varianter af Digital Subscriber Line-teknologien: ADSL, VDSL, etc...... on account of their existing telecom network (”the raw copper”), and typically they will prefer an xDSL-based strategy (various types of Digital Subscriber Line-technology: ADSL, VDSL, etc.), where the rate of speed of data connections are increased gradually to 10-50 Mbit/s or even more, in order to gain...... broadband deployment strategy is depending on a complexed set of parameters, and there is a demand for precise techno-economic cost models estimating financial feasibility. The existing cost models do not consider the dynamic developments in the market caused by competition. The PhD thesis has a profound...

  4. [The Pharaohs: slave merchants or organizers of an efficient welfare system? Re-writing history through new documentation and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, C; Del Vecchio, R; Druda, L

    2003-01-01

    The Authors have studied documents dating from the era of the Pharaohs, that is to say: the papyruses of Ebers and Smith, and have come to the conclusion that the recent claims by some archaeologists that the Egyptian workmen who built the Pyramids, were protected by health regulations and not treated as slaves, is true. This is a new interpretation of Egyptian history, because up to now, it has always been thought that the workmen were slaves. The construction of the Pharaoh's tomb was a team work including members of the upper classes (architects, physicians) and the lower classes (masons, workmen) and was the demonstration of a contribution and a symbol of recognition from all members of the team to the head of the society (the Pharaoh), who was their employer and took their interests into consideration e.g. health regulations. The Authors have also deduced from other sources of information that a public health system and welfare organization, comparable to our present day Legislative Decree 626/94, did in fact exist in the ancient world.

  5. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    of criteria to which the unit complies vs does not comply). Welfare Quality® opted for the second alternative to facilitate the provision of advice to farmers on solving the welfare problems associated with their farms. Third, one has to decide whether the overall welfare assessment should reflect the average...... for bad scores on others. In the opinion of most people, welfare scores do not compensate each other. This was taken into account in the Welfare Quality® scoring system by using a specific operator instead of mere weighted sums. Finally, a scoring system may either reflect societal demands for high levels......, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is essential to allow stakeholder groups...

  6. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    of China’s economic growth, the long and midterm sustainability of its economic development model and the implications thereof for social stability and political legitimacy. An immediate priority has been to formulate and implement a response to mitigate the disruptive effects of the transition to a market...... to meet China’s social challenges. In this paper, I provide a summary of the academic literature on post-reform development of the welfare system. I will give an overview of its most salient problems, initiatives and their preliminary outcomes. Finally, I will present some concluding remarks and provide...

  7. Welfare Systems and the Management of the Economic Risk of Unemployment: Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesby, Dorte; Dahl, Karen Margrethe; Ploug, Niels

    Developments on the Swedish Labour Market and in Swedish Labour Market Policy during the 1990s are described. Part I provides a picture of the situation on the Swedish labour market during the first part of the nineties. In Part II developments in the unemployment protection system since 1995 are...

  8. Welfare Systems and the Management of the Economic Risk of Unemployment: Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Karen Margrethe; Boesby, Dorte; Ploug, Niels

    The developments on the Danish Labour Market and in the Danish Labour Market Policy during the 1990s are described. Part I concentrates on the unemployment protection situation in the beginning of the 1990s and describes the unemployment system as it was in 1993, the year before a reform process...

  9. Fostering Solutions: Bringing Brief-Therapy Principles and Practices to the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemons, Douglas; Liscio, Michele; Gordon, Arlene Brett; Hibel, James; Gutierrez-Hersh, Annette; Rebholz, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a 15-month university-community collaboration that was designed to fast-track children out of foster care. The developers of the project initiated resource-oriented "systems facilitations," allowing wraparound professionals and families to come together in large meetings to solve problems and find solutions. Families also…

  10. Child Maltreatment Reporting by Educational Personnel: Implications for Racial Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krase, Kathryn Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    African American children are disproportionally overrepresented in the U.S. child protection system. Because educational personnel are a significant source of reports of suspected child maltreatment across the country and in all states, the present study examines the impact of these reports on racial disproportionality and disparity at the…

  11. Artificial Life Art, Creativity, and Techno-hybridization (editor's introduction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Artists and engineers have devised lifelike technology for millennia. Their ingenious devices have often prompted inquiry into our preferences, prejudices, and beliefs about living systems, especially regarding their origins, status, constitution, and behavior. A recurring fabrication technique is shared across artificial life art, science, and engineering. This involves aggregating representations or re-creations of familiar biological parts-techno-hybridization-but the motives of practitioners may differ markedly. This article, and the special issue it introduces, explores how ground familiar to contemporary artificial life science and engineering has been assessed and interpreted in parallel by (a) artists and (b) theorists studying creativity explicitly. This activity offers thoughtful, alternative perspectives on artificial life science and engineering, highlighting and sometimes undermining the fields' underlying assumptions, or exposing avenues that are yet to be explored outside of art. Additionally, art has the potential to engage the general public, supporting and exploring the findings of scientific research and engineering. This adds considerably to the maturity of a culture tackling the issues the discipline of artificial life raises.

  12. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission...

  13. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  14. Hooked on an Affect: Detroit Techno and Dystopian Digital Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pope

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Detroit techno is typically historicized as having grown out of the late 1970s and early 1980s middle-class, consumerist, and aspirational high school social party scene, giving the impression that Detroit techno artists created forward-thinking music as a means to acquire subcultural capital and (reproduce their identities. In this essay, this position is nuanced for a more complex understanding of techno’s relation to the quotidian phenomenological encounter with the dystopian setting of Detroit. Concomitantly, predominant theorizations of affect within the humanities, which emphasize the utopian, hopeful dimensions of affect’s inherent productivity, are supplemented for an understanding of productive energy revolving around affects of dystopia and on a certain hopelessness which scholars, in the years ahead, will increasingly have to negotiate.Keywords: techno, Detroit, dystopia, affect, aesthetic, desire, subculture

  15. Effects of housing system on welfare and milk yield and quality of Girgentana goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, in Sicily, goats of the Girgentana breed have decreased so drastically in number that they risked extinction. Among the causes, particular blame can be laid at the traditional housing system, in which the goats, after coming back from pasture, were tethered in individual wooden stalls. Such a system is still considered necessary by breeders in order to avoid aggressive and harmful behaviour on the part of the animals, due to the presence of their long horns (Giaccone et al., 1994. This belief negatively interferes with the action recently initiated for the recovery and regeneration of the breed (Portolano et al., 2002; in fact, the tie stalls housing, increasing manpower, limits the increase in size in herds of Girgentana goats...

  16. Techno-economic assessment of a hybrid solar receiver and combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Han; Nathan, Graham; Dally, Bassam; Chinnici, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    A techno-economic analysis is performed to compare two different configurations of hybrid solar thermal systems with fossil fuel backup to provide continuous electricity output. The assessment compares a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device with a reference conventional solar thermal system using a regular solar cavity receiver with a backup boiler, termed the Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH). The benefits of the integration is assessed by varying the size of the storage capacity and heliostat field while maintaining the same overall thermal input to the power block.

  17. Effects of the Truck Suspension System on Animal Welfare, Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Antônio Dalla Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two types of commercial suspension (leaf-spring (LS vs. air suspension (AS installed on two similar double-decked trucks on blood cortisol and lactate concentration, lairage behavior, carcass skin lesions and pork quality traits of 120 crossbred pigs. The suspension type neither influenced pig behaviour in lairage nor blood cortisol and lactate concentrations (p > 0.10. However, when compared with the AS suspension system, the use of LS increased the number of skin lesions in the back and thigh (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively and produced thigh with lower pHu (p < 0.001 and yellower colour (higher b* value; p = 0.03, and paler back muscles (subjective colour; p < 0.05, with a tendency to lower pH (p = 0.06. Therefore, the use air suspension system can improve carcass and meat quality traits of pigs transported to slaughter.

  18. A techno-economic review of thermochemical cellulosic biofuel pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tristan R

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in the thermochemical processing of biomass have resulted in efforts to commercialize several cellulosic biofuel pathways. Until commercial-scale production is achieved, however, techno-economic analysis is a useful methodology for quantifying the economic competitiveness of these pathways with petroleum, providing one indication of their long-term feasibility under the U.S. revised Renewable Fuel Standard. This review paper covers techno-economic analyses of thermochemical cellulosic biofuel pathways in the open literature, discusses and compares their results, and recommends the adoption of additional analytical methodologies that will increase the value of future pathway analyses.

  19. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped....

  20. Techno-economic sensitivity study of heliostat field parameters for micro-gas turbine CSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul; Dinter, Frank; Myburgh, J. T.

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power systems based on micro-gas turbines potentially offer numerous benefits should they become commercially viable. Heliostat fields for such systems have unique requirements in that the number of heliostats and the focal ratios are typically much lower than conventional central receiver systems. This paper presents a techno-economic sensitivity study of heliostat field parameters for a micro-gas turbine central receiver system. A 100 kWe minitower system is considered for the base case and a one-at-a-time strategy is used to investigate parameter sensitivities. Increasing heliostat focal ratios are found to have significant optical performance benefits due to both a reduction in astigmatic aberrations and a reduction in the number of facet focal lengths required; confirming the hypothesis that smaller heliostats offer a techno-economic advantage. Fixed Horizontal Axis tracking mechanism is shown to outperform the conventional Azimuth Zenith tracking mechanism in high density heliostat fields. Although several improvements to heliostat field performance are discussed, the capex fraction of the heliostat field for such system is shown to be almost half that of a conventional central receiver system and optimum utilization of the higher capex components, namely; the receiver and turbine subsystems, are more rewarding than that of the heliostat field.

  1. Practice in Master Course of Techno-Business Administration as a Techno-Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuura, Chikako

    In this paper, the educational practice of the master course of techno-business administration (MTA) at Nagoya Institute of Technology (NIT) is introduced to propose the practical engineering education at a postgraduate level. MTA was established in 2003 on the basis of hundred years' engineering education at NIT. An objective of this school is to educate engineers to be leaders, entrepreneurs and managers. The practical tuition covers the fields in Industrial Management of Technologies, Core-Technologies and Laboratories work. Among these, the most focused and effective subject is “Case-Study,” in which students are encouraged to simulate business settings using elemental technologies developed by teaching staff. Discussions are made to apply the technology to match the possible markets. This type of experiences certainly motivates the students work and is clearly reflected in their research paper.

  2. Filling the Gaps in a Fragmented Health Care System: Development of the Health and Welfare Information Portal (ZWIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, Sarah Hm; Huisjes, Mirjam; van Achterberg, Theo; Zuidema, Sytse U; Olde Rikkert, Marcel Gm; Schers, Henk J; Heinen, Maud M; Melis, René Jf

    2012-09-19

    Current health care systems are not optimally designed to meet the needs of our aging populations. First, the fragmentation of care often results in discontinuity of care that can undermine the quality of care provided. Second, patient involvement in care decisions is not sufficiently facilitated. To describe the development and the content of a program aimed at: (1) facilitating self-management and shared decision making by frail older people and informal caregivers, and (2) reducing fragmentation of care by improving collaboration among professionals involved in the care of frail older people through a combined multidisciplinary electronic health record (EHR) and personal health record (PHR). We used intervention mapping to systematically develop our program in six consecutive steps. Throughout this development, the target populations (ie, professionals, frail older people, and informal caregivers) were involved extensively through their participation in semi-structured interviews and working groups. We developed the Health and Welfare Information Portal (ZWIP), a personal, Internet-based conference table for multidisciplinary communication and information exchange for frail older people, their informal caregivers, and professionals. Further, we selected and developed methods for implementation of the program, which included an interdisciplinary educational course for professionals involved in the care of frail older people, and planned the evaluation of the program. This paper describes the successful development and the content of the ZWIP as well as the strategies developed for its implementation. Throughout the development, representatives of future users were involved extensively. Future studies will establish the effects of the ZWIP on self-management and shared decision making by frail older people as well as on collaboration among the professionals involved.

  3. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states o...

  4. Self-Reported Disciplinary Practices among Women in the Child Welfare System: Association with Domestic Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Kelly J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Wang, Yun; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kohl, Patricia L.; Gardner, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between physical domestic violence victimization (both recent and more than a year in past measured by self-report) and self-reported disciplinary practices among female parents/caregivers in a national sample of families referred to child welfare. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of more than 3,000 female…

  5. Changing Policy and Practice in the Child Welfare System through Collaborative Efforts to Identify and Respond Effectively to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Duren; Landsverk, John; Wang, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The "Greenbook" provides a roadmap for child welfare agencies to collaborate and provide effective responses to families who are experiencing co-occurring child maltreatment and domestic violence. A multisite developmental evaluation was conducted of six demonstration sites that received federal funding to implement "Greenbook" recommendations for…

  6. Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

  7. Caseworkers' and Supervisors' Perceptions of Ohio's Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochis, Shelia P.

    2013-01-01

    Children represent the future of mankind and their safety, well-being, and permanency are goals of the Department of Health and Human Services. The Department of Health and Human Services is the primary funding source for child welfare and protection in the United States; their requirements, rules, and laws must be upheld and understood by every…

  8. A Need For Correction: Reforming New York's Juvenile Justice System. Child Welfare Watch. Vol. 18, Fall 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hemphill, Clara; Hurley, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a U.S. Justice Department investigation that found widespread use of excessive force by staff at upstate psychiatric care facilities for mentally ill children, this new edition of Child Welfare Watch identifies shortcomings in mental health services and explores possible solutions, including the expansion of alternatives to…

  9. Multi-objective optimal reactive power dispatch to maximize power system social welfare in the presence of generalized unified power flow controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chintalapudi Venkata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel non-linear optimization problem is formulated to maximize the social welfare in restructured environment with generalized unified power flow controller (GUPFC. This paper presents a methodology to optimally allocate the reactive power by minimizing voltage deviation at load buses and total transmission power losses so as to maximize the social welfare. The conventional active power generation cost function is modified by combining costs of reactive power generated by the generators, shunt capacitors and total power losses to it. The formulated objectives are optimized individually and simultaneously as multi-objective optimization problem, while satisfying equality, in-equality, practical and device operational constraints. A new optimization method, based on two stage initialization and random distribution processes is proposed to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach on IEEE-30 bus system, and the detailed analysis is carried out.

  10. Which Techno-mathematical Literacies Are Essential for Future Engineers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Nathalie J.; Bakker, Arthur|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/272605778; Drijvers, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074302922

    2017-01-01

    Due to increased use of technology, the workplace practices of engineers have changed. So-called techno-mathematical literacies (TmL) are necessary for engineers of the 21st century. Because it is still unknown which TmL engineers actually use in their professional practices, the purpose of this stu

  11. Muishond : Techno-wetenschappelijke, literaire en ethische bewegingen van taal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driessche, Joost

    2016-01-01

    The Bakhtin Circle’s ‘dialogism’ and Bruno Latour’s conceptual character ‘the ethnographer’ provide suitable tools to analyse the relation between literary language and techno-scientific language. They enable us to see this relation – a relation which, taken in itself, is readily construed as a bina

  12. Which Techno-mathematical Literacies Are Essential for Future Engineers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Nathalie J.; Bakker, Arthur|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/272605778; Drijvers, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074302922

    Due to increased use of technology, the workplace practices of engineers have changed. So-called techno-mathematical literacies (TmL) are necessary for engineers of the 21st century. Because it is still unknown which TmL engineers actually use in their professional practices, the purpose of this

  13. Biomass torrefaction technology: Techno-economic status and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Mignot, A.P.R.; Schakel, W.B.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising bioenergy pre-treatment technology, with potential to make a major contribution to the commodification of biomass. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on the techno-economic performance of torrefaction. This study therefore improves available knowledge on torre

  14. A history of animal welfare science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  15. Techno-economic, location, and carbon emission analysis of thermochemical biomass to transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mark Mba

    There are significant technological and systemic challenges faced by today's advanced biofuel industry. These challenges stem from the current state-of-technology and from the system (consumer market, infrastructure, environment...) in which this emerging industry is being developed. The state-of-technology will improve with continued efforts in technology development, but novel approaches are required to investigate the systemic challenges that limit the adoption of advanced biofuels. The motivation of this dissertation is to address the question of how to find cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally responsible pathways for the production of biofuels. Economic competitiveness, long-term viability, and benign environmental impact are key for biofuels to be embraced by industry, government, and consumers. Techno-economic, location, and carbon emission analysis are research methodologies that help address each of these issues. The research approach presented in this dissertation is to combine these three methodologies into a holistic study of advanced biofuel technologies. The value of techno-economic, location, and carbon emission analysis is limited when conducted in isolation because of current public perception towards energy technologies. Energy technologies are evaluated based on multiple criteria with a significant emphasis on the three areas investigated in this study. There are important aspects within each of these fields that could significantly limit the value of advances in other fields of study. Therefore, it is necessary that future research in advanced biofuels always consider the systemic challenges faced by novel developments.

  16. Welfare Professions in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001), and we saw the establishment of what could be called ...

  17. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  18. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    All systems of scoring animal units (groups, farms, slaughter plants, etc.) according to the level of the animals’ welfare are based inevitably on normative decisions. Similarly, all methods of labelling, in terms of acceptability, are based on choices reflecting ethical values. The evaluative...... dimension of scoring and labelling does not mean that we should reject them, but it does mean that we need to make the normative and ethical background explicit. The Welfare Quality® scoring system is used as a case study in order to highlight the role of underlying value-based decisions. In this scoring...... of welfare or be based on what can be achieved in practice – in other words, an absolute assessment or a relative one may be proposed. Welfare Quality® adopted an intermediate strategy: absolute limits between welfare categories (Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced, or Excellent level of welfare) were set...

  19. Differentiating between child protection and family support in the Canadian child welfare system's response to intimate partner violence, corporal punishment, and child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; Sinha, Vandna; Van Wert, Melissa; Kozlowski, Anna; Maclaurin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Rates of reported child maltreatment nearly doubled in Canada over the period 1998-2003, an increase that reflects growing awareness of the harmful effects of an expanding array of parental behaviors, including corporal punishment, lack of supervision, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Some of these situations may benefit from voluntary family support programs outside of the child welfare system. Analyzing a sample of 11,807 investigations, this paper compares cases where the sole concern is exposure to IPV, or hitting a child, or neglect, or other forms of investigated maltreatment. Situations where exposure to IPV or potentially abusive hitting were the sole reason for investigation presented with fewer risk factors and were less likely to lead to ongoing child welfare interventions compared to other maltreatment investigations. While situations involving alleged neglect presented a higher risk profile and elicited a more intensive child welfare response than did exposure to IPV or hitting, opportunities for alternative services were nevertheless identified. The study also found that visible minority families were overrepresented in cases involving hitting and that Aboriginal families were overrepresented in cases involving neglect. Overall the findings support the development of alternative response programs in Canada.

  20. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  1. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  2. Techno-economic analysis for the evaluation of three UCG synthesis gas end use approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Krawczyk, Piotr; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) enables the utilization of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable because of complex geological boundary conditions. In the present study we investigate UCG as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a synthesis gas and its application within three different utilization options. Related to geological boundary conditions and the chosen gasification agent, UCG synthesis gas composes of varying methane, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide amounts. In accordance to its calorific value, the processed UCG synthesis gas can be utilized in different manners, as for electricity generation in a combined cycle power plant or for feedstock production making use of its various chemical components. In the present study we analyze UCG synthesis gas utilization economics in the context of clean electricity generation with an integrated carbon capture and storage process (CCS) as well as synthetic fuel and fertilizer production (Kempka et al., 2010) based on a gas composition achieved during an in situ UCG trial in the Wieczorek Mine. Hereby, we also consider chemical feedstock production in order to mitigate CO2 emissions. Within a sensitivity analysis of UCG synthesis gas calorific value variations, we produce a range of capital and operational expenditure bandwidths that allow for an economic assessment of different synthesis gas end use approaches. To carry out the integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled systems and the sensitivity analysis, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014). Our techno-economic modeling results demonstrate that the calorific value has a high impact on the economics of UCG synthesis gas utilization. In the underlying study, the synthesis gas is not suitable for an economic competitive electricity generation, due to the relatively low calorific value of 4.5 MJ/Nm³. To be a profitable option for electricity

  3. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  4. Group space allowance has little effect on sow health, productivity, or welfare in a free-access stall system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-access stalls allow sows to choose the protection of a stall or use of a shared group space. This study investigated the effect of group space width: 0.91 (SS), 2.13 (IS), and 3.05 (LS) m on the health, production, behavior, and welfare of gestating sows. At gestational day (GD) 35.4 ± 2.3, 21 ...

  5. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg...... specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure...

  6. Findings from a national needs assessment of American Indian/Alaska native child welfare programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Robin; Potter, Cathryn; Lucero, Nancy; Gardner, Jerry; Deserly, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The National Child Welfare Resource Center for Tribes, a member of the Children's Bureau Child Welfare Training and Technical Assistance Network, conducted a national needs assessment of tribal child welfare. This assessment explored current practices in tribal child welfare to identify unique systemic strengths and challenges. A culturally based, multi-method design yielded findings in five areas: tribal child welfare practice, foster care and adoption, the Indian Child Welfare Act, legal and judicial, and program operations.

  7. The Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  8. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  9. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  10. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  11. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  12. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  13. Internet use during childhood and the ecological techno-subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Marie Johnson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research findings suggest both positive and negative developmental consequences of Internet use during childhood (e.g., playing video games have been associated with enhanced visual skills as well as increased aggression. Several studies have concluded that environmental factors mediate the developmental impact of childhood online behaviour. From an ecological perspective, we propose the techno-subsystem, a dimension of the microsystem (i.e., immediate environments. The techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers and nonliving (e.g., hardware elements of communication, information, and recreation technologies in direct environments. By emphasizing the role of technology in child development, the ecological techno-subsystem encourages holistic exploration of the developmental consequences of Internet use (and future technological advances during childhood. L’usage d’Internet chez les enfants et le sous-système Techno écologique Résumé : Les résultats de recherche semblent indiquer que l’usage d’Internet chez les enfants aurait des conséquences développementales qui soit à la fois positives et négatives (ex. : l’usage des jeux vidéo auraient été associés à un accroissement des habileté visuelles ainsi qu’à un accroissement de l’agressivité. Plusieurs études ont aussi conclue que l’impact du comportement des enfants quand il sont en ligne sur leur développement serait affecté par des facteurs environnementaux. Dans une perspective écologique, nous proposons le sous-système Techno, une dimension du microsystème (ex :. les environnements immédiats. Le sous-système Techno comprend l’interaction de l’enfant avec des éléments vivants (e. : les paires et non vivants (ex; les ordinateurs de communication, d’information et de technologie de jeux dans des environnements directes.

  14. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    that the Scandinavian welfare states are the most advanced in relation to women and dicusses both the potentialities and the dangers in the Scandinavian welfare states in relation to women. The paper points to the need to integrate gender relations in the theoretical model for an analysis of the welfare state...... and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  15. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    is associated with ‘social democratic’ perceptions of welfare and gender equality. Brochmann and Hagelund (2010) have pointed towards a specific form of Scandinavian welfare nationalism which is challenged by globalization and increased migration. We add that gender equality is a key aspect of the Scandinavian...... politics of belonging and that this has implications for our understanding of the challenges which can be recognised in the contemporary politics of gender and welfare in Scandinavia. This point is illustrated by exploring the problematic ways in which contemporary nationalist parties in Sweden, Denmark...... and Norway have linked national belongings with support for the welfare state and gender equality politics. These observations in turn raise theoretical, normative and analytical questions about understandings and conceptualizations of the nationalism, welfare and gender.The article aims to explore what...

  16. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...... that are not necessarily perceived, performed, and changed in phases. A pragmatic and situated perspective on welfare innovation suggests a conception of welfare innovation which is not translated from firm innovation, but derived directly from welfare contexts....

  17. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  18. Use of Techno-Anthropologic Approaches in Studying Technology--induced Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    In this book chapter the authors review several Techno-Anthropologic approaches that can be used to improve the quality and safety of health information technology (HIT) by eliminating or reducing the incidence and occurrence of technology-induced errors. Technology-induced errors arise from interactions between health professionals, patients and/or HIT (i.e., software and hardware) and lead to a medical error. Techno-Anthropologic methods can be used to address these types of medical errors before they occur. In this book chapter they are discussed in the context of: (a) how they can be applied to identifying technology-induced errors and (b) how this information can be used to design and implement safer HIT. Important in this chapter is a review of several methods: traditional ethnography, rapid assessment of clinical information systems, video ethnography and photovoice as they are applied to the discovery of potential (i.e., near misses) and actual (i.e., mistakes) technology-induced errors.

  19. Stochastic techno-economic evaluation of cellulosic biofuel pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Brown, Tristan R; Tyner, Wallace E

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the economic feasibility and stochastic dominance rank of eight cellulosic biofuel production pathways (including gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and fermentation) under technological and economic uncertainty. A techno-economic assessment based financial analysis is employed to derive net present values and breakeven prices for each pathway. Uncertainty is investigated and incorporated into fuel prices and techno-economic variables: capital cost, conversion technology yield, hydrogen cost, natural gas price and feedstock cost using @Risk, a Palisade Corporation software. The results indicate that none of the eight pathways would be profitable at expected values under projected energy prices. Fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (FPH) has the lowest breakeven fuel price at 3.11$/gallon of gasoline equivalent (0.82$/liter of gasoline equivalent). With the projected energy prices, FPH investors could expect a 59% probability of loss. Stochastic dominance is done based on return on investment. Most risk-averse decision makers would prefer FPH to other pathways.

  20. 20 CFR 645.430 - How does the Welfare-to-Work program relate to the One-Stop system and Workforce Investment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the Welfare-to-Work program relate...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS State Formula Grants Administration § 645.430 How does the Welfare-to-Work program relate to...

  1. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  2. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T

    2013-01-01

    studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...

  3. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  4. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  5. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...

  6. Longitudinal Patterns of Health Insurance Coverage Among a National Sample of Children in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Aarons, Gregory A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe health insurance coverage over time among a national sample of children who came into contact with child welfare or child protective services agencies. Methods. We used data from 4 waves of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine insurance coverage among 2501 youths. Longitudinal insurance trajectories were identified using latent class analyses, a technique used to classify individuals into groupings of observed variables, and survey-weighted logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with class membership. Results. We identified 2 latent insurance classes—1 contained children who gained health insurance, and the other contained children who stably maintained coverage over time. History of sexual abuse, and race/ethnicity other than White, Black, and Hispanic, were associated with membership in the “gainer” class. Foster care placement and poorer health status were associated with membership in the “maintainer” class. Caregiver characteristics were not associated with class membership. Conclusions. The majority of children in child welfare had stable health insurance coverage over time. Given this vulnerable population’s dependence upon Medicaid, protection of existing entitlements to Medicaid is essential to preserve their stable insurance coverage. PMID:18235059

  7. Longitudinal patterns of health insurance coverage among a national sample of children in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Aarons, Gregory A; Roesch, Scott C; Leslie, Laurel K

    2008-03-01

    We sought to describe health insurance coverage over time among a national sample of children who came into contact with child welfare or child protective services agencies. We used data from 4 waves of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine insurance coverage among 2501 youths. Longitudinal insurance trajectories were identified using latent class analyses, a technique used to classify individuals into groupings of observed variables, and survey-weighted logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with class membership. We identified 2 latent insurance classes--1 contained children who gained health insurance, and the other contained children who stably maintained coverage over time. History of sexual abuse, and race/ethnicity other than White, Black, and Hispanic, were associated with membership in the "gainer" class. Foster care placement and poorer health status were associated with membership in the "maintainer" class. Caregiver characteristics were not associated with class membership. The majority of children in child welfare had stable health insurance coverage over time. Given this vulnerable population's dependence upon Medicaid, protection of existing entitlements to Medicaid is essential to preserve their stable insurance coverage.

  8. Techno-economic assessment of novel vanadium redox flow batteries with large-area cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising electrochemical storage system for stationary megawatt-class applications. The currently limited cell area determined by the bipolar plate (BPP) could be enlarged significantly with a novel extruded large-area plate. For the first time a techno-economic assessment of VRFB in a power range of 1 MW-20 MW and energy capacities of up to 160 MWh is presented on the basis of the production cost model of large-area BPP. The economic model is based on the configuration of a 250 kW stack and the overall system including stacks, power electronics, electrolyte and auxiliaries. Final results include a simple function for the calculation of system costs within the above described scope. In addition, the impact of cost reduction potentials for key components (membrane, electrode, BPP, vanadium electrolyte) on stack and system costs is quantified and validated.

  9. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  10. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence.

  11. The effect of two different Individually Ventilated Cage systems on anxiety-related behaviour and welfare in two strains of laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, O; Buccarello, L; Redaelli, V; Cervo, L

    2014-01-30

    The environment in which a laboratory animal is housed can significantly influence its behaviour and welfare, acting as a potential confounding factor for those studies in which it is utilised. This study investigated the impact of two Individually Ventilated Cage (IVC) housing systems on anxiety-related behaviour and welfare indicators in two common strains of laboratory mice. Subjects were juvenile female C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice (N=128) housed in groups of four in two different IVC systems for 7weeks. System One had air delivery at the cage 'cover' level at 75 ACH (Air Changes/Hour) and System Two had air delivery at the 'animal' level at 50 ACH. Mice were assessed twice a week (e.g. bodyweight) or at the end of the study (e.g. anxiety tests). Our results showed significant differences in anxiety-related behaviour between strains and housing systems. Mice in System Two, regardless of strain, defecated more in the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), spent less time in the open arms of the EPM, and less time in the central zone of the Open Field (OF). Strain differences in anxiety-like behaviour were seen in the increased defecation by BALB/c mice in the OF and EPM and less time spent in the open arms of the EPM compared to C57BL/6J mice. These results suggest that different IVC housing systems can influence mouse behaviour in different ways, with mice of both strains studied exhibiting more anxiety-related behaviour when housed in System Two (air entry at the 'animal' level at 50 ACH), which could impact upon experimental data.

  12. The what, when, and why of implementation frameworks for evidence-based practices in child welfare and child mental health service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Rochelle F; Self-Brown, Shannon; Rostad, Whitney L; Jackson, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that children in the child welfare system are particularly vulnerable to the adverse health and mental effects associated with exposure to abuse and neglect, making it imperative to have broad-based availability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) that can prevent child maltreatment and reduce the negative mental health outcomes for youth who are victims. A variety of EBPs exist for reducing child maltreatment risk and addressing the associated negative mental health outcomes, but the reach of these practices is limited. An emerging literature documents factors that can enhance or inhibit the success of EBP implementation in community service agencies, including how the selection of a theory-driven conceptual framework, or model, might facilitate implementation planning by providing guidance for best practices during implementation phases. However, limited research is available to guide decision makers in the selection of implementation frameworks that can boost implementation success for EBPs that focus on preventing child welfare recidivism and serving the mental health needs of maltreated youth. The aims of this conceptual paper are to (1) provide an overview of existing implementation frameworks, beginning with a discussion of definitional issues and the selection criteria for frameworks included in the review; and (2) offer recommendations for practice and policy as applicable for professionals and systems serving victims of child maltreatment and their families.

  13. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare problems

  14. Welfare Undominated Groves Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Apt, Krzysztof R; Guo, Mingyu; Markakis, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    A common objective in mechanism design is to choose the outcome (for example, allocation of resources) that maximizes the sum of the agents' valuations, without introducing incentives for agents to misreport their preferences. The class of Groves mechanisms achieves this; however, these mechanisms require the agents to make payments, thereby reducing the agents' total welfare. In this paper we introduce a measure for comparing two mechanisms with respect to the final welfare they generate. This measure induces a partial order on mechanisms and we study the question of finding minimal elements with respect to this partial order. In particular, we say a non-deficit Groves mechanism is welfare undominated if there exists no other non-deficit Groves mechanism that always has a smaller or equal sum of payments. We focus on two domains: (i) auctions with multiple identical units and unit-demand bidders, and (ii) mechanisms for public project problems. In the first domain we analytically characterize all welfare und...

  15. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  16. Southern european model welfare state and economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoutsiou S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has affected the exercise of social policy and has shrunk welfare states in southern Europe. The welfare state, a structure that is a pillar and constant goal of Greek ideology and culture seems to accept strong tremors that threaten the social cohesion of Greek society. This literature review presents the characteristics of the applied social policy and the different models of welfare states, focusing on South model welfare state. Additionally presented benefits of the welfare state such as pension and insurance system and the degree of their contribution to the economic crisis in Greece in recent years.

  17. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  18. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  19. 欧洲主权债务危机对我国福利制度建设的启示%Enlightenment of Sovereign Debt Crisis in Europe on China's Welfare System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文涛

    2012-01-01

    Europe is the area of origin of modern welfare system, and it is also a typical areas of high welfare. However, the outbreak of the sovereign debt crisis in Europe makes people reconsider its welfare system. Based on reviewing the process of European sovereign debt crisis and its impact, this paper analyzes the source of the debt crisis in Europe and absorbs the lessons of European countries in the construction of welfare. Therefore, this paper puts forward enlightmenments China can obtain from European sovereign debt crisis, such as state welfare system can not be separated from the financial basis of the economy, regulating effect in the initial distribution of the national income should be adopted and it is necessary to guide civil power to participate in welfare system so as to creat the new forms of welfare.%欧洲是现代福利制度的起源地,也是典型的高福利地区,欧债危机的爆发让人们重新思考欧洲福利制度的利弊问题。回顾了欧洲主权债务危机的爆发过程及其影响,从分析欧债危机爆发的根源人手,借鉴欧洲国家在福利建设中的经验教训,提出了欧洲主权债务危机对我国福利制度建设的启示:国家福利不能脱离国民经济的财力基础;发挥国民收入初次分配的调节作用;引导民间力量参与福利体制;开创福利新形式。

  20. Techno-economical analysis of innovative technologies in electrical power systems. A feasibility study for a Russian distribution system operator; Wirtschaftlicher Einsatz von innovativen Technologien in Energieversorgungsnetzen. Machbarkeitsstudie am Beispiel eines russischen Verteilungsnetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Holger [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Transmission Solutions; Ettinger, Andreas [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Erlangen (Germany). Power Technologies International (PTI); Nikitina, Elena [Siemens-Division Energy Management, Moskau (Russian Federation). Power Technologies International (PTI); Makarov, Andrej [JSC Bashkir Power Grid Company, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Since the liberalization of the energy market in Europe transmission and distribution system operators have been facing fundamentally new challenges when ensuring a safe and reliable power supply. In addition to purely technical criteria economical aspects have become increasingly important in the strategic planning and operation of power systems. As described in this contribution, the results of a feasibility study demonstrate how the use of innovative technologies can make a valuable contribution to improve the economical situation.

  1. Using a Techno-Scepticism Framework to Evaluate the Perception and Acceptance of a New Online Reading List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultany, Ajmal; Halford, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth of e-learning in the UK Higher Education. However, there is a growing opinion that e-learning practitioners are not critical enough and that they should adopt a more techno-negative or techno-scepticism approach when implementing new e-learning tools. In this paper we use a techno-scepticism framework to assess…

  2. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  3. Report and analysis of techno-economic issues within SII Chain projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takhokorpi, Markku; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik;

    1997-01-01

    This document reports the finings related to techno-economic issues within the SII-trial projects and analyses profitability of various proposed networked multimedia architectures.......This document reports the finings related to techno-economic issues within the SII-trial projects and analyses profitability of various proposed networked multimedia architectures....

  4. Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication,…

  5. Techno-economic analysis of biomethanol production via hybrid steam reforming of glycerol with natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Kersten, S.R.A.; Rossum, van G.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present article deals with the techno-economic assessment of the hybrid steam reforming (HSR) process of glycerol (obtained via transesterification) together with natural gas to produce biomethanol via the synthesis gas route. In this techno-economic assessment, a model is developed in the UniSi

  6. Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication,…

  7. Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication, information, and…

  8. Development, CAPTA Part C Referral and Services Among Young Children in the U.S. Child Welfare System: Implications for Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Moses, Mindi; Conrad-Hiebner, Aislinn; Mariscal, E Susana

    2016-08-01

    Amendments made to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act in 2003 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act in 2004 opened the door to a promising partnership between child welfare services and early intervention (EI) agencies by requiring a referral to EI services for all children under age 3 involved in a substantiated case of child abuse, neglect, or illegal drug exposure. However, little research has been conducted to assess the implications of these policies. Using data drawn from a nationally representative study conducted in 2008-2009, we observed less than a fifth of all children in substantiated cases to receive a referral to developmental services (18.2%) approximately 5 years after the passage of the amendments. Of children in contact with the U.S. child welfare system, Hispanic children of immigrants demonstrated the greatest developmental need yet were among the least likely to receive EI services by the end of the study period. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Techno-economics of micro-hydro projects for decentralized power supply in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouni, M.R. [Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Block No. 14, C.G.O. Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003 (India); Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2006-07-15

    Results of a techno-economic feasibility evaluation of few micro-hydropower (MHP) projects being planned and implemented for decentralized power supply for remote locations in India are presented. The capital cost of such projects (including cost of power evacuation and distribution system), cost per unit of rated capacity, and relative cost of different sub-systems of MHP projects in the capacity range of 10-100kW have been analysed. Unit cost of delivered electricity for these MHP projects has been estimated. Measures of financial performance for one of the MHP projects have also been determined. Breakeven values for useful life, plant load factor, and unit cost of electricity to the user have also been estimated for the same project. (author)

  10. Welfarism and extra-welfarism: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Viegas Seixas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rules and principles for guiding decision-making in the health care sector have been debated for decades. Here, we present a critical appraisal of the two most important paradigms in this respect: welfarism and extra-welfarism. While the former deals with the maximization of the overall sum of individual utilities as its primary outcome, the latter has been focusing on the maximization of the overall health status. We argue that welfarism has three main problems: (1 its central idea of overall sum of individual utilities does not capture societal values decisively relevant in the context of health; (2 the use of the Potential Pareto Improvement brings an unresolvable separation between efficiency and equity; and (3 individual utility may not be a good measure in the health sector, given that individuals might value things that diminish their overall health. In turn, the extra-welfarist approach is criticized regarding four main limitations: (1 the advocated expansion of the evaluative space, moving from utility to health, may have represented in reality a narrowing of it; (2 it operates using non-explicit considerations of equity; (3 it still holds the issue of “inability to desire” of unprivileged people being considered the best judges of weighing the criteria used to building the health measures; and (4 there is controversial empirical evidence about society members’ values that support its assumptions. Overall, both paradigms show significant weaknesses, but the debate has still been within the realm of welfare economics, and even the new approaches to resource allocation in health care systems appear to be unable to escape from these boundaries.

  11. Techno-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum protein isolates: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high nutritive quality, good techno-functional properties and low cost, legume protein products are becoming the most appropriate alternative to protein products of animal origin. In food industries, these products are usually used as techno-functional additives which provide specific characteristics of final food products. Legume proteins are commonly used as flour, concentrates, and isolates. The greatest application on industrial scale has soy proteins, and to a lesser extent, in the past 20 years, pea protein isolates. The modest use of pea protein is partly a result of insufficient information relating to their techno-functional properties. This paper is an overview of techno-functional properties of pea proteins and their isolates. Also, the paper deals with the possible use of limited enzymatic hydrolysis as a method for the improvement of their techno-functional properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31069

  12. Welfare programs that target workforce participation may negatively affect mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Rosen, Zohn; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2013-06-01

    During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people's eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants' health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24-36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17-18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life.

  13. A Techno-economic and Spatial Analysis for the Optimal Planning of Wind Energy in Kythira Island, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and especially wind energy are seen as an essential part of the future clean energy system. In the present paper, the wind potential of Kythira Island was studied and a techno-economic analysis was done aiming at identifying the optimum solution for the proposed Wind...... Farms (WF) to be installed so that this isolated island to be interconnected to the mainland. The basic aim was to a) optimize the overall power output of the system, b) decrease the state participation investment costs, and c) secure energy safety for the area protecting at the same time...

  14. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, L; Sørensen, J T

    2007-08-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg production were included in the expert panel. In a series of four questionnaires, the expert panel first scored 34 health and welfare problems seen in Danish organic egg production. Based on scorings of severity and occurrence, 10 problems were selected for further analysis. The experts subsequently suggested and scored risk factors for those problems and finally suggested control points, alarm values indicating the need for corrective actions in order to control the risk factors and monitoring frequencies of these. The 10 selected problems were hunger, thirst, piling, crop impaction, blackhead, pasteurellosis, bone fractures, cannibalism, predators and red mites. A total of 154 different risk factors were suggested for these problems. The 41 risk factors which rated highest in a combined scoring of importance and occurrence were selected for further analysis. There was a high degree of consensus between experts when scoring both problems and risk factors. The level of consensus, as defined by an interquartile range 1, was 79% to 100% when scoring the health and welfare problems (scale 1-5) and 77% to 95% when scoring the risk factors (scale 1-4). On average, 5.8 control points were suggested for every risk factor. Alarm values were often not detailed enough to be of practical significance and further analysis is needed in order to define these. The experts were highly diverse in their suggested monitoring frequencies and establishment of monitoring schemes should be part of developing the farm specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control

  15. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  16. 福建省宁德市蕉城区生态公益林体系建设%The City of Ningde Manila City Ecological Public Welfare Forest System Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振奋

    2012-01-01

      对福建省宁德市蕉城区生态公益林体系建设的重要性及存在问题进行分析,并提出一些建议,目的是为今后蕉城区生态公益林体系建设提供理论参考。%  To Manila city ecological public welfare forest system construction of the importance and the existing problems are analyzed, some Suggestions were put forward, the purpose is for the future Manila city ecological public welfare forest system construction to provide a theoretical reference

  17. Privatization by Other Means: Social Power, Tankers and Techno-Assemblages of Water Supply in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, D.

    2016-12-01

    Combined piped and tanker based water supply systems have become a ubiquitous feature of urban waterscapes in the global South. Jordanian water sector, and Amman in particular has been a recipient of considerable international financial and technical assistance over the past decades. The international assistance has coupled with the Jordanian state's own pro-market ideological stance, and its political compulsions to spawn a techno-social assemblage of water supply that represents a hybrid state and commercial water supply system. I present the results of a field study in Amman, Jordan on water tankers and water users to understand the techno-political underpinnings of the hybrid system and its impact on differential access to water. I explore how Actor Network Theory (ANT) based analysis of tankers, suction pumps and piped water system and their materiality may explain differential access to water. But that exploration is inflected by a larger political ecological concern with questions of power and discourses about citizenship and claim making on the state. I find that ANT based focus on water technologies, while ontologically fertile, and epistemologically innovative, is nevertheless politically barren. Much richer political insights are to be gained from structural and post-structurally based investigations of the discursive and material drivers of the techno-social assemblages of water supply. The technologies don't just neutrally impact water access, but seem to almost intentionally favour the powerful over the powerless. Surely the political agency must not reside in inanimate technologies but in the social actors and structures that fashion those technologies, and configure them such to reinforce geographies of power. I call for a renewed focus on social power and how its impact on lived geographies is mediated by technology.

  18. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    work through two cases—one on the involvement of users in innovation projects and another on commercial web technologies for tracing issues—to show how critical proximity may be practiced. We sum up the lessons derived in four methodological guidelines for doing research with critical proximity.......echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical...

  19. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.

    2014-01-01

    that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can......Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so...

  20. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    to include maternity/paternity leave, benefits, childcare and leave to take care of sick children. The aim of this paper is to increase awareness and elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women’s entrepreneurship because it may impact on women’s entrepreneurial behaviour. The paper investigates...... entrepreneurs. The implications for policy makers are that if they are serious about increasing the number of female entrepreneurs, and achieving equality in the labour market, then future Welfare Models should be tailored to the needs of this group of individuals. So far it has been taken for granted...... that the initiation of public childcare would facilitate increased entrepreneurship among women. Our study shows that this is not necessarily so, that women utilize ‘babystrapping’ strategies, and that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate entrepreneurship....

  1. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...... not destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political...

  2. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Hence...... this article seeks to investigate the reasons underlying this apparent anomaly so that future policies in Scandinavia nd Europe may be tailored to suit the needs of female entrepreneurs. We are addressing this through the analytical lens of a gender regime model which shows that hierarchical gender patterns...... have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....

  3. Techno-economic analysis of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic residues in Colombia: a process simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Julián A; Moncada, Jonathan; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-07-01

    In this study a techno-economic analysis of the production of bioethanol from four lignocellusic (Sugarcane bagasse, Coffee cut-stems, Rice Husk, and Empty Fruit Bunches) residues is presented for the Colombian case. The ethanol production was evaluated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer carrying out the simulation and the economic evaluation, respectively. Simulations included the composition of lignocellulosic residues, which was determined experimentally. It was found that empty fruit bunches presents the highest ethanol yield from a dry basis point of view (313.83 L/t), while rice husk produced less ethanol (250.56 L/t). The ethanol production cost was assessed for the standalone ethanol plant and the ethanol plant coupled with a cogeneration system. Moreover, ethanol production cost using EFB was the lowest with (0.49 US$/L) and without (0.58 US$/L) cogeneration scheme.

  4. Techno-economics of micro-hydro power plants for remote villages in Uttaranchal in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouni, M.R.; Mullick, S.C.; Kandpal, T.C. [Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, New Delhi (India); Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2005-07-01

    Results of a techno-economic feasibility evaluation of some micro-hydro power (MHP) plants being planned and implemented for remote village power supply in the state of Uttaranchal in India are presented. The capital cost of MHP plants in the capacity range of 20-100 kW (including cost of local transmission and distribution system), investment requirement per unit of rated capacity, and relative cost of different components of MHP plants have been analysed. Unit cost of delivered electricity from the MHP plants has been estimated. Discounted payback period, benefit cost ratio, net present value and internal rate of return for an MHP plant have also been determined. Breakeven values for useful life, plant load factor, and unit cost of electricity to the user for the same MHP plant have also been estimated. (Author)

  5. Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lara; Furusjö, Erik; Kirtania, Kawnish; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Anheden, Marie; Wolf, Jens

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130€/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25€/MWh to be economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Techno-economic assessment of central sorting at material recovery facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Wenzel, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Simulation of technical and economic performance for materials recovery facilities (MRFs) is a basic requirement for planning new, or evaluating existing, separate waste collection and recycling systems. This study mitigates the current pervasive scarcity of data on process efficiency and costs...... by documenting typical steps taken in a techno-economic assessment of MRFs, using the specific example of lightweight packaging waste (LWP) sorting in Germany. Thus, the study followed the steps of dimensioning of buildings and equipment, calculation of processing costs and projections of revenues from material...... sales and sorting residues disposal costs. Material flows through the plants were simulated considering both optimal process conditions and real or typical conditions characterised by downtime and frequent operation at overcapacity. By modelling four plants of progressively higher capacity (size...

  7. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  8. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . Political science studies tend to conclude that the region has left the old legacies behind and are now welfare states comparable to European states including them either in the conservative type (e.g. Japan), the liberal type (e.g. Korea) or even as a tendency in the Nordic type (e.g. China), while studies......The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  9. Process modelling and techno-economic analysis of natural gas combined cycle integrated with calcium looping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erans María

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium looping (CaL is promising for large-scale CO2 capture in the power generation and industrial sectors due to the cheap sorbent used and the relatively low energy penalties achieved with this process. Because of the high operating temperatures the heat utilisation is a major advantage of the process, since a significant amount of power can be generated from it. However, this increases its complexity and capital costs. Therefore, not only the energy efficiency performance is important for these cycles, but also the capital costs must be taken into account, i.e. techno-economic analyses are required in order to determine which parameters and configurations are optimal to enhance technology viability in different integration scenarios. In this study the integration scenarios of CaL cycles and natural gas combined cycles (NGCC are explored. The process models of the NGCC and CaL capture plant are developed to explore the most promising scenarios for NGCC-CaL integration with regards to efficiency penalties. Two scenarios are analysed in detail, and show that the system with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG before and after the capture plant exhibited better performance of 49.1% efficiency compared with that of 45.7% when only one HRSG is located after the capture plant. However, the techno-economic analyses showed that the more energy efficient case, with two HRSGs, implies relatively higher cost of electricity (COE, 44.1€/MWh, when compared to that of the reference plant system (33.1€/MWh. The predicted cost of CO2 avoided for the case with two HRSGS is 29.3 €/ton CO2.

  10. Effect of slaughtering age in different commercial chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system: 1. Welfare, carcass and meat traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The carcass and meat quality of three different commercial chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system and slaughtered at two different ages (70 and 81 days were compared. The used genotypes were Naked Neck (CN1, Kabir (KR4 and Ross 308 (R. All animals were raised in the facilities of a big Italian company, in production units of 3000 birds. Before slaughtering, plumage conditions, foot pad dermatitis as well as qualitative traits of carcasses, such as skin damage and the presence of breast blisters, were registered (n=50. Naked Neck birds showed the best plumage conditions at both ages; the other genotypes had similar body conditions showing a dramatically worsening at the end of rearing cycle (81 days, mainly at breast level. The carcass conformation showed differences mainly for the CN1 genotype, which was more slender with higher proportions of head, neck and legs; thus, ready-to-cook-carcass yield was lower. The meat of CN1 chickens showed lower levels of lipids, pH and brightness values, but higher index of redness. Ross 308 genotype showed a bad welfare status even at 70 days, confirming that the rearing of this strain should not be permitted in organic systems. In conclusion, this study indicates that genotype deeply affects performance, welfare and qualitative characteristics of meat. Regarding the slaughtering age, although the inconsistency of European Commission rules which authorise the reduction of slaughtering age in less mature strains, at 70 days chickens show higher feed efficiency and thinness of carcass and meat.

  11. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions ab...... concern about animal welfare is growing in the western world, very little attention has been given to the welfare of fish. This paper aims to make up for this by presenting a study of how Norwegians view the welfare of farmed salmon....

  12. Techno-economic analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2010-07-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol is expected to be commercialised during the next decade as renewable energy for transport. Competiveness with first generation bioethanol and with gasoline is commonly considered in techno-economic analyses for commercial stage. Several existing reviews conclude about the high spread of current and projected production costs of lignocellulosic ethanol due to the significant differences in assumptions concerning the following factors: composition and cost of feedstock, process design, conversion efficiency, valorisation of co-products, and energy conservation. Focusing on the studies in the United States of America and in Europe, the present review investigates the different natures of the techno-economic evaluations during the development process of the supply chain i.e., standard costing with respect to Value Engineering, and Target Costing based on the projected market price. The paper highlights the significant contribution of feedstock to the lignocellulosic ethanol production cost and the need to consider competition between different uses for resources. It is recommended the use of a value-based approach that considers sustainability characteristics and potential competition for resources complementarily to Target Costing and Value Engineering.

  13. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...... for students and researchers of social policy, sociology, anthropology, political science, education, nursing and social work....

  14. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...... for students and researchers of social policy, sociology, anthropology, political science, education, nursing and social work....

  15. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  16. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...

  17. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  18. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....

  19. Shared Values in the Formation of a Modern Techno-Economic Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the evolution of the concept of techno-economic paradigm. It points out that the concept of transformative investments (impact investing has a significant impact on the formation of a modern techno-economic paradigm. In the framework of this concept, “shared values” are considered as a central element in the development strategy of any state. The ideology of shared values is based on pragmatic principles that create economic value to meet the interests of society. It is based on “three pillars of sustainable development”: planet, people and profit. The authors identify three main types of impact investing – responsible investing, development investing, localizing investing. The paper highlights the most important areas of impact investing and substantiates the expediency of promoting the ideas of impact investing at the level of individual business entities, which formulate a specific approach to the management of socio-economic systems of the micro-level, the authors call this approach “impact management”. The ideas of impact management as a management technology designed to stimulate the development of shared values and increase the interest of each participant in the overall final results were tested at Motovilikhinskiye Zavody PJSC – one of the largest enterprises of the military-industrial complex. It is proved that the idea of impact investing is in line with the ideas of inclusive development, which allowed the authors to establish the essential similarity of these processes. The paper introduces the notions of “structural inclusion ” and “spatial inclusion”. Some elements of spatial inclusion are shown on the example of the Sverdlovsk Oblast

  20. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry.

  1. Health-related benefits among children in the child welfare system: prevalence and determinants of basic and/or attendance benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreham Mengesha Zewdu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence and determinants of basic and/or attendance benefits among children involved with the child welfare system (CWS.Design: A register study of all children involved with CWS in Norway from 1997-2006.Participants: 96,354 children from the CWS group and 149,030 children who had never been in the CWS as a comparison group.Results: 11% of children involved with CWS received basic and/or attendance benefits compared to 3% in the comparison group. In multivariate logistic regression, the boys’ chances of ever receiving basic and/or attendance benefits were greater than the girls’ chances. The chances of receiving benefits increased nearly four to sixfold as a child becomes older. However, they decrease as the age at debut to CWS increases. It was also revealed that those children who stayed under child welfare for two or more years had an increased chance of ever receiving basic and/or attendance benefits. For children with reported behavioral disorders, the chances of basic and/or attendance benefits were nearly twofold. For children under home-based support and medication interventions, the chances of receiving basic and/or attendance benefits were greater than for children who were not under these interventions.Conclusion: Chronic health conditions that claim basic and/or attendance benefits were more prevalent among children involved with CWS than the general children’s population. This phenomenon may be explained by gender, age, age at debut to CWS, length of stay under CWS, types and reasons for interventions

  2. 环境公益诉讼制度扩张解释论%An Interpretation of Environmental Public Welfare Litigation System Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄忠顺

    2016-01-01

    环境公共利益在本质上可以还原为不特定多数人独立享受生态服务功能的私人利益。为避免产权主体虚设导致的“公地悲剧”,作为生态服务功能载体的自然资源由象征意义上的全民所有走向实质意义上的国家所有。自然资源开发利用中的市场失灵以及生态环境保护中的政府失灵使得公共执法难以独立承担起保护环境公共利益的重任。在公共信托理论的解释框架下,自然资源的国家所有权被烙上社会公共财产的印迹,任何公民在理论上都可以通过环境公益诉讼对公共执法进行补充或监督。然而,为防止形式当事人滥诉、降低公益诉讼激励成本,环境公益诉讼适格原告应当仅向私益受害人扩张。为确保预防或修复环境损害的规模效应和克服环境民事公益诉讼缺乏惩罚性赔偿制度的弊端,环境公益诉讼适格被告应当涵盖环保机关。%Environmental public welfare in essence can be defined as the private benefit that an unspeci-fied number of people enjoy the ecosystem services independently.Natural resources,as carrier of eco-system services,turn from the symbolic whole citizens ownership to state ownership in substantive sense so as to avoid the “tragedy of the commons”caused by fake property rights. Market failures in both natural resources development and utilization as well as government failures in environmental pro-tection have warned that maintaining environmental public welfare through public enforcement alone is no longer realistic. In the framework of public trust theory,state ownership of natural resources is imprinted with public property. Principal citizenship has authorized individual victims who have lost trust in public law enforcement to legitimately file environmental public welfare litigation,while the government as trustee has laid the theoretical foundation for us to build environmental administrative public welfare

  3. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  4. Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to analyze welfare and distribution effects of changing

  5. Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to analyze welfare and distribution effects of changing

  6. Animal welfare in different human cultures, traditions and religious faiths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, E; Geers, R; Jezierski, T; Sossidou, E N; Broom, D M

    2012-11-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  7. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Szűcs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982 that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  8. Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Jörgen; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households.joint choice of number of trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the e¤ects of an increased CO2 tax...... for the households welfare loss. Approximating the welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positive e¤ect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. From a distributional point of view, the results reveal that the CO2 tax reform is regressive, in the sense...

  9. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... of the single largest European policy ever, Ann-Christina L. Knudsen suggests that this accepted narrative is too neat. In particular, she argues, it neglects how a broad agreement was made in the 1960s that related to the national welfare state policies aiming to improve incomes for farmers. Drawing...... of deep archival research with nuanced political analysis makes it required reading for both historians and political scientists interested in this cornerstone of European integration." Helen Wallace, Centennial Professor, European Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science. "Farmers...

  10. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural...... difference implied in a recent strategy to counter radicalization, however, does not amount to a de-securitization of Muslims – rather it installs a need for surveillance and control of the Muslim difference....

  11. Robotics for social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Fernández Cossío; Jesús Manuel López Salvador; Sergio Fínez Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for ...

  12. Robotics for social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cossío, Lucía; López Salvador, Jesús Manuel; Fínez Martínez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for ...

  13. Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Jakobsen, Iben Alber; Hindhede, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of the welfare indicator protocol as basis for on-farm welfare assessment have been carried out; one study focused on the opinion of 21 AMS researchers; the other on that of 14 AMS production advisors and 15 veterinary practitioners. The researchers were asked to score the individual welfare relevance of the 38...... measures. Furthermore, both the panels were asked to prioritise the 10 most important measures. The 21 researchers generally appreciated the listed protocol measures as highly relevant. The researcher and advisor panels agreed on prioritised measures from all 4 information sources among the 10 most...... important welfare indicators. In summary, researchers as well as production advisors and veterinarians supported the suggested measures for inclusion in a welfare assessment system. This has demonstrated that integration of different information is considered decisive for operational welfare assessment...

  14. The geographic information system research of public welfare forest management in Jilin province%吉林省公益林管理地理信息系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福强; 薛大志; 薛云诚; 李芬

    2016-01-01

    本文对公益林管理系统进行需求和可行性分析,应用Microsoft Visual C#、Java等编程语言,在个人电脑终端客户、服务器和手机上开发了公益林管理地理信息系统,该系统适用于公益林管理,工作效率高,达到了实时监管公益林森林资源的目的。%The requirements and feasibility analysis of public welfare forest management was carried in this paper .The pub-lic welfare forest management geographic information system was developed on personal computer terminal customers , server and mobile by applying Microsoft Visual C #, Java and other programming languages .The system was suited to public wel-fare forest management and had high efficiency .It achieved the purpose of real -time monitoring of public welfare forest re-sources .

  15. Perceptions of parental substance use disorders in cross-system collaboration among child welfare, alcohol and other drugs, and dependency court organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Young, Nancy K

    2014-05-01

    Cross-system collaboration among child welfare (CW), alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and court organizations shows promise in addressing the many needs of CW-involved families experiencing parental substance use disorders (SUDs). Research has suggested that differing perceptions of parents with SUDs among staff in these organizations may hinder the collaborative process. Using a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach, this study explored staff perceptions of parental SUDs among CW, AOD, and court organizations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to CW respondents, AOD respondents were: (a) less likely to believe that parents could provide effective parenting; (b) more likely to believe that abstinence should be a criterion for reunification; (c) more likely to agree that parents should receive jail time as a consequence for noncompliance with court orders; and (d) more likely to believe that parents could succeed in treatment. Thematic analyses of these focal areas identified two core themes (focus on the primary client and mandated time frames for permanency), as well as multiple subthemes, that provided a nuanced understanding of differing perceptions on these matters. Suggestions for the development of anticipatory cross-system training and practices and implications for policy evaluation are discussed.

  16. The government responsibility of social security system in socialist welfare society%构建社会主义福利社会中的政府责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟洪亮

    2012-01-01

      This paper discusses the government responsibility of Socialist welfare society. The author advocates to take social security as the factors of productions. We need define accurately the relation of state and market, fairness and efficiency, in the system design. The moderate social security system causes no loss of efficiency, improves the quality of labor force and economic efficiency, promotes the development of productive forces. What’s more, the efforts made will increase social cohesion and national competitiveness.%  在构建社会主义福利社会的构建中,政府作为社会保障制度的主导者,无疑承担着重大责任。政府承担重大责任既是社会保障作为公共物品的内在要求,也是政府合法性的重要基础;但这并不等于政府包办社会保障和排斥市场、集体、个人的介入,而要从中国社会保障发展战略出发,明确社会保障的政府责任边界,完善公共财政制度化保障机制,强化社会保障功能社会政策化技术路线。

  17. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  19. Techno-economic analysis of biofuel production considering logistic configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2016-04-01

    In the study, a techno-economic analysis method considering logistic configurations is proposed. The economic feasibility of a low temperature biomass gasification pathway and an integrated pathway with fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification are evaluated and compared with the proposed method in Iowa. The results show that both pathways are profitable, biomass gasification pathway could achieve an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 10.00% by building a single biorefinery and integrated bio-oil gasification pathway could achieve an IRR of 3.32% by applying decentralized supply chain structure. A Monte-Carlo simulation considering interactions among parameters is also proposed and conducted, which indicates that both pathways are at high risk currently.

  20. Techno-Anthropological Sensibilities in Health Informatics: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    What kind of knowledges, skills and competences may be required by Techno-Anthropology engaging with health informatics? If we understand Techno-Anthropology to mean conducting anthropological analyses of the interwoven and mutually shaping relationship between organizing, technologies and actors in healthcare, such engagements and interventions can take many forms: Short-term consultancy work dedicated to achieving specific goals, long-term studies of broad changes in healthcare; management support within hospitals and public healthcare administration; or technology development with vendors of healthcare IT. The opportunities would seem to be manifold. Since the healthcare sector is a heterogeneous mix of interests, political agendas, professions et cetera, there is great merit in having people knowledgeable about this heterogeneity; able to facilitate meetings and processes between the various professions and organizations; and skilled in generating analyses and proposing new solutions. Also, people with insight into how action, technologies and organizing are interwoven and redistribute competences, responsibilities and risks are invaluable: Look at from afar, technologies seem to cause and determine social development, whereas detailed studies reveal that determinants and causes are both technical and social. The challenges include the one of making one's knowledge and skills legitimate and relevant to health informatics. Having a degree from arts or social sciences is not necessarily impressive for people with similar degrees in medicine, computer science, and business administration. Another challenge is to design an engagement with health informatics that will generate insights which often requires time, while also providing quick results for project sponsors or collaborators. The chapter points at three issues that seem to be central foundations for appropriate and quality-driven research and interventions of the 'quick and proper' kind: Modes of engagement

  1. Challenges of welfare-to-work programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Governmental expectations of placement outcomes were often high given the severity of work barriers that were present in disabled welfare recipients in the United States [11]. The purpose of this article is to identify challenges that were inherent in welfare-to-work programs and solutions to these challenges. Although rich with opportunity, welfare-to-work programs presented the challenge of employing large numbers of difficult-to-employ individuals before their public assistance benefits expired\\cite{5}. Many clients also had symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) secondary to childhood physical or sexual abuse (59%) or severe domestic violence (55%) [8]. Few funds were available for work training and education. Instead, the employment-first model was expected even though most consumers did not have a high school diploma, had not worked in years, and were fearful and resistant about returning to work [3]. Performance based payment systems presented a challenge because the program's future depended on the compliance of its consumers. There was an impetus for substance abusers to return to work even if they were still using drugs, which contradicted the teachings of many recovery models. This paper presents possible solutions to each of these problems and reports outcomes of one particular welfare-to-work program. By examining the challenges of welfare-to-work programs, by identifying solutions, and by realizing that these solutions are inherent in the basic principles of rehabilitation, this article provides therapists with tools and motivation to make unique contributions to this area of practice.

  2. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  3. Qualitative stakeholder analysis for the development of sustainable monitoringssystem for farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Greef, de K.H.; Hopster, H.

    2005-01-01

    Continued concern for animal welfare may be alleviated when welfare would be monitored on farms. Monitoring can be characterized as an information system where various stakeholders periodically exchange relevant information. Stakeholders include producers, consumers, retailers, the government, scien

  4. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to them

  5. Charting the Impacts of University-Child Welfare Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    Few fields of service command as much public attention as child welfare. Workforce development is often a less visible yet critical response to service delivery crises and efforts to improve child and family outcomes. In the late 1980s, a campaign was undertaken to rebuild public child welfare systems with trained social workers. The subsequent…

  6. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  7. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to

  8. Techno-economic and life-cycle assessment of an attached growth algal biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jay; Sims, Ronald C; Quinn, Jason C

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the sustainability of generating renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass from a rotating algal biofilm reactor. Pilot-scale growth studies and laboratory-scale HTL experiments were used to validate an engineering system model. The engineering system model served as the foundation to evaluate the economic feasibility and environmental impact of the system at full scale. Techno-economic results indicate that biomass feedstock costs dominated the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), with a base case of $104.31per gallon. Life-cycle assessment results show a base-case global warming potential (GWP) of 80gCO2-eMJ(-1) and net energy ratio (NER) of 1.65 based on a well-to-product system boundary. Optimization of the system reduces MFSP, GWP and NER to $11.90Gal(-1), -44gCO2-eMJ(-1), and 0.33, respectively. The systems-level impacts of integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment were found to significantly reduce environmental impact. Sensitivity analysis showed that algal productivity most significantly affected fuel selling price, emphasizing the importance of optimizing biomass productivity.

  9. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...... of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...

  10. Characteristics of Young Parents Investigated and Opened for Ongoing Services in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Ma, Jennifer; Black, Tara; Wekerle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a national child welfare dataset to examine the profile of young parents who are the subject of maltreatment-related investigation and to identify which factors determine service provision from the child welfare system at the conclusion of the investigation. Specifically, it examines how workers in the child welfare system decide…

  11. Techno-economic analysis of a local district heating plant under fuel flexibility and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Brovst is a small district in Denmark. This paper analyses the use of local renewable resources in the district heating systems of Brovst. The present use of fossil fuels in the Brovst district heating plant (DHP) represents an increasing environmental and climate-related load. Therefore, an inve......Brovst is a small district in Denmark. This paper analyses the use of local renewable resources in the district heating systems of Brovst. The present use of fossil fuels in the Brovst district heating plant (DHP) represents an increasing environmental and climate-related load. Therefore......, an investigation has been made to reduce the use of fossil fuels for district heating system and make use of the local renewable resources (biogas, solar, and heat pump) for district heating purposes. In this article, the techno-economic assessment is achieved through the development of a suite of models......PRO, which has been used to analyze the integration of a large-scale energy system into the domestic district heating system. A model of the current work on the basis of information from the Brovst plant (using fossil fuel) is established and named as a reference option. Then, four other options...

  12. Filling the Gaps in a Fragmented Health Care System: Development of the Health and Welfare Information Portal (ZWIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.H.M.; Huisjes, M.; Achterberg, T. van; Zuidema, S.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Schers, H.J.; Heinen, M.M.; Melis, R.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Current health care systems are not optimally designed to meet the needs of our aging populations. First, the fragmentation of care often results in discontinuity of care that can undermine the quality of care provided. Second, patient involvement in care decisions is not sufficiently fa

  13. Filling the Gaps in a Fragmented Health Care System : Development of the Health and Welfare Information Portal (ZWIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Sarah H. M.; Huisjes, Mirjam; van Achterberg, Theo; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; Schers, Henk J.; Heinen, Maud M.; Melis, Rene J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Current health care systems are not optimally designed to meet the needs of our aging populations. First, the fragmentation of care often results in discontinuity of care that can undermine the quality of care provided. Second, patient involvement in care decisions is not sufficiently fa

  14. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...

  15. Some aspects of chicken behavior and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world leader in broiler production and export. It achieved this position mainly to its excellent supply chain structure and climate, which favor poultry and grain production throughout its territory. Although Brazilian egg production is not as important as broiler production, this segment presents great potential of increasing its share in the global market. However, as elsewhere in the world, Brazilian poultry production faces the challenge to balance two elements within its supply chain: cruelty and productivity. The consumers of the European Union (EU are very concerned with animal welfare issues. In order to increase its share in the European market, and eventually in the world market, Brazilian poultry producers must understand the effects of production systems on poultry welfare, and try to develop systems that are suited for its climate and other production conditions. There is a consensus that the natural behaviors performed by poultry in intensive production systems allow better welfare. This objective of this review is to present scientific research studies that relate different behaviors to chicken welfare. Poultry behavior is a reflex of their welfare status at a particular moment, and it is related to internal (physiological and external (environmental factors. Several natural behaviors that favor welfare, as well as undesirable behaviors, may be stimulated by environmental enrichment. The correct interpretation of the behaviors expressed by poultry, including their frequency, duration, and sequence, may be used to estimate their welfare. Animal production is an import sector of Brazilian economy. It significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, in terms of products destined both to domestic consumption and exports. New technologies applied to products and management practices have been developed for field application, aiming at improving producers' productivity and profitability. In order to comply

  16. Techno-economic projections for advanced small solar thermal electric power plants to years 1990--2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E.J.; El Gabalawi, N.; Herrera, G.; Kuo, T.J.; Chen, K.H.

    1978-11-15

    Advanced technologies applicable to solar thermal electric power systems in the 1990--2000 time-frame are delineated for power applications that fulfill a wide spectrum of small power needs with primary emphasis on power ratings <10 MWe. Techno-economic projections of power system characteristics (energy and capital costs as a function of capacity factor) are made based on development of identified promising technologies. The key characteristic of advanced technology systems is an efficient low-cost solar energy collection while achieving high temperatures for efficient energy conversion. Two-axis tracking systems such as the central receiver or power tower concept and distributed parabolic dish receivers possess this characteristic. For these two basic concepts, advanced technologies including, e.g., conversion systems such as Stirling engines, Brayton/Rankine combined cycles and storage/transport concepts encompassing liquid metals, and reversible-reaction chemical systems are considered. In addition to techno-economic aspects, technologies are also judged in terms of factors such as developmental risk, relative reliability, and probability of success. Improvements accruing to projected advanced technology systems are measured with respect to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems, as represented by the central receiver pilot plant being constructed near Barstow, California. These improvements, for both central receivers and parabolic dish systems, indicate that pursuit of advanced technology across a broad front can result in post-1985 solar thermal systems having the potential of approaching the goal of competitiveness with conventional power systems; i.e., capital costs of $600 kWe and energy costs of 50 mills/kWe-hr (1977 dollars).

  17. The care of the informal caregiver's burden by the Spanish public system of social welfare: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Jorge; Carretero, Stephanie; Ródenas, Francisco; Vivancos, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    This work analyzes the public social services system developed in Spain to attend dependent persons and their informal caregivers, examining in a more detailed way the current capacity of the Spanish public In-Home Help Service (HHS) to meet the demands of dependent elderly persons and its impact on their informal caregiver's burden. We begin with a brief introduction of the services by the Spanish public social services system developed to attend dependency; next, the evolution of the Spanish public HHS is described in a thorough way to identify the pros and cons of this service regarding the informal caregivers' burden of dependent elders. Finally, recommendations are proposed to redesign and restructure this public in-home service to lessen the informal caregiver's burden.

  18. Effect of breed suitability, system design and management on welfare & performance in traditional & organic poultrymeat (OF0153)

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Background Over the past fifty years broiler production accounted for almost all of the meat chickens produced in the UK. As a result, only broiler hybrids were available for use by UK producers, and these were not thought to be suited for use in some extensive production systems. This meant that when consumer demand for extensively produced chicken meat increased in the late 1990s producers were unable to quickly identify and source the most suitable hybrids for UK conditions. Furtherm...

  19. Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Jörgen; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    for the households welfare loss. Approximating the welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positive e¤ect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. From a distributional point of view, the results reveal that the CO2 tax reform is regressive, in the sense......In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households.joint choice of number of trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the e¤ects of an increased CO2 tax....... In the empirical study, a bivariate zero-in.ated Poisson lognormal regression model is introduced in order to accommodate the large number of zeroes in the sample. The welfare analysis reveals that the equivalent variation (EV) measure, for the count data demand system, can be seen as an upper bound...

  20. Systematic comprehensive techno-economic assessment of solar cooling technologies using location-specific climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtar, Marwan; Ali, Muhammad Tauha; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Armstrong, Peter; Chiesa, Matteo [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Braeuniger, Simon; Afshari, Afshin [Masdar, Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-12-15

    A methodology for assessing solar cooling technologies is proposed. The method takes into account location specific boundary conditions such as the cooling demand time series, solar resource availability, climatic conditions, component cost and component performance characteristics. This methodology evaluates the techno-economic performance of the solar collector/chiller system. We demonstrate the method by systematic evaluation of 25 feasible combinations of solar energy collection and cooling technologies. The comparison includes solar thermal and solar electric cooling options and is extended to solar cooling through concentrated solar power plants. Solar cooling technologies are compared on an economic and overall system efficiency perspective. This analysis has implication for the importance of solar load fraction and storage size in the design of solar cooling systems. We also stress the importance of studying the relation between cooling demand and solar resource availability, it was found that overlooking this relation might lead to overestimations of the potential of a solar cooling system in the range of 22% to over 100% of the actual potential. (author)

  1. The welfare state within the framework of the capialist system. Does it have a future or is it non-viable in the current globalized system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Cabrera Jiménez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The important role played by the State in the economic, political, and social field during the 20th Century has engendered some reactions in favor or against from the point of view of several ideological thinkers within capitalism. Regardless of the point of view from where it is observed, it can be said that it has had an influence on individual freedom, in the relationships generated around the development conception and, in general, in current social-economic growth. The aim of this article is to review the study of the welfare State role in the capitalist society in the 20th Century, analyzing different contributions from the point of view of those who defend this theory, as well as those who are opposed to it. It recognizes that every State must confront the complex process that generates the interaction of different social structures interaction and their outcome that affects the people.

  2. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  3. Welfare assessment for dairy cows in loose stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, welfare assessment using the methodology of the Welfare quality ® assessment protocol for cattle (2009 was performed for dairy cows maintained in the loose system of rearing on three dairy farms. This methodology includes quantitative measurements and qualitative evaluation of certain welfare parameters, criteria and principles of welfare, as well as assessment of the overall welfare of dairy cows. The results showed that the overall level of dairy cow welfare was acceptable on two farms, and was good on one. On two farms, the state of the cows’ social behavior expression was unacceptable. Furthermore, on all three farms, the expression of other types of cow behavior was not acceptable. At one farm, it was determined that the result for the absence of prolonged thirst was unacceptable. Based on these results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of cow welfare on these farms. The applied methodology provides a multidimensional insight into the quality of cow welfare in the loose system.

  4. Neuroendocrine responses of healthy volunteers to 'techno-music': relationships with personality traits and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Franchini, D; Palladino, M; Giucastro, G; Reali, N; Maestri, D; Caccavari, R; Delsignore, R; Brambilla, F

    1998-01-01

    A variety of studies reported psychological and physiological effects of music. Different types of music have been found to induce different neuroendocrine changes. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the possible combination of emotional and endocrine changes in response to techno-music and to define personality variables as predictors of respective changes. Sixteen psychosomatically healthy subjects (18- to 19-year-olds, eight males and eight females) were exposed, in random order, to techno-music or to classical music (30 min each). Plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cortisol (CORT), beta-endorphin (beta-EP) concentrations and changes of emotional state were measured in basal conditions and after the experimental trials with two different types of music. Techno-music was associated with a significant increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure and significant changes in self-rated emotional states. A significant increase was observed in beta-EP, ACTH, NE, GH and CORT after listening to techno-music. Classical music induced an improvement in emotional state, but no significant changes in hormonal concentrations. No differences between male and female subjects' responses to music have been found. Plasma levels of PRL and EPI were unaffected by techno- and classical music. Changes in emotional state and NE, beta-EP and GH responses to techno-music correlated negatively with harm avoidance scores and positively with the novelty-seeking temperament score on the Cloninger scale. Listening to techno-music induces changes in neurotransmitters, peptides and hormonal reactions, related to mental state and emotional involvement: personality traits and temperament may influence the wide inter-individual variability in response to music.

  5. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  6. Frequency and consequences of violence and aggression towards employees in the German healthcare and welfare system: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schablon, Anja; Zeh, Annett; Wendeler, Dana; Peters, Claudia; Wohlert, Claudia; Harling, Melanie; Nienhaus, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the frequency and consequences of aggressive assaults on employees in the German healthcare and welfare system were investigated. A retrospective cross-sectional study. Employees in the German healthcare system and their experiences of violence and aggression were examined in this study. The sample consisted of 1973 employees from 39 facilities (6 facilities for the disabled, 6 hospitals and 27 outpatient and inpatient geriatric care facilities) who have regular contact with patients or clients. The frequency of physical and verbal violence towards employees and the consequences of aggressive assaults were analysed. 56% of respondents had experienced physical violence and 78% verbal aggression. The highest frequency of physical violence was in inpatient geriatric care (63%) (p=0.000). Younger workers run a higher risk of being affected by physical violence than older colleagues (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.4). There is also an increased risk of experiencing physical violence in inpatient geriatric care (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). Around a third of workers feel seriously stressed by the violence experienced. The better the facility trained employees for dealing with aggressive and violent clients, the less risk employees ran of experiencing either verbal aggression (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.7) or physical violence (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9). Training by the facility has a positive effect on experienced stress (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.8). Violence towards nursing and healthcare personnel occurs frequently. Every third respondent feels severely stressed by violence and aggression. Occupational support provisions to prevent and provide aftercare for cases of violence and aggression reduce the risk of incidents and of perceived stress. Research is needed on occupational support provisions that reduce the risk of staff experiencing verbal and physical violence and the stress that is associated with it.

  7. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Fabio Luzi; Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus) main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these ...

  8. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Solar Irrigation Plants Installed in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmul Hoque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the summer season, irrigation sector in Bangladesh suffers a lot due to the country wide electricity crisis. Solar pump offers a clean and simple alternative to the conventional fuel fired engine or grid electricity driven pump in this regard to resolve the issue. In this paper, the techno-economic analyses of solar irrigation plants installed in Bangladesh are evaluated.  It was observed that systems were running around 70% to 80% of the rated power which was quite acceptable. A 10 hp pump was able to pump 600 liter of water per minute which was also satisfactory to irrigate the land. Average operating time was found to be 8 hour/day. It was found that the overall efficiency of the systems were in between 11.39% to 16.52% whereas the typical average value of lit/Wp/year was 9200. On the other hand, the cost of irrigation to cultivate paddy in 0.161 hectares’ land for one season was 1,750 BDT by solar irrigation which was found to be lower than that of other available modes. This charge for grid electricity based irrigation was about 3,000 to 3500 BDT per 0.161 hectares’ and 2,300 to 2,600 BDT per 0.161 hectares’ for diesel engine based irrigation. According to the current financial scheme (15% equity investment, 35% credit support and remaining 50% from government through IDCOL the average value of payback period was 5.43 years, NPV in the range from 7 to 15% and IRR was 18%. By considering 100% equity investment, however, these projects were not economically attractive. The payback period for this case was about 18 years. Study also revealed that each solar irrigation plant reduces 42.8 kg of CO2 emission per day compare to diesel engine operated pump and 2566.24 kg/day compared to grid electricity operated pump. A comprehensive effort from the Government as well as from all the stakeholders is required for further expansion of solar irrigation plants in Bangladesh. Article History: Received Sept 05, 2015; Received in revised form

  9. Employment barriers among welfare recipients and applicants with chronically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren A; Romero, Diana; Wood, Pamela R; Wampler, Nina S; Chavkin, Wendy; Wise, Paul H

    2002-09-01

    This study evaluated the association of chronic child illness with parental employment among individuals who have had contact with the welfare system. Parents of children with chronic illnesses were interviewed. Current and former welfare recipients and welfare applicants were more likely than those with no contact with the welfare system to report that their children's illnesses adversely affected their employment. Logistic regression analyses showed that current and former receipt of welfare, pending welfare application, and high rates of child health care use were predictors of unemployment. Welfare recipients and applicants with chronically ill children face substantial barriers to employment, including high child health care use rates and missed work. The welfare reform reauthorization scheduled to occur later in 2002 should address the implications of chronic child illness for parental employment.

  10. Evaluación del bienestar animal de cerdos en crecimiento-ceba alojados en sistema de cama profunda (Assessment of the animal welfare of growing-fattening pigs housed in deep bedding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Martínez, Elizabeth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe evaluó el bienestar animal de cerdos en crecimiento-ceba al utilizar la tecnología de crianza en cama profunda comparado con el sistema tradicional sobre piso de concreto en el Instituto de Investigaciones Porcinas de Cuba.SummaryIt was evaluated the animal welfare of growing-fattening pigs using the deep bedding technology compared with the traditional system on the concrete floor in the Swine Research Institute of Cuba.

  11. Welfare issues of modern laying hen farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ferrante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review starts with a brief outline of poultry behaviour and biology and a description of the present laying hen farming situation in Italy. Moreover, it points out the situation of EU legislation currently in effect for laying hen welfare. It then reviews the main welfare issues of layer farming. The following aspects are considered: rearing system (e.g. stocking density, light intensity and photoperiod, equipment and facilities and some health aspects. All these aspects represent important issues for farmed species, but special attention should be paid when we deal with intensively farmed species like poultry, where a lot of potential stressors may impair the welfare with consequences on health and production. The adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques, as well as the presence of well trained stockpersons with a sound knowledge of poultry physiology and behaviour, are particularly important in guaranteeing a sufficient welfare level to poultry. Therefore, the adoption of specific codes of recommendations is highly desirable.

  12. Performance Study on Thermodynamic Systems and Techno-economic Analysis of Carbon Capture for Solar Thermal Aided Coal-fired Power Plants%太阳能辅助燃煤机组碳捕集系统性能研究及技术经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩中合; 王继选; 王营营; 白睿; 王江江

    2014-01-01

    以某电厂600 MW燃煤机组为研究对象,提出利用烟气余热及太阳能热作为燃烧后碳捕集的热源,以机组抽汽作为脱硝系统热源。建立成本模型和热经济学模型;研究产品单位成本、产品单位热经济学成本的构成及分布规律;分析燃料价格和设备投资成本对各组件产品热经济学成本的影响;对集成系统进行了技术经济分析。研究结果表明:影响单位成本的主要因素为燃料成本、组件效率和比不可逆成本;影响热经济学成本的主要因素为比不可逆成本和投资成本;不计及投资成本时,集成系统产品单位热经济学成本比原系统有所降低;影响太阳能集热场及低压省煤器热经济学成本的主要因素为投资成本、比负熵成本和比不可逆成本。参考电站发电成本随 CO2排放税收价格的升高而升高,集成系统 CO2排放税收升高对发电成本影响不大,CO2售价可弥补部分发电成本的提高。%Taken a 600 MW unit as an example, an integration system which uses waste heat of exhaust fume and solar energy as heat source for post-combustion carbon capture, the extraction steam as the heat source of the liquid ammonia evaporator was presented. The exergy cost model and thermoeconomics cost model were established based on structural theory of thermoeconomics. The productive relation between units was analyzed and the composition and distribution of per unit’s exergy cost and thermoeconomics cost were studied on the basis of thermoeconomics model and exergy cost model rooted from the concept of fuel-product. The influence of fuel price and equipment investment cost of each product thermoeconomics cost was studied. The techno-economic of integration system was analyzed. The results show that the main factor affecting unit exergy cost is fuel exergy cost and per unit’s irreversible exergy cost; the main factor affecting

  13. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  14. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  15. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  16. Robotics for social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández Cossío

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for the aged people. ELDERTOY involves a double purpose, fun and therapeutic. In a complementary way, these projects aim to be an example of the breaking of the technology gap both of seniors and of people with disabilities. Therefore, the ultimate goal is to promote and adapt scientific and technological knowledge to be applied to improve significantly the standard of quality of life in society.

  17. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless...

  18. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  19. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  20. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the project...

  1. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  2. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  3. ABOUT WELFARE IN CULTURAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to briefly analyze the research efforts on measuring welfare indices in terms of cultural relativism. It presents the limitations of GDP and some of the proposed alternatives over time, to understand the wideness and interest in this topic, but also the consequences of imposing a certain type of indicators to reflect the progress and welfare of a country. To provide a coherent overview on the proposed subject, the approach starts with the presentation of general acceptation of the welfare concept. Further, the literature review reveals many concerns about the welfare and progress, but also the difficulties associated with this effort. Critical comments generally reflect the need to consider the culture factor in the debate on welfare.

  4. Contrasting Attitudes towards Animal Welfare Issues within the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.

  5. Tracking Porters: Learning the Craft of Techno-Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations. The anthropological perspective is grounded in socio-cultural theory and forged by a distinct relativist or contextualist epistemological stance. The point is to understand events, concepts and phenomena from the insiders' point of view and to show how this view relates to the particular social and cultural context. In this chapter, we argue that although anthropology has its specific methodology - including a myriad of ethnographic data-gathering tools, techniques, analytical approaches and theories - it must first and foremost be understood as a craft. Anthropology as craft requires a specific 'anthropological sensibility' that differs from the standardized procedures of normal science. To establish our points we use an example of problem-based project work conducted by a group of Techno-Anthropology students at Aalborg University, we focus on key aspects of this craft and how the students began to learn it: For two weeks the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital.

  6. Intersubjectivity and Techno-Science: Jürgen Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Bogdan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By emphasizing the relationship between techno-science and intersubjectivity, the present text critically explores some of Jürgen Habermas’s central tenets of philosophical reconstruction. As the author of the “communicative turn” in Critical Theory, Habermas emphatically states that intersubjectivity as linguistic interaction provides the answer to the long dispute around subject/object relationship. From this point of view, modern philosophy of consciousness including here also Adorno and the first generation of Critical Theory seem to advocate an outmoded philosophical reflection. Despite the optimism in the communicative action’s capacity to solve this old source of philosophical puzzlement, our contention is that Habermas remains caught up in a series of contradictions. Subject/object relationship cannot be answered by simply disolving it in communicative practices. Moreover, we believe that Habermas’s philosophical project continues to be haunted by Adorno’s negative dialectic: nonidentity and self-reflection are still indispensable moments in facing these contradictions.

  7. Consumer preferences for welfare pork - is the interest for tenderloin greater than for minced meat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2015-01-01

    of their production cycles were estimated. Random utility theory (McFadden, 1974) was used to estimate respondents’ WTP for medium versus premium levels of animal welfare. Our results indicate that consumers are interested in animal welfare, and that moderate price premiums for medium levelled animal welfare products...... might attract consumers who would otherwise be inclined to purchase standard products. Labels guaranteeing medium levels of animal welfare may therefore indeed play an important role in promoting higher animal welfare standards. Consumers seem to be more willing to pay a higher price premium for animal...... welfare organisation, Dyrenes Beskyttelse, owns a label that approves premium levels of animal welfare similar to organic standards for pork, beef and poultry meat productions. Also, meats from production systems that guarantee medium levels of animal welfare are available in the Danish cool counters...

  8. FROM ROOMS TO ENVIRONMENTS: TECHNO-SHORT-SIGHTEDNESS AND LANGUAGE LABORATORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Perez Paredes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Language laboratories have played a major role in the history of foreign language teaching. However, when regarding their presence in modern post-20th century foreign language teaching and learning, it is difficult to find in the profession a close adherence to the concept of language laboratory( Howatt 1984. As a succinct explanation, it has been argued that with the rise of Communicative-based Language Teaching they were neglected and became a useless technology. ln this position paper we will discuss the role of language laboratories in retrospective. paying attention to the technology diffusion process which accounted for their initial success, and contributing arguments for a revision of their historical evolution into a new tool for learning and teaching foreign languages. Tlie notion of techno-short-rightednrss will be used to describe the process of diffusion and media adaptation of the language laboratory technology to the latest language learning paradigins. The article includes a survey of existing language laboratory technologies as well as a tasonomy based on their functions and information delivery systems.

  9. Application of advanced materials to the Techno-Superliner; Techno-superliner (TSL-F) no sentai kozoyo zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-15

    Structural materials usable for the construction of Techno-Superliner (TSL-F) hull are explained. TSL-F is a superhigh-speed boat which runs at 50kt, carries 1000t, covers 500nm or more, and navigates even under the hydrographic conditions of Sea State 6. Aluminum alloys are selected for the construction of the deck as an upper hull structure, the side plates, and the hull bottom structure. The 5083 alloy is advocated because it is as strong as its parent metal when welded into a joint and is highly resistant to corrosive seawater and because it has achieved a number of successful results aboard smaller vessels. As for the materials for lower hull structures including the hydrofoils, it is concluded that stainless steels high in withstanding corrosive environments will be practicable. Since there are but a few number of cases of using stainless steels for ship hull structure, however, data for study is far from sufficient. Therefore, various performance tests are conducted for the purpose of collecting data and information for evaluation. As the result, three stainless steels are selected. One is a martensitic steel constituted mainly of 13Cr-5Ni, another is a 24Cr-12Ni austenitic steel treated by TMCP (thermomechanical control process), and the third is a 22Cr-5Ni two-phase steel. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  11. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...... (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society......'s income. Thus, for any such allocation method, there are situations where some agents have incentives to prevent society in becoming richer....

  12. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...... on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  13. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  14. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  15. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  16. Report on the relationship between welfare, education and social entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H. Thomas R.; Hafen, Niklas; Rakar, Fredrik

    levels. The focus is on establishing to what extent education and welfare influence the development of social entrepreneurship, social innovation and social enterprises. In this context, welfare and education are understood to be amongst the most relevant areas for any government in that it strongly......In this report, we aim to shed light on how far and to what extent the national and regional governments – more specifically the welfare regime and the education system – have come in terms of developing supporting ecosystems for social enterprises, to strengthen efforts at national and regional...

  17. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    to order European welfare states. Hence, I agree with Francis Castles and Herbert Obinger (2008: 321) when they write: “Our main conclusions are that country clustering is, if anything, more pronounced than in the past, that it is, in large part, structurally determined and that the EU now contains a quite...... distinct post-Communist family of nations.” A superficial overview of spending on social protection in both relative and absolute terms from 1980 (1990 in Eastern Europe) to 2005 reveals no signs of retrenchment in any regime. But such summary indicators may mask a different distributional profile...... of benefits and an increase in risks and coverage. Therefore, the remainder of the paper discusses in more detail particular welfare reforms within each of the five welfare regimes. It is concluded that problems of welfare state development differ within the different regimes, but a strong commitment...

  18. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  19. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After the golden age of welfare state development in Europe, the glorious thirty years from 1945 to 1974, perceptions changed and the welfare state was interpreted to be in crisis. One solution to the crisis was a neo-liberal approach emphasizing privatization and retrenchment. And at least...... rhetorically this perspective gained ground during the 1980s in Northwestern Europe and during the 1990s in the newly emerging market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. However, on the whole, social science literature has been more concerned about trying to explain welfare state resilience to change than...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...

  20. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  1. Materials flow management in the metal industry. Design and techno-economical analysis of industriyl recycling concepts; Stoffstrommanagement in der Metallindustrie. Zur Gestaltung und techno-oekonomischen Bewertung industrieller Recyclingkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehre, S.

    2000-07-01

    Materials flow management is an attempt to cope with excessive consumption of resources and with the large-scale release of pollutants, both of which are hazards of our industrialised society. It is necessary to analyse materials and energy flow along interconnected product and process chains to develop suitable concepts, e.g. for innovative environmental protection and recycling measures. A planning instrument is designed for this purpose which is based on a combination of flowsheeting models common in chemical process engineering and material flow networks based on Petri nets. Its application enables computer-assisted design and techno-economic evaluation of industrial recycling concepts, so that decision makers in enterprises and administrations will be given a tool for in-house and external material flow management. In the implementation stage, the flowsheeting system 'Aspen Plus' and the eco-banancing tool 'Umberto' were used, and exemplary problems of material flow management in the steel and zinc industry were investigated. [German] Zur Ueberwindung negativer Umwelteinfluesse der Industriegesellschaft, die inbesondere aus dem Ressourcenverbrauch und der Freisetzung grosser Schadstoffmengen resultieren, werden Massnahmen im Sinne des Stoffstrommanagements gefordert. Die Entwicklung geeigneter Konzepte, etwa zum Einsatz innovativer Umweltschutz- und Recyclingmassnahmen, macht die Analyse von Stoff- und Energiestroemen entlang vernetzter Produkt- und Prozessketten erforderlich. Hierfuer wird ein Planungsinstrument konzipiert, das auf einer Kombination verfahrenstechnischer Flowsheeting-Modelle und Petri-Netz-basierter Stoffstromnetze beruht. Sein Einsatz ermoeglicht computergestuetzt die Gestaltung und techno-oekonomische Bewertung industrieller Recyclingkonzepte, so dass Entscheidungstraeger in Unternehmen und Behoerden ein Hilfsmittel zum betrieblichen und betriebsuebergreifenden Stoffstrommanagement erhalten. Bei der Implementierung

  2. Welfare Reform Will Create More Misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the effects of welfare reform on American Indian families and college students. Contends that, under the new federal welfare program, tribes that choose to administer welfare will lose matching funds from state governments, resulting in a 30-50% loss of welfare benefits for eligible recipients. (JDI)

  3. Improving Animal Welfare in Livestock Operations

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, animal welfare has been increasingly recognized in importance in commercial livestock operations. Governments, academic institutions, and animal welfare professionals are addressing animal welfare at different points in the agricultural supply chain, while consumers are demanding higher standards for food safety and animal welfare. Meanwhile, regional and global initiat...

  4. Immune responses to improving welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that "increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better" because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "sickness behavior," includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  5. Animal welfare: what has changed in the past 50 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-12

    The 3(rd) CABI symposium on animal welfare and behaviour was held on June 11, and featured a range of talks on 'animals as machines'. The symposium marked the 50(th) anniversary of the publication of the book 'Animal Machines' by Ruth Harrison. The book decried the conditions experienced at that time by many animals kept in intensive farming systems, and the speakers at the symposium discussed how far animal welfare had come since its publication. Georgina Mills reports.

  6. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make...... optimizing treatment protocols a challenge. Continuous low-dose applications seem to be a promising solution. In this preliminary study behavioral response was used to assess potential correlations with PAA dosage. A behavioral change or response is not necessarily an indication of compromised welfare....... Supportive enzymatic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers can be used along with gill and epidermal histological measures to evaluate the effects on water treatment regimens. The ultimate goal is to define the therapeutic window where fish welfare is not compromised.PAA is among the few disinfectants...

  7. Scenario Analysis for Techno-Economic Model Development of U.S. Offshore Wind Support Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Rick; Ning, Andrew; Maples, Ben; Smith, Aaron; Dykes, Katherine

    2016-09-22

    Challenging bathymetry and soil conditions of future US offshore wind power plants might promote the use of multimember, fixed-bottom structures (or 'jackets') in place of monopiles. Support structures affect costs associated with the balance of system and operation and maintenance. Understanding the link between these costs and the main environmental design drivers is crucial in the quest for a lower levelized cost of energy, and it is the main rationale for this work. Actual cost and engineering data are still scarce; hence, we evaluated a simplified engineering approach to tie key site and turbine parameters (e.g. water depth, wave height, tower-head mass, hub height and generator rating) to the overall support weight. A jacket-and-tower sizing tool, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's system engineering software suite, was utilized to achieve mass-optimized support structures for 81 different configurations. This tool set provides preliminary sizing of all jacket components. Results showed reasonable agreement with the available industry data, and that the jacket mass is mainly driven by water depth, but hub height and tower-head mass become more influential at greater turbine ratings. A larger sensitivity of the structural mass to wave height and target eigenfrequency was observed for the deepest water conditions (>40 m). Thus, techno-economic analyses using this model should be based on accurate estimates of actual metocean conditions and turbine parameters especially for deep waters. The relationships derived from this study will inform National Renewable Energy Laboratory's offshore balance of system cost model, and they will be used to evaluate the impact of changes in technology on offshore wind lower levelized cost of energy.

  8. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  9. Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Jakobsen, Iben Alber; Hindhede, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of the welfare indicator protocol as basis for on-farm welfare assessment have been carried out; one study focused on the opinion of 21 AMS researchers; the other on that of 14 AMS production advisors and 15 veterinary practitioners. The researchers were asked to score the individual welfare relevance of the 38......A welfare indicator protocol integrating a total of 38 measures from 4 information sources: housing system, management, animal behaviour and clinical health has been developed for decision support in Automatic Milking System (AMS) herds. Two expert opinion studies focusing on the relevance...... measures. Furthermore, both the panels were asked to prioritise the 10 most important measures. The 21 researchers generally appreciated the listed protocol measures as highly relevant. The researcher and advisor panels agreed on prioritised measures from all 4 information sources among the 10 most...

  10. The Real Virtual World: Connectivity and Techno-Mediation in the Lives of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standlee, Alecea

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the way in which techno-mediated communication technologies, such as social media, text messaging, and virtual communities are used to negotiate, establish and maintain interpersonal relationships among college students. Using in-depth interview and online participant observation, I explore the relationship between…

  11. The Factors Affecting Techno-Pedagogical Competencies and Critical Thinking Skills of Preservice Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Avni

    2017-01-01

    Students' high-level thinking skills, like critical thinking, have been developed thanks to the use of technology. When the previous researches in the literature are analyzed, it will be understood that this research is original by providing significant contributions to the literature. This research aims to investigate whether techno-pedagogical…

  12. Pyrolysis of forest residues: an approach to techno-economics for bio-fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The techno-economics for producing liquid fuels from Maine forest residues were determined from a combination of: (1) laboratory experiments at USDA-ARS’s Eastern Regional Research Center using hog fuel (a secondary woody residue produced from mill byproducts such as sawdust, bark and shavings) as a...

  13. Techno-Mathematical Discourse: A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Pence, Katie L.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research has been published on the nature of classroom mathematical discourse and on the impact of technology tools, such as virtual manipulatives (VM), on students' learning, while less research has focused on how technology tools facilitate that mathematical discourse. This paper presents an emerging construct, the Techno-Mathematical…

  14. Contributions from Techno-Anthropological Ethnography to Innovation and Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Krogh

    2013-01-01

    is the significance of the enormous growth of STS scholarship that took place in the following 2-3 decades? And third, what are the challenges today for an STS field that has come of age? Finally, the lecture offers reflections on the promises of the new techno anthropology study programme....

  15. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  16. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  17. The Influence of Different Virtual Manipulative Types on Student-Led Techno-Mathematical Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Pence, Katie; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the influence of different virtual manipulative (VM) types on the nature of student pairs' techno-mathematical discourse (TMD). Three fifth-grade student pairs participated in 9 sessions of mathematics instruction using VMs. The study compared three VM types: linked, pictorial, and tutorial. Students' levels of…

  18. Techno Savvy: A Web 2.0 Curriculum Encouraging Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports results from a case study focused on understanding student practices regarding production-oriented problem-solving with digital media. Thirty-seven students participated in an elective curriculum called, "Techno Savvy," a nine-week course focused on student exploration of global issues, and designed around Web 2.0…

  19. Techno-Anthropologists as Change Agents: A case in health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lone Stub

    2015-01-01

    Studying technology will often involve studying change - or in the perspective of this chapter should involve not just studying but also actively being involved with change. Your presence and the questions you ask shape the way people think and act and on the other hand their responses and your study of practice change the researchers perspective. For Techno-Anthropologist, this means that asking in specific ways about technology and having a focus on technology in the data collection and fieldwork will (should) influence what they see, the data they collect and their analysis - and also the way the informants think and the way people talk about practice and technology. The Techno-Anthropological researcher should be aware and actively use the potential for change in the empirical study of technology. In this chapter I exemplify and examine how and why change can be embraced and seen as an integral part of Techno-Anthropological studies in Health Informatics and beyond. This statement is supported through reflections on empirical examples, qualitative methods, and ethical and philosophical considerations on research and change. The chapter concludes that Techno-Anthropologists should actively consider and engage in the potential for change of the empirical studies of technology.

  20. Classroom Remix: Patterns of Pedagogy in a Techno-Literacies Poetry Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Meg; King, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers collaborated with two high school creative writing teachers to consider how a particular use of technology--PowerPoint poetry interpretations--would function in their creative writing classes. Their findings encouraged them to consider three kinds of "classroom remix" related to the introduction of techno-literacy practices into the…

  1. The Real Virtual World: Connectivity and Techno-Mediation in the Lives of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standlee, Alecea

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the way in which techno-mediated communication technologies, such as social media, text messaging, and virtual communities are used to negotiate, establish and maintain interpersonal relationships among college students. Using in-depth interview and online participant observation, I explore the relationship between…

  2. Techno-Tourism and Postindustrial Neo-Romanticism in Berlin’s Electronic Dance Music Scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Luis-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This article profiles the ‘techno-tourists’ of Berlin: music fans who return repeatedly to the city in order to participate in the local electronic dance music (EDM) scenes. Based on interviews, this article sketches a profile of these music-minded voyagers, surveying their motivations, their attitu

  3. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  4. Unravelling uncertainty and variability in early stage techno-economic assessments of carbon capture technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Mijndert; Sanchez Fernandez, Eva; Eldrup, Nils Henrik; Skagestad, Ragnhild; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the uncertainty and variability in techno-economic studies of carbon capture technologies, based on a detailed comparison of the results of different studies on postcombustion CO2 capture with advanced amines, and on an in-depth uncertainty analysis using a combination of sensit

  5. Gentling and welfare of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muscio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional sheep production systems, lambs are suckled by their mothers and then gradually weaned at 35 days of age. However, the increased size of intensive dairy sheep flocks to obtain greater amounts of ovine milk for cheese making, is promoting the diffusion of artificial rearing programs involving early separation of lambs from their mothers. Maternal deprivation soon after birth can have detrimental effects on lamb immune functions, and lead to altered cortisol secretion and behavioural responses to isolation (Napolitano et al., 1995. Human-animal interactions have been documented to play a role in sustaining the welfare and production of domestic animals (Hemsworth, 2003. In addition, gentled animals are less difficult to be handled and less susceptible to the stress induced by management practices involving human contacts (Lensink et al., 2000. The aim of the present trial was to investigate the effects of gently handling newborn lambs on their behavioural, immune and endocrine responses, and on their growth rate when mothered or artificially reared.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  7. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However......, following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal......, the indicators selected as measures of animal welfare may introduce biases which are relevant from an ethical perspective. Thus, indicators connected with pathologies and other states which are signs of pain and other types of physical suffering will inevitably favour production systems which are safe but barren...

  8. Achievement report on research and development of medical and welfare equipment technology. Comprehensive wheelchair supporting system; Iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kurumaisu sogo shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A comprehensive wheelchair supporting system is developed, which is a combination of a system for supporting the prescription, design, and manufacture of a wheelchair and a system for supporting the movement of the wheelchair. In the development of a motorchair prescription supporting system, a database is constructed containing wheelchair prescription experts' know-how and decision-making criteria, and their prescriptions are standardized. Since the motorchair users are heavily handicapped, an expert system is constructed on the basis of 14 types of basic wheelchairs. A design/manufacture assisting system is developed, which automatedly works out, using data collected in the prescription assisting process, a side view, rear view, and drawings for all parts that are required for the manufacture of a wheelchair. In the development of the movement supporting system, a wheelchair structure is developed, which allows a user to operate the wheelchair unaided in climbing a stairway or stepped passage. In the development of safety devices, a right angle approach automatic control mechanism, askew drive stop mechanism, emergency stop mechanism, start and stop mechanism, auxiliary system to respond upon receiving guidance signals from the wall, and a fastening device are now complete. (NEDO)

  9. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  10. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mattiello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

  11. Load Management in Residential Buildings Considering Techno-Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-12-01

    Load problems in electricity markets occur both on the supply and demand side and can have technical, economic and even political causes. Commonly, such problems have been solved by expanding production and/or distribution capacity, importing electricity or by load management. Load management is a techno-economic measure for harmonizing the relations between supply and demand sides, optimizing power generation and transmission and increasing security of supply. Interest in load management differs depending on the perspective of the actors involved: from customer, utility, or producer to state policy maker. The problem of load demand and load management in residential sector is in this thesis approached from different perspectives, i.e. technical, economic, and environmental. The study does not go deep into detailed analyses of each perspective, but rather aims to establish and analyze the links between them. This trans-disciplinary approach is the key methodological moment used in the research work performed by the research group for load management in buildings at the Lund Institute of Technology. The key objective of this study is to analyze load demand variation and load management possibilities in residential sector, particularly detached and semi-detached houses, to experimentally test and analyze the conditions and potential of direct load management from customer and utility viewpoint. Techno-economic and environmental aspects are investigated. The study was performed in collaboration with one electric utility in Southern Sweden. Ten electric-heated houses were equipped with extra meters, enabling hourly load measurements for heating, hot water and total electricity use. Household heating and hot water systems were controlled by the utility using an existing remote reading and monitoring system. The residents noticed some of the control periods, although they didn't express any larger discomfort. The experiments proved that direct load management might

  12. Synthetic spider silk sustainability verification by techno-economic and life cycle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Alan

    Major ampullate spider silk represents a promising biomaterial with diverse commercial potential ranging from textiles to medical devices due to the excellent physical and thermal properties from the protein structure. Recent advancements in synthetic biology have facilitated the development of recombinant spider silk proteins from Escherichia coli (E. coli), alfalfa, and goats. This study specifically investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of synthetic spider silk manufacturing. Pilot scale data was used to validate an engineering process model that includes all of the required sub-processing steps for synthetic fiber manufacture: production, harvesting, purification, drying, and spinning. Modeling was constructed modularly to support assessment of alternative protein production methods (alfalfa and goats) as well as alternative down-stream processing technologies. The techno-economic analysis indicates a minimum sale price from pioneer and optimized E. coli plants at 761 kg-1 and 23 kg-1 with greenhouse gas emissions of 572 kg CO2-eq. kg-1 and 55 kg CO2-eq. kg-1, respectively. Spider silk sale price estimates from goat pioneer and optimized results are 730 kg-1 and 54 kg-1, respectively, with pioneer and optimized alfalfa plants are 207 kg-1 and 9.22 kg-1 respectively. Elevated costs and emissions from the pioneer plant can be directly tied to the high material consumption and low protein yield. Decreased production costs associated with the optimized plants include improved protein yield, process optimization, and an Nth plant assumption. Discussion focuses on the commercial potential of spider silk, the production performance requirements for commercialization, and impact of alternative technologies on the sustainability of the system.

  13. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dael, M.; Van Passel, S.; Witters, N. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R. [VITO, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Reumermann, P. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Josink Esweg 34, 7545 PN Enschede (Netherlands); Marquez Luzardo, N. [School of Life Sciences and Environmental Technology, Avans Hogeschool, Hogeschoollaan 1, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Broeze, J. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, 6703 HD Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conversion Park (ECP) is introduced. A biomass ECP can be defined as a synergetic, multi-dimensional biomass conversion site with a highly integrated set of conversion technologies in which a multitude of regionally available biomass (residue) sources are converted into energy and materials. A techno-economic assessment is performed on a case study in the Netherlands to illustrate the concept and to comparatively assess the highly integrated system with two mono-dimensional models. The three evaluated models consist of (1) digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, (2) co-digestion of manure and co-substrates, and (3) integration. From a socio-economic point of view it can be concluded that it is economically and energetically more interesting to invest in the integrated model than in two separate models. The integration is economically feasible and environmental benefits can be realized. For example, the integrated model allows the implementation of a co-digester. Unmanaged manure would otherwise represent a constant pollution risk. However, from an investor's standpoint one should firstly invest in the municipal solid waste digester since the net present value (NPV) of this mono-dimensional model is higher than that of the multi-dimensional model. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most influencing parameters. Our results are of interest for companies involved in the conversion of biomass. The conclusions are useful for policy makers when deciding on policy instruments concerning manure processing or biogas production.

  14. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Nordquist

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum, or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  15. Microbial community-based polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from wastewater : Techno-economic analysis and ex-ante environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, Cora; Posada, John A.; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Cuellar, Maria C.; Ramirez, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the potential for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from wastewater, from a techno-economic and an environmental perspective, examining scale-up opportunities and bottlenecks prior to commercialisation. Conceptual process design, economic, environmental impacts and sensitiv

  16. Microbial community-based polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from wastewater : Techno-economic analysis and ex-ante environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, Cora; Posada, John A.; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Cuellar, Maria C.; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the potential for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from wastewater, from a techno-economic and an environmental perspective, examining scale-up opportunities and bottlenecks prior to commercialisation. Conceptual process design, economic, environmental impacts and sensitiv

  17. Microbial community-based polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from wastewater : Techno-economic analysis and ex-ante environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, Cora|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364178876; Posada, John A.; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Cuellar, Maria C.; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the potential for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from wastewater, from a techno-economic and an environmental perspective, examining scale-up opportunities and bottlenecks prior to commercialisation. Conceptual process design, economic, environmental impacts and

  18. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  19. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  20. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  1. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  2. Listening to the Voices of Children in Foster Care: Youths Speak out about Child Welfare Workforce Turnover and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been…

  3. [The attitude of German veterinarians towards farm animal welfare: results of a cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Heinke; Kemper, Nicole; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the issue of animal welfare in intensive livestock production systems has been subjected to increasing criticism from the broad public. Some groups in society ask for higher animal welfare standards and there is an increas- ing number of consumers who prefer meat from more animal friendly husbandry systems. An intense social debate on animal welfare has flared up in the recent past. Veterinarians are considered as experts for the assessment of animal welfare. Nevertheless they are rarely consulted in the current debate. Therefore, only little is known about their attitude towards animal welfare in livestock farming. Even for Germany, there is so far no comprehensive analysis about their atti- tudes towards animal welfare and animal welfare programs. In the present study, 433 veterinarians were questioned via an online survey. The results show that veterinarians have a very differentiated perception of the issue animal welfare. Four groups (clusters) which have different attitudes towards livestock farming, voluntary animal welfare programs, farm size and the effects of national animal welfare standards were identified.

  4. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  5. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of releva

  6. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  7. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...

  8. Measuring Welfare of Productive Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn the last few decades an increasing number of economists have contributed to new methods of welfare (or utility) measurement. As set out in this journal (Tinbergen, 1985) three groups of economists have been active in this field since 1968, initially relatively independently; an Americ

  9. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining the pr...

  10. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...

  11. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  12. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement...

  13. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late.

  14. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfar......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare...

  15. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary Intensive farming systems are confronted with a number of animal welfare issues such as injuries from horns in cattle and feather pecking in poultry. To solve these problems, mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are applied routinely. These and other procedures such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions impair animal welfare. Scientific underpinning of the efficacy of these interventions and management practices is poor. We advocate that all stakeholders, in particular animal scientists and veterinarians, take the lead in evaluating common, putative mutilating and welfare reducing procedures and management practices to develop better, scientifically supported alternatives, focused on adaptation of the environment to the animals, to ensure uncompromised animal welfare. Abstract A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific

  16. EMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the Lisbon Agenda, the Romanian Government drew up the National Programme for Reform for 2007-2010, which established national priorities, and ways and tools to achieve economic reform and growth. Transition in Romania implied a complex and extensive system of regulations and institutions for stimulating employment and creating a flexible system of social protection. The new regulations were focused on harmonisation with the Community labour law. Increasing investment in human capital is essential for a competitive and dynamic economy. Besides, labour market policies were formulated for correcting labour market imbalances.

  17. A Welfare Analysis of Capital Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Panttser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a welfare analysis of several capital insurance programs in a rational expectation equilibrium setting. We first explicitly characterize the equilibrium of each capital insurance program. Then, we demonstrate that a capital insurance program based on aggregate loss is better than classical insurance, when big financial institutions have similar expected loss exposures. By contrast, classical insurance is more desirable when the bank’s individual risk is consistent with the expected loss in a precise way. Our analysis shows that a capital insurance program is a useful tool to hedge systemic risk from the regulatory perspective.

  18. The Future of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare.......This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare....

  19. [A criticial view of involuntary hospitalization and patient protection after abolishment of the system of guardianship under the 2011 revision to the act on mental health and welfare for the mentally disabled].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Ryuuichi

    2014-01-01

    The current system of guardianship is to be abolished under the Revised Mental Health and Welfare Act. Aging patients and changing family structures highlight the need for public services based on parens patriae. The proposed new system of involuntary hospitalization continues to require family member consent, as in civil contracts, and legal authority remains ambiguous, with the government neglecting its responsibility to guarantee inpatient treatment and community services. Many long-term patients are scheduled to be cared for in hospitals more cheaply than is currently the case, and community services are assumed to be funded through those savings, but such services are nothing more than accessories with extra beds. In the long term, it is necessary to consider comprehensive legislation on compulsory treatment and restrictions to freedom related to both physical and mental disorders in the context of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  20. [30 years animal welfare legislation: what has been achieved?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, A

    2008-09-01

    The contribution deals with history and effects of the Swiss animal welfare legislation of 1978. Special descriptions concern the development and increasing dissemination of animal friendly housing systems for cattle, swine, rabbits and poultry, the realization of the prohibition of the usual cages for laying hens until the end of 1991 and the development of aviary systems, the examination and improvement of many housing systems and equipment for farm animals, adaptations of many enclosures for wild animals in zoos and circuses, improvements in animal experimentation and also in housing of companion animals. The new animal welfare law of 2005 and the animal welfare ordinance of 2008 filled loopholes in the legislation. Animal friendly housing forms may also have economic advantages.

  1. Parametric sensitivity analysis for techno-economic parameters in Indian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K. [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu and Kashmir 182 320 (India)

    2011-03-15

    Sensitivity analysis is a technique that evaluates the model response to changes in input assumptions. Due to uncertain prices of primary fuels in the world market, Government regulations for sustainability and various other technical parameters there is a need to analyze the techno-economic parameters which play an important role in policy formulations. This paper examines the variations in technical as well as economic parameters that can mostly affect the energy policy of India. MARKAL energy simulation model has been used to analyze the uncertainty in all techno-economic parameters. Various ranges of input parameters are adopted from previous studies. The results show that at lower discount rate coal is the least preferred technology and correspondingly carbon emission reduction. With increased gas and nuclear fuel prices they disappear from the allocations of energy mix. (author)

  2. A Techno-Economic Comparison between Two Methanol-to-Propylene Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jasper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in natural/shale gas production in the US is causing major changes in the chemical and petrochemical markets. These changes include the increased supply of methanol and the decreased supply of propylene. As such, there are promising opportunities for methanol-to-propylene processes in the US. This paper provides a top-level techno-economic analysis of two pathways: methanol to olefins (MTO and methanol to propylene (MTP. Base-case scenarios are simulated using ASPEN Plus to obtain the key mass and energy balances as well as design data. For each process, two scenarios are considered for the feedstock: buying methanol versus making it from natural gas. The return on investment (ROI is calculated for both processes under broad ranges of the prices of natural gas, methanol, and products. In addition to the techno-economic analysis, the CO2 emissions are evaluated and compared.

  3. Comprehensive techno-economic analysis of wastewater-based algal biofuel production: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chunhua; Addy, Min M; Zhao, Jinyu; Cheng, Yanling; Cheng, Sibo; Mu, Dongyan; Liu, Yuhuan; Ding, Rijia; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Combining algae cultivation and wastewater treatment for biofuel production is considered the feasible way for resource utilization. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis method that integrates resources availability into techno-economic analysis was employed to evaluate the wastewater-based algal biofuel production with the consideration of wastewater treatment improvement, greenhouse gases emissions, biofuel production costs, and coproduct utilization. An innovative approach consisting of microalgae cultivation on centrate wastewater, microalgae harvest through flocculation, solar drying of biomass, pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, and utilization of co-products, was analyzed and shown to yield profound positive results in comparison with others. The estimated break even selling price of biofuel ($2.23/gallon) is very close to the acceptable level. The approach would have better overall benefits and the internal rate of return would increase up to 18.7% if three critical components, namely cultivation, harvest, and downstream conversion could achieve breakthroughs.

  4. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  5. 77 FR 895 - Tribal Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... 45 CFR Parts 1355 and 1356 Tribal Child Welfare; Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77... Welfare AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF), Administration for Children and... submitted via email to CBComments@acf.hhs.gov . Please include ``Tribal Child Welfare'' in the subject...

  6. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2000-01-01

    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  7. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  8. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  9. Corporate Welfare: The Third Stage of Welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    1986-01-01

    Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. Examining health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care,…

  10. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  11. Children with FASD- Related Disabilities Receiving Services from Child Welfare Agencies in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Don; Burnside, Linda; Marchenski, Sheila; Mudry, Andria

    2010-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious social and health problem for the child welfare, health and education systems in North America and other parts of the world. This article describes the population of children in care of the child welfare system in Manitoba. Also this article will highlight the relevance of these research findings…

  12. Techno-economic analysis of key renewable energy technologies (PV, CSP and wind)

    OpenAIRE

    TUEBKE Alexander; HERNANDEZ GUEVARA Hector

    2011-01-01

    This report shows the results of a techno-economic analysis of key renewable energy technologies: Solar Photovoltaics (PV), Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), and Wind Energy Technologies (wind). For this purpose, bottom-up company-data were collected, market supply and demand factors addressed, the regulatory framework examined, and EU industry compared against its main competitors. Personal interviews with 10 key industrialists from these sectors were undertaken to generate first-hand feedbac...

  13. Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale that may significantly boost the drive to promote positive welfare states in animals. The rationale is based largely, but not exclusively, on an experimentally supported neuropsychological understanding of relationships between emotions and behaviour, an understanding that has not yet been incorporated into animal welfare science thinking. Reference is made to major elements of the neural/cognitive foundations of motivational drives that energise and direct particular behaviours and their related subjective or emotional experiences. These experiences are generated in part by sensory inputs that reflect the animal's internal functional state and by neural processing linked to the animal's perception of its external circumstances. The integrated subjective or emotional outcome of these inputs corresponds to the animal's welfare status. The internally generated subjective experiences represent motivational urges or drives that are predominantly negative and include breathlessness, thirst, hunger and pain. They are generated by, and elicit specific behaviours designed to correct, imbalances in the animal's internal functional state. Externally generated subjective experiences are said to be integral to the operation of interacting 'action-orientated systems' that give rise to particular behaviours and their negative or positive emotional contents. These action-orientated systems, described in neuropsychological terms, give rise to negative emotions that include fear, anger and panic, and positive emotions that include comfort, vitality, euphoria and playfulness. It is argued that early thinking about animal welfare management focused mainly on minimising disturbances to the internal functional states that generate associated unpleasant motivational urges or drives. This strategy produced animal welfare benefits, but at best it could only lift a poor net welfare status to a neutral one. In contrast, strategies designed to manipulate the

  14. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Welfare technosystem research and development (Sapporo); 2000 nendo Welfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Sapporo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Activities are conducted on system technologies for ensuring comfortable living circumstances and thereby helping aged or handicapped people live independently in snowy cold regions. The research and development efforts center about the three fields of (1) in-house systems to help aged or handicapped people live an independent life, (2) in-home care equipment systems suitable for advanced welfare oriented residences, and (3) user interface controllers to improve on operating sensation in a motor driven wheelchair. In field (1), studies involve the development of low floor residences for snowy cold regions, improvement on entrances for independent residences helping the inhabitants lead an independent life, and functionally excellent designs for handrails for steps, stairs, or bathrooms. In field (2), surveys are conducted concerning design improvements and their acceptability relative to a universal welfare equipment controller, optimum sound that welfare equipment alarms should produce, and transfer devices. In field (3), studies are made about motor driven wheelchair controllers. (NEDO)

  15. Carbon Capture and Storage Development Trends from a Techno-Paradigm Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The world’s energy needs have been continually growing over the past decade, yet fossil fuels are limited. Renewable energies are becoming more prevalent, but are still a long way from being commonplace worldwide. Literature mining is applied to review carbon capture and storage (CCS development trends and to develop and examine a novel carbon capture and storage technological paradigm (CCSTP, which incorporates CCSTP competition, diffusion and shift. This paper first provides an overview of the research and progress in CCS technological development, then applies a techno-paradigm theory to analyze CCSTP development and to provide a guide for future CCS technological trends. CCS could avoid CO2 being released into the atmosphere. Moreover, bioenergy with CCS (BECCS can make a significant contribution to a net removal of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In this study, we compare the different CCSTP developmental paths and the conventional techno-paradigm by examining the S-curves. The analyses in this paper provide a useful guide for scholars seeking new inspiration in their research and for potential investors who are seeking to invest research funds in more mature technologies. We conclude that political barriers and public acceptance are the major distinctions between the CCSTP and the conventional techno-paradigm. It is expected that policy instruments and economic instruments are going to play a pivotal role in the accomplishment of global carbon reduction scenarios.

  16. Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to compare, for the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, al

  17. Estimation of Risk Factors - Useful Tools in Assessing Calves Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study has been aimed at identify risk factors that may be used in welfare assessment of calves reared in intensive farming systems. These factors may be useful to the farmers in planning breeder measures in order to increase the animal welfare levels in relation to the legislative requirements. The estimation considered the housing conditions of calves aged 0-6 months grouped in two lots A (n: 50 and B (n: 60, depending on their accommodation system. We have monitored the calves decubitus on the housing surface, body hygiene as well as that of the resting area and the thermal comfort. The assessment was made by direct observation and numerical estimation, based on the Welfare Quality ® 2009 protocol (Assessment protocol for cattle as well as by means of a calves safety and welfare evaluation chart according to the European and national legislation on minimum calves safety and protection standards. Data collected and processed have shown the fact that not all housing conditions completely answer calves physiological requirements. Thus the appropriate housing criterion in the present study was met at B lot of 85 % and to a much smaller degree by the A lot (76 %. The assessment carried out by means of the safety chart have indicated that only the minimum criteria for calves rearing were met, which does not translate into a high level of their welfare.

  18. Report on the fiscal 1996 result of the research on the promotion scheme toward establishment of an international cooperation system for development of welfare equipment; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho fukushi yogu kaihatsunado no kokusai kyoryoku taisei kakuritsu ni mukete no suishin hosaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to support the progress and international activity of a Japanese welfare industry, research was made on a concrete approach to establishment of a Japanese international cooperation system on the basis of the activity trend of welfare organizations and groups in North European countries and Japan. Introduction of standards and a mark system for welfare equipment is under investigation in North European countries, and movement for unified standards is also becoming active among these countries. TIDE project called socioeconomic integrated engineering already exists for handicapped and aged persons in Europe, while a rehabilitation act was enforced in the U.S.A. in 1973. Japan participated in ISO and IEC for promotion of a welfare equipment industry. Rehabilitation Engineering Society of Japan (RESJA) for equipment development and technical support, and Japan Wellness and Welfare Industry Association (JWA) for promotion of the related industries were also established. In Europe, North America and Australia, rehabilitation engineering associations are already in action. 8 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Eastern migrations vs western welfare states - (unbiased fears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry considers some effects of migration on the labour markets and the welfare systems found in the EU-15, and from the perspectives of sustainability of the current welfare state regimes. Our inquiry aims to determine whether and to what extent different approaches in regulation of migration flows between the new and old member states are compatible with related economic and demographic findings. Within this context, our research considers regulations affecting migration flows. Our findings suggest that some effects of migration from the EU8+2 on the labour markets and social protection systems found in the EU-15, both with respect to level and structure, do indeed generate effects on migration, especially considering whether migration is based upon economic or welfare decisions. In addition, our inquiry considers perspectives upon restrictive versus liberal migration policies.

  20. The political control of medical diagnoses - welfare retrenchment through demedicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Thorup

    interest or ‘need’. The paper compares two cases where retrenchment reforms have reframed medical conditions as personal preferences. First, access to fertility treatment has recently been cut off in the Danish health care system, because infertility is polit- ically reframed as putting their own interest......It is notoriously difficult to legitimize cutbacks in already existing welfare rights, but it somehow requires a redefinition of what falls within the limits of public responsibility. In Denmark, a universal welfare state, reforms have sought to regain political control over medical diagnoses...... a medical issue into a question about the citizen’s motivation and will- ingness to work. The paper traces the genealogy of these two clashes between medicine and universal welfare rights and how both childlessness and incapacity to work have been ‘demedicalized’ by the polit- ical system in order to smooth...