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Sample records for weighted imaging findings

  1. Cerebral Fat Embolism: Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate the diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and the follow-up MRI findings, of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The initial DWI and clinical findings of six patients with cerebral fat embolism were retrospectively evaluated. The finding of DWI with a b-value of 1000 s/mm 2 (b=1000) was compared with that of DWI with a b-value of 0 s/mm 2 (b=0). In three patients who underwent follow-up MRI, the interval change of the lesion on T2-weighted images was investigated. RESULTS: The characteristic DWI finding of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage was multiple, hyperintense, dot-like lesions disseminated in the brain. These lesions were distributed dominantly in the bilateral border-zone areas. Some lesions had an ancillary location including the cortex, deep white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. The lesions were more intense and numerous in DWI (b=1000) than in DWI (b=0). The findings on the follow-up T2-weighted images were multiple confluent hyperintense lesions in the white matter with progression since the initial MRI. CONCLUSION: DWI could be a sensitive tool for detecting cerebral fat embolism in the acute phase. It is recommended that DWI be included in the initial evaluation of cerebral fat embolism with MRI

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teksam, M.; Casey, S.O.; Michel, E.; Liu, H.; Truwit, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging findings of diffuse axonal injury: comparison of T2-weighted gradient images and T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images

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    Park, Seo Young; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Jeong Seok; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To compare T2-weighted images with spin-echo T1- and turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted images in patients with diffuse axonal injury(DAI). Using a 1.0T MR unit, SE T1-, TSE T2-, and and FLASH T2-weighted images were obtained from 69 patients with a history of head trauma. In 18MR images of 17 patients with imaging findings of DAI, T2-weighted images were retrospectively compared with SE T1- and TSE T2-weighted images. The interval between trauma and MR scan varied from 5 days to 24(mean, 11) months. Focusing on the number of lesions, and their location and signal intensity, as weel as associated findings, three images were simultaueously evaluated. In 18 MR images of 17 patients with MR imaging findings of DAI, 21 lesions were detected on T1-weighted images, 28 on TSE T2-weighted images, and 70 on T2-weighted images;the last of these revealed all lesions detected on the other two. Most lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images(17/21), hyperintense on TSE T2-weighted (21/28), and hypointense on T2-weighted (63/70). Common locations for DAI were the frontal lobe (n=3D35) and corpus callosum (n=3D22). Associated brain injuries were cortical contusion (n=3D5), brainstem injury (n=3D3), deep gray matter injury (n=3D2), and subdural hematoma(n=3D1). In patients with DAI. T2-weighted images can detect more lesions and associated petechial hemorrhage than can TSE T2-weighted images. This modality is thus useful for the evaluation of patients with head trauma.=20.

  4. Giant Vertebral Notochordal Rest: Magnetic Resonance and Diffusion Weighted Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oner, Ali Yusuf; Akpek, Sergin; Tali, Turgut; Ucar, Murat

    2009-01-01

    A giant vertebral notochordal rest is a newly described, benign entity that is easily confused with a vertebral chordoma. As microscopic notochordal rests are rarely found in adult autopsies, the finding of a macroscopic vertebral lesion is a new entity with only seven previously presented cases. We report here radiological findings, including diffusion weighted images, of a patient with a giant notochordal remnant confined to the L5 vertebra, with an emphasis on its distinction from a chordoma

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging findings on MRI as the sole radiographic findings in a child with proven herpes simplex encephalitis

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    Obeid, Makram; Franklin, Jeremy; Shrestha, Shraddha; Johnson, Lara; Hurst, Daniel [Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Pediatrics, Lubbock, TX (United States); Quattromani, Frank [Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiology, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-11-15

    We present a case of herpes simplex encephalitis in an 8-year-old girl, in whom hyperintensity was detected on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) while conventional MRI sequences were normal 1 week after the onset of neurological symptoms. This case is rare in that a child beyond the neonatal period with focal herpes simplex encephalitis had an abnormal DWI sequence as the only MRI finding. (orig.)

  6. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: mvmfonte@uol.com.br; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Reed, Umbertina Conti [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Rosemberg, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Patologia

    2008-11-15

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  7. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Rosemberg, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young; Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

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    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  10. Sequential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Abscess including Diffusion Weighted Image: a Case Report

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    Roh, Jae Eun; Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Cho, Bum Sang; Jeon, Min Hee; Kang, Min Ho [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) is a rare infection of the central nervous system. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings, of ISCA in a 78-year-old man. The initial conventional MRI of the thoracic spine demonstrated a subtle enhancing nodule accompanied by significant edema. On the follow-up MRI after seven days, the nodule appeared as a ring-enhancing nodule. The non-enhancing central portion of the nodule appeared hyperintense on DWI with a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value on the ADC map. We performed myelotomy and surgical drainage, and thick, yellowish pus was drained

  11. Diffusion-weighted imaging in chronic Behcet patients with and without neurological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, T.; Dogan, M.; Bulut, T.; Sarac, K.; Karlidag, R.; Ozisik, H.I.; Baysal, O.

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in chronic Behcet's disease (BD) patients with normal appearing brain can be assessed by means of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The averaged apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in 22 different radiologically normal appearing brain regions in 32 patients with and without neurological findings and 20 control subjects. The ADC values in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital normal appearing white matter were significantly higher in the patient groups compared with the control subjects (p<0.05). In these brain regions, DWI revealed differences in the ADC values between patients with neurological findings (including symptomatic and neuro-Behcet patients) and the asymptomatic patient group. The similarity of the ADC values of patients without symptoms to those of the control group allowed clear discrimination between patients with and without neurological findings. DWI may serve to assess subclinical neurological involvement in BD, even when structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  12. False-negative diffusion-weighted imaging findings in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Yuasa, Naoki; Otomo, Takashi; Shiramizu, Hideki; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Yasuhisa; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2006-01-01

    The utility of DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) has been established in acute ischemic stroke. However, some patients with acute stroke show no abnormal signals on DWI, despite the presence of infarction (false-negative DWI). We analyzed the relationship between false-negative DWI and the clinical manifestations of acute ischemic stroke in 151 DWI-positive (89%) and 19 false-negative DWI (11%) patients. We performed MRI within 24 hours after onset at our hospital. Non-specific clinical manifestations, including vertigo and nausea, were frequently observed in false-negative DWI patients. As regards the vascular territory, false-negative DWI was noted in 15.3% of 59 patients with infarctions within the territory of the vertebrobasilar artery. Concerning the duration from onset to initial imaging, 73.7% of the patients with false-negative DWI findings underwent MRI examination within 6 hours after onset. Of the patients with false-negative DWI, 84.2% had lacunar infarction (χ 2 =16.4, P<0.001). In conclusion, false negative DWI is more frequently observed in lacunar infarction than in atherothrombotic infarction or cardiogenic embolism. It is important to examine carefully the neurological changes occurring in patients who present with acute stroke, but have negative DWI findings. (author)

  13. Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome: diffusion-weighted imaging findings

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    Kitis, O.; Calli, C.; Yunten, N.; Kocaman, A.; Sirin, H. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome. Thirteen patients with Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome were examined with conventional and echoplanar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit. MR examinations were obtained in the acute or subacute stage of clinical syndrome, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was considered to be positive for infarction when an increase in signal was seen on b = 1000 s/mm2 images in the posterolateral medullary localization. DWIs were positive in 12 patients in the acute or subacute stages of this clinical syndrome. A false-negative result was obtained in only one patient examined within the first day, 10 h after onset of the symptoms. In the visual evaluation of the DWI, the contrast between normal and infarcted brainstem area was better in the high b-value images than in the apparent diffusion coefficient map images. DWI is a valuable technique for examining patients presenting with the signs and symptoms of Wallenberg's syndrome and high b-value images can provide complementary data to T2-weighted images. However, because most of our case group were in either the acute or subacute stage, true sensitivity of the method in the hyperacute stage of the syndrome remains unclear.

  14. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiner, L.; Demaerel, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Herpes simplex meningoencephalitis is one of the most common viral central nervous system infection in adults. Early diagnosis is essential for treatment. Case report: We present a case of a 68-year-old female patient with herpes simplex infection. On admission, she was in severe clinical condition. Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging detected brain involvement better than conventional sequences. After acyclovir therapy, the patient fully recovered. Conclusion: DW magnetic resonance imaging is expected to provide a more sensitive imaging in herpes simplex patients than conventional sequences

  15. Novel diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis: a case report

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    Hu, Y.F.; Chang, F.C.; Hu, H.H.; Hsu, L.C. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China). Depts. of Internal Medicine and Radiology, and Neurological Inst.

    2006-12-15

    This report presents a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis initially presenting with mental impairment and rapidly progressing to coma without any history of malignancy. In addition to highlighting the diagnostic difficulties, the linear high signal intensity along the cortex on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was identified accidentally. High signal change in the corresponding areas was also noted on unenhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, which may be a novel method of diagnosing leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, which should be studied further.

  16. IgG4-related kidney disease: MRI findings with emphasis on the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging

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    Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Jin Hee, E-mail: kimjhrad@amc.seoul.kr; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To investigate the imaging findings of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to evaluate the usefulness of DWI in lesion detection. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 31 patients with IgG4-KD who underwent MRI covering both kidneys. Two radiologists reviewed in consensus the MR images to determine the distribution pattern (location, laterality, and multiplicity) and the visually assessed signal intensity (hypointense, isointense or hyperintense) of the renal lesions compared to the normal renal parenchyma on each sequence. Per-patient sensitivity for detecting IgG4-KD and the number of detectable lesions were compared in T2-weighted images, DWI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced images. Results: IgG4-KD typically manifested as bilateral (83.9%), multiple (93.5%), and renal parenchymal (87.1%) nodules appearing isointense (93.5%) on T1-weighted images, hypointense (77.4%) on T2-weighted images, hyperintense (100%) on DWI (b = 1000), and hypointense (83.3%) in the arterial phase and with a progressive enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced images. The sensitivity of DWI for detecting IgG4-KD was significantly higher than that of T2-weighted images (100% vs. 77.4%, P = 0.034). The median number of detectable lesions was significantly greater in DWI (n = 9) than in T2-weighted images (n = 2) and dynamic contrast-enhanced images (n = 5) (P ≤ 0.008). Conclusions: The characteristic MRI findings of IgG4-KD were bilateral, multiple, renal parenchymal nodules with T2 hypointensity, diffusion restriction, and a progressive enhancement pattern. As DWI was useful in the detection of IgG4-KD, adding DWI to conventional MRI for patients suspected of having IgG4-KD may enhance the diagnosis.

  17. IgG4-related kidney disease: MRI findings with emphasis on the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the imaging findings of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to evaluate the usefulness of DWI in lesion detection. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 31 patients with IgG4-KD who underwent MRI covering both kidneys. Two radiologists reviewed in consensus the MR images to determine the distribution pattern (location, laterality, and multiplicity) and the visually assessed signal intensity (hypointense, isointense or hyperintense) of the renal lesions compared to the normal renal parenchyma on each sequence. Per-patient sensitivity for detecting IgG4-KD and the number of detectable lesions were compared in T2-weighted images, DWI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced images. Results: IgG4-KD typically manifested as bilateral (83.9%), multiple (93.5%), and renal parenchymal (87.1%) nodules appearing isointense (93.5%) on T1-weighted images, hypointense (77.4%) on T2-weighted images, hyperintense (100%) on DWI (b = 1000), and hypointense (83.3%) in the arterial phase and with a progressive enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced images. The sensitivity of DWI for detecting IgG4-KD was significantly higher than that of T2-weighted images (100% vs. 77.4%, P = 0.034). The median number of detectable lesions was significantly greater in DWI (n = 9) than in T2-weighted images (n = 2) and dynamic contrast-enhanced images (n = 5) (P ≤ 0.008). Conclusions: The characteristic MRI findings of IgG4-KD were bilateral, multiple, renal parenchymal nodules with T2 hypointensity, diffusion restriction, and a progressive enhancement pattern. As DWI was useful in the detection of IgG4-KD, adding DWI to conventional MRI for patients suspected of having IgG4-KD may enhance the diagnosis

  18. Body Image, Self-Esteem, Media, Disordered Eating and Actual Ideal Weight Discrepancy: Findings in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Argyrides

    2017-02-01

    discrepancy. No differences were found concerning age, socioeconomic status and place of upbringing and residence. The results of this study offer important additional information to the body image and disordered eating literature regarding a construct (actual ideal weight discrepancy never examined before in Cyprus. This information could be used by Cypriot and European mental health professionals when working with children and teenagers who are at risk for or exhibit symptoms related to eating disorders and in developing prevention interventions.

  19. Focal Pancreatitis Mimicking Pancreatic Mass: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)/Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) Findings Including Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momtahen, A.J.; Balci, N.C.; Alkaade, S.; Akduman, E.I.; Burton, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Focal pancreatitis (FP) is a confined inflammation that mimics a pancreatic mass. Its imaging diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary procedures. Purpose: To describe the spectrum of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) findings of focal pancreatitis mimicking pancreatic masses. Material and Methods: Findings of MRI/MRCP including DWI with a b value of 0 and 600 s/mm2 in 14 patients with pancreatic masses on MRI were retrospectively reviewed and compared to normal pancreas in 14 patients as a control group. Results: FP revealed hypointense signal intensity (SI) (3/14), hypo- to isointense SI (7/14), or isointense SI (4/14) on T1-weighted images, and hypointense SI (1/14), isointense SI (5/14), iso- to hyperintense SI (7/14), or hyperintense SI (1/14) on T2-weighted images compared to remaining pancreas (RP). MRCP images revealed dilatation of the common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD) (5/14), dilatation of the MPD only (3/14), dilatation of the CBD only (3/14), and normal MPD and CBD (3/14). Both FP and RP revealed three types of time-signal intensity curves: 1) rapid rise to a peak, with a rapid decline (FP=2, RP=4), 2) slow rise to a peak, followed by a slow decline (FP=5, RP=4), and 3) slower rise to a peak, with a slow decline or plateau (FP=7, RP=6). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for FP and RP were 2.09±0.18 and 2.03±0.2x10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. ADC values of FP and RP revealed no significant difference. Conclusion: The spectrum of imaging findings of focal pancreatitis on MRI/MRCP including DWI was described. Findings of FP were not distinctive as compared to the remaining pancreas

  20. Usefulness of diffusion-weighted images in the evolving stroke: correlation with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Dong Ik; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Lee, Seung Ik; Lee, Byung In; Suh, Bum Chun

    2000-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of repeat diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) during the acute ischemic stroke stage for the prediction of evolving stroke and clinical course. Fifteen patients with acute ischemic stroke in MCA territory (less than 24 hours, 5 patients; greater than 24 hours, 10 patients; M:F =3D (:6; age 28-75 (mean, 61) years) were involved in this prospective study. All patients underwent initial DWI, follow-up DWI (within two weeks of the first attack) and T2WI (2-5 months later to assess final infarction territory). The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used for clinical evaluation. 'Evolving stroke' was defined as progression NIHSS after admission. For statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test was used and a p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.In six patients (40%), the diagnosis was evolving stroke. In four of these (67%), follow-up DWI showed that the infarction territory was more extensive. Evolving stroke occurred 24-72 hours after the onset of symptoms. DWI obtained 72 hours after onset showed that one patient had developed new infarction. Patients in whom enlarged infarction territory was seen on follow-up DWI showed progression of NIHSS within three days of onset, while those in whom follow-up DWI demonstrated no change showed an improved NIHSS (p less than 0.05). Those who underwent initial DWI within 24 hours of onset showed larger infarction territory on follow-up DWI than those who underwent initial DWI later than this (p greater than 0.05). Repeat DWI during the acute ischemic stroke stage might be useful for the evaluation of evolving stroke. (author)

  1. MRI findings of sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis: roles of MPGR and delayed post-contrast T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eui Yong; Joo, Kyung Bin; Koo, Ja Hong; Moon, Won Jin; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Seong Yoon

    1997-01-01

    For early diagnosis of sacroiliitis in spondyloarthropathy, the MRI findings of sacroiliitis, roles of MPGR(multiplanar Gradient Recalled Acquisition in Steady State), and delayed post-contrast T1-weighted images were evaluated. Twenty six patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathy(Probable clinical diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis) were grouped as either less than radiographic grade 1(group A) or more than grade 2(group B). The MRI findings of both sacroiliac joints were evaluated in every patient, and predominant sites were determined. The two groups were then compared. In 17 patients, the number of enhancing panni seen on early and delayed post-contrast T1-weighted images was counted and compared between the two groups. Panni were found in all cases, and in both groups, predominant patterns of involvement were the lower and iliac aspects of the sacroiliac joints in both groups; in group A, the synovial joints and punctate pannus were predominantly involved, and in group B, the ligamentous joints as well as the synovial joints and linear pannus. In group B, More periarticular fat accumulation than periarticular osteitis was found. For the evaluation of changes in joint space, MPGR images were superior to spin echo images. For the delineation of enhancing pannus less than radiographic grade I, delayed post-contrast images were statistically superior to those which were early post-contrast. MRI can detect early sacroiliitic change according to the predominant sites of involvement, and deslyed post-contrast images play a role in the diagnosis of early sacroiliitis. MPGR imaging is good for the evaluation of joint space change

  2. MRI findings of sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis: roles of MPGR and delayed post-contrast T1-weighted images

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    Jeon, Eui Yong; Joo, Kyung Bin; Koo, Ja Hong; Moon, Won Jin; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Seong Yoon [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    For early diagnosis of sacroiliitis in spondyloarthropathy, the MRI findings of sacroiliitis, roles of MPGR(multiplanar Gradient Recalled Acquisition in Steady State), and delayed post-contrast T1-weighted images were evaluated. Twenty six patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathy(Probable clinical diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis) were grouped as either less than radiographic grade 1(group A) or more than grade 2(group B). The MRI findings of both sacroiliac joints were evaluated in every patient, and predominant sites were determined. The two groups were then compared. In 17 patients, the number of enhancing panni seen on early and delayed post-contrast T1-weighted images was counted and compared between the two groups. Panni were found in all cases, and in both groups, predominant patterns of involvement were the lower and iliac aspects of the sacroiliac joints in both groups; in group A, the synovial joints and punctate pannus were predominantly involved, and in group B, the ligamentous joints as well as the synovial joints and linear pannus. In group B, More periarticular fat accumulation than periarticular osteitis was found. For the evaluation of changes in joint space, MPGR images were superior to spin echo images. For the delineation of enhancing pannus less than radiographic grade I, delayed post-contrast images were statistically superior to those which were early post-contrast. MRI can detect early sacroiliitic change according to the predominant sites of involvement, and deslyed post-contrast images play a role in the diagnosis of early sacroiliitis. MPGR imaging is good for the evaluation of joint space change.

  3. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  4. New MRI findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: high signal in the globus pallidus on T 1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priester, J.A. de; Wilmink, J.T.; Jansen, G.H.; Kruijk, J.R. de

    1999-01-01

    We report a 49-year-old woman with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In addition to typical high-signal lesions on proton-density and T 2-weighted images there was high signal in the globus pallidus bilaterally on T 1-weighted images. The latter feature has not been described previously and probably due to deposition of prion protein, as found at autopsy. (orig.)

  5. New MRI findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: high signal in the globus pallidus on T 1-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priester, J.A. de; Wilmink, J.T. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands); Jansen, G.H. [Department of Neuropathology, University Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands); Kruijk, J.R. de [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1999-04-01

    We report a 49-year-old woman with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In addition to typical high-signal lesions on proton-density and T 2-weighted images there was high signal in the globus pallidus bilaterally on T 1-weighted images. The latter feature has not been described previously and probably due to deposition of prion protein, as found at autopsy. (orig.) With 3 figs., 11 refs.

  6. MR findings of primary bone lymphoma in a 15-year-old girl: emphasis on diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Kevin M.; Kim, Hee Kyung; Emery, Kathleen H. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stanek, Jerzy [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-05-15

    We report a case of primary bone lymphoma (PBL) in a 15-year-old girl assessed by MR imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI has been shown to help characterize the cellularity of solid tumors and this case correlates well with previous data. (orig.)

  7. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer; Schoepf, Veronika; Burke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  8. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, Veronika [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Michael [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  9. CT and MRI findings of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the early stage. The usefulness of diffusion-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukisu, Ryutaro; Kushihashi, Tamio; Gokan, Takehiko

    2001-01-01

    To detect subtle CT and MRI features of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in the early stage is important to prevent a human-to-human transmission. This study included 10 patients of CJD who underwent CT and/or MRI in its early stage. CT, T1- and T2-weighted MRI, DWI, and FLAIR images were obtained in 10, 6, 4, and 2 patients respectively. On DWI, abnormal hyperintensities were observed in both cerebral cortex, and in basal ganglia in all patients. On FLAIR images, abnormal hyperintensies were observed in one patient. Detection of abnormal intensities may be possible in the early stage of CJD using MRI, particularly with DWI. (author)

  10. CT and MRI findings of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the early stage. The usefulness of diffusion-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukisu, Ryutaro; Kushihashi, Tamio; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2001-02-01

    To detect subtle CT and MRI features of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in the early stage is important to prevent a human-to-human transmission. This study included 10 patients of CJD who underwent CT and/or MRI in its early stage. CT, T1- and T2-weighted MRI, DWI, and FLAIR images were obtained in 10, 6, 4, and 2 patients respectively. On DWI, abnormal hyperintensities were observed in both cerebral cortex, and in basal ganglia in all patients. On FLAIR images, abnormal hyperintensies were observed in one patient. Detection of abnormal intensities may be possible in the early stage of CJD using MRI, particularly with DWI. (author)

  11. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three...

  12. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Bjarke B.; Bliddal, Henning; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F.; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation. (orig.)

  13. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Bjarke B.; Bliddal, Henning [Department of Reumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, The Parker Institute, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F.; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2018-01-15

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation. (orig.)

  14. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Bliddal, Henning; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation.

  15. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (IIDL): Conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings in 42 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelblinger, Claus; Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kubin, Klaus [CT/MRI Institut Dr. Klaus Kubin, Salzburg (Austria); Wallner-Blazek, Mirja [Department of Neurology, Medical University Graz, Graz (Austria); Hauwe, Luc van den [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Macedo, Leonardo [Department of Radiology, CEDIMAGEM, Centro - Juiz de Fora (Brazil); Puchner, Stefan B. [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Thurnher, Majda M., E-mail: majda.thurnher@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR imaging characteristics with conventional and advanced MR imaging techniques in patients with IIDL. Methods: MR images of the brain in 42 patients (20 male, 22 female) with suspected or known multiple sclerosis (MS) from four institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Lesions were classified into five different subtypes: (1) ring-like lesions; (2) Balo-like lesions; (3) diffuse infiltrating lesions; (4) megacystic lesions; and (5) unclassified lesions. The location, size, margins, and signal intensities on T1WI, T2WI, and diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and the ADC values/ratios for all lesions, as well as the contrast enhancement pattern, and the presence of edema, were recorded. Results: There were 30 ring-like, 10 Balo-like, 3 megacystic-like and 16 diffuse infiltrating-like lesions were detected. Three lesions were categorized as unclassified lesions. Of the 30 ring-like lesions, 23 were hypointense centrally with a hyperintense rim. The mean ADC, measured centrally, was 1.50 ± 0.41 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. The mean ADC in the non-enhancing layers of the Balo-like lesions was 2.29 ± 0.17 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, and the mean ADC in enhancing layers was 1.03 ± 0.30 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. Megacystic lesions had a mean ADC of 2.14 ± 0.26 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. Peripheral strong enhancement with high signal on DWI was present in all diffuse infiltrating lesions. Unclassified lesions showed a mean ADC of 1.43 ± 0.13 mm{sup 2}/s. Conclusion: Restriction of diffusion will be seen in the outer layers of active inflammation/demyelination in Balo-like lesions, in the enhancing part of ring-like lesions, and at the periphery of infiltrative-type lesions.

  16. Multi-model Analysis of Diffusion-weighted Imaging of Normal Testes at 3.0 T: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiangde; Feng, Zhaoyan; Wang, Liang; Cai, Jie; Li, Basen; Ke, Zan; Zhang, Peipei; You, Huijuan; Yan, Xu

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to establish diffusion quantitative parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], DDC, α, D app , and K app ) in normal testes at 3.0 T. Sixty-four healthy volunteers in two age groups (A: 10-39 years; B: ≥ 40 years) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging scanning at 3.0 T. ADC 1000 , ADC 2000 , ADC 3000 , DDC, α, D app , and K app were calculated using the mono-exponential, stretched-exponential, and kurtosis models. The correlations between parameters and the age were analyzed. The parameters were compared between the age groups and between the right and the left testes. The average ADC 1000 , ADC 2000 , ADC 3000 , DDC, α, D app , and K app values did not significantly differ between the right and the left testes (P > .05 for all). The following significant correlations were found: positive correlations between age and testicular ADC 1000 , ADC 2000 , ADC 3000 , DDC, and D app (r = 0.516, 0.518, 0.518, 0.521, and 0.516, respectively; P < .01 for all) and negative correlations between age and testicular α and K app (r = -0.363, -0.427, respectively; P < .01 for both). Compared to group B, in group A, ADC 1000 , ADC 2000 , ADC 3000 , DDC, and D app were significantly lower (P < .05 for all), but α and K app were significantly higher (P < .05 for both). Our study demonstrated the applicability of the testicular mono-exponential, stretched-exponential, and kurtosis models. Our results can help establish a baseline for the normal testicular parameters in these diffusion models. The contralateral normal testis can serve as a suitable reference for evaluating the abnormalities of the other side. The effect of age on these parameters requires further attention. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Independent value of image fusion in unenhanced breast MRI using diffusion-weighted and morphological T2-weighted images for lesion characterization in patients with recently detected BI-RADS 4/5 X-ray mammography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Tesdorff, Jana; Delorme, Stefan; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Laun, Frederik Bernd; Kuder, Tristan Anselm [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Lederer, Wolfgang; Teiner, Susanne [Radiological Practice at the ATOS Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Maier-Hein, Klaus [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Junior Group Medical Image Computing, Heidelberg (Germany); Daniel, Heidi [Radiology Center Mannheim (RZM), Mannheim (Germany); Stieber, Anne [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Clinical and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of solitarily reading fused image series of T2-weighted and high-b-value diffusion-weighted sequences for lesion characterization as compared to sequential or combined image analysis of these unenhanced sequences and to contrast- enhanced breast MRI. This IRB-approved study included 50 female participants with suspicious breast lesions detected in screening X-ray mammograms, all of which provided written informed consent. Prior to biopsy, all women underwent MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWIBS, b = 1500s/mm{sup 2}). Images were analyzed as follows: prospective image fusion of DWIBS and T2-weighted images (FU), side-by-side analysis of DWIBS and T2-weighted series (CO), combination of the first two methods (CO+FU), and full contrast-enhanced diagnostic protocol (FDP). Diagnostic indices, confidence, and image quality of the protocols were compared by two blinded readers. Reading the CO+FU (accuracy 0.92; NPV 96.1 %; PPV 87.6 %) and the CO series (0.90; 96.1 %; 83.7 %) provided a diagnostic performance similar to the FDP (0.95; 96.1 %; 91.3 %; p > 0.05). FU reading alone significantly reduced the diagnostic accuracy (0.82; 93.3 %; 73.4 %; p = 0.023). MR evaluation of suspicious BI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions detected on mammography by using a non-contrast-enhanced T2-weighted and DWIBS sequence protocol is most accurate if MR images were read using the CO+FU protocol. (orig.)

  18. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maeseneer, M.; Jaovisidha, S.; Lenchik, L.; Witte, D.; Schweitzer, M.E.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the MR imaging features of fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of nerves. Design and patients. MR imaging studies from six patients (three men and three women) were retrospectively reviewed by three musculoskeletal radiologists. In four patients, a biopsy of the nerve lesion was performed. In two patients, biopsy data were unavailable and the diagnosis was based on the clinical history combined with the MR imaging findings. Results and conclusion. MR imaging demonstrated fusiform nerve enlargement that was caused by fatty proliferation and thickening of nerve bundles. Nerve bundles appeared as serpentine tubular structures, hypointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The degree of fatty proliferation varied among patients. In addition, significant variation in the distribution of fat along the course of the nerves was noted. In three patients, FLH followed the branching pattern of the nerves, a characteristic pathologic finding. In two patients, intramuscular fat deposition (biceps and tibialis posterior muscles) was present. MR imaging findings of FLH are typical, allowing a confident diagnosis. The variation of fatty proliferation among patients and involved nerves as well as the tendency of the abnormalities to follow the branching pattern of the nerves is well demonstrated with MR imaging. FLH may present as an isolated nerve lesion, may be associated with intramuscular fat deposition, or may occur as a feature of macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL). (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Findings of autopsy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Seiji; Saito, Tsukuru; Itoya, Saori

    2009-01-01

    Described is the outline of autopsy imaging (Ai) by CT, MRI and ultrasonography (US) as the reading of the postmortem images is becoming important for radiologist on site. The present major Ai modality is CT, where the cause of death can be identified in most cases of injuries like that by traffic accident, and of intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. It is difficult for CT alone to determine the cause due to acute heart failure, for which Ai by enhanced CT (2-min heart massage during the intravenous infusion of a contrast agent) has been introduced. CT findings in Ai are varied according to the death cause, anabiotic treatment conducted and postmortem changes. The second item includes the gastrointestinal tract dilation, rib fracture, pneumo- or hemo-thorax, bruise or rupture, and intravascular gas, and the third, the blood hypostasis, which emphasizing the shadow at the gravity-loaded portions in Ai CT. MRI signals vary dependently on the temperature and the inversion time should be shortened to suppress the cerebrospinal signal at Ai of the cold body like that stored in a refrigerator. US can detect clear, macroscopic morphological changes and the portable machine has been in practice at autopsy onsite. As sound speed depends on the temperature in water, Ai US images are obscure relative to living body due to the low temperature. Authors think the problem to identify the cause of death will be mostly solved in Japan when radiological technologists more actively participate in Ai. (K.T.)

  20. Purulent meningitis with unusual diffusion-weighted MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, M.; Takayama, Y.; Yamashita, H.; Noguchi, M.; Sagoh, T.

    2002-01-01

    We describe unusual findings obtained by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with acute purulent meningitis caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Along cerebral convexities and the Sylvian fissure, multiple small intense lesions showed high signal intensity in these sequences. This may be the first report of diffusion-weighted in purulent meningitis

  1. Parasellar meningiomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Alair Augusto S.M.D. dos; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque P.

    2001-01-01

    We reviewed 22 cases of patients with parasellar meningiomas evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in private clinics of the cities of Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Our aim was to characterize the imaging findings in this type of tumor. MRI scanners with 0.5 and 1.0 Tesla magnets were used for the acquisition of multiplanar T1-weighted (pre-and post-gadolinium administration) and T2-weighted images. The main symptoms observed were headache and visual disturbances. Hyperprolactinaemia was observed in only one patient. The most frequent imaging finding was a parasellar mass which appeared hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and enhanced intensively after gadolinium administration. MRI is useful to demonstrate the lesion and to asses the damage to adjacent structures, particularly when the patient presents visual disturbances due to involvement of the cavernous sinuses. (author)

  2. MR evaluation of breast lesions obtained by diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) and correlations with histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Capolongo, Arcangela; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Diffusion imaging represents a new imaging tool for the diagnosis of breast cancer. This study aims to investigate the role of diffusion-weighted MRI with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) for evaluating breast lesions. 90 patients were prospectively evaluated by MRI with STIR, TSE-T2, contrast enhanced THRIVE-T1 and DWIBS sequences. DWIBS were analyzed searching for the presence of breast lesions and calculating the ADC value. ADC values of ≤1.44×10(-3)mm(2)/s were considered suspicious for malignancy. This analysis was then compared with the histological findings. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy (DA), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative (NPV) were calculated. In 53/90 (59%) patients, DWIBS indicated the presence of breast lesions, 16 (30%) with ADC values of >1.44 and 37 (70%) with ADC≤1.44. The comparison with histology showed 25 malignant and 28 benign lesions. DWIBS sequences obtained sensitivity, specificity, DA, PPV and NPV values of 100, 82, 87, 68 and 100%, respectively. DWIBS can be proposed in the MRI breast protocol representing an accurate diagnostic complement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcaneal tendon: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Fonseca, Cristiano Rezio; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares; Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Souza; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the radiological and clinical features of 23 patients with calcaneal tendon diseases, who were submitted to ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to characterize the lesions for a precise diagnosis of calcaneal tendon injuries. A wide range of calcaneal tendon diseases include degenerative lesions, inflammation of the peritendinous tissue such as peritendinitis and bursitis, and rupture. Imaging methods are essential in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of calcaneal tendon diseases. (author)

  4. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy secondary to diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Hale; Ozgul, Esra; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem

    2010-01-01

    We present a previously healthy 6-month-old boy who was admitted to our hospital with lethargy, hypotonia and focal clonic seizures 6 days following diptheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination. A diagnosis of acute necrotising encephalopathy was made with the aid of MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy secondary to diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hale; Ozgul, Esra; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    We present a previously healthy 6-month-old boy who was admitted to our hospital with lethargy, hypotonia and focal clonic seizures 6 days following diptheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination. A diagnosis of acute necrotising encephalopathy was made with the aid of MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  6. T2-weighted high-intensity signals in the basal ganglia as an interesting image finding in Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Miikka; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Soilu-Hänninen, Merja; Magaudda, Adriana; Marttila, Reijo; Genton, Pierre; Parkkola, Riitta

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a search for white matter changes (WMCs) in 13 Unverricht-Lundborg disease patients and compared the prevalence of WMCs in these patients to age-matched long-term epileptics and healthy controls. ULD patients had significantly more T2-weighted high-intensity signals on MRI than control subjects, due to the increased prevalence of these signals in the basal ganglia. Interestingly, ULD patients with the basal ganglia changes were overweight. Basal ganglia T2-weighted high-intensity signals are novel findings in ULD. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcentimeter hypervascular nodule with typical imaging findings of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with history of hepatocellular carcinoma: natural course on serial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Seong Hyun; Lim, Hyo Keun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sin-Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Center for Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Insuk [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Center for Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [Gachon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the natural course of subcentimeter hypervascular nodules at high risk for developing into hepatocellular carcinomas (SHNHR) using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An SHNHR was defined as a subcentimeter hypervascular nodule having typical imaging findings of HCC on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging. We included 39 patients with 46 SHNHRs (mean size ± standard deviation, 6.1 ± 1.6 mm; range, 3.2 - 9.0 mm). Overt HCC was defined as pathology proven HCC or a nodule larger than 1 cm with typical imaging findings of HCC. The cumulative rate and the independent predictive factors for progression to overt HCC were evaluated. The median follow-up period was 139 days (range, 64 - 392 days). The cumulative progression rate to overt HCC at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months was 13.9 %, 61.7 %, 83.2 %, and 89.9 %. The initial size of SHNHR was a significant predictor of progression to overt HCC, with an optimal cut-off value of 5.5 mm. The progression rate of SHNHR to overt HCC within 12 months was high (89.9 %) in patients with history of HCC. The initial size of SHNHR was an important predictor for progression to overt HCC. (orig.)

  8. Imaging findings of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2003-01-01

    The various pathologic conditions detected at CT and MRI and subsumed by the term 'sacral tumor' include primary bone tumors, sacral canal tumors and metastases. Among these, metastases are much more common than primary bone tumors, of which chordoma is the most common. Although the imaging findings of sacral tumors are nonspecific, a patient's age and sex, and specific findings such as calcification or fluid-fluid levels, can help radiologists in their differential diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of primary sacral tumors, emphasizing the MRI findings

  9. Abdominal imaging findings in gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Kristina T; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; De Petris, Giovanni D; Johnson, C Daniel

    2015-02-01

    To describe the abdominal imaging findings of patients with gastrointestinal Basidiobolus ranarum infection. A literature search was performed to compile the abdominal imaging findings of all reported worldwide cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB). In addition, a retrospective review at our institution was performed to identify GIB cases that had imaging findings. A radiologist aware of the diagnosis reviewed the imaging findings in detail. Additional information was obtained from the medical records. A total of 73 GIB cases have been published in the medical literature. The most common abdominal imaging findings were masses in the colon, the liver, or multiple sites and bowel wall thickening. Initially, many patients were considered to have either a neoplasm or Crohn disease. We identified 7 proven cases of GIB at our institution, of which 4 had imaging studies (4 computed tomography [CT] examinations, 4 abdominal radiographs, and an upper gastrointestinal study). Imaging studies showed abnormalities in all 4 cases. Three-fourths of our study patients had an abdominal mass at CT. Two of 3 masses involved the kidneys and included urinary obstruction. All masses showed an inflammatory component with adjacent soft tissue stranding, with or without abscess formation. Radiologists should consider GIB when a patient from an arid climate presents with abdominal pain, weight loss, and an inflammatory abdominal mass on CT. Abdominal masses of the colon or liver, bowel wall thickening, and abscesses are the most common imaging findings.

  10. MR imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Joong; Jeon, Pyung; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) MR images of seven patients with HOD were retrospectively reviewed. Two were women and five were men, and they were aged between 48 and 65 (mean 58) years. Imaging examinations were performed with a 1.5-T unit, and the findings were used to evaluate the size and signal intensity of olivary lesions. The time interval from hemorrhagic ictus to MR imaging was between two and 30 months. Follow-up examinations were performed in two patients. All four patients with hemorrhages involving the central tegmental tract in the pons or midbrain showed ipsilateral HOD. Among these four, bilateral HOD was seen in one patient with hemorrhage involving the bilateral central tegmental tract, and in another with tegmental hemorrhage extending to the ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle. One patient with cerebellar hemorrhage involving the dentate nucleus had contralateral HOD. Two patients with multiple hemorrhages involving both the pons and cerebellum showed bilateral HOD. Axial MR images showed mild enlargement of the involved olivary mucleus, with high signal intensity on both proton density and T2 weighted images. There was no apparent enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted images. MR imaging can clearly distinguish secondary olivary degeneration from underlying pathology involving the central tegmental tract in the pons or midbrain and cerebellum. These olivary abnormalities should not, however, be mistaken for primary medullary lesions.

  11. MR imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Joong; Jeon, Pyung; Kim, Dong Ik

    1997-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) MR images of seven patients with HOD were retrospectively reviewed. Two were women and five were men, and they were aged between 48 and 65 (mean 58) years. Imaging examinations were performed with a 1.5-T unit, and the findings were used to evaluate the size and signal intensity of olivary lesions. The time interval from hemorrhagic ictus to MR imaging was between two and 30 months. Follow-up examinations were performed in two patients. All four patients with hemorrhages involving the central tegmental tract in the pons or midbrain showed ipsilateral HOD. Among these four, bilateral HOD was seen in one patient with hemorrhage involving the bilateral central tegmental tract, and in another with tegmental hemorrhage extending to the ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle. One patient with cerebellar hemorrhage involving the dentate nucleus had contralateral HOD. Two patients with multiple hemorrhages involving both the pons and cerebellum showed bilateral HOD. Axial MR images showed mild enlargement of the involved olivary mucleus, with high signal intensity on both proton density and T2 weighted images. There was no apparent enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted images. MR imaging can clearly distinguish secondary olivary degeneration from underlying pathology involving the central tegmental tract in the pons or midbrain and cerebellum. These olivary abnormalities should not, however, be mistaken for primary medullary lesions

  12. Imaging of melorheostosis : emphasis on MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hyon; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Jong Yeol; Shin, Tae Bum; Kim, Young Whan; Pak, Hyo Yong; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeong Hwan [College of Medicine, Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyung Hwan [Kumi CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Kumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of various radiographic imaging modalities in the diagnosis and characterization of melorheostosis. We retrospectively evaluated the plain film (n=3D8), computed tomographic (CT) imaging (n=3D5) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n=3D5) findings of eight patients with melorheostosis diagnosed by bone biopsy (n=3D4) and characteristic radiographic findings (n=3D8). MR images were obtained with a 1.5-T scanner focused on the region of maximal radiographic abnormality. Pulse sequences include T1-weighted SE. T2-weighted fast SE (n=3D5) and postcontrast imaging (n=3D4). In order to define subtle enhancement of the lesions, subtraction MR images were obtained in one case. Imaging findings were analyzed with particular emphasis on the distribution lesions along the sclerotome, differential radiographic findings between diaphyseal and metaepiphyseal lesions of the long bones, as seen on plain radiographs, and the density and signal characteristics of hyperostotic lesions, as seen on CT and MR images. Characteristic distribution along the sclerotome was identified in five of eight cases mainly along C6 and 7 (n=3D2) and L3, 4 and 5 (n=3D3) sclerotomes. In diaphyseal melorherostosis (8/8), a characteristic finding, i.e., a wax flowing down from the candle, was identified on plain radiographs. In all three patients with metaepiphyseal melorheostosis (3/8), multiple round or oval hyperostotic lesions were seen in the epipysis and metaphysis of the long bones. On CT, the marrow cavity was partly obliterated by hyperostotic lesions in all five patients with endosteal hyperostosis. Among these, central ground glass opacity with a sclerotic rim was seen in three patients. Periosteal hyperostosis was seen in two of five cases, being visualized as irregular excrescence in the periosteal region and surrounding soft tissue. Individual hyperostosis was visualized as hypointense on T1-weighted images and as a hyperintense center with a surrounding

  13. Imaging findings of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    To define the imaging patterns of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). The demographic, clinical, and imaging findings of 21 cases of pathologically proven XGP in 20 patients (bilateral in one) were evaluated. The findings of ultrasonography and CT were retrospectively evaluated with regard to distribution and extent of the disease, kidney size, the presence of calculi, hydronephrosis, and renal function. The findings were assessed by two radiologists, who established a consensus. Imaging and pathologic findings were compared. Sixteen of the 20 patients were female, and 19 were adults. Their age ranged from 3 to 16 (mean, 45) years. In all patients except one, the disease was unilateral (right: left =3D 13 :16). In one patient, XGP was bilateral, and there were thus 21 cases. Seventeen (81%) of these were diffuse, and four (19%) were focal; extrarenal extension occurred in 13 cases (62%), among which ipsilateral pleural effusion was noted in two. The kidney was enlarged diffusely in 12 cases (57%), and focally in three (14%); urinary calculi were present in 16 cases (76%), with staghorn calculi in four of these; and hydronephrosis occurred in 17 (81%). Impairment of ipsilateral renal function was noted in 13 cases (62%). Clinical findings of inflammation such as fever, pyuria, bacteriuria, or leucocytosis were noted in all patients. In addition to nephromegaly, renal function impairment, and urinary obstruction due to calculi, which are typical features of XGP, the condition may also show variable imaging findings. If the images obtained in the case of a middle-aged woman with clinical findings of urinary infection are atypical, we believe that XGP should be included in the differential diagnosis. (author)

  14. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas: Imaging findings in six patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: femidas@naver.com; Suh, Yeon-Lim (Dept. of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Oligodendrogliomas are primarily supratentorial tumors. However, infrequently, they can also arise from infratentorial structures. There are only limited numbers of radiological articles on the specific imaging findings of this entity. Purpose: To investigate the imaging findings of infratentorial oligodendrogliomas. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical records of six patients with pathologically proven infratentorial oligodendrogliomas between December 1994 and April 2008. Tumor location, circumscription, signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, the presence of restricted diffusion, and the change of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on MRI were evaluated. Results: In total, six patients (three male, three female; mean age 65 years, range 51-75 years) were included. The pathology revealed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in all six patients. The location was cerebellum in four patients, medulla in one patient, and fourth ventricle and tegmentum in one patient. Three of them were of the infiltrative type, and the other three of the mass-forming type. The solid component of the tumors showed high SI (n=6) on FLAIR and T2-weighted images, and low (n=5) or iso (n=1) SI on T1-weighted images. All infiltrative lesions showed multifocal patchy enhancement, and mass-forming lesions showed heterogeneous enhancement (n=2) and diffuse homogeneous enhancement (n=1). Three patients had restricted diffusion, and one had leptomeningeal seeding. There was markedly increased rCBV on perfusion-weighted image (PWI) in one patient. Calcification or hemorrhage was not found. Tumor progression after operation, radiation therapy, gamma-knife surgery, or chemotherapy developed in five patients. Conclusion: Although infratentorial oligodendrogliomas did not show characteristic imaging findings, there was a tendency toward multifocal heterogeneous enhancement and absent or mild mass effect of

  15. Imaging findings of sternal abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Alegret, X.; Sanchis, E.; Rivas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographic findings in the sternal abnormalities are often nonspecific, showing appearances from a localized benign lesion to an aggressive lesion as seen with infections and malignant neoplasms. A specific diagnosis of sternal abnormalities can be suggested on the basis of CT and MR characteristics. Familiarity with the presentation and variable appearance of sternal abnormalities may aid the radiologist is suggesting a specific diagnosis. We present among others characteristic radiographic findings of hemangioma, chondrosarcoma, hydatid disease, and SAPHO syndrome. In those cases in which findings are not specific, cross-sectional imaging modalities may help the clinician in their management. (orig.)

  16. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    2001-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Post-therapeutic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollice, Saverio, E-mail: saveriopollice@hotmail.it [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Neuroradiology, “Cardarelli Hospital”, Naples (Italy); Scarabino, Tommaso, E-mail: tscarabino@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This study is the result of collaboration between neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. • Comparison between neuroimaging techniques to better evaluate the complications after treatment of the spin. • Evaluation of the imaging features of complications and definition of follow-up. - Abstract: Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to

  19. Post-therapeutic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollice, Saverio; Muto, Mario; Scarabino, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study is the result of collaboration between neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. • Comparison between neuroimaging techniques to better evaluate the complications after treatment of the spin. • Evaluation of the imaging features of complications and definition of follow-up. - Abstract: Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to

  20. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  1. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: novel MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Salutario J.; Vinson, Emily N. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Moreno, Courtney Coursey [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dodd, Leslie G. [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-05-15

    To describe novel MR imaging features, and clinical characteristics of soft tissue angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) at presentation, local recurrence, and metastases. We described the MRI findings of six cases of histologically proven AFH. Pathologic findings, clinical presentation, and outcome were reviewed. Lesions were primarily cystic. At initial presentation, tumors were surrounded by low signal intensity fibrous pseudocapsule. High signal intensity consistent with the lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was seen in T2-weighted and post-contrast images as a rim over the hypointense pseudocapsule (double rim sign). High signal intensity infiltrating tumoral cords extended into adjacent tissues, through pseudocapsular defects on T2-weighted and post-contrast images. The cystic component and tumor cell nodularity were demonstrated at post-contrast images. Clinically, lesions were often thought to be benign, underwent marginal resection, developed local recurrence, and one developed second recurrence consisting of metastases. Recurrent tumors appeared as multiple masses, misinterpreted as post-surgical changes. An intramuscular recurrence demonstrated double rim and infiltrating margin. A predominantly well-circumscribed, primarily cystic mass with double-rim and marginal infiltration on MRI suggests the possibility of AFH, in particular in child or young adult. Inclusion of these novel observations in AFH differential diagnosis may have a significant impact on treatment and prevention of recurrence. (orig.)

  2. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: novel MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Salutario J.; Vinson, Emily N.; Moreno, Courtney Coursey; Dodd, Leslie G.; Brigman, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    To describe novel MR imaging features, and clinical characteristics of soft tissue angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) at presentation, local recurrence, and metastases. We described the MRI findings of six cases of histologically proven AFH. Pathologic findings, clinical presentation, and outcome were reviewed. Lesions were primarily cystic. At initial presentation, tumors were surrounded by low signal intensity fibrous pseudocapsule. High signal intensity consistent with the lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was seen in T2-weighted and post-contrast images as a rim over the hypointense pseudocapsule (double rim sign). High signal intensity infiltrating tumoral cords extended into adjacent tissues, through pseudocapsular defects on T2-weighted and post-contrast images. The cystic component and tumor cell nodularity were demonstrated at post-contrast images. Clinically, lesions were often thought to be benign, underwent marginal resection, developed local recurrence, and one developed second recurrence consisting of metastases. Recurrent tumors appeared as multiple masses, misinterpreted as post-surgical changes. An intramuscular recurrence demonstrated double rim and infiltrating margin. A predominantly well-circumscribed, primarily cystic mass with double-rim and marginal infiltration on MRI suggests the possibility of AFH, in particular in child or young adult. Inclusion of these novel observations in AFH differential diagnosis may have a significant impact on treatment and prevention of recurrence. (orig.)

  3. Symmetric imaging findings in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Learning objectives: to make a list of diseases and syndromes which manifest as bilateral symmetric findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; to discuss the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis for these diseases; to explain which of these conditions necessitates urgent therapy and when additional studies and laboratory can precise diagnosis. There is symmetry in human body and quite often we compare the affected side to the normal one but in neuroradiology we might have bilateral findings which affected pair structures or corresponding anatomic areas. It is very rare when clinical data prompt diagnosis. Usually clinicians suspect such an involvement but Ct and MRI can reveal symmetric changes and are one of the leading diagnostic tool. The most common location of bilateral findings is basal ganglia and thalamus. There are a number of diseases affecting these structures symmetrically: metabolic and systemic diseases, intoxication, neurodegeneration and vascular conditions, toxoplasmosis, tumors and some infections. Malformations of cortical development and especially bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria requires not only exact report on the most affected parts but in some cases genetic tests or combination with other clinical symptoms. In the case of herpes simplex encephalitis bilateral temporal involvement is common and this finding very often prompt therapy even before laboratory results. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PReS) and some forms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to symmetric changes. In these acute conditions MR plays a crucial role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring of the therapeutic effect. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 can demonstrate bilateral optic glioma combined with spinal neurofibroma and bilateral acoustic schwanoma respectively. Mirror-image aneurysm affecting both internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries is an example of symmetry in

  4. Human fascioliasis: MR imaging findings of hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevikol, Can; Karaali, Kamil; Senol, Utku; Kabaalioglu, Adnan; Apaydin, Ali; Lueleci, Ersin; Saba, Rabin

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to describe MR imaging findings of liver lesions in human fascioliasis. The MR imaging of the liver was performed in 29 patients with fascioliasis. Seventeen patients were women and 12 were men, with a mean age of 47.5 years (age range 17-75 years). Hepatic lesions were grouped into five types based on their signal characteristics. Three patients had normal imaging findings. One or more lesions were observed in the other 26 patients. The lesion types and the frequency of appearances were as follows: hyperintensity of the liver capsule on T2-weighted images (n=16, 55.2%); ill-defined slightly hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images (n=18, 62.1%); lesions which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (n=10, 34.5%); hypointense on T1-weighted images and centrally hypo- or hyperintense, surrounded by peripherally less hyperintense area on T2-weighted images (n=4, 13.8%); and hypointense foci or ill-defined hypointense areas on T1- and T2-weighted images (n=10, 34.5%). We describe the MR imaging features of the disease. Our findings may help the differential diagnosis in which fascioliasis should be added to the list. (orig.)

  5. Pediatric hemiplegic migraine: susceptibility weighted and MR perfusion imaging abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinok, Deniz; Agarwal, Ajay; Ascadi, Gyula; Luat, Aimee; Tapos, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We report on an 11-year-old girl suffering from a typical attack of hemiplegic migraine with characteristic abnormalities in perfusion MR and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings. The imaging abnormalities were resolved 48 h after the attack. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings correlated well with the MR perfusion, thus it can be used along with conventional MRI for evaluation of children with complex migraine attacks. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging might have a diagnostic role in assessing the vascular events in hemiplegic migraine. (orig.)

  6. Pediatric hemiplegic migraine: susceptibility weighted and MR perfusion imaging abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinok, Deniz; Agarwal, Ajay [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Ascadi, Gyula; Luat, Aimee; Tapos, Daniela [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Neurology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We report on an 11-year-old girl suffering from a typical attack of hemiplegic migraine with characteristic abnormalities in perfusion MR and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings. The imaging abnormalities were resolved 48 h after the attack. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings correlated well with the MR perfusion, thus it can be used along with conventional MRI for evaluation of children with complex migraine attacks. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging might have a diagnostic role in assessing the vascular events in hemiplegic migraine. (orig.)

  7. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A.; Northington, F.J.; Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J.; Huisman, T.A.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  8. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Northington, F.J. [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huisman, T.A.G.M., E-mail: thuisma1@jhmi.edu [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  9. HTLV-I carrier with unusual brain MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yata, Shinsaku; Ogawa, Toshihide; Sugihara, Shuji; Matsusue, Eiji; Fujii, Shinya; Kinoshita, Toshibumi [Tottori University, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Yonago (Japan); Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    We describe unusual brain MR imaging findings in a patient who is an HTLV-I carrier without myelopathy. T2-weighted MR images showed hyperintense signal abnormalities in the pyramidal tract, superior and middle cerebellar peduncles, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles, in addition to subcortical white matter involvement. Diffusion-weighted images also showed hyperintense signal abnormalities in the same regions by T2 shine-through effect. (orig.)

  10. Comparison between T2*- and T2-weighted images in diagnosing rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hideo; Ito, Hisao; Kubo, Atsushi.

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the merits of T2 * -weighted images in diagnosing rotator cuff tear, compared with T2-weighted images. T2- and T2 * -weighted images were obtained in 10 asymptomatic volunteers and 94 patients with symptoms referable to the rotator cuff. The increased signal with full thickness of the rotator cuff was not shown on either T2- or T2 * -weighted images in the volunteers. These findings on T2-weighted images and on T2 * -weighted images were observed in 33 and 58 of 94 patients with symptoms, respectively. Every patient who showed these abnormal findings on T2-weighted images had the abnormal findings on T2 * -weighted images. These findings on T2 * -weighted images were wider than those on T2-weighted images in 20 of 33 patients. Surgical findings were available in 21 of 94 patients. Rotator cuff tears were surgically confirmed in 20 patients whose MR images showed increased signal lesions on both T2- and T2 * -weighted images. On the other hand, one patient who did not have rotator cuff tear showed increased signal lesion with full thickness on T2 * -weighted images, but not on T2-weighted images. We think increased signal lesions on T2-weighted images may strongly suggest rotator cuff tear, whereas those on T2 * -weighted images are not specific. (author)

  11. Analysis of abnormal findings observed on brain MRI T2 weighted image in a system for the detection of asymptomatic brain disease in 1,200 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Kazunari; Sato, Syuzo; Kawase, Takeshi; Toya, Shigeo; Mizukami, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    In this study we described the significance of asymptomatic cerebral infarction (ACI) and periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) observed on brain MRI in a system for detection of asymptomatic brain disease with 1,200 cases. The risk factors (RF), population in each age bracket of ACI and PVH, among groups with hypertension (HTG) and without RF (no-RFG), were investigated. The RF of ACI were hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and aging. Without DM, those are common RF of PVH. The population of PVH and ACI with PVH increased with aging in no-RFG. On the other hand, only the population of ACI with PVH increased with aging in HTG. The rate of these abnormal findings in HTG was significantly higher than that in no-RFG. In addition, HT accelerated the occurrence of these findings by 10-20 years. When patients were over 60 years old, ACI increased rapidly. Accordingly, we concluded that PVH and ACI had a common background. Long term follow up concerning the incidence of ACI in the group with only PVH was necessary. It was desirable that treatment for RF should be effected before the age of sixty. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with medial epicondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Smet, Arthur A. De [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison (United States)

    2005-04-01

    To compare the MR imaging findings of 13 patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis with the MR imaging findings of 26 patients of similar age with no clinical evidence of medial epicondylitis. The study group consisted of 13 patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis. The control group consisted of 26 patients of similar age with no clinical evidence of medial epicondylitis. The medical records and MR imaging findings of these patients were retrospectively reviewed by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Eleven of the 13 patients in the study group had thickening and increased signal intensity of the common flexor tendon on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The remaining two patients in the study group had soft tissue edema around a normal-appearing common flexor tendon. Twenty-one of the 26 patients in the control group had a normal-appearing common flexor tendon on MR imaging. Three patients in the control group had a thickened common flexor tendon which was of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images but of uniform low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Two patients in the control group had a thickened common flexor tendon which was of intermediate signal intensity on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. None of the patients in the control group had soft tissue edema around the common flexor tendon. MR imaging findings of patients with clinically diagnosed medial epicondylitis included thickening and increased T1 and T2 signal intensity of the common flexor tendon and soft tissue edema around the common flexor tendon. The presence of intermediate to high T2 signal intensity or high T2 signal intensity within the common flexor tendon and the presence of paratendinous soft tissue edema were the most specific findings of medial epicondylitis on MR imaging. (orig.)

  13. MR imaging findings of acute gouty arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Jee Young; Suh, Jin Suck

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and MR imaging features of acute gouty arthritis and to define the characteristic findings that would be helpful for differentiating acute gouty arthritis from septic arthritis. The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who suffered from acute gouty arthritis. The MR imaging findings were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists who focused on joint effusion, subchondral bone erosion, bone marrow edema, synovial thickening (regular and even, or irregular and nodular), and the soft tissue changes (edema or abscess). The clinical records of the patients were reviewed with regard to age and gender, the clinical presentation and the laboratory findings (serum uric acid, WBC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and synovial fluid culture). The patients consisted of six men and one woman whose mean age was 41 years (age range:24-65 years). The joints involved were the knee (n=6), and ankle (n=1). Two patients had medical histories of gouty attacks that involved the first metatarsophalangeal joint. In six cases, the serum uric acid level during acute attacks was elevated. In all the patients, the affected joint became swollen, hot, erythematous and extremely tender, and this was accompanied by a high ESR and a high C-reactive protein level at the time of presentation. The results of Gram stain and culture of the synovial fluid were negative. In all patients, the MR images showed large amounts of joint effusion, thick irregular and nodular synovial thickening and soft tissue edema without subchondral bone erosions and soft tissue abscess. In one case, subchondral bone marrow edema of the medial femoral condyle was present. In five cases, there were multiple low signal foci in the joint on the spin-echo T2-weighted MR image. Even though the MR imaging findings of acute gouty arthritis are nonspecific, it should be considered as a possible diagnosis when a large amount of joint effusion

  14. Cervical myelopathy: magnetic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholin, A.V.; Makarov, A.Yu.; Gurevich, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    69 patients with clinical signs of cervical myelopathy were examined using magnetic imaging (T1- and T2-suspended tomograms of the sagittal and transverse section using a device with 0.04 T field intensity). Vertebral disk hernias were revealed in 35 patients, compression of the spinal cord with metastases into vertebral body in 2, extramedullary tumor in 11, intramedullary tumor in 9, and syringomyelia in 12 patients. T2-suspended tomograms proved to be more informative due to their higher sensitivity to aqueous content. T1-suspended tomograms help assess the degree of spinal cord compression and the direction of the disk protrusion. Magnetic imaging is an informative method used for objective identification of the cases of myelopathy of cervical localization [ru

  15. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs

  16. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, J.M. [SDI-UDIAT, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Parc Tauli s/n, E-08208 Barcelona (Spain)]|[Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Caceres, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)]|[Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs.

  17. Finding text in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  18. Imaging findings of anterior hip dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Kyle [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Leslie, Michael [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, New Haven, CT (United States); Menn, Kirsten; Haims, Andrew [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Anterior hip dislocations are rare orthopedic emergencies resulting from high-energy trauma and have unique imaging characteristics on radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging findings on CT and MRI allow for the prompt recognition and classification of anterior hip dislocations, which guides patient management and reduces complications. The purpose of this article is to review imaging findings of anterior hip dislocations, specifically focusing on CT and MRI. (orig.)

  19. Imaging findings of Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Hun, E-mail: iater@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Eun [Department of Radiology, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu Jin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare, aggressive vascular tumor that typically occurs during infancy or early childhood. Though several case reports have discussed the imaging findings of KHE, larger comprehensive studies are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of KHE in children. Materials and methods: A total of twelve cases of pathologically proven KHE were collected by searching our institution’s pathology database for children diagnosed between January 2004 and April 2016 (6 male, 6 female; median age: 3 months; age range 7 days − 18 years). CT (n = 7) and MRI (n = 9) findings were retrospectively evaluated. The location, morphology, enhancement, and growth pattern were analyzed. Results: KHEs involved various locations: superficial or deep soft tissue of the extremities (n = 4); abdomen (n = 3; 2 cases, pancreas; 1 case, small bowel), neck and mediastinum (n = 1); chest wall, diaphragm, and pericardium (n = 1); abdominal wall (n = 1); and head (IAC, CP angle) (n = 2). Eight of 10 cases (80%) with CT/MR findings were locally invasive and involved two or more adjacent organs. Three cases presented as well-defined solid masses, and seven were associated with infiltrative lesions of the surrounding areas with (n = 4) or without definite solid regions (n = 3). In nine patients with MRI, all KHEs were heterogeneous and hyperintense to muscles on T2-weighted images (T2WI), while four KHEs consisted of some regions that were nearly isointense to muscle. Eight of the 10 cases with imaging exhibited heterogeneous intense enhancement, while only one demonstrated mild enhancement. Signal voids (n = 2), engorged vessels (n = 1), calcification (n = 3), hemorrhage (n = 1), or bone changes (n = 4) were infrequently observed. Four patients (33%) had Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, and recurrence was observed in two cases. Conclusion: KHEs occurred in various locations, affected mostly infants, and generally exhibited

  20. MR imaging findings of renal capsular leiomyoma : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dal Mo; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Jin Woo; Cho, Hyun I; Lee, Jong Bouk [Gachon Medical college Gil Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    In the literature, descriptions of the MR findings of renal leiomyoma are rare. We present the MR findings of a capsular leiomyoma of the kidney in which hypointensity relative to normal renal parenchyma was seen on both T1-and T2-weighted MR images.

  1. MR imaging findings of renal capsular leiomyoma : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dal Mo; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Jin Woo; Cho, Hyun I; Lee, Jong Bouk

    1999-01-01

    In the literature, descriptions of the MR findings of renal leiomyoma are rare. We present the MR findings of a capsular leiomyoma of the kidney in which hypointensity relative to normal renal parenchyma was seen on both T1-and T2-weighted MR images

  2. Imaging Findings of Ulceroglandular Tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Neil; Deochand, Osmani; Murphy, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the causative organism in Tularemia, is a relatively rare disease. There are a few radiological clues to elucidate its presence when suspicion arises. There should be strong consideration for Tularemia in the differential of any patient with its classic symptoms, diffuse cervical lymphadenopathy with evidence of necrosis, and enlarged adenoids. Ultrasound may demonstrate suppurative lymphadenopathy suggestive of infection, as in the case presented. CT often will demonstrate the extent of lymphadenopathy. On chest radiography, tularemia pneumonia is often the presenting finding, which may demonstrate bilateral or lobar infiltrates. Additionally, hilar lymphadenopathy and pleural effusions are often associated findings. Cavitary lesions may be present, which are better delineated on CT scan. We present a case of a 7-year-old male who presented with a painful right-sided palpable neck mass for 9 days, who was diagnosed with Tularemia after numerous admissions.

  3. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Findings of magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Okuhata, Yoshitaka; Yoshinobu, Takashi; Takemoto, Akiko; Himi, Kazuhisa; Mutoh, Haruomi [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the findings of MR imaging obtained in patients with Echinococcus multilocularis involving the liver. For 10 patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver, the MR findings were compared with the histopathologic findings after biopsy or surgery. Conventional T1-weighted spin echo, T2-weighted spin echo and T1-weighted spin echo after Gd-DTPA were employed. The signal from the lesions of alveolar liver echinococcosis on T1-weighted images was hypointense in 16 of 23 lesions (69.6%), hyperintense in 4 (17.4%), and isointense in 3 (13.0%). The signal from the lesions on T2-weighted images was hyperintense in 20 lesions (87.0%), hypointense in 2 (8.7%), and isointense in one (4.3%). On using Gd-DTPA, 7 of 21 lesions (33.3%) were observed with rim enhancement, and 14 lesions (66.7%) were non-enhanced. We describe our clinical experience together with the various findings of MR imaging as observed in the patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. MR imaging excels in visualizing a low-intensity rim and small cystic foci, with liquefaction necrotic foci displaying a variety of signal intensities. After Gd-DTPA administration, the surrounding inflammatory granulomatous foci could be more clearly visualized. (author).

  4. Alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. Findings of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Okuhata, Yoshitaka; Yoshinobu, Takashi; Takemoto, Akiko; Himi, Kazuhisa; Mutoh, Haruomi; Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the findings of MR imaging obtained in patients with Echinococcus multilocularis involving the liver. For 10 patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver, the MR findings were compared with the histopathologic findings after biopsy or surgery. Conventional T1-weighted spin echo, T2-weighted spin echo and T1-weighted spin echo after Gd-DTPA were employed. The signal from the lesions of alveolar liver echinococcosis on T1-weighted images was hypointense in 16 of 23 lesions (69.6%), hyperintense in 4 (17.4%), and isointense in 3 (13.0%). The signal from the lesions on T2-weighted images was hyperintense in 20 lesions (87.0%), hypointense in 2 (8.7%), and isointense in one (4.3%). On using Gd-DTPA, 7 of 21 lesions (33.3%) were observed with rim enhancement, and 14 lesions (66.7%) were non-enhanced. We describe our clinical experience together with the various findings of MR imaging as observed in the patients with alveolar echinococcosis of the liver. MR imaging excels in visualizing a low-intensity rim and small cystic foci, with liquefaction necrotic foci displaying a variety of signal intensities. After Gd-DTPA administration, the surrounding inflammatory granulomatous foci could be more clearly visualized. (author)

  5. Infantile encephalitic beriberi: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, Nisar A. [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir, Pin (India); Qureshi, Umar A.; Ahmad, Kaiser; Ahmad, Waseem [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Pediatrics, Jammu and Kashmir (India); Jehangir, Majid [Government Medical College Srinagar, Department of Radiology, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2016-01-15

    Thiamine deficiency in infants is still encountered in developing countries. It may present with acute neurological manifestations of infantile encephalitic beriberi. To review brain MRI findings in infantile encephalitic beriberi from a single institution. A retrospective review of MRI scans in 22 infants with acute-onset beriberi encephalopathy was carried out. Hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images were seen symmetrically in the putamen in all patients, in the caudate nuclei in 16/22 (73%), the thalami in 7/22 (32%) and the globi pallidi in 3/22 (14%) of the infants. Altered signal intensity lesions in the cerebral cortex were seen in 7/22 (32%). The mammillary bodies were seen in one infant and the periaqueductal gray matter in two. There was restricted diffusion in 14/22 (64%), and 6/8 children with no evidence of restriction had been imaged ≥10 days after presentation. MR spectroscopy showed increased lactate peak in 6/8 infants (75%). Recognition of symmetrical T2-W hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia with restricted diffusion and prominent lactate peak may allow early diagnosis of encephalitic beriberi in at-risk infants. (orig.)

  6. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collaku, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The use of diffusion weighted images when performing abdomen MRI has been increased during the last years; achieving high quality images for a short period of time remains still a challenge. Learning points: We present a literature review together with our experience in optimizing the DW imaging in the abdomen, focused on creating high density ADC maps and handling the uncooperative patients. Discussion: The factors that influence the image quality are discussed as well. Conclusion: The factors that influence the image quality are discussed as well

  7. Cerebral and meningeal manifestations of AIDS: comparison of plain T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images in 105 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochens, R.; Henkes, H.; Steinkamp, H.J.; Terstegge, K.; Hosten, N.; Ruf, B.; Schoerner, W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of T1-weighted Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging in the diagnosis of cerebral manifestations of AIDS. 105 patients with AIDS were imaged with plain T2-weighted images as well as with Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted pulse sequences. Our study revealed comparable sensitivities in the detection of morphological changes as shown on plain T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images in 55% of patients (normal and pathologic findings). Plain T2-weighted images were superior in 28.5% and provided significantly better results in 8.5% of patients. Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were superior in only 5% cases and revealed significantly better results in 3%. As a result, T2-weighted plain images were superior in approximately 40% of patients concerning detection of morphologic changes. In almost 10% of patients with parechymal and meningeal lesions, Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images, however, were superior or even significantly better compared to T2-weighted plain images. The detection of morphologic changes in MR imaging can be further increased with Gd-DTPA. With regard to differential diagnosis and diesease activity, plain T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images revealed comparable results in 42% of patients (normal and pathologic findings). T2-weighted plain images were superior in 2% of cases whereas Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were superior in as much as 56% of patient. MR imaging enhanced with Gd-DTPA yielded additional information on disease activity in 73% of patients with pathologic findings in the cerebral parechyma and the meninges. The surplus of information also refers to the etiology of cerebral pathology and differential diagnosis. Because of the frequency of cerebral manifestations in AIDS, early diagnosis for initiation of therapy and follow-up studies to monitor therapy are crucial. (orig./MG) [de

  8. A typical magnetic resonance imaging findings of craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-X.J.; Jiang, H.; He, G.-X.

    2001-01-01

    Three cases of craniopharyngiomas with atypical MRI findings are reported. The first patient had a nasopharyngeal craniopharyngioma. Its unusual location made diagnosis difficult. The second patient had a massive craniopharyngioma with extensive cystic expansion, involving the anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae, and extending into the foramen magnum. The tumour of the third patient involved the suprasellar region with a large extension into the third ventricle, and demonstrated a predominantly high signal intensity on all T1-weighted, proton-weighted and T2-weighted images. These patients further stressed the complexity of MRI findings in craniopharyngiomas. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  9. Correlation of Imaging Findings with Pathologic Findings of Sclerosing Adenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Bae; Shu, Kwang Sun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mammographic and sonographic findings of pure sclerosing adenosis. We retrospectively reviewed the mammographic and sonographic findings in 40 cases of pure sclerosing adenosis confirmed by core needle biopsy (n = 23), vacuum-assisted biopsy (n = 7), excision biopsy (n = 9), and lumpectomy (n = 1) from January 2002 to March 2010. All imaging findings were analyzed according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS). Radiologic features were correlated with pathologic findings. Although most mammograms showed negative findings (57%), calcification was the most common abnormal finding of sclerosing adenosis. On sonography, the most common finding was a circumscribed oval hypoechoic mass without posterior features (78%). Most masses showed BI-RADS category 3, (75%, 27/36). Five cases showed categories 4 or 5 (14%, 5/36). Most mammographic and sonographic findings of sclerosing adenosis are non-specific and non-pathognomonic, even though sometimes sclerosing adenosis can be radiologically or histopathologically confused with malignancy

  10. Hepatic hemangioma: Correlation of enhancement types with diffusion-weighted MR findings and apparent diffusion coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)], E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp; Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kajita, Kimihiro [Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Tsuge, Yusuke [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Purpose: To correlate hepatic hemangioma enhancement types in gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images with diffusion-weighted MR findings and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). Materials and methods: Respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted MR images (TR/TE, 2422/46 ms; parallel imaging factor, 2; b factor, 500 s/mm{sup 2}; number of averaging, 6) obtained in 35 patients with 44 hepatic hemangiomas diagnosed by gadolinium-enhanced MR and by follow-up imaging were retrospectively evaluated. Hemangiomas were classified into three enhancement types based on gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings: type I, early-enhancement type; type II, peripheral nodular enhancement type; type III, delayed enhancement type. Two blinded readers qualitatively assessed lesion sizes and signal intensities on T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and diffusion-weighted images. The ADCs of hemangiomas were also measured. Results: No significant difference was observed between the three enhancement types in terms of signal intensities on T2-weighted images. Signal intensities on diffusion-weighted images were lower in the order type I to III (P < .01), and mean ADCs were 2.18 x 10{sup -3}, 1.86 x 10{sup -3}, and 1.71 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for types I, II, and III, respectively (P < .01). No correlation was found between lesion sizes and ADCs. Conclusion: Hepatic hemangiomas were found to have enhancement type dependent signal intensities and ADCs on diffusion-weighted MR images. Further studies will have to substantiate that these diffusion patterns might reflect intratumoral blood flow or perfusion.

  11. Endometriosis of the liver: Findings in imaging diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.; Bohndorf, K.; Lindemann, F.; Leipprand, E.

    1994-01-01

    Endometriosis of the liver is an extremely rare disease. To our knowledge, no more than three such cases were so far mentioned in the relevant literature. Moreover, we understand that nmr findings to prove the presence of hepatic endometriosis have not yet been described. We consider nmr imaging to be a suitable tool to establish a presumptive, if not firm, diagnosis of hepatic endometriosis. A sign strongly suggestive of the disorder is the irregular pattern of blood constituents of different ages that can invariably be visualized using this method. Due to the great amounts of free methaemoglobin found in subacute haemorrhages in increase insignal intensity can be observed for T 1 -weighted and T 2 -weighted SE sequences. The residues of former bleedings into the stroma, which are histologically confirmed by haemosiderin deposits, account for the greatly diminished signal intensity in T 1 -weighted images. An unusual finding here was the comparatively high signal intensity observed for T 2 -weighted images in those areas, where signals were practically absent in T 1 -weighted images. In our opinion, this can be explained by scattered subacute bleedings, which are probably too small in amount to produce signals in T 1 -weighted pictures. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Musculoskeletal Imaging Findings of Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Shannon M; Matcuk, George R; Patel, Dakshesh B; Skalski, Matthew; White, Eric A; Tomasian, Anderanik; Schein, Aaron J

    2017-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies comprise a set of prevalent yet clinically diverse diseases that can affect every organ system. Because blood components originate in bone marrow, it is no surprise that bone marrow is a common location for both primary and metastatic hematologic neoplasms. Findings of hematologic malignancy can be seen with most imaging modalities including radiography, computed tomography (CT), technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scanning, fluorine 18 ( 18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Because of the diversity of imaging appearances and clinical behavior of this spectrum of disease, diagnosis can be challenging, and profound understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic changes and current treatment modalities can be daunting. The appearance of normal bone marrow at MR imaging and FDG PET/CT is also varied due to dynamic compositional changes with normal aging and in response to hematologic demand or treatment, which can lead to false-positive interpretation of imaging studies. In this article, the authors review the normal maturation and imaging appearance of bone marrow. Focusing on lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma, they present the spectrum of imaging findings of hematologic malignancy affecting the musculoskeletal system and the current imaging tools available to the radiologist. They discuss the imaging findings of posttreatment bone marrow and review commonly used staging systems and consensus recommendations for appropriate imaging for staging, management, and assessment of clinical remission. © RSNA, 2017.

  13. MR imaging findings of spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Park, Eui Dong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Ha, Choong Kun [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju(Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of massive spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by repeated lumbar punctures during spinal anesthesia in a 36-year-old man. The signal intensities of spinal SAH were similar to those of the conus medullaris on both T1-and T2-weighted spin-echo images. Although spinal SAH is hardly recognized on MR, spinal SAH of sufficient amount may cause alteration of the cerebrospinal fluid signal.

  14. Interpolation of diffusion weighted imaging datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim B; Lundell, Henrik; Burke, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    anatomical details and signal-to-noise-ratio for reliable fibre reconstruction. We assessed the potential benefits of interpolating DWI datasets to a higher image resolution before fibre reconstruction using a diffusion tensor model. Simulations of straight and curved crossing tracts smaller than or equal......Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is used to study white-matter fibre organisation, orientation and structural connectivity by means of fibre reconstruction algorithms and tractography. For clinical settings, limited scan time compromises the possibilities to achieve high image resolution for finer...... interpolation methods fail to disentangle fine anatomical details if PVE is too pronounced in the original data. As for validation we used ex-vivo DWI datasets acquired at various image resolutions as well as Nissl-stained sections. Increasing the image resolution by a factor of eight yielded finer geometrical...

  15. MR imaging findings of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Sun Yong; Suh, Jung Ho [School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. We retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging findings of 116 patients diagnosed by MRI as suffering from mesial temporal sclerosis. In 18 of these, the condition was also histologically proven. Among the 116 patients, volume loss of the hippocampus was found in 95 (81.9%) and signal changes of the hippocampus in 53 (45.7%). Decreased signal intensity in the hippocampus on T1-weighted images was found in 13 (11.2%) and increased signal on T2-weighted images in 50 (43.1%). Signal abnormality in the hippocampus on both T1- and T2-weighted images was found in ten, and associated extrahippocampal abnormalities, as follows, in 20 (17.2%): atrophy of fornix (n=3D10), atrophy of the mammillary body (n=3D8), atrophy of the amygdala (n=3D10), atrophy or increased T2 signal intensity of the anterior thalamic nuclei (n=3D2), atrophy of the cingulate gyrus (n=3D2), atrophy or increased signal intensity of the anterior temporal lobe (n=3D8), and cerebral hemiatrophy (n=3D4). A high T2 signal and atrophy of the hippocampus are the most common and important MRI findings of mesial temporal sclerosis. Other abnormal findings, if any, which may be found in extrahippocampal structures such as the fornix, mammillary body and temporal lobe, should, however, also be carefully observed. (author)

  16. Imaging findings of mimickers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyoung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC as the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC in high-risk patients by typical imaging findings alone is widely adopted in major practice guidelines for HCC. While imaging techniques have markedly improved in detecting small liver lesions, they often detect incidental benign liver lesions and non-hepatocellular malignancy that can be misdiagnosed as HCC. The most common mimicker of HCC in cirrhotic liver is nontumorous arterioportal shunts that are seen as focal hypervascular liver lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. Rapidly enhancing hemangiomas can be easily misdiagnosed as HCC especially on MR imaging with liver-specific contrast agent. Focal inflammatory liver lesions mimic HCC by demonstrating arterial-phase hypervascularity and subsequent washout on dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. It is important to recognize the suggestive imaging findings for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC as the management of CC is largely different from that of HCC. There are other benign mimickers of HCC such as angiomyolipomas and focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Recognition of their typical imaging findings can reduce false-positive HCC diagnosis.

  17. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  18. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  19. Diffusion weighted imaging by MR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Naruse, Shoji; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Tokumitsu, Takuaki; Ueda, Satoshi; Tanaka, Chuzo; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Umeda, Masahiro.

    1993-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a recently developed technique used to examine the micromovement of water molecules in vivo. We have applied this technique to examine various kinds of brain diseases, both experimentally and clinically. The calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in vivo showed reliable values. In experimentally induced brain edema in rats, the pathophysiological difference of the type of edema (such as cytotoxic, and vasogenic) could be differentiated on the diffusion weighted MR images. Cytotoxic brain edema showed high intensity (slower diffusion) on the diffusion weighted images. On the other hand, vasogenic brain edema showed a low intensity image (faster diffusion). Diffusion anisotropy was demonstrated according to the direction of myelinated fibers and applied motion proving gradient (MPG). This anisotropy was also demonstrated in human brain tissue along the course of the corpus callosum, pyramidal tract and optic radiation. In brain ischemia cases, lesions were detected as high signal intensity areas, even one hour after the onset of ischemia. Diffusion was faster in brain tumor compared with normal brain. Histological differences were not clearly reflected by the ADC value. In epidermoid tumor cases, the intensity was characteristically high, was demonstrated, and the cerebrospinal fluid border was clearly demonstrated. New clinical information obtainable with this molecular diffusion method will prove to be useful in various clinical studies. (author)

  20. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in leukodystrophies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patay, Zoltan [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Radiology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-01

    Leukodystrophies are genetically determined metabolic diseases, in which the underlying biochemical abnormality interferes with the normal build-up and/or maintenance of myelin, which leads to hypo- (or arrested) myelination, or dysmyelination with resultant demyelination. Although conventional magnetic resonance imaging has significantly contributed to recent progress in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases, diffusion-weighted imaging has the potential to further improve our understanding of underlying pathological processes and their dynamics through the assessment of normal and abnormal diffusion properties of cerebral white matter. Evaluation of conventional diffusion-weighted and ADC map images allows the detection of major diffusion abnormalities and the identification of various edema types, of which the so-called myelin edema is particularly relevant to leukodystrophies. Depending on the nature of histopathological changes, stage and progression gradient of diseases, various diffusion-weighted imaging patterns may be seen in leukodystrophies. Absent or low-grade myelin edema is found in mucopolysaccharidoses, GM gangliosidoses, Zellweger disease, adrenomyeloneuropathy, L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, classical phenylketonuria, Van der Knaap disease and the vanishing white matter, medium grade myelin edema in metachromatic leukodystrophy, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and HMG coenzyme lyase deficiency and high grade edema in Krabbe disease, Canavan disease, hyperhomocystinemias, maple syrup urine disease and leukodystrophy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and high lactate. (orig.)

  1. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in leukodystrophies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patay, Zoltan

    2005-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are genetically determined metabolic diseases, in which the underlying biochemical abnormality interferes with the normal build-up and/or maintenance of myelin, which leads to hypo- (or arrested) myelination, or dysmyelination with resultant demyelination. Although conventional magnetic resonance imaging has significantly contributed to recent progress in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases, diffusion-weighted imaging has the potential to further improve our understanding of underlying pathological processes and their dynamics through the assessment of normal and abnormal diffusion properties of cerebral white matter. Evaluation of conventional diffusion-weighted and ADC map images allows the detection of major diffusion abnormalities and the identification of various edema types, of which the so-called myelin edema is particularly relevant to leukodystrophies. Depending on the nature of histopathological changes, stage and progression gradient of diseases, various diffusion-weighted imaging patterns may be seen in leukodystrophies. Absent or low-grade myelin edema is found in mucopolysaccharidoses, GM gangliosidoses, Zellweger disease, adrenomyeloneuropathy, L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, classical phenylketonuria, Van der Knaap disease and the vanishing white matter, medium grade myelin edema in metachromatic leukodystrophy, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and HMG coenzyme lyase deficiency and high grade edema in Krabbe disease, Canavan disease, hyperhomocystinemias, maple syrup urine disease and leukodystrophy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and high lactate. (orig.)

  2. Imaging findings of neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossough, Arastoo; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bilaniuk, Larissa T.; Schwartz, Erin M. [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The CT, MR, and diffusion-weighted initial and follow-up imaging findings in neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis were assessed. The clinical, laboratory and imaging findings in 12 patients (eight girls and four boys) with proven neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis with follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patterns of brain involvement and distribution of lesions were studied and the contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging to the imaging diagnosis of this disease was explored. A total of 24 CT and 22 MRI studies were performed with a mean follow-up time of 38 months. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis can be multifocal or limited to only the temporal lobes, brainstem, or cerebellum. The deep gray matter structures were involved in 57% of patients, and hemorrhage was seen in more than half of the patients. CT images were normal or showed mild abnormalities in the early stages of the disease. Conventional MR images may be normal in the early stages of the disease. Lesions were initially seen only by diffusion-weighted imaging in 20% of the patients and this modality showed a substantially more extensive disease distribution in an additional 50% of patients. In 40% of patients, watershed distribution ischemic changes were observed in addition to areas of presumed direct herpetic necrosis. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis has a variable imaging appearance. Diffusion-weighted MRI is an important adjunct in the imaging evaluation of this disease. Watershed distribution ischemia in areas remote from the primary herpetic lesions may be seen. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion weighted imaging in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Cher Heng [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Jihong [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Imaging Physics, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Kundra, Vikas [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging has generated substantial interest in the hope that it can be developed into a robust technique to improve the accuracy of MRI for the evaluation of prostate cancer. This technique has the advantages of short acquisition times, no need for intravenous administration of contrast medium, and the ability to study diffusion of water molecules that indirectly reflects tissue cellularity. In this article, we review the existing literature on the utility of DWI in tumour detection, localisation, treatment response, limitations of the technique, how it compares with other imaging techniques, technical considerations and future directions. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of epidermoid, including diffusion weighted images and an atypical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shoki; Higano, Shuichi; Kurihara, Noriko

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing intracranial epidermoid, we evaluated the MRI findings on five cases with such tumor, all of which were surgically verified. In addition to standard spin-echo (SE) images obtained in all cases, diffusion-weighted images were acquired in two patients. In four patients, the tumor revealed to be almost isointense relative to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on both T 1 -and T 2 -weighted images, while it tended to show slightly hyperintense to CSF on proton-density-weighted images; thus, based on the signal intensity on standard SE images the distinction between epidermoid and arachnoid cyst may be difficult. Furthermore, the presence of the tumor which has a tendency to grow in and along the subarachnoid space causing relatively minimal mass effect may be overlooked. Diffusion-weighted images were shown to have advantages in such cases by demonstrating the tumor unequivocally as a mass of high signal, and differentiating it from arachnoid cysts. In the remaining patient, its appearance was atypical, showing bright signal on both T 1 -and T 2 -weighted images. In conclusion free of bone artifacts, multiplanar MRI with additional diffusion-weighted images provides a clear demonstration of epidermoid, and its differentiation from arachnoid cyst, thus obviating the need for CT cisternography. (author)

  5. Hippocampal sclerosis: correlation of MR imaging findings with surgical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Cho, Woo Ho

    2001-01-01

    Atrophy and a high T2 signal of the hippocampus are known to be the principal MR imaging findings of hippocampal sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not individual MRI findings correlate with surgical outcome in patients with this condition. Preoperative MR imaging findings in 57 consecutive patients with pathologically-proven hippocampal sclerosis who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were followed-up for 24 months or more were retrospectively reviewed, and the results were compared with the postsurgical outcome (Engel classification). The MR images included routine sagittal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted spin-echo images, and oblique coronal T1-weighted 3D gradient-echo and T2-weighted 2D fast spin-echo images obtained on either a 1.5 T or 1.0 T unit. The images were visually evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to the outcome; their focus was the presence or absence of atrophy and a high T2 hippocampal signal. Hippocampal atrophy was seen in 96% of cases (55/57) [100% (53/53) of the good outcome group (Engel class I and II), and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group (class III and IV)]. A high T2 hippocampal signal was seen in 61% of cases (35/57) [62% (33/53) of the good outcome group and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group]. All 35 patients with a high T2 signal had hippocampal atrophy. 'Normal' hippocampus, as revealed by MR imaging, occurred in 4% of patients (2/57), both of whom showed a poor outcome (Engel class III). The presence or absence of hippocampal atrophy correlated well with surgical outcome (p 0.05). Compared with a high T2 hippocampal signal, hippocampal atrophy is more common and correlates better with surgical outcome. For the prediction of this, it thus appears to be the more useful indicator

  6. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  7. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: leandrocleite@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Departmento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2016-07-15

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  8. Intracranial meningiomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings in 78 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparetto, Emerson L.; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Lucato, Leandro T.; Barros, Cristiano Ventorin de; Marie, Sueli K.N.; Santana, Pedro; Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires de; Rosemberg, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of 78 patients with meningiomas diagnosed in a single institution. Method: 78 patients with histological proven intracranial meningioma were studied. There were 52 female and 26 male patients (median=56 years). All MR imaging examinations were performed with 1.5-T MR imaging unit with standard protocol. The images were studied by two neuroradiologists, who reached the decisions regarding the findings by consensus. Results: Most of the tumors showed low signal on T1- (60%) and high signal on T2- (68%) and FLAIR (69%) weighted images. Also, the lesions showed heterogeneous signal on T1 (60%), T2 (68%) and FLAIR (64%) sequences. After contrast administration, 83% (n=65) of the tumors presented accentuated and 17% (n=13) showed moderate enhancement. The tumors were located in the frontal lobe in 44% of the cases, in the parietal lobe in 35%, the occipital lobe in 19% and the temporal lobe in 12% of the patients. Areas of vasogenic edema around the tumors were seen in 90% of the cases. Twenty six per cent of the cases showed bone infiltration, and the dural tail sign was seen in 59% of the tumors. Conclusion: Intracranial meningiomas usually show heterogeneous low signal on T1- and high signal on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, with intense enhancement after contrast administration. The frontal and parietal lobes are commonly affected. In addition, brain edema, dural tail sign and bone infiltration are the most frequent associated findings. (author)

  9. Imaging Findings of Fibrous Hamartoma of Infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Byung Hak; Lee, Hee Jung; Kwon, Sun Young

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the imaging findings of fibrous hamartoma of infancy (FHI). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation and the sonographic (n = 5) and CT (n = 3) findings of 5 cases of surgically/pathologically confirmed FHI. The sonographic findings were evaluated according to the location, size, internal echogenicity and vascularity. The CT findings were evaluated according to the attenuation of the mass on both the pre- (n = 3) and postcontrast (n = 2) scans. The image findings were correlated with the pathologic findings. The mean age was 14.8 months (range, 7 months - 3 years). The location of lesions was all in the fatty layer of the back (n = 4) and upper arm (n = 1). All the lesions demonstrated-hypertrichosis on the overlying skin. The lesions measured 31.2 mm in the longest diameter (range: 18 mm - 50 mm). The sonographic findings were purely solid, heterogeneously hyperechoic and hypovacular for all the cases. The internal architecture revealed a 'layering' appearance (n = 3). The CT findings demonstrated isoattenuation, as compared to the adjacent muscle on both the pre- and postcontrast CT scans. The pathologic correlation demonstrated a characteristic 'organoid' mixture of fibrous, mucoid and fatty tissues in all cases. The diagnosis of FHI can be suggested by the sonographic findings of a superficially located, heterogeneous solid mass with a 'layering' appearance in the fatty layer of the back or arms of infants with local hypertrochosis on the overlying skin

  10. CT and MR imaging findings of sinonasal angiomatous polyps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Jing [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Man, Fengyuan [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Deng, Kai [Department of Radiology, Qingdao No. 4 People' s Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Zheng, Yuanyuan [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Hao, Dapeng, E-mail: haodp_2009@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Xu, Wenjian, E-mail: cjr.xuwenjian@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: To characterize the CT and MR imaging findings of patients with sinonasal angiomatous polyps (SAPs) and evaluate their respective clinical value in the diagnosis of SAP. Methods: CT and MR imaging findings of 15 patients with pathologically proven SAP were examined. Assessed image features included location, size, margin, attenuation, and change of the bony walls of the sinonasal cavity on CT, and signal intensity and enhancement pattern on MR. Results: On CT, the SAP was mostly isoattenuated with patches of slight hyperattenuation. Most lesions caused changes in the adjacent bone, including expansile remodeling (n = 8), defect or destruction (n = 7), and hyperostosis (n = 6). All lesions examined by MR showed heterogeneous isointense signal intensity on T1-weighted images and mixed obvious hyperintense and hypointense signal intensity with linear hypointense septum internally (n = 10), and hypointense peripheral rim on T2-weighted images (n = 10). Postcontrast MR images demonstrated areas of heterogeneous and marked enhancement with an unenhanced hypointense rim and septa (n = 7). Conclusions: CT and MR imaging have respective advantages in the diagnosis of SAP. Combined application of CT and MR examinations is necessary for patients with suspected SAP.

  11. CT and MR imaging findings of sinonasal angiomatous polyps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Jing; Man, Fengyuan; Deng, Kai; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Hao, Dapeng; Xu, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the CT and MR imaging findings of patients with sinonasal angiomatous polyps (SAPs) and evaluate their respective clinical value in the diagnosis of SAP. Methods: CT and MR imaging findings of 15 patients with pathologically proven SAP were examined. Assessed image features included location, size, margin, attenuation, and change of the bony walls of the sinonasal cavity on CT, and signal intensity and enhancement pattern on MR. Results: On CT, the SAP was mostly isoattenuated with patches of slight hyperattenuation. Most lesions caused changes in the adjacent bone, including expansile remodeling (n = 8), defect or destruction (n = 7), and hyperostosis (n = 6). All lesions examined by MR showed heterogeneous isointense signal intensity on T1-weighted images and mixed obvious hyperintense and hypointense signal intensity with linear hypointense septum internally (n = 10), and hypointense peripheral rim on T2-weighted images (n = 10). Postcontrast MR images demonstrated areas of heterogeneous and marked enhancement with an unenhanced hypointense rim and septa (n = 7). Conclusions: CT and MR imaging have respective advantages in the diagnosis of SAP. Combined application of CT and MR examinations is necessary for patients with suspected SAP

  12. Basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bammer, Roland.

    2003-01-01

    In diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), image contrast is determined by the random microscopic motion of water protons. During the last years, DWI has become an important modality in the diagnostic work-up of acute ischemia in the CNS. There are also a few promising reports about the application of DWI to other regions in the human body, such as the vertebral column or the abdomen. This manuscript provides an introduction into the basics of DWI and Diffusion Tensor imaging. The potential of various MR sequences in concert with diffusion preparation are discussed with respect to acquisition speed, spatial resolution, and sensitivity to bulk physiologic motion. More advanced diffusion measurement techniques, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging, are also addressed

  13. Body image and gestational weight gain: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of Australian adult women of childbearing age are overweight or obese, and, when pregnant, the majority gain excessive weight; this is also the case in the United States and other developed nations. High gestational weight gain (GWG) is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight/obesity postbirth and is also associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Understanding factors that contribute to excessive GWG is vital in combating obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine whether body image attitudes (eg, feeling fat, attractive, or strong and fit, and salience of weight and shape) predict GWG. Pregnant women, recruited through advertisements on pregnancy online forums and parenting magazines, completed questionnaires assessing body image, demographic variables, and GWG. The Body Attitudes Questionnaire assessed body image in early-to-middle, middle, and late pregnancy (mean of 16.8, 24.7, and 33.0 weeks' gestation, respectively). Total GWG was calculated by subtracting self-reported pre pregnancy weight from self-reported weight at 36.8 weeks' gestation. A total of 150 pregnant women responded to the study's advertisements, and 72% (n = 108) took part. After controlling for pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI), lower attractiveness in early-to-middle pregnancy was associated with higher GWG. In late pregnancy, women who had the lowest feelings of fatness had greater GWG. Body image attitudes earlier in pregnancy did not predict whether GWG recommendations were exceeded. Women of higher BMI were more likely to gain excessive weight. The findings suggest that the type and timing of pregnancy, body attitudes, and the time of pregnancy when they are noted, predict GWG. However, more research in the area is needed, including assessment of the relationship between body image concerns, GWG, and other psychosocial factors. We recommend that midwives monitor body image concerns in pregnancy to help address factors affecting GWG in at

  14. CISS MR imaging findings of epidermoid tumor : comparison with spin-echo images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Woo; Kim, Hak Jin; Choi, Sang Yoel; Heo, Jin Sam; Jung, Hoon Sik; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Wha [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate CISS MR imaging findings of epidermoid tumor in comparison with conventional spin-echo images. We studied 6 cases of epidermoid tumor in the subarachnoid space. We used a 1.5T MR unit to obtain CISS images(TR/TE/FA ; 12.3msec/5.9 msec/700) and T1- and T2- weighted spin-echo images. CISS MR imaging findings were evaluated with respect to tumor's signal intensity , contour, and relation with adjacent structures. Conspicuity of the tumor was compared between CISS and spin-echo images. A quantitative analysis was performed by measuring tumor to CSF contrast. In qualitative analysis, three radiologists independently compared CISS image and conventional spin-echo images for visibility of the tumor and graded them into three categories( poor, good, and excellent). Epidermoid tumors were located in the cerebellopontine angle in 4 cases, the prepontine cisstern in 1 case, and the cerebellopontine angle-prepontine cistern in 1 case. The tumors were hyperintense relative to brain parenchyma and hypointense relative to CSF on CISS images, were lobulated, encased adjacent cranial nerve and vessels, and invaginated into brain parenchyma. In qualitative analysis, CISS images showed clear demarcation between tumor and CSF, exact tumor extension, and tumor's relation with cranial nerves and vessels better than conventional spin-echo images. In quantitative analysis, the mean contrast values of tumor to CSF on T1-, T2-weighted images, and CISS images were 0.12, 0.06, and 0.52, respectively. The contrast value for CISS images was significantly higher than that for T1-and T2-weighted images(p<0.05). Epidermoid tumors in the subarachnoid space are better demonstrated on CISS images than on conventional spin-echo images. This special MR sequence can be added as a routine protocol in the diagnosis of subarachnoid epidermoid tumor.

  15. CT and MR imaging findings of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuto, R.; Kiyosue, H.; Komatsu, E.; Matsumoto, S.; Mori, H. [Oita Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Kawano, K. [Oita Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of First Surgery; Kondo, Y.; Yokoyama, S. [Oita Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of First Pathology

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate CT and MRI findings in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) and to correlate the imaging findings with various pathologic parameters. The study included 13 patients with histopathologically confirmed XGC. The CT (n=13) and MRI (n=5) obtained in these patients were evaluated retrospectively. On CT, low-attenuation areas in the wall of XGC correlated with foam and inflammatory cells or necrosis and/or abscess in XGC. Areas of iso- to slightly high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, showing slight enhancement at early phase and strong enhancement at last phase on dynamic study, corresponded with areas of abundant xanthogranulomas. Areas with very high signal intensity on T2-weighted images without enhancement corresponded with necrosis and/or abscesses. Luminal surface enhancement (LSE) of gallbladder wall represented preservation of the epithelial layer. The early-enhanced areas of the liver bed on dynamic CT and MR images corresponded with accumulation of inflammatory cells and abundant fibrosis. Our results indicate that CT and MRI findings correlate well with the histopathologic findings of XGC.

  16. Diffusion-weighted imaging features in spinal cord infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingsong; Huan Yi; Sun Lijun; Chang Yingjuan; Zhao Haitao; Yang Chunmin; Zhang Guangyun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in ischemic spinal cord lesions and discuss the value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiating diagnosis with inflammatory diseases and tumors. Methods: Six patients (2 male, 4 female) with typical sudden onset of neurological deficits caused by spinal cord ischemia were evaluated. There were no definite etiologies in all patients. DW imaging was performed within 1 to 30 days after the initial neurological symptoms using a Philips Gyroscan 1.5 TMR system. Four patients had other scans including contrast-enhanced MR imaging (CE-MRI) and/or FLAIR scans. Two of them followed up with MR images in three months. All six patients were imaged using a multi-shot, navigator-corrected, echo-planar pulse sequence, and ADC values were calculated in sagittal-oriented plane. Results: MR abnormalities were demonstrated on sagittal T 2 -weighted images with 'patch-like' or 'strip-like' hyperintensities (6/6) and cord enlargement (5/6). Axial T 2 -weighted images showed bilateral (6/6) hyperintensities. In one patient only the posterior spinal artery (PSA) territory was involved. Spinal cord was mainly affected at the cervical (2/6) and thoracolumbar (4/6) region, two of them included the conus medullaris (T10-L1). DW images showed high signals in all infarct lesions, degree of intensity depended on scanning time from ill-onset and progress of illness and whether companied with hemorrhage. In this group, except one case with closely normal ADC value due to one month course of illness, the five others ADC values of lesions calculated from ADC maps arranged from 0.23 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s to 0.47 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s [average value (0.37 ± 0.10) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s], markedly lower than normal parts [ average value (0.89 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s]. There were marked difference between lesions and normal regions (t=4.71, P 2 W images. Meanwhile, lesions could be displayed much better in DW images than in T 2 W images because

  17. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Hiroyasu; Munechika, Hirotsugu [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-06-01

    Serial images of uterine leiomyoma in gradient-echo, echo-planar, magnetic resonance imaging were taken to draw a {delta}R2{sup *} curve after intravenous bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. The {delta}R2{sup *} integral was calculated from a {delta}R2{sup *} curve to have relative perfusion of uterine leiomyoma. We then, evaluated the amount of perfusion correlated with MR findings, size and number of leiomyoma or the clinical symptoms and established that perfusion was correlated positively with the findings of T2 weighted images and clinical symptoms but not with other MR findings or size and number of leiomyoma. In conclusion, we presumed that the clinical symptoms could be reduced by decreasing of an amount of perfusion of uterine leiomyoma in some means. However, it remained uncertain why severe clinical symptoms were associated with a high amount of perfusion in uterine leiomyomas. (author)

  18. Waste receiving and processing drum weight measurement uncertainty review findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of reviewing the weight scale operation at the WRAP facility was to determine the uncertainty associated with weight measurements. Weight measurement uncertainty is needed to support WRAP Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and Non-destructive Assay (NDA) analysis

  19. Pneumoconiosis: comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semin Chong; Kyung Soo Lee; Myung Jin Chung; Joungho Han; O. Jung Kwon; d Tae Sung Kim [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  20. Pneumoconiosis: Comparison of imaging and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.; Lee, K.S.; Chung, M.J.; Han, J.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Kim, T.S. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Republic of Korea). Samsung Medical Center

    2006-01-15

    Pneumoconiosis may be classified as either fibrotic or nonfibrotic, according to the presence or absence of fibrosis. Silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, and talcosis are examples of fibrotic pneumoconiosis. Siderosis, stannosis, and baritosis are nonfibrotic forms of pneumoconiosis that result from inhalation of iron oxide, tin oxide, and barium sulfate particles, respectively. In an individual who has a history of exposure to silica or coal dust, a finding of nodular or reticulonodular lesions at chest radiography or small nodules with a perilymphatic distribution at thin-section computed tomography (CT), with or without eggshell calcifications, is suggestive of silicosis or coal worker pneumoconiosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for distinguishing between progressive massive fibrosis and lung cancer. CT and histopathologic findings in asbestosis are similar to those in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the presence of asbestos bodies in histopathologic specimens is specific for the diagnosis of asbestosis. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia due to exposure to hard metals is classified as a fibrotic form of pneumoconiosis and appears on CT images as mixed ground-glass opacities and reticulation. Berylliosis simulates pulmonary sarcoidosis on CT images. CT findings in talcosis include small centrilobular and subpleural nodules or heterogeneous conglomerate masses that contain foci of high attenuation indicating talc deposition. Siderosis is nonfibrotic and is indicated by a CT finding of poorly defined centrilobular nodules or ground-glass opacities.

  1. Imaging findings of Castleman disease of the abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liangping; Wang Peihua; Peng Weijun; Yang Wentao; Zhang Bei; Guan Yubao; Zhou Kangrong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to analysis the most suggestive imaging findings of Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis and to improve the recognition of this rare disease. Methods: Ten patients with pathologically proved Castleman disease in the abdomen (n=9) and pelvis (n=1) were included in this study. Patients were 18-56 yeas old (mean=40); 7 were men and 3 women. Imaging findings (CT and MRI, n=4; only CT, n=4; only MRI, n=2) were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical and pathologic findings. Results: The lesions were divided into localized (n=9) and disseminated (n=1) group. The pathologic subtypes of all 9 cases of localized disease were hyaline vascular type. Imaging findings showed a single large mass in six and a single dominant mass with small satellite nodules in three. On plain CT images, the lesions manifested as homogeneous soft masses, which is isoattenuating to muscle. After intravenous injection of contrast media, most of the masses enhanced sharply (5/7) with the attenuation similar to large arteries at arterial phase and delay scans. On MR imaging, the lesions also were homogenous and had isointense or slightly low signal intensity compared with that of muscle on T 1 weighted images and high signal intensity on T 2 weighted images, and showed contrast enhancement in a similar pattern to contrast enhanced CT. After intravenous injection of contrast media, areas of central lower radial attenuation in the mass were noted in 4 cases of large masses ( > 5 cm) and proved to be fibrotic component pathologically. The pathologic subtypes of 1 cases of disseminated disease was plasma cell type. Imaging findings showed several well-defined nodules lied in the retroperitoneal zone that enhanced sharply with the attenuation similar to large arteries after intravenous injection of contrast media. Conclusion: Imaging findings of Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis are closely associated with its pathology. The most

  2. Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazaki, Carlos Renato Ticianelli; Trippia, Carlos Henrique; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda Sales Ferreira; Medaglia, Carla Regina Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is a benign condition characterized by synovial proliferation and metaplasia, with development of cartilaginous or osteocartilaginous nodules within a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. In the shoulder, synovial osteochondromatosis may occur within the glenohumeral joint and its recesses (including the tendon sheath of the biceps long head), and in the subacromial-deltoid bursa. Such condition can be identified either by radiography, ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging, showing typical features according to each method. Radiography commonly shows ring-shaped calcified cartilages and periarticular soft tissues swelling with erosion of joint margins. Ultrasonography demonstrates hypoechogenic cartilaginous nodules with progressive increase in echogenicity as they become calcified, with development of posterior acoustic shadow in case of ossification. Besides identifying cartilaginous nodules, magnetic resonance imaging can also demonstrate the degree of synovial proliferation. The present study is aimed at describing the imaging findings of this entity in the shoulder. (author)

  3. Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder: imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Ticianelli Terazaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Synovial chondromatosis is a benign condition characterized by synovial proliferation and metaplasia, with development of cartilaginous or osteocartilaginous nodules within a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. In the shoulder, synovial osteochondromatosis may occur within the glenohumeral joint and its recesses (including the tendon sheath of the biceps long head, and in the subacromial-deltoid bursa. Such condition can be identified either by radiography, ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging, showing typical features according to each method. Radiography commonly shows ring-shaped calcified cartilages and periarticular soft tissues swelling with erosion of joint margins. Ultrasonography demonstrates hypoechogenic cartilaginous nodules with progressive increase in echogenicity as they become calcified, with development of posterior acoustic shadow in case of ossification. Besides identifying cartilaginous nodules, magnetic resonance imaging can also demonstrate the degree of synovial proliferation. The present study is aimed at describing the imaging findings of this entity in the shoulder.

  4. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Caio Giometti; Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2011-01-01

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  5. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Caio Giometti; Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2011-09-15

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  6. MR imaging findings in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honghan, Gong; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Takae

    1994-01-01

    We retrospectively examined the MR imaging (MRI) findings in 144 patients with epilepsy (31 with temporal lobe epilepsy and 113 with other epilepsies). 110 cases (76.4%) showed abnormal findings such as spotty lesions in white matter, hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change, ventricular dilatation and/or deformity, developmental lesions, brain tumors and so on. Hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change was shown in 74.1% of temporal lobe epilepsy, a remarkably high percentage (p<0.01) compared with the other types of epilepsies (18.1%). This finding means that hippocampal lesions may play a large part in the cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Investigation of the relationship between clinical term and abnormal findings revealed that the longer the clinical term, the large the number of hippocampal lesions, regardless of whether it is temporal lobe epilepsy or not. Thus hippocampal lesions may occur as a result of hypoxia accompanied with seizure. Therefore we recommend horizontal and/or vertical sections of hippocampus in MR imaging of all patients with epilepsy. Even though MR finding may reflect some secondary lesions, MRI will shed some light on the proper understanding of epilepsy. (author)

  7. Imaging findings of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Ghadirpour, Ali; Ataie-Oskuie, Reza; Kontzialis, Marinos; Nezami, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was referred to a dentist complaining of parageusia, bad taste in the mouth, which started 9 months ago. Panoramic X-ray and non-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed multiple bilateral unilocular cysts in the mandible and maxilla, along with calcification of anterior part of the falx cerebri. She was eventually diagnosed with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on imaging and histopathologic finding of keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

  8. Imaging findings of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Ghadirpour, Ali; Ataie-Oskuie, Reza; Kontzialis, Marinos; Nezami, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was referred to a dentist complaining of parageusia, bad taste in the mouth, which started 9 months ago. Panoramic X-ray and non-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed multiple bilateral unilocular cysts in the mandible and maxilla, along with calcification of anterior part of the falx cerebri. She was eventually diagnosed with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome based on imaging and histopathologic finding of keratocystic odontogenic tumor

  9. Meduloblastoma: correlação entre ressonância magnética convencional, difusão e espectroscopia de prótons Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vieira de Melo da Fonte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os achados de ressonância magnética convencional, difusão e espectroscopia de prótons nos meduloblastomas, e compará-los aos dados da literatura. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de exames de ressonância magnética pré-operatórios de nove pacientes na faixa pediátrica com diagnóstico histológico de meduloblastoma (oito desmoplásicos e um de células gigantes. Foram considerados dados demográficos e características do tumor como localização, característica morfológica, intensidade de sinal, realce, disseminação e achados na difusão e espectroscopia. RESULTADOS: Na maioria dos casos os tumores apresentaram epicentro no vermis cerebelar (77,8%, sendo predominantemente sólido (88,9%, com hipossinal nas seqüências ponderadas em T1 e iso/hipersinal nas seqüências ponderadas em T2 e FLAIR, realce heterogêneo (100%, sinais de disseminação/extensão tumoral (77,8% e restrição à movimentação das moléculas de água (100%. A espectroscopia de prótons pela técnica STEAM (n = 6 demonstrou redução da relação Naa/Cr (83,3% e aumento de Co/Cr (100% e mI/Cr (66,7%, e pela técnica PRESS (n = 7 evidenciou pico de lactato (57,1%. CONCLUSÃO: O conjunto dos achados macroscópicos obtidos pela ressonância magnética, somado às características bioquímicas dos meduloblastomas, têm sido úteis na tentativa de diferenciação entre os principais tumores da fossa posterior.OBJECTIVE: To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics

  10. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Beom [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2000-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  11. Retroperitoneal schwannoma: diagnostic imaging findings in 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar, Alberto; Santamarina, Mario; Scalise, Gabriela; Ponce de Leon, Valeria; Bello, Lorena

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the different imaging findings (US, CT and MRI) in retroperitoneal schwannoma. Materials and methods: 5 patients (3 male and 2 females) with a diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannoma were retrospectively evaluated. Ages ranged from 33 to 63 years (means 54 years). The images (US, CT and MR) were analyzed and correlated to histopathologic results. Results: The most frequent clinical finding was abdominal pain (60%). A presumptive diagnosis prior to surgery was suggested in 3/5 cases that had well-defined masses with a predominant cystic appearance. All patients underwent surgery with tumoral resection. Only 2 patients (40%) had recurrence within a three years period of follow-up. Conclusion: Retroperitoneal schwannoma is an infrequent tumor. In our series, no pathognomotic features were observed on US, CT or MRI. However, 3/5 tumors showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images due to cystic areas. (author)

  12. Analysis of perfusion weighted image of CNS lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is difficult to differentiate CNS lymphoma from other tumors such as malignant gliomas, metastases, or meningiomas with conventional MR imaging, because the imaging findings are overlapped between these tumors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perfusion weighted MR imaging findings of CNS lymphomas and to compare the relative cerebral blood volume ratios between CNS lymphomas and other tumors such as high grade gliomas, metastases, or meningiomas. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings and clinical records in 13 patients with pathologically proven CNS lymphoma between January 2006 and November 2008. We evaluated the relative cerebral blood volume ratios of tumor, which were obtained by dividing the values obtained from the normal white matter on MRI. Results: Total 13 patients (M:F = 8:5; age range 46-67 years, mean age 52.3 years) were included. The CNS lymphomas showed relatively low values of maximum relative CBV ratio in most patients regardless of primary or secondary CNS lymphoma. Conclusion: Perfusion weighted image may be helpful in the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma in spite of primary or secondary or B cell or T cell.

  13. Penile epithelioid sarcoma: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikci, A.; Bayram, M.; Demirci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Bakir, K. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey); Sarica, K. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 38-year-old man with epithelioid sarcoma of the penis is presented. It started as a firm, painless and slowly growing nodule at the base of his penis 6 months previously which caused pain radiating to the testis during coitus. It has been well known that sarcomas may well mimic reactive processes. Initial presentation of epithelioid sarcoma may provoke considerable diagnostic difficulty, and its differentiation from benign lesions, such as Peyronie`s disease and chronic inflammation, may be a clinical problem. In our present report the MR findings are compared with those of the epithelioid sarcomas of various locations reported in the literature and differential diagnosis of the entity is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the MR findings of the epithelioid sarcoma of penis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 16 refs.

  14. Role of diffusion weighted imaging in musculoskeletal infections: Current perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Khaleel, Mohammad; Boothe, Ethan; Awdeh, Haitham; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and prompt therapy of musculoskeletal infections are important prognostic factors. In most cases, clinical history, examination and laboratory findings help one make the diagnosis, and routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to identify the extent of the disease process. However, in many situations, a routine MRI may not be specific enough especially if the patient cannot receive contrast intravenously, thereby delaying the appropriate treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can help in many such situations by providing additional information, accurate characterization and defining the extent of the disease, so that prompt treatment can be initiated. In this article, we illustrate the imaging findings of the spectrum of musculoskeletal infections, emphasizing the role of DWI in this domain. (orig.)

  15. Role of diffusion weighted imaging in musculoskeletal infections: Current perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Yogesh [Yale New Haven Health System at Bridgeport Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Khaleel, Mohammad [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); Boothe, Ethan; Awdeh, Haitham [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Wadhwa, Vibhor [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Accurate diagnosis and prompt therapy of musculoskeletal infections are important prognostic factors. In most cases, clinical history, examination and laboratory findings help one make the diagnosis, and routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to identify the extent of the disease process. However, in many situations, a routine MRI may not be specific enough especially if the patient cannot receive contrast intravenously, thereby delaying the appropriate treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can help in many such situations by providing additional information, accurate characterization and defining the extent of the disease, so that prompt treatment can be initiated. In this article, we illustrate the imaging findings of the spectrum of musculoskeletal infections, emphasizing the role of DWI in this domain. (orig.)

  16. Castleman disease of the neck: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xin-hua; Song, Hao-ming; Liu, Qing-yu; Cao, Yun; Li, Guo-hong; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Castleman disease of the neck. Methods: The imaging findings of 21 patients with Castleman disease of the neck were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 21 patients, 16 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans; 5 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI scans. Results: The unenhanced CT images showed isolated or multiple well-defined homogenous mild hypodensity lesions in fifteen cases, and a heterogeneous nodule with central areas of mild hypodensity in one case. Calcification was not observed in any of the patients. In five patients, MR T1-weighted images revealed well-defined, homogeneous isointense or mild hyperintense lesions to the muscle; T2-weighted images showed these as intermediate hyperintense. Sixteen cases showed intermediate to marked homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT or MR T1-weighted images. Of the other five cases that underwent double-phase CT scans, four showed mild or intermediate heterogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase, and homogeneous intermediate or marked enhancement at the venous phase; the remaining case showed mild and intermediate ring-enhancement with a central non-enhanced area at the arterial and venous phases, respectively. Conclusion: Castleman disease of the neck can be characterized as solitary or multiple well-defined, mild hypodensity or homogeneous intense lesions on plain CT/MR scans, and demonstrates intermediate and marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT/MR scans. On double-phase CT scans, Castleman disease often demonstrates mild enhancement at the arterial phase, and gradually uniform enhancement at venous phase. Double-phase enhanced CT or MRI may help to differentiate Castleman disease from other diseases

  17. Castleman disease of the neck: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xin-hua [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Song, Hao-ming [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, Shanghai 200065 (China); Liu, Qing-yu [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120 (China); Cao, Yun [Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Li, Guo-hong [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Zhang, Wei-dong, E-mail: dongw.z@163.com [Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Objective: To characterize the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Castleman disease of the neck. Methods: The imaging findings of 21 patients with Castleman disease of the neck were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 21 patients, 16 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans; 5 underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI scans. Results: The unenhanced CT images showed isolated or multiple well-defined homogenous mild hypodensity lesions in fifteen cases, and a heterogeneous nodule with central areas of mild hypodensity in one case. Calcification was not observed in any of the patients. In five patients, MR T1-weighted images revealed well-defined, homogeneous isointense or mild hyperintense lesions to the muscle; T2-weighted images showed these as intermediate hyperintense. Sixteen cases showed intermediate to marked homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT or MR T1-weighted images. Of the other five cases that underwent double-phase CT scans, four showed mild or intermediate heterogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase, and homogeneous intermediate or marked enhancement at the venous phase; the remaining case showed mild and intermediate ring-enhancement with a central non-enhanced area at the arterial and venous phases, respectively. Conclusion: Castleman disease of the neck can be characterized as solitary or multiple well-defined, mild hypodensity or homogeneous intense lesions on plain CT/MR scans, and demonstrates intermediate and marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT/MR scans. On double-phase CT scans, Castleman disease often demonstrates mild enhancement at the arterial phase, and gradually uniform enhancement at venous phase. Double-phase enhanced CT or MRI may help to differentiate Castleman disease from other diseases.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  19. Imaging findings in congenital hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhan, Okan; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Ergen, Bilge

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare congenital multisystemic disorder, mostly inherited in autosomal recessive fashion, primarily affecting renal and hepatobiliary systems. Main underlying process of the disease is the malformation of the ductal plate, the embryological precursor of the biliary system, and secondary biliary strictures and periportal fibrosis ultimately leading to portal hypertension. The natural course of the disease is highly variable ranging from minimally symptomatic disease to true cirrhosis of the liver. However, in most patients the most common manifestations of the diseases that are related to portal hypertension, particularly splenomegaly and bleeding varices. Many other disease processes may co-exist with the disease including Caroli's disease, choledochal cysts and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) reflecting the mulstisystemic nature of the disease. The associating biliary ductal disease led the authors to think that all these entities are a continuum and different reflections of the same underlying pathophysiological process. Although, conventional method of diagnosis of CHF is the liver biopsy the advent of imaging technologies and modalities, today, may permit the correct diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. Characteristic imaging features are generally present and recognition of these findings may obviate liver biopsy while preserving the diagnostic accuracy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of the practising radiologists to the imaging findings of this uncommon clinical disorder and trail the blaze for future articles relating to this issue

  20. Imaging findings in congenital hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: akhano@tr.net; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Ergen, Bilge [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare congenital multisystemic disorder, mostly inherited in autosomal recessive fashion, primarily affecting renal and hepatobiliary systems. Main underlying process of the disease is the malformation of the ductal plate, the embryological precursor of the biliary system, and secondary biliary strictures and periportal fibrosis ultimately leading to portal hypertension. The natural course of the disease is highly variable ranging from minimally symptomatic disease to true cirrhosis of the liver. However, in most patients the most common manifestations of the diseases that are related to portal hypertension, particularly splenomegaly and bleeding varices. Many other disease processes may co-exist with the disease including Caroli's disease, choledochal cysts and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) reflecting the mulstisystemic nature of the disease. The associating biliary ductal disease led the authors to think that all these entities are a continuum and different reflections of the same underlying pathophysiological process. Although, conventional method of diagnosis of CHF is the liver biopsy the advent of imaging technologies and modalities, today, may permit the correct diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. Characteristic imaging features are generally present and recognition of these findings may obviate liver biopsy while preserving the diagnostic accuracy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of the practising radiologists to the imaging findings of this uncommon clinical disorder and trail the blaze for future articles relating to this issue.

  1. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, Francois [University Hospital Center of Lausanne, Unit of Radiopediatrics, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [University Hospital Center of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. (orig.)

  2. Imaging findings of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, Douglas P.; Sweet, Clifford F.; Martin, Hal D.; Lastine, Craig L.; Grayson, David E.; Ly, Justin Q.; Fish, Jon R.

    2005-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI) is a pathologic entity which can lead to chronic symptoms of pain, reduced range of motion in flexion and internal rotation, and has been shown to correlate with degenerative arthritis of the hip. History, physical examination, and supportive radiographic findings such as evidence of articular cartilage damage, acetabular labral tearing, and early-onset degenerative changes can help physicians diagnose this entity. Several pathologic changes of the femur and acetabulum are known to predispose patients to develop FAI and recognition of these findings can ultimately lead to therapeutic interventions. The two basic mechanisms of impingement - cam impingement and pincer impingement - are based on the type of anatomic anomaly contributing to the impingement process. These changes can be found on conventional radiography, MR imaging, and CT examinations. However, the radiographic findings of this entity are not widely discussed and recognized by physicians. In this paper, we will introduce these risk factors, the proposed supportive imaging criteria, and the ultimate interventions that can help alleviate patients' symptoms. (orig.)

  3. Imaging findings of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, Douglas P.; Sweet, Clifford F.; Martin, Hal D.; Lastine, Craig L.; Grayson, David E.; Ly, Justin Q.; Fish, Jon R. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiologal Sciences, Oklahoma City (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI) is a pathologic entity which can lead to chronic symptoms of pain, reduced range of motion in flexion and internal rotation, and has been shown to correlate with degenerative arthritis of the hip. History, physical examination, and supportive radiographic findings such as evidence of articular cartilage damage, acetabular labral tearing, and early-onset degenerative changes can help physicians diagnose this entity. Several pathologic changes of the femur and acetabulum are known to predispose patients to develop FAI and recognition of these findings can ultimately lead to therapeutic interventions. The two basic mechanisms of impingement - cam impingement and pincer impingement - are based on the type of anatomic anomaly contributing to the impingement process. These changes can be found on conventional radiography, MR imaging, and CT examinations. However, the radiographic findings of this entity are not widely discussed and recognized by physicians. In this paper, we will introduce these risk factors, the proposed supportive imaging criteria, and the ultimate interventions that can help alleviate patients' symptoms. (orig.)

  4. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner RM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than

  5. Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor: Imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarencon, Frederic, E-mail: fredclare5@msn.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Bonneville, Fabrice [Department of Neuroradiology, Hopital Rangueil, Toulouse University Hospital, 31000 Toulouse (France); Rousseau, Audrey [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Galanaud, Damien [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Kujas, Michele [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Naggara, Olivier [Department of Neuroradiology, St Anne Hospital, 75014 Paris (France); Cornu, Philippe [Department of Neurosurgery, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Chiras, Jacques [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To study the neuroimaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (ISFTs). Materials and methods: Retrospective study of neuroimaging features of 9 consecutive histopathologically proven ISFT cases. Location, size, shape, density, signal intensity and gadolinium uptake were studied at CT and MRI. Data collected from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (3 patients), perfusion imaging and MR spectroscopy (2 patients), and DSA (4 patients) were also analyzed. Results: The tumors most frequently arose from the intracranial meninges (7/9), while the other lesions were intraventricular. Tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean = 6.6 cm). They presented multilobular shape in 6/9 patients. Most ISFTs were heterogeneous (7/9) with areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhanced after gadolinium administration (6/8). Erosion of the skull was present in about half of the cases (4/9). Components with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient were seen in 2/3 ISFTs on DWI. Spectroscopy revealed elevated peaks of choline and myo-inositol. MR perfusion showed features of hyperperfusion. Conclusion: ISFT should be considered in cases of extra-axial, supratentorial, heterogeneous, hypervascular tumor. Areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhance after gadolinium injection are suggestive of this diagnosis. Restricted diffusion and elevated peak of myo-inositol may be additional valuable features.

  6. Imaging findings of adiposis dolorosa vs. massive localized lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M.; Bernard, Stephanie A.; Bennett, Jennifer [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease) is a condition of benign, painful subcutaneous lipomatous lesions associated with weakness, endocrine and lipid abnormalities, and mental disturbances. There is little information documenting the cross-sectional imaging findings that differentiate it from lipomatous and neoplastic soft tissue masses, or massive localized lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to provide a radiological case series of adiposis dolorosa. A 10-year retrospective review of the picture archiving and communications system was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed images to confirm and document imaging features, location, size, and patient demographics. Medical records were reviewed to characterize patients into three groups: one group met at least three of the four criteria of Dercum's syndrome, the second group met less than three criteria, and the third group had clinical diagnosis of cellulitis of the lower extremity. Seventeen cases (25 masses) of adiposis dolorosa were found, nine cases of which met at least three criteria of Dercum's syndrome. All cases in the first two groups demonstrated skin thickening and lymphedema of subcutaneous fat, which was fluid attenuation on CT and low or intermediate T1-weighted and high STIR/T2-weighted MR signal. Two cases with pathology showed mild fatty infiltration with fibrous septa, and the third case showed massive localized lymphedema. The third group of ten cellulitis patients demonstrated non-mass-like subcutaneous edema with similar CT attenuation and MR signal characteristics to the first two groups, but differed by the presence of post-contrast enhancement and non-mass-like appearance in 90 %. Imaging findings of adiposis dolorosa and massive localized lymphedema overlap, as do the symptoms and pathological features. Due to the mass-like engorgement of the soft tissues and pain, patients will often undergo imaging to exclude neoplasm or infection. Knowledge of these

  7. Imaging findings of neonatal adrenal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bo Kyung; Lee, Min Hee

    1999-01-01

    In newborn infants, normal adrenal glands are characterized by a relatively thin echogenic center surrounded by a thick, hypoechoic cortical rim as seen on ultrasound (US). Various disorders involving the neonatal adrenal gland include adrenal hemorrhage, hyperplasia, cyst, Wolman's disease, and congenital neuroblastoma. Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of an adrenal mass in the neonate, though differentiation between adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma is in many cases difficult. We describe characteristic US, CT and MR imaging findings in neonates with various adrenal disorders

  8. Imaging findings of neonatal adrenal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bo Kyung; Lee, Min Hee [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    In newborn infants, normal adrenal glands are characterized by a relatively thin echogenic center surrounded by a thick, hypoechoic cortical rim as seen on ultrasound (US). Various disorders involving the neonatal adrenal gland include adrenal hemorrhage, hyperplasia, cyst, Wolman's disease, and congenital neuroblastoma. Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of an adrenal mass in the neonate, though differentiation between adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma is in many cases difficult. We describe characteristic US, CT and MR imaging findings in neonates with various adrenal disorders.

  9. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Asymptomatic Lumbar Disc Herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Toshinori; Miyagi, Ryo; Yamabe, Eiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Bhatia, Nitin N.; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performedon a healthy 31-year-old man with asymptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Althoughthe left S1 nerve root was obviously entrapped by a herniated mass, neither DWI nor DTI showed any significant findings for the nerve root. Decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were found. These results are contrary to those in previously published studies of symptomatic...

  10. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G.; Stoffel, F.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  11. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G. [Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Stoffel, F. [Inst. of Urology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-04-01

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  12. Infantile fibrosarcoma: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in six cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canale, Sandra [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)], E-mail: canalesandra@yahoo.com; Vanel, Daniel [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, 1/10 via di Barbiano, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Couanet, Dominique [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Patte, Catherine [Department of Pediatrics, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France); Caramella, Caroline; Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features in a series of six infantile fibrosarcomas to find out if MR can suggest this unusual diagnosis and to highlight the value of MR during and following treatment. Materials and methods: The records of six cases of histologically proven infantile fibrosarcoma were retrieved from the files of our cancer center. All imaging data available were consensually reviewed by two radiologists. Results: There were five females and one male (age range at diagnosis, 0-12 months; mean, 6 months). The most common finding was a well-circumscribed single mass in five patients (83%). All tumors had arisen on limbs; at their proximal or distal extremity or at the root of the limb. The masses were 9 cm large in mean diameter. The initial tumor signal was isointense to muscle on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences. All masses were well circumscribed and half of them contained internal fibrous septa. The internal signal was homogeneous in three patients and heterogeneous in the three others. An intense enhancement was seen in all three contrast-enhanced exams available; heterogeneous in two cases and homogeneous in one. Osseous erosion was observed in only one patient who was the only one with distant metastasis. After treatment (chemotherapy and very limited surgery), tumors had totally disappeared, leaving muscle fat infiltration in two patients and subcutaneous fat hypertrophy in one patient. Conclusion: Although imaging findings are not specific of infantile fibrosarcoma, this diagnosis could be suggested when MR imaging depicts a large well-circumscribed mass arising in a limb at birth or during the neonatal period. This mass is sometimes heterogeneous and septate and exhibits an isointense T1- and hyperintense T2-weighted signals and strong enhancement. MR is also the technique of choice for follow-up during treatment which consists nowadays almost exclusively in chemotherapy.

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: 'starry sky' appearance with diffusion-weighted imaging in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapp, Seth; Harrar, Dana; Strother, Megan; Wushensky, Curtis; Pruthi, Sumit

    2012-04-01

    We present a case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever encephalitis in a child imaged utilizing diffusion-weighted MRI. Although the imaging and clinical manifestations of this entity have been previously described, a review of the literature did not reveal any such cases reported in children utilizing diffusion-weighted imaging. The imaging findings and clinical history are presented as well as a brief review of this disease.

  14. Bone marrow MR imaging findings in disuse osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. de; Wesselly, Michelle; Chung, Christine B.; Resnick, Donald

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate MR imaging findings in the cortical and trabecular bone as well as marrow changes in patients with disuse osteoporosis (DO). Sixteen patients (14 men, 2 women, aged 27-86 years) with clinical and radiographic evidence of DO of a lower limb joint (10 knees, 6 ankles) with MR examination of the same joint performed within a 1-month period were selected, as well as 16 healthy volunteers (7 men, 9 women, aged 25-75 years, 10 knees and 6 ankles). MR imaging findings of the bone marrow were analyzed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus regarding: diffuse or focal signal alteration, reinforcement of vertical or longitudinal trabecular lines, and presence of abnormal vascularization. All patients (100%,16/16) with DO presented MR imaging abnormalities of the bone marrow, such as: accentuation of vertical trabecular lines (50%, 8/16), presence of subchondral lobules of fat (37.5%, 6/16), presence of horizontal trabecular lines (31%, 5/16), prominence of bone vessels (25%, 4/16), and presence of dotted areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences (12.5%, 2/16). Such MR findings did not appear in the control individuals. There are several MR imaging findings in bones with DO that range from accentuation of vertical and horizontal marrow lines, presence of subchondral lobules of fat, prominent bone vascularization and the presence of dotted foci of high signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequences. Recognition of these signs may prove helpful in the identification of DO as well as distinguishing these findings from other entities. (orig.)

  15. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Stuhr, Fritz [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lindner, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body.

  16. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Stuhr, Fritz; Lindner, Christian; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in adnexial torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Ronald Meira Castro; Quadros, Marianne Siquara de [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa], e-mail: rtrindade@einstein.br; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Rosemberg, Michelle; Racy, Marcelo de Castro Jorge; Tachibana, Adriano [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Service

    2010-01-15

    Adnexial torsion is an unusual event, but a major cause of abdominal pain in women. It is often associated with ovarian tumor or cyst, but can occur in normal ovaries, especially in children. The twisting of adnexial structures may involve the ovary or tube, but frequently affects both. In most cases, it is unilateral, with slight predilection for the right size. In imaging findings, increased ovarian volume and adnexial masses are observed, with reduced or absent vascularisation. In cases of undiagnosed or untreated complete twist, hemorrhagic necrosis may occur leading to complications; in that, peritonitis is the most frequent. Early diagnosis helps preventing irreversible damage with conservative treatment, thereby saving the ovary. Limitations in performing physical examination, possible inconclusive results in ultrasound and exposure to radiation in computed tomography makes magnetic resonance imaging a valuable tool in emergency assessment of gynecological diseases. The objective of this study was to report two confirmed cases of adnexial twist, emphasizing the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of this condition. (author)

  18. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatipoglu, H.G.; Onbasioglu Gurbuz, M.; Sakman, B.; Yuksel, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We present diffusion-weighted imaging findings of a case of rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes. It is a rare, life-threatening disorder. The diagnosis is difficult by clinical findings only. In this report, we aim to draw attention to the role of conventional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature with apparent diffusion coefficient values of diseased brain parenchyma.

  19. Osteomas of the skull. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Yasushi; Matsumura, Akira; Yoshii, Yoshihiko; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of five patients with osteomas of the skull and six patients with other primary skull tumors were reviewed. All osteomas appeared as low-intensity areas on T{sub 1}-weighted images. T{sub 2}-weighted images showed homogeneous low-intensity areas in two dense osteomas, a high-intensity area in one spongy osteoma, and mixed intensity areas in two mixed spongy and dense osteomas, respectively. The signal intensities of osteomas on T{sub 2}-weighted MR images correlated well with the histological findings. Other skull tumors showed no specific MR imaging appearance. (author).

  20. MR imaging findings of anterior interosseous nerve lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Andrew J. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Salonen, David C. [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Anastakis, Dimitri J. [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Plastic Surgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    To study and characterise the MR imaging findings of lesions of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the forearm of ten patients referred to our institution with suspected AIN lesions were retrospectively studied. Five healthy volunteers with normal forearm MRI findings formed a control group. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed the forearm musculature for oedema in the distribution of the AIN, median, posterior interosseous and radial nerves on T2-weighted (T2W) fat-saturated sequences. T1-weighted (T1W) images were assessed and graded for the presence of muscle atrophy and fatty involution. Six patients had undergone surgical exploration; five of these had surgically confirmed AIN compression. Four patients had diagnoses other than AIN compression made on imaging features. Of the cases of proven AIN compression, oedema within the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle was identified in all cases. PQ atrophy and fatty involution were seen in three (43%) surgically confirmed cases. Cases 2 and 3 also demonstrated oedema in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)1 and FDP2 muscles. These cases also showed oedema in the flexor-carpi radialis (FCR) and FDP3/FDP4 muscles, respectively. The four cases of non-AIN compression demonstrated muscle oedema patterns that were atypical for the AIN distribution. They included a rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, brachial neuritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and compression of the proximal median nerve. MRI is a useful investigation in the diagnostic workup of AIN syndrome. AIN syndrome is likely when there is diffuse oedema of AIN innervated muscles on T2W fat-saturated images. The most reliable sign of an AIN lesion is oedema within the PQ. Oedema in the flexor carpi radialis, FDP3 and FDP4, although not in the classical distribution of the AIN, does not preclude the diagnosis of AIN syndrome. (orig.)

  1. MR imaging findings of anterior interosseous nerve lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Andrew J.; Salonen, David C.; Anastakis, Dimitri J.

    2007-01-01

    To study and characterise the MR imaging findings of lesions of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the forearm of ten patients referred to our institution with suspected AIN lesions were retrospectively studied. Five healthy volunteers with normal forearm MRI findings formed a control group. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed the forearm musculature for oedema in the distribution of the AIN, median, posterior interosseous and radial nerves on T2-weighted (T2W) fat-saturated sequences. T1-weighted (T1W) images were assessed and graded for the presence of muscle atrophy and fatty involution. Six patients had undergone surgical exploration; five of these had surgically confirmed AIN compression. Four patients had diagnoses other than AIN compression made on imaging features. Of the cases of proven AIN compression, oedema within the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle was identified in all cases. PQ atrophy and fatty involution were seen in three (43%) surgically confirmed cases. Cases 2 and 3 also demonstrated oedema in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)1 and FDP2 muscles. These cases also showed oedema in the flexor-carpi radialis (FCR) and FDP3/FDP4 muscles, respectively. The four cases of non-AIN compression demonstrated muscle oedema patterns that were atypical for the AIN distribution. They included a rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, brachial neuritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and compression of the proximal median nerve. MRI is a useful investigation in the diagnostic workup of AIN syndrome. AIN syndrome is likely when there is diffuse oedema of AIN innervated muscles on T2W fat-saturated images. The most reliable sign of an AIN lesion is oedema within the PQ. Oedema in the flexor carpi radialis, FDP3 and FDP4, although not in the classical distribution of the AIN, does not preclude the diagnosis of AIN syndrome. (orig.)

  2. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  3. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime; Inagaki, Yuko.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T 2 -weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  4. Granular Cell Tumor of the Neurohypophysis: A Case Report with Magnetic Resonance and CT Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Ka Yeon; Lee, Sun Jin; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St.Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Soo [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul St.Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeun, Shin Soo [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Seoul St.Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A granular cell tumor (GCT) usually occurs as a small, solitary, nodular tumor and is more prevalent in adult females. The authors report the magnetic resonance (MR) and CT imaging findings in a 61-year-old woman with GCT of the neurohypophysis presenting with a history of reduced visual acuity in her right eye. MR images showed a suprasellar mass with an isointense signal on a T1-weighted image and an hypointense signal on a T2-weighted image. The histopathological examination revealed a granular cell tumor. In this article, the MR and CT imaging findings of GCT of the neurohypophysis with the literature reviews are discussed.

  5. Granular Cell Tumor of the Neurohypophysis: A Case Report with Magnetic Resonance and CT Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Ka Yeon; Lee, Sun Jin; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Yeon Soo; Jeun, Shin Soo

    2011-01-01

    A granular cell tumor (GCT) usually occurs as a small, solitary, nodular tumor and is more prevalent in adult females. The authors report the magnetic resonance (MR) and CT imaging findings in a 61-year-old woman with GCT of the neurohypophysis presenting with a history of reduced visual acuity in her right eye. MR images showed a suprasellar mass with an isointense signal on a T1-weighted image and an hypointense signal on a T2-weighted image. The histopathological examination revealed a granular cell tumor. In this article, the MR and CT imaging findings of GCT of the neurohypophysis with the literature reviews are discussed.

  6. CT and MR imaging findings of sphenoidal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Shoki; Higano, Shuichi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine); Ishii, Kiyoshi (and others)

    1994-07-01

    CT and MR imaging findings of 57 sphenoidal masses were retrospectively reviewed to assess the possibility of differential diagnosis between them. Various kinds of masses such as pituitary adenoma, epipharyngeal cancer, mucocele, chordoma, chondroma, chondrosarcoma, distant metastasis, multiple myeloma, fibrous dysplasia, craniopharyngioma, hemangiopericytoma, giant cell tumor, primary sphenoidal cancer, malignant melanoma, leukemia, histiocytosis X, and giant cell tumor were included in this series. CT scanning was performed in all cases using a spin-echo pulse sequence. The relative density of the masses, bony changes and calcification were evaluated on CT, and on MR images, signal intensity of the masses relative to the normal gray matter, contrast enhancement and extension/contour were evaluated. Although no single feature appeared to be specific to the masses, detection of calcification on CT, identification of the normal pituitary gland as deformed or displaced on T1-weighted images, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and extension of the masses seemed to be useful and should be examined in terms of their ability to assist in differential diagnosis. Finally, accommodative classification of sphenoidal masses primarily based on presumed origin or mode of extension was attempted. (author).

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Cesar Higa; Lima, Eduardo Carneiro; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Rosemberg, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome. We evaluated eight patients with Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome using magnetic resonance imaging. The protocol included at least sagittal and axial T1-weighted images and axial and coronal T2-weighted images. Intravenous gadolinium was administered in a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg. Post-enhanced images were obtained at least in the axial and coronal planes. The results were: all patients presented a bilateral and symmetrical 'tiger-eye signal' on T2-weighted images, corresponding to central hyperintensity and peripheral hypointensity in the globi pallidus. FLAIR and diffusion images showed similar abnormalities. There was no gadolinium enhancement in any of the cases. We concluded that magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome are very typical and allow the diagnosis of the disease. (author)

  8. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  9. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the brain. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Toshio; Ekholm, Sven; Westesson, Per-Lennart

    2009-01-01

    This practical-minded text helps the radiologist and the clinician understand diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The book's 15 chapters range from basic principles to interpretation of diffusion-weighted MR imaging and specific disease. In this second edition, diffusion tensor imaging (fractional anisotropy, color map and fiber tractography) is covered and a new chapter, on ''Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Scalp and Skull Lesions,'' is included. The volume is updated by newly added cases accompanied by radiological and pathological images along with the most recent references. It is aimed at all those who are involved in neuroimaging, including: residents, fellows, staff, as well as neurologists and neurosurgeons. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is widely accepted as a means to identify acute infarction but also to differentiate many other pathologic conditions. Understanding diffusion-weighted imaging is important for radiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons as well as radiology technologists. (orig.)

  10. Mutiple sclerosios of the spinal cord: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo; Park, Byung Kwan; Seong, Chang Kyu; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Yong Jin; Jeon, Beom Seok

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of multiple sclerosis in the spinal cord. Between January 1990 and December 1996, we retrospectively analyzed 27 spinal MR images of 18 patients in whom-on the basis of Poser's diagnostic critera-multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord had been diagnosed. Eleven patients were men and seven were women, and they were aged between 18 and 58(mean, 37) years. Using T1-weighted sagittal(n=3D27), T2-weighted axial(n=3D26) and sagittal(n=3D27), and contrast enhanced T1-weighted(n=3D14) images, lesions were analyzed for multiplicity, location, length, cross-sectional area and location, cord size, and enhancement pattern. Brain MR images(n=3D15) were also evaluated. In 14 of 18 patients, a solitary lesion was seen on initial MR imaging. Four of the 14 had double lesions, and on follow-up MR imaging at 2-5 months, five were seen to have double lesions. Eleven lesions were found in the cervical cord, and 12 in the thoracic cord, two were in the cervicothoracic and two in the thoracolumbar region. The length of 12 lesions was less than two vertebral heights, while 15 extended for more than two vertebral heights. Six lesions occupied less than 50% of the cross-sectional area of the cord and the other 20 occupied more than 50% of this area. Cord size was enlarged in 17 cases, unchanged in eight, and atrophic in two. Eight lesions in 14 patients who underwent enhanced MR imaging showed focal contrast enhancement; there was patchy enhacement in two, nodular enhancement in two, and linear enhancement in four. Among 15 MR images of the brain, high-signal intensity lesions, compatible with multiple sclerosis, were demonstrated in seven cases. Multiple sclerosis plaques in the spinal cord frequently extend for more than two vertebral body heights of either the cervical or thoracic level, occupy more than 50% of the cross-sectional area and manifest as enlarged cord. But the MR imaging findings, however, are nonspecific. Abnormalities were seen in

  11. A role for susceptibility weighted imaging in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yap, SM

    2017-04-01

    We report a radiologic finding on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain of two cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) of hypointense signal of subcortical U-fibres on susceptibility weighted (SW) sequence. The first case is a 50-year-old man recently treated with chemotherapy including rituximab for non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma. The second case is a 64-year-old woman with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Iron deposition is a likely causative factor. We propose that SWI may be especially useful in the assessment of indeterminate cases to reduce the likelihood of a missed diagnosis of PML

  12. Acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis: Findings on non-enhanced MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Feng, Zhi-Song; Zhao, Qiong-Hui; Xiao, Chun-Ming; Mitchell, Donald G; Shu, Jian; Zeng, Nan-Lin; Xu, Xiao-Xue; Lei, Jun-Yang; Tian, Xiao-Bing

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the appearances of acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IEP) on non-enhanced MR imaging. METHODS: A total of 53 patients with IEP diagnosed by clinical features and laboratory findings were underwent MR imaging. MR imaging sequences included fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) fat saturation axial T1-weighted imaging, gradient echo T1-weighted (in phase), single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted, respiratory triggered (R-T) T2-weighted with fat saturation, and MR cholangiopancreatography. Using the MR severity score index, pancreatitis was graded as mild (0-2 points), moderate (3-6 points) and severe (7-10 points). RESULTS: Among the 53 patients, IEP was graded as mild in 37 patients and as moderate in 16 patients. Forty-seven of 53 (89%) patients had at least one abnormality on MR images. Pancreas was hypointense relative to liver on FSPGR T1-weighted images in 18.9% of patients, and hyperintense in 25% and 30% on SSFSE T2-weighted and R-T T2-weighted images, respectively. The prevalences of the findings of IEP on R-T T2-weighted images were, respectively, 85% for pancreatic fascial plane, 77% for left renal fascial plane, 55% for peripancreatic fat stranding, 42% for right renal fascial plane, 45% for perivascular fluid, 40% for thickened pancreatic lobular septum and 25% for peripancreatic fluid, which were markedly higher than those on in-phase or SSFSE T2-weighted images (P fluid. R-T T2-weighted imaging is more sensitive than in-phase and SSFSE T2-weighted imaging for depicting IEP. PMID:17007053

  13. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Ji Sung; Park, Yeong-Mi; Eun, Choong Ki; Hong, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Jongmin; Jung, Soo-Jin

    2010-08-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  14. Imaging findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting in extremities: correlation with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Ji Sung; Park, Yeong-Mi; Eun, Choong Ki; Hong, Sung Hwan; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Jongmin; Jung, Soo-Jin

    2010-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) findings of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) arising in extremities. Six patients with IPEH confirmed by surgical resection were reviewed retrospectively. Before resection, 3 patients underwent both MRI and US and 3 patients underwent only MRI. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR/US imaging results and correlated them with pathological features. The 6 IPEHs were diagnosed as 4 mixed forms and 2 pure forms. The pre-existing pathology of four mixed forms was intramuscular or intermuscular hemangioma. By MRI, the mixed form of IPEH (n = 4) revealed iso- to slightly high signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal intensity-containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). The pure form of IPEH (n = 2) showed homogeneous iso- signal intensity on T1WI and high and low signal intensity containing nodule-like foci of low signal intensity on T2WI. On gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI, 50% of cases (n = 3: mixed forms) revealed peripheral, septal, and central enhancement. The other IPEHs (n = 3: 1 mixed and 2 pure forms) showed peripheral and septal enhancement or only peripheral enhancement. By US, two mixed forms of IPEH showed well-defined hypoechoic masses containing hyperechoic septa and central portion with vascularities. One pure form of IPEH was a homogeneous hypoechoic mass with septal and peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging. The foci of high signal intensity on T1WI, foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, and non-enhancing portions on MRI and the hypoechoic portion on US were histopathologically correlated with thrombi and the peripheral/septal or central enhancing areas on MRI, hyperechoic septa and the central portion on US, and septal/central or peripheral vascularities on color Doppler imaging corresponded to hypertrophic papillary epithelium and

  15. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Thanos, P.K.; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Ananth, M.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  16. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  17. Chondrosarcoma : MR imaging findings correlated with pathologic classification and grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seong Whi; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of chondrosarcomas by correlation with pathologic classification and grade. We performed MR imaging-pathologic correlation of nineteen chondrosarcomas. Conventional chondrosarcomas accounted for 15 cases (grade I:6, II:6, III:3) and the mesenchymal and dedifferentiated types each accounted for two. MR signal intensity (SI) of the tumor on T1- and T2-weighted images (T1WI and T2WI, respectively), was classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous low-, iso- or high SI, and enhancing pattern as marginal, marginal and septal, marginal and nodular, or diffuse enhancement. Eighteen cases of chondrosarcomas (95%) showed homogeneous or heterogeneous low- or iso SI on T1WI and high SI on T2WI. Low grade conventional chondrosarcomas showed marginal and septal (n=8/10) or marginal (n=2/10) enhancement on Gd-enhanced MR images. Grade III conventional chondrosarcomas showed marginal or marginal and nodular enhancement. Dedifferentiated and mesenchymal chondrosarcomas showed marginal and nodular or diffuse enhancement. Chondrosarcomas showed iso- or low SI on T1WI and high SI on T2WI. Marginal and septal enhancement was demonstrated on Gd-enhanced MR images of grade I and II conventional chondrosarcomas. If a tumor showed a marginal and nodular or diffuse enhancing pattern, this suggested it was a of high grade chondrosarcoma

  18. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, E.R.; Gregorio, M.A. de; Mateo, P.; Esco, R.; Bascon, N.; Morales, F.; Bellosta, R.; Lopez, P.; Gimeno, M.; Roca, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ''open-neck'' (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, E.R. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gregorio, M.A. de [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Mateo, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Esco, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bascon, N. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, F. [Neurology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bellosta, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gimeno, M. [Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain); Roca, M. [Radiology Service, Hospital Miguel Servet, E-50 009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villavieja, J.L. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ``open-neck`` (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. MR imaging pulse sequence rationale: SD-, T1-, and T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sax, S.; Weathers, S.W.; Schneiders, N.J.; Horowitz, B.L.; Mawad, M.E.; Sandlin, M.E.; Blackwell, R.; Bryan, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Over 500 patients have been examined with a pulse sequence designed to provide spin-density (SD)-weighted images (TR=3 sec, TE=35 msec), T1-weighted images (TR=0.3 sec, TE=35msec), and T2-weighted images (TR=3 sec, TE=105 msec) from which calculated ''synthesized'' images and SD, T1, and T2 calculated images could be obtained. Each image contributes unique information. SD-weighted images optimally display anatomy and often best highlight pathology. T1-weighted images are critical in assessing cerebral hemorrhages. T2-weighted images best display most lesions, but yield incomplete information in 35% of cases. All three types of ''weighted'' images are necessary to optimally display anatomy and fully characterize a lesion. Computerized calculations and simulations suggest that no other combination of pulse sequences yields equal information for a given examination time

  1. Radiologic findings and weight loss following gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskowiak, J.; Fleckenstein, P.; Andersen, B.

    Gastroplasty aimed at treatment of morbid obesity creates a small proximal pouch and a narrow stoma to the remainder of the stomach. In 11 consecutive obese patients subjected to gastroplasty radiologic examinations of the stomach were performed before operation and one week, 3 and 12 months postoperatively. All stomachs were normal before operation. A significant decrease in pouch area and increase in stoma diameter were registered over the observation period. There were no statistically significant correlations between postoperative weight loss and stoma diameter or pouch area. Nor was retention in the pouch one week after gastroplasty related to weight loss. Radiographic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux was present in only one patient. The described method of follow-up is evidently not suited to predict the outcome of gastroplasty.

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chang, Kee Hyun; Song In Chan; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Sang Yun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To compare conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in terms of their depiction of the abnormalities occurring in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We retrospectively analyzed the findings of conventional (T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in four patients with biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The signal intensity of the lesion was classified by visual assessment as markedly high, slightly high, or isointense, relative to normal brain parenchyma. Both conventional and diffusion-weighted MR images demonstrated bilateral high signal intensity in the basal ganglia in all four patients. Cortical lesions were observed on diffusion-weighted MR images in all four, and on fluidattenuated inversion recovery MR images in one, but in no patient on T2-weighted images. Conventional MR images showed slightly high signal intensity in all lesions, while diffusion-weighted images showed markedly high signal intensity in most. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is more sensitive than its conventional counterpart in the depiction of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and permits better detection of the lesion in both the cerebral cortices and basal ganglia.

  3. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chang, Kee Hyun; Song In Chan; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Sang Yun

    2001-01-01

    To compare conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in terms of their depiction of the abnormalities occurring in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We retrospectively analyzed the findings of conventional (T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in four patients with biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The signal intensity of the lesion was classified by visual assessment as markedly high, slightly high, or isointense, relative to normal brain parenchyma. Both conventional and diffusion-weighted MR images demonstrated bilateral high signal intensity in the basal ganglia in all four patients. Cortical lesions were observed on diffusion-weighted MR images in all four, and on fluidattenuated inversion recovery MR images in one, but in no patient on T2-weighted images. Conventional MR images showed slightly high signal intensity in all lesions, while diffusion-weighted images showed markedly high signal intensity in most. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is more sensitive than its conventional counterpart in the depiction of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and permits better detection of the lesion in both the cerebral cortices and basal ganglia

  4. MR imaging findings of ring apophyseal fractures in lumbar vertebrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yong Soo; Kwon, Soon Tae; Song, Chang Joon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hyoung Seob; Lee, Hwan Do; Cho, June Sik; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, June Kyu [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    To assess the location and associated findings of fractures of the posterior lumbar vertebral ring apophysis as seen on MRI We retrospectively evaluated MR findings in 77 patients (86 lesions) with lumbar apophyseal ring fractures. Their age ranged from ten to 67 (mean 33-1) years. To confirm the presence of verterbral ring fractures, CT was performed in 29 patients (31 lesions) within two weeks of MR imaging. Open laminectomy was performed in ten patients, percutaneous automated nucleotomy in three, and LASER operation in four. The most common location of fractures was the superior margin of L5 (36 lesions 41.9%), next was superior margin of S1 (21 lesions, 24.4%). On CT, a bony fragment was seen in 28 patients (30 lesions); the positive predictive value of MR was 99.7%. Multiple lesions were seen in nine patients. Associated disc herniation and bulging were noted in 64 (74.4%) and 15 lesions (17.4%), respectively, and a high signal intensity rim aound the bony fragment on T1 weighted image was noted in 33 (38.4%). Other associated findings were spondylolysis in eight patients, retrolisthesis in five, and spondylolisthesis in three. Operative outcomes were variable. The results of open laminectomy were better than those of percutaneous automated laminectomy or LASER operation. In patients with lumbar apophyseal ring fractures, their exact location and associated findings could be evalvated by MRI, which was therefore useful in the planning of appropriate surgery.

  5. MR imaging findings of ring apophyseal fractures in lumbar vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yong Soo; Kwon, Soon Tae; Song, Chang Joon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hyoung Seob; Lee, Hwan Do; Cho, June Sik; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, June Kyu

    1997-01-01

    To assess the location and associated findings of fractures of the posterior lumbar vertebral ring apophysis as seen on MRI We retrospectively evaluated MR findings in 77 patients (86 lesions) with lumbar apophyseal ring fractures. Their age ranged from ten to 67 (mean 33-1) years. To confirm the presence of verterbral ring fractures, CT was performed in 29 patients (31 lesions) within two weeks of MR imaging. Open laminectomy was performed in ten patients, percutaneous automated nucleotomy in three, and LASER operation in four. The most common location of fractures was the superior margin of L5 (36 lesions 41.9%), next was superior margin of S1 (21 lesions, 24.4%). On CT, a bony fragment was seen in 28 patients (30 lesions); the positive predictive value of MR was 99.7%. Multiple lesions were seen in nine patients. Associated disc herniation and bulging were noted in 64 (74.4%) and 15 lesions (17.4%), respectively, and a high signal intensity rim aound the bony fragment on T1 weighted image was noted in 33 (38.4%). Other associated findings were spondylolysis in eight patients, retrolisthesis in five, and spondylolisthesis in three. Operative outcomes were variable. The results of open laminectomy were better than those of percutaneous automated laminectomy or LASER operation. In patients with lumbar apophyseal ring fractures, their exact location and associated findings could be evalvated by MRI, which was therefore useful in the planning of appropriate surgery

  6. Imaging Appearance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis on the Diffusion Weighted Images: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hun Cheol; Yu, In Kyu; Oh, Keon Se

    2011-01-01

    Imaging finding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis contain bilateral, symmetric, patchy, or diffuse increased T2WI signal intensities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and centrum semiovale. In particular, the centrum semiovale is most commonly involved. Most of the HIV encephalitis cases are accompanied by brain atrophy. No previous study has reported symmetric increased signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale without brain atrophy on diffusion weighted images in HIV encephalitis patients. Here, we report a case of this. We suggest that radiologists should consider the possibility of HIV encephalitis if there are symmetric increases in signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale on diffusion weighted images of patients with a history of HIV infection.

  7. A dynamic study of correlation between the MR diffusion weighted imaging findings and the expression of proliferation-related and metastasis-related genes in rabbit models of liver VX2 tumor before and after chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Youhong; Liu Jianbin; Xiao Enhua; He Zhong; Ma Cong; Xiang Jun; Jin Ke; Chen Wenjian; Xiao Jiehua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, non-metastasis 23(nm23) and E-cadherin (E-cad) genes in rabbit models of liver VX 2 tumor before and after chemoembolization. Methods: Forty rabbit models of liver VX 2 tumor were divided into four groups with 10 rabbits in each group. The first group was the control group which didn't undergo chemoembolization. The second, third and fourth groups underwent chemoembolization, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed at 16 h, 32 h and 48 h after chemoembolization respectively. The pathological and immunohistological examinations were carried out right after DWI. The sampling areas included the normal liver parenchyma around the tumor, the outer- layer area, the peripheral area, and the central area. The expression indices of PCNA, Bax, nm23, E-cad in all the samples were recorded and their correlation with corresponding ADC value were analyzed. Results: (1) PCNA expression indices in the outer layer area, the peripheral area and central area of VX 2 tumors(65.1%, 74.7%, and 59.0% respectively) were higher than that in the area of normal parenchyma around tumor (8.3%) (X 2 =19.08, P 2 tumors (nm 23: 1.7%, 0.4% , and 6.2% respectively; Bax: 2. 0%, 1.2% , and 2. 2% respectively; E-cad:6.2%, 2.0%, and 1.6% respectively) were lower than that in the area of normal parenchyma around tumor (nm23 16.5%; Bax 40.0%; E-cad 78.0%. χ 2 =12.86, 20.17, and 22.20 respectively; P 2 tumor periphery were 83.0%, 92.6% and 85.7% in 16 h group, 32 h group and 48 h group respectively after chemoembolization and those of nm23 expression indices were 2.3%, 7.4%, 4.2% and those of Bax expression index were 0.8%, 0.5%, 0.9% and those of E-cad expression indices were 2.8%, 1.0%, 1.1%. The PCNA and nm23 expression in the area of VX 2 tumor periphery increased at the beginning and then decreased (χ 2 =14.37, 8.94; P 2

  8. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freling, Nicole J.M.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Saeed, Peerooz; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Bras, Johannes; Pieters, Bradley R.; Adam, Judit A.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  9. MR imaging findings of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion: an unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alfonso; Vila, Oscar; Brasa, Jose; Conde, Cesareo

    2002-01-01

    We report the MR imaging findings of an unusual case of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No other neurological or extraneurological localization was found. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the Meckel's diverticulum that was isointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed heterogeneous enhancement. Although rare, sarcoid infiltration of the gasserian ganglion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated mass in this localization in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  10. MR imaging findings of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion: an unusual presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alfonso; Vila, Oscar; Brasa, Jose [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica (MEDTEC), Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain); Conde, Cesareo [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, 36204 Vigo (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    We report the MR imaging findings of an unusual case of neurosarcoidosis of the gasserian ganglion associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No other neurological or extraneurological localization was found. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the Meckel's diverticulum that was isointense on T1-weighted images and hypointense on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging showed heterogeneous enhancement. Although rare, sarcoid infiltration of the gasserian ganglion must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated mass in this localization in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  11. Neurilemmoma of the glans penis: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Chul; Hwang, Sung Il; Jung, Sung Il; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2006-01-01

    Neurilemmoma of the glans penis is rare, and no imaging findings have been reported. A case of neurilemmoma of the glans penis is presented. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined small mass in the glans penis. The mass appeared hypoechoic on gray-scale US and hypervascular on color Doppler US. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity of the mass on a T2-weighted image and strong enhancement on a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image.

  12. Are T2-weighted images necessary in renal mass characterization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dann, Phoebe; Thakur, Ravi; Chin, Deanne; Krinsky, Glenn; Israel, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine what role T2-weighted images play in characterizing renal masses. Methods: Forty-four pathologically proven renal masses (34 renal cell carcinomas, 8 oncocytomas, 1 metanephric adenoma, 1 angiomyolipoma without macroscopic fat) and 38 simple renal cysts were evaluated with T1- and T2-weighted images at 1.5 T. Two independent and blinded readers initially characterized all masses using only the T1-weighed images (in- and opposed-phase chemical shift, unenhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed, gadolinium-enhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed and subtraction images) and placed each mass into one of three categories: nonsurgical, in need of follow-up, or surgical. The masses were then re-evaluated with the addition of the T2-weighted images. It was determined if the T2-weighted images changed the initial classification. Results: Forty-three of the 44 (98%) pathologically proven renal masses were characterized as a surgical mass using only the T1-weighted images. The remaining renal mass (a renal cell carcinoma) was characterized as a mass in which follow-up exams would be suggested. Thirty-eight of 38 (100%) simple renal cysts were correctly characterized using only the T1-weighted images. The T2-weighted images did not change the initial interpretation of the T1-weighted images in any of the cases. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that T2-weighted images are not necessary in the evaluation of all renal masses and are specifically not necessary in the differentiation of solid and cystic renal neoplasms from simple renal cysts

  13. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  14. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of solitary fibrous tumors in the pelvis: Correlation with histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weidong; Chen Jianyu; Cao Yun; Liu Qingyu; Luo Rongguang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of pelvic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) and to improve the diagnostic efficacy for such tumors. Methods: Six cases of pelvic SFTs confirmed by histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 6 patients, 4 had undergone CT scanning, and 2 had undergone magnetic resonance imaging. All the patients had undergone unenhanced and contrast-enhanced examinations, and 2 had also undergone dynamic CT enhancement examination. Image characteristics such as shape, size, number, edge, attenuation or intensity for each lesion before and after contrast enhancement were analyzed and compared with the pathomorphology of the tumors. Results: All the 6 cases showed oval or rounded and well-defined masses. Unenhanced CT images showed heterogeneous masses with patchy, necrotic foci in 3 cases and homogeneous mass in 1 case. None of the tumors showed calcification. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed marked, heterogeneous enhancement in the first and second cases. Dynamic enhancement scan demonstrated mild homogeneous enhancement in the third case and mild prolonged, delayed enhancement and washout in the fourth case. T1-weighted MR images showed heterogeneous mild hypointense lesion with linear hyperintensity in 1 case, and homogeneous isointensity in the other. T2-weighted images showed heterogeneous mixed intensity in 1 case and mostly hyperintensive lesion with hypointense foci in another case. A case showed marked heterogeneous enhancement and another showed marked homogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Conclusion: Radiological findings of pelvic SFTs are variable and nonspecific. However, a well-defined, ovoid or rounded mass with hypointense on MR T2-weighted images and variable enhancement on CT and MR images may suggest the diagnosis of SFTs. Pelvic SFTs should be included in the differential diagnosis of regional tumors.

  15. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author)

  16. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  17. Imaging findings in phyllodes tumors of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongna; Zhang Shengjian; Liu Haiquan; Peng Weijun; Li Ruimin; Gu Yajia; Wang Xiaohong; Mao Jian; Shen Xigang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiological appearance and pathological features of breast phyllodes tumors (PTs), and to enhance the recognition of the tumor. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed in 24 women with PTs confirmed by surgical pathology. All of the 24 patients had preoperative MRI and sonography, and 10 had preoperative mammography. Results: The histologic findings were benign, borderline and malignant PTs in 16.7% (4/24), 45.8% (11/24) and 37.5% (9/24) of cases, respectively. The tumor size (p = 0.001), irregular shape on sonographic imaging (p = 0.039), internal non-enhanced septations (p = 0.009), silt-like changes in enhanced images (p = 0.006) and signal changes from T2-weighted to enhanced images on MRI (p = 0.001) correlated significantly with the histologic grade; the BI-RADS category of the MRI could reflect the PT's histologic grade with a correlation coefficient of 0.440 (p = 0.031). If the category BI-RADS ≥4a was considered to be a suspicious malignant lesion, the diagnostic accuracy of mammography, US and MRI would be 70% (7/10), 62.5% (15/24) and 95.8% (23/24), respectively. Conclusion: The tumor size and several US and MRI findings can be used to help preoperatively determine the histologic grade of breast PTs. When a patient presents with a progressively enlarging, painless breast mass, MRI should be recommended first.

  18. T2*-weighted image/T2-weighted image fusion in postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yoshio, Kotaro

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion is considered to be the best method for postimplant dosimetry of permanent prostate brachytherapy; however, it is inconvenient and costly. In T2 * -weighted image (T2 * -WI), seeds can be easily detected without the use of an intravenous contrast material. We present a novel method for postimplant dosimetry using T2 * -WI/T2-weighted image (T2-WI) fusion. We compared the outcomes of T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Between April 2008 and July 2009, 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent brachytherapy. All the patients were treated with 144 Gy of brachytherapy alone. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (prostate D90, prostate V100, prostate V150, urethral D10, and rectal D2cc) were prospectively compared between T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry. All the DVH parameters estimated by T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry strongly correlated to those estimated by CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry (0.77≤ R ≤0.91). No significant difference was observed in these parameters between the two methods, except for prostate V150 (p=0.04). These results show that T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry is comparable or superior to MRI-based dosimetry as previously reported, because no intravenous contrast material is required. For some patients, rather large differences were observed in the value between the 2 methods. We thought these large differences were a result of seed miscounts in T2 * -WI and shifts in fusion. Improving the image quality of T2 * -WI and the image acquisition speed of T2 * -WI and T2-WI may decrease seed miscounts and fusion shifts. Therefore, in the future, T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion may be more useful for postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  19. Document imaging finding niche in petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisco, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Optical disk-based document imaging systems can reduce operating costs, save office space, and improve access to necessary information for petroleum companies that have extensive records in various formats. These imaging systems help solve document management problems to improve technical and administrative operations. Enron Gas Pipeline Group has installed a document imaging system for engineering applications to integrate records stored on paper, microfilm, or computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. BP Exploration Inc. recently implemented a document imaging system for administrative applications. The company is evaluating an expansion of the system to include engineering and technical applications. The petroleum industry creates, acquires, distributes, and retrieves enormous amounts of data and information, which are stored on multiple media, including paper, microfilm, and electronic formats. There are two main factors responsible for the immense information storage requirements in the petroleum industry

  20. Diffusion weighted MR imaging of transient ischemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Il; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Seung Ik; Yoon, Pyung Ho; Heo, Ji Hoe; Lee, Byung In

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the findings of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Between August 1996 and June 1999, 41 TIA patients (M:F =3D 28:13, mean age 57 (range, 27-75) years) with neurologic symptoms lasting less than 24 hours underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The time interval between the onset of symptoms and MR examination was less than one week in 29 patients, from one week to one month in eight, and undetermined in four. Conventional MR and DWI were compared in terms of location of infarction and lesion size (less than 1 cm, 1-3 cm, greater than 3 cm), and we also determined the anatomical vascular territory of acute stroke lesions and possible etiologic mechanisms. The findings of DWI were normal in 24/41 patients (58.5%), while 15 (36.6%) showed acute ischemic lesions. The other two showed old lacunar infarcts. All acute and old DWI lesions were revealed by conventional MR imaging. Among the 15 acute stroke patients, seven had small vessel lacunar disease. In three patients, the infarction was less than 1 cm in size. Six patients showed large vessel infarction in the territory of the MCA, PCA, and PICA; the size of this was less than 1 cm in three patients, 1-3 cm in two, and more than 3 cm in one. In two patients, embolic infarction of cardiac origin in the territory of the MCA and AICA was diagnosed. The possible mechanism of TIA is still undetermined, but acute lesions revealed by DWI in TIA patients tend, in any case, to be small and multiple. (author)

  1. Assessment of the image quality and tumor detectability of breath-hold T2-weighted imaging of liver tumors using a fast gradient MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kotaro; Suto, Yuji; Sugihara, Shuji; Tokuda, Yukiko

    1996-01-01

    Fourteen patients with various types of focal liver tumors were imaged with turbo spin-echo (TSE), breath-hold TSE (BH-TSE) and half-Fourier single-shot TSE (HASTE) pulse sequences using a fast gradient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. We compared the T2-weighted images of the liver with the TSE, BH-TSE, HASTE and conventional spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences in order to determine whether those fast T2-weighted images, including fat suppressed images, could replace SE images. In quantitative and qualitative analysis, the fast T2-weighted images were slightly superior to the SE images, but they were inferior in the conspicuousness of liver tumor to the SE images. These findings suggest that the fast T2-weighted images can shorten the examination time of the liver MRI, but cannot replace the T2-weighted SE images because of the low conspicuousness. (author)

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma on MR diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Aisheng; Zuo Changjing; Tian Jianming; Lu Jianping; Wang Jian; Wang Li; Wang Fei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the findings of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Eighty one patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis underwent both DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI studies of the liver for HCC detection. MR data of were retrospectively analyzed. Two observers determined in consensus the location and the number of focal lesions. The signal manifestation of the lesions on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging were analyzed. Results: DWI and Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images detected 122 HCCs and 14 benign lesions. One hundred and sixteen HCCs (95.1%) showed hyperintensity on DWI and 6 HCCs in patients with severe cirrhosis showed isointensity. One hundred and five HCCs (86.1%) revealed hypointensity, 11 HCCs (9.0%) showed isointensity and 6 HCCs (4.9%) exhibited hyperintensity on T 1 weighted images. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images, 101 HCCs(82.8%) were significantly enhanced on arterial phase and 99 HCCs showed hypointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Twenty HCCs (16.4%), 18 of 20 less than 20 mm in diameter, showed isointensity on arterial phase and hyperintensity on DWI. Eight of 14 benign lesions showed hyperintensity and 6 isointensity on DWI. Five benign lesions with hypointensity on T 1 weighted images without contrast and hyperintensity on DWI showed no enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images; 6 benign lesions with isointensity on both T 1 weighted imaging without contrast and DWI exhibited avid enhancement on arterial phase and isointensty on portal and equilibrium phases; one of the two benign lesions, with isointensity before and after contrast images and hyperintentiy on DWI, was a regenerative nodule; another regenerative nodule with hyperintensity on both T 1 weighted images without contrast and DWI was greatly enhanced on arterial phase and showed isointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Conclusions: Most of the HCCs were greatly enhanced on arterial phase on Gd

  3. Diffusion weighted MR imaging of acute Wernicke's encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae-Ick; Kim, Joong-Seok; Park, Soung-Kyeong; Kim, Beum-Saeng; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Yang, Dong-Won

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in which diffusion-weighted MR images demonstrated symmetrical hyperintense lesions in the paraventricular area of the third ventricles and medial thalami. Apparent diffusion coefficient mapping showed isointensity in the aforementioned areas. Diffusion-weighted MR images may provide evidence of vasogenic edema associated with thiamine deficiency, proven in the histopathology of experimental animals. In addition, diffusion-weighted MRI has many advantages over T2 or FLARE-weighted brain MRI in detecting structural and functional abnormalities in Wernicke's encephalopathy

  4. Leiomyosarcoma of sacrum: imaging and histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganau, Sergi [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Corporacio Sanitaria Clinic, IDIBAPS, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Tomas, Xavier; Macho, Juan M.; Pomes, Jaume [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Corporacio Sanitaria Clinic, IDIBAPS, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Mallofre, Carme [Department of Pathology (CDB), Corporacio Sanitaria Clinic, IDIBAPS, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Combalia, Andreu [Department of Traumatology (ICAL), Corporacio Sanitaria Clinic, IDIBAPS, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    A rare case of low-grade primary leiomyosarcoma of the sacrum is described in a young woman who suffered from pain in the right sacroiliac region. A lytic sacral mass was observed on conventional radiology and CT studies. Magnetic resonance imaging clearly showed Gd-DTPA enhancement in the entire mass demonstrating its hypervascularity, which was later confirmed by angiography. Histopathology and immunohistochemical results of biopsy and curettage of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis. We report on the features of a rare tumor entity through imaging and diagnostic methods. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion weighted MR imaging in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.; Schweigerer-Schroeter, G.; Wellnitz, J.; Wuerstle, T.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is one of the best methods in diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, particularly in disclosure of active demyelinating lesions. Aim of this study was to compare diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhancement in the detection of active lesions. A MR study with a contrast enhanced T1-weighted pulse sequence with magnetization transfer presaturation and a diffusion weighted echoplanar pulse sequence (b=1000 s/mm 2 ) was performed in 17 patients (11 women, 6 men) with multiple sclerosis. 29 of 239 lesions showed an increased signal intensity in diffusion weighted imaging, 24 lesions a contrast enhancement, but only 16 lesions were visible in both pulse sequences. In patients with short clinical symptomatology significant more lesions could be detected with diffusion-weighted pulse sequence in comparison to patients with long standing symptomatology showing more lesions with contrast enhancement. Hence it is likely, that both pulse sequences detect different histopathologic changes. The early detection of demyelinating lesions in diffusion weighted imaging is attributed to the extracellular edema, however the contrast enhancement is caused by a blood brain barrier abnormality. It can be expected that diffusion weighted imaging will have a high impact on imaging of multiple sclerosis not only in therapeutic trials, but also in clinical routine. (orig.) [de

  6. Cortical magnetic resonance imaging findings in familial pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Karchemskiy, Asya; Simeonova, Diana Iorgova; Barnes, Patrick; Ketter, Terence; Reiss, Allan L

    2005-08-01

    Morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have not reported on gray matter volumes but have reported increased lateral ventricular size and presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We studied gray matter volume, ventricular-to-brain ratios (VBR), and number of WMH in patients with familial, pediatric BD compared with control subjects. Twenty subjects with BD (aged 14.6 +/- 2.8 years; 4 female) according to the Washington University in St. Louis Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, each with a parent with BD, and 20 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy control subjects (aged 14.1 +/- 2.8 years; 4 female) were scanned at 3 T. Most subjects were taking psychotropic medications. A high-resolution T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo three-dimensional MRI sequence was analyzed by BrainImage for volumetric measurements, and T2-weighted images were read by a neuroradiologist to determine presence of WMH. After covarying for age and total brain volume, there were no significant differences between subjects with BD and control subjects in volume of cerebral (p = .09) or prefrontal gray matter (p = .34). Subjects with BD did not have elevated numbers of WMH or greater VBR when compared with control subjects. Children and adolescents with familial BD do not seem to have decreased cerebral grey matter or increased numbers of WMH, dissimilar to findings in adults with BD. Gray matter decreases and development of WMH might be later sequelae of BD or unique to adult-onset BD.

  7. Avascular necrosis of femoral head: findings of contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yong Moon; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Young Min

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the findings and the role of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in avascular necrosis of femoral head. Sixteen patients with avascular necorsis of femoral head were examined with MRI. T1-weighted and T2-weighted image and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. Enhancing characteristics of the necrotic area and synovium were determined. Also a change of the disease extent after enhancement was assessed. Twenty seven avascular necrosis of the femoral head including 11 cases of bilateral lesion were detected. Fifteen cases revealed collapse of the femoral head. The portions of the lesion with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images showed contrast enhancement in 15 cases. However, the potions with low signal intensities both on T1 and T2-weighted images showed enhancement in one case. There was no significant change of the disease extent after enhancement. Synovium showed enhancement in 18 cases, and joint effusion was detected in 23 cases. Contrast enhanced MR images may be helpful in predicting histopathologic findings of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, but not useful for evaluating the extent of disease

  8. Avascular necrosis of femoral head: findings of contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong Moon; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Young Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the findings and the role of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in avascular necrosis of femoral head. Sixteen patients with avascular necorsis of femoral head were examined with MRI. T1-weighted and T2-weighted image and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. Enhancing characteristics of the necrotic area and synovium were determined. Also a change of the disease extent after enhancement was assessed. Twenty seven avascular necrosis of the femoral head including 11 cases of bilateral lesion were detected. Fifteen cases revealed collapse of the femoral head. The portions of the lesion with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images showed contrast enhancement in 15 cases. However, the potions with low signal intensities both on T1 and T2-weighted images showed enhancement in one case. There was no significant change of the disease extent after enhancement. Synovium showed enhancement in 18 cases, and joint effusion was detected in 23 cases. Contrast enhanced MR images may be helpful in predicting histopathologic findings of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, but not useful for evaluating the extent of disease.

  9. Diffusion weighted imaging in cystic fibrosis disease: beyond morphological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland (Netherlands); Ca' Foncello - General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Treviso (Italy); Serra, Goffredo; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Andrinopoulou, Eleni Rosalina [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bertolo, Silvia; Morana, Giovanni [Ca' Foncello - General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Treviso (Italy); Ros, Mirco [Ca' Foncello Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Treviso (Italy); Colagrande, Stefano [University of Florence - Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Radiodiagnostic Unit n. 2, Florence (Italy); Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    To explore the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess inflammatory lung changes in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) CF patients referred for their annual check-up had spirometry, chest-CT and MRI on the same day. MRI was performed in a 1.5 T scanner with BLADE and EPI-DWI sequences (b = 0-600 s/mm{sup 2}). End-inspiratory and end-expiratory scans were acquired in multi-row scanners. DWI was scored with an established semi-quantitative scoring system. DWI score was correlated to CT sub-scores for bronchiectasis (CF-CT{sub BE}), mucus (CF-CT{sub mucus}), total score (CF-CT{sub total-score}), FEV{sub 1}, and BMI. T-test was used to assess differences between patients with and without DWI-hotspots. Thirty-three CF patients were enrolled (mean 21 years, range 6-51, 19 female). 4 % (SD 2.6, range 1.5-12.9) of total CF-CT alterations presented DWI-hotspots. DWI-hotspots coincided with mucus plugging (60 %), consolidation (30 %) and bronchiectasis (10 %). DWI{sub total-score} correlated (all p < 0.0001) positively to CF-CT{sub BE} (r = 0.757), CF-CT{sub mucus} (r = 0.759) and CF-CT{sub total-score} (r = 0.79); and negatively to FEV{sub 1} (r = 0.688). FEV{sub 1} was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in patients without DWI-hotspots. DWI-hotspots strongly correlated with radiological and clinical parameters of lung disease severity. Future validation studies are needed to establish the exact nature of DWI-hotspots in CF patients. (orig.)

  10. Diffusion weighted imaging in cystic fibrosis disease: beyond morphological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Serra, Goffredo; Catalano, Carlo; Andrinopoulou, Eleni Rosalina; Bertolo, Silvia; Morana, Giovanni; Ros, Mirco; Colagrande, Stefano; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess inflammatory lung changes in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) CF patients referred for their annual check-up had spirometry, chest-CT and MRI on the same day. MRI was performed in a 1.5 T scanner with BLADE and EPI-DWI sequences (b = 0-600 s/mm 2 ). End-inspiratory and end-expiratory scans were acquired in multi-row scanners. DWI was scored with an established semi-quantitative scoring system. DWI score was correlated to CT sub-scores for bronchiectasis (CF-CT BE ), mucus (CF-CT mucus ), total score (CF-CT total-score ), FEV 1 , and BMI. T-test was used to assess differences between patients with and without DWI-hotspots. Thirty-three CF patients were enrolled (mean 21 years, range 6-51, 19 female). 4 % (SD 2.6, range 1.5-12.9) of total CF-CT alterations presented DWI-hotspots. DWI-hotspots coincided with mucus plugging (60 %), consolidation (30 %) and bronchiectasis (10 %). DWI total-score correlated (all p < 0.0001) positively to CF-CT BE (r = 0.757), CF-CT mucus (r = 0.759) and CF-CT total-score (r = 0.79); and negatively to FEV 1 (r = 0.688). FEV 1 was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in patients without DWI-hotspots. DWI-hotspots strongly correlated with radiological and clinical parameters of lung disease severity. Future validation studies are needed to establish the exact nature of DWI-hotspots in CF patients. (orig.)

  11. Intracranial metastases: spectrum of MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Eun Ja; Lee, Yong Seok [Department of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang-shi (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ejl1048@hanmail.net; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, No Hyuck [Department of Radiology, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Myongji Hospital, Goyang-shi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee-Jin [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); II, Sung Park [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Intracranial metastatic lesions arise through a number of routes. Therefore, they can involve any part of the central nervous system and their imaging appearances vary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in lesion detection, lesion delineation, and differentiation of metastases from other intracranial disease processes. This article is a reasoned pictorial review illustrating the many faces of intracranial metastatic lesions based on the location - intra-axial metastases, calvarial metastases, dural metastases, leptomeningeal metastases, secondary invasion of the meninges by metastatic disease involving the calvarium and skull base, direct or perineural intracranial extension of head and neck neoplasm, and other unusual manifestations of intracranial metastases. We also review the role of advanced MRI to distinguish metastases from high-grade gliomas, tumor-mimicking lesions such as brain abscesses, and delayed post-radiation changes in radiosurgically treated patients.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in tuberculous meningoencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Memon, W.A. [Aga Khan Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for distinguishing tuberculosis from other types of meningoencephalitis. MRIs of 100 patients with tuberculous (50), pyogenic (33), viral (14), or fungal (3) meningoencephalitis were analyzed independently by 2 radiologists. Number, size, location, signal characteristics, surrounding edema, and contrast enhancement pattern of nodular lesions; location and pattern of meningeal enhancement; extent of infarct or encephalitis and hydrocephalus were evaluated. Contrast-enhancing nodular lesions were detected in patients with tuberculous (43 of 50 patients), pyogenic (9 of 33), and fungal (3 of 3) infections. No nodules were detected in patients with viral meningoencephalitis. Using the criteria of 1 or more solid rim or homogeneously enhancing nodules smaller than 2 cm, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis were 86.0%, 90.0% and 88.0%, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in distinguishing tuberculous from pyogenic, viral and fungal meningoencephalitis. (author)

  13. Incidental finding of pheochromocytoma after imaging exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Lara Teixeira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytomas — 90% of those being benign — are relatively rare tumors of the adrenal medulla, catecholamines producers. About 75% of patients manifest the sudden classic triad characterized by severe hypertension, palpitations and headache. The diagnosis is confirmed by urinary metanephrines dosage, and radiological tests such as ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The curative treatment consists in removing the tumor, and videolaparoscopy is the chosen surgical technique. This report describes the case of a woman, who sought the emergency unit complaining of left back, and after imaging tests, was evidenced a large adrenal mass. The patient presented as a symptom linked to the secreting tumor was only secondary hypertension. It was opted to perform an open surgery as a consequence of the tumor dimensions, and the person presents herself normotensive after left adrenectomy.

  14. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: fabio_torri@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  15. Metastatic myxoid liposarcomas: imaging and histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheah, Kenneth; Ouellette, Hugue A.; Torriani, Martin; Kattapuram, Susan; Bredella, Miriam A.; Nielsen, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to describe the imaging and histopathologic characteristics of metastatic myxoid liposarcomas. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and complied with HIPAA guidelines. The study group comprised 12 patients with metastatic myxoid liposarcoma who underwent MRI, CT, or FDG-PET. The location and imaging characteristics of the metastatic lesions were recorded, and the histopathology of all metastatic lesions was reviewed. There were 23 histologically proven metastases in 12 patients. Based on imaging criteria, there were 41 metastases. The mean time from the diagnosis of primary tumor to the first metastasis was 4.4 years. Sixty-seven percent of patients had bone and soft tissue metastases, 33% had pulmonary metastases, 33% had liver metastases, 25% had intra-abdominal, and 16% retroperitoneal metastases. CT demonstrated well-defined lobulated masses with soft tissue attenuation in all cases, without macroscopic fat component. In cases of osseous metastases, CT showed mixed lytic and sclerotic foci, with bone destruction in advanced cases. MRI demonstrated fluid-like signal intensity with mild heterogeneous enhancement in cases of soft tissue metastases. In osseous metastases, MRI showed avid heterogeneous enhancement. FDG-PET showed no significant FDG uptake for all metastases. MRI was the most useful imaging modality for osseous and soft tissue metastases. Myxoid liposarcomas are soft tissue sarcomas, with a high prevalence of extrapulmonary metastases. The bones and soft tissues were the most common site of involvement, followed by the lungs and liver. MRI was the most sensitive modality in the detection of osseous and soft tissue metastases, and is the recommended modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of bone and soft tissue involvement. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for detection of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xing-Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Cai, Song; Bao, Jian; Tang, Qun-Feng; Wu, Li-Yuan; Fang, Xiang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the sensitivity of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and determine the most appropriate b value for DWI; to explore the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the degree of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma differentiation. Methods: Preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance examinations were performed for 31 patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Tumor ADC values were measured, and the signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and signal-intensity ratio between the diffusion-weighted images with various b values as well as the T2-weighted images were calculated. Pathologically confirmed patients were pathologically graded to compare the ADC value with different b values of tumor at different degrees of differentiation, and the results were statistically analyzed by using the Friedman test. Results: A total of 29 cases of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were detected by DWI. As the b value increased, tumor signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio between the tumor and normal liver gradually decreased, but the tumor signal-intensity ratio gradually increased. When b = 800 s/mm 2 , contrast-to-noise ratio between tumor and normal liver, tumor signal-intensity ratio, and tumor signal-to-noise ratio of diffusion-weighted images were all higher than those of T2-weighted images; the differences were statistically significant (P 2 was the best in DWI of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; the lesion ADC value declined as the degree of cancerous tissue differentiation decreased.

  17. Incidental Cardiac Findings on Thoracic Imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, Hong Kuan

    2013-02-07

    The cardiac structures are well seen on nongated thoracic computed tomography studies in the investigation and follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease. A wide variety of findings can be incidentally picked up on careful evaluation of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, valves, and great vessels. Some of these findings may represent benign variants, whereas others may have more profound clinical importance. Furthermore, the expansion of interventional and surgical practice has led to the development and placement of new cardiac stents, implantable pacemaker devices, and prosthetic valves with which the practicing radiologist should be familiar. We present a collection of common incidental cardiac findings that can be readily identified on thoracic computed tomography studies and briefly discuss their clinical relevance.

  18. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andreas Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  19. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros, E-mail: braunrich@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas. Institutlo de Radiologia

    2016-03-15

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of health care. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. (author)

  20. Lumbosacral lipoma : gadolinium-enhanced fat saturation T1 weighted MR image is necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Man Won; Kim, Hyun Chul; Chung, Tae Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Chung, Gwang Woo; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced fat saturation T1-weighted imaging for the evaluation of spinal lipoma, compared with clinical symptoms and surgical findings. Ten patients with lipomyelomeningocele, confirmed by surgery, were included in this study. In all cases, conventional spin echo T1-and T2-weighted MR imaging, and contrast-enhanced fat saturation T1-weighted imaging was performed to evaluate clinical symptoms, the position of the conus medullaris, the presence of cord tethering, and associated anomalies, and to compare the relative usefulness of the techniques. All ten patients were suffering from lipomyelomeningocele without filum terminale fibrolipoma or intradural lipoma. All cases were associated with cord tethering. As associated anomalies, there were seven cases of syringomyelia without hydrocephalus or anorectal anomaly. To evaluate the position of the spinal conus and the presence of cord tethering, conventional T1-weighted imaging was more useful than the contrast-enhanced fat saturation equivalent. In patients with early-stage spinal lipoma, MRI is useful for evaluation of the causes and position of cord tethering and associated anomalies Our results suggest that contrast-enhanced fat saturation T1-weighted images do not provide additional information concerning spinal lipoma, and that for the diagnosis of this condition, conventional T1 and T2-weighted images are more useful than those obtained by contrast-enhanced fat saturation T1-weighted imaging

  1. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Heung Sik

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients

  2. Diffusion weighted MR imaging of pancreatic islet cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Baris; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Poyanli, Arzu; Rozanes, Izzet; Acunas, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study is to demonstrate the feasibility of body diffusion weighted (DW) MR imaging in the evaluation of pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) and to define apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for these tumors. Materials and methods: 12 normal volunteers and 12 patients with histopathologically proven pancreatic ICT by surgery were included in the study. DW MR images were obtained by a body-phased array coil using a multisection single-shot echo planar sequence on the axial plane without breath holding. In addition, the routine abdominal imaging protocol for pancreas was applied in the patient group. We measured the ADC value within the normal pancreas in control group, pancreatic ICT, and surrounding pancreas parenchyma. Mann-Whitney U-test has been used to compare ADC values between tumoral tissues and normal pancreatic tissues of the volunteers. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was preferred to compare ADC values between tumoral tissues and surrounding pancreatic parenchyma of the patients. Results: In 11 patients out of 12, conventional MR sequences were able to demonstrate ICTs successfully. In 1 patient an indistinct suspicious lesion was noted at the pancreatic tail. DW sequence was able to demonstrate the lesions in all of the 12 patients. On the DW images, all ICTs demonstrated high signal intensity relative to the surrounding pancreatic parenchyma. The mean and standard deviations of the ADC values (x10 -3 mm 2 /s) were as follows: ICT (n = 12), 1.51 ± 0.35 (0.91-2.11), surrounding parenchyma (n = 11) 0.76 ± 0.15 (0.51-1.01) and normal pancreas in normal volunteers (n = 12), 0.80 ± 0.06 (0.72-0.90). ADC values of the ICT were significantly higher compared with those of surrounding parenchyma (p < 0.01) and normal pancreas (p < 0.001). Conclusion: DW MR imaging does not appear to provide significant contribution to routine MR imaging protocol in the evaluation of pancreatic islet cell tumors. But it can be added to MR imaging

  3. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  4. MR imaging findings in cesarean scar pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangqun; Xu Yikai; Luo Xiaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze MRI findings of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Methods: The MR findings in 18 patients who were diagnosed as CSP by surgery from March 2010 to November 2011 were retrospectively analyzed, and comparison was made between the MRI findings and surgical results. Results: All Gestational sacs (18) were clearly detected by MRI. Among the 18 cases,gestational sac presented as cystic mass with smooth margin located within the scar of uterine wall at the lower anterior uterus in 16 cases. In 2 of the 16 cases, gestational sac was found within the myometrium, whereas in the remaining 14 cases, gestational sac was found partially within the myometrium with extension into the uterine cavity. The anterior wall of isthmus uteri became thinner. In the remaining 2 of the 18 cases, gestational sac presented as irregular, multilobolated mass, growing deep into the myometrium as well as into the uterine cavity. On T 2 WI, the mass showed heterogeneous signal intensity. A small amount of hemorrhage within the mass and uterine cavity could be seen on T 1 WI. An enhancing solid component with a heterogeneous mass could be seen. All gestational sacs in 18 cases were located at or adjacent to the previous cesarean scar. In the area of cesarean scar,the signal of the uterine wall was disconnected, with focal indentation or thinning and the previous cesarean scar exhibited hypointensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI. Conclusion: CSP has its unique findings on MRI, these specific features can provide useful information in the management of CSP. (authors)

  5. Degeneration of uterine leiomyoma: comparison between Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, M. J.; Kim, G. W.; No, T. Y.; Ahn, W. H.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, B. G.; Choi, H. Y.; Paik, O. J.

    1995-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH) analogues have been used as a conservative or preoperative therapy in the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. Since these drugs, which can induce a low estrogenic state, affect only undegenerative leiomyoma tissue, the aim of the present study was to differentiate degenerative leiomyoma from undegenerative one by Gd-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). There were 40 masses in 24 patients; all were diagnosed by surgical-pathology. With superconductive 0.5T MR circuit, T1-and T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA T1-weighted images were obtained. Based on a combination of signal intensities of T2-weighted and enhanced T1 weighted image on the same tumor section all the lesions were classified to one of four MRI patterns. Pattern I was a heterogeneous hyperintensity on the T2-weighted images that was enhancement by Gd-DTPA. Pattern II was a high signal intensity on the T2-weighted MR images but no enhancement by Gd-DTPA. Pattern III was a low to intermediate signal intensity on the T2-weighted MR images and enhancement on the Gd-DTPA T1-weighted images. Pattern IV was a low to intermediate signal intensity on the T2-weighted images and no enhancement by Gd-DTPA. Each of these 4 groups of MRI pattern were co-related to the surgical-pathology findings. Pathologically, pattern I corresponded to an edematous leiomyoma in 3 cases and a connective tissue leiomyoma in one case. Pattern II corresponded to three red degeneration, two cystic degeneration and one infected leiomyoma. Pattern III corresponded to eighteen undegenerative leiomyomas, but some of them showed focal connective tissue proliferation. All of twelve cases in pattern IV corresponded to a hyaline degeneration. MRI with Gd-DTPA enhancement may differentiate undegenerative leiomyoma from degenerated one

  6. Degeneration of uterine leiomyoma: comparison between Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, M. J.; Kim, G. W.; No, T. Y.; Ahn, W. H.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, B. G.; Choi, H. Y.; Paik, O. J. [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH) analogues have been used as a conservative or preoperative therapy in the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. Since these drugs, which can induce a low estrogenic state, affect only undegenerative leiomyoma tissue, the aim of the present study was to differentiate degenerative leiomyoma from undegenerative one by Gd-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). There were 40 masses in 24 patients; all were diagnosed by surgical-pathology. With superconductive 0.5T MR circuit, T1-and T2-weighted images and Gd-DTPA T1-weighted images were obtained. Based on a combination of signal intensities of T2-weighted and enhanced T1 weighted image on the same tumor section all the lesions were classified to one of four MRI patterns. Pattern I was a heterogeneous hyperintensity on the T2-weighted images that was enhancement by Gd-DTPA. Pattern II was a high signal intensity on the T2-weighted MR images but no enhancement by Gd-DTPA. Pattern III was a low to intermediate signal intensity on the T2-weighted MR images and enhancement on the Gd-DTPA T1-weighted images. Pattern IV was a low to intermediate signal intensity on the T2-weighted images and no enhancement by Gd-DTPA. Each of these 4 groups of MRI pattern were co-related to the surgical-pathology findings. Pathologically, pattern I corresponded to an edematous leiomyoma in 3 cases and a connective tissue leiomyoma in one case. Pattern II corresponded to three red degeneration, two cystic degeneration and one infected leiomyoma. Pattern III corresponded to eighteen undegenerative leiomyomas, but some of them showed focal connective tissue proliferation. All of twelve cases in pattern IV corresponded to a hyaline degeneration. MRI with Gd-DTPA enhancement may differentiate undegenerative leiomyoma from degenerated one.

  7. Internal auditory canal (IAC) stenosis: imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Jimenez, Johanna; Roa, Jose Luis; Figuero A, Ramon E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in a patient with a diagnosis of internal auditory canal (IAC) stenosis. To describe the embryological development of the IAC structures and the natural history of IAC stenosis. Methods: A 4 year old girl presents with sensorineural hearing loss and bilateral recurrent otitis media. The temporal bone CT shows diminished left IAC diameter (less than 2 mm), right IAC absence and normal inner ear structures. These findings are pathognomonic for left IAC stenosis. The MR findings include left IAC stenosis and IAC neural structures absence secondary to aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve on each IAC . Results: Hypoplasia/aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve in association with IAC stenosis is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss, as it is a relative contraindication for cochlear implant placement. Conclusions: IAC stenosis and vestibulocochlear nerve hypoplasia/aplasia must be excluded as an etiology of sensorineural hearing loss. The diagnosis can be made by CT and MR.

  8. Internal auditory canal (IAC) stenosis: Imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz J, Johanna; Roa, Jose L; Figueroa Ramon E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in a patient with a diagnosis of internal auditory canal (IAC) stenosis. To describe the embryological development of the IAC structures and the natural history of IAC stenosis. Methods: A 4 year old girl presents with sensorineural hearing loss and bilateral recurrent otitis media. The temporal bone CT shows diminished left IAC diameter (less than 2 mm), right IAC absence and normal inner ear structures. These findings are pathognomonic for left IAC stenosis. The MR findings include left IAC stenosis and IAC neural structures absence secondary to aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve on each IAC. Results: Hypoplasia/aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve in association with IAC stenosis is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss, as it is a relative contraindication for cochlear implant placement. Conclusions: IAC stenosis and vestibulocochlear nerve hypoplasia/aplasia must be excluded as an etiology of sensorineural hearing loss. The diagnosis can be made by CT and MR.

  9. Role of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging in evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a new method in MR imaging. SWI detects the signal loss created by disturbance of a homogeneous magnetic field; these disturbances can be caused by paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, or diamagnetic substances. There are many neurologic conditions that can benefit ...

  10. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging in persistent hemiplegic migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Carra-Dalliere, Clarisse; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafe, Alain; Thouvenot, Eric; Roubertie, Agathe

    2012-01-01

    Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that has an aura characterized by the presence of motor weakness, which may occasionally last up to several days, and then resolve without sequela. Pathogenesis of migraine remains unclear and, recently, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) has provided a non-invasive method to study hemodynamic changes during acute attacks. Two female patients were admitted in our hospital suffering from prolonged hemiparesis. In both cases, they underwent MRI examination using a 1.5 T magnet including axial diffusion-weighted and perfusion sequences. From each perfusion MRI acquisition two regions of interest were delineated on each hemisphere and, the index of flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and time to peak were recorded and asymmetry indices from each perfusion parameter were calculated. Perfusion alterations were detected during the attacks. In one case, we observed, after 3 h of left hemiparesia, hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. In the other case, who presented a familial hemiplegic migraine attack, on the third day of a persistent aura consisting of right hemiplegia and aphasia, PWI revealed hyperperfusion of the left hemisphere. Asymmetry indices for temporal parameters (mean transit time and time to peak) were the most sensitive. These findings resolved spontaneously after the attacks without any permanent sequel or signs of cerebral ischemia on follow-up MRI. PWI should be indicated for patients with migraine attacks accompanied by auras to assess the sequential changes in cerebral perfusion and to better understand its pathogenesis. (orig.)

  11. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging in persistent hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Carra-Dalliere, Clarisse; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafe, Alain; Thouvenot, Eric [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Service de Neuroradiologie, Montpellier (France); Roubertie, Agathe [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Service de Neuropediatrie, Montpellier (France)

    2012-03-15

    Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that has an aura characterized by the presence of motor weakness, which may occasionally last up to several days, and then resolve without sequela. Pathogenesis of migraine remains unclear and, recently, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) has provided a non-invasive method to study hemodynamic changes during acute attacks. Two female patients were admitted in our hospital suffering from prolonged hemiparesis. In both cases, they underwent MRI examination using a 1.5 T magnet including axial diffusion-weighted and perfusion sequences. From each perfusion MRI acquisition two regions of interest were delineated on each hemisphere and, the index of flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and time to peak were recorded and asymmetry indices from each perfusion parameter were calculated. Perfusion alterations were detected during the attacks. In one case, we observed, after 3 h of left hemiparesia, hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. In the other case, who presented a familial hemiplegic migraine attack, on the third day of a persistent aura consisting of right hemiplegia and aphasia, PWI revealed hyperperfusion of the left hemisphere. Asymmetry indices for temporal parameters (mean transit time and time to peak) were the most sensitive. These findings resolved spontaneously after the attacks without any permanent sequel or signs of cerebral ischemia on follow-up MRI. PWI should be indicated for patients with migraine attacks accompanied by auras to assess the sequential changes in cerebral perfusion and to better understand its pathogenesis. (orig.)

  12. ANALYSIS OF SST IMAGES BY WEIGHTED ENSEMBLE TRANSFORM KALMAN FILTER

    OpenAIRE

    Sai , Gorthi; Beyou , Sébastien; Memin , Etienne

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a novel, efficient scheme for the analysis of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) ocean images. We consider the estimation of the velocity fields and vorticity values from a sequence of oceanic images. The contribution of this paper lies in proposing a novel, robust and simple approach based onWeighted Ensemble Transform Kalman filter (WETKF) data assimilation technique for the analysis of real SST images, that may contain coast regions or large areas of ...

  13. Craniocervical artery dissection: MR imaging and MR angiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelerich, M.; Schuierer, G.; Stoegbauer, F.; Kurlemann, G.; Schul, C.

    1999-01-01

    Dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries is a not so uncommon cause of stroke and has to be considered as a differential diagnosis especially in younger patients. Therapeutic and prognostic implications are different from those in extracranial atherosclerotic disease. Dissection results from hemorrhage into the vessel wall usually between the layers of the media. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) depicts the resulting luminal compromise that may reveal some typical, but not specific, findings. The same is true for non-invasive angiographic techniques such as time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA), which have shown accurate results compared with DSA. The main advantage of these techniques is the direct visualization of the vessel wall confirming the intramural hematoma. This is achieved best with MR imaging due to the high signal of blood degradation products on T1- and T2-weighted images. Therefore, MRI in combination with MRA is presently the method of choice for initial diagnosis and follow-up of craniocervical artery dissection (CCAD). In some questionable cases, CTA is a non-invasive alternative that is independent of flow phenomena. (orig.)

  14. Craniocervical artery dissection: MR imaging and MR angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelerich, M.; Schuierer, G. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster (Germany); Stoegbauer, F. [Department of Neurology, University of Muenster (Germany); Kurlemann, G. [Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Muenster (Germany); Schul, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Muenster (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries is a not so uncommon cause of stroke and has to be considered as a differential diagnosis especially in younger patients. Therapeutic and prognostic implications are different from those in extracranial atherosclerotic disease. Dissection results from hemorrhage into the vessel wall usually between the layers of the media. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) depicts the resulting luminal compromise that may reveal some typical, but not specific, findings. The same is true for non-invasive angiographic techniques such as time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA), which have shown accurate results compared with DSA. The main advantage of these techniques is the direct visualization of the vessel wall confirming the intramural hematoma. This is achieved best with MR imaging due to the high signal of blood degradation products on T1- and T2-weighted images. Therefore, MRI in combination with MRA is presently the method of choice for initial diagnosis and follow-up of craniocervical artery dissection (CCAD). In some questionable cases, CTA is a non-invasive alternative that is independent of flow phenomena. (orig.) With 6 figs., 2 tabs., 33 refs.

  15. Serial diffusion-weighted imaging in MELAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshita, T.; Oka, M.; Imon, Y.; Watanabe, C.; Katayama, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kajima, T.; Mimori, Y.; Nakamura, S.

    2000-01-01

    Clinical features of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) resemble those of cerebral infarcts, but the pathogenesis of infarct-like lesions is not fully understood. To characterise these infarct-like lesions, we studied two patients with MELAS using diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI before and after stroke-like episodes and measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the new infarct-like lesions. These gave high signal on DWI and had much higher ADC than normal-appearing regions. The ADC remained high even 30 days after a stroke-like episode then decreased in lesions, with or without abnormality as shown by conventional MRI. We speculate that early elevation of ADC in the acute or subacute phase reflects vasogenic rather than cytotoxic edema. The ADC of the lesions, which disappeared almost completely with clinical improvement, returned to normal levels, which may reflect tissue recovery without severe damage. To our knowledge, this is the first study of DWI in MELAS. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging findings of high-voltage electrical burns in the upper extremities: correlation with angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mi (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Suh, Kyung Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)), email: kyungjin.suh@gmail.com; Choi, Min Ho (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: A high-voltage electrical burn is often associated with deep muscle injuries. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, and this can lead to major amputations or sepsis. MRI has excellent soft tissue contrast and it may aid in differentiating the areas of viable deep muscle from the areas of non-viable deep muscle. Purpose: To describe the MR imaging findings of a high-voltage electrical burn in the upper extremity with emphasis on the usefulness of the gadolinium-enhanced MRI and to compare the MR imaging findings with angiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of six patients with high-voltage electrical burns who underwent both MRI and angiography at the burn center of our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The imaging features were evaluated for the involved locations, the MR signal intensity of the affected muscles, the MR enhancement pattern, the involved arteries and the angiographic findings (classified as normal, sluggish flow, stenosis or occlusion) of the angiography of the upper extremity. We assessed the relationship between the MR imaging findings and the angiographic findings. Results: The signal intensities of affected muscles were isointense or of slightly high signal intensity as compared with the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T1-weighted MR images. Affected muscles showed heterogenous high signal intensity relative to the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T2- weighted images. The gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse inhomogeneous enhancement or peripheral rim enhancement of the affected muscles. The angiographic findings of the arterial injuries showed complete occlusion in three patients, severe stenosis in two patients and sluggish flow in one patient. Of these, the five patients with complete occlusion or severe stenosis on angiography showed non-perfused and non-viable areas of edematous muscle on

  17. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of cystic lesions of neurocysticercosis: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffin, Luciana S.; Bacheschi, Luiz A.; Machado, Luis R.; Nobrega, Jose P.S.; Coelho, Christina; Leite, Claudia C.

    2001-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic disease in some developing countries. It has pleomorfic clinical and imaging findings, which are variable from patient to patient. In this preliminary note, we studied the magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of sixteen patients presenting with cystic lesions of this disease diagnosed by clinical and laboratorial findings. All the lesions had hypointense signal and the similar apparent diffusion coefficient values as the cerebrospinal fluid. (author)

  18. Transient bone marrow edema of the talus: MR imaging findings in five patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigena, Leopoldo M.; Chung, Christine B.; Lektrakul, Nittaya; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Sung, Mi Sook; Resnick, Donald

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MR findings of transient bone marrow edema (TBME) of the talus and to address the differential diagnostic considerations. Design and patients: The imaging findings of TBME of six tali were retrospectively reviewed in five patients with a clinical history of pain without trauma. Inclusion criteria were MR imaging findings that, when compared with clinical data and results of follow-up assessment, allowed the diagnosis of TBME. MR imaging, standard radiography, and bone scintigraphy were performed. The images were reviewed with particular attention to the pattern and distribution of abnormal marrow signal intensity as well as associated findings. Results: In four cases the entire talus was involved, and in two cases only a portion of the bone was affected. No fractures were detected. MR imaging demonstrated diffuse decreased signal intensity of the marrow on T1-weighted images with corresponding increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. In all six cases MR imaging detected associated findings, which included joint effusion and soft tissue edema. All patients improved clinically with conservative therapy over a period of 6 months to 1 year. Conclusions: Although unusual, TBME can involve the talus. Marrow edema without evidence of a fracture and in the absence of history of trauma is a characteristic MR imaging feature, allowing confident diagnosis and institution of conservative therapy. (orig.)

  19. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mitchell, Sally [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore (United States); Keefer, Jeffrey [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Department of Pediatrics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Mitchell, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Retropharyngeal Tendinitis: Radiographic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelineck, J.; Salomonsen, M.; Hviid, C. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in retropharyngeal tendinitis. Material and methods: Within 1 year, four patients presenting with symptoms of retropharyngeal tendinitis were examined by radiography and MRI. Results: On MRI and radiographs, all patients had characteristic soft-tissue swellings and calcifications related to the tendon of the longus colli muscle situated inferior to the anterior arc of C1. MRI showed well-defined edema, with high signal in the retropharyngeal tissue anterior to C1-C5 on short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) sequences, low signal on T1-weighted sequences, and low signal in the calcification on both sequences. In addition, three patients had high signal intensity changes on STIR sequences in the atlantoaxial joint situated posterior to the anterior arc of C1. Conclusion: MRI is a sensitive and accurate method in the diagnosis of retropharyngeal tendinitis. A new finding in this condition is an effusion or synovitis in the anterior atlantoaxial joint. MRI is a valuable tool in differentiating retropharyngeal tendinitis from other diagnoses such as retropharyngeal abscess, pyogenic spondylitis, and spondyloarthropathy.

  2. Ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by percutaneous ethanol injection: Imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Christoph D.; Grossholz, Marianne; Mentha, Gilles; Roth, Arnaud; Giostra, Emiliano; Schneider, Pierre-Alain; Terrier, Francois

    1997-01-01

    Summary. Since PEI is a treatment based on imaging techniques, the radiologist should be familiar with the various findings that may be observed after PEI on US, CT, and MR images immediately after treatment and during later follow-up. Although US is well suited for performing PEI, contrast-enhanced CT currently is the most commonly used imaging method to evaluate the effect of PEI. Residual, nodular areas of contrast enhancement correlate well with residual tumor and warrant additional treatment. Although the findings on MR images obtained after PEI are more complex, MR imaging may be used as an alternative to CT

  3. Evaluation of bone marrow by opposed phase T1-weighted images and enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Horiuchi, Junichi; Nomura, Takeo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    1994-01-01

    We investigated bone marrow in a control group, cases of aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients by examining T1-weighted (T1W1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), opposed phase T1W1 (op-T1W1) and Gd-DTPA enhanced op-T1W1 images obtained by 0.5 T MRI. Bone marrow was classified into four types based on MR findings. Normal marrow showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and STIR images without enhancement (I). Fatty marrow, which showed high intensity on T1W1 and op-T1W1 images was observed in aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients (II). Hematopoietic marrow (III) showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and enhanced, while active hematopoietic marrow (IV) revealed high intensity on both STIR and op-T1W1 images and was enhanced following Gd-DTPA infusion. Aplastic anemia of moderate grade included types II, III and IV. Enhanced MR was needed to differentiate between types I and III since both types showed low intensity on op-T1W1 images. Furthermore, type IV was considered as hyperplastic compared with type III. Enhanced MR and op-T1W1 images were useful in evaluating hematopoiesis of bone marrow. (author)

  4. Evaluation of bone marrow by opposed phase T1-weighted images and enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Horiuchi, Junichi; Nomura, Takeo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    We investigated bone marrow in a control group, cases of aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients by examining T1-weighted (T1W1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), opposed phase T1W1 (op-T1W1) and Gd-DTPA enhanced op-T1W1 images obtained by 0.5 T MRI. Bone marrow was classified into four types based on MR findings. Normal marrow showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and STIR images without enhancement (I). Fatty marrow, which showed high intensity on T1W1 and op-T1W1 images was observed in aplastic anemia and post-irradiation patients (II). Hematopoietic marrow (III) showed low intensity on op-T1W1 and enhanced, while active hematopoietic marrow (IV) revealed high intensity on both STIR and op-T1W1 images and was enhanced following Gd-DTPA infusion. Aplastic anemia of moderate grade included types II, III and IV. Enhanced MR was needed to differentiate between types I and III since both types showed low intensity on op-T1W1 images. Furthermore, type IV was considered as hyperplastic compared with type III. Enhanced MR and op-T1W1 images were useful in evaluating hematopoiesis of bone marrow. (author).

  5. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  6. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterolateral impingement of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, L.K. III.; Cooperman, A.E.; Helms, C.A.; Speer, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the MR imaging findings of anterolateral impingement (ALI) of the ankle.Design and patients. Nine patients with a history of ankle inversion injury and chronic lateral ankle pain were imaged with MR imaging, and the findings correlated with the results of arthroscopy. Three additional patients with clinically suspected ALI of the ankle were also included. Ankle MR imaging studies from 20 control patients in whom ALI was not suspected clinically were examined for similar findings to the patient group.Results. MR imaging findings in the patients with ALI included a soft tissue signal mass in the anterolateral gutter of the ankle in 12 of 12 (100%) cases, corresponding to the synovial hypertrophy and soft tissue mass found at arthroscopy in the nine patients who underwent arthroscopy. Disruption, attenuation, or marked thickening of the anterior talofibular ligament was seen in all cases. Additional findings included signs of synovial hypertrophy elsewhere in the tibiotalar joint in seven of 12 patients (58%) and bony and cartilaginous injuries to the tibiotalar joint in five of 12 (42%). None of the control patients demonstrated MR imaging evidence of a soft tissue mass in the anterolateral gutter.Conclusions. ALI of the ankle is a common cause for chronic lateral ankle pain. It has been well described in the orthopedic literature but its imaging findings have not been clearly elucidated. The MR imaging findings, along with the appropriate clinical history, can be used to direct arthroscopic examination and subsequent debridement. (orig.)

  8. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liangping; Peng Weijun; Tang Feng; Mao Jian; Yang Wentao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the imaging manifestations of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle and improve the recognition of this rare disease. Methods: Five cases of primary non- Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle proved pathologically underwent imaging exam, including MRI and CT in 3 cases, only MRI in 1 case, only CT in 1 case, X-ray in 2 cases and bone scintigraphy in 2 cases. Results: Diffuse enlargements of involved muscle with presentation of overall configuration were observed in all five cases. All 4 cases manifested as homogeneous soft masses, which is isoattenuating to normal muscle on unenhanced CT images. After intravenous injection of contrast media, the masses enhanced homogeneously and slightly (2 cases) or moderately (1 case) on CT images. The lesions were homogenous and had isointense or slightly low signal intensity compared with that of uninvolved muscle on T 1 -weighted images and high signal intensity on T 2 -weighted images. After intravenous injection of contrast media, all 2 cases enhanced homogeneously and moderately with the enhanced signal intensity of involved muscle greatly higher than that of uninvolved muscle on MR images. Two cases of X-ray plain showed no destruction of bone and 2 cases of bone scintigraphy exams showed increased radiotracer uptake of involved muscle with no infiltration of bone marrow. Conclusion: There are several characteristics on the imaging of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle. MRI is the optimal imaging method for the diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  9. Diffusion tensor and diffusion weighted imaging. Pictorial mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Tsutomu [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    A new imaging algorithm for the treatment of a second order apparent diffusion tensor, D{sub app}{sup {xi}} is described. The method calls for only mathematics of images (pictorial mathematics) without necessity of eigenvalues/eigenvectors estimation. Nevertheless, it is capable of extracting properties of D{sub app}{sup {xi}} invariant to observation axes. While trace image is an example of images weighted by invariance of the tensor matrix, three dimensional anisotropy (3DAC) contrast represents the imaging method making use to anisotropic direction of tensor ellipsoid producing color coded contrast of exceptionally high anatomic resolution. Contrary to intuition, the processes require only a simple algorithm directly applicable to clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a contrast method which precisely represents physical characteristics of a target tissue, invariant D{sub app}{sup {xi}} images produced by pictorial mathematics possess significant potential for a number of biological and clinical applications. (author).

  10. Susceptibility weighted imaging: differentiating between calcification and hemosiderin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jeam Haroldo Oliveira; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: jeamharoldo@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Santos, Antonio Carlos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to present a detailed explanation on the processing of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), demonstrating the effects of echo time and sensitive mask on the differentiation between calcification and hemosiderin. Materials and methods: computed tomography and magnetic resonance (magnitude and phase) images of six patients (age range 41-54 years; four men) were retrospectively selected. The SWI images processing was performed using the Matlab's own routine. Results: four out of the six patients showed calcifications at computed tomography images and their SWI images demonstrated hyperintense signal at the calcification regions. The other patients did not show any calcifications at computed tomography, and SWI revealed the presence of hemosiderin deposits with hypointense signal. Conclusion: the selection of echo time and of the mask may change all the information on SWI images, and compromise the diagnostic reliability. Amongst the possible masks, the authors highlight that the sigmoid mask allows for contrasting calcifications and hemosiderin on a single SWI image. (author)

  11. The value of diffusion-weighted imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging for rectal cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Shengxiang; Zeng Mengsu; Chen Caizhong; Li Renchen; Zhang Shujie; Xu Jianming; Hou Yingyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with T 2 -weighted imaging (T 2 WI) for the detection of rectal cancer as compared with T 2 WI alone. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with rectal cancer and 20 without rectal cancer underwent DWI with parallel imaging and T 2 WI on a 1.5 T scanner. Images were independently reviewed by two readers blinded to the results to determine the detectability of rectal cancer. The detectability of T 2 W imaging without and with DW imaging was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. The interobserver agreement between the two readers was calculated with kappa statistics. Results: The ROC analysis showed that each of two readers achieved more accurate results with T 2 W imaging combined with DW imaging than with T 2 W imaging alone significantly. The A z values for the two readers for each T 2 WI and T 2 WI combined with DWI were 0.918 versus 0.991 (p = 0.0494), 0.934 versus 0.997 (p = 0.0475), respectively. The values of kappa were 0.934 for T 2 WI and 0.948 for T 2 WI combined with DWI between the two readers. Conclusion: The addition of DW imaging to conventional T 2 W imaging provides better detection of rectal cancer

  12. High incidence of microbleeds in hemodialysis patients detected by T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shunichi; Uomizu, Kenji; Kajiya, Yoriko; Tajitsu, Kenichiro; Kusumoto, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    The incidence and characteristics of microbleeds in hemodialysis (HD) patients were investigated to elucidate the clinical significance with T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The 57 patients with chronic renal failure maintained by HD had no previous history of stroke. The control group consisted of 53 patients without previous history of stroke or chronic renal failure. The incidence and the number of microbleeds were assessed in the HD and control groups. The findings of microbleeds with T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo MR imaging were compared with those of T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR imaging in HD patients. The incidence of microbleeds was significantly greater in the HD patients compared with the control patients. T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo imaging revealed a total of 44 microbleeds in 11 HD patients. T 2 -weighted imaging demonstrated 13 of 44 microbleeds as hyperintensity, whereas T 1 -weighted imaging demonstrated 12 lesions as hypointensity. T 2 - and T 1 -weighted imagings did not demonstrate any findings in 31 and 32 lesions, respectively. T 2 * -weighted gradient-echo MR imaging is effective to detect microbleeds which may be a predictor of intracerebral hemorrhage in HD patients and should be included in the protocol for the study of cerebrovascular disease, because T 2 - and T 1 -weighted MR imaging recognizes microbleeds as lacunar infarction. (author)

  13. MR imaging and CT findings after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, M.; Langer, R.; Scholz, A.; Zwicker, C.; Astinet, F.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate MR imaging and dynamic CT as noninvasive procedures to image signs of graft failure after an orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Thirty MR studies and 50 dynamic CT examinations were performed within 20 days after OLT. MR examinations were performed with a 0.5-T Siemens Magnetom. CT scans were obtained by using a Siemens Somatom Plus. In all patients, MR images demonstrated a perivascular rim of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the hilum of the liver; in 20/26, this was seen in peripheral areas also. In all patients, a perivascular area of low attenuation was diagnosed at angio-CT

  14. Role of MR imaging in the differentiation of benign and nonbenign intracranial meningiomas. The utility of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasunori; Matsuo, Michimasa

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop useful criteria for distinguishing nonbenign (atypical and malignant) primary intracranial meningiomas from their benign counterparts by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To determine useful MRI findings for this purpose, 12 benign and five nonbenign meningiomas were retrospectively evaluated according to the following items: tumor signal intensity on plain T1-, T2- and proton density-weighted images, degree of perifocal edema on T2-weighted images, morphology of the tumor margin on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, presence of irregular nodule and/or mushrooming pattern on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, homogeneity of the tumor on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, and presence of marked skull destruction. Markedly irregular tumor margin, presence of irregular nodule and/or mushrooming pattern and markedly inhomogeneous enhancing pattern were significantly more frequent in nonbenign meningiomas. We defined these three MRI findings as nonbenign findings, and tried to categorize meningiomas by the number of nonbenign findings. It was found that 10 meningiomas with no or one nonbenign finding were benign lesions, of four meningiomas with two nonbenign findings two were benign lesions and two were nonbenign lesions, and three meningiomas with three nonbenign findings were nonbenign lesions. The two benign meningiomas with two nonbenign findings were accompanied by increased mitotic activity or brain invasion. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were considered very useful in distinguishing benign and nonbenign meningiomas. (author)

  15. Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of asymptomatic lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Miyagi, Ryo; Yamabe, Eiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; N Bhatia, Nitin; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on a healthy 31-year-old man with asymptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Although the left S1 nerve root was obviously entrapped by a herniated mass, neither DWI nor DTI showed any significant findings for the nerve root. Decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were found. These results are contrary to those in previously published studies of symptomatic patients, in which a combination of increased ADC and decreased FA seem to have a relationship with nerve injury and subsequent symptoms, such as leg pain or palsy. Our results seen in an asymptomatic subject suggest that the compressed nerve with no injury, such as edema, demyelination, or persistent axonal injury, may be indicated by a combination of decreased ADC and increased FA. ADC and FA could therefore be potential tools to elucidate the pathomechanism of radiculopathy.

  16. Acoustic-noise-optimized diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Martin; Blaimer, Martin; Grodzki, David M; Breuer, Felix A; Roesch, Julie; Dörfler, Arnd; Heismann, Björn; Jakob, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    This work was aimed at reducing acoustic noise in diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) that might reach acoustic noise levels of over 100 dB(A) in clinical practice. A diffusion-weighted readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence was optimized for acoustic noise by utilizing small readout segment widths to obtain low gradient slew rates and amplitudes instead of faster k-space coverage. In addition, all other gradients were optimized for low slew rates. Volunteer and patient imaging experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Acoustic noise measurements were performed and analyzed for four different DWI measurement protocols at 1.5T and 3T. An acoustic noise reduction of up to 20 dB(A) was achieved, which corresponds to a fourfold reduction in acoustic perception. The image quality was preserved at the level of a standard single-shot (ss)-EPI sequence, with a 27-54% increase in scan time. The diffusion-weighted imaging technique proposed in this study allowed a substantial reduction in the level of acoustic noise compared to standard single-shot diffusion-weighted EPI. This is expected to afford considerably more patient comfort, but a larger study would be necessary to fully characterize the subjective changes in patient experience.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of a nonfunctional mediastinal paraganglioma with an unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin-Akyar, G.; Erden, I.; Yagci, C.; Akyar, S.; Erekul, S.

    1997-01-01

    A case of histologically proven mediastinal paraganglioma presenting with metastatic spread to supraclavicular lymph nodes is presented. Mediastinal paragangliomas are extremely rare tumors and their CT and MR imaging features have not been well documented in the radiologic literature. The T 1-weighted and T 2-weighted spin-echo MR findings of a locally invasive mediastinal paraganglioma with metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph nodes are described and the literature is briefly reviewed. (orig.). With 4 figs

  18. Guided SAR image despeckling with probabilistic non local weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokul, Jithin; Nair, Madhu S.; Rajan, Jeny

    2017-12-01

    SAR images are generally corrupted by granular disturbances called speckle, which makes visual analysis and detail extraction a difficult task. Non Local despeckling techniques with probabilistic similarity has been a recent trend in SAR despeckling. To achieve effective speckle suppression without compromising detail preservation, we propose an improvement for the existing Generalized Guided Filter with Bayesian Non-Local Means (GGF-BNLM) method. The proposed method (Guided SAR Image Despeckling with Probabilistic Non Local Weights) replaces parametric constants based on heuristics in GGF-BNLM method with dynamically derived values based on the image statistics for weight computation. Proposed changes make GGF-BNLM method adaptive and as a result, significant improvement is achieved in terms of performance. Experimental analysis on SAR images shows excellent speckle reduction without compromising feature preservation when compared to GGF-BNLM method. Results are also compared with other state-of-the-art and classic SAR depseckling techniques to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Weight change and physical function in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the association between change in weight and decline in physical function in older women. Longitudinal study of a defined population of Catholic sisters (nuns) whose weight and function were assessed twice, an average of 584 days apart. Unique life communities (convents) located throughout the United States. 475 Catholic sisters who were 75 to 99 years of age (M = 82.1, SD = 4.8) and were independent in at least one Activity of Daily Living (ADL) at the first assessment of weight and function. None. At each assessment, weight, ADLs, and cognitive function were evaluated as part of the Nun Study--a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Annual percent weight change was calculated using weights from the two assessments, as well as the number of days that elapsed between assessments. Mean weight at first assessment was 140 pounds (range 78 to 232, SD = 27). The mean annual percent weight change was 0.1% (range 22% loss to 16% gain, SD = 3.8). Age- and initial weight-adjusted findings indicated that those participants with an annual percent weight loss of 3% or greater had 2.7 to 3.9 times the risk of becoming dependent in each ADL, compared to the sisters with no weight change. The elevated risk persisted in those who were mentally intact or were independent in their eating habits. Monitoring of weight may be an easy and inexpensive method of identifying older individuals at increased risk of disability.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with peroneal tendinopathy and peroneal tenosynovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Smet, Arthur de; Mukharjee, Rajat

    2007-01-01

    To compare the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a group of patients with clinically diagnosed peroneal tendonopathy and peroneal tenosynovitis with the MR imaging findings of a control group of patients with no clinical evidence of peroneal tendon disorder. The MR examinations of 24 patients with symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis and 70 patients with no clinical evidence of peroneal tendon disorder were retrospectively reviewed to determine the presence or absence of four MR imaging findings: 1) predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on one or more axial proton density-weighted images, 2) predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on three consecutive axial proton density-weighted images, 3) intermediate T2 signal intensity within the peroneal tendons, and 4) circumferential fluid within the common peroneal tendon sheath greater than 3 mm in maximal width. The sensitivity and specificity of these MR imaging findings for determining the presence or absence or symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were calculated. The sensitivity of MR imaging findings 1, 2, 3, and 4 for determining the presence of peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were 92%, 92%, 50%, and 17% respectively. The specificity of MR imaging findings 1, 2, 3, and 4 for determining the absence of peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were 57%, 79%, 93%, and 100% respectively. The presence of predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on three consecutive axial proton density-weighted images is a highly sensitive and moderately specific indicator of symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy. The presence of intermediate T2 signal within the peroneal tendons, and the presence of circumferential fluid within the peroneal tendon sheath greater than 3 mm in maximal width, are highly specific indicators of peroneal

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with peroneal tendinopathy and peroneal tenosynovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Smet, Arthur de [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Mukharjee, Rajat [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-02-15

    To compare the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a group of patients with clinically diagnosed peroneal tendonopathy and peroneal tenosynovitis with the MR imaging findings of a control group of patients with no clinical evidence of peroneal tendon disorder. The MR examinations of 24 patients with symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis and 70 patients with no clinical evidence of peroneal tendon disorder were retrospectively reviewed to determine the presence or absence of four MR imaging findings: 1) predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on one or more axial proton density-weighted images, 2) predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on three consecutive axial proton density-weighted images, 3) intermediate T2 signal intensity within the peroneal tendons, and 4) circumferential fluid within the common peroneal tendon sheath greater than 3 mm in maximal width. The sensitivity and specificity of these MR imaging findings for determining the presence or absence or symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were calculated. The sensitivity of MR imaging findings 1, 2, 3, and 4 for determining the presence of peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were 92%, 92%, 50%, and 17% respectively. The specificity of MR imaging findings 1, 2, 3, and 4 for determining the absence of peroneal tendinopathy or peroneal tenosynovitis were 57%, 79%, 93%, and 100% respectively. The presence of predominantly or uniform intermediate signal intensity within the peroneal tendons on three consecutive axial proton density-weighted images is a highly sensitive and moderately specific indicator of symptomatic peroneal tendinopathy. The presence of intermediate T2 signal within the peroneal tendons, and the presence of circumferential fluid within the peroneal tendon sheath greater than 3 mm in maximal width, are highly specific indicators of peroneal

  2. Athletic pubalgia and the "sports hernia": MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Omar, Imran M; Morrison, William B; Koulouris, George; Lopez, Hector; Chaabra, Avneesh; Domesek, John; Meyers, William C

    2008-06-01

    To retrospectively determine the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in patients with clinical athletic pubalgia, with either surgical or physical examination findings as the reference standard. Institutional review board approval was granted for this HIPAA-compliant study, and informed consent was waived. MR imaging studies in 141 patients (134 male patients, seven female patients; mean age, 30.1 years; range, 17-71 years) who had been referred to a subspecialist because of groin pain were reviewed for findings including hernia, pubic bone marrow edema, secondary cleft sign, and rectus abdominis and adductor tendon injury. MR imaging findings were compared with surgical findings for 102 patients, physical examination findings for all 141 patients, and MR imaging findings in an asymptomatic control group of 25 men (mean age, 29.8 years; range, 18-39 years). Sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging for rectus abdominis and adductor tendon injury were determined by using a chi(2) analysis, and significance of the findings was analyzed with an unpaired Student t test. Disease patterns seen at MR imaging were compared with those reported in the surgical and sports medicine literature. One hundred thirty-eight (98%) of 141 patients had findings at MR imaging that could cause groin pain. Compared with surgery, MR imaging had a sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 68% and 100% for rectus abdominis tendon injury and 86% and 89% for adductor tendon injury. Injury in each of these structures was significantly more common in the patient group than in the control group (P pubalgia, including rectus abdominis insertional injury, thigh adductor injury, and articular diseases at the pubic symphysis (osteitis pubis). (c) RSNA, 2008.

  3. Diagnosis of pericardial cysts using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Negareh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Congenital pericardial cysts are benign lesions that arise from the pericardium during embryonic development. The diagnosis is based on typical imaging features, but atypical locations and signal magnetic resonance imaging sequences make it difficult to exclude other lesions. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a novel method that can be used to differentiate tissues based on their restriction to proton diffusion. Its use in differentiating pericardial cysts from other pericardial lesions has not yet been described. Case presentation We present three cases (a 51-year-old Caucasian woman, a 66-year-old Caucasian woman and a 77-year-old Caucasian woman with pericardial cysts evaluated with diffusion-weighted imaging using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Each lesion demonstrated a high apparent diffusion coefficient similar to that of free water. Conclusion This case series is the first attempt to investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of pericardial cysts. Diffusion-weighted imaging may be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for pericardial cysts when conventional imaging findings are inconclusive.

  4. Hyperintense basal ganglia lesions on T1-weighted MR images in asymptomatic patients with hepatic dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Cila, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Dincer, F.F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    Cranial MRI findings in four patients who had hepatic dysfunction, including one with sole hepatic form of Wilson`s disease, were reported. The MR examinations revealed bilateral, symmetric hyperintensity in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nuclei and mesencephalon on T1-weighted images with no corresponding abnormality on T2-weighted sequences. The basal ganglia were normal on CT examinations in all patients. None of the patients had the clinical findings of hepatic encephalopathy. The MR findings in our patients did not correlate with the degree or duration of hepatic dysfunction. (orig.)

  5. The role of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the work: To demonstrate the role of Diffusion Weighted Imaging and ADC maps in assessing normal progression of the infantile brain myelination. Patients and methods: The present work included 30 infants with normal MRI study of the brain, normal psychomotor development and normal neurological examination.

  6. Familial Mediterranean fever mimicking septic arthritis: distinguishing with diffusion weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oner, Ali Yusuf; Ucar, Murat; Akpek, Sergin; Tokgoz, Nil

    2007-01-01

    FMF arthritis is generally monoarticular in origin. The affected joint is hot, tender, red and mimics septic arthritis. Conventional imaging findings, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound, do not help differentiate between these two entities. The final diagnosis depends on culture of the synovial fluid, and therefore initiation of proper drug therapy can be delayed. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), with its ability to detect altered water-proton mobility, might play an important role as a fast and non-invasive problem-solving tool in this setting. We here present MRI and DWI findings of a case of FMF arthritis mimicking septic arthritis. (orig.)

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of ring-enhancing intracerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youcheng; Li Jiance; Tian Wei; Li Zongfang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR Imaging (DWI) in ring-enhancing intracerebral lesions. Methods: Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of ninty-three patients presenting with ring-ehancing intracerebral lesions diagnosed by clinical or histopathologic findings were studied retrospectively, including 21 gliomas, 26 metastases, 13 pyogenic abscesses, 18 neurocysticercoses and 15 subacute intracerebral hematomas. The signal intensity ratio on diffusion-weighted images and exponential diffusion coefficient images was calculated respectively in ring walls, central contents, and perilesional edemas of ring-enhancing lesions, and normal contralateral cerebral parenchyma was used for comparison. ADC values of interest of lesions, contralateral cerebral parenchyma and CFS were calculated as well. Results: In pyogenic abscesses and subacute intracerebral hematomas, the central content was always extremely hyperintense on diffusion-weighted images, and showed low ADCs [(0.56 ± 0.20) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (0.69 ± 0.16) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively]. On the other hand the central content of gliomas, metastases and neurocysticercoses was hypointense, and showed high ADCs [(2.76 ± 0.41 ) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (2.31 ± 0.39 ) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, (2.10 ± 0.32) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively]. The ADCs of the first two lesions were significantly lower than of the last three lesions (P 2 -weighted images should be reviewed in daily clinical practice. (authors)

  8. Diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging in patients with recent myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deux, Jean-Francois; Maatouk, Mezri; Luciani, Alain; Lenczner, Gregory; Mayer, Julie; Kobeiter, Hicham; Rahmouni, Alain; Vignaud, Alexandre; Lim, Pascal; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate a diffusion-weighted (DW) black blood MR sequence for the detection of myocardium signal abnormalities in patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI). A DW black blood EPI sequence was acquired at 1.5 T in 12 patients with recent MI. One slice per patient was acquired with b = 0 and b = 50 s/mm 2 . A standard short tau inversion recovery (STIR) T2-weighted sequence was acquired at the same level. Viability was assessed with delayed-enhancement sequences. Images were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. A non parametric Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis, with a significance level of P <.05. The mean quality of blood suppression was higher on DW EPI images than on STIR T2-weighted images (3.9 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.7, respectively; P = 0.01). Myocardial high signal areas were detected in respectively 100% (12/12) and 67% (8/12) of the patients on DW EPI and STIR T2-weighted images. The four patients (33%) with false-negative STIR T2 findings all had high signal areas on DW EPI images corresponding to the location of the MI on the delayed-enhanced images. DW EPI sequences are a feasible alternative to standard STIR T2-weighted sequences for detecting myocardium high signal areas in patients with recent MI. (orig.)

  9. Gallium-67 imaging with low collimators and energy weighted acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamill, J.J.; DeVito, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the medium and high energy collimators used in 67 Ga imaging have poorer resolution than low-energy collimators, such as the LEAP. The low energy collimators could be used for gallium imaging if the background under the 93 and 185 keV peaks could be reduced without degrading the signal-to-noise ratio unacceptably. energy weighted acquisition provides a means of accomplishing this background reduction. The authors have developed weighing functions for gallium imaging through LEAP and high resolution collimators. The resolution of the low energy collimators is realized while the background is comparable to, or better than, the background in normal, energy-window imaging with the medium energy collimator. The pixel noise is somewhat greater than the Poisson noise in normal gallium imaging, and some noise correlations, or noise texture, is introduced

  10. Semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Ho; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Sanghyun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kye, Heewon; Song, Gi-Won; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we determined the relative accuracy of semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted (DW) MR images compared to standard manual volumetry with DW-MR or CT images. Semiautomated spleen volumetry using simple thresholding followed by 3D and 2D connected component analysis was performed with DW-MR images. Manual spleen volumetry was performed on DW-MR and CT images. In this study, 35 potential live liver donor candidates were included. Semiautomated volumetry results were highly correlated with manual volumetry results using DW-MR (r = 0.99; P volumetry was significantly shorter compared to that of manual volumetry with DW-MR (P volumetry with DW-MR images can be performed rapidly and accurately when compared with standard manual volumetry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  12. Radiologic findings of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee : Focusing on MR imaging and plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Choi, Jae Young; Cha, Sung Suk; Eun, Choong Kie; Park, Dong Woo

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristic MR findings of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee. Seven keens in six patients with hemophilia (five hemophilia A and one hemophilia B) were retrospectively studied with MR images and plain radiographs. Patients were aged between 2 and 20 years (mean, 11) and all had a clinical history of repeated hemarthrosis. MR images of the knee were analyzed with respect to intra- and extra-articular hemorrhage, the state of synovial tissue, articular cartilage, bone, menisci, and ligaments. Synovial hypertrophy and articular cartilage destruction were revealed in all seven knees ; pannus was found in four, and was seen as low signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. All five instances of synovial hypertrophy and pannus were enhanced. Joint effusion, presented in five of seven knees, demonstrated slightly low signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and was associated with peripheral low signal intensity of hemosiderin. Subchondral and marginal erosion was seen in six cases, patellar deformity in three, meniscal damage in four and cruciate ligament damage in one case. MR is superior to radiography in demonstrating chronic repeated hemarthrosis (manifested as thick intra-articular effusion), hemosidering, synovial hypertrophy, erosion or destruction of articular cartilage and bone, and meniscal or cruciate ligament injury of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee. MR is therefore thought to be a useful imaging study for accurate evaluation of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee

  13. Radiologic findings of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee : Focusing on MR imaging and plain radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Choi, Jae Young; Cha, Sung Suk; Eun, Choong Kie [Inje Univ., College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong Woo [Hanyang Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate the characteristic MR findings of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee. Seven keens in six patients with hemophilia (five hemophilia A and one hemophilia B) were retrospectively studied with MR images and plain radiographs. Patients were aged between 2 and 20 years (mean, 11) and all had a clinical history of repeated hemarthrosis. MR images of the knee were analyzed with respect to intra- and extra-articular hemorrhage, the state of synovial tissue, articular cartilage, bone, menisci, and ligaments. Synovial hypertrophy and articular cartilage destruction were revealed in all seven knees ; pannus was found in four, and was seen as low signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. All five instances of synovial hypertrophy and pannus were enhanced. Joint effusion, presented in five of seven knees, demonstrated slightly low signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and was associated with peripheral low signal intensity of hemosiderin. Subchondral and marginal erosion was seen in six cases, patellar deformity in three, meniscal damage in four and cruciate ligament damage in one case. MR is superior to radiography in demonstrating chronic repeated hemarthrosis (manifested as thick intra-articular effusion), hemosidering, synovial hypertrophy, erosion or destruction of articular cartilage and bone, and meniscal or cruciate ligament injury of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee. MR is therefore thought to be a useful imaging study for accurate evaluation of hemophilic arthropathy of the knee.

  14. Relationship between Northwick Park neck pain questionnaire and cervical spine MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Montijano, Ruben; Bautista, Daniel; Molla, Enrique; Costa, Salvador

    2006-08-01

    The study was aimed at determining the association between the self-report of pain and disability by means of Northwick neck pain questionnaire (NPQ) and cervical spine MR imaging findings. A random sample of 251 patients, 132 men and 119 women aged 43+/-13 years, submitted with neck pain were investigated. Patients with previous discitis, surgery, neoplasm or hospitalized for cervical spine trauma were excluded. All patients completed the NPQ and were studied with sagittal gradient-echo T1 and turbo spin-echo T2, axial gradient-echo T2* and heavily T2 weighted MR myelographic weighted images. MR images of the two most affected disc levels were read, offering an MR imaging score from 0 to 30. There was no statistically significant correlation between NPQ and MR imaging scores. From the NPQ items, only difficulty in sleeping and numbness were related to the MR imaging score. Disc extrusion was the only MR finding almost significantly associated with NPQ (P=0.054). Neck injury did not increase NPQ scores. In patients with neck pain, NPQ scores do not correlate with MR imaging findings. NPQ and cervical spine MR imaging show different facets of the multidimensional complex of neck pain.

  15. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  16. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: correlation between the baseline MR imaging findings and responses to therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Yuen, Sachiko; Kasami, Masako

    2010-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of breast cancer before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and to compare findings of chemosensitive breast cancer with those of chemoresistant breast cancer. The MR imaging findings before NAC in 120 women undergoing NAC were reviewed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the pathological findings and responses. A complete response (pCR) and marked response were achieved in 12 and 35% of 120 breast cancers in 120 women respectively. Breast cancers with a pCR or marked response were classified as chemosensitive breast cancer. The remaining 64 breast cancers (53%) were classified as chemoresistant breast cancer. Large tumour size, a lesion without mass effect, and very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images were significantly associated with chemoresistant breast cancer. Lesions with mass effect and washout enhancement pattern were significantly associated with chemosensitive breast cancer. Areas with very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted images corresponded pathologically to areas of intratumoural necrosis. Several MR imaging features of breast cancer before NAC can help predict the efficacy of NAC. (orig.)

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: correlation between the baseline MR imaging findings and responses to therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Yuen, Sachiko [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Breast Imaging and Breast Intervention Section, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan); Kasami, Masako [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Pathology, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of breast cancer before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and to compare findings of chemosensitive breast cancer with those of chemoresistant breast cancer. The MR imaging findings before NAC in 120 women undergoing NAC were reviewed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the pathological findings and responses. A complete response (pCR) and marked response were achieved in 12 and 35% of 120 breast cancers in 120 women respectively. Breast cancers with a pCR or marked response were classified as chemosensitive breast cancer. The remaining 64 breast cancers (53%) were classified as chemoresistant breast cancer. Large tumour size, a lesion without mass effect, and very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images were significantly associated with chemoresistant breast cancer. Lesions with mass effect and washout enhancement pattern were significantly associated with chemosensitive breast cancer. Areas with very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted images corresponded pathologically to areas of intratumoural necrosis. Several MR imaging features of breast cancer before NAC can help predict the efficacy of NAC. (orig.)

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvaneswary, M.; Floate, D. [John Hunter Hospital, NewCastle, NSW (Australia). Departments of Medical Imaging and Neurology; Harper, C. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Neuropathology

    1999-02-01

    Rapidly progressive dementia in an adult with findings of bilateral, symmetric high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences and normal findings on T1-weighted sequences predominantly in the deep grey matter is suggestive of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The peripheral cortex may be involved, as it was in the present case. The absence of subcortical periventricular white matter high signal intensity suggests that symmetric high signal intensities within the basal ganglia and cortical grey matter are more likely to be due to a degenerative process rather than due to ischaemia, infection or tumour. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 17 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puvaneswary, M.; Floate, D.; Harper, C.

    1999-01-01

    Rapidly progressive dementia in an adult with findings of bilateral, symmetric high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences and normal findings on T1-weighted sequences predominantly in the deep grey matter is suggestive of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The peripheral cortex may be involved, as it was in the present case. The absence of subcortical periventricular white matter high signal intensity suggests that symmetric high signal intensities within the basal ganglia and cortical grey matter are more likely to be due to a degenerative process rather than due to ischaemia, infection or tumour. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Imaging Findings of Complex Fibroadenoma of the Breast: Correlation with Pathologic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sun Kyoung; Choi, Bo Bae; Kim, Kyung Hee [Chungnam National University Hospital College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The imaging findings of complex fibroadenoma have been rarely reported even though the risk of developing breast carcinoma in a patient with complex fibroadenoma is higher than that for a patient with simple fibroadenoma. We reviewed the imaging features and pathologic findings of complex fibroadenomas. Between April 2003 and April 2010, the mammographic and sonographic findings of five patients with complex fibroadenomas were retrospectively reviewed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). The pathologic findings were retrospectively reviewed for all 5 patients. The mammography findings showed masses (3 cases) and asymmetry (1 case). On ultrasonography, complex echo patterns were noted in all the patients, and all the lesions were assigned to BI-RADS category 4, suspicious for abnormality. The complex echoic patterns showed two types: 1) a mixture of a heterogeneous hypoechoic central portion and a fuzzy hyperechoic peripheral area in 2 cases, 2) a mixture of tiny anechoic and hypoehoic lesions in 3 cases. Multiple cystic changes were noted in all the cases on the pathologic analysis. Complex fibroadenomas showed different ultrasonographic findings from simple fibroadenomas such as two types of complex echo patterns, even though the other findings were similar to those of simple fibroadenoma. Cystic changes were noted in all the cases on the pathologic analysis. Awareness of these imaging findings will help us to properly diagnose complex fibroadenoma

  1. Imaging Findings of Complex Fibroadenoma of the Breast: Correlation with Pathologic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Sun Kyoung; Choi, Bo Bae; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2010-01-01

    The imaging findings of complex fibroadenoma have been rarely reported even though the risk of developing breast carcinoma in a patient with complex fibroadenoma is higher than that for a patient with simple fibroadenoma. We reviewed the imaging features and pathologic findings of complex fibroadenomas. Between April 2003 and April 2010, the mammographic and sonographic findings of five patients with complex fibroadenomas were retrospectively reviewed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). The pathologic findings were retrospectively reviewed for all 5 patients. The mammography findings showed masses (3 cases) and asymmetry (1 case). On ultrasonography, complex echo patterns were noted in all the patients, and all the lesions were assigned to BI-RADS category 4, suspicious for abnormality. The complex echoic patterns showed two types: 1) a mixture of a heterogeneous hypoechoic central portion and a fuzzy hyperechoic peripheral area in 2 cases, 2) a mixture of tiny anechoic and hypoehoic lesions in 3 cases. Multiple cystic changes were noted in all the cases on the pathologic analysis. Complex fibroadenomas showed different ultrasonographic findings from simple fibroadenomas such as two types of complex echo patterns, even though the other findings were similar to those of simple fibroadenoma. Cystic changes were noted in all the cases on the pathologic analysis. Awareness of these imaging findings will help us to properly diagnose complex fibroadenoma

  2. Imaging Findings of Scrotal Tumors in Children: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hee [Kang-Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Eun [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dal Mo [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The diagnosis of scrotal tumors in children can be challenging because of the rarity, vague symptoms, and varied imaging features of the tumors. The pathology and frequency of scrotal tumors that occur in children are different from tumors that arise in adults. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the imaging findings of scrotal tumors in children with pathological correlations. In addition, we present the clinical manifestations that are valuable for a differential diagnosis. Familiarity with the imaging findings and clinical manifestations of pediatric scrotal tumors may be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and providing proper patient management

  3. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Phoebe H.; Amodio, John B.; Rivera, Rafael; Fefferman, Nancy R. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi; Kuwata, Yoichiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Sugihara, Ryo; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2007-01-01

    We assessed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and clinical characteristics of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma. A total of 31 patients with 39 surgically proven ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas were analyzed retrospectively. Histologically, 13 lesions in 12 patients arose from proven endometriomas (group A), and 26 lesions in 19 patients did not coexist with endometrioma (group B). The morphological pattern of the lesion on MRI was classified as a solid or a cystic type: A solid type was defined as a solid component occupying more than half of the lesion; and a cystic type was a cystic lesion with one or more mural nodules. Altogether, 11 lesions in group A were the cystic type on MRI, whereas 24 lesions in group B were the solid type (P<0.0001). Among the 11 cystic-type lesions in group A, the cysts of 5 lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images, and the cysts of 6 lesions were hyperintense on T1- and T2-weighted images without shading.'' The nuclear grade was higher (P=0.0028) and the clinical stage more advanced (P=0.0018) in group B compared to group A. MRI of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas revealed two types: a solid type and a cystic type. The lesions arising from endometriomas tended to be the cystic type on MRI and have a good prognosis. Preexisting endometrioma in this entity rarely showed ''shading'' on T2-weighted images. (author)

  5. Spatially weighted mutual information image registration for image guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Samuel B.; Rhee, Frank C.; Monroe, James I.; Sohn, Jason W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new metric for image registration that incorporates the (sub)pixelwise differential importance along spatial location and to demonstrate its application for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: It is well known that rigid-body image registration with mutual information is dependent on the size and location of the image subset on which the alignment analysis is based [the designated region of interest (ROI)]. Therefore, careful review and manual adjustments of the resulting registration are frequently necessary. Although there were some investigations of weighted mutual information (WMI), these efforts could not apply the differential importance to a particular spatial location since WMI only applies the weight to the joint histogram space. The authors developed the spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) metric by incorporating an adaptable weight function with spatial localization into mutual information. SWMI enables the user to apply the selected transform to medically ''important'' areas such as tumors and critical structures, so SWMI is neither dominated by, nor neglects the neighboring structures. Since SWMI can be utilized with any weight function form, the authors presented two examples of weight functions for IGRT application: A Gaussian-shaped weight function (GW) applied to a user-defined location and a structures-of-interest (SOI) based weight function. An image registration example using a synthesized 2D image is presented to illustrate the efficacy of SWMI. The convergence and feasibility of the registration method as applied to clinical imaging is illustrated by fusing a prostate treatment planning CT with a clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) image set acquired for patient alignment. Forty-one trials are run to test the speed of convergence. The authors also applied SWMI registration using two types of weight functions to two head and neck cases and a prostate case with clinically acquired CBCT/MVCT image sets. The

  6. Spatially weighted mutual information image registration for image guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Samuel B; Rhee, Frank C; Monroe, James I; Sohn, Jason W

    2010-09-01

    To develop a new metric for image registration that incorporates the (sub)pixelwise differential importance along spatial location and to demonstrate its application for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). It is well known that rigid-body image registration with mutual information is dependent on the size and location of the image subset on which the alignment analysis is based [the designated region of interest (ROI)]. Therefore, careful review and manual adjustments of the resulting registration are frequently necessary. Although there were some investigations of weighted mutual information (WMI), these efforts could not apply the differential importance to a particular spatial location since WMI only applies the weight to the joint histogram space. The authors developed the spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) metric by incorporating an adaptable weight function with spatial localization into mutual information. SWMI enables the user to apply the selected transform to medically "important" areas such as tumors and critical structures, so SWMI is neither dominated by, nor neglects the neighboring structures. Since SWMI can be utilized with any weight function form, the authors presented two examples of weight functions for IGRT application: A Gaussian-shaped weight function (GW) applied to a user-defined location and a structures-of-interest (SOI) based weight function. An image registration example using a synthesized 2D image is presented to illustrate the efficacy of SWMI. The convergence and feasibility of the registration method as applied to clinical imaging is illustrated by fusing a prostate treatment planning CT with a clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) image set acquired for patient alignment. Forty-one trials are run to test the speed of convergence. The authors also applied SWMI registration using two types of weight functions to two head and neck cases and a prostate case with clinically acquired CBCT/ MVCT image sets. The SWMI registration with

  7. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  8. Presurgical mapping with magnetic source imaging. Comparisons with intraoperative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.P.L.; Ferrari, P.; Perry, D.; Rowley, H.A.; Berger, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    We compare noninvasive preoperative mapping with magnetic source imaging to intraoperative cortical stimulation mapping. These techniques were directly compared in 17 patients who underwent preoperative and postoperative somatosensory mapping of a total of 22 comparable anatomic sites (digits, face). Our findings are presented in the context of previous studies that used magnetic source imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging as noninvasive surrogates of intraoperative mapping for the identification of sensorimotor and language-specific brain functional centers in patients with brain tumors. We found that magnetic source imaging results were reasonably concordant with intraoperative mapping findings in over 90% of cases, and that concordance could be defined as 'good' in 77% of cases. Magnetic source imaging therefore provides a viable, if coarse, identification of somatosensory areas and, consequently, can guide and reduce the time taken for intraoperative mapping procedures. (author)

  9. Light chain deposition disease in multiple myeloma: MR imaging features correlated with histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.; Lamerz, R.; Bartl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The clinical, histopathological, and imaging findings on MRI of a 56-year-old woman with light chain deposition disease occurring in multiple myeloma are presented. Light chain deposition disease is a variant of multiple myeloma with distinct clinical and histological characteristics. MRI of this patient also revealed an infiltration pattern in the bone marrow distinct from that of typical multiple myeloma. Multiple small foci of low signal intensity were present on T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and STIR images, corresponding to conglomerates of light chains in bone marrow biopsy. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin echo images show diffuse enhancement of 51% over all vertebral bodies, with a minor enhancement of the focal conglomerates of light chains. Light chain deposition disease in multiple myeloma should be added to the list of those few entities with normal radiographs and discrete low-signal marrow lesions on T1- and T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequences. (orig.)

  10. Body image perception and attempts to change weight among female medical students at Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people′s level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. Objective: By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. Materials and Methods: All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Results: Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17% were undernourished while 111(75.5% and 11(7.5% were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8% of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6% felt they were normal and 17(11.6% felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7% of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 % wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6% of subjects. Conclusion: About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.

  11. CT, MRI, and FDG-PET/CT imaging findings of abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumors: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weidong; Li Chuanxing; Liu Qingyu; Hu Yingying; Cao Yun; Huang Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT imaging features of abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and to improve the diagnostic efficacy of these techniques for the detection of such tumor. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 7 cases of abdominopelvic DSRCT confirmed by histopathologic analysis. Among the 7 patients, 5 patients had undergone CT scanning, 2 of which were also examined with FDG-PET/CT imaging, and 2 had undergone MRI. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced examinations were performed in all patients, and 2 patients had also undergone dynamic CT contrast-enhanced examinations. Image characteristics, such as shape, size, number, edge, attenuation, and intensity of each lesion before and after contrast enhancement were analyzed and compared with the pathomorphology of the tumors. Results: Multiple large masses in the abdominopelvis were detected in 6 cases, and a large mass in the pelvis was detected in 1 case. Six cases showed largest mass in pelvis, and 1 case in mesentery. None of the masses had a definite organ origin. CT showed soft tissue masses with patchy foci of hypodense areas. MR T1-weighted images revealed lesions with mild hypointense areas and patchy hypointense areas in 2 cases and lesions with patchy hyperintense areas in 1 case. T2-weighted images showed lesions with mixed isointense and hyperintense areas in 1 case and lesions with mixed hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense areas in another. Contrast-enhanced CT and T1-weighted images showed mildly heterogeneous enhancement of the lesions. Other associated findings included peritoneal seeding (n = 3), peritoneal effusions (n = 3), hepatic metastasis (n = 2), bone metastasis (n = 1), and mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy (n = 4). FDG-PET/CT showed multiple nodular foci of increased metabolic activity in the abdominopelvic masses, in the hepatic and

  12. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute demyelinating myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, Chiara; Cereda, Carlo; Tschuor, Silvia; Staedler, Claudio; Nadarajah, Navarajah; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Gobbi, Claudio; Wetzel, Stephan; Santini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a reference MRI technique for the evaluation of neurological disorders. Few publications have investigated the application of DWI for inflammatory demyelinating lesions. The purpose of the study was to describe diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics of acute, spinal demyelinating lesions. Six consecutive patients (two males, four females; aged 28-64 years) with acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions were studied in a prospective case series design from June 2009 to October 2010. We performed magnetic resonance imaging studies from 2 to 14 days from symptom onset on the patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (n = 3) or clinically isolated syndrome (n = 3). Main outcome measures were diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient pattern (ADC) of acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions. All spinal lesions showed a restricted diffusion pattern (DWI+/ADC-) with a 24% median ADC signal decrease. A good correlation between clinical presentation and lesion site was observed. Acute demyelinating spinal cord lesions show a uniform restricted diffusion pattern. Clinicians and neuro-radiologists should be aware that this pattern is not necessarily confirmatory for an ischaemic aetiology. (orig.)

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute demyelinating myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecca, Chiara; Cereda, Carlo; Tschuor, Silvia; Staedler, Claudio; Nadarajah, Navarajah; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Gobbi, Claudio [Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Servizio di Neurologia e Neuroradiologia, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano (Switzerland); Wetzel, Stephan [Swiss Neuro Institute (SNI), Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Hirslanden Klinik Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Santini, Francesco [University of Basel Hospital, Division of Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a reference MRI technique for the evaluation of neurological disorders. Few publications have investigated the application of DWI for inflammatory demyelinating lesions. The purpose of the study was to describe diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics of acute, spinal demyelinating lesions. Six consecutive patients (two males, four females; aged 28-64 years) with acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions were studied in a prospective case series design from June 2009 to October 2010. We performed magnetic resonance imaging studies from 2 to 14 days from symptom onset on the patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (n = 3) or clinically isolated syndrome (n = 3). Main outcome measures were diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient pattern (ADC) of acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions. All spinal lesions showed a restricted diffusion pattern (DWI+/ADC-) with a 24% median ADC signal decrease. A good correlation between clinical presentation and lesion site was observed. Acute demyelinating spinal cord lesions show a uniform restricted diffusion pattern. Clinicians and neuro-radiologists should be aware that this pattern is not necessarily confirmatory for an ischaemic aetiology. (orig.)

  14. MR imaging findings of cervical lymphadenopathy in patients with Kikuchi disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Zenichiro; Teramoto, Takahide; Kondo, Naomi; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the MR imaging findings of cervical lymphadenopathy in patients with Kikuchi disease (histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis). Materials and methods: Nine patients with Kikuchi disease underwent MR imaging with a 1.5 T unit including diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging and five of nine underwent gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. MR images were reviewed for numbers, sizes, locations, focal hypointense areas on T2-weighted images, focal non-enhancing areas on gadolinium-enhanced MR images, and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of enlarged lymph nodes. Results: 52 enlarged nodes (range, 2–11 nodes; mean, 5.8 nodes per patients) were identified. Lymphadenopathy was unilateral in 7 patients (78%) and bilateral in 2 (22%). Enlarged nodes were located at level IIA in 7 nodes, IIB in 23, III in 8, IV in 4, VA in 2, and VB in 8. Focal hypointense areas on T2-weighted images were found in 7 patients (78%) and 21 nodes (40%), and had a peripheral distribution in 19 nodes (90%) and had clear margins in 16 nodes (76%). Focal non-enhancing areas were seen in 3 patients (60%) and 6 nodes (23%). ADCs were variable (range, 0.69–1.78 [×10 −3 mm 2 /s]; mean, 1.01 ± 0.28). Conclusion: Cervical lymphadenopathy in Kikuchi disease showed predominantly a unilateral distribution at levels II–V. Furthermore, Kikuchi disease should be considered when T2-weighted images demonstrate hypointensity areas at the peripheries of enlarged cervical nodes, which corresponded to histopathological findings of coagulative necrosis in paracortical areas.

  15. Acute vertebral fracture: differentiation of malignant and benign causes by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, F.; Akhtar, W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diffusion weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and differentiation between benign (osteoporotic/infectious) and malignant vertebral compression fractures in comparison with histology findings and clinical follow up. Methods: The study was conducted at the Radiology Department, Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) Karachi. It was a one year cross-sectional study from 01/01/2009 to 01/01/2010. Forty patients with sixty three vertebral compression fractures were included. Diffusion-weighted sequences and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images on a 1.5 T MR scanner were obtained in all patients to identify the vertebral compression fracture along with benign and malignant causes. Imaging findings were compared with histopathologic results and clinical follow-up. Results: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging found to have, 92% sensitivity, 90% specificity and accuracy of 85% in differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fracture while PPV and NPV were 78 % and 90% respectively. Conclusion: Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging offers a safe, accurate and non invasive modality to differentiate between the benign and malignant vertebral compression fracture. (author)

  16. Elastofibroma dorsi: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases

    OpenAIRE

    KARAGÜLLE, A. Tuba; ERDEN, M.İlhan; ERDEN, Ayşe; KARADAĞ, Demet

    2002-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a pseudotumoral mass of unknown pathogenesis that is usually seen in elderly patients. We report two cases of histologically proven elastofibroma dorsi, each presenting with painful periscapular masses. Magnetic resonance imagingshowed periscapular tumoral mass with low to intermediate signal intensity with interspersed areas of high signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images. After I.V. administration of gadopentate dimeglumine, these lesions demonstrated mild ...

  17. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the extremities: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Suh, Jin-Suck; Lim, Byung Il; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoo-Ho

    2004-01-01

    We report the MRI findings of three cases of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) of the extremities with correlation of the pathologic findings. The IPEH is a non-neoplastic reactive lesion within the vessels and is commonly associated with thrombi. Signal intensity of the IPEH is complex due to the thrombi and the PEH itself. The thrombi are characterized by a slightly hyperintense signal on T1- and T2-weighted images compared with that of muscle when it comes at the medium stage of hemorrhage. Papillary endothelial hyperplastic tissue appears either as iso- or hyperintense to the muscle on T2- and T1-weighted images and shows variable enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced images. (orig.)

  18. Clinical and imaging findings in spinal cord arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Heum; Kim, Dong Ik; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeon, Pyoung; Ihn, Yeon Kwon

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and selective spinal angiography of spinal cord arteriovenous malformations (SCAVMs) and to investigate the correlation of these findings with the development of clinical symptoms. In 16 patients diagnosed as suffering from SCAVMs, MR imaging and selective spinal angiograms were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with clinical symptoms. Clinical data were reviewed, especially concerning the mode of onset of clinical symptoms, and MR images of SCAVMs were evaluated with regard to the following parameters: spinal cord swelling with T2 hyperintensity, cord atrophy, intramedullary hemorrhage, and contrast enhancement of the spinal cord. Selective spinal angiographic findings of SCAVMs were also evaluated in terms of the following , parameters: type of SCAVM, presence of aneurysms, and patterns of venous drainage. Imaging findings were also correlated with the development of clinical symptoms. Systematic evaluation of the findings of MR imaging and angiography provides detailed information on the type of AVM and status of the spinal cord parenchyma, and this can be correlated with clinical manifestations of SCAVM. In patients suffering from this condition, spinal cord dysfunction due to venous congestion appears to be the main cause of clinical symptoms. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Postcontrast T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients: comparison between postcontrast fat-suppression imaging and conventional T1-weighted or magnetization transfer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choong Wook; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2004-01-01

    We wished to assess the merits and weaknesses of postcontrast fat-suppression (FS) brain MR imaging in children for the evaluation of various enhancing lesions as compared with postcontrast conventional T1-weighted or magnetization transfer (MT) imaging. We reviewed the records of those patients with enhancing lesions on brain MR imaging who had undergone both FS imaging and one of the conventional T1-weighted or MT imaging as a post-contrast T1-weighted brain MR imaging. Thirty-one patients (21 male, 10 female; mean age, 8.7 years) with 38 enhancing lesions (18 intra-axial, 16 extra-axial and 4 orbital locations) were included in this study. There were 27 pairs of FS and conventional imagings, and 13 pairs of FS and MT imagings available for evaluation. Two radiologists visually assessed by consensus the lesions' conspicuity, and they also looked for the presence of flow or susceptibility artifacts in a total of 40 pairs of MR imagings. For 19 measurable lesions (14 pairs of FS and conventional T1-weighted imagings, 5 pairs of FS and MT imagings), the contrast ratios between the lesion and the normal brain ([SIlesion-SIwater]/[SInormal brain-SIwater]) were calculated and compared. Compared with conventional imaging, the lesion conspicuity on FS imaging was better in 10 cases (7 extra-axial lesions, 2 orbital lesions and 1 fat-containing intra-axial lesion), equal in 16 cases, and worse in one case. Compared with MT imaging, the lesion conspicuity on FS imaging was better in 3 cases (2 extra-axial lesions and 1 intra-axial lesion), equal in 8 cases, and worse in 2 cases. Image quality of FS imaging was compromised by flow or susceptibility artifacts for 7 patients. The contrast ratios for FS imaging were not significantly different from those for conventional imaging (2.2±0.7 vs. 2.2±0.6, respectively, p=0.914) and they were significantly lower than those for MT imaging (2.4±0.8 vs. 4.5±1.5, respectively, p=0.018). Postcontrast FS brain MR imaging appears to be

  20. Weighted ensemble transform Kalman filter for image assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Beyou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an extension of the Weighted Ensemble Kalman filter (WEnKF proposed by Papadakis et al. (2010 for the assimilation of image observations. The main focus of this study is on a novel formulation of the Weighted filter with the Ensemble Transform Kalman filter (WETKF, incorporating directly as a measurement model a non-linear image reconstruction criterion. This technique has been compared to the original WEnKF on numerical and real world data of 2-D turbulence observed through the transport of a passive scalar. In particular, it has been applied for the reconstruction of oceanic surface current vorticity fields from sea surface temperature (SST satellite data. This latter technique enables a consistent recovery along time of oceanic surface currents and vorticity maps in presence of large missing data areas and strong noise.

  1. Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Horton, R; Savoy, S

    2006-09-01

    Differences for gender, weight, exercise frequency and type for eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance were examined. Further understanding of male body image disturbance was the primary goal. Males (n=200) and females (n=233) completed measures to assess eating disorder symptoms and multiple components of body image disturbance. Measures were modified to be more appropriate for males. Females endorsed higher levels of eating and body concerns. Males were divided between a desire to maintain, increase or decrease their size. Higher weight and exercise frequency was associated with increased body image concern and eating disorder symptoms, particularly for males. Exercise frequency was also linked to higher self-esteem for males. Males who used muscle-enhancing supplements indicated increased social pressures and concern for appearance, and a desire to increase their size. The findings support that weight and exercise frequency affect eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance. Males appear to exhibit body image disturbance, which is related to their current weight status. Results support the call for further development of measures that more adequately address male concerns.

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bydder, G.M.; Baudouin, C.J.; Steiner, R.E.; Hajnal, J.V.; Young, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the effect of anisotropic diffusion weighting on the appearances of cerebral tumors as well as vasogenic and interstitial edema. Diffusion weighting produced a reduction in signal intensity in all or part of the tumors in the majority of cases. However, a relative increase in signal intensity was apparent in four cases. The decrease in signal intensity in vasogenic edema depended on the site and direction of gradient sensitization. Marked increase in conspicuity between tumor and edema was apparent in three cases. Changes in interstitial edema depended in detail in fiber direction. Differentiation between tumor and edema can be improved with diffusion-weighted imaging. Anisotropic change is seen in both vasogenic and interstitial edema

  3. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Renal Lesion Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Karadeli

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The technique has the advantage that it is non-invasive without need for gadolinium administration, takes about 2 minute. This method provides qualitative and quantitative infomation on tissue characterization. DA-MRI and ADC values are important for characterization of renal lesions. Especially, utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the patients with risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF could be beneficial. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 27-36

  4. Local complications of hydatid disease involving thoracic cavity: Imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, A.T. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmettuncayturgut@yahoo.com; Altinok, T. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Topcu, S. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey); Kosar, U. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can involve almost every organ of the body, lung involvement follows in frequency the hepatic infestation in adults and is the predominating site in children. Radiologically, hydatidosis usually demonstrates typical findings, but many patients are at risk of developing various complications of hydatid disease with atypical imaging findings and these are rarely described in the literature. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of local complications of hydatid disease involving the thorax including intrapulmonary or pleural rupture, infection of the ruptured cysts, reactions of the adjacent tissues, thoracic wall invasion and iatrogenic involvement of pleura are described. Additionally, imaging characteristics of transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement of hepatic hydatid disease are presented. To prevent the development of subsequent catastrophic results, all radiologists need to be aware of the atypical imaging appearances of complications of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  5. Local complications of hydatid disease involving thoracic cavity: Imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, A.T.; Altinok, T.; Topcu, S.; Kosar, U.

    2009-01-01

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can involve almost every organ of the body, lung involvement follows in frequency the hepatic infestation in adults and is the predominating site in children. Radiologically, hydatidosis usually demonstrates typical findings, but many patients are at risk of developing various complications of hydatid disease with atypical imaging findings and these are rarely described in the literature. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of local complications of hydatid disease involving the thorax including intrapulmonary or pleural rupture, infection of the ruptured cysts, reactions of the adjacent tissues, thoracic wall invasion and iatrogenic involvement of pleura are described. Additionally, imaging characteristics of transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement of hepatic hydatid disease are presented. To prevent the development of subsequent catastrophic results, all radiologists need to be aware of the atypical imaging appearances of complications of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  6. Imaging findings in systemic childhood diseases presenting with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Adam Z; Gittler, Julia K; Nakrani, Radhika N; Alis, Jonathan; Blumfield, Einat; Levin, Terry L

    Many childhood diseases often present with skin abnormalities with which radiologists are largely unfamiliar. Knowledge of associated dermatologic manifestations may aid the radiologist in confirming the diagnosis and recommending targeted imaging of affected organs. We review the imaging findings in childhood diseases associated with dermatologic manifestations. Diseases include dermatologic findings which herald underlying malignancy (Neuroblastoma, leukemia/lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis),are associated with risk of malignancy (Epidermolysis Bullosa, basal cell nevus syndrome, Cowden's syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis),or indicate a systemic inflammatory/immune disorder (Kawasaki's disease, Henoch Schonlein Purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, dermatomyositis and immune thrombocytopenic purpura). Familiarity with pertinent findings in childhood diseases presenting with dermatologic manifestations in childhood diseases aids the radiologist in confirming the diagnosis and guiding imaging workup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pediatric renal leukemia: spectrum of CT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Mody, Rajen J.; Strouse, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The kidneys are a site of extramedullary leukemic disease that can be readily detected by CT. To demonstrate the spectrum of CT findings in children with renal leukemic involvement. Twelve children were identified retrospectively as having renal leukemic involvement by contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. Contrast-enhanced CT images through the kidneys of each patient were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists. Pertinent imaging findings and renal lengths were documented. The electronic medical record was accessed to obtain relevant clinical and pathologic information. Five patients with renal leukemic involvement presented with multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses, while three patients demonstrated large areas of wedge-shaped and geographic low attenuation. Four other patients presented with unique imaging findings, including a solitary unilateral low-attenuation mass, solitary bilateral low-attenuation masses, multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses including unilateral large conglomerate masses, and bilateral areas of ill-defined parenchymal low attenuation. Two patients showed unilateral nephromegaly, while eight other patients showed bilateral nephromegaly. Two patients had normal size kidneys. Two patients had elevated serum creatinine concentrations at the time of imaging. Renal leukemic involvement in children can present with a variety of CT imaging findings. Focal renal abnormalities as well as nephromegaly are frequently observed. Most commonly, renal leukemic involvement does not appear to impair renal function. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric renal leukemia: spectrum of CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Vanderbilt University Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Dillman, Jonathan R. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mody, Rajen J. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The kidneys are a site of extramedullary leukemic disease that can be readily detected by CT. To demonstrate the spectrum of CT findings in children with renal leukemic involvement. Twelve children were identified retrospectively as having renal leukemic involvement by contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. Contrast-enhanced CT images through the kidneys of each patient were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists. Pertinent imaging findings and renal lengths were documented. The electronic medical record was accessed to obtain relevant clinical and pathologic information. Five patients with renal leukemic involvement presented with multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses, while three patients demonstrated large areas of wedge-shaped and geographic low attenuation. Four other patients presented with unique imaging findings, including a solitary unilateral low-attenuation mass, solitary bilateral low-attenuation masses, multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses including unilateral large conglomerate masses, and bilateral areas of ill-defined parenchymal low attenuation. Two patients showed unilateral nephromegaly, while eight other patients showed bilateral nephromegaly. Two patients had normal size kidneys. Two patients had elevated serum creatinine concentrations at the time of imaging. Renal leukemic involvement in children can present with a variety of CT imaging findings. Focal renal abnormalities as well as nephromegaly are frequently observed. Most commonly, renal leukemic involvement does not appear to impair renal function. (orig.)

  9. Imaging findings of upper abdominal involvement by acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Shiori; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Junko; Igarashi, Takashi [University of Tokyo, Department of Paediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AMKL), a relatively rare type of acute myeloid leukaemia, is characterized by frequent involvement of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes in addition to myelofibrosis in children. Diagnosis is difficult both clinically and pathologically, and the hepatic or lymph node involvement is not uncommonly misinterpreted as solid tumour. We report the imaging findings of upper abdominal involvement by AMKL in an infant. The hepatic lesion, initially suspected to be hepatoblastoma, showed a distinctive appearance on MRI suggesting its infiltrative nature. With the association of splenic lesion and lymphadenopathy, the imaging findings were considered indicative of a haematological disorder. (orig.)

  10. The image evaluation of iterative motion correction reconstruction algorithm PROPELLER T2-weighted imaging compared with MultiVane T2-weighted imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Jun; Yu, Seung-Man

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and clinical applications of MultiVaneXD which was applying iterative motion correction reconstruction algorithm T2-weighted images compared with MultiVane images taken with a 3T MRI. A total of 20 patients with suspected pathologies of the liver and pancreatic-biliary system based on clinical and laboratory findings underwent upper abdominal MRI, acquired using the MultiVane and MultiVaneXD techniques. Two reviewers analyzed the MultiVane and MultiVaneXD T2-weighted images qualitatively and quantitatively. Each reviewer evaluated vessel conspicuity by observing motion artifacts and the sharpness of the portal vein, hepatic vein, and upper organs. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated by one reviewer for quantitative analysis. The interclass correlation coefficient was evaluated to measure inter-observer reliability. There were significant differences between MultiVane and MultiVaneXD in motion artifact evaluation. Furthermore, MultiVane was given a better score than MultiVaneXD in abdominal organ sharpness and vessel conspicuity, but the difference was insignificant. The reliability coefficient values were over 0.8 in every evaluation. MultiVaneXD (2.12) showed a higher value than did MultiVane (1.98), but the difference was insignificant ( p = 0.135). MultiVaneXD is a motion correction method that is more advanced than MultiVane, and it produced an increased SNR, resulting in a greater ability to detect focal abdominal lesions.

  11. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity: findings on MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.Y.; Ahn, J.M.; Yoon, H.K.; Do, Y.S.; Kim, S.H.; Choo, S.W.; Choo, I.W.; Suh, Y.L.; Kim, S.M.; Kang, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the findings of intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity on MR imaging and to correlate these findings with histopathologic examination.Design and patients. The findings on MR imaging and the medical records of 14 patients with an intramuscular vascular malformation of the extremity were retrospectively studied. All patients underwent surgical excision. Diagnoses were based on the results of pathologic examination. Findings on MR imaging were noted and correlated with the histopathologic findings.Results. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity showed multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance on MR imaging. Multi-septate areas correlated with dilated and communicating vascular spaces with flattened endothelium. Honeycomb areas corresponded to vascular spaces with inconspicuous small lumina and thickened vascular walls. Areas of increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images were found in all intramuscular vascular malformations. Infiltrative margins were more commonly seen in intramuscular lymphaticovenous malformations. Adherence to neurovascular structures and orientation of the lesion along the long axis of the affected muscle were more commonly seen in intramuscular venous malformations.Conclusions. Intramuscular vascular malformations showed either a multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance, reflecting the size of the vascular spaces and the thickness of the smooth muscles of the vessel walls. Prediction of the subtype of an intramuscular vascular malformation of an extremity on MR imaging seems to be difficult, although there are associated findings that may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of each subtype. (orig.)

  12. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Eun, So-Hee [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  13. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, So-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  14. Bilateral hyperintense basal ganglia on T1-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1994-01-01

    Bilateral high signal intensity in basal ganglia on T1-weighted images is unusual, the purpose of this study is to describe the pattern of high signal intensity and underlying disease. During the last three years, 8 patients showed bilateral high signal intensity in basal ganglia on T1-weighted image, as compared with cerebral white matter. Authors analyzed the images and underlying causes retrospectively. Of 8 patients, 5 were male and 3 were female. The age ranged from 15 days to 79 years. All patient were examined by a 0.5T superconductive MRI. Images were obtained by spin echo multislice technique. Underlying causes were 4 cases of hepatopathy, 2 cases of calcium metabolism disorder, and one case each of neurofibromatosis and hypoxic brain injury. These process were bilateral in all cases and usually symmetric. In all cases the hyperintense areas were generally homogenous without mass effect or edema, although somewhat nodular appearance was seen in neurofibromatosis. Lesions were located in the globus pallidus and internal capsule in hepatopathy and neurofibromatosis, head of the caudate nucleus in disorder of calcum metabolism, and the globus pallidus in hypoxic brain injury. Although this study is limited by its patient population, bilateral hyperintense basal ganglia is associated with various disease entities. On analysis of hyperintense basal ganglia lesion, the knowledge of clinical information improved diagnostic accuracy

  15. The plantar fasciotomy: MR imaging findings in asymptomatic volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.S.; Ashman, C.; Smith, G.; Kaeding, C.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To determine the postoperative appearance of the plantar fascia on MR imaging after a fasciotomy has been performed, and to compare the postsurgical appearance of the fascia after an open and endoscopic procedure. Design and patients. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers (12 women, 3 men; age range 22-49 years, mean age 33 years) with prior fasciotomies for treatment of longstanding plantar fasciitis were studied. Fourteen volunteers had a unilateral release and one volunteer had bilateral releases, allowing for assessment of 16 ankles. Eight fasciotomies were performed through an open incision and eight were performed endoscopically. The average time between surgery and imaging was 24 months (range 11-46 months). The site of surgery was established from the operative reports. Proton density (PD)-weighted and T2-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T magnet. In eight studies, T1-weighted sagittal and STIR sagittal images were included. The fascia in each ankle was assessed for morphology and signal intensity. Perifascial soft tissues and bone marrow were assessed for edema. Preoperative MR studies were available in five volunteers. Results. There was no apparent difference in the postoperative appearance of the ankle after an open or endoscopic procedure except for scar formation in the subcutaneous fat which was common after an open procedure (P Conclusions. The average thickness of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic volunteers after surgery is nearly 2-3 times that of normal. While there is increased thickness at the site of surgery, the changes in morphology and signal intensity were most prominent at the enthesis. The key observation was absence of edema in the fascia and perifascial soft tissues. This baseline information may be of value when assessing MR studies of symptomatic patients. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia exposes the CA1 region of the hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Weon, Young-Cheol; Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Sung Hyun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea); Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-06-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia without alteration of consciousness or personal identity. Interestingly, recent studies have reported a high frequency of small high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and ischemia has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. We hypothesized that TGA lesions occur preferentially in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, known to be susceptible to ischemia. Over a 30-month period 34 patients with TGA underwent MRI including DW imaging within 4 days of symptom onset. Patients with high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus on the initial DW images underwent subsequent DW and T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane to identify the precise lesion locations. Fourteen patients had small (1-3 mm) high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus unilaterally on DW images. One of these patients had two lesions in one hippocampus and therefore in total 15 lesions were identified: four in the hippocampal head, and 11 in the body. Eleven lesions in ten patients with available coronal images were clearly demonstrated on both coronal DW and T2-weighted images and were localized to the lateral portion of the hippocampus, corresponding to the CA1 region. Lesions associated with TGA were localized exclusively to the lateral portion of the hippocampus corresponding to the CA1 region. This finding supports the ischemic etiology of TGA; however, the pathophysiological mechanism involved requires further study. (orig.)

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia exposes the CA1 region of the hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Weon, Young-Cheol; Youn, Sung Won; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun

    2007-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia without alteration of consciousness or personal identity. Interestingly, recent studies have reported a high frequency of small high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and ischemia has been proposed as an etiology of TGA. We hypothesized that TGA lesions occur preferentially in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, known to be susceptible to ischemia. Over a 30-month period 34 patients with TGA underwent MRI including DW imaging within 4 days of symptom onset. Patients with high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus on the initial DW images underwent subsequent DW and T2-weighted imaging in the coronal plane to identify the precise lesion locations. Fourteen patients had small (1-3 mm) high-signal abnormalities in the hippocampus unilaterally on DW images. One of these patients had two lesions in one hippocampus and therefore in total 15 lesions were identified: four in the hippocampal head, and 11 in the body. Eleven lesions in ten patients with available coronal images were clearly demonstrated on both coronal DW and T2-weighted images and were localized to the lateral portion of the hippocampus, corresponding to the CA1 region. Lesions associated with TGA were localized exclusively to the lateral portion of the hippocampus corresponding to the CA1 region. This finding supports the ischemic etiology of TGA; however, the pathophysiological mechanism involved requires further study. (orig.)

  18. Imaging findings in 11 cats with feline dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellas, Rosa; Simpson, Kerry E; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A; Hammond, Gawain J C

    2010-08-01

    Dysautonomia is caused by degeneration of the autonomic ganglia. Failure of the autonomic system affecting the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts can cause oesophageal distension and/or dysfunction, gastric and bowel distension and hypomotility, and urinary bladder distension. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe diagnostic imaging findings in cats with dysautonomia. Common findings were megaoesophagus and/or oesophageal dysfunction, gastric distension and signs of intestinal ileus. Associated aspiration pneumonia and megacolon appeared less commonly. Although diagnostic imaging findings are not specific for this disease, if findings in multiple systems are detected, along with consistent clinical signs and neurological deficits, dysautonomia should be considered among the differential diagnosis. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Susceptibility weighted imaging in the evaluation of movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingwala, D.R.; Kesavadas, C.; Thomas, B.; Kapilamoorthy, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Movement disorders are neurodegenerative disorders associated with abnormalities of brain iron deposition. In this presentation, we aim to describe the role of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in the imaging of patients with movement disorders and differentiate between the various disorders. SWI is a high-resolution, fully velocity-encoded gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence that consists of using both magnitude and phase information. We describe briefly the physics behind this sequence and the post-processing techniques used. The anatomy of the midbrain and basal ganglia in normal subjects on SWI is covered. A number of neurodegenerative disorders are associated with abnormal iron deposition, which can be detected due to the susceptibility effects

  20. Partial flip angle spin-echo imaging to obtain T1 weighted images with electrocardiographic gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kasai, Toshifumi; Kimino, Katsuji

    1993-01-01

    ECG-gated spin-echo (SE) imaging can reduce physiologic motion artifact. However, it does not provide strong T 1 -weighted images, because the repetition time (TR) depends on heart rate (HR). For odd-echo SE imaging, T 1 contrast can be maximized by using a smaller flip angle (FA) of initial excitation RF pulses. We investigated the usefulness of partial FA SE imaging in order to obtain more T 1 -dependent contrast with ECG gating and determined the optimal FA at each heart rate. In computer simulation and phantom study, the predicted image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained for each FA (0∼180deg) and each HR (55∼90 beats per minute (bpm)) were compared with those obtained with conventional T 1 -weighted SE imaging (TR=500 ms, TE=20 ms, FA=90deg). The optimal FA was decreased by reducing HR. The FA needed to obtain T 1 -dependent contrast identical to that with T 1 -weighted SE imaging was 43deg at a HR of 65 bpm, 53deg at 70 bpm, 60deg at 75 bpm. This predicted FA were in excellent agreement with that obtained with clinical evaluation. The predicted SNR was decreased by reducing FA. The SNR of partial FA SE imaging at HR of 65 bpm (FA=43deg) was 80% of that with conventional T 1 -weighted SE imaging. However, this imaging method presented no marked clinical problem. ECG-gated partial FA SE imaging provides better T 1 -dependent contrast than conventional ECG-gated SE imaging, especially for Gd-DTPA enhanced imaging. (author)

  1. The magnetic resonance image findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghan, Rami J.

    2004-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)

  2. “Hot cross bun” sign in multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia: A comparison between proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Seiko, E-mail: nuun077@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Miki, Yukio, E-mail: yukio.miki@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545–8585 (Japan); Kanagaki, Mitsunori, E-mail: mitsuk@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kondo, Takayuki, E-mail: kondotak@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akira, E-mail: yakira@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Morimoto, Emiko, E-mail: foresta@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomokada@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ito, Hidefumi, E-mail: itohid@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryosuke, E-mail: ryosuket@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); and others

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate whether proton density-weighted imaging can detect the “hot cross bun” sign in the pons in multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia significantly better than T2-weighted imaging at 3 T. Methods: Sixteen consecutive patients with multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia according to the Consensus Criteria were reviewed. Axial unenhanced proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging were obtained using a dual-echo fast spin-echo sequence at 3 T. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated visualisation of the abnormal pontine signal using a 4-point visual grade from Grade 0 (no “hot cross bun” sign) to Grade 3 (prominent “hot cross bun” sign on two or more sequential slices). Differences in grade between proton density-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging were statistically analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: In 11 patients (69%), a higher grade was given for proton density-weighted imaging than T2-weighted imaging. In 1 patient (6%), grades were the same (Grade 3) on both images. In the remaining 4 patients (25%), signal abnormalities were not detected on either image (Grade 0). The “hot cross bun” sign was thus observed significantly better on proton density-weighted imaging than on T2-weighted imaging (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The “hot cross bun” sign considered diagnostic for multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia is significantly better visualised on proton density-weighted imaging than on T2-weighted imaging at 3 T.

  3. Imaging method of brain surface anatomy structures using conventional T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Masahiko; Machida, Yoshio; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    As a non-invasive technique for visualizing the brain surface structure by MRI, surface anatomy scanning (SAS) and the multislice SAS methods have been developed. Both techniques require additional MRI scanning to obtain images for the brain surface. In this paper, we report an alternative method to obtain the brain surface image using conventional T2-weighted multislice images without any additional scanning. The power calculation of the image pixel values, which is incorporated in the routine processing, has been applied in order to enhance the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contrast. We think that this method is one of practical approaches for imaging the surface anatomy of the brain. (author)

  4. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma: CT and MR Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Ko, Young Hyeh; Chung, Seung Kyu

    2009-01-01

    We report CT and MR imaging findings for a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma occurring in a 19-month-old boy. A nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma is a rare benign pediatric hamartoma that can simulate malignancy. Although rare, knowledge of this entity is essential to avoid potentially harmful therapies

  5. Clinically relevant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in elite swimmers. Structural abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of elite swimmers' symptomatic shoulders are common. Little has been documented about the association between MRI findings in the ...

  6. Cerebellopontine angle lipomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Rafael S. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Brito, Cecilia Castelo Branco [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Carvalho, Gustavo A. [Clinica Bambina, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Neurocirurgia; Hospital Silvestre, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas are the most common lesions of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), accounting for approximately 85-90% of the tumors seen in this location. Lipomas are rare at this topography, representing about 0.15% of the CPA lesions. These tumors are mal developmental masses that arise from abnormal differentiation of the meninx primitive. Clinically, CPA lipomas can cause slowly progressive neurological symptoms and signs affecting cranial nerves or brain stem. Because these lesions usually are strongly attached to the surrounding structures, any surgical attempts of complete resection can result in neural or vascular damage, reinforcing the importance of the pre-operative imaging diagnosis. Although the CT findings of CPA lipomas can be typical, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, especially the fat suppression sequences, had improved the identification of these lesions. We aimed to report two patients with a CPA lipoma, emphasizing the MR imaging findings. (author)

  7. Indications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy based on preoperative imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakizaka, Yoshitaka; Sano, Syuichi; Nakanishi, Yoshimi; Koike, Yoshinobu; Ozaki, Susumu; Iwanaga, Rikizo; Uchino, Junichi.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and values of preoperative imaging findings in 82 patients who underwent preoperative imaging diagnostic tests (abdominal echogram, abdominal CAT scan, ERCP). We analyzed mainly patients who were considered to be indicated for LC but whose gallbladders could be removed by open laparotomy, or whose gallbladders were removed by open laparotomy but were considered indicated for LC from retrospective study. We found the following results. LC could be easily performed in patients with a history of severe acute cholecystitis if they had no findings of a thickened wall or negative gallbladder signs. Abdominal echogram and CAT scan were the best preoperative imaging tests for determining the gallbladder's state, especially for obstruction of the cystic duct. These results are important today when the operative indications of LC are extremely indefinite because of the accumulation of operative experience and technological improvements. (author)

  8. Cerebellopontine angle lipomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Rafael S.; Domingues, Romeu C.; Gasparetto, Emerson L.

    2009-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas are the most common lesions of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), accounting for approximately 85-90% of the tumors seen in this location. Lipomas are rare at this topography, representing about 0.15% of the CPA lesions. These tumors are mal developmental masses that arise from abnormal differentiation of the meninx primitive. Clinically, CPA lipomas can cause slowly progressive neurological symptoms and signs affecting cranial nerves or brain stem. Because these lesions usually are strongly attached to the surrounding structures, any surgical attempts of complete resection can result in neural or vascular damage, reinforcing the importance of the pre-operative imaging diagnosis. Although the CT findings of CPA lipomas can be typical, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, especially the fat suppression sequences, had improved the identification of these lesions. We aimed to report two patients with a CPA lipoma, emphasizing the MR imaging findings. (author)

  9. Abnormal findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus involving the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Jun; Kondo, Hirobumi (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine); Kashiwazaki, Sadao

    1992-06-01

    To elucidate the clinical significance of MRI on central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS-SLE), MRI and CT scans were performed in 35 patients with SLE, of 18 patients who had CNS manifestations at the time of MRI examinations. The investigations were also carried out in 17 patients without CNS-SLE. The rate of detection of abnormal findings on MRI in patients with CNS-SLE was 77.2% (14/18), which was high, as compared with the rate of those on CT scans (50%: 9/18). Especially, all of 4 patients with seizure and 3 patients with encephalopathy showed abnormal MRI findings, although respectively 50% and 33.3% of them had abnormal CT scan findings. MRI findings were classified into 4 groups below: (1) Large focal are as increased signal intensity at T2 weighted image. These were observed in 2 of 4 patients with seizure and 1 of 3 patients with encephalopathy, which were completely resolved after treatment. (2) Patchy subcortical foci of increased signal intensity at T2 weighted image. These were observed in 11 of 18 CNS-SLE and 7 of 17 without CNS-SLE, which were not detected by CT scan. (3) All of six patients with cerebral infarctions showed high signal intensity areas at T2 weighted image and low signal intensity areas at T1 weighted image. (4) Normal findings were observed in 4 of 18 CNS-SLE (22.2%). We concluded that MRI is useful for the evaluation of CNS-SLE and provides more information than CT scan. (author).

  10. Abnormal findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus involving the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Jun; Kondo, Hirobumi; Kashiwazaki, Sadao.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the clinical significance of MRI on central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS-SLE), MRI and CT scans were performed in 35 patients with SLE, of 18 patients who had CNS manifestations at the time of MRI examinations. The investigations were also carried out in 17 patients without CNS-SLE. The rate of detection of abnormal findings on MRI in patients with CNS-SLE was 77.2% (14/18), which was high, as compared with the rate of those on CT scans (50%: 9/18). Especially, all of 4 patients with seizure and 3 patients with encephalopathy showed abnormal MRI findings, although respectively 50% and 33.3% of them had abnormal CT scan findings. MRI findings were classified into 4 groups below: 1) Large focal are as increased signal intensity at T2 weighted image. These were observed in 2 of 4 patients with seizure and 1 of 3 patients with encephalopathy, which were completely resolved after treatment. 2) Patchy subcortical foci of increased signal intensity at T2 weighted image. These were observed in 11 of 18 CNS-SLE and 7 of 17 without CNS-SLE, which were not detected by CT scan. 3) All of six patients with cerebral infarctions showed high signal intensity areas at T2 weighted image and low signal intensity areas at T1 weighted image. 4) Normal findings were observed in 4 of 18 CNS-SLE (22.2%). We concluded that MRI is useful for the evaluation of CNS-SLE and provides more information than CT scan. (author)

  11. Myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer: diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 1.5-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechichi, Gilda; Sironi, Sandro; Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Signorelli, Mauro; Perego, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the preoperative assessment of myometrial invasion by endometrial cancer. In this prospective study, 47 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer underwent preoperative MR imaging and total hysterectomy. The MR protocol included spin-echo multishot T2-weighted, dynamic T1-weighted and DW images acquired with b-values of 0 and 500 s/mm 2 . Myometrial tumour spread was classified as superficial (<50%) or deep (≥50% myometrial thickness). Postoperative histopathological findings served as a reference standard. Indices of diagnostic performance were assessed for each sequence. At histopathological examination, superficial myometrial invasion was found in 34 patients and deep myometrial invasion in 13. In the assessment of tumour invasion, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of T2-weighted images were 92.3%, 76.5%, 60.0% and 96.3%, respectively. The corresponding values for dynamic images were 69.2%, 61.8%, 40.9% and 84.0%, and for DW images 84.6%, 70.6%, 52.4% and 92.3%. T2-weighted and DW imaging proved to be the most accurate techniques for tumour spread determination. DW imaging proved to be accurate in assessing myometrial invasion, and it could replace dynamic imaging as an adjunct to routine T2-weighted imaging for preoperative evaluation of endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  12. The imaging findings of metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Xin; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang; Li Mei; Yan Fei; Chen Qinghua; Yang Bentao; Chang Qinglin; Tian Qichang; Liu Zhonglin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic imaging findings of metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone in children. Methods: Imaging findings in 12 patients with metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 10 patients undenvent plain CT scan, 6 underwent MRI and 7 underwent whole body single-photon emission computed tomography bone scanning. Results: In the 10 patients with CT images, lytic bone destruction and soft tissue masses were found in 9 eases, in which periosteal reaction was observed in 8 patients with spiculated periosteal reaction in 3 patients. The remaining 1 patient didn't show any abnormalities on CT images but had abnormal findings in bone scanning. Six patients with MR images showed abnormal signal intensity in the bone marrow of the craniofacial bone and adjacent soft tissue masses. Postcontrast T 1 -weighted imaging in 5 patients demonstrated remarkable enhancement of the bone marrow and soft tissue masses. Bone scanning of 7 patients showed abnormal foci of increased radionuclide activity of the craniofacial bone in 7 patients and metastasis at other body parts in 6 patients. Conclusion: The metastatic neuroblastoma in the craniofacial bone has its characteristic imaging findings which are helpful for correct diagnosis. (authors)

  13. Fast FLAIR MR imaging finidngs of cerebral infarction : comparison with T2-weighted spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Keun Young; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of FLAIR(Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) MR imaging in cerebral infarction by comparing its results with those of T2-weighted spin-echo imaging. We retrospectively evaluated fast FLAIR images and conventional spin echo images of 82 patients (47 men and 20 women ; median age 60.9 years) with cerebral infarction. MR imaging used a 1.5T MR unit with conventional T2(TR 3900, TE 90) and fast FLAIR sequence (TR 8000, TE 105, TI 2400). We analysed the size of the main lesion and number of lesions, and discrimination between old and new lesions and between small infarction and perivascular space. When T2-weighted and FLAIR imaging were compared, the latter showed that the main lesion was larger in 38 cases (46%), similar in 38 (46%), and smaller in six (7%). The number of lesions was greater in 23 cases(28%), similar in 52 (63%), and fewer in seven (9%). FLAIR images discriminated between old and new lesions in 31 cases ; perivascular space and small infarotion were differentiated in eight cases, and CSF inflowing artifact was observed in 66 (80%). In the diagnosis of cerebral infaretion, fast FLAIR provides images that are equal or superior to T2-weighted images. The fast FLAIR sequence may therefore be used as a part of routine MR brain study in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction

  14. Variants, pitfalls and asymptomatic findings in wrist and hand imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [University Hospital Balgrist, Radiology, University of Zurich Switzerland, Forchstrasse 340, CH-8008 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: christian@pfirrmann.ch; Zanetti, Marco [University Hospital Balgrist, Radiology, University of Zurich Switzerland, Forchstrasse 340, CH-8008 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-12-15

    Anatomic variants of the bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles are frequent findings in imaging of the wrist and hand. Many findings especially changes in the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) and the interosseous ligaments are asymptomatic, their incidence is increasing with age, and they are frequently found bilaterally. Abnormalities such as increased signal within tendons are common in asymptomatic subjects. They may be explained by normal physiology, anatomical variability, MR artifacts or true abnormalities without clinical importance. Although it is not always possible to differentiate variants and artifacts from clinically relevant findings it is important to know their potential etiology and clinical importance and not to over report them as abnormality requiring additional imaging or treatment.

  15. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Ju; Park, In Suh; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Choi, Suk Jin; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Woo Chul; Han, Jun Gu; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas with pathologic correlation and to determine whether these schwannomas share the imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves. The MRIs of 17 cases of pathologically proven spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were reviewed retrospectively, and cystic changes, enhancement, and intratumoral hemorrhage of the tumors were evaluated. Imaging features known to be common findings of schwannoma in the peripheral nerves, such as encapsulation, the target sign, the fascicular sign, and visualization of entering or exiting nerve rootlets, were also evaluated. The histopathology of the tumors was correlated with the MRI findings. Cystic changes were detected in 14 cases by MRI and in 16 cases by pathology. The most common pattern of enhancement was a thick peripheral septal pattern (70.59%). Intratumoral hemorrhage was detected in four cases on MRI, but in all cases on pathology. Encapsulation was observed in all cases. The fascicular sign was seen in only four cases, and thickening of an exiting rootlet was visualized in one case. None of the cases showed the target sign. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas were typical encapsulated cystic tumors and had few imaging features of schwannomas in the peripheral nerves.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of thoracic hydatid disease; Correlation with clinical findings, radiography, ultrasonography, CT and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Rifal, A.; Te Strake, L.; Sieck, J. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Medicine Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-01-01

    Two patients with thoracic manifestations of hydatid disease (HD) are discussed; one patient had recurrent HD of the chest wall and the other, intrapulmonary HD after rupture and intrathoracic extension of an infradiaphragmatic cyst. At magnetic resonance (MR) imaging the manifestations of HD in the thorax are similar to previously reported MR findings in HD in the liver. The presence of a low signal intensity rim on T2 weighted images representing the cyst wall was confirmed. On T1 weighted images cysts with heterogeneous low and intermediate signal intensity contents and a relatively high signal intensity wall were seen. ''Folded parasitic membranes'' previously not described on MR were noted. Daughter cysts may have a low or high signal intensity depending on contents. Reactive changes in the lung may be quite marked compared with the liver, due to reaction to the parasite or simply because the lung is more easily compressed leading to secondary atelectasis. (orig.).

  17. Radiographic findings in late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia: helpful imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzzafar, Sofia; Swischuk, Leonard E.; Jadhav, Siddharth P.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging findings in delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia can be confusing and misleading, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. To evaluate the often puzzling plain film findings of late-presenting CDH in an effort to determine whether any of the findings could be helpful in arriving at an early diagnosis. We reviewed and documented the plain film findings and clinical data in eight patients seen during the last 20 years with late-presenting CDH. IRB exempt status was obtained in this study. There were five boys and three girls. The age range was 4 months to 12 years with a mean of 2.4 years. Five children presented with acute respiratory problems while three presented with acute abdominal pain. Two children presented with both respiratory and abdominal findings and one also presented with hematemesis. Two children had radiographic findings that were not difficult to analyze while the remaining six had findings that posed initial diagnostic problems. Although not common, late-presenting CDH can result in confusing plain film radiographic findings and a delay in diagnosis. We found that the most important finding in analyzing these radiographs is in evaluating the location and position of the gastric bubble with the more common left-side hernias. (orig.)

  18. Radiographic findings in late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia: helpful imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzafar, Sofia; Swischuk, Leonard E.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Imaging findings in delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia can be confusing and misleading, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. To evaluate the often puzzling plain film findings of late-presenting CDH in an effort to determine whether any of the findings could be helpful in arriving at an early diagnosis. We reviewed and documented the plain film findings and clinical data in eight patients seen during the last 20 years with late-presenting CDH. IRB exempt status was obtained in this study. There were five boys and three girls. The age range was 4 months to 12 years with a mean of 2.4 years. Five children presented with acute respiratory problems while three presented with acute abdominal pain. Two children presented with both respiratory and abdominal findings and one also presented with hematemesis. Two children had radiographic findings that were not difficult to analyze while the remaining six had findings that posed initial diagnostic problems. Although not common, late-presenting CDH can result in confusing plain film radiographic findings and a delay in diagnosis. We found that the most important finding in analyzing these radiographs is in evaluating the location and position of the gastric bubble with the more common left-side hernias. (orig.)

  19. Radiographic findings in late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia: helpful imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzafar, Sofia; Swischuk, Leonard E; Jadhav, Siddharth P

    2012-03-01

    Imaging findings in delayed presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia can be confusing and misleading, resulting in a delay in diagnosis. To evaluate the often puzzling plain film findings of late-presenting CDH in an effort to determine whether any of the findings could be helpful in arriving at an early diagnosis. We reviewed and documented the plain film findings and clinical data in eight patients seen during the last 20 years with late-presenting CDH. IRB exempt status was obtained in this study. There were five boys and three girls. The age range was 4 months to 12 years with a mean of 2.4 years. Five children presented with acute respiratory problems while three presented with acute abdominal pain. Two children presented with both respiratory and abdominal findings and one also presented with hematemesis. Two children had radiographic findings that were not difficult to analyze while the remaining six had findings that posed initial diagnostic problems. Although not common, late-presenting CDH can result in confusing plain film radiographic findings and a delay in diagnosis. We found that the most important finding in analyzing these radiographs is in evaluating the location and position of the gastric bubble with the more common left-side hernias.

  20. Diffusion weighted MR imaging of brachial plexus diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okinaga, Shuji; Korenaga, Tateo; Tekemura, Atsushi; Tajiri, Yasuhito; Kawano, Ken-Ichi

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion weighted image (DWI) can specifically give running of nerve fibers as they have diffusion anisotropic property and DW whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) procedure, which being capable of imaging cervical and lumber nerve roots, is thus suggested to be useful for diagnosis of diseases related to brachial plexus (BP). The purpose of the present study is to confirm the usefulness of DWIBS by comparison of its images of the normal and sick plexuses. Subjects are 5 normal healthy males (27-36 y), 29 patients (19 M/10 F, 7-73 y) with BP diseases (10 cases of external injury, 6 of obstetric palsy, 2 of paralysis by dysfunctional position, 6 by Schwannoma, 2 by metastasis of breast cancer and 3 by radiation) and, to see the diagnostic specificity, 9 patients (M 7/F 2, 15-64 y) with severely reduced hand force by nervous causes other than BP ones. MRI with Philips Gyroscan INTERA 1.5T machine is conducted for DWIBS by DWI with single shot EPI (echo planar imaging) with the coil of either sensitivity encoding (SENSE) Cardiac, Flex-M or -S. Images are reconstructed 3D by a radiological technician possessing no information concerning patient's conditions, with Philips software Soap-bubble tool on the workstation, and are then evaluated by a radiologist and an orthopedist separately. It is found that BP disorders by injury, obstetric palsy and tumors, of which diagnosis has been difficult hitherto, can be imaged either negatively or positively depending on their history. In radiation paralysis, only 1/3 cases give a reduced signal intensity in the whole BP. DWIBS will be a new diagnostic mean for systemic peripheral nerve diseases as well as BP ones. (T.T.)

  1. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  2. A first step toward uncovering the truth about weight tuning in deformable image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirpinia, Kleopatra; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    Deformable image registration is currently predominantly solved by optimizing a weighted linear combination of objectives. Successfully tuning the weights associated with these objectives is not trivial, leading to trial-and-error approaches. Such an approach assumes an intuitive interplay between weights, optimization objectives, and target registration errors. However, it is not known whether this always holds for existing registration methods. To investigate the interplay between weights, optimization objectives, and registration errors, we employ multi-objective optimization. Here, objectives of interest are optimized simultaneously, causing a set of multiple optimal solutions to exist, called the optimal Pareto front. Our medical application is in breast cancer and includes the challenging prone-supine registration problem. In total, we studied the interplay in three different ways. First, we ran many random linear combinations of objectives using the well-known registration software elastix. Second, since the optimization algorithms used in registration are typically of a local-search nature, final solutions may not always form a Pareto front. We therefore employed a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm that finds weights that correspond to registration outcomes that do form a Pareto front. Third, we examined how the interplay differs if a true multi-objective (i.e., weight-free) image registration method is used. Results indicate that a trial-and-error weight-adaptation approach can be successful for the easy prone to prone breast image registration case, due to the absence of many local optima. With increasing problem difficulty the use of more advanced approaches can be of value in finding and selecting the optimal registration outcomes.

  3. Idiopathic Chronic Parotitis: Imaging Findings and Sialendoscopic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Thomas E; Kacker, Ashutosh; Kutler, David I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate imaging and sialendoscopic findings to therapeutic response in patients with idiopathic chronic parotitis. We retrospectively reviewed 122 consecutive sialendoscopies performed in an academic medical center by two surgeons between 2008 and 2013. Forty-one (34%) and 54 (44%) patients were excluded on the basis of having parotid or submandibular sialolith, respectively. Nineteen cases were included in the study with idiopathic chronic parotitis. There was a median follow-up of 5 months. Computed tomography (CT) imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 71.4%, respectively, for predicting abnormal findings on sialendoscopy, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had 100% accuracy in a small set of cases. In glands with noticeable pathology present on preoperative imaging or sialendoscopy, 11 out of 12 glands (92%) treated experienced symptomatic improvement, while 3 out of 7 glands (43%) without pathology on imaging or endoscopy experienced symptomatic improvement (p = 0.038). Sialendoscopy for the treatment of idiopathic chronic parotid disease can improve pain and swelling with a higher frequency of success in patients with abnormalities noted on endoscopy. CT and MRI have a moderate degree of accuracy in predicting which patients will benefit from therapeutic sialendoscopy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. MR imaging of primary sclerosing cholangitis - Additional value of diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djokicc Kovac, Jelena [Center for Radiology and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Clinical Center Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)], e-mail: jelenadjokic2003@yahoo.co.uk; Maksimovic, Ruzica [Center for Radiology and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Clinical Center Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Jesic, Rada [Clinic for Gastroenterohepatology, Clinical Center Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Stanisavljevic, Dejana [Inst. for Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Kovac, Bojan [Military Medical Academy, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disease with chronic inflammation and progressive destruction of biliary tree. Magnetic resonance (MR) examination with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) allows analysis of morphological liver parenchymal changes and non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. Moreover, MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), as a part of standard MR protocol, provides insight into bile duct irregularities. Purpose: To evaluate MR and MRCP findings in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and to determine the value of DWI in the assessment of liver fibrosis. Material and Methods: The following MR findings were reviewed in 38 patients: abnormalities in liver parenchyma signal intensity, changes in liver morphology, lymphadenopathy, signs of portal hypertension, and irregularities of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for six locations in the liver for b = 800 s/mm{sup 2}. Results: T2-weighted hyperintensity was seen as peripheral wedge-shaped areas in 42.1% and as periportal edema in 28.9% of patients. Increased enhancement of liver parenchyma on arterial-phase imaging was observed in six (15.8%) patients. Caudate lobe hypertrophy was present in 10 (26.3%), while spherical liver shape was noted in 7.9% of patients. Liver cirrhosis was seen in 34.2% of patients; the most common pattern was micronodular cirrhosis (61.5%). Other findings included lymphadenopathy (28.9%), signs of portal hypertension (36.7%), and bile duct irregularities (78.9%). The mean ADCs (x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) were significantly different at stage I vs. stages III and IV, and stage II vs. stage IV. No significant difference was found between stages II and III. For prediction of stage {>=}II and stage {>=}III, areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.891 and 0.887, respectively. Conclusion: MR with MRCP is a necessary diagnostic procedure for diagnosis of PSC and

  5. Complicated giant polycystic ovary mimicking tumor: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Eqilmez, Hulusi; Oeztoprak, Bilge; Guemues, Cesur

    2007-01-01

    A previously healthy 14-year-old girl presented with a 1-year history of abdominal pain that had worsened during the past 4 days. She had a right lower abdominal mass that was initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. MR imaging revealed a unilaterally enlarged and partially torted left polycystic ovary. Polycystic ovary is a common cause of increased ovarian volume in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by numerous small peripherally located follicles and increased stroma. It may mimic a neoplasm and lead to difficulties in diagnosis. In this case report, we discuss the unusual MR imaging findings and the pitfalls in diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Complicated giant polycystic ovary mimicking tumor: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztoprak, Ibrahim; Eqilmez, Hulusi; Oeztoprak, Bilge; Guemues, Cesur [Cumhuriyet University, Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, AD Sivas (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    A previously healthy 14-year-old girl presented with a 1-year history of abdominal pain that had worsened during the past 4 days. She had a right lower abdominal mass that was initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. MR imaging revealed a unilaterally enlarged and partially torted left polycystic ovary. Polycystic ovary is a common cause of increased ovarian volume in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by numerous small peripherally located follicles and increased stroma. It may mimic a neoplasm and lead to difficulties in diagnosis. In this case report, we discuss the unusual MR imaging findings and the pitfalls in diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging findings in transient osteoporosis of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizos, Konstantinos N. E-mail: kmalizos@otenet.gr; Zibis, Aristidis H.; Dailiana, Zoe; Hantes, Michael; Karahalios, Theophilos; Karantanas, Apostolos H

    2004-06-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings including perfusion imaging, in association with the course of acute bone marrow oedema syndrome (aBMEs), in a group of patients with acute hip pain and a final diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH). Materials and methods: From 217 patients referred with a probable diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, we identified 42 patients who had clinical and radiographic findings not relevant to AVN. MR imaging examinations were performed on a 1.0T scanner. Perfusion imaging was performed in 20 patients. The bone marrow oedema (BME) was classified in four stages. In addition, the presence or absence of oedema in the subchondral area and the presence of other subchondral lesions were recorded. Acetabular bone marrow was also assessed for the presence of oedema. The quantitative measurements included: maximum size of the effusion, percentage of enhancement (PE) and time of peak enhancement of abnormal marrow compared to the first pass, on the perfusion images. Results: Osteopenia was present on plain radiographs in 87% of cases. The most common pattern of BME was extending to the femoral head and neck. Acetabulum was involved in 16.6%. In 22.6% the BME spared the subchondral region of the femoral head. There were two cases (4.7%) with subchondral changes. A joint effusion was noted in 33 of the 42 patients. On perfusion imaging, a delayed peak enhancement was noted in 20 patients between 40 and 65 s after the first pass of contrast. No patient had any evidence of femoral head collapse or change in sphericity on follow-up MRI. None of the patients developed avascular necrosis in a time frame of 18 months from the onset of the acute hip pain. Conclusion: The aBMEs MR imaging pattern varies and is most commonly appearing on X-rays as osteopenia. Absence of subcondral lesions, delayed peak enhancement of the abnormal marrow on perfusion images, and sparing of

  8. MR imaging findings in transient osteoporosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Zibis, Aristidis H.; Dailiana, Zoe; Hantes, Michael; Karahalios, Theophilos; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings including perfusion imaging, in association with the course of acute bone marrow oedema syndrome (aBMEs), in a group of patients with acute hip pain and a final diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH). Materials and methods: From 217 patients referred with a probable diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, we identified 42 patients who had clinical and radiographic findings not relevant to AVN. MR imaging examinations were performed on a 1.0T scanner. Perfusion imaging was performed in 20 patients. The bone marrow oedema (BME) was classified in four stages. In addition, the presence or absence of oedema in the subchondral area and the presence of other subchondral lesions were recorded. Acetabular bone marrow was also assessed for the presence of oedema. The quantitative measurements included: maximum size of the effusion, percentage of enhancement (PE) and time of peak enhancement of abnormal marrow compared to the first pass, on the perfusion images. Results: Osteopenia was present on plain radiographs in 87% of cases. The most common pattern of BME was extending to the femoral head and neck. Acetabulum was involved in 16.6%. In 22.6% the BME spared the subchondral region of the femoral head. There were two cases (4.7%) with subchondral changes. A joint effusion was noted in 33 of the 42 patients. On perfusion imaging, a delayed peak enhancement was noted in 20 patients between 40 and 65 s after the first pass of contrast. No patient had any evidence of femoral head collapse or change in sphericity on follow-up MRI. None of the patients developed avascular necrosis in a time frame of 18 months from the onset of the acute hip pain. Conclusion: The aBMEs MR imaging pattern varies and is most commonly appearing on X-rays as osteopenia. Absence of subcondral lesions, delayed peak enhancement of the abnormal marrow on perfusion images, and sparing of

  9. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid-Tannwald, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Zech, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) provides qualitative and quantitative information of tissue cellularity and the integrity of cellular membranes. Since DW-MRI can be performed without ionizing radiation exposure and contrast media application, DW-MRI is a particularly attractive tool for patients with allergies for gadolinium-based contrast agents or renal failure. Recent technical developments have made DW-MRI a robust and feasible technique for abdominal imaging. DW-MRI provides information on the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions and can also visualize treatment effects and early changes in chronic liver disease. In addition DW-MRI is a promising tool for the detection of inflammatory changes in patients with Crohn's disease. (orig.) [de

  10. Asymmetric similarity-weighted ensembles for image segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheplygina, V.; Van Opbroek, A.; Ikram, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Supervised classification is widely used for image segmentation. To work effectively, these techniques need large amounts of labeled training data, that is representative of the test data. Different patient groups, different scanners or different scanning protocols can lead to differences between...... the images, thus representative data might not be available. Transfer learning techniques can be used to account for these differences, thus taking advantage of all the available data acquired with different protocols. We investigate the use of classifier ensembles, where each classifier is weighted...... and the direction of measurement needs to be chosen carefully. We also show that a point set similarity measure is robust across different studies, and outperforms state-of-the-art results on a multi-center brain tissue segmentation task....

  11. Preliminary study of image findings of femoroacetabular impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhe; Zhang Jing; Hong Nan; Cheng Xiaoguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the image findings of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Methods: Image findings of 9 patients with surgically proved femoroacetabular impingement were retrospectively reviewed for characteristic image findings of FAI. All 9 patients underwent X-ray examinations and MRI of affected hip, and 1 patient underwent MR arthrography (MRA) additionally. Results: X-ray examinations of all 9 patients showed bump at femoral head-neck junction or overcoverage of the acetabular. MRI showed various degrees of injury of anterosuperior labrum in all 9 patients. The injuries were stage Ⅰ A in 2 cases, stage Ⅰ B in 3, stage Ⅱ A in 2, and stage Ⅱ B in 2. MRA of the case showed tears of anterosuperior labrum, with contrast media entering into the teared labrum. There were sclerosis and cystic degeneration of subchondral bone of femoral head in 2 cases, and these findings were confirmed as cartilage delamination by surgery. Conclusions: MRI can display the injures of labrum and articular cartilage, which is helpful to the early diagnosis of' FAI. (authors)

  12. Added diagnostic value of T2-weighted MR imaging to gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional dynamic MR imaging for the detection of small hepatocellular carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Chong Soo; Han, Young Min

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the added value of T2-weighted MRI to gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI for detection of HCCs. Materials and methods: Two readers retrospectively analyzed MRIs of 115 patients with 131 HCCs (size; 0.6-2.0 cm) that had been diagnosed by histology (n = 41) or imaging findings (n = 90). Two separate blind image analyses of the gadolinium set and the combined T2-weighted imaging and gadolinium sets were performed. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operating characteristic method with four-point scale. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were also calculated. Results: For both observers, the Az values and sensitivities with the combined T2-weighed imaging and gadolinium set (mean Az 0.806, sensitivity 84.7) were significantly higher than those with the gadolinium set (mean Az 0.660, sensitivity 59.9) (p < 0.05). The addition of T2-weighted imaging led to a change in diagnosis for 27 lesions by both observers, which at gadolinium set were assigned a confidence level of 1 or 2 but at additional reading of T2-weighted imaging were assigned a confidence level of 3 or 4. For the positive predictive values, each image set showed a similar value for each observer. Conclusion: The addition of T2-weighted imaging to gadolinium-enhanced 3D dynamic imaging could be helpful in the detection of HCC by increasing reader confidence for HCCs with equivocal findings on gadolinium-enhanced MRIs

  13. The spectrum of benign esophageal lesions: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Dae Hee; Shim, Young Mog

    2002-01-01

    Benign esophageal lesions occur in various diseases. Barium studies are useful for the evaluation of mucosal surface lesions but provide little information about the extramucosal extent of disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, on the other hand, permit the assessment of wall thickness, mediastinal involvement, adjacent lymphadenopathy, and distant spread. In diseases such as fibrovascular polyps, duplication cysts, scleroderma, trauma, caustic esophagitis, hiatal hernia, esophageal diverticulum, achalasia, and paraesophageal varices, the findings of imaging studies are specific, obviating the need for further invasive diagnostic work-up. The advent of helical computed tomography and its volume data set allows the acquisition of multiplanar images, and magnetic resonance imaging is useful both for this and for tissue characterization. Thus, multiplanar cross-sectional imaging further extends the role of imaging modalities to the evaluation of benign esophageal lesions. Through an awareness of the multiplanar cross-sectional appearances of various benign esophageal lesions, the radiologist can play an important role in the detection, diagnosis, further diagnostic planning, and treatment of the diseases in which they occur

  14. The spectrum of benign esophageal lesions: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Dae Hee; Shim, Young Mog [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    Benign esophageal lesions occur in various diseases. Barium studies are useful for the evaluation of mucosal surface lesions but provide little information about the extramucosal extent of disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, on the other hand, permit the assessment of wall thickness, mediastinal involvement, adjacent lymphadenopathy, and distant spread. In diseases such as fibrovascular polyps, duplication cysts, scleroderma, trauma, caustic esophagitis, hiatal hernia, esophageal diverticulum, achalasia, and paraesophageal varices, the findings of imaging studies are specific, obviating the need for further invasive diagnostic work-up. The advent of helical computed tomography and its volume data set allows the acquisition of multiplanar images, and magnetic resonance imaging is useful both for this and for tissue characterization. Thus, multiplanar cross-sectional imaging further extends the role of imaging modalities to the evaluation of benign esophageal lesions. Through an awareness of the multiplanar cross-sectional appearances of various benign esophageal lesions, the radiologist can play an important role in the detection, diagnosis, further diagnostic planning, and treatment of the diseases in which they occur.

  15. Sacrococcygeal yolk sac carcinoma: imaging findings during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, S.C.; Bridges, J.O.; Marina, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sacrococcygeal teratomas and their malignant counterparts (germ cell tumors) are the most common solid tumors in neonates. Prompt diagnosis is essential because the frequency of malignant transformation increases from 10-20 % in neonates to 67 % in patients over 2 months of age. Cross-sectional imaging has largely replaced surgical exploration for staging these tumors and assessing their response to chemotherapy. Radiologists must be familiar with changes in the imaging findings of these tumors during and after treatment so that they can advise clinicians regarding the efficacy of therapy and the presence or absence of recurrent disease. From our study, magnetic resonance imaging appears to be a better modality for assessing sacral invasion and metastases and distinguishing fibrotic masses from recurrent tumor. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Imaging findings in posterior instability of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Srinivasan; Rebello, Ryan; O'Neill, John; Nagar, Arpit; Moro, Jaydeep; Pugh, David

    2008-01-01

    Posterior shoulder instability refers to the symptoms and signs resulting from excessive posterior translation of the humerus. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the radiological modality of choice in the diagnostic assessment of posterior instability. Computed tomography (CT) is useful in the evaluation of osseous abnormalities associated with posterior instability. A detailed description of the posterior osseous and labroligamentous abnormalities has evolved recently, and many variant lesions of the posteroinferior labrum and/or capsular structures have been described. As the recommended surgical management of lesions associated with posterior instability is a lesion-specific approach, awareness of the specific lesions that have been described in association with posterior instability helps in pre-surgical planning. The purpose of this article is to review the classification of, and injury mechanisms leading to, posterior shoulder instability and to describe imaging findings associated with posterior instability, with emphasis on MR imaging. (orig.)

  17. Imaging findings in posterior instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harish, Srinivasan; Rebello, Ryan; O' Neill, John [St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada); McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton (Canada); Nagar, Arpit [St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Moro, Jaydeep [St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hamilton, ON (Canada); McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton (Canada); Pugh, David [Brantford General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    Posterior shoulder instability refers to the symptoms and signs resulting from excessive posterior translation of the humerus. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the radiological modality of choice in the diagnostic assessment of posterior instability. Computed tomography (CT) is useful in the evaluation of osseous abnormalities associated with posterior instability. A detailed description of the posterior osseous and labroligamentous abnormalities has evolved recently, and many variant lesions of the posteroinferior labrum and/or capsular structures have been described. As the recommended surgical management of lesions associated with posterior instability is a lesion-specific approach, awareness of the specific lesions that have been described in association with posterior instability helps in pre-surgical planning. The purpose of this article is to review the classification of, and injury mechanisms leading to, posterior shoulder instability and to describe imaging findings associated with posterior instability, with emphasis on MR imaging. (orig.)

  18. Surgical approaches to chronic pancreatitis: indications and imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Singh, Vikesh K; Johnson, Stephen I; Makary, Martin A; Hirose, Kenzo; Fishman, Elliot K; Zaheer, Atif

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible, inflammatory process characterized by progressive fibrosis of the pancreas that can result in abdominal pain, exocrine insufficiency, and diabetes. Inadequate pain relief using medical and/or endoscopic therapies is an indication for surgery. The surgical management of CP is centered around three main operations including pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) and drainage procedures, and total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). PD is the method of choice when there is a high suspicion for malignancy. Combined drainage and resection procedures are associated with pain relief, higher quality of life, and superior short-term and long-term survival in comparison with the PD. TPIAT is a reemerging treatment that may be promising in subjects with intractable pain and impaired quality of life. Imaging examinations have an extensive role in pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of CP patients. Pre-operative advanced imaging examinations including CT and MRI can detect hallmarks of CP such as calcifications, pancreatic duct dilatation, chronic pseudocysts, focal pancreatic enlargement, and biliary ductal dilatation. Post-operative findings may include periportal hepatic edema, pneumobilia, perivascular cuffing and mild pancreatic duct dilation. Imaging can also be useful in the detection of post-operative complications including obstructions, anastomotic leaks, and vascular lesions. Imaging helps identify unique post-operative findings associated with TPIAT and may aid in predicting viability and function of the transplanted islet cells. In this review, we explore surgical indications as well as pre-operative and post-operative imaging findings associated with surgical options that are typically performed for CP patients.

  19. Metastatic meningioma: positron emission tomography CT imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, C

    2010-12-01

    The imaging findings of a case of metastasing meningioma are described. The case illustrates a number of rare and interesting features. The patient presented with haemoptysis 22 years after the initial resection of an intracranial meningioma. CT demonstrated heterogeneous masses with avid peripheral enhancement without central enhancement. Blood supply to the larger lesion was partially from small feeding vessels from the inferior pulmonary vein. These findings correlate with a previously published case in which there was avid uptake of fluoro-18-deoxyglucose peripherally with lesser uptake centrally. The diagnosis of metastasing meningioma was confirmed on percutaneous lung tissue biopsy.

  20. Comparison study between the MR images and pathomorphologic findings of the pulmonary hilar lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Kunihiro; Sakai, Fumikazu; Sone, Shusuke; Imai, Yutaka; Kawai, Takashi; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Ito, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    The MR images of the resected human lungs were correlated with pathomorphologic findings of the specimens to facilitate interpretation of the pulmonary hilum, specifically hilar lymph nodes. Normal hilar lymph nodes were demonstrated as low signal intensity structures on T1-, T2- and proton-density-weighted images. The walls of the pulmonary vessels and bronchi were shown as linear structures of relatively low intensity, with fatty tissue of high intensity surrounding these structures. Among these low signal intensity hilar lymph nodes were shown resulting from anthracosis, which were similar to those by fibrotic foci. (author)

  1. MR imaging findings of neuroschistosomiasis manifested as the cerebellar granuloma and transverse myelitis of cervical cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Kim, Ki Jung; Choi, Soon Kwan; Lee, Dong Wha [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    To our knowledge, MR findings of neuroshistosomiasis has not been reported in Korea. A case of neuroshistosomiasis involving cerebellum and presumably spinal cord is reported. A 40 years old man who had lived in Middle East complained of low back pain and progressive paraparesis for 6 months, and subsequently developed headache, dizziness and diplopia. On cervical sine MRI, there was diffuse enlargement of cervical cord with increased signal intensity on T2 weighted image and nodular heterogenous enhancement after Gd-DTPA administration. Brain MR imaging obtained 4 months later showed ill- defined, irregularly enhancing heterogenous mass in cerebellar vermis which was proved to be a granulomatous lesion containing schistosomiasis mansonil ova.

  2. Multimodality imaging findings of massive ovarian edema in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmoush, Hisham [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A.; Chauvin, Nancy A. [University of Pennsylvania, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Massive ovarian edema is a rare benign condition that predominantly affects childbearing women as well as preadolescent girls. It is thought to result from intermittent or partial torsion of the ovary compromising the venous and lymphatic drainage but with preserved arterial supply. The clinical features of massive ovarian edema are nonspecific and can simulate tumors, leading to unnecessary oophorectomy. To demonstrate imaging features that should alert radiologists to consider the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema preoperatively so that fertility-sparing surgery may be considered. We identified five girls diagnosed with massive ovarian edema at pathology. Presenting symptoms, sidedness, imaging appearance, preoperative diagnosis, and operative and histopathological findings were reviewed. Age range was 9.6-14.3 years (mean age: 12.5 years). Common imaging findings included ovarian enlargement with edema of the stroma, peripherally placed follicles, isointense signal on T1-W MRI and markedly hyperintense signal on T2-W MRI, preservation of color Doppler flow by US, and CT Hounsfield units below 40. The uterus was deviated to the affected side in all patients. Two of the five patients had small to moderate amounts of free pelvic fluid. Mean ovarian volume on imaging was 560 mL (range: 108-1,361 mL). While the clinical presentation of massive ovarian edema is nonspecific, an enlarged ovary with stromal edema, peripherally placed follicles and preservation of blood flow may be suggestive and wedge biopsy should be considered intraoperatively to avoid unnecessary removal of the ovary. (orig.)

  3. Multimodality imaging findings of massive ovarian edema in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmoush, Hisham; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Chauvin, Nancy A.; Pawel, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a rare benign condition that predominantly affects childbearing women as well as preadolescent girls. It is thought to result from intermittent or partial torsion of the ovary compromising the venous and lymphatic drainage but with preserved arterial supply. The clinical features of massive ovarian edema are nonspecific and can simulate tumors, leading to unnecessary oophorectomy. To demonstrate imaging features that should alert radiologists to consider the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema preoperatively so that fertility-sparing surgery may be considered. We identified five girls diagnosed with massive ovarian edema at pathology. Presenting symptoms, sidedness, imaging appearance, preoperative diagnosis, and operative and histopathological findings were reviewed. Age range was 9.6-14.3 years (mean age: 12.5 years). Common imaging findings included ovarian enlargement with edema of the stroma, peripherally placed follicles, isointense signal on T1-W MRI and markedly hyperintense signal on T2-W MRI, preservation of color Doppler flow by US, and CT Hounsfield units below 40. The uterus was deviated to the affected side in all patients. Two of the five patients had small to moderate amounts of free pelvic fluid. Mean ovarian volume on imaging was 560 mL (range: 108-1,361 mL). While the clinical presentation of massive ovarian edema is nonspecific, an enlarged ovary with stromal edema, peripherally placed follicles and preservation of blood flow may be suggestive and wedge biopsy should be considered intraoperatively to avoid unnecessary removal of the ovary. (orig.)

  4. Myositis Ossificans of Psoas Muscle: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirvanci, M.; Ganiyusufoglu, A.K.; Karaman, K.; Tezer, M.; Hamzaoglu, A. [Univ. of Kadir Has, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-08-01

    Myositis ossificans is a benign, localized, self-limiting ossifying soft tissue mass with unknown pathogenesis. It may be confused with a malignant tumor of bone or soft tissues, especially in the early stages of the disease. In this report, we present a case of myositis ossificans affecting unilateral psoas muscle, which to our knowledge is a very uncommon location. There was no history of trauma. We describe the imaging findings and clues to early diagnosis of myositis ossificans.

  5. Myositis Ossificans of Psoas Muscle: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirvanci, M.; Ganiyusufoglu, A.K.; Karaman, K.; Tezer, M.; Hamzaoglu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Myositis ossificans is a benign, localized, self-limiting ossifying soft tissue mass with unknown pathogenesis. It may be confused with a malignant tumor of bone or soft tissues, especially in the early stages of the disease. In this report, we present a case of myositis ossificans affecting unilateral psoas muscle, which to our knowledge is a very uncommon location. There was no history of trauma. We describe the imaging findings and clues to early diagnosis of myositis ossificans

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Different Polymicrogyria Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: As one of the most common types of developmental cortical malformations, polymicrogyria can be seen in patients who are presented with clinical findings, such as epilepsy, mental motor retardation and spasticity and polymicrogyria may present in very different types. MRI is an effective imaging technique in patients presenting with cortical developmental malformations such as polymicrogyria [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 151-157

  7. Pulmonary fungal infection: Imaging findings in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Yi, Chin A; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Joungho

    2006-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in North America, and is followed by coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis. Although the majority of these infections in immunocompetent persons are self-limited, some patients can develop severe pneumonitis or various forms of chronic pulmonary infection. Cryptococcoci, Aspergillus, Candidas, and Mucorals are ubiquitous organisms, which may affect immunocompromised patients. Specific imaging findings can be expected, depending on the organisms involved, underlying patients' conditions (immune status), and specific situations after immune depleting procedures

  8. INTRACRANIAL HYDATID DISEASE: IMAGING FINDINGS OF A RARE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    idil Gunes Tatar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. It is mainly endemic in North African and Mediterranean countries. The disease usually manifests in liver and lungs although involvement of other organs are also seen. In this rare case intracranial hydatid disease in a 9-year-old female patient is presented with Magnetic Resonance Imaging findings. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 103-105

  9. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the clinical value of diffusion-weight- ed imaging (DWI) for the diagnosis of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) by comparing the diagnostic sensitivity of DWI and magnetic resonance cholan-giopancreatography (MRCP). METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 56 patients with suspected EHCC. T1- weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, MRCP and DWI sequence, DWI using single-shot spin-echo echoplanar imaging sequence with different b values (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1...

  10. Round pneumonia: imaging findings in a large series of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Woo; Donnelly, Lane F.

    2007-01-01

    Although round pneumonia is a well-known clinical entity, there have been no large case reviews, with most knowledge based on case reports and small series from the 1960s and 1970s. To review the imaging findings of a large series of children with round pneumonia. A retrospective review of radiographic and CT findings in all children reported to have round pneumonia at a large children's hospital from 2000 to 2006 was performed. Children with underlying medical conditions were excluded. Epidemiologic characteristics, radiographic and CT findings, and follow-up imaging were reviewed. The review identified 109 children (mean age 5 years, range 4 months to 19 years). Round pneumonias tended to be solitary 98% (107/109), have well-defined borders 70% (77/109), and be posteriorly located 83% (91/109), with the following lobar distribution: left lower lobe (36), right lower lobe (33), right upper lobe (28), left upper lobe (7), right middle lobe (4), and lingula (2). Round pneumonia tended to resolve on follow-up imaging (95%, 41/43) as compared to progression to lobar pneumonia (4.6%, 2/43). Three patients (2.6%, 3/112) originally suspected to have round pneumonia were later shown to have other diagnoses: cavitary necrosis in pneumonia (two) or pleural pseudocyst (one). Round pneumonia occurs in young children (mean age 5 years), tends to be a solitary lesion, and is most commonly posteriorly located. Misdiagnosis of other pathology as round pneumonia is uncommon. (orig.)

  11. MR imaging findings of the femoral marrow in myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Takagi, Shojiro; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Jun

    1995-01-01

    MR imaging of the femoral marrow was performed in 30 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 11 cases of which evolved to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The MRI appearance was classified into five patterns: fatty marrow; faint signal; nodular pattern; heterogeneous infiltration; and diffuse infiltration. For each type of MDS, MRI patterns of the femoral marrow were evaluated and compared with those in normal subjects as well as in patients with aplastic anemia. Signal intensity alteration, a low signal on T1-weighted SE image and a high signal on STIR image, began in the proximal femoral marrow almost symmetrically in patients with MDS. The area of abnormal signal intensity tended to gradually extend towards the distal portion of the femur as the disease progressed. MRI patterns of the femoral marrow correlated with marrow cellularity, and diffuse marrow infiltration was noted in patients with a more advanced type of MDS or with severe anemia. There were limitations to making an accurate diagnosis of the MDS type on the basis of the MRI pattern. Progression of the MRI appearance in the course of MDS was thought to be a sign suggesting evolution to AML. It was difficult to differentiate hypoplastic MDS from aplastic anemia, although the nodular pattern was commonly seen in the latter disease. (author)

  12. MR imaging findings of the femoral marrow in myelodysplastic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Takagi, Shojiro; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Jun [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    MR imaging of the femoral marrow was performed in 30 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 11 cases of which evolved to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The MRI appearance was classified into five patterns: fatty marrow; faint signal; nodular pattern; heterogeneous infiltration; and diffuse infiltration. For each type of MDS, MRI patterns of the femoral marrow were evaluated and compared with those in normal subjects as well as in patients with aplastic anemia. Signal intensity alteration, a low signal on T1-weighted SE image and a high signal on STIR image, began in the proximal femoral marrow almost symmetrically in patients with MDS. The area of abnormal signal intensity tended to gradually extend towards the distal portion of the femur as the disease progressed. MRI patterns of the femoral marrow correlated with marrow cellularity, and diffuse marrow infiltration was noted in patients with a more advanced type of MDS or with severe anemia. There were limitations to making an accurate diagnosis of the MDS type on the basis of the MRI pattern. Progression of the MRI appearance in the course of MDS was thought to be a sign suggesting evolution to AML. It was difficult to differentiate hypoplastic MDS from aplastic anemia, although the nodular pattern was commonly seen in the latter disease. (author).

  13. Fast T1-weighted imaging using GRASE sequence for the female pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohke, Masako; Watanabe, Yuji; Kumashiro, Masayuki; Amoh, Yoshiki; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Oda, Kazushige; Okumura, Akira; Koike, Shinji; Dodo, Yoshihiro

    1998-01-01

    GRASE sequence, a combination of TSE and gradient echo, has been developed as a fast T 2 -weighted imaging technique. We have modified the GRASE sequence to be used for fast T 1 -weighted imaging of the female pelvis. In this article, we compared image quality and incidence of artifacts between T 1 -weighted GRASE images and conventional T 1 -weighted SE images. In a phantom study, signal-to-noise ratio was inferior in the GRASE images relative to corresponding on SE images. Susceptibility and chemical shift artifacts seen in GRASE images were seen with almost equal incidence in SE and TSE images. In a clinical study, we compared GRASE images with SE images in six patients with endometrial cysts and four patients with dermoid cysts. The overall image quality obtained with GRASE sequence was satisfactory in all patients and was almost identical with that obtained with SE sequence. GRASE images demonstrated endometrial cysts and dermoid cysts as clearly as did SE images. T 1 -weighted GRASE imaging, however, has a relatively long TE (35 ms) for T 1 -weighted images, which makes the signal intensity of urine and uterine endometrium with long T 2 values higher than in SE images. In conclusion, GRASE sequence can be used for fast T 1 -weighted imaging of the female pelvis because of short imaging time. (author)

  14. Flair MR imaging in the Detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage : comparison with CT and T1-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Soo Hyun; Kim, Soo Youn; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Oh, Tae Kyung; Kim, Ho Kyun [College of Medicine, Jnje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To compare the findings of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging in the detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with those of precontrast CT and T1-weighted MR imaging. In 13 patients (14 cases) with SAH, FLAIR MR images were retrospectively analyzed and compared with CT (10 patients, 11 cases) and T1-weighted MR images (9 cases). SAH was confirmed on the basis of high density along the subarachnoid space, as seen on precontrast CT, or lumbar puncture. MR imaging was performed on a 1.0T unit. FLAIR MR and CT images were obtained during the acute stage(less than 3 days after ictus) in 10 and 9 cases, respectively, during the subacute stage (4-14 days after ictus) in two cases and one, respectively, and during the chronic stage (more than 15 days after ictus) in two cases and one, respectively. CT was performed before FLAIR MR imaging, and the interval between CT and FLAIR ranged from 24 hours (6 cases) to 2-3 (2 cases) or 4-7 days (3 cases). In each study, the conspicuity of visualization of SAH was graded as excellent, good, fair, or negative at five locations (sylvian fissure, cortical sulci, anterior basal cistern, posterior basal cistern, and perimesencephalic cistern). In all cases, subarachnoid hemorrhages were demonstrated as high signal intensity areas on FLAIR images. The detection rates for SAH on CT and T1-weighted MR images were 100% (11/11) and 89% (8/9), respectively. FLAIR was superior to T1-weighted imaging in the detection of SAH at all sites except the anterior basal cistern (p less than 0.05) and superior to CT in the detection of SAH at the cortical sulci (p less than 0.05). On FLAIR MR images, subarachnoid hemorrhages at all stages are demonstrated as high signal intensity areas; the FLAIR MR sequence is thus considered useful in the detection of SAH. In particular FLAIR is more sensitive than CT for the detection of SAH in the cortical sulci. (author)

  15. An intracranial aspergilloma with low signal on T2-weighted images corresponding to iron accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States); Zoarski, G.H.; Rothman, M.I.; Zagardo, M.T. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States); Nishimura, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Sun, C.C.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    We present a case of cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. The MRI signal characteristics were compared with the histologic findings. Irregular low-signal zones were demonstrated between the wall of the abscess and the central necrosis on T2-weighted images; the pathology specimen revealed concentrated iron in these transitional zones but no hemosiderin. Iron is an essential element for the growth of fungal hyphae. The low-signal zones may represent the areas where there was active proliferation of aspergillus, and the unique location of the low signal may be a helpful imaging characteristic for the diagnosis of an aspergillus abscess. (orig.)

  16. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in children; MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Yong Sun [Kyungpook National Univ. Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Hak [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    To find out the characteristic MR findings of reversible posterior leukoen-cephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) due to various causes in chldren. Eigh children with RPLS underwent MR imaging, and the findings were retrospectively analyzed. All eight were acutely hypertensive at the time of a neurotoxic episode. Three had intra-abdominal tumors (one adrenal pheochromo-cytoma, one para-aortic paraganglioma and one para-aortic ganglioneuroma encasing the left renal artery): three were being treated with cyclosporine: one was being treated with steroid: and one had hemolytric uremic syndrome. Initial cranial MR images were analyzed with particular emphasis on the distribution of the lesions. To assess possible sequelae, follow-up MR images were obtained in seven patients at least one week after the treatment of hypertension. Four underwent proton MR spectroscopy. Characteristic distribution of lesions in the occipital and posterior parietal lobes was identified in all cases regardless of the causes of RPLS. The cerebellum, basal ganglia, anterior parietal, and frontal lobe were involved in four, two, one, and one case, respectively. Cortical gray matter involvement was predominant in six and subcortical white matter involvement predominated in two patients. The distribution of lesions was bilateral and asymmetric. Gyriform enhancement was identified in six cases, and small hemorrhage was noted in one. In seven patients, the clinical and MR findings improved without sequelae on follow-up study. In one, proton MR spectroscopy demonstrated a high lactate peak at the time of the neurologic event. Nearnormal spectra were noted in three children who underwent proton MR spectroscopy after recovery. The MR findings of RPLS are characteristic in that lesions are distributed in the posterior region of the brain and they are reversible on follow-up study. In children with RPLS due to unknown causes, the possibility of intra-abdominal tumors should also be consiodered.

  17. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in children; MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Yong Sun; Kwon, Soon Hak

    2001-01-01

    To find out the characteristic MR findings of reversible posterior leukoen-cephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) due to various causes in chldren. Eigh children with RPLS underwent MR imaging, and the findings were retrospectively analyzed. All eight were acutely hypertensive at the time of a neurotoxic episode. Three had intra-abdominal tumors (one adrenal pheochromo-cytoma, one para-aortic paraganglioma and one para-aortic ganglioneuroma encasing the left renal artery): three were being treated with cyclosporine: one was being treated with steroid: and one had hemolytric uremic syndrome. Initial cranial MR images were analyzed with particular emphasis on the distribution of the lesions. To assess possible sequelae, follow-up MR images were obtained in seven patients at least one week after the treatment of hypertension. Four underwent proton MR spectroscopy. Characteristic distribution of lesions in the occipital and posterior parietal lobes was identified in all cases regardless of the causes of RPLS. The cerebellum, basal ganglia, anterior parietal, and frontal lobe were involved in four, two, one, and one case, respectively. Cortical gray matter involvement was predominant in six and subcortical white matter involvement predominated in two patients. The distribution of lesions was bilateral and asymmetric. Gyriform enhancement was identified in six cases, and small hemorrhage was noted in one. In seven patients, the clinical and MR findings improved without sequelae on follow-up study. In one, proton MR spectroscopy demonstrated a high lactate peak at the time of the neurologic event. Nearnormal spectra were noted in three children who underwent proton MR spectroscopy after recovery. The MR findings of RPLS are characteristic in that lesions are distributed in the posterior region of the brain and they are reversible on follow-up study. In children with RPLS due to unknown causes, the possibility of intra-abdominal tumors should also be consiodered

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Coskun, Sonay; Ogur, Erkin; Dagli, A.F.; Ozkan, Yusuf; Sahpaz, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the diagnostic role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiating of malignant and benign thyroid nodules by using fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology criteria as a reference standard. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the normal-looking thyroid parenchyma were also evaluated both in normal patients and in patients with nodules. Between March 2007 and February 2008, 76 consecutive patients with ultrasound-diagnosed thyroid nodules and 20 healthy subjects underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging by using single-shot spin echo, echo planar imaging. A total of 93 nodules were included in the study using the following b factors 100, 200, and 300 mm 2 /s. ADC values of thyroid nodules and normal area in all subjects were calculated and compared using suitable statistical analysis. Mean ADC values for malignant and benign nodules were 0.96±0.65 x 10 -3 and 3.06±0.71 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. for b-300 factor, 0.56±0.43 x 10 -3 and 1.80±0.60 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s for b-200, and 0.30±0.20 x 10 -3 and 1.15±0.43 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, for b-300, respectively. Mean ADC values of malignant nodules were lower than benign nodules. There were significant differences in ADC values between benign and malignant nodules. ADC values among normal-appearing thyroid parenchyma of patients and normal-appearing thyroid parenchyma of healthy subjects were insignificant at all b factors. Benign nodules have higher ADC values than malignant ones. DWI may be helpful in differentiating malign and benign thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  19. Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Acute Attacks of Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudi, Yasmin; Foroughipour, Mohsen; Torabi, Reza; Layegh, Parvaneh; Matin, Nassim; Shoeibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. In spite of various imaging modalities, the definitive diagnosis of MS remains challenging. This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of acute MS attack and to compare its results with contrast enhanced MRI (CE-MRI). In this cross sectional study, seventy patients with definite diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS were included. CE-MRI using 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium as well as DWI sequences were performed for all patients. The percentage of patients with positive DWI was compared with the results of CE-MRI and the consistency between the two imaging modalities was evaluated. Moreover, the relationship between the time of onset of patient’s symptoms and test results for both methods were investigated. CE-MRI yielded positive results for 61 (87%) patients and DWI yielded positive for 53 (76%) patients. In fifty patients (71.42%), both tests were positive and in six cases (8.57%), both were negative. The test results of three patients turned out to be positive in DWI, while they tested negative in CE-MRI. There was no significant relationship between the results of CE-MRI as well as DWI and the time of imaging from the onset of symptoms. These data indicate that while CE-MRI will depict more positive results, there are cases in which DWI will show a positive result while CE-MRI is negative. We suggest that the combination of these two imaging modalities might yield more positive results in diagnosing acute MS attack giving rise to a more accurate diagnosis

  20. Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries in infants and children: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplewitz, B.Z.; Manson, D.E.; Babyn, P.S.; Ramos, C.; Ein, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries (DI) in infants and children are uncommon and are often associated with multiple severe injuries. Delayed presentation can be life threatening due to organ herniation and strangulation. We present the imaging findings in a relatively large population of children who experienced this rare injury. Methods. Medical records of all patients admitted to our Trauma Service from 1977 to 1998 with DI were retrospectively reviewed recording imaging, clinical and surgical or autopsy findings. Results. Of sixteen patients with DI (7 females, 9 males; age 3 weeks to 15 years), 14 suffered from blunt trauma secondary to high-energy impact, and 2 from penetrating injuries. Unilateral DI occurred equally on each side, with one bilateral injury. Associated injuries, present in 81%, included severe head injuries, visceral, mesenteric and vascular injuries and multiple fractures. Six patients died from multiple organ failure (3), head injury (2), and shock (1). Findings in the initial chest X-ray suggested the diagnosis in 13 (81%) of 16 injuries, and CT demonstrated irregularity and thickening of the diaphragm in 4 out of 7. Conclusions. Plain film findings suggested the diagnosis in most; CT and MR were useful adjuncts. High index of suspicion and awareness of the mechanism of injury can lead to prompt diagnosis, early repair, and decreased morbidity and mortality. (orig.)

  1. Musculoskeletal findings in obese subjects before and after weight loss following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, M M; Stellato, T A; Hallowell, P T; Seitz, B A; Moskowitz, R W

    2007-01-01

    To determine the point prevalence of painful musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in obese subjects before and after weight loss following bariatric surgery. Longitudinal, interventional, unblended. Forty-eight obese subjects (47 women, one man, mean age 44+/-9 years; mean body mass index (BMI) 51+/-8 kg/m(2)) recruited from an academic medical center bariatric surgery program. Comorbid medical conditions; MSK findings; BMI; Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for pain, stiffness and function; and SF-36 for quality of life. Consecutive subjects were recruited from the University Hospitals of Cleveland Bariatric Surgery Program. Musculoskeletal signs and symptoms and non-MSK comorbid conditions were documented at baseline and at follow-up. SUBJECTS completed the SF-36 and the WOMAC questionnaires. Analyses were carried out for each MSK site, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and for the cumulative effect on the spine, upper and lower extremities. The impact of change in comorbid medical conditions, BMI, physical and mental health domains of the SF-36 on the WOMAC pain subscale score was evaluated. SF-36 outcomes were compared to normal published controls. Forty-eight subjects were available for baseline and a follow-up assessment 6-12 months after gastric bypass surgery. They lost an average of 41+/-15 kg and the mean BMI decreased from 51+/-8 to 36+/-7 kg/m(2). Baseline comorbid medical conditions were present in 96% before surgery and 23% after weight loss. There was an increased prevalence of painful MSK conditions at baseline compared to general population frequencies. Musculoskeletal complaints had been present in 100% of obese subjects before, and 23% after weight loss. The greatest improvements occurred in the cervical and lumbar spine, the foot and in FMS (decreased by 90, 83, 83 and 92%, respectively). Seventy-nine percent had upper extremity MSK conditions before and 40% after weight loss. Before surgery, 100% had lower extremity MSK conditions and

  2. Hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma: correlation of MR imaging with operative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, N.; Takahashi, S.; Higano, S.; Mugikura, S.; Singh, L.N.; Furuta, S.; Tamura, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Maruoka, S.; Yamada, S. [Department of Radiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Ikeda, H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR imaging and operative findings of hemorrhage in pituitary macroadenomas. We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 113 surgically proven pituitary adenomas. All patients were examined on a 1.5-T MR system. The intensity of intratumoral cystic cavities was correlated with operative findings. In 15 patients with pituitary apoplexy, we determined relationship between interval of MR examination after apoplectic event and MR signal intensity. In 8 patients with repeated preoperative MR examination, we evaluated sequential changes of intratumoral hemorrhage. There were 54 cavities at surgery: 52 were hemorrhagic and 2 were nonhemorrhagic. Twenty-nine of 52 hemorrhagic cysts demonstrated high/low signal (H/L) fluid-fluid levels on T2-weighted image (T2WI). In 19 of them, two components could be separately seen at operation: the supernatant high-intensity area represented xanthochromic fluid, and the dependent low-intensity area represented liquefied hematoma. The H/L fluid-fluid level was observed predominantly in hematomas on MR images obtained after longer intervals. In patients with repeated MR examination, follow-up MR imaging revealed additional hemorrhage or new formation of fluid-fluid levels. It was surprising that 12 of 14 cysts preoperatively judged as nonhemorrhagic in fact contained hemorrhagic components. The preoperative MR images are well correlated to the operative findings in hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenomas. It proved that 52 of 54 cystic cavities had hemorrhagic component. (orig.) With 8 figs., 3 tabs., 17 refs.

  3. Hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma: correlation of MR imaging with operative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, N.; Takahashi, S.; Higano, S.; Mugikura, S.; Singh, L.N.; Furuta, S.; Tamura, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Maruoka, S.; Yamada, S.; Ikeda, H.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR imaging and operative findings of hemorrhage in pituitary macroadenomas. We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 113 surgically proven pituitary adenomas. All patients were examined on a 1.5-T MR system. The intensity of intratumoral cystic cavities was correlated with operative findings. In 15 patients with pituitary apoplexy, we determined relationship between interval of MR examination after apoplectic event and MR signal intensity. In 8 patients with repeated preoperative MR examination, we evaluated sequential changes of intratumoral hemorrhage. There were 54 cavities at surgery: 52 were hemorrhagic and 2 were nonhemorrhagic. Twenty-nine of 52 hemorrhagic cysts demonstrated high/low signal (H/L) fluid-fluid levels on T2-weighted image (T2WI). In 19 of them, two components could be separately seen at operation: the supernatant high-intensity area represented xanthochromic fluid, and the dependent low-intensity area represented liquefied hematoma. The H/L fluid-fluid level was observed predominantly in hematomas on MR images obtained after longer intervals. In patients with repeated MR examination, follow-up MR imaging revealed additional hemorrhage or new formation of fluid-fluid levels. It was surprising that 12 of 14 cysts preoperatively judged as nonhemorrhagic in fact contained hemorrhagic components. The preoperative MR images are well correlated to the operative findings in hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenomas. It proved that 52 of 54 cystic cavities had hemorrhagic component. (orig.)

  4. Associations between spondyloarthritis features and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, Bodil; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    were 1) to estimate the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features included in the ASAS criteria for SpA and 2) to explore the associations between MRI findings and clinical features. METHODS: We included patients ages 18-40 years with persistent low back pain who had...... been referred to the Spine Centre of Southern Denmark. We collected information on clinical features (including HLA-B27 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and MRI findings in the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints. RESULTS: Of 1,020 included patients, 537 (53%) had at least 1 of the clinical...... according to the ASAS definition was present in 217 patients (21%). Of those 217 patients, 91 (42%) had the minimum amount of bone marrow edema required according to the ASAS definition (a low bone marrow edema score). The presence of HLA-B27, peripheral arthritis, a good response to NSAIDs, and preceding...

  5. Cervicofacial tissue infarction in patients with acute invasive fungal sinusitis: prevalence and characteristic MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungmin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Hanbee; Choi, Jin Wook; Cha, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Sung Tae

    2013-03-01

    Tissue infarction is known as one of the characteristic features of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristic MR imaging findings of cervicofacial tissue infarction (CFTI) associated with acute IFS. We retrospectively reviewed MR images in 23 patients with histologically or microbiologically proven acute IFS. CFTI was defined as an area of lack of enhancement in and around the sinonasal tract on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. We divided CFTI into two groups, i.e., intrasinonasal and extrasinonasal. Particular attention was paid to the location of extrasinonasal CFTI and the signal intensity of CFTI on T1- and T2-weighted images. The presence of bone destruction on CT scans was also recorded. CFTI was found in 17 (74%) of 23 patients. All of these 17 patients had intrasinonasal CFTI, and 13 patients also had extrasinonasal CFTI. All 13 patients with extrasinonasal CFTI died of disease directly related to IFS. Various locations were involved in the 13 patients with extrasinonasal CFTI, including the orbit (n = 8), infratemporal fossa (n = 7), intracranial cavity (n = 3), and oral cavity and/or facial soft tissue (n = 4). Various signal intensities were noted at the area of CFTI on T1- and T2-weighted images. Bone destruction was found on CT scans in only 3 of 17 patients with CFTI. CFTI with preservation of the bony wall of the involved sinonasal tract may be a characteristic MR imaging finding of acute IFS. The mortality is very high once the lesion extends beyond the sinonasal tract.

  6. Medical Image of the Week: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Severe RV Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickstrom K

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 56-year-old man with history a of alcohol abuse presents with progressive shortness of breath on exertion, bilateral lower extremity swelling and 12-pound weight gain over two weeks. His transthoracic echocardiography (Figure 1 demonstrated severely increased global right ventricle (RV size, severely dilated right atrium (RA, severe pulmonary artery (PA dilation, moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP estimated at 85 + central venous pressure (CVP in the context of severely reduced RV systolic function. Right heart catheterization (RHC showed PA pressure (systolic/diastolic, mean of 94/28, 51 mmHg with a PA occlusion pressure of 12 mmHg. After extensive evaluation, our patient’s presentation of right heart failure seemed to be a manifestation of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Our patient subsequently had cardiac MRI (cMRI with findings shown above (Figure 2. CMRI is a valuable, three-dimensional imaging modality that provides detailed morphology of the cardiac chambers along with accurate …

  7. Incidental Findings in Imaging Research: Evaluating Incidence, Benefit and Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Nicholas M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Siddiki, Hassan A.; Harmsen, W. Scott; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Port, John D.; Tremaine, William J.; Pitot, Henry C.; McFarland, Beth; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Koenig, Barabara A.; King, Bernard F.; Wolf, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Little information exists concerning the frequency of clinically significant incidental findings (IFs) identified in the course of imaging research across a broad spectrum of imaging modalities and body regions. Objective To estimate the frequency with which research imaging IFs generate further clinical action, and the medical benefit/burden of identifying these IFs. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective review of subjects undergoing a research imaging exam that was interpreted by a radiologist for IFs in the first quarter of 2004, with 3-year clinical follow-up. An expert panel reviewed IFs generating clinical action to determine medical benefit/burden based on predefined criteria. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of (1) IFs that generated further clinical action by modality, body part, age, gender, and (2) IFs resulting in clear medical benefit or burden. Results 1376 patients underwent 1426 research imaging studies. 40% (567/1426) of exams had at least one IF (1055 total). Risk of an IF increased significantly by age (OR=1.5; [1.4–1.7=95% C.I.] per decade increase). Abdominopelvic CT generated more IFs than other exams (OR=18.9 compared with ultrasound; 9.2% with subsequent clinical action), with CT Thorax and MR brain next (OR=11.9 and 5.9; 2.8% and 2.2% with action, respectively). Overall 6.2% of exams (35/567) with an IF generated clinical action, resulting in clear medical benefit in 1.1% (6/567) and clear medical burden in 0.5% (3/567). In most instances, medical benefit/burden was unclear (4.6%; 26/567). Conclusions The frequency of IFs in imaging research exams varies significantly by imaging modality, body region and age. Research imaging studies at high risk for generating IFs can be identified. Routine evaluation of research images by radiologists may result in identification of IFs in a substantial number of cases and subsequent clinical action to address them in much smaller number. Such clinical action can result in medical

  8. Detection of peritoneal dissemination in gynecological malignancy: evaluation by diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Shinya; Matsusue, Eiji; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Junko; Sugihara, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kanamori, Yasunobu; Kigawa, Junzo; Terakawa, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in detecting peritoneal dissemination in cases of gynecological malignancy. We retrospectively analyzed MR images obtained from 26 consecutive patients with gynecological malignancy. Peritoneal dissemination was histologically diagnosed in 15 of the 26 patients after surgery. We obtained DW images and half-Fourier single-shot turbo-spin-echo images in the abdomen and pelvis, and then generated fusion images. Coronal maximum-intensity-projection images were reconstructed from the axial source images. Reader interpretations were compared with the laparotomy findings in the surgical records. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to represent the presence of peritoneal dissemination. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated. DW imaging depicted the tumors in 14 of 15 patients with peritoneal dissemination as abnormal signal intensity. ROC analysis yielded Az values of 0.974 and 0.932 for the two reviewers. The mean sensitivity and specificity were 90 and 95.5%. DW imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of patients with gynecological malignancy. (orig.)

  9. Finding the Secret of Image Saliency in the Frequency Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Duan, Ling-Yu; Chen, Xiaowu; Huang, Tiejun; Tian, Yonghong

    2015-12-01

    There are two sides to every story of visual saliency modeling in the frequency domain. On the one hand, image saliency can be effectively estimated by applying simple operations to the frequency spectrum. On the other hand, it is still unclear which part of the frequency spectrum contributes the most to popping-out targets and suppressing distractors. Toward this end, this paper tentatively explores the secret of image saliency in the frequency domain. From the results obtained in several qualitative and quantitative experiments, we find that the secret of visual saliency may mainly hide in the phases of intermediate frequencies. To explain this finding, we reinterpret the concept of discrete Fourier transform from the perspective of template-based contrast computation and thus develop several principles for designing the saliency detector in the frequency domain. Following these principles, we propose a novel approach to design the saliency detector under the assistance of prior knowledge obtained through both unsupervised and supervised learning processes. Experimental results on a public image benchmark show that the learned saliency detector outperforms 18 state-of-the-art approaches in predicting human fixations.

  10. Finding of region of interest in radioisotope scintigraphy's images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazs, A.; Lubans, A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is about some problems, which arise, when physicians try to make diagnosis, using information from pictures, which are obtained at radioisotope scintigraphy. The algorithm of obtaining pictures' sets (called GFR) is described in this paper. The possible mistakes in diagnosis are also described. One reason of the mistakes is wrong detection the investigated organ's location. The new method is suggested for detection of organ's location in radioisotope scintigraphy's images' sets. Using of dynamic curves of pixels' intensities is suggested for solving of this problem. It is shown, why using of maximums of such curves is impossible for finding of the investigated organ's location in radioisotope scintigraphy's images sets. The using of integral expression is suggested to solve the problem. The suggested method allows finding and selecting of investigated organ's location in image's sequences (correction is not available in the existing methods). The results of using this method are present. The method can work fully automatically or with manual setting of threshold. (authors)

  11. Effect of endorsed body weight on specific absorption rate during magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harish K.; Gupta, R.K.; Gujral, R.B.; Shukla, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    As a routine safety of the patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the limits of radiofrequency (RF) specific absorption rate (SAR) are set by the manufacturers of all MRI systems because RF causes thermo genesis of the RF exposed tissue. It has been mandatory practice to endorse body weight and age of the patients required by the MRI systems for the SAR check. The problems arise on those patients who are critically ill, and consequently body weight could not be measured. In such cases, approximate body weight has to be endorsed. In case of underweight and overweight patients, sometimes SAR check does not permit to run the MRI pulse sequences. Also, in such cases, body weight remains the parameter which is being changed to get the MRI done. The purpose of this study is to assess the change of SAR with endorsed body weight. The change of SAR was recorded with the endorsed weight using phantoms and most commonly used T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequence on clinical MRI system. At true endorsed weight, using respective coils and the head and spine coil phantoms, the body averaged and localised SAR were found to be within limits while this was not the case with body coil phantom. Unrealistic endorsed weights are permissible for the adult age cases in all coils while using the routine T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequences. This finding is absolutely new in the field and certainly, will be of great applicability to develop a uniform and standard system of SAR checks in the patient interest. (author)

  12. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: imaging findings in 14 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, R; Chambers, S K

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  13. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications

  14. Clinical application of MR susceptibility weighted imaging in intracranial hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Baozhong; Wang Dan; Sun Xilin; Shen Hao; Liu Fang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. Methods: Forty patients with intracranial hemorrhage underwent MRI scanning (GE Signa HDe 1.5 T), which included T 2 WI, T 1 WI, T 2 * WI and SWI. Of them, DWI was conducted in 37 eases and enhanced MRI was conducted in 10 cases additionally. After post processing on the workstation, both magnitude and phase images of SWI were acquired for further analysis. The images of all sequences were scored from 1 to 3, according to their ability of depicting the lesions. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the scores among these sequences. Results: On SWI, the scores in detecting the lesions, their margin and adjacent veins were 2.8, 2.8, and 2.8 respectively. The scores of those were 1.8, 1.7, and 0.0 on T 1 WI, 2.3, 2.0 and 0.0 on T 2 WI, 2.0, 2.1 and 0.2 on T 2 * WI, respectively. There was statistical difference between the scores on SWI and those on T 1 WI, T 2 WI and T 2 * WI (P 1 WI, T 2 WI, DWI and T 2 * WI were 402, 55, 61, 84 and 188 respectively. There was statistical difference in showing micro hemorrhagic lesions between SWI and T 1 WI, T 2 WI, DWI, T 2 * WI (P 2 * WI in detecting intracranial hemorrhage, especially cerebral microbleeding. According to the features of the paramagnetic and diamagnetic lesions, radiologists can differentiate hemorrhage and calcification with phase images. (authors)

  15. Comparison of peritoneal tumor imaging using conventional MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging with different b values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, Mahmut [Buhara Private Hospital Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Doganay, Selim [Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Kantarci, Mecit, E-mail: akkanrad@hotmail.com [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Yalcin, Ahmet; Eren, Suat [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Atamanalp, S. Selcuk [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Erzurum (Turkey); Yuce, Ihsan [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Yildirgan, M. Ilhan [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of DW MRI with two different b values in identifying peritoneal tumors in oncology patients. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients with known malignancy underwent abdominal and pelvic MRI before surgery. MRI included free-breathing DWI with b values of 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}, T1-weighted fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo, T2-weighted fat-saturated turbo spin-echo, and 5-min delayed gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Two observers reviewed images for peritoneal tumors at ten anatomic sites within consensus. The results of laparatomy and histopathological evaluation were compared with MRI results. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of identifying peritoneal metastases were calculated for conventional MRI, combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI, and combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI by consensus of two observers. Results: One-hundred and twenty-five peritoneal metastasis sites were confirmed by surgical and histopathological findings. Conventional MRI alone identified 72 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.58; specificity, 0.87; accuracy, 0.67). Combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI revealed 106 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.88; accuracy, 0.85). Finally, combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI revealed 103 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.83; specificity, 0.94; accuracy, 0.86). Conclusion: DWI with a high b value provides complementary information that can improve the detection of peritoneal tumors when combined with conventional MRI. We recommend combined MRI and DWI with a high b value for increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of the preoperative detection of peritoneal tumors.

  16. Comparison of peritoneal tumor imaging using conventional MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging with different b values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Mahmut; Doganay, Selim; Kantarci, Mecit; Yalcin, Ahmet; Eren, Suat; Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Yuce, Ihsan; Yildirgan, M. Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of DW MRI with two different b values in identifying peritoneal tumors in oncology patients. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients with known malignancy underwent abdominal and pelvic MRI before surgery. MRI included free-breathing DWI with b values of 400 and 800 s/mm 2 , T1-weighted fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo, T2-weighted fat-saturated turbo spin-echo, and 5-min delayed gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Two observers reviewed images for peritoneal tumors at ten anatomic sites within consensus. The results of laparatomy and histopathological evaluation were compared with MRI results. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of identifying peritoneal metastases were calculated for conventional MRI, combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI, and combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI by consensus of two observers. Results: One-hundred and twenty-five peritoneal metastasis sites were confirmed by surgical and histopathological findings. Conventional MRI alone identified 72 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.58; specificity, 0.87; accuracy, 0.67). Combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI revealed 106 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.88; accuracy, 0.85). Finally, combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI revealed 103 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.83; specificity, 0.94; accuracy, 0.86). Conclusion: DWI with a high b value provides complementary information that can improve the detection of peritoneal tumors when combined with conventional MRI. We recommend combined MRI and DWI with a high b value for increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of the preoperative detection of peritoneal tumors.

  17. Imaging findings of pulmonary vascular disorders in portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Kenichi; Takahashi, Koji; Furuse, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and compare the imaging findings of hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of five patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome and four patients with portopulmonary hypertension. We evaluated chest radiographs, chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans, 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion scans, and pulmonary angiograms. In patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, the presence of peripheral pulmonary vascular dilatation was detected by chest radiograph, chest CT scan, and pulmonary angiogram, especially the basilar segment. 99m Tc-MAA lung perfusion scan showed extrapulmonary tracer distribution (brain, thyroid, and kidney), which revealed pulmonary right-left shunting. In patients with portopulmonary hypertension, chest radiographs and chest CT scans showed the classic findings of primary pulmonary hypertension. In patients with both disorders, extrahepatic features of portal hypertension including ascites, splenomegaly, and portosystemic collateral vessels were seen on abdominal CT. In conclusion, chest radiographs and CT in hepatopulmonary syndrome usually showed peripheral pulmonary vascular dilatation, whereas those in portopulmonary hypertension showed central pulmonary artery dilatation. The extrahepatic features of portal hypertension might be helpful for the diagnosis of both disorders. (author)

  18. Imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Sin; Byun, Jae Ho; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Bae, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm. From April 2000 to January 2005, eight patients (four men, four women; mean age, 50.6 years) with pathologically proved, extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involving the abdominal organs were included in this study. The diagnoses were based on consensus agreement between two radiologists who retrospectively reviewed CT, ultrasonography, and enteroclysis findings. We evaluated the findings by focusing on the location, size, margin, and enhancement pattern of the lesion, and lymphadenopathy on each image. There were multiple myeloma in four patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in the remaining four. Involved abdominal organs were the liver (n = 4), spleen (n 4), lymph node (n = 3), stomach (n = 1), small bowel (n = 1), and colon (n 1). The hepatic involvement of plasma cell neoplasm presented as a homogeneous, well-defined, solitary mass (n = 1), multiple nodules (n = 1), and hepatomegaly (n = 2). Its involvement of the spleen and lymph node appeared as splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, respectively. Its involvement of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, small bowel, and colon, presented as a homogeneous, diffuse wall thickening or mass in the gastrointestinal tract. Abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involves occasionally the liver, spleen, and lymph node, and rarely the gastrointestinal tract. When we encounter a well-defined, homogeneous lesion of the abdominal organs in patients diagnosed or suspected as having plasma cell neoplasm, we should consider its involvement of the abdominal organs

  19. Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: Imaging Findings in 23 Non-AIDS Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Chin A; Chung, Myung Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Man Pyo Chung; O Jung Kwon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We aimed to review the patterns of lung abnormalities of pulmonary cryptococcosis on CT images, position emission tomography (PET) findings of the disease, and the response of lung abnormalities to the therapies in non-AIDS patients. We evaluated the initial CT (n = 23) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET (n = 10), and follow-up (n = 23) imaging findings of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 23 non-AIDS patients. Lung lesions were classified into five patterns at CT: single nodular, multiple clustered nodular, multiple scattered nodular, mass-like, and bronchopneumonic patterns. The CT pattern analyses, PET findings, and therapeutic responses were recorded. A clustered nodular pattern was the most prevalent and was observed in 10 (43%) patients. This pattern was followed by solitary pulmonary nodular (n = 4, 17%), scattered nodular (n = 3, 13%), bronchopneumonic (n = 2, 9%), and single mass (n = 1, 4%) patterns. On PET scans, six (60%) of 10 patients showed higher FDG uptake and four (40%) demonstrated lower FDG uptake than the mediastinal blood pool. With specific treatment of the disease, a complete clearance of lung abnormalities was noted in 15 patients, whereas a partial response was noted in seven patients. In one patient where treatment was not performed, the disease showed progression. Pulmonary cryptococcosis most commonly appears as clustered nodules and is a slowly progressive and slowly resolving pulmonary infection. In two-thirds of patients, lung lesions show high FDG uptake, thus simulating a possible malignant condition

  20. Imaging findings and referral outcomes of rapid assessment stroke clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, E.; Manuel, D.; Hodgson, T.J.; Connolly, D.J.A.; Coley, S.C.; Romanowski, C.A.J.; Gaines, P.; Cleveland, T.; Thomas, S.; Griffiths, P.D.; Doyle, C.; Venables, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: A rapid assessment stroke clinic (RASC) was established to provide a rapid diagnostic service to individuals with suspected transient cerebral or ocular ischaemia or recovered non-hospitalized strokes. In this report we review imaging findings and clinical outcomes of patients proceeding to the carotid surgery programme. METHODS: Between October 2000 and December 2002, 1339 people attended the RASC. The findings of head CT and carotid Doppler ultrasound of the 1320 patients who underwent brain and carotid imaging were reviewed, and the number subsequently proceeding to carotid angiography and intervention was reported. RESULTS: CT head scans were normal in 57% of cases; 38% demonstrated ischaemia or infarction; and 3% yielded incidental or other significant findings not related to ischaemia. On screening with carotid Doppler ultrasound, 7.5% showed greater than 50% stenosis on the symptomatic side. A total of 83 patients (6.2%) proceeded to cerebral angiography and 65 (4.8%) underwent carotid endarterectomy or endovascular repair. CONCLUSION: Rapid-access neurovascular clinics are efficient in selecting patients for carotid intervention, but this is at a cost and the number of potential strokes prevented is small. Alternative management pathways based on immediate medical treatment need to be evaluated

  1. Imaging findings and significance of deep neck space infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qixin; Gu Yifeng; Du Lianjun; Zhu Lili; Pan Yuping; Li Minghua; Yang Shixun; Shang Kezhong; Yin Shankai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearance of deep neck space cellulitis and abscess and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of deep neck space infection. Methods: CT and MRI findings of 28 cases with deep neck space infection proved by clinical manifestation and pathology were analyzed, including 11 cases of retropharyngeal space, 5 cases of parapharyngeal space infection, 4 cases of masticator space infection, and 8 cases of multi-space infection. Results: CT and MRI could display the swelling of the soft tissues and displacement, reduction, or disappearance of lipoid space in the cellulitis. In inflammatory tissues, MRI imaging demonstrated hypointense or isointense signal on T 1 WI, and hyperintense signal changes on T 2 WI. In abscess, CT could display hypodensity in the center and boundary enhancement of the abscess. MRI could display obvious hyperintense signal on T 2 WI and boundary enhancement. Conclusion: CT and MRI could provide useful information for deep neck space cellulitis and abscess

  2. Imaging findings of mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenopathy in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawei; Yuan Chunwang; Zhang Lijie; Jin Erhu; Ma Daqing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate X-ray, CT and MRI features of mediastinal tuberculosis in AIDS. Methods: Images (including X-ray; CT and MRI) of 9 patients with AIDS associated hilar and mediastinal lymphonode tuberculosis were analysed retrospectively. All the cases were performed with chest X-ray and CT scan, of which 5 with enhanced CT scan and 1 with MRI. Results: In the hilar and mediastinal lymphonode tuberculosis complicated by AIDS, the enlarged lymph nodes were mostly located in region 7 (100%, 9/9), 77.8% cases (7/9) were in 4R and 55.6% (5/9) were in 2R. Conclusion: The imaging findings of hilar and mediastinal lymphonode tuberculosis in AIDS is characterized by the enlarged lymphnodes that can fuse together and encroach on the tissues outside the lymph nodes. CT and MRI scans are extraordinarily helpful to the diagnosis of such diseases. (authors)

  3. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in autoimmune pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Takao; Kobayashi, Hisato; Nishikawa, Koji; Iida, Etsushi; Michigami, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Emiko; Yamashita, Rikiya; Miyagi, Ken; Okamoto, Motozumi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI) for the diagnosis and evaluation of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). A total of 4 consecutive patients with AIP, 5 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (CP), and 13 patients without pancreatic disease (controls) were studied. DWI was performed in the axial plane with spin-echo echo-planar imaging single-shot sequence. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured in circular regions of interest in the pancreas. In AIP patients, abdominal MRI was performed before, and 2-4 weeks after steroid treatment. Follow-up study was performed chronologically for up to 11 months in two patients. The correlation between ADCs of the pancreas and the immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) index (serum IgG4 value/serum IgG4 value before steroid treatment) was evaluated. In the AIP patients, DWI of the pancreas showed high signal intensity, and the ADCs of the pancreas (mean±standard deviation (SD): 0.97±0.18 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) were significantly lower than those in patients with CP (1.45±0.10 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) or the controls (1.45±0.16 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (Mann-Whitney U-test, P s =-0.80, P<0.05). Autoimmune pancreatitis showed high signal intensity on DWI, which improved after steroid treatment. ADCs reflected disease activity. Thus, diffusion-weighted MRI might be useful for diagnosing AIP, determining the affected area, and evaluating the effect of treatment. (author)

  4. The significance of diffusion weighted imaging for the diagnosis of pyogenic ventriculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihn, Yon Kwon; Hwang, Seong Su [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae You [Willis Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    To evaluate the significance of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for the diagnosis of pyogenic ventriculitis. In this retrospective study, 9 patients with pyogenic ventricultis underwent a set of imaging sequences that included DWI, T1-and T2-weighted imaging. FLAIR and enhanced T1 weighted imaging. DWI consisted of an axial single shot spine echo EPI pulse sequence with b values of 0 and 1000 sec/mm{sup 2}. We evaluated the presence and signal intensity of ventricular debris, hydrocephalus, periventricular signal abnormality, and ependymal enhancement. The apparent diffusion coffiecient values of ventricular debris and cortical gray matter were calculated from the ADC map. In all patients, ventricular debris was hyperintense on the DWIs. A periventricular hyperintense signal was present in all cases on FLAIR and T2WI. Ependymal enhancement was detected in eight (89%) of 9 cases. A hydrocephalus was observed in 6 (67%) of 9 cases. The mean ADC value of ventricular debris was 0.735 {+-} 0.117 (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec). These ADC values were significantly lower than those for cortical gray matter (1.052 {+-} 0.149 (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec)). Ventricular debris was most conspicuous findings of ventriculitis on DWI. Areas of intraventricular hyperintensity on DWI corresponded to the decreased ADC values.

  5. Measurement of brain oxygenation changes using dynamic T1-weighted imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddock, Bryan; Larsson, Henrik B W; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven useful in evaluating oxygenation in several types of tissue and blood. This study evaluates brain tissue oxygenation changes between normoxia and hyperoxia in healthy subjects using dynamic T1 and T2*-weighted imaging sequences. The change in FiO2 induced...... by hyperoxia caused a significant decrease in T1. A model to determine changes in tissue oxygen tension from the T1-weighted MRI signal is presented based on previous findings that T1 is sensitive to oxygen tension whereas T2* is sensitive to blood saturation. The two sequences produce results with different...... regional and temporal dynamics. These differences combined with results from simulations of the T1 signal intensities, indicate an increase in extravascular oxygen tension during hyperoxia. This study concludes that T1 and T2* responses to FiO2 serve as independent biomarkers of oxygen physiology...

  6. MR imaging of skeletal muscle injury in rabbit : comparison between diffusion and T2-weighted MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Sung Yong; Lee, Jae Hee; Kwon Oh Han; Lee, Jae Mun; Lim, Yeon Soo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the diffusion-weighted MR imaging technique to the early detection of skeletal muscle injury and to evaluate the usefulness of this imaging sequence. Thirty rabbits, divided into two groups, were included in this study . Skeletal muscle injury was experimentally induced in the right thigh muscles of each rabbit by clamping with a hemostat for one minute. Four-stage clamping was applied to the rabbits in group I, but for group II there was only one stage. Diffusion and T2-weighted MR images were obtained using a 1.5T MR unit. Serial 5-and 30-minute, and 2-, 24-, and 48- hour delayed images were obtained after injury. The initial time of signal intensity change was recorded and the signal intensities of the injured sites and corresponding normal sites were measured and compared. On 5-minute delayed images in group I, diffusion-weighted MR images showed signal intensity changes in injured muscle in all 15 cases, but on T2-weighted images, change was not detected in three cases. In group II, 5-minute delayed T2-weighted images failed to depict the lesion in six cases, but on diffusion-weighted images, all lesions were detected. In addition, one lesion was not detected on 30-minute delayed T2-weighted images. In group II, the sensitivity of lesion detection was significantly higher on diffusion-weighted than on T2-weighted images (p=3D0.0169). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was shown to be more sensitive than T2-weighted imaging for the detection of signal intensity changes immediately after artificial injury, especially when this was of a lesser degree. These results suggest that diffusion-weighted MR imaging may be useful for the detection of early stage skeletal muscle injury. (author)

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Bammer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 ± 0.44 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the apex, 1.99 ± 0.42 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 ± 0.41 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [University of Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 {+-} 0.44 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the apex, 1.99 {+-} 0.42 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 {+-} 0.41 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosottini, M. [University of Pisa, Department of Neuroscience, Pisa (Italy); Service of Neuroradiology AO, Pisa (Italy); Tavarelli, C.; De Cori, S.; Bartolozzi, C. [University of Pisa, Department of Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Del Bono, L.; Doria, G. [Unit of Infectious Diseases AO, Pisa (Italy); Giannelli, M. [Unit of Medical Physics, Pisa (Italy); Michelassi, M.C. [Service of Neuroradiology AO, Pisa (Italy); Murri, L. [University of Pisa, Department of Neuroscience, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system due to JC polyoma virus infection of oligodendrocytes. PML develops in patients with impaired T-cell function as occurs in HIV, malignancy or immunosuppressive drugs users. Until now no imaging methods have been reported to correlate with clinical status. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a robust MRI tool in investigating white matter architecture and diseases. The aim of our work was to assess diffusion abnormalities in focal white matter lesions in patients with PML and to correlate the lesion load measured with conventional MRI and DWI to clinical variables. We evaluated eight patients with a biopsy or laboratory-supported diagnosis of PML. All patients underwent MRI including conventional sequences (fluid attenuated inversion recovery-FLAIR) and DWI. Mean diffusivity (MD) maps were used to quantify diffusion on white matter lesions. Global lesion load was calculated by manually tracing lesions on FLAIR images, while total, central core and peripheral lesion loads were calculated by manually tracing lesions on DWI images. Lesion load obtained with the conventional or DWI-based methods were correlated with clinical variables such as disease duration, disease severity and survival. White matter focal lesions are characterized by a central core with low signal on DWI images and high MD (1.853 x 10{sup -3} mm2/s), surrounded by a rim of high signal intensity on DWI and lower MD (1.1 x 10{sup -3} mm2/s). The MD value of normal-appearing white matter is higher although not statistically significant (0.783 x 10{sup -3} mm2/s) with respect to control subjects (0.750 x 10{sup -3} mm2/s). Inter-rater correlations of global lesion load between FLAIR (3.96%) and DWI (3.43%) was excellent (ICC =0.87). Global lesion load on FLAIR and DWI correlates with disease duration and severity (respectively, p = 0.037, p = 0.0272 with Karnofsky scale and p = 0.0338 with

  10. Epithelioid sarcoma: clinical, MR imaging and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.L.; Kaste, S.; Jenkins, J.J.; Hewan-Lowe, K.; Spence, J.V.; Gupta, M.; Monson, D.; Fletcher, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To report and describe the MR imaging features of eight new cases of this rare soft tissue sarcoma and correlate them with the clinical and histologic findings.Design and patients. Retrospective analysis was carried out for the MR imaging characteristics and histologic findings of eight patients with pathologically proven epithelioid sarcoma and the literature was reviewed. Findings were correlated in each case with the patient's clinical presentation and eventual outcome.Results. The patients, whose primary tumors ranged from 2.5 cm to 19 cm in maximum dimension, were 1 to 90 years of age. Tumors involved the extremities (n=5), the scalp (n=2) and the paraspinal muscles (n=1). Five tumors presented as well-defined, frequently painful, deeply situated masses and three as subcutaneous nodules or cutaneous ulcers with no palpable mass. Four patients had associated regional lymphadenopathy and one had distant metastases at diagnosis. MR imaging showed tumor infiltration of adjacent tissues in seven patients. Signal characteristics reflected varying degrees of cellularity, and the presence of necrosis, hemorrhage, fibrosis, hyalinization and inflammation. Bone marrow involvement was demonstrated in one patient. Clinical outcomes were generally poor.Conclusions. Epithelioid sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with a varied clinical presentation, growth pattern, MR signal characteristics and histologic picture. The tumor favors the distal extremities and is commonly infiltrative and accompanied by enlarged regional lymph nodes. This neoplasm may present as an intramuscular mass but should also be suspected in patients with ulcerating cutaneous nodules with or without regional lymphadenopathy. (orig.)

  11. Round pneumonia: imaging findings in a large series of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-Woo; Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Although round pneumonia is a well-known clinical entity, there have been no large case reviews, with most knowledge based on case reports and small series from the 1960s and 1970s. To review the imaging findings of a large series of children with round pneumonia. A retrospective review of radiographic and CT findings in all children reported to have round pneumonia at a large children's hospital from 2000 to 2006 was performed. Children with underlying medical conditions were excluded. Epidemiologic characteristics, radiographic and CT findings, and follow-up imaging were reviewed. The review identified 109 children (mean age 5 years, range 4 months to 19 years). Round pneumonias tended to be solitary 98% (107/109), have well-defined borders 70% (77/109), and be posteriorly located 83% (91/109), with the following lobar distribution: left lower lobe (36), right lower lobe (33), right upper lobe (28), left upper lobe (7), right middle lobe (4), and lingula (2). Round pneumonia tended to resolve on follow-up imaging (95%, 41/43) as compared to progression to lobar pneumonia (4.6%, 2/43). Three patients (2.6%, 3/112) originally suspected to have round pneumonia were later shown to have other diagnoses: cavitary necrosis in pneumonia (two) or pleural pseudocyst (one). Round pneumonia occurs in young children (mean age 5 years), tends to be a solitary lesion, and is most commonly posteriorly located. Misdiagnosis of other pathology as round pneumonia is uncommon. (orig.)

  12. Diagnosis of intraductal spread of breast cancer by high-resolution MR imaging. Correlation between MR imaging and pathohistological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Shuji

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate pathohistological factors that affect the MR findings of intraductal spread (IDS) of breast cancer. The subjects of the present study were 42 breast cancer patients who were examined by MR imaging. Fat-suppressed high-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo images (350/13/1 (TR/TE/excitations), 16-cm FOV, 5-mm section thickness, and 512 x 256 matrix) were obtained one minute after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. In this protocol, contrast determination time was 1 min 48 sec. Of the 42 cases, IDS was found to be located more than 1 cm from the primary focus in 22 cases (52%). Rates of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging for the detection of IDS were 82%, 80%, and 81%, respectively. The probable cause of misdiagnosis was parenchymal enhancement due to severe fibrocystic disease and normal menstrual cycle. In 21 of 42 cases, the MR findings were precisely correlated with the pathohistologic findings of almost the same cross-section. The MR findings of IDS varied greatly with observation of linear, band-like, branch-like, plate-like and minute ring enhancements. These findings closely reflected the size, aggregation pattern, and distribution of intraductal lesions. In particular, minute ring enhancement was only observed in 4 comedo-type lesions. This pattern of enhancement is considered to reflect elevated intraductal cellular density with necrosis in the central region. (author)

  13. Diagnosis of intraductal spread of breast cancer by high-resolution MR imaging. Correlation between MR imaging and pathohistological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Date, Shuji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate pathohistological factors that affect the MR findings of intraductal spread (IDS) of breast cancer. The subjects of the present study were 42 breast cancer patients who were examined by MR imaging. Fat-suppressed high-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo images (350/13/1 (TR/TE/excitations), 16-cm FOV, 5-mm section thickness, and 512 x 256 matrix) were obtained one minute after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. In this protocol, contrast determination time was 1 min 48 sec. Of the 42 cases, IDS was found to be located more than 1 cm from the primary focus in 22 cases (52%). Rates of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging for the detection of IDS were 82%, 80%, and 81%, respectively. The probable cause of misdiagnosis was parenchymal enhancement due to severe fibrocystic disease and normal menstrual cycle. In 21 of 42 cases, the MR findings were precisely correlated with the pathohistologic findings of almost the same cross-section. The MR findings of IDS varied greatly with observation of linear, band-like, branch-like, plate-like and minute ring enhancements. These findings closely reflected the size, aggregation pattern, and distribution of intraductal lesions. In particular, minute ring enhancement was only observed in 4 comedo-type lesions. This pattern of enhancement is considered to reflect elevated intraductal cellular density with necrosis in the central region. (author)

  14. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steven; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence--a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting) to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools--a rare occurrence--was more prevalent. Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of evidence by planners with limited numeracy

  15. Missed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Assessment of early imaging findings on prediagnostic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seong Hyun, E-mail: sh6453.kim@samsung.com; Kim, Young Kon; Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Soon Jin; Choi, Dongil

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of early PDAC. • A focal lesion with no MPD interruption is common MR finding of early PDAC. • A mean volume doubling time of early PDAC was about five months. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the early imaging findings and growth rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and to assess whether MR imaging detects early PDAC better than CT. Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Twenty-two patients were included, and two radiologists, by consensus, assessed the presence of focal lesions, interruption of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), MPD dilatation, and pancreatitis, volume doubling time (VDT) of PDAC on prediagnostic MR imaging. Two other observers independently reviewed three image sets (CT images, unenhanced MR images, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR images) for the detection of early PDAC. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results: In 20 (90.9%) patients, prediagnostic MR exams showed abnormality, and all of them showed focal lesions on the first abnormal prediagnostic MR exams. Thirteen lesions (65%) showed no MPD interruption and one lesion (5%) was accompanied by pancreatitis. The mean VDT of PDAC was 151.7 days (range, 18.3–417.8 days). Diagnostic performance of unenhanced MR images (Az, 0.971–0.989) and combined unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR images (Az, 0.956–0.963) was significantly better than that of CT images (Az, 0.565–0.583; p < 0.01) for both observers, Conclusion: The most common early imaging finding of PDAC on prediagnostic MR exams was a focal lesion with no MPD interruption with a mean volume doubling time of five months. MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of early PDAC.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Yoshitaka; Une, Humiho; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    1989-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was evaluated in 12 HAM (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy) patients (4 males and 8 females, mean age of 54 yrs) and compaired with 36 non-HAM controls (16 males and 20 females mean age of 52yrs). MRI of the brain was performed using a 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit. Imaging in all patients was done with the long spin echo (TR=2,000msec, TE=100msec) sequences, and 10mm contiguous axial slices of the entire brain were obtained in all cases. Except for two cases, MRI of the brain was abnormal in 10 (83%) HAM patients, while in controls, 18 (50%) cases were abnormal. The abnormalities were high intensity lesions through SE 2000/100 sequences (T/sub 2/ weighted image), and consisted of small isolated hemisphere lesions in 9 patients, periventricular changes in 9 patients, bilateral thalamic lesions in 2 patients and pontine lesions in 3 patients. We found that the factor of age was very important. In patients with ages below 59 yrs, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 6 of 23 (23%) had abnormalities in periventricular area. And in isolated hemisphere, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 3 of 23 (13%) had abnormalities. On the other hand, in patients with ages over 60 yrs, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities in periventricular area, while in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities, and in isolated hemisphere, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities, and in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities. Our data suggest that HAM patients with ages below 59 years will show a greater percentage of abnormalities than controls. (author).

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Yoshitaka; Une, Humiho; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was evaluated in 12 HAM (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy) patients (4 males and 8 females, mean age of 54 yrs) and compaired with 36 non-HAM controls (16 males and 20 females mean age of 52yrs). MRI of the brain was performed using a 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit. Imaging in all patients was done with the long spin echo (TR=2,000msec, TE=100msec) sequences, and 10mm contiguous axial slices of the entire brain were obtained in all cases. Except for two cases, MRI of the brain was abnormal in 10 (83%) HAM patients, while in controls, 18 (50%) cases were abnormal. The abnormalities were high intensity lesions through SE 2000/100 sequences (T 2 weighted image), and consisted of small isolated hemisphere lesions in 9 patients, periventricular changes in 9 patients, bilateral thalamic lesions in 2 patients and pontine lesions in 3 patients. We found that the factor of age was very important. In patients with ages below 59 yrs, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 6 of 23 (23%) had abnormalities in periventricular area. And in isolated hemisphere, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 3 of 23 (13%) had abnormalities. On the other hand, in patients with ages over 60 yrs, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities in periventricular area, while in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities, and in isolated hemisphere, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities, and in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities. Our data suggest that HAM patients with ages below 59 years will show a greater percentage of abnormalities than controls. (author)

  18. Imaging Findings of Wirsungocele: A Report of Two Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Jou, Sung Shick; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Young Tong

    2008-01-01

    Wirsungocele is defined as a cystic dilatation of the terminal portion of the main pancreatic duct, and this is an extremely rare malady. The pathophysiology of Wirsungocele has been proposed that a congenital or acquired weakness in the distal duct that's associated with functional obstruction may lead to the formation of Wirsungocele. In addition, mechanical obstruction of the distal duct has been considered as another mechanism of Wirsungocele. We report here on the imaging findings of two cases of Wirsungocele that seemed to occur by different pathophysiologic mechanisms

  19. Magnetic Resonance imaging findings of intraspinal neurenteric cyst: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Wook; Yoon, Choon Sik; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub

    1994-01-01

    Intraspinal neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions that results from abnormal separation of germ layers in the third week of embryonic development, which may cause spinal compression. Although, the diagnosis of neurenteric cyst was very difficult prior to operation, MRI has proven to be a useful imaging modality in detection, localization and characterization of intraspinal neurenteric cysts. We recently experienced intraspinal neurenteric cyst in two patients who presented with progressive guadriparesis. Myelography, CT myelography and MRI were taken and complete excision was performed. The MRI findings are presented and the literature is reviewed

  20. Imaging findings of perforative appendicitis: a pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, K.L.; Patrick, L.E.; Ball, T.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Egleston, GA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Appendicitis is common in children. Early diagnosis depends on recognition of characteristic signs and symptoms: right lower quadrant or periumbilical pain, localized tenderness, fever, and leukocytosis. Because these classic features may be difficult to elicit or masked by other complaints, the incidence of perforative appendicitis in children is high. This paper reviews the imaging sequelae with emphasis on CT and sonography findings. Areas of focus include abdominopelvic abscess, peritonitis, pyelephlebitis, pyelethrombosis, and hepatic abscess. Secondary involvement of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts is also discussed. (orig.)

  1. Primary hyperoxaluria: spectrum of clinical and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Sara B.; Levin, Terry L. [Children' s Hospital of Montefiore Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Waltuch, Temima; Kaskel, Frederick [Children' s Hospital at Montefiore Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Bronx, NY (United States); Bivin, William [Allegheny General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism with three known subtypes. In primary hyperoxaluria type 1, the most common of the subtypes, a deficiency in the hepatic enzymes responsible for the metabolism of glycoxylate to glycine, leads to excessive levels of glyoxylate, which is converted to oxalate. The resultant elevation in serum and urinary oxalate that characterizes primary hyperoxaluria leads to calcium oxalate crystal deposition in multiple organ systems (oxalosis). We review the genetics, pathogenesis, variable clinical presentation and course of this disease as well as its treatment. Emphasis is placed on the characteristic imaging findings before and after definitive treatment with combined liver and renal transplantation. (orig.)

  2. MR imaging findings of acetabular dysplasia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Steven; Connell, David; Miocevic, Miranda; Malara, Frank; Pike, Jonathan; Young, David

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in the identification of labral and articular cartilage lesions in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Pre-operative MR imaging was performed on 27 hips in 25 consecutive patients (16 males, 9 females, age range 19-52 years, mean age 31.2 years) with radiographic evidence of acetabular dysplasia (centre-edge angle of Wiberg <20 degrees). The average duration of symptoms was 16.2 months. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed MR images in consensus for the presence of abnormality involving the acetabular labrum and adjacent acetabular articular cartilage. A high resolution, non-arthrographic technique was used to assess the labrum and labral chondral transitional zone. Surgical correlation was obtained in all cases by a single surgeon experienced in hip arthroscopy and ten patients with normal hip MRI were included to provide a control group. The acetabular labra in the dysplastic hips demonstrated abnormal signal intensity, and had an elongated appearance when compared with the control group (mean length 10.9 mm vs 6.4 mm). Morphological appearances in the labra included surface irregularity, fissures and cleft formation. MR imaging correctly identified the severity of chondral abnormality in 24 of 27 hips (89%) when compared with arthroscopic findings. MR imaging demonstrates an elongated labrum, focal intra-substance signal change and irregularity and fissuring of the margins in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Abnormality is also identified at the labral chondral transitional zone, where fissuring, focal clefts, chondral deficiency and subchondral cyst formation may be apparent. A high-resolution, non-arthrographic technique can provide an accurate preoperative assessment and evaluate the presence of premature osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  3. MR imaging findings of acetabular dysplasia in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Steven; Connell, David [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Radiology Department, London, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Miocevic, Miranda; Malara, Frank; Pike, Jonathan [Victoria House Hospital, Radiology Department, Melbourne (Australia); Young, David [Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Orthopaedic Surgery, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging in the identification of labral and articular cartilage lesions in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Pre-operative MR imaging was performed on 27 hips in 25 consecutive patients (16 males, 9 females, age range 19-52 years, mean age 31.2 years) with radiographic evidence of acetabular dysplasia (centre-edge angle of Wiberg <20 degrees). The average duration of symptoms was 16.2 months. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed MR images in consensus for the presence of abnormality involving the acetabular labrum and adjacent acetabular articular cartilage. A high resolution, non-arthrographic technique was used to assess the labrum and labral chondral transitional zone. Surgical correlation was obtained in all cases by a single surgeon experienced in hip arthroscopy and ten patients with normal hip MRI were included to provide a control group. The acetabular labra in the dysplastic hips demonstrated abnormal signal intensity, and had an elongated appearance when compared with the control group (mean length 10.9 mm vs 6.4 mm). Morphological appearances in the labra included surface irregularity, fissures and cleft formation. MR imaging correctly identified the severity of chondral abnormality in 24 of 27 hips (89%) when compared with arthroscopic findings. MR imaging demonstrates an elongated labrum, focal intra-substance signal change and irregularity and fissuring of the margins in patients with acetabular dysplasia. Abnormality is also identified at the labral chondral transitional zone, where fissuring, focal clefts, chondral deficiency and subchondral cyst formation may be apparent. A high-resolution, non-arthrographic technique can provide an accurate preoperative assessment and evaluate the presence of premature osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic findings of seal finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjelund, S.; Tikkakoski, T.; Isokangas, M.; Raeisaenen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic findings of five patients with seal finger. Material and Methods: The MR images and radiographs of five patients with seal finger were retrospectively evaluated. MRI was performed on four patients in the subacute phase, and follow-up imaging was done on one of them at 5 months. One patient had MRI only at a later stage 5 years after onset. Radiographs were taken three times in the subacute phase and once at a later stage. One patient had had seal finger in another finger previously. Results: Short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence showed extensive subcutaneous soft tissue edema in all four patients in the subacute phase and tenosynovitis of the flexion tendons in two cases. Three patients had edema in 2-3 phalanges, and effusion in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was seen in one case. At the later stage, no signal pathology in soft tissues or bones was seen in STIR images. In the subacute phase, radiographs showed digital soft-tissue swelling in three patients, and one patient had a narrowed DIP joint, periarticular osteoporosis, and a periosteal reaction. At the later stage, flexion contracture of the finger was seen. Conclusion: In addition to soft-tissue infection, seal finger causes bone marrow edema, tenosynovitis, and effusion in the interphalangeal joints visible as increased signal intensity in STIR images. Radiographs reveal periarticular osteoporosis with loss of cartilage in the subacute phase and flexion contracture at the later stage. MRI (STIR) allows more precise delineation of the inflammatory process compared to radiography

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic findings of seal finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjelund, S.; Tikkakoski, T.; Isokangas, M.; Raeisaenen, S. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic findings of five patients with seal finger. Material and Methods: The MR images and radiographs of five patients with seal finger were retrospectively evaluated. MRI was performed on four patients in the subacute phase, and follow-up imaging was done on one of them at 5 months. One patient had MRI only at a later stage 5 years after onset. Radiographs were taken three times in the subacute phase and once at a later stage. One patient had had seal finger in another finger previously. Results: Short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence showed extensive subcutaneous soft tissue edema in all four patients in the subacute phase and tenosynovitis of the flexion tendons in two cases. Three patients had edema in 2-3 phalanges, and effusion in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was seen in one case. At the later stage, no signal pathology in soft tissues or bones was seen in STIR images. In the subacute phase, radiographs showed digital soft-tissue swelling in three patients, and one patient had a narrowed DIP joint, periarticular osteoporosis, and a periosteal reaction. At the later stage, flexion contracture of the finger was seen. Conclusion: In addition to soft-tissue infection, seal finger causes bone marrow edema, tenosynovitis, and effusion in the interphalangeal joints visible as increased signal intensity in STIR images. Radiographs reveal periarticular osteoporosis with loss of cartilage in the subacute phase and flexion contracture at the later stage. MRI (STIR) allows more precise delineation of the inflammatory process compared to radiography.

  6. The plantar fasciotomy: MR imaging findings in asymptomatic volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.S.; Ashman, C. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Smith, G.; Kaeding, C. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Objective. To determine the postoperative appearance of the plantar fascia on MR imaging after a fasciotomy has been performed, and to compare the postsurgical appearance of the fascia after an open and endoscopic procedure.< rate at head-abs-p1.lf>Design and patients. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers (12 women, 3 men; age range 22-49 years, mean age 33 years) with prior fasciotomies for treatment of longstanding plantar fasciitis were studied. Fourteen volunteers had a unilateral release and one volunteer had bilateral releases, allowing for assessment of 16 ankles. Eight fasciotomies were performed through an open incision and eight were performed endoscopically. The average time between surgery and imaging was 24 months (range 11-46 months). The site of surgery was established from the operative reports. Proton density (PD)-weighted and T2-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T magnet. In eight studies, T1-weighted sagittal and STIR sagittal images were included. The fascia in each ankle was assessed for morphology and signal intensity. Perifascial soft tissues and bone marrow were assessed for edema. Preoperative MR studies were available in five volunteers.< rate at head-abs-p1.lf>Results. There was no apparent difference in the postoperative appearance of the ankle after an open or endoscopic procedure except for scar formation in the subcutaneous fat which was common after an open procedure (P<0.05). Three ankles had a gap in the fascia (one open, two endoscopic). The plantar fascia measured a mean of 7.0 mm (range 5-10 mm) at the fasciotomy, and 8.3 mm (range 6-12 mm) at the enthesis. At the fasciotomy, 11 of 13 ankles had an indistinct deep contour and 9 of 13 had an indistinct superficial contour. At the enthesis, 13 of 16 ankles had an indistinct deep contour and 6 of 16 had an indistinct superficial contour. Compared with preoperative MR studies there was an average reduction in the fascial thickness at the enthesis of 14

  7. MR imaging findings of generalized tonic clonic seizure induced brain changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Chung, Jin Il; Yonn, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Joo Hee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate MRI signal changes in the brain induced by generalized tonic clonic seizure. Six patients who underwent MRI within three days of generalized tonic clonic seizure were retrospectively reviewed. Diffusion -weighted images were added in three patients during initial examination, and in six, the follow-up MRI was performed nine days to five months after the onset of seizure. We evaluated the patterns of signal change, location of the lesion and degree of contrast enhancement, and the signal change seen on diffusion weighted images. We also compared the signal changes seen on initial and follow-up MRI. In all six patients, MR images showed focally increased T2 signal intensity, and swelling and increased volume of the involved cortical gyrus. In five, the lesion was mainly located in the cortical gray matter and subcortical white matter; namely, in the bilateral cingulate gyri, and the bilateral parieto-occipital, left parietal, left frontoparietal, and left temporal lobe. In the remaining patient, the lesion was located in the right hippocampus. Two patients showed bilateral lesions and one showed multiple lesions. In four patients, T1-weighted images revealed decreased signal intensity of the same location, and in one, gyral contrast enhancement was noted. On diffusion-weighted images, three patients showed increased signal intensity. Follow-up MRI demonstrated complete resolution of the abnormal signal change (n=3D5), or a decrease (n=3D1). A transient increase in MR signal intensity with increased volume was noted in cortical and subcortical white matter after generalized tonic clonic seizure. This finding reflects the vasogenic and cytotoxic edema induced by seizure and can help exclude etiologic lesions such as tumors, inflammation and demyelinating disease that induce epilepsy. (author)

  8. MR imaging findings of generalized tonic clonic seizure induced brain changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Chung, Jin Il; Yonn, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Joo Hee

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate MRI signal changes in the brain induced by generalized tonic clonic seizure. Six patients who underwent MRI within three days of generalized tonic clonic seizure were retrospectively reviewed. Diffusion -weighted images were added in three patients during initial examination, and in six, the follow-up MRI was performed nine days to five months after the onset of seizure. We evaluated the patterns of signal change, location of the lesion and degree of contrast enhancement, and the signal change seen on diffusion weighted images. We also compared the signal changes seen on initial and follow-up MRI. In all six patients, MR images showed focally increased T2 signal intensity, and swelling and increased volume of the involved cortical gyrus. In five, the lesion was mainly located in the cortical gray matter and subcortical white matter; namely, in the bilateral cingulate gyri, and the bilateral parieto-occipital, left parietal, left frontoparietal, and left temporal lobe. In the remaining patient, the lesion was located in the right hippocampus. Two patients showed bilateral lesions and one showed multiple lesions. In four patients, T1-weighted images revealed decreased signal intensity of the same location, and in one, gyral contrast enhancement was noted. On diffusion-weighted images, three patients showed increased signal intensity. Follow-up MRI demonstrated complete resolution of the abnormal signal change (n=3D5), or a decrease (n=3D1). A transient increase in MR signal intensity with increased volume was noted in cortical and subcortical white matter after generalized tonic clonic seizure. This finding reflects the vasogenic and cytotoxic edema induced by seizure and can help exclude etiologic lesions such as tumors, inflammation and demyelinating disease that induce epilepsy. (author)

  9. The use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Fernanda Philadelpho Arantes; Martins, Gabriela; Domingues, Marisa Nassar Aidar; Domingues, Romeu Cortes; Figueiredo, Eduardo; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da

    2009-01-01

    Objective: to study the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: forty-five women (mean age, 46.1 years) with 52 focal breast lesions underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was based on the ADC map reflecting five b values (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 s/mm 2 ). The mean ADC value of each lesion was correlated with imaging findings and histopathologic results. Cutoff ADC, sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted imaging in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions were calculated. P -3 mm 2 /s) as compared with benign lesions (1.50 ± 0.34 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P < 0.0001). Diffusion-weighted imaging showed high sensitivity and specificity (both, 92.3%) in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Conclusion: diffusion-weighted imaging is a potential resource as an adjuvant to breast magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Such sequence can be easily added to the standard breast magnetic resonance imaging protocol, without implying any significant increase in examination time. (author)

  10. The use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fernanda Philadelpho Arantes; Martins, Gabriela; Domingues, Marisa Nassar Aidar; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fephila@gmail.com; Figueiredo, Eduardo [GE Healthcare, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2009-09-15

    Objective: to study the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: forty-five women (mean age, 46.1 years) with 52 focal breast lesions underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was based on the ADC map reflecting five b values (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 s/mm{sup 2}). The mean ADC value of each lesion was correlated with imaging findings and histopathologic results. Cutoff ADC, sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted imaging in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions were calculated. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: the mean ADC was significantly lower for malignant lesions (0.92 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) as compared with benign lesions (1.50 {+-} 0.34 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.0001). Diffusion-weighted imaging showed high sensitivity and specificity (both, 92.3%) in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Conclusion: diffusion-weighted imaging is a potential resource as an adjuvant to breast magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Such sequence can be easily added to the standard breast magnetic resonance imaging protocol, without implying any significant increase in examination time. (author)

  11. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  12. Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts retinal hemorrhages in abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok; Haldipur, Anshul; Willaman, Dennis [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Squires, Janet; Wolford, Jennifer [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Division of Child Advocacy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sylvester, Christin; Mitchell, Ellen; Lope, Lee Ann [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Eye Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nischal, Ken K. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Eye Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismus, and Adult Motility, Eye Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berger, Rachel P. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Division of Child Advocacy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to evaluate the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) susceptibility weighted images (SWI) in depicting retinal hemorrhages (RH) in abusive head trauma (AHT) compared to the gold standard dilated fundus exam (DFE). This is a retrospective, single institution, observational study on 28 patients with suspected AHT, who had a DFE and also underwent brain MRI-SWI as part of routine diagnostic protocol. Main outcome measures involved evaluation of patients to determine whether the RH could be identified on standard and high-resolution SWI sequences. Of the 21 subjects with RH on DFE, 13 (62 %) were identified by using a standard SWI sequence performed as part of brain MRI protocols. Of the 15 patients who also underwent an orbits SWI protocol, 12 (80 %) were positive for RH. None of the seven patients without RH on of DFE had RH on either standard or high-resolution SWI. Compared with DFE, the MRI standard protocol showed a sensitivity of 75 % which increased to 83 % for the orbits SWI protocol. Our study suggests the usefulness of a tailored high-resolution orbits protocol to detect RH in AHT. (orig.)

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, W.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V.; Simon, E.M.; Haselgrove, J.

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas. (orig.)

  14. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, W.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V.; Simon, E.M.; Haselgrove, J. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas. (orig.)

  15. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in transient ischaemic attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C.; Calvet, D.; Domigo, V.; Mas, J. [de l' Hopital Sainte-Anne, Service de Neurologie, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Oppenheim, C.; Naggara, O.; Meder, J.F. [Hoepital Sainte-Anne, Departement d' Imagere Morphologique et Fonchonnille, Paris (France)

    2006-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine frequency and the characteristics of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We analysed data of 98 consecutive patients (mean age: 60.6{+-}15.4 years, 56 men) admitted between January 2003 and April 2004 for TIA. Age, gender, symptom type and duration, delay from onset to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), probable or possible TIA and cause of TIA were compared in patients with (DWI+) and without (DWI-) lesions on DWI. Volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of DWI lesions were computed. DWI revealed ischaemic lesions in 34 patients (34.7%). Lesions were small (mean volume: 1.9 cm{sup 3}{+-}3.3), and ADC was moderately decreased (mean ADC ratio: 79.5%). The diagnosis of TIA was considered as probable in all DWI+ patients. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that TIA duration greater than or equal to 60 min (OR, 7.6; 95% CI, 2.3-25.7), aphasia (OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 2.7-31.4) and motor deficit (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.5-17.8) were independent predictors of DWI lesions. Prolonged TIA duration, aphasia and motor deficits are associated with DWI lesions. More than half of TIA patients with symptoms lasting more than 60 min have DWI lesions. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in transient ischaemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, C.; Calvet, D.; Domigo, V.; Mas, J.; Oppenheim, C.; Naggara, O.; Meder, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine frequency and the characteristics of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We analysed data of 98 consecutive patients (mean age: 60.6±15.4 years, 56 men) admitted between January 2003 and April 2004 for TIA. Age, gender, symptom type and duration, delay from onset to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), probable or possible TIA and cause of TIA were compared in patients with (DWI+) and without (DWI-) lesions on DWI. Volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of DWI lesions were computed. DWI revealed ischaemic lesions in 34 patients (34.7%). Lesions were small (mean volume: 1.9 cm 3 ±3.3), and ADC was moderately decreased (mean ADC ratio: 79.5%). The diagnosis of TIA was considered as probable in all DWI+ patients. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that TIA duration greater than or equal to 60 min (OR, 7.6; 95% CI, 2.3-25.7), aphasia (OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 2.7-31.4) and motor deficit (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.5-17.8) were independent predictors of DWI lesions. Prolonged TIA duration, aphasia and motor deficits are associated with DWI lesions. More than half of TIA patients with symptoms lasting more than 60 min have DWI lesions. (orig.)

  17. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of transplanted kidneys: Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wypych-Klunder, Katarzyna; Adamowicz, Andrzej; Lemanowicz, Adam; Szczęsny, Wojciech; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    An aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of DWI in the early period after kidney transplantation. We also aimed to compare ADC and eADC values in the cortex and medulla of the kidney, to estimate image noise and variability of measurements, and to verify possible relation between selected labolatory results and diffusion parameters in the transplanted kidney. Examinations were performed using a 1.5 T MR unit. DWI (SE/EPI) was performed in the axial plane using b-values of 600 and 1000. ADC and eADC measurements were performed in four regions of interest within the renal cortex and in three regions within the medulla. Relative variability of results and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were calculated. The analysis included 15 patients (mean age 52 years). The mean variability of ADC was significantly lower than that of eADC (6.8% vs. 10.8%, respectively; p30 ml/min./1.73 m(2) (p<0.05). Diffusion-weighted imaging of transplanted kidneys is technically challenging, especially in patients in the early period after transplantation. From a technical point of view, the best quality parameters offer quality ADC measurement in the renal cortex using b1000. ADC and eADC values in the renal cortex measured at b1000 present a relationship with eGFR.

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging in normal fetal brain maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F. [University Children' s Hospital UKBB, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Confort-Gouny, S.; Le Fur, Y.; Viout, P.; Cozzone, P. [UMR-CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Bennathan, M.; Chapon, F.; Fogliarini, C.; Girard, N. [Universite de la Mediterranee, Department of Neuroradiology AP-HM Timone, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides information about tissue maturation not seen on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution over time of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal fetal brain in utero. DWI was performed on 78 fetuses, ranging from 23 to 37 gestational weeks (GW). All children showed at follow-up a normal neurological evaluation. ADC values were obtained in the deep white matter (DWM) of the centrum semiovale, the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe, in the cerebellar hemisphere, the brainstem, the basal ganglia (BG) and the thalamus. Mean ADC values in supratentorial DWM areas (1.68 {+-} 0.05 mm{sup 2}/s) were higher compared with the cerebellar hemisphere (1.25 {+-} 0.06 mm{sup 2}/s) and lowest in the pons (1.11 {+-} 0.05 mm{sup 2}/s). Thalamus and BG showed intermediate values (1.25 {+-} 0.04 mm{sup 2}/s). Brainstem, cerebellar hemisphere and thalamus showed a linear negative correlation with gestational age. Supratentorial areas revealed an increase in ADC values, followed by a decrease after the 30th GW. This study provides a normative data set that allows insights in the normal fetal brain maturation in utero, which has not yet been observed in previous studies on premature babies. (orig.)

  19. Diffusion-weighted imaging in characterization of cystic pancreatic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrasegaran, K., E-mail: ksandras@iupui.edu [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Akisik, F.M.; Patel, A.A.; Rydberg, M. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cramer, H.M.; Agaram, N.P. [Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Schmidt, C.M. [Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Aim: To evaluate whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can characterize or predict the malignant potential of cystic pancreatic lesions. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) database over a 2-year period revealed 136 patients with cystic pancreatic lesions. Patients with DWI studies and histological confirmation of cystic mass were included. In patients with known pancreatitis, lesions with amylase content of >1000 IU/l that resolved on subsequent scans were included as pseudocysts. ADC of cystic lesions was measured by two independent reviewers. These values were then compared to categorize these lesions as benign or malignant using conventional MRI sequences. Results: Seventy lesions were analysed: adenocarcinoma (n = 4), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN; n = 28), mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN; n = 9), serous cystadenoma (n = 16), and pseudocysts (n = 13). There was no difference between ADC values of malignant and non-malignant lesions (p = 0.06), between mucinous and serous tumours (p = 0.12), or between IPMN and MCN (p = 0.42). ADC values for low-grade IPMN were significantly higher than those for high-grade or invasive IPMN (p = 0.03). Conclusion: ADC values may be helpful in deciding the malignant potential of IPMN. However, they are not useful in differentiating malignant from benign lesions or for characterizing cystic pancreatic lesions.